WorldWideScience

Sample records for geothermal energy field

  1. Geothermal Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluska, Oscar P.; Tangir, Daniel; Perri, Matias S.

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of geothermal energy is given that includes a short description of the active and stable areas in the world. The possibilities of geothermal development in Argentina are analyzed taking into account the geothermal fields of the country. The environmental benefits of geothermal energy are outlined

  2. Symposium in the field of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Miguel; Mock, John E.

    1989-04-01

    Mexico and the US are nations with abundant sources of geothermal energy, and both countries have progressed rapidly in developing their more accessible resources. For example, Mexico has developed over 600 MWe at Cerro Prieto, while US developers have brought in over 2000 MWe at the Geysers. These successes, however, are only a prologue to an exciting future. All forms of energy face technical and economic barriers that must be overcome if the resources are to play a significant role in satisfying national energy needs. Geothermal energy--except for the very highest grade resources--face a number of barriers, which must be surmounted through research and development. Sharing a common interest in solving the problems that impede the rapid utilization of geothermal energy, Mexico and the US agreed to exchange information and participate in joint research. An excellent example of this close and continuing collaboration is the geothermal research program conducted under the auspices of the 3-year agreement signed on April 7, 1986 by the US DOE and the Mexican Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The major objectives of this bilateral agreement are: (1) to achieve a thorough understanding of the nature of geothermal reservoirs in sedimentary and fractured igneous rocks; (2) to investigate how the geothermal resources of both nations can best be explored and utilized; and (3) to exchange information on geothermal topics of mutual interest.

  3. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, Ph.; Lemale, J.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source which consists in exploiting the heat coming from the Earth. It covers a wide range of techniques and applications which are presented in this article: 1 - the Earth, source of heat: structure of the Earth, geodynamic model and plate tectonics, origin of heat, geothermal gradient and terrestrial heat flux; 2 - geothermal fields and resources; 3 - implementation of geothermal resources: exploration, main characteristic parameters, resource exploitation; 4 - uses of geothermal resources: power generation, thermal uses, space heating and air conditioning heat pumps, district heating, addition of heat pumps; 5 - economical aspects: power generation, heat generation for district heating; 6 - environmental aspects: conditions of implementation, impacts as substitute to fossil fuels; 7 - geothermal energy in France: resources, organisation; 8 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  4. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, F.; Kappelmeyer, O.; Herde, O.A.

    1992-01-01

    Objective of this brochure is to present the subject Geothermics and the possible use of geothermal energy to the public. The following aspects will be refered to: -present energy situation -geothermal potential -use of geothermal energy -environemental aspects -economics. In addition, it presents an up-dated overview of geothermal projects funded by the German government, and a list of institutions and companies active in geothermal research and developments. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of geothermal energy may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of geothermal energy, the geothermal resource, hydrothermal fluids, electricity production, district heating, process heating, geopressured brines, technology and costs, hot dry rock, magma, and environmental and siting issues

  6. The Geothermal Field Camp: Capacity building for geothermal energy systems in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, I.; Sule, R.; Saptadji, N. M.; Deon, F.; Herdianita, N. R.; Jolie, E.; Suryantini, N.; Erbas, K.

    2012-04-01

    In July 2011, the first geothermal field camp was hold on Java/Indonesia near the city Bandung south of the volcanic field Tangkuban Perahu. The course was organized by the Institut Teknologie Bandung (ITB) and International Centre for Geothermal Research (ICGR) of the German Centre of Geosciences (GFZ). The purpose of the Geothermal Field Camp is to combine both field based work and laboratory analysis to ultimately better understand the data collected in field and to integrate data gained by various disciplines. The training belongs to a capacity building program for geothermal energy systems in Indonesia and initially aims to train the trainers. In a later stage, the educational personal trained by the Geothermal Field Camp shall be able to hold their individual Geothermal Field Camp. This is of special interest for Indonesia where the multitude of islands hindered a broad uniform education in geothermal energy systems. However, Indonesia hold the largest geothermal potential worldwide and educated personal is necessary to successfully develop this huge potential scattered over region in future. The interdisciplinary and integrative approach combined with field based and laboratory methodologies is the guiding principle of the Geothermal Field Camp. Tangkuban Perahu was selected because this field allows the integration of field based structural geological analysis, observation and sampling of geothermal manifestations as hot springs and sinters and ultimately of structural geology and surface geochemistry. This innovative training introduces in methods used in exploration geology to study both, fault and fracture systems and fluid chemistry to better understand the selective fluid flow along certain fractures and faults. Field geology covered the systematic measurement of faults and fractures, fault plane and fracture population analysis. In addition, field hydro-geochemistry focused on sampling techniques and field measurements onsite. Subsequent data analysis

  7. Geothermal Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzer, Marilyn; Page, Deborah

    This curriculum unit describes geothermal energy in the context of the world's energy needs. It addresses renewable and nonrenewable energy sources with an in-depth study of geothermal energy--its geology, its history, and its many uses. Included are integrated activities involving science, as well as math, social studies, and language arts.…

  8. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Du, H.; Bouchot, V.; Lopez, S.; Bialkowski, A.; Colnot, A.; Rigollet, C.; Sanjuan, B.; Millot, R.; Brach, M.; Asmundsson, R.; Giroud, N.

    2010-01-01

    Geothermal energy has shown a revival for several years and should strongly develop in a near future. Its potentiality is virtually unexhaustible. Its uses are multiple and various: individual and collective space heating, heat networks, power generation, heat storage, heat exchanges etc.. Re-launched by the demand of renewable energy sources, geothermal energy has become credible thanks to the scientific works published recently which have demonstrated its economical and technical relevance. Its image to the public is changing as well. However, lot of work remains to do to make geothermal energy a real industry in France. Several brakes have to be removed rapidly which concern the noise pollution of geothermal facilities, the risk of bad results of drillings, the electricity costs etc. This dossier gives an overview of today's main research paths in the domain of geothermal energy: 1 - geothermal energy in France: historical development, surface and deep resources, ambitions of the French national energy plan (pluri-annual investment plan for heat generation, incentives, regional 'climate-air-energy' schemes), specific regulations; 2 - geothermal energy at the city scale - sedimentary basins: Ile-de-France 40 years of Dogger reservoir exploitation, potentialities of clastic reservoirs - the Chaunoy sandstones example; 3 - geothermal power generation: conventional reservoirs - the Bouillante model (Guadeloupe, French Indies); the Soultz-sous-Forets pilot plant (Bas-Rhin, France); the supercritical reservoirs - the Krafla geothermal area (Iceland). (J.S.)

  9. Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.C.; Pichiarella, L.S. [eds.; Kane, L.S.; Henline, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months.

  10. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Tavera, L; Camacho, M E; Chavez, A; Pérez, H; Gómez, J

    1999-01-01

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m sup - sup 3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies.

  11. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.; Camacho, M.E.; Chavez, A.; Perez, H.; Gomez, J.

    1999-01-01

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m -3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies

  12. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappelmeyer, O.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth. It represents an inexhaustible source of energy. In many countries, which are mostly located within the geothermal belts of the world, geothermal energy is being used since many decades for electricity generation and direct heating applications comprising municipal, industrial and agricultural heating. Outside the geothermal anomalous volcanic regions, hot ground water from deep rock formations at temperatures above 70 o C is used for process heat and space heating. Low prices for gas and oil hinder the development of geothermal plants in areas outside positive geothermal anomalies; the cost of drilling to reach depths, where temperatures are above 50 o C to 70 o C, is high. The necessary total investment per MW th installed capacity is in the order of 5 Mio- DM/MW th (3 Mio $/MW th ). Experience shows, that an economic break even with oil is reached at an oil price of 30$ per barrel or if an adequate bonus for the clean, environmentally compatible production of geothermal heat is granted. Worldwide the installed electric capacity of geothermal power plants is approximately 6 000 MW e . About 15 000 MW th of thermal capacity is being extracted for process heat and space heat. The importance of the terrestrial heat as an energy resource would be substantially increased, if the heat, stored in the hot crystalline basement could be extracted at economical production costs. Geothermal energy is a competitive energy source in areas with high geothermal gradients (relative low cost for drilling) and would be competitive in areas with normal geothermal gradients, if a fair compensation for environmental implications from fossil and nuclear power production would be granted. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  13. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuataz, F.-D.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives a general overview of the past and present development of geothermal energy worldwide and a more detailed one in Switzerland. Worldwide installed electrical power using geothermal energy sources amounts to 8900 MW el . Worldwide utilization of geothermal energy for thermal applications amounts to 28,000 MW th . The main application (56.5%) is ground-coupled heat pumps, others are thermal spas and swimming pools (17.7%), space heating (14.9%), heating of greenhouses (4.8%), fish farming (2.2%), industrial uses (1,8%), cooling and melting of snow (1.2%), drying of agricultural products (0.6 %). Switzerland has become an important user of geothermal energy only in the past 25 years. Earlier, only the exploitation of geothermal springs (deep aquifers) in Swiss thermal baths had a long tradition, since the time of the Romans. Today, the main use of geothermal energy is as a heat source for heat pumps utilizing vertical borehole heat exchangers of 50 to 350 meters length. 35,000 installations of this type with heating powers ranging from a few kW to 1000 kW already exist, representing the highest density of such installations worldwide. Other developments are geostructures and energy piles, the use of groundwater for heating and cooling, geothermal district heating, the utilization of draining water from tunnels and the project 'Deep Heat Mining' allowing the combined production of heat and electric power

  14. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemale, J.

    2009-01-01

    The geothermal energy, listed among the new and renewable energy sources, is characterized by a huge variety of techniques and applications. This book deals with the access to underground geothermal resources and with their energy valorization as well. After a presentation of the main geological, hydrogeological and thermal exploitation aspects of this resource, the book presents the different geothermal-related industries in detail, in particular the district heating systems, the aquifer-based heat pumps, the utilizations in the agriculture, fishery and balneology sectors, and the power generation. (J.S.)

  15. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  16. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  17. Geothermal energy in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1993-11-01

    The potential of geothermal energy utilization in Jordan was discussed. The report gave a summary of the location of geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and of ongoing projects that utilize geothermal energy for greenhouse heating, fish farming, refrigeration by absorption, and water desalination of deep aquifers. The problems facing the utilization of geothermal energy in Jordan were identified to be financial (i.e. insufficient allocation of local funding, and difficulty in getting foreign financing), and inadequate expertise in the field of geothermal energy applications. The report gave a historical account of geothermal energy utilization activities in Jordan, including cooperation activities with international organizations and foreign countries. A total of 19 reports already prepared in the areas of geochemical and hydrological studies were identified. The report concluded that the utilization of geothermal energy offers some interesting economic possibilities. (A.M.H.). 4 refs. 1 map

  18. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  19. Geothermal energy

    CERN Document Server

    Mangor, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Vast amounts of heat exist below the planet's surface. Geothermal Energy shows how scientists are tapping into this source of energy to heat homes and generate electricity. Easy-to-read text, vivid images, and helpful back matter give readers a clear look at this subject. Features include a table of contents, infographics, a glossary, additional resources, and an index. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Core Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  20. Sustainable energy development and water supply security in Kamojang Geothermal Field: The Energy-Water Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofyan, Y.; Nishijima, J.; Fujimitsu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Kamojang Geothermal Field (KGF) is a typical vapor dominated hydrothermal system in West Java, Indonesia. This geothermal field is the oldest exploited geothermal field in Indonesia. From 1983 to 2005, more than 160 million tons of steam have been exploited from the KGF and more than 30 million tons of water were injected into the reservoir system. The injected water come from condensed water, local river and ground water. Sustainable production in the geothermal energy development is the ability of the production system applied to sustain the stable production level over long times and to manage the mass balance between production, injection and natural recharge in the geothermal reservoir during exploitation. Mass balance in the reservoir system can be monitored by using time lapse gravity monitoring. Mass variation of hydrodynamic in the reservoir of KGF from 1999 to 2005 is about -3.34 Mt/year while is about -3.78 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Another period between 2009 and 2010, mass variation decreased about -8.24 Mt. According to the history of production and injection, natural recharge to the KGF's reservoir is estimated at about 2.77 Mt/year from 1999 to 2005 and 2.75 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Between 2009 and 2010, KGF has a bigger mass deficiency rate throughout 200 MWe maintain production. Large amount of fresh water is needed for sustainable geothermal energy production, while the domestic water supply need is also increased. Natural recharge, about 50% of injected water, cooling system, drilling and other production activities in KGF spend large amounts of fresh water. Water consumption for local people around KGF is about 1.46 MT/year. The water volume around KGF of total runoff is the range between dry season 0.07 MT/month and rainy season 4.4 MT/month. The water demands for sustainable geothermal production of KGF and for local people's consumption will increase in the future. Integrated planning between the energy and water sectors in KGF

  1. French know-how in the field of geothermal energy. District heating and electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    This brochure is aimed at presenting the French expertise, public and private, at international level in the field of geothermal energy (district heating and electricity generation systems). It presents a summary of the French public policy framework, measures to support Research and Development, innovation and training and offers from private companies. It has been designed by the ADEME in cooperation with the French ministry for Ecology and Sustainable Development, the French association of geothermal energy professionals, Ubifrance (the French Agency for international business development) and the French renewable energies union

  2. Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-15

    important from the geothermal point of view. These are known as La Tacita, Hacienda de Agua Fria, Banos del Chino, Laguna Verde, El Nopal...Institute for the Electrical Industry has begun to study surface geo- logy, photointerpretation, and gas and water sampling. La Primavera . - La ... Primavera is situated close to and west of the city of Guadalajara, capital of the State of Jalisco . It is described as a volcanic caldera, and the

  3. Geothermal energy program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained within the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost-effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy - the heat of the Earth - is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40 percent of the total U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma (the four types of geothermal energy), still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  4. Geothermal Energy Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained with the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost- effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy -- the heat of the Earth -- is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40% of the total US energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma ( the four types of geothermal energy) still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program

  5. Global geothermal energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.; Singh, A.; Pandey, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    To resolve the energy crisis efforts have been made in exploring and utilizing nonconventional energy resources since last few decades. Geothermal energy is one such energy resource. Fossil fuels are the earth's energy capital like money deposited in bank years ago. The energy to build this energy came mainly from the sun. Steam geysers and hot water springs are other manifestations of geothermal energy. Most of the 17 countries that today harness geothermal energy have simply tapped such resources where they occur. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  6. Geothermal energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Enriko

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal energy, as a natural steam and hot water, has been exploited for decades in order to generate electricity as well as district heating and industrial processes. The present geothermal electrical installed capacity in the world is about 10.000 MWe and the thermal capacity in non-electrical uses is about 8.200 MWt. Electricity is produced with an efficiency of 10-17%, and the cost of the kWh is competitive with conventional energy sources. In the developing countries, where a total installed electrical power is still low, geothermal energy can play a significant role: in El Salvador, for example, 25% of electricity comes from geothermal spring, 20% in the Philippines and 8% in Kenya. Present technology makes it possible to control the environmental impact of geothermal exploitation. Geothermal energy could also be extracted from deep geopressured reservoirs in large sedimentary basins, hot dry rock systems and magma bodies. (author)

  7. Prospects of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzella, A.; Bianchi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy has great potential as a renewable energy with low environmental impact, the use of heat pumps is becoming established in Italy but the national contributions are still modest when compared to other nations. Mature technologies could double the installed geothermal power in Italy at 2020. [it

  8. Renewable Energy Essentials: Geothermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Geothermal energy is energy available as heat contained in or discharged from the earth's crust that can be used for generating electricity and providing direct heat for numerous applications such as: space and district heating; water heating; aquaculture; horticulture; and industrial processes. In addition, the use of energy extracted from the constant temperatures of the earth at shallow depth by means of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) is also generally referred to as geothermal energy.

  9. Geothermal energy for greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacky Friedman

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy is heat (thermal) derived from the earth (geo). The heat flows along a geothermal gradient from the center of the earth to the surface. Most of the heat arrives at the surface of the earth at temperatures too low for much use. However, plate tectonics ensure that some of the heat is concentrated at temperatures and depths favorable for its commercial...

  10. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  11. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  12. 2012 geothermal energy congress. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Within the Geothermal Energy Congress 2012 from 13th to 16th November 2012, in Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Comparison of different methods for the design of geothermal probes on the example of the thermal utilization of smouldering fires at heaps (Sylvia Kuerten); (2) Determination of the thermo-physical features of loose rocks (Johannes Stegner); (3) Tools for the planning and operation of district heating grids (Werner Seichter); (4) geo:build - System optimisation of the cooling mode of the ground-source heat and cooling supply (Franziska Bockelmann); (5) Successful and economic conception, planning and optimization of district heating grids (Werner Seichter); (6) Treacer / Heat transfer decoupling in a heterogeneous hydrothermal reservoir characterized by geological faults in the Upper Rhine Graben (I. Ghergut); (7) Determination of the porosity, thermal conductivity and particle size distribution in selected sections of the Meisenheim-1 drilling core (Saar-Nahe basin, Rheinland-Palatinate) under consideration of geothermally relevant formulation of questions (Gillian Inderwies); (8) Innovative technologies of exploration in the Jemez Geothermal project, New Mexico, USA (Michael Albrecht); (9) Geothermal energy, heat pump and TABS - optimization of planning, operational control and control (Franziska Bockelmann); (10) The impact of large-scale geothermal probes (storage probes) on the heat transfer and heat loss (Christopher Steins); (11) Numeric modelling of the permocarbon in the northern Upper Rhine Graben (L. Dohrer); (12) Engineering measurement solutions on quality assurance in the exploitation of geothermal fields (C. Lehr); (13) Evaluation and optimization of official buildings with the near-surface geothermal energy for heating and cooling (Franziska Bockelmann); (14) On-site filtration for a rapid and cost-effective quantification of the particle loading in the thermal water stream (Johannes Birner

  13. The National Geothermal Energy Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The continuous demand for energy and the concern for shortages of conventional energy resources have spurred the nation to consider alternate energy resources, such as geothermal. Although significant growth in the one natural steam field located in the United States has occurred, a major effort is now needed if geothermal energy, in its several forms, is to contribute to the nation's energy supplies. From the early informal efforts of an Interagency Panel for Geothermal Energy Research, a 5-year Federal program has evolved whose objective is the rapid development of a commercial industry for the utilization of geothermal resources for electric power production and other products. The Federal program seeks to evaluate the realistic potential of geothermal energy, to support the necessary research and technology needed to demonstrate the economic and environmental feasibility of the several types of geothermal resources, and to address the legal and institutional problems concerned in the stimulation and regulation of this new industry.

  14. Geothermal energy program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division (GTD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with the lead federal role in the research and development (R D) of technologies that will assist industry in economically exploiting the nation's vast geothermal resources. The GTD R D Program represents a comprehensive, balanced approach to establishing all forms of geothermal energy as significant contributors to the nation's energy supply. It is structured both to maintain momentum in the growth of the existing hydrothermal industry and to develop long-term options offering the greatest promise for practical applications. This volume, Volume 2, contains a detailed compilation of each GTD-funded R D activity performed by national laboratories or under contract to industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions.

  15. Geothermal energy in Italy and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo di Calvisi, C.

    2001-01-01

    Geothermal systems and fields are analysed giving particular evidence to the value of the geothermal source as an important natural source of energy. The paper analyses hydrothermal systems and describes the international experimental studies on the use of geothermal reservoirs in hot rocks with geopressured and magmatic systems. Experts are optimistic as far as the use of this innovative source of energy is possible in the medium-short term [it

  16. Very low energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Very low energy geothermics correspond to temperatures below 30 C and has been developed to cover heating and cooling needs of recent individual houses or tertiary industries using heat pumps and low depth aquifers (<100 m). Geothermal heat pumps industry has made great strides in European Northern countries, China, Japan and the United States of America. Geothermal heat pumps are less energy consuming than air heat pumps and require less cooling fluid and maintenance. The Aquapac procedure has been developed in France in 1983 by the AFME (French Energy Control Agency), EdF and the BRGM (Geologic and Mining Research Office) to encourage the use of geothermal heat pump for domestic and sanitary water heating and to make a survey of low-depth aquifers in the whole french territory. The decay of energy costs that started in 1986 has led to a loss of interest for the Aquapac procedure, even in the tertiary industries for which the air-conditioning demand is growing up. (J.S.). 1 tab

  17. Geothermal energy. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    Brief descriptions of geothermal projects funded through the Department of Energy during FY 1978 are presented. Each summary gives the project title, contractor name, contract number, funding level, dates, location, and name of the principal investigator, together with project highlights, which provide informaion such as objectives, strategies, and a brief project description. (MHR)

  18. High- and middle-energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    High and middle energy geothermal resources correspond to temperature intervals of 220-350 C and 90-180 C, respectively, and are both exploited for electricity production. Exploitation techniques and applications of high and of middle energy geothermics are different. High energy geothermics is encountered in active volcanic and tectonic zones, such as the circum-Pacific fire-belt, the lesser Antilles, the peri-Mediterranean Alpine chain or the African rift zone. The geothermal steam is directly expanded in a turbine protected against gas and minerals corrosion. About 350 high energy plants are distributed in more than 20 different countries and represent 6000 M We. The cost of high energy installed geothermal kWh ranges from 0.20 to 0.50 French Francs. Middle energy geothermics is encountered in sedimentary basins (between 2000 and 4000 m of depth), in localized fractured zones or at lower depth in the high energy geothermal fields. Heat exchangers with organic fluid Rankine cycle technology is used to produce electricity. Unit power of middle energy plants generally ranges from few hundreds of k W to few MW and correspond to a worldwide installed power of about 400 M We. The annual progression of geothermal installed power is estimated to 4 to 8 % in the next years and concerns principally the circum-Pacific countries. In France, geothermal resources are mainly localized in overseas departments. (J.S.). 3 photos

  19. Deformation study of Kamojang geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdhani, B. D.; Meilano, I.; Sarsito, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    GPS has proven to be an indispensable tool in the effort to understand crust deformation before, during, and after the big earthquake events through data analysis and numerical simulation. The development of GPS technology has been able to prove as a method for the detection of geothermal activity that related to deformation. Furthermore, the correlation of deformation and geothermal activity are related to the analysis of potential hazards in the geothermal field itself. But unfortunately, only few GPS observations established to see the relationship of tectonic and geothermal activity around geothermal energy area in Indonesia. This research will observe the interaction between deformation and geothermal sources around the geothermal field Kamojang using geodetic GPS. There are 4 campaign observed points displacement direction to north-east, and 2 others heading to south-east. The displacement of the observed points may have not able proven cause by deformation of geothermal activity due to duration of observation. Since our research considered as pioneer for such investigation in Indonesia, we expect our methodology and our findings could become a starter for other geothermal field cases in Indonesia.

  20. Geothermal heating saves energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romsaas, Tor

    2003-01-01

    The article reviews briefly a pioneer project for a construction area of 200000 m''2 with residences, business complexes, a hotel and conference centre and a commercial college in Oslo. The energy conservation potential is estimated to be about 60-70 % compared to direct heating with oil, gas or electricity as sources. There will also be substantial reduction in environmentally damaging emissions. The proposed energy central combines geothermal energy sources with heat pump technology, utilises water as energy carrier and uses terrestrial wells for energy storage. A cost approximation is presented

  1. The low-energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Low-energy geothermal resources are characterized by temperatures ranging from 30 to 100 C. The principal worldwide applications are: towns and greenhouses heating, spa bathing, agriculture products drying, etc.. Sources depth ranges from 1500 to 2500 m in porous and permeable formations (sandstones, sands, conglomerates, limestones..) carrying aquifers. The worldwide installed power was of about 11500 MWth in 1990, with an annual production of about 36000 GWh (about 1% of worldwide energy consumption). The annual production rate is estimated to 10% and would represent a 30000 and 80000 MWth power in 2000 and 2010, respectively. In France, low-energy geothermal resources are encountered principally in Mesozoic sediments of the Parisian and Aquitanian basins. French geothermics has developed during the last 30 years and principally between 1980 and 1985 after the second petroleum crack. After 1985, the decay of fossil fuel costs and the development of corrosion problems in the geothermal wells have led to the abandonment of the less productive fields and to the study of technical solutions to solve the corrosion problems. (J.S.). 1 fig., 5 photos

  2. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  3. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  4. Geothermal Energy in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Eduardo; Villalba, Fabio

    1999-11-01

    Energy represents an essential element for economy, and for any sustainable development strategy, assuming it is a basic input for all production activities. It is a fundamental contra int for country's competitivity and also a main component of population's standard of life. The Agenda 21 and the General Agreement on Climatic Changes emphasize that the development and sustainable use of energy should promote economy, but taking care of the environment. Under these basic concepts, for the particular case of energy, the sustain ability of development requires the adoption of a strategy which guarantee an energy supply in terms of quality, opportunity, continuity and afford ability and, in addition, without production of negative environmental impacts. Geothermal energy is a serious energetic option for sustainable development, since presents technical and economic advantages for production of electricity at medium and large scale. Furthermore, geothermal energy allows a wide spectrum of direct applications of heat in profitable projects of high social impact as green houses, drying of seeds and wood products, fish farming, recreation and others. All of them can help the increase of communal production activities in rural areas affected by poverty

  5. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  6. Geothermal Field Investigations of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayın, N.; Özer, N.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal energy is a type of energy that are found in the accessible depth of the crust, in the reservoirs by way of the permeable rocks, specially in heated fluid. Geothermal system is made of 3 main components; heat source, reservoir, and fluid bearing heat. Geothermal system mechanism is comprise of fluid transmission. Convection current (heat transmission) is caused by heating and causes the fluid in the system to expand. Heated fluid with low density show tendency to rise in system. Geothermal system occurs with variable geophysics and geochemical properties. Geophysical methods can determine structural properties of shallow and deep reservoirs with temperature, mineralization, gas amount, fluid movement, faulting, and sudden change in lithostratigraphic strata. This study revealed possible reservoir structures and showed examples of geophysics and gas measuring results in Turkey which is wealthy in regard to Geothermal sources.

  7. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.

    2010-08-03

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  8. Water Desalination Using Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreddine Ghaffour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting.

  9. Geothermal energy. Pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal energy has certain features that make it highly recommendable as a source of power production. It is noted by its high load factor; it may be used as a basic or peak source; its versatility and high availability among others. In spite of these advantages, geothermal energy has not attained a significant development up to now. There are several reasons for this to happen, while the main one is that it requires an important initial investment. Assessing if an area is potentially profitable for the obtention of a given type of energy implies performing a complex set of analyses and prospective work, but it is not so significant as that associated with petroleum. The strategy for the exploration of geothermal resources is based on the execution of consecutive stages ranging from a surveillance at a regional scale to a project feasibility study, with growing investments and using more and more complex techniques. Many Latin American countries are located in areas considered as promisory concerning the development of this type of exploitation. Another factor supporting this view is a special demographic feature, showing a very irregular distribution of the population, with extense isolated areas with a minimun number of inhabitants that does not justify the extension of the electric power network. There are plants operating in four countries producing, as a whole, 881 MW. In Argentina the activities are aimed to intensifying the knowledge about the availability of this resource within the local territory and to estimating the feasibility of its usage in areas where exploration is more advanced [es

  10. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal resources are used to produce electrical energy and to supply heat for non-electric applications like residential heating and crop drying. The utilization of geothermal energy consists of the extraction of hot water or steam from an underground reservoir followed by different methods of surface processing along with the disposal of liquid, gaseous, and even solid wastes. The focus of this paper is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 150 0 C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of non-condensing gases such as hydrogen sulphide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. In this paper it is shown that hydrogen sulphide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odour annoyances among members of the exposed public -some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 ppmv. A risk-assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukaemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. Also assessed is the risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry is briefly summarized. (author)

  11. Geothermal energy. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    As most of the alternative power sources, geothermal energy started being considered as a tentative one during the early 1970s. At that time the world's demand for energy was mostly fed by means of petroleum, coal, gas and other primary materials. The low prices of these raw materials at that time and the lack of general consciousness on the environmental contamination problems caused by the combustion processes did not forecast any significant changes for the coming years. However, as from 1973, a constant raise in prices, specially for liquid fuels, started to take place. A few years later, in the early 1980s, a growing interest for nature and for the delicate equilibrium of the ecological and for systems started to awaken. These facts led several countries to re-evaluate their power resources and to reconsider those showing less negative incidence upon the environment. Among such alternatives, geothermal energy introduces certain features that make it highly advisable for developing countries, in addition to the fact that the mean heat reservoirs are located within this group of nations [es

  12. Direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  13. The Future of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik, Michelle [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

  14. Multipurpose Use of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.; Lund, John W. (eds.)

    1974-10-09

    The conference was organized to review the non-electric, multipurpose uses of geothermal energy in Hungary, Iceland, New Zealand, United States and the USSR. The international viewpoint was presented to provide an interchange of information from countries where non-electric use of geothermal energy has reached practical importance.

  15. Environmental impact in geothermal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkle, P.; Torres R, V.; Gonzalez P, E.; Guevara G, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generally, water exploitation and deep steam of geothermal fields may be cause of a pollution potential on the surface, specially by the chemical composition of geothermal water which has a high concentration of minerals, salts and heavy metals. The utilization of stable isotopes as deuterium and oxygen 18 as radioactive tracers and water origin indicators allow to know the trajectories and sources of background waters as well as possible moistures between geothermal waters and meteoric waters. Some ions such as chlorides and fluorides present solubilities that allow their register as yet long distances of their source. (Author)

  16. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  17. Geothermal emissions data base, Wairakei geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.R. (comp.)

    1978-04-01

    A database subset on the gaseous emissions from the Wairakei geothermal field is presented. Properties and states of the reservoir fluid such as flow rates, wellhead pressure, and enthalpy are included in the file along with the well name and constituent measurement. This subset is the result of an initial screening of the data covering 1965 to 1971, and new additions will be appended periodically to the file. The data is accessed by a database management system as are all other subsets in the file. Thereby, one may search the database for specific data requirements and print selective output. For example, one may wish to locate reservoir conditions for cases only when the level of the constituent exceeded a designated value. Data output is available in the form of numerical compilations such as the attached, or graphical displays disposed to paper, film or magnetic tape.

  18. Study deep geothermal energy; Studie dypgeotermisk energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havellen, Vidar; Eri, Lars Sigurd; Andersen, Andreas; Tuttle, Kevin J.; Ruden, Dorottya Bartucz; Ruden, Fridtjof; Rigler, Balazs; Pascal, Christophe; Larsen, Bjoern Tore

    2012-07-01

    The study aims to analyze the potential energy with current technology, challenges, issues and opportunities for deep geothermal energy using quantitative analysis. It should especially be made to identify and investigate critical connections between geothermal potential, the size of the heating requirements and technical solutions. Examples of critical relationships may be acceptable cost of technology in relation to heating, local geothermal gradient / drilling depth / temperature levels and profitability. (eb)

  19. Geothermal energy applications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, X.; Tang, N.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper updates geothermal energy applications in China. To total energy consumption for electricity is 20.38 MWe, and for direct use is 41,222 TJ/yr, even though the beneficial heat was estimated to be 7,198 TJ/yr. The attached tables are the basic geothermal information mainly the years 1985-1989. Some of the tables are additions to the report or preceeding years

  20. Geothermal energy development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, S.; Okandan, E.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal fields in Turkey are related to rather complex zones of collision between the Eurasian and African continents, and penetration of the Arabian plate into the Anatolian continental mass. These processes gave rise to fracturing of the lithosphere and eruption of magmas. Geothermal regional assessment studies have proven several low enthalpy sources and some high enthalpy fields suitable for electricity generation. This paper summarizes developments in exploration-drilling and give examples of direct utilization implemented in recent years

  1. Geothermal energy - availability - economy - prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappelmeyer, O.

    1992-01-01

    The heat contained in the earth's crust represents an inexhaustible reservoir of energy on the technical scale, which is available at all times of day and at all seasons. In the volcanically active zones, the earth's heat is used industrially: Worldwide, the electrical power of geothermal powerstations is about 5000 MW; in addition, about 10,000 MW are used for direct thermal applications (heating) in regions with normal geothermal conditions. The geothermal power plants have been expanded at an annual rate of 12.2% since 1970. In many developing countries, the geothermal energy is the most important home source of energy for electricity generation. In Europe, in the Paris Basin, hot groundwater is pumped from a depth of about 2 km and is used for heating blocks of flats. In France as a whole, about 170,000 flats have been supplied with heat and hot water from underground for more than a decade. (orig./DG) [de

  2. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  3. Geothermal Program Review XI: proceedings. Geothermal Energy - The Environmental Responsible Energy Technology for the Nineties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    These proceedings contain papers pertaining to current research and development of geothermal energy in the USA. The seven sections of the document are: Overview, The Geysers, Exploration and Reservoir Characterization, Drilling, Energy Conversion, Advanced Systems, and Potpourri. The Overview presents current DOE energy policy and industry perspectives. Reservoir studies, injection, and seismic monitoring are reported for the geysers geothermal field. Aspects of geology, geochemistry and models of geothermal exploration are described. The Drilling section contains information on lost circulation, memory logging tools, and slim-hole drilling. Topics considered in energy conversion are efforts at NREL, condensation on turbines and geothermal materials. Advanced Systems include hot dry rock studies and Fenton Hill flow testing. The Potpourri section concludes the proceedings with reports on low-temperature resources, market analysis, brines, waste treatment biotechnology, and Bonneville Power Administration activities. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. DMRC studies geothermal energy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-01

    The Deep Mining Research Consortium (DMRC) is an industry-led research consortium that includes Vale Inco, Xstrata, Rio Tinto, Goldcorp, Agnico-Eagle, Barrick Gold, CANMET and the City of Sudbury. This article reported on the application of geothermal energy technologies to cool deep mine workings and use the heat from underground to produce energy to heat surface buildings. Researchers at the University of British Columbia's Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials have proposed the use of heat pumps and water-to-air heat exchangers at depth to chill mine workings. The heat pumps would act as refrigerators, taking heat from one area and moving it elsewhere. The purpose would be to extract heat from naturally occurring ground water and pass the chilled water through a heat exchanger to cool the air. The heated water would then be pumped to surface and used to heat surface facilities. The technology is well suited for using geothermal energy from decommissioned mines for district heating. The technology has been successfully used in Spring Hill, Nova Scotia, where geothermal energy from a decommissioned coal mine is used to heat an industrial park. A feasibility study is also underway for the city of Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories to produce up to 10 megawatts of heat from the Con Gold Mine, enough energy to heat half of Yellowknife. Geothermal energy can also be used to generate electricity, particularly in the Pacific Rim where underground temperatures are higher and closer to surface. In Sudbury Ontario, the enhanced geothermal systems technology would require two holes drilled to a depth of four kilometers. The ground between the two holes should be fractured to create an underground geothermal circuit. Geothermal energy does not produce any greenhouse gases or chemical wastes. 1 fig.

  5. Geothermal Energy and its Prospects in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeckas, B.

    1995-01-01

    Data on the geothermal resources in lithuania and on their prospective usage are presented. The analysis covers water horizons of the geothermal anomaly in West Lithuania and their hydrogeology. The energy of the 3 km thick geothermal source was evaluated. Technical and economical possibilities of using geothermal energy in West Lithuania are described. Some aspects of the investment and of the project of a geothermal power plant in Klaipeda are considered. (author). 6 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endeshaw, A.; Belaineh, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

  7. Geothermal energy in Denmark. The Committee for Geothermal Energy of the Danish Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Danish Energy Agency has prepared a report on the Danish geothermal resources and their contribution to the national energy potential.Environmental and socio-economic consequences of geothermal power systems implementation are reviewed. Organizational models and financing of geothermal-seismic research are discussed, and the Committee of the Energy Agency for Geothermal Energy recommends financing of a pilot plant as well as a prompt elucidation of concession/licensing problems. (EG)

  8. Geothermal Resource Analysis and Structure of Basin and Range Systems, Especially Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Blackwell; Kenneth Wisian; Maria Richards; Mark Leidig; Richard Smith; Jason McKenna

    2003-08-14

    Publish new thermal and drill data from the Dizie Valley Geothermal Field that affect evaluation of Basin and Range Geothermal Resources in a very major and positive way. Completed new geophysical surveys of Dizie Valley including gravity and aeromagnetics and integrated the geophysical, seismic, geological and drilling data at Dizie Valley into local and regional geologic models. Developed natural state mass and energy transport fluid flow models of generic Basin and Range systems based on Dizie Valley data that help to understand the nature of large scale constraints on the location and characteristics of the geothermal systems. Documented a relation between natural heat loss for geothermal and electrical power production potential and determined heat flow for 27 different geothermal systems. Prepared data set for generation of a new geothermal map of North American including industry data totaling over 25,000 points in the US alone.

  9. World status of geothermal energy use: past and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, John

    2000-01-01

    The past and potential development of geothermal energy is reviewed, and the use of geothermal energy for power generation and direct heat utilisation is examined. The energy savings that geothermal energy provides in terms of fuel oil and carbon savings are discussed. Worldwide development of geothermal electric power (1940-2000) and direct heat utilisation (1960 to 2000), regional geothermal use in 2000, the national geothermal contributions of geothermal energy, and the installed geothermal electric generating capacities in 2000 are tabulated

  10. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  11. Computational methods for planning and evaluating geothermal energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goumas, M.G.; Lygerou, V.A.; Papayannakis, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    In planning, designing and evaluating a geothermal energy project, a number of technical, economic, social and environmental parameters should be considered. The use of computational methods provides a rigorous analysis improving the decision-making process. This article demonstrates the application of decision-making methods developed in operational research for the optimum exploitation of geothermal resources. Two characteristic problems are considered: (1) the economic evaluation of a geothermal energy project under uncertain conditions using a stochastic analysis approach and (2) the evaluation of alternative exploitation schemes for optimum development of a low enthalpy geothermal field using a multicriteria decision-making procedure. (Author)

  12. Geothermal energy geopressure subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The proposed action will consist of drilling one geopressured-geothermal resource fluid well for intermittent production testing over the first year of the test. During the next two years, long-term testing of 40,000 BPD will be flowed. A number of scenarios may be implemented, but it is felt that the total fluid production will approximate 50 million barrels. The test well will be drilled with a 22 cm (8.75 in.) borehole to a total depth of approximately 5185 m (17,000 ft). Up to four disposal wells will provide disposal of the fluid from the designated 40,000 BPD test rate. The following are included in this assessment: the existing environment; probable environmental impacts-direct and indirect; probable cumulative and long-term environmental impacts; accidents; coordination with federal, state, regional, and local agencies; and alternative actions. (MHR)

  13. Geothermal Energy as source or energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, E.

    1998-01-01

    This article shows the use and utilization of geothermal energy. This calorific energy can be used, through the wells perforation, in generation of electricity and many other tasks. In Colombia is possible the utilization of this energy in the electrical production due to the volcanic presence in the Western and Central mountain chains

  14. "Assistance to States on Geothermal Energy"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda Sikkema; Jennifer DeCesaro

    2006-07-10

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, related to geothermal energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on geothermal energy—Contract Number DE-FG03-01SF22367—with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of geothermal energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of responses to information requests on geothermal energy and publications. The publications addressed: geothermal leasing, geothermal policy, constitutional and statutory authority for the development of geothermal district energy systems, and state regulation of geothermal district energy systems. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about geothermal energy for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to geothermal energy in the states. Coordination with the National Geothermal Collaborative: NCSL worked and coordinated with the National Geothermal Collaborative (NGC) to ensure that state legislatures were represented in all aspects of the NGC's efforts. NCSL participated in NGC steering committee conference calls, attended and participated in NGC business meetings and reviewed publications for the NGC. Additionally, NCSL and WSUEP staff drafted a series of eight issue briefs published by the

  15. Geothermal Energy Development annual report 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report is an exerpt from Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1979 (LBL-10686). Progress in thirty-four research projects is reported including the following area: geothermal exploration technology, geothermal energy conversion technology, reservoir engineering, and geothermal environmental research. Separate entries were prepared for each project. (MHR)

  16. Geothermal energy statistics 2002-2003 for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signorelli, S.; Andenmatten Bertoud, N.; Kohl, T.; Rybach, L.

    2004-01-01

    Herein, the Swiss geothermal energy production of the years 2002 and 2003 is statistically compiled. Again, an increase of the total geothermal-driven energy can be noted, reaching more than 1.1 TWh, with a geothermal energy share greater than 860 GWh. (The difference is the non-geothermal energy needed by the heat pump systems involved.) Since 2000 the installed capacity could be increased by 20%, i.e. 40 MW per year. Geothermal energy is mainly used in combination with heat pump- (HP-) systems for heating purposes (>700 GWh), of which >80% are produced by borehole heat exchanger (BHE) systems. The remaining HP-utilization splits up into ground water utilization (about 15%), deep BHE, foundation pile systems and tunnel water. Non HP-dependent geothermal utilizations are mainly thermal-springs applications for balneological use. Their contribution is nearly constant over the year. Together with the HP sales figures, the BHE drilling meters are now included in the present statistics. Since 2003, the compilation of the drilled lengths also includes the specifications of BHE fields with more than 10 BHE each. Such BHE fields make up >10% of the total drilled length. More and more frequently, such fields are used for the cooling of buildings as well. In order to clearly display these geothermal applications in the future, such BHE fields should be systematically registered, as it is now done for foundation pile systems and BHE systems. Of great importance for the promotion of geothermal energy are the activities of the Center of Competence 'Geothermal energy' and its regional information centers. The currently available funding allows the financing of information and know-how dissemination as well as education. All of these activities are essential for a further increase in geothermal energy production. (author)

  17. Geothermal pilot study final report: creating an international geothermal energy community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresee, J.C.; Yen, W.W.S.; Metzler, J.E. (eds.)

    1978-06-01

    The Geothermal Pilot Study under the auspices of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) was established in 1973 to apply an action-oriented approach to international geothermal research and development, taking advantage of the established channels of governmental communication provided by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Pilot Study was composed of five substudies. They included: computer-based information systems; direct application of geothermal energy; reservoir assessment; small geothermal power plants; and hot dry rock concepts. The most significant overall result of the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study, which is now complete, is the establishment of an identifiable community of geothermal experts in a dozen or more countries active in development programs. Specific accomplishments include the creation of an international computer file of technical information on geothermal wells and fields, the development of studies and reports on direct applications, geothermal fluid injection and small power plants, and the operation of the visiting scientist program. In the United States, the computer file has aready proven useful in the development of reservoir models and of chemical geothermometers. The state-of-the-art report on direct uses of geothermal energy is proving to be a valuable resource document for laypersons and experts in an area of increasing interest to many countries. Geothermal fluid injection studies in El Salvador, New Zealand, and the United States have been assisted by the Reservoir Assessment Substudy and have led to long-range reservoir engineering studies in Mexico. At least seven small geothermal power plants are in use or have been planned for construction around the world since the Small Power Plant Substudy was instituted--at least partial credit for this increased application can be assigned to the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study. (JGB)

  18. The geothermal energy, a model energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    This book, largely illustrated by photos maps and schemes, takes stock on the knowledge on the geothermal energy, the low and high energy applications and the evolutions. Examples describe the french context and the channels of heat and electric power production. (A.L.B.)

  19. Geothermal energy abstract sets. Special report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C. (comp.)

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography contains annotated citations in the following areas: (1) case histories; (2) drilling; (3) reservoir engineering; (4) injection; (5) geothermal well logging; (6) environmental considerations in geothermal development; (7) geothermal well production; (8) geothermal materials; (9) electric power production; (10) direct utilization of geothermal energy; (11) economics of geothermal energy; and (12) legal, regulatory and institutional aspects. (ACR)

  20. Careers in Geothermal Energy: Power from below

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new energy resources, scientists have discovered ways to use the Earth itself as a valuable source of power. Geothermal power plants use the Earth's natural underground heat to provide clean, renewable energy. The geothermal energy industry has expanded rapidly in recent years as interest in renewable energy has grown. In 2011,…

  1. Energy Exploitation of High-Temperature Geothermal Sources in Volcanic Areas—a Possible ORC Application in Phlegraean Fields (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Algieri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the energy performances of small-scale Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs for the exploitation of high temperature geothermal sources in volcanic areas. For this purpose, a thermodynamic model has been developed, and a parametric analysis has been performed that considers subcritical and transcritical configurations, and different organic fluids (isobutane, isopentane, and R245ca. The investigation illustrates the significant effect of the temperature at the entrance of the expander on the ORC behaviour and the rise in system effectiveness when the internal heat exchange (IHE is adopted. As a possible application, the analysis has focused on the active volcanic area of Phlegraean Fields (Southern Italy where high temperature geothermal reservoirs are available at shallow depths. The work demonstrates that ORC systems represent a very interesting option for exploiting geothermal sources and increasing the share of energy production from renewables. In particular, the investigation has been performed considering a 1 kg/s geothermal mass flow rate at 230 °C. The comparative analysis highlights that transcritical configurations with IHE guarantee the highest performance. Isopentane is suggested to maximise the ORC electric efficiency (17.7%, while R245ca offers the highest electric power (91.3 kWel. The selected systems are able to fulfil a significant quota of the annual electric load of domestic users in the area.

  2. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, Allen [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Darlow, Rick [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sanchez, Angel [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Pierce, Michael [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sellers, Blake [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States)

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  3. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  4. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  5. Geothermal Fields on the Volcanic Axis of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, S.; Gonzalez, A.

    1980-12-16

    At present in Mexico, geothermal energy is receiving a great impulse due to the excellent results obtained in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, in which a geothermoelectric plant is operated. This plant has four units of 37.5 MW each, with a total capacity of 150 MW, and under program 470 MW more by 1984. The Government Institution, Comisi6n Federal de Electricidad, is in charge of the exploration and exploitation of geothermal fields as well as construction and operation of power plants in Mexico. By this time CFE has an extensive program of exploration in the central part of Mexico, in the Eje Neovolcdnico. In this area, several fields with hydrothermal alteration are under exploration, like the Michoac6n geothermal area, where Los Azufres geothermal field is being developed. Seventeen wells have been drilled and twelve of them presented excellent results, including two dry steam wells. In other areas, such as Arar6, Cuitzeo, San Agustln del Maiz,Ixtldn de Los Hervores and Los Negritos, geological, geophysical and geochemical explorations have been accomplished, including shallow well drilling with good results. Another main geothermal area is in the State of Jalisco with an extension of 5,000 m2, where La Primavera geothermal field shows a lot of volcanic domes and has an intensive hydrothermal activity. Deep wells have been drilled, one of them with a bottom temperature of 29OOC. Other fields in this area, like San Narcos, Hervores de La Vega, La Soledad, Villa Corona, etc., have a good geothermal potential. A new geothermal area has been explored recently in the eastern part of the country named Los Humeros, Puebla. In this area studies are being made and there are plans for well drilling exploration by the beginning of 1981. Like this one, there are many other areas in the country in which 300 hydrothermal alteration zones are been classified and 100 of them are considered economically exploitable.

  6. THE FUTURE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Renner

    2006-11-01

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing our supply of indigenous, renewable energy underscores the need for reevaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and welldistributed nationally. This analysis will help determine how we can enlarge and diversify the portfolio of options we should be vigorously pursuing. One such option that is often ignored is geothermal energy, produced from both conventional hydrothermal and Enhanced (or engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS). An 18-member assessment panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of EGS becoming a major supplier of primary energy for U.S. base-load generation capacity by 2050. This report documents the work of the panel at three separate levels of detail. The first is a Synopsis, which provides a brief overview of the scope, motivation, approach, major findings, and recommendations of the panel. At the second level, an Executive Summary reviews each component of the study, providing major results and findings. The third level provides full documentation in eight chapters, with each detailing the scope, approach, and results of the analysis and modeling conducted in each area.

  7. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  8. Geothermal energy, what technologies for what purposes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This book, fully illustrated and rich of concrete examples, takes stock of the different technologies implemented today to use the Earth's heat: geothermal heat pumps for domestic, tertiary and collective residential uses, geothermal district heating networks and geothermal power plants for power generation. This overview is completed by a description of the future perspectives offered by this renewable energy source in the World and in France in terms of energy independence and technological innovation: geo-cooling, hybrid systems, absorption heat pumps or stimulated geothermal systems. (J.S.)

  9. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  10. Energy and Exergy Analysis of Kalina Cycle for the Utilization of Waste Heat in Brine Water for Indonesian Geothermal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasruddin Nasruddin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste heat in a power plant system—which would otherwise be released back to the environment—in order to produce additional power increases the efficiency of the system itself. The purpose of this study is to present an energy and exergy analysis of Kalina Cycle System (KCS 11, which is proposed to be utilized to generate additional electric power from the waste heat contained in geothermal brine water available in the Lahendong Geothermal power plant site in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. A modeling application on energy and exergy system is used to study the design of thermal system which uses KCS 11. To obtain the maximum power output and maximum efficiency, the system is optimized based on the mass fraction of working fluid (ammonia-water, as well as based on the turbine exhaust pressure. The result of the simulation is the optimum theoretical performance of KCS 11, which has the highest possible power output and efficiency. The energy flow diagram and exergy diagram (Grassman diagram was also presented for KCS 11 optimum system to give quantitative information regarding energy flow from the heat source to system components and the proportion of the exergy input dissipated in the various system components.

  11. Process applications for geothermal energy resources. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikic, B.B.; Meal, H.C.; Packer, M.B.; Guillamon-Duch, H.

    1981-08-01

    The principal goal of the program was to demonstrate economical and technical suitability of geothermal energy as a source of industrial process heat through a cooperative program with industrial firms. To accomplish that: a critical literature survey in the field was performed; a workshop with the paper and pulp industry representatives was organized; and four parallel methods dealing with technical and economical details of geothermal energy use as a source of industrial process heat were developed.

  12. Pollution Control Guidance for Geothermal Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Robert P.

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the EPA regulatory approach toward geothermal energy development. The state of knowledge is described with respect to the constituents of geothermal effluents and emissions, including water, air, solid wastes, and noise. Pollutant effects are discussed. Pollution control technologies that may be applicable are described along with preliminary cost estimates for their application. Finally discharge and emission limitations are suggested that may serve as interim guidance for pollution control during early geothermal development.

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps that are effective as of...

  14. Multi-usages of the Ilan geothermal field, NE Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. S.; Tseng, P.; Wang, S.; Chang, C.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonics of Taiwan is very dynamic. The area produces more than 30,000 earthquakes/year; the mountains uplift 4-5 cm/year; the rainfall culminates 3,000 mm/year; there are some 4,000 hot spring operators. One of the two hot geothermal areas is located in NE Taiwan - the Ilan geothermal field. In order to develop the geothermal energy for the electricity need, the Ministry of Science and Technology have provided the fund to drill two 2,500 deep wells. The results are not so encourage for the need of an Enhanced Geothermal System. However, one of the wells has a bottom temperature of 160oC and the water up loading with 60 ton/hr. This can be combined with the near-by wells drilled by the private drilling company and the Cardinal Tien Junior College of Healthcare and Management to develop the multi-usages of the geothermal energy, such as 1 MW of electricity for the college and village, the long-term healthcare and hot spring medicare, aquaculture and agriculture need etc. The universities and private drilling company cooperate together to join the development. Hope this will provide a new model for the need of a self-sufficient community. The geothermal is a clean, renewable, and no pollution energy. Taiwan is in an initial stage of using this green energy.

  15. Department of Energy--Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Geothermal Program: Geothermal Risk Mitigation Strategies Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-02-15

    An overview of general financial issues for renewable energy investments; geothermal energy investment barriers and risks; and recommendations for incentives and instruments to be considered to stimulate investment in geothermal energy development.

  16. Application of low enthalpy geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancher, B.; Giannone, G.

    2007-01-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the superficial layers of the Earth's crust; it can be exploited in several ways, depending on its temperature. Many systems have been developed to use this clean and renewable energy resource. This paper deals with a particular application of low enthalpy geothermal energy in Latisana (district of Udine NE, Italy). The Latisana's indoor stadium is equipped with geothermal plant that uses low temperature water (29-30 0 ) to provide heating. Economic analysis shows that the cost of its plant is comparable to the cost powered by other kinds of renewable energy resources

  17. Seismic characterisation for geothermal energy prospecting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huck, A.; Groot, P. de; Simmelink, E.; Vandeweijer, V.P.; Willemsen, A.

    2009-01-01

    The city of The Hague intends to use geothermal energy to heat approx. 4000 houses in a planned urban development area called The Hague South-West. This paper describes the application of advanced seismic interpretation workflows to help positioning a geothermal doublet consisting of one injector -

  18. Geothermal energy: the earth, source of heat and electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoir, D.

    2005-01-01

    This document provides information on the geothermal energy. It presents the different types of geothermal deposits (very low, low and medium energy geothermal energy), the french deposits and the heat production. The electric power production from the geothermal energy is also discussed with the example of Soultz-sous-Forets. The last part deals with the heat pumps. (A.L.B.)

  19. Is radon a potential risk in geothermal fields?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, M.; Tavera, L.; Lopez, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Some environmental groups in Mexico have shown concern, by the fact that natural radon emanation in geothermal fields could be considered as a potential risk for human health. As part of the studies recommended by the Ministry of Energy and to provide technical answers to the request of environmental groups, a study of the radon emanation and its impact to human health was carried out at the Primavera Mexican geothermal energy field under prospecting. It was found that radon concentration decreases with temperature of geothermal fluids and increases with the enthalpy of the well. In any case, using the appropriate corrections, radon values were similar to those of ground water. Radon values in the atmosphere of the field show no potential risk for human health. (author)

  20. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Casie L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cabe, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-20

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure

  1. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C L [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure

  2. Addendum to material selection guidelines for geothermal energy-utilization systems. Part I. Extension of the field experience data base. Part II. Proceedings of the geothermal engineering and materials (GEM) program conference (San Diego, CA, 6-8 October 1982)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.S.; Ellis, P.F. II

    1983-05-01

    The extension of the field experience data base includes the following: key corrosive species, updated field experiences, corrosion of secondary loop components or geothermal binary power plants, and suitability of conventional water-source heat pump evaporator materials for geothermal heat pump service. Twenty-four conference papers are included. Three were abstracted previously for EDB. Separate abstracts were prepared for twenty-one. (MHR)

  3. Geothermal energy and the utility market -- the opportunities and challenges for expanding geothermal energy in a competitive supply market: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year's conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,'' focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  4. Regulation of geothermal energy development in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.; Forman, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    The regulatory system is presented in a format to help guide geothermal energy development. State, local, and federal agencies, legislation, and regulations are presented. Information sources are listed. (MHR)

  5. Technical databook for geothermal energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S.L.; Igbene, A.; Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H.; Tavana, M.

    1981-06-01

    A critical survey is made of selected basic data on those aqueous solutions needed to model geothermal energy utilization. The data are useful in the design and construction of power plants and for direct use. The result of the survey is given as a current status of data. More emphasis is placed on the viscosity, thermal conductivity and density of sodium chloride solutions up to 350/sup 0/C and 50 MPa. An ideal data book for geothermal energy is described.

  6. Geothermal Program Review X: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- the Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R&D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R&D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year`s conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, ``Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,`` focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R&D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  7. Numerical investigation of the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir: a case study of the Daming geothermal field in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuyang; Song, Hongqing; Killough, John; Du, Li; Sun, Pengguang

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of geothermal energy is clean and has great potential worldwide, and it is important to utilize geothermal energy in a sustainable manner. Mathematical modeling studies of geothermal reservoirs are important as they evaluate and quantify the complex multi-physical effects in geothermal reservoirs. However, previous modeling efforts lack the study focusing on the emission reduction efficiency and the deformation at geothermal wellbores caused by geothermal water extraction/circulation. Emission efficiency is rather relevant in geothermal projects introduced in areas characterized by elevated air pollution where the utilization of geothermal energy is as an alternative to burning fossil fuels. Deformation at geothermal wellbores is also relevant as significant deformation caused by water extraction can lead to geothermal wellbore instability and can consequently decrease the effectiveness of the heat extraction process in geothermal wells. In this study, the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir in Daming County, China, are numerically investigated based on a coupled multi-physical model. Relationships between the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction, deformation at geothermal well locations, and geothermal field parameters including well spacing, heat production rate, re-injection temperature, rock stiffness, and geothermal well placement patterns are analyzed. Results show that, although large heat production rates and low re-injection temperatures can lead to decreased heat production in the last 8 years of heat extraction, they still improve the overall heat production capacity and emission reduction capacity. Also, the emission reduction capacity is positively correlated with the heat production capacity. Deformation at geothermal wellbore locations is alleviated by smaller well spacing, lower heat production rates, and smaller numbers of injectors in the well pattern, and by

  8. Klamath Falls geothermal field, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230{degree}F (38 to 110{degree}C) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppM dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. 73 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Agemar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  10. Geothermal energy in California: Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citron, O.; Davis, C.; Fredrickson, C.; Granit, R.; Kerrisk, D.; Leibowitz, L.; Schulkin, B.; Wornack, J.

    1976-06-30

    The potential for electric energy from geothermal resources in California is currently estimated to be equivalent to the output from 14 to 21 large (1000 MW) central station power plants. In addition, since over 30 California cities are located near potential geothermal resources, the non-electric applications of geothermal heat (industrial, agriculture, space heating, etc.) could be enormous. Therefore, the full-scale utilization of geothermal resources would have a major impact upon the energy picture of the state. This report presents a summary of the existing status of geothermal energy development in the state of California as of the early part of 1976. The report provides data on the extent of the resource base of the state and the present outlook for its utilization. It identifies the existing local, state, and federal laws, rules and regulations governing geothermal energy development and the responsibilities of each of the regulatory agencies involved. It also presents the differences in the development requirements among several counties and between California and its neighboring states. Finally, it describes on-going and planned activities in resource assessment and exploration, utilization, and research and development. Separate abstracts are prepared for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) for Sections II--VI and the three Appendixes.

  11. Oregon: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justus, D.; Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  12. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  13. Alaska: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  14. Utilization of geothermal energy in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Pavolová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher demand for energy consumption and the importance of environmental issues has encouraged researchers and policy makers to consider renewable energies more seriously. Energetic projects, resulting from orientation to energetic effectiveness are contributing to the increase of energetic safety and reduction of economic dependence on unstable prices of gas and petroleum during their import. The contribution studies possible ways of utilization of individual types of renewable energies by the analysis of utilization of geothermal energy through characteristics of individual areas of geothermal energy in Slovakia according to the intensity of heat flow. The results of the analysis prove that Slovakia has the vast potential of geothermal energy. There is, therefore, necessary to support business activities, orientated to the energy saving projects.

  15. Geothermal energy and heat storage in aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewalts, W.P.G.; Geluk, M.C.; Heederik, J.P.; Huurdeman, A.J.M.; Mourik, G.J. van; Postma, A.D.; Snijders, A.L.; Walter, F.; Willemsen, A.

    1988-01-01

    After the first energy crisis in 1973 various research programmes to do with energy conservation and diversification of energy resources were set up in the Netherlands. A number of these were directed to the rest of the subsoil for the following purposes: - the extraction of geothermal energy from

  16. Nevada Renewable Energy Training Project: Geothermal Power Plant Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim, Nichols [Truckee Meadows Community College, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-04-29

    The purpose of this project was to develop and institute a training program for certified geothermal power plant operators (GPO). An advisory board consisting of subject matter experts from the geothermal energy industry and academia identified the critical skill sets required for this profession. A 34-credit Certificate of Achievement (COA), Geothermal Power Plant Operator, was developed using eight existing courses and developing five new courses. Approval from the Nevada System of Higher Education Board of Regents was obtained. A 2,400 sq. ft. geothermal/fluid mechanics laboratory and a 3,000 sq. ft. outdoor demonstration laboratory were constructed for hands-on training. Students also participated in field trips to geothermal power plants in the region. The majority of students were able to complete the program in 2-3 semesters, depending on their level of math proficiency. Additionally the COA allowed students to continue to an Associate of Applied Science (AAS), Energy Technologies with an emphasis in Geothermal Energy (26 additional credits), if they desired. The COA and AAS are stackable degrees, which provide students with an ongoing career pathway. Articulation agreements with other NSHE institutions provide students with additional opportunities to pursue a Bachelor of Applied Science in Management or Instrumentation. Job placement for COA graduates has been excellent.

  17. The Hydrogeochemistry of Qingshui Geothermal Field, Northeastern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Wen, Chen; Cheng-Kuo, Lin; Wayne, Lin; Yu-Te, Chang; Pei-Shan, Hsieh

    2015-04-01

    The Qingshui geothermal field is located at the upstream valley of Lanyang Creek, northeastern Taiwan. It is renowned as a geothermal field. The previous studies demonstrated a higher geothermal gradient, 100oC/km warmer than a normal geotherm. However, Qingshui geothermal field has not been well developed due to the higher mining costs. In the recent years, the Taiwan government has been focusing on developing alternative and renewable energy and initiated a 10 year project, Nation Energy Program. This study is part of this project In general, it is very difficult to collect deep downhole samples without considerable change of hydro- and gas- chemistry of water under high temperature and pressure. A new sampling tool, GTF Sampler, was designed by the research team, Green Energy and Environment Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute. This tool can simultaneously collect high quality geothermal water and gas sample and moreover, the sampling depth can reach up to 800 meters. Accordingly, a more accurate measurements can be conducted in the laboratory. In this study, 10 geothermal samples were collected and measured. The results demonstrate that geothermal water samples are characterized with Na(K)-HCO3 water type and located at the mature water area in Giggenbach Na-K-Mg diagram. Several geothermometers, including silica and cation geothermometry, were used to estimate potential temperature in the geothermal reservoir systems. In general, the geothermoters of Na-K and Na-K-Ca obtain reservoir temperatures between 120-190oC and 130-210oC, respectively, but the silica geothermometer indicates a lower reservoir temperature between 90 and 170oC. There is no big difference among them. It is worth to note that all calculated temperatures are lower than those of in-situ downhole measurements; therefore, more detailed and advanced researches would be needed for the inconsistency. To examine the argument about igneous heat source in the previous studies, rare

  18. EU and worldwide geothermal energy inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the world geothermal congress of April 2005, this document puts the different applications of this sector into perspective. At the end of 2004, the installed electrical capacity in European Union countries amounted to 822,1 MWe and thermal capacity to 6589,8 MWth (including 4531 MWth of heat pumps). Statistics on the geothermal energy situation and distribution are presented and analyzed. A comparison between current trend and white paper objectives is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  19. Geothermal Field Development in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, Hector Alonso

    1983-12-15

    Mexico is a Country characterized by its diversified means of Power Gerneration. Actual installed capacity is almost 19000 MW, of which 205 MW corresponds to Geothermal Plants, that is, 180 MW in Cerro Prieto and 25 MW of Portable Plants in Los Azufres. To date, 346 area with exploitation possibilites, are known. They are mainly distributed along the Volcanic Belt where the most prominent are, Los Azufres, La Primavera, Los Humeros, Ixtlan De Los Hervores and Los Negritos, among others. Proved reserves are 920 MW, and the accessible resource base are 4600 MW identified and 6000 MW undiscovered. The long range construction studies intends to achieve a total installed capacity of 100000 MW, by the end of this century, including 2000 MW Geothermal, through conventional and Portable Plants. It is not a definite program but a development strategy. The carrying out of a definite program, will depend upon the confirmation of Hypothesis made in previous studies, and the economic decisions related to the financial sources availability, and techologies to be used in the future as well.

  20. Geothermal energy in Turkey. 2008 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpen, Umran; Korkmaz, E. Didem [Istanbul Technical University, Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak-istanbul (Turkey); Aksoy, Niyazi [Dokuz Eyluel University, Torbali Technical Vocational School of Higher Education, 35120 Torbali-Izmir (Turkey); Oenguer, Tahir [Geosan Co. Inc., Buyukdere Str 27/7, 3438 Sisli-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-06-15

    Geological studies indicate that the most important geothermal systems of western Turkey are located in the major grabens of the Menderes Metamorphic Massif, while those that are associated with local volcanism are more common in the central and eastern parts of the country. The present (2008) installed geothermal power generation capacity in Turkey is about 32.65 MWe, while that of direct use projects is around 795 MWt. Eleven major, high-to-medium enthalpy fields in western part of the country have 570 MWe of proven, 905 MWe of probable and 1389 MWe of possible geothermal reserves for power generation. In spite of the complex legal issues related to the development of Turkey's geothermal resources, their use is expected to increase in the future, particularly for electricity generation and for greenhouse heating. (author)

  1. Cerro Prieto geothermal field: exploration during exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. The description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field are presented. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development.

  2. Deep drilling for geothermal energy in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    There is a societal request to find renewable CO2-free energy resources. One of the biggest such resources is provided by geothermal energy. In addition to shallow ground heat already extensively used in Finland, deep geothermal energy provides an alternative so far not exploited. Temperatures are high at depth, but the challenge is, how to mine the heat? In this presentation, the geological and geophysical conditions for deep geothermal energy production in Finland are discussed as well as challenges for drilling and conditions at depth for geothermal energy production. Finland is located on ancient bedrock with much lower temperatures than geologically younger volcanically and tectonically active areas. In order to reach sufficiently high temperatures drilling to depths of several kilometres are needed. Further, mining of the heat with, e.g., the principle of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires high hydraulic conductivity for efficient circulation of fluid in natural or artificial fractures of the rock. There are many issues that must be solved and/or improved: Drilling technology, the EGS concept, rock stress and hydraulic fracturing, scale formation, induced seismicity and ground movements, possible microbial activity, etc. An industry-funded pilot project currently in progress in southern Finland is shortly introduced.

  3. Geothermal today: 1999 Geothermal Energy Program highlights (Clean energy for the 21st century booklet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, B.; Waggoner, T.

    2000-05-10

    The purpose of this publication is to educate and inform readers about research activities being carried out by the federal Geothermal Energy Program, and its achievements and future goals. This publication should help raise the visibility and awareness of geothermal energy contributions and potential, especially as part of the nation's clean energy technologies portfolio. The message of the publication is that program resources are being well spent and the results are real and tangible. A secondary message is that geothermal energy is a viable generation option with environmental, economic, and other benefits.

  4. Geothermal energy. Ground source heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy can be harnessed in 2 different ways: electricity or heat generation. The combined net electrical geothermal power of the European Union countries reached 719.3 MWe in 2008 (4.8 MW up on 2007) for 868.1 MWe of installed capacity. Gross electrical production contracted slightly in 2008 (down 1% on the 2007 level) and stood at 5809.5 GWh in 2008. Italy has a overwhelming position with a production of 5520.3 GWh. Geothermal heat production concerning aquifers whose temperature is 30-150 C. degrees generally at a depth of 1-3 km is called low- and medium-enthalpy energy. 18 of the 27 EU members use low- and medium-enthalpy energy totaling 2560.0 MWth of installed capacity that yielded 689.2 ktoe in 2008 and 3 countries Hungary, Italy and France totaling 480.3 ktoe. Very low-enthalpy energy concerns the exploitation of shallow geothermal resources using geothermal heat pumps. In 2008, 114452 ground heat pumps were sold in Europe. At the end of 2008, the installed capacity was 8955.4 MWth (16.5% up on 2007 level, it represented 785206 pumps. Over one million ground heat pumps are expected to be operating in 2010 in Europe. (A.C.)

  5. Geoelectromagnetic and geothermic investigations in the Ihlara Valley geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlkişik, O. Metin; Gürer, Aysan; Tokgöz, Tuǧrul; Kaya, Cemal

    1997-09-01

    The Ihlara Valley is situated within a volcanic arc that is formed by the collision of the eastern Mediterranean plate system with the Anatolian plate. In this study we will present data from a reservoir monitoring project over the Ihlara-Ziga geothermal field, located 22 km east of Aksaray, in central Anatolia. Although identified geothermal resources in the Ihlara Valley are modest, substantial undiscovered fields have been inferred primarily from the volcanic and tectonic setting but also from the high regional heat flow (150-200 mWm -2) on the Kirşehir Massif. In 1988 and 1990, geoelectromagnetic surveys were undertaken by MTA-Ankara to confirm the presence of a relatively shallow (≈ 0.5-1 km), hydrothermally caused conductive layer or zone. CSAMT and Schlumberger resistivity data show good correspondence with each other, and 2-D geoelectric models are also in harmony with geologic data and gravity anomalies. The depth of the resistive basement, which is interpreted as Paleozoic limestone, is 200-250 m in the western part and increases eastward (≈ 600-750 m). This may imply N-S-oriented normal faulting within the survey area. The parameters of the top layer are a resistivity of 25 to 95 ohm m and a thickness of between 100 and 250 m. The thickness of the conductive tuffs between the top layer and the basement, whose resistivity is about 4-5 o hmm, also increases eastward (from 100 to 450 m). The apparent resistivity maps for the frequencies between 32 and 2 Hz reveal a localized low resistivity anomaly to the east of Belisirma.

  6. Geothermal energy production with supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donald W.

    2003-12-30

    There has been invented a method for producing geothermal energy using supercritical fluids for creation of the underground reservoir, production of the geothermal energy, and for heat transport. Underground reservoirs are created by pumping a supercritical fluid such as carbon dioxide into a formation to fracture the rock. Once the reservoir is formed, the same supercritical fluid is allowed to heat up and expand, then is pumped out of the reservoir to transfer the heat to a surface power generating plant or other application.

  7. Utilization of geothermal energy in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononov, V.I.; Dvorov, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that at present geothermal energy is utilized in the USSR mostly for district heating, and for industrial and agricultural purposes. The populations of 7 towns have district heating that is supplied by thermal waters. The population supplied totals about 125,000 people. The total area of greenhouses is 850,000 m 2 . Electric energy generated at geothermal power stations still remains negligible with the installed capacity of the single Pauzhetka station (Kamchatka) being 11 MW. another station at Mutnovka is currently under construction and is expected to be producing 50 MW by 1992 and 200 MW by 1998. The proven geothermal resources in the USSR provide hope for a significant increase in the utilization of the earth's deep heat in the near future

  8. Aqueous systems and geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Significant unpublished results reported include: osmotic coefficients of KCl solutions vs. molality at 109 to 201 0 C; cadmium ion diffusivities in CaCl 2 hydrous melts; a x-ray diffraction study of the uranyl complex in water; solubility of amorphous silica in aqueous NaNO 3 solutions at 100 to 300 0 C; and corrosion of carbon steel by geothermal brine

  9. Innovation versus monopoly: geothermal energy in the West. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, S.L.; Stover, D.F.; Nelson, P.A.; Lamont, W.J.

    1977-07-01

    The following subjects are covered: geothermal energy and its use, electric utilities and the climate for geothermal development, the raw fuels industry and geothermal energy, and government and energy. The role of large petroleum companies and large public utilities is emphasized. (MHR)

  10. Energy efficiency comparison between geothermal power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geothermal water which can be considered for generating electricity with the temperature ranging from 80℃ to 150℃ in China because of shortage of electricity and fossil energy. There are four basic types of geothermal power systems: single flash, double flash, binary cycle, and flash-binary system, which can be adapted to geothermal energy utilization in China. The paper discussed the performance indices and applicable conditions of different power system. Based on physical and mathematical models, simulation result shows that, when geofluid temperature ranges from 100℃ to 130℃, the net power output of double flash power is bigger than flash-binary system. When the geothermal resource temperature is between 130℃ and 150℃, the net power output of flash-binary geothermal power system is higher than double flash system by the maximum value 5.5%. However, the sum water steam amount of double flash power system is 2 to 3 times larger than flash-binary power system, which will cause the bigger volume of equipment of power system. Based on the economy and power capacity, it is better to use flash-binary power system when the geofluid temperature is between 100℃ and 150℃.

  11. GOCE and Future Gravity Missions for Geothermal Energy Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorutti, Alberto; Braitenberg, Carla; Pivetta, Tommaso; Mariani, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    Geothermal energy is a valuable renewable energy source the exploitation of which contributes to the worldwide reduction of consumption of fossil fuels oil and gas. The exploitation of geothermal energy is facilitated where the thermal gradient is higher than average leading to increased surface heat flow. Apart from the hydrologic circulation properties which depend on rock fractures and are important due to the heat transportation from the hotter layers to the surface, essential properties that increase the thermal gradient are crustal thinning and radiogenic heat producing rocks. Crustal thickness and rock composition form the link to the exploration with the satellite derived gravity field, because both induce subsurface mass changes that generate observable gravity anomalies. The recognition of gravity as a useful investigation tool for geothermal energy lead to a cooperation with ESA and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) that included the GOCE derived gravity field in the online geothermal energy investigation tool of the IRENA database. The relation between the gravity field products as the free air gravity anomaly, the Bouguer and isostatic anomalies and the heat flow values is though not straightforward and has not a unique relationship. It is complicated by the fact that it depends on the geodynamical context, on the geologic context and the age of the crustal rocks. Globally the geological context and geodynamical history of an area is known close to everywhere, so that a specific known relationship between gravity and geothermal potential can be applied. In this study we show the results of a systematic analysis of the problem, including some simulations of the key factors. The study relies on the data of GOCE and the resolution and accuracy of this satellite. We also give conclusions on the improved exploration power of a gravity mission with higher spatial resolution and reduced data error, as could be achieved in principle by flying

  12. Industrial utilization of geopressured geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underhill, Gary K; Carlson, Ronald A.; Clendinning, William A.; Erdos, Jozsef; Gault, John; Hall, James W.; Jones, Robert L.; Michael, Herbert K.; Powell, Paul H.; Riemann, Carl F.; Rios-Castellon, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Burchard P.; Wilson, John S.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the industrial utilization of geopressured geothermal energy is currently limited by the limited knowledge of the resource's distribution. However, the resource assessment activity in the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, has identified a number of fairway or potential resource zones. These zones are located in Kenedy County; in and about Corpus Christi and Nueces Bays in Nueces, San Patricio, and Aransas Counties; in the coastal zones of Matagorda County; and in a crescent-shaped zone parallel to the coastline in Brazoria and Galveston Counties. The Kenedy and Matagorda County zones are situated in rural areas with little or no industrial activity. The Corpus Christi and Brazoria-Galveston zones are in and adjacent to highly industrialized and urbanized districts. The rural zones will require the establishment of new industries for geothermal fluid utilization while the industrial-urban zones will require either new industry, expansion to existing industry, or modification to existing plant and process. Proposed industries for geothermal fluid utilization can be considered with respect to fitting the industry to the available fluids; this has been the usual approach. An alternate approach is to fit the abailable fluids to the proposed industry. In order to follow the alternate approach requires consideration of ways to upgrade the quality of existing geothermal fluids or geothermal-derived or -energized fluids.

  13. The use of Geothermal Energy Resources in the Tourism Industry of Vojvodina (Northern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Tomić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of geothermal energy in Vojvodina is still at an unjustly low level taking into account the abundance of resource locations, some of which are ranked among the most affluent in Europe. Moreover, development of geothermal exploitation started in Serbia at about the same time as in other countries whose geothermal energy facilities are now at the highest technological level and which are leaders in this field. The largest use of geothermal energy in Vojvodina is present in the non-energetic area, especially in spas and sports–recreational centers. Other, seasonal consumers of geothermal energy are from the field of industry and agricultural production where the energy is used for heating of cattle and poultry farms, greenhouses and other facilities. However these consumers use only a small portion of available geothermal resources. The main users are those from the tourism industry. The goal of this paper is to give an overview and an analysis of the use of geothermal energy resources, mainly geothermal waters, in the tourism industry of Vojvodina. It shows how these resources are used and also for what are they used by the tourism industry. The paper covers only geothermal resources that are currently being used by the tourism industry. The potential for future usage in this area is also briefly discussed

  14. Direct utilization of geothermal energy: a technical handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N; Lund, J.W. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    This technical handbook includes comprehensive discussions on nature and occurrence of the geothermal resource, its development, utilization, economics, financing, and regulation. Information on pricing parameters for the direct use of geothermal energy is included as an appendix. (MRH)

  15. Geothermal. Possibilities of use of the geothermal energy in the Colombian Atlantic Coast and general aspects on this energy type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, E.

    1987-01-01

    With base in the compilation and prosecution of the geologic information and available geophysics in the Departments of Cordoba, Sucre, Bolivar, Atlantic and Magdalena and of the analysis of the results obtained for samples of thermal waters, the possible existence of attractive reas; geothermically was evaluated by the light of the main constituent elements of a geothermal field: Source of heat. Reservoir. Waterproof covering. Recharge area. The absence of recent volcanic manifestations as much in surface as to shallow depths, the nonexistence of a source of heat of economic interest is suggested. The presence of thermal manifestations in 3 towns of the Atlantic Costa shows results of the chemical analyses characterized by the drop silica concentration (92 ppm) and high concentration of bicarbonates (504 ppm) that which identifies to waters of low temperature, what reinforces the nonexistence of a source of significant heat. With the current information it is but attractiveness to focus the investigations in the Atlantic Costa toward the use in other such energy ways as the lot, eolic, biomass, Ph; that toward the use of endogenous fluids. It is included information related with the exploration and exploitation of a geothermal field and with the economic evaluation for geothermal plants of several capacities. Additionally specific examples of four countries in the world that you/they generate electricity with base in geothermal vapor

  16. Potential for Geothermal Energy in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin Soe Moe

    2010-12-01

    Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself from kilometers deep into the earth's crust in some places of world. It is power extracted from heat stored in the earth. It is a renewable energy source because the heat is continuously produced inside the earth. Geothermal energy originates from the heat retained within the Earth's core since the orginal formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. Most high temperature geothermal heat is harvested in regions close to tectonic plate boundaries where volcanic activity rises up to the surface of the Earth. It is one of the best renewable sources of energy and is capable of maintaining its temperature. The heating cost is very low. It uses less electricity and 75 per cent more efficient than the oil furnace and 48 per cent more efficient than the gas furnace. The energy is not only used for heating a place but also for cooling down the site. It generates uniform energy and creates no sound pollution. Maintenance cost is very cheap. The life of the underground piping is more than 50 year.

  17. Extremely Shallow Extensional Faulting Near Geothermal Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Wei, S.; Donnellan, A.; Fielding, E. J.; Graves, R. W.; Helmberger, D. V.; Liu, Z.; Parker, J. W.; Treiman, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    side down slip. Up to 18 cm/s ground motion were observed at four seismic stations within 10 km which are modeled by northward rupture directivity with rupture speed of ~1.0-1.5 km/s. Although most energy in Brawley Seismic Zone swarms is released in deeper and larger strike-slip events, we observe surprisingly that the recent cases of surface faulting in 2005 on the Kalin fault (Rymer et al., USGS OFR 2010-1333) and 2012 preferentially involve normal fault surface slip in close proximity to geothermal fields, as did the 2006 Morelia fault case (Suárez-Vidal et al., SRL 2007). The Aug. 2012 case was the latest of three minor extensional surface ruptures, each associated with moderate seismic activity near geothermal fields. We compare this latest case, with its ~3.5 km surface break, and the two earlier examples with ~0.5 km (2005) and ~2.0 km (2006) long surface breaks with similar NE-SW to NNE-SSW orientations. All three cases had tectonic surface slip of greater than 15 cm but less than 30 cm, involved mostly normal fault slip, and occurred within extensional step-over zones between the San Andreas and Imperial faults (2005 & 2012), and between the Imperial and Cerro Prieto faults (2006).

  18. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  19. Development case histories: Tongonan and Palinpinon geothermal fields, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogena, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The background on the general scenario of energy resource development in the country is described. Highlights of the exploration history of the Tongonan and Palinpinon geothermal fields in the Philippines are then presented. This is discussed in conjunction with the strategies and policies taken in the development of each field. Finally, the common policies and contrasting development strategies are compared and evaluated. The conclusion derived is that the development strategy decisions at Tongonan are influenced by the regional power demand, topography, and the large extent of the resource. In contrast, the development at Palinpinon is less constrained by the external influence of regional power needs, but, instead, is significantly dominated by the limitations imposed by the rugged terrain and the physical characteristics of the resource area. Such comparison demonstrates the site-specific nature of geothermal development. (auth.). 8 figs.; 2 refs

  20. Optimization of injection scheduling in geothermal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovekin, J.

    1987-05-01

    This study discusses the application of algorithms developed in Operations Research to the optimization of brine reinjection in geothermal fields. The injection optimization problem is broken into two sub-problems: (1) choosing a configuration of injectors from an existing set of wells, and (2) allocating a total specified injection rate among chosen injectors. The allocation problem is solved first. The reservoir is idealized as a network of channels or arcs directly connecting each pair of wells in the field. Each arc in the network is considered to have some potential for thermal breakthrough. This potential is quantified by an arc-specific break-through index, b/sub ij/, based on user-specified parameters from tracer tests, field geometry, and operating considerations. The sum of b/sub ij/-values for all arcs is defined as the fieldwide breakthrough index, B. Injection is optimized by choosing injection wells and rates so as to minimize B subject to constraints on the number of injectors and the total amount of fluid to be produced and reinjected. The study presents four computer programs which employ linear or quadratic programming to solve the allocation problem. In addition, a program is presented which solves the injector configuration problem by a combination of enumeration and quadratic programming. The use of the various programs is demonstrated with reference both to hypothetical data and an actual data set from the Wairakei Geothermal Field in New Zealand.

  1. Crustal stress heterogeneity in the vicinity of a geothermal field: Coso Geothermal Field, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly

    Borehole induced structures seen in image logs from the Coso Geothermal Field, CA record variation in the azimuth of principal stress. Image logs of these structures from five boreholes were analyzed to quantify the stress heterogeneity for three geologically distinct locations: two boreholes within the Coso Geothermal Field (one in an actively produced volume), two on the margin of the Coso Geothermal Field and outside the production area, and a control borehole several tens of kilometers south of the Coso Geothermal Field. Average directions of Shmin and its standard deviation are similar along the eastern portion of the geothermal field at ˜107 +/- 28°; this is distinct from the western portion which has an azimuth of 081 +/- 18° and also distinct from outside the geothermal field where the average azimuth is 092 +/- 47°. These relationships suggest a correlation of stress orientation and heterogeneity with slip on the Coso Wash fault, suggesting that ˜20 years of production has not affected the Shmin.orientation. The slope of power spectrum quantifies the length-scale dependence of stress rotations for the volume of the brittle crust penetrated by each borehole. Spectral analysis was applied to the depth variation of stress direction and it demonstrates that: (1) the data set contains distinct wavelengths of stress rotation, (2) that the relative power of these wavelengths in the total scaling of stress directions demonstrates a fractal distribution and (3) in a manner consistent with earthquakes causing the stress rotations. While the vertically averaged Shmin orientation for the three eastern boreholes varied by as little as 1°, the spectral slopes varied by 0.4 log (deg2 *m)(m) from the inside to the margin unproduced areas of the Coso Geothermal Field. The two boreholes inside the field had spectral slopes within one standard deviation, even though Shmin orientations were not parallel. These results suggest that at the kilometer length scale, the

  2. Radiator Enhanced Geothermal System - A Revolutionary Method for Extracting Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, S.; Marsh, B. D.; Hilpert, M.

    2017-12-01

    A new method of extracting geothermal energy, the Radiator Enhanced Geothermal System (RAD-EGS) has been developed. RAD-EGS attempts to mimic natural hydrothermal systems by 1) generating a vertical vane of artificially produced high porosity/permeability material deep in a hot sedimentary aquifer, 2) injecting water at surface temperatures to the bottom of the vane, where the rock is the hottest, 3) extracting super-heated water at the top of the vane. The novel RAD-EGS differs greatly from the currently available Enhanced Geothermal Systems in vane orientation, determined in the governing local crustal stress field by Shmax and Sl (meaning it is vertical), and in the vane location in a hot sedimentary aquifer, which naturally increases the longevity of the system. In this study, we explore several parameters regimes affecting the water temperature in the extraction well, keeping in mind that the minimum temperature of the extracted water has to be 150 °C in order for a geothermal system to be commercially viable. We used the COMSOL finite element package to simulate coupled heat and fluid transfer within the RAD-EGS model. The following geologic layers from top to bottom are accounted for in the model: i) confining upper layer, ii) hot sedimentary aquifer, and iii) underlying basement rock. The vane is placed vertically within the sedimentary aquifer. An injection well and an extraction well are also included in the simulation. We tested the model for a wide range of various parameters including background heat flux, thickness of geologic layers, geometric properties of the vane, diameter and location of the wells, fluid flow within the wells, regional hydraulic gradient, and permeability and porosity of the layers. The results show that among the aforementioned parameters, background heat flux and the depth of vane emplacement are highly significant in determining the level of commercial viability of the geothermal system. These results indicate that for the

  3. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Geothermal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  4. Geothermal energy development - a boon to Philippine energy self-reliance efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, A.P.; Ogena, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The Philippine success story in geothermal energy development is the first of the nation's intensified search for locally available alternative energy sources to oil. Due to its favorable location in the Pacific belt of fire, together with the presence of the right geologic conditions for the formation of geothermal (earth heat) reservoirs, the country has been able to develop commercially six geothermal fields. These are the Makiling-Banahaw area, just south of Manila, Tiwi in Albay, Bacon-Manito in Sorsogon, Tongonan in Leyte, Palinpinon in Southern Negros, and the Mt. Apo region of Mindanao. Together these six geothermal fields have a combined installed generation capacity of 1,448 Mwe, which the Philippines second largest user geothermal energy in the world today. Since 1977 to mid-1997, a total of 88,475 gigawatt-hours have been generated equivalent to 152.54 million barrels of oil. Based on the average yearly price of oil for the period, this translates into a savings of $3,122 billion for the country that otherwise would have gone for oil importations. It is planned that by the year 2000, geothermal shall be accounting for 28.4% of the 42,000 gigawatt-hours of the energy needed for that year, coal-based plants will contribute 24.6% and hydropower 18.6%. This will reduce oil-based contribution to just 28.4%. Geothermal energy as an indigenous energy resource provides the country a sustainable option to other conventional energy sources such as coal, oil and even hydro. Technologies have long been developed to maintain the environmental quality of the geothermal site. It serves to minimize changes in the support systems found on the land, water and air environments. The country has hopped, skipped and jumped towards energy self-reliance anchored on development of its large geothermal resources. And as the Philippines pole-vaults into the 21st century, the nation can look forward to geothermal energy to remain as one of the pillars of its energy self

  5. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Projec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  6. Geothermal energy in Italy - its importance, potential and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, W.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the perspectives for the use of geothermal energy in Italy. Starting with an overview of the principles of the use of geothermal energy in general, the article goes on to review Italy's geothermal resources and their relevance to energy supply. Figures are given on the political situation in Italy concerning energy and the rapidly increasing demands made on electricity supply. Political support for renewable energy in Italy is looked at and models for financing projects are examined. Examples of geothermal energy projects are given and the perspectives for further developments in this industry are looked at

  7. Geothermal Energy in the Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    Mexico es The Mexicali-Imperial valley geothermal province extends into north- ern Mexico in the vicinity of Mexicali, and here, at Cerro Prieto , the...mega.,t.ý-, and it appears that 150 megawatts is nowhere near the capacity that could be supported by the Cerro Prieto field . Mexico has abundant...verted to electricity at the present time at eight sites, briefly descr: in the Pacific region: The Geysers, California; Cerro Prieto , Mexico

  8. Energy source completion for geothermal district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal district heating systems differs from the others mainly in the part of energy source completion and its connection to the heat distribution systems rather known problem. Even rather known problematic in the countries where geothermal energy is in wide application, new appearances of mistakes are always present due to the fact that necessary literature is difficult to be found. Essentials of the geothermal well completion and connection of geothermal source to the district heating distribution system are summarized in the paper and several examples of geothermal projects in flow are presented. (Author)

  9. Enthalpy restoration in geothermal energy processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1983-01-01

    A geothermal deep well energy extraction system is provided of the general type in which solute-bearing hot water is pumped to the earth's surface from a relatively low temperature geothermal source by transferring thermal energy from the hot water to a working fluid for driving a primary turbine-motor and a primary electrical generator at the earth's surface. The superheated expanded exhaust from the primary turbine motor is conducted to a bubble tank where it bubbles through a layer of sub-cooled working fluid that has been condensed. The superheat and latent heat from the expanded exhaust of the turbine transfers thermal energy to the sub-cooled condensate. The desuperheated exhaust is then conducted to the condenser where it is condensed and sub-cooled, whereupon it is conducted back to the bubble tank via a barometric storage tank. The novel condensing process of this invention makes it possible to exploit geothermal sources which might otherwise be non-exploitable.

  10. City of El Centro geothermal energy utility core field experiment. Final report, February 16, 1979-November 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Province, S.G.; Sherwood, P.B.

    1984-11-01

    The City of El Centro was awarded a contract in late 1978 to cost share the development of a low to moderate temperature geothermal resource in the City. The resource would be utilized to heat, cool and provide hot water to the nearby Community Center. In December 1981, Thermal 1 (injector) was drilled to 3970 feet. In January 1982, Thermal 2 (producer) was drilled to 8510 feet. Before testing began, fill migrated into both wells. Both wells were cleaned out. A pump was installed in the producer, but migration of fill again into the injector precluded injection of produced fluid. A short term production test was undertaken and results analyzed. Based upon the analysis, DOE decided that the well was not useful for commercial production due to a low flow rate, the potential problems of continued sanding and gasing, and the requirement to lower the pump setting depth and the associated costs of pumping. There was no commercial user found to take over the wells. Therefore, the wells were plugged and abandoned. The site was restored to its original condition.

  11. Innovative approach for risk assessment in green field geothermal project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batini, F.; Wees, J.-D. van

    2010-01-01

    At present, the worldwide geothermal energy production provides less than 1% of the world's energy needs but the geothermal resources confined in the first 6 km of the earth's crust are estimated to be in the fairly above 200 GW of which 50-80 GW are located in Europe. Exploring and developing at

  12. Pilot fruit drier for Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, J.W.

    1993-02-01

    Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has a Division in charge of the exploration of a geothermal reservoir located in Los Azufres, State of Michoacan. At present, CFE is only using the steam of the wells and rejecting the hot water that comes off associated with the steam. Based on a trip to the Los Azufres geothermal field in December of 1992, a design for a pilot geothermal fruit drier was undertaken for CFE. The details of the geothermal field and the local fruit production are detailed.

  13. Energy Exploitation of High-Temperature Geothermal Sources in Volcanic Areas—a Possible ORC Application in Phlegraean Fields (Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Algieri

    2018-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the energy performances of small-scale Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) for the exploitation of high temperature geothermal sources in volcanic areas. For this purpose, a thermodynamic model has been developed, and a parametric analysis has been performed that considers subcritical and transcritical configurations, and different organic fluids (isobutane, isopentane, and R245ca). The investigation illustrates the significant effect of the temperature at the entrance...

  14. Bulgarian geothermal energy resources - state and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramatikov, P.S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Dept. of Physical Engineering, South West Univ. `Neofit Rilsky`, Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria)

    1997-12-01

    As special attention is paid to geothermal energy because the geothermal sources are distributed all over the territory of Bulgaria. Governmental incentives for initiating national action programs for energy efficiency, new renewable sources and the environment as well as educational activities are particularly important. The energy sector, as any other sector of the national economy, is currently undergoing considerable changes on its way to market relations, primarily connected to determining the role of the state as well as the form of ownership. The state energy policy is based on a long - term energy strategy complying with the natural conditions of the country, the expected macro - economic development, the geopolitical situation and regional development of energy cooperation with neighboring and closely situated countries. Limited reserves of fossil fuels, increased local and global environmental risks and recent technological achievements have straightened the global importance of renewable sources of thermal and electric energy. This is even more relevant for Bulgaria with small fossil fuel reserves (lignite) to be nearly exhausted and the environment notably polluted. Concerning local renewable sources of thermal energy and electricity, it is necessary to re-estimate their strategic role, to complete the input data for the resources, also to establish national programs supported by research and educational activities and international cooperation. (orig./AKF)

  15. Synergy potential for oil and geothermal energy exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziabakhshganji, Z.; Maghami Nick, Hamidreza M.; Donselaar, Rick; Bruhn, D.F.

    2018-01-01

    A new solution for harvesting energy simultaneously from two different sources of energy by combining geothermal energy production and thermal enhanced heavy oil recovery is introduced. Numerical simulations are employed to evaluate the feasibility of generating energy from geothermal resources,

  16. Applications of stable isotopes and radioisotopes in the exploration and reservoir management of Philippine geothermal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, H.P.; Alvis-Isidro, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    The development of indigenous geothermal energy resources is currently one of the primary thrusts of the country's energy program. Presently, the Philippines has a total of geothermal generating capacity of about 1400 MWe. This comprises about 20% of the total energy mix and electricity requirements of the country. By 1998, an additional capacity of about 500 MWe will be commissioned, and the PHilippines would be generating 1900 MWe of electricity from geothermal energy resources. From 1990 to 1993, PNOC EDC (Philippine National Oil Company, Energy Development Corporation) has been granted a research contract by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Company has also been a recipient since 1991 of an IAEA Technical Assistance on the use of stable isotope techniques in geothermal hydrology. Stable isotopes, particularly 18 O and 2 H, in conjunction with other geochemical parameters and geological and geophysical data, have been used to: a) establish the local meteoric water line; b) determine the origin of geothermal fluids; c) delineate the elevation of recharge of geothermal and ground water systems; d) confirm pre-exploitation hydrochemical models; e) identify physical and chemical processes due to exploitation of the geothermal resource (i.e. reinjection fluid returns, incursion of cold meteoric water, boiling due to pressure drawdown and mixing with acidic steam condensates); and, f) estimate reservoir temperatures. Techniques using radioisotopes, such as 14 C, have also been used for the age-dating of charred wood samples collected from some of our geothermal exploration areas. The detection of 3 H has also been used as an indicator for the incursion of recent cold meteoric water into the geothermal system. Tracer studies using 131 I, have also been previously carried out, in coordination with the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, to determine local hydrology and flow paths of reinjected water in some of our geothermal fields

  17. Sustainability analysis of the Ahuachapan geothermal field: management and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterrosa, Manuel; Montalvo Lopez, Francisco E. [LaGeo S.A. de C.V., Reservoir Engineering, 15 Av. Sur, Colonia Utila, Santa Tecla, La Libertad (El Salvador)

    2010-12-15

    The Ahuachapan geothermal field (AGF) is located in north western El Salvador. To date, 53 wells (20 producers and 8 injectors) have been drilled in the Ahuachapan geothermal field and the adjacent Chipilapa area. Over the past 33 years, 550 Mtonnes have been extracted from the reservoir, and the reservoir pressure has declined by more than 15 bars. By 1985, the large pressure drawdown due to over-exploitation of the resource reduced the power generation capacity to only 45 MW{sub e}. Several activities were carried out in the period 1997-2005 as part of ''stabilization'' and ''optimization'' projects to increase the electric energy generation to 85 MW{sub e}, with a total mass extraction of 850 kg/s. LaGeo is assessing the sustainability of geothermal reservoir utilization. Preliminary results indicate the planned power production and mass extraction (95 MW, 900 kg/s) cannot be sustained for more than 50 years using current power plant technology. To sustain the exploitation for at least 100 years, the following changes should be implemented: (1) improve the gathering system using large-diameter steam pipelines, (2) expand the exploitation area to the southeast and southwest, and (3) reduce the inlet pressure of the turbines to less than 4 bars. (author)

  18. The Geysers Geothermal Field Update1990/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, P.; Lippmann, M.; Dobson, P.F.; Poux, B.

    2010-10-01

    view across all technical fields, as related to The Geysers steam-dominated geothermal system. The Geysers has seen many fundamental changes between 1990-2010 and yet the geothermal resource seems still to be robust to the extent that, long after its anticipated life span, we are seeing new geothermal projects being developed on the north and west peripheries of the field. It is hoped that this report provides a focused data source particularly for those just starting their geothermal careers, as well as those who have been involved in the interesting and challenging field of geothermal energy for many years. Despite many hurdles The Geysers has continued to generate electrical power for 50 years and its sustainability has exceeded many early researchers expectations. It also seems probable that, with the new projects described above, generation will continue for many years to come. The success of The Geysers is due to the technical skills and the financial acumen of many people, not only over the period covered by this report (1990-2010), but since the first kilowatt of power was generated in 1960. This Special Report celebrates those 50 years of geothermal development at The Geysers and attempts to document the activities that have brought success to the project so that a permanent record can be maintained. It is strongly hoped and believed that a publication similar to this one will be necessary in another 20 years to document further activities in the field.

  19. Structural investigations of Great Basin geothermal fields: Applications and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nicholas H. [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark F [Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Because fractures and faults are commonly the primary pathway for deeply circulating hydrothermal fluids, structural studies are critical to assessing geothermal systems and selecting drilling targets for geothermal wells. Important tools for structural analysis include detailed geologic mapping, kinematic analysis of faults, and estimations of stress orientations. Structural assessments are especially useful for evaluating geothermal fields in the Great Basin of the western USA, where regional extension and transtension combine with high heat flow to generate abundant geothermal activity in regions having little recent volcanic activity. The northwestern Great Basin is one of the most geothermally active areas in the USA. The prolific geothermal activity is probably due to enhanced dilation on N- to NNE-striking normal faults induced by a transfer of NW-directed dextral shear from the Walker Lane to NW-directed extension. Analysis of several geothermal fields suggests that most systems occupy discrete steps in normal fault zones or lie in belts of intersecting, overlapping, and/or terminating faults. Most fields are associated with steeply dipping faults and, in many cases, with Quaternary faults. The structural settings favoring geothermal activity are characterized by subvertical conduits of highly fractured rock along fault zones oriented approximately perpendicular to the WNW-trending least principal stress. Features indicative of these settings that may be helpful in guiding exploration for geothermal resources include major steps in normal faults, interbasinal highs, groups of relatively low discontinuous ridges, and lateral jogs or terminations of mountain ranges.

  20. Hydrogeology of the Owego-Apalachin Elementary School Geothermal Fields, Tioga County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John H.; Kappel, William M.

    2015-12-22

    The hydrogeology of the Owego-Apalachin Elementary School geothermal fields, which penetrate saline water and methane in fractured upper Devonian age bedrock in the Owego Creek valley, south-central New York, was characterized through the analysis of drilling and geophysical logs, water-level monitoring data, and specific-depth water samples. Hydrogeologic insights gained during the study proved beneficial for the design of the geothermal drilling program and protection of the overlying aquifer during construction, and may be useful for the development of future geothermal fields and other energy-related activities, such as drilling for oil and natural gas in similar fractured-bedrock settings.

  1. Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    EW-201135) Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage March 2017 This document has been cleared for...09/2011-03/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage 5a...v ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AGWT American Ground Water Trust AHU Air Handling Unit ATES Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage BTES Borehole

  2. Geothermal energy potential in the San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    The background of the area itself is investigated considering the geography, population, economy, attitudes of residents, and energy demands of the area. The requirements for geothermal energy development are considered, including socio-economic, institutional, and environmental conditions as well as some technical aspects. The current, proposed, and potential geothermal energy developments are described. The summary, conclusions, and methodology are included. (MHR)

  3. European resource assessment for geothermal energy and CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Neele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal Energy and CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) are both considered major contributors to the global energy transition. Their success critically depends on subsurface resource quality, which in turn depends on specific subsurface parameters. For CCS and Geothermal Energy these in some respect

  4. Geothermal energy in Alaska: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markle, D.

    1979-04-01

    The following are presented: the history of geothermal energy in Alaska; a history of Alaska land ownership; legal and institutional barriers; and economics. Development, the socio-economic and physical data concerning geothermal energy are documented by regions. The six regions presented are those of the present Alaska State Planning Activities and those of the Federal Land Use Commission. Site data summaries of the one hundred and four separate geothermal spring locations are presented by these regions. (MHR)

  5. Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, D.S. [SUNY, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The potential of geothermal energy for future electric power generation in New York State is evaluated using estimates of temperatures of geothermal reservoir rocks. Bottom hole temperatures from over 2000 oil and gas wells in the region were integrated into subsurface maps of the temperatures for specific geothermal reservoirs. The Theresa/Potsdam formation provides the best potential for extraction of high volumes of geothermal fluids. The evaluation of the Theresa/Potsdam geothermal reservoir in upstate New York suggests that an area 30 miles east of Elmira, New York has the highest temperatures in the reservoir rock. The Theresa/Potsdam reservoir rock should have temperatures about 136 {degrees}C and may have as much as 450 feet of porosity in excess of 8%. Estimates of the volumes of geothermal fluids that can be extracted are provided and environmental considerations for production from a geothermal well is discussed.

  6. Geothermal Program Review XII: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the President's Climate Change Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    Geothermal Program Review XII, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of US Department of Energy, was held April 25--28, 1994, in San Francisco, California. This annual conference is designed to promote effective technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal energy developers; suppliers of geothermal goods and services; representatives from federal, state, and local agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. In-depth reviews of the latest technological advancements and research results are presented during the conference with emphasis on those topics considered to have the greatest potential to impact the near-term commercial development of geothermal energy.

  7. Engineered Geothermal Systems Energy Return On Energy Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A J

    2012-12-10

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Too often comparisons of energy systems use efficiency when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. Embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished system. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy heat is not as valuable as electrical energy. The EROI of an EGS depends upon a number of factors that are currently unknown, for example what will be typical EGS well productivity, as well as, reservoir depth, temperature, and temperature decline rate. Thus the approach developed is to consider these factors as parameters determining EROI as a function of number of wells needed. Since the energy needed to construct a geothermal well is a function of depth, results are provided as a function of well depth. Parametric determination of EGS EROI is calculated using existing information on EGS and US Department of Energy (DOE) targets and is compared to the minimum EROI an energy production system should have to be an asset rather than a liability.

  8. Geothermal energy in France. Market study for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having recalled the French national objectives for 2020 related to the share of renewable energies in final energy consumption, and given a brief overview of geothermal production in Europe, this report proposes a rather detailed overview of the geothermal market and production in France: evolution of the geothermal production stock, assessment of tonnes equivalent of oil and CO 2 emissions, users, turnover, jobs. It addresses the three main geothermal sectors: high energy (boiling geothermal, the Soultz-sous-Forets power station), direct use of heat, and very low energy (heat demand in France, results and regional distribution, market structure, analysis of the price of an installation). The last part addresses the legal and financial framework: status of French law, quality issue, levers for development (purchase tariff, geologic risk, thermal regulation 2012, energy saving certificates, tax credits, and subsidies)

  9. Geothermal energy control system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1977-01-01

    A geothermal energy transfer and utilization system makes use of thermal energy stored in hot solute-bearing well water to generate super-heated steam from an injected flow of clean water; the super-heated steam is then used for operating a turbine-driven pump at the well bottom for pumping the hot solute-bearing water at high pressure and in liquid state to the earth's surface, where it is used by transfer of its heat to a closed-loop boiler-turbine-alternator combination for the generation of electrical or other power. Residual concentrated solute-bearing water is pumped back into the earth. The clean cooled water is regenerated at the surface-located system and is returned to the deep well pumping system also for lubrication of a novel bearing arrangement supporting the turbine-driven pump system. The bearing system employs liquid lubricated thrust and radial bearings with all bearing surfaces bathed in clean water serving as a lubricant and maintained under pressure to prevent entry into the bearings of contaminated geothermal fluid, an auxiliary thrust ball bearing arrangement comes into operation when starting or stopping the pumping system.

  10. Geothermal energy and its application opportunities in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrić Nenad M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is accumulated heat in the fluid and rock masses in the Earth 's crust. The natural decay of radioactive elements (uranium, thorium and potassium in rocks produces heat energy. The simplest use of geothermal energy for heating is by heat pump. Geothermal energy can be used for production of electricity. It uses hot water and steam from the earth to run the generator. Serbia has significant potential for geothermal energy. The total amount of accumulated heat in geothermal resources in a depth of 3 km is two times higher than the equivalent thermal energy that could be obtained by burning all types of coal from all their sites in Serbia! The total abundance of geothermal resources in Serbia is 4000 l/s. Abundance of wells in Vojvodina is 10-20 l/s, and the temperature is from 40 to 60°C. Exploitation of thermal waters in Mačva could cause heating of following cities: Bogatić, Šabac, Sremska Mitrovica and Loznica, with a total population of 150.000 people. The richest hydrogeothermal resources are in Mačva, Vranje and Jošanička Banja. Using heat pumps, geothermal water can be exploited on the entire territory of Serbia! Although large producer, Serbia is importing food, ie., fruits and vegetables. With the construction of greenhouses, which will be heated with geothermal energy, Serbia can become an exporting country.

  11. Development of an Enhanced Two-Phase Production System at the Geysers Geothermal Field; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Enedy

    2001-01-01

    A method was developed to enhance geothermal steam production from two-phase wells at THE Geysers Geothermal Field. The beneficial result was increased geothermal production that was easily and economically delivered to the power plant

  12. Geothermal energy in Montana: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    A short description of the state's geothermal characteristics, economy, and climate is presented. A listing of the majority of the known hot springs is included. A discussion of present and projected demand is included. The results of the site specific studies are addressed within the state energy picture. Possible uses and process requirements of geothermal resources are discussed. The factors which influence geothermal development were researched and presented according to relative importance. (MHR)

  13. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, M.V.; Lacy, S.B.; Lowe, G.D.; Nussbaum, A.M.; Walter, K.M.; Willens, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The engineering, economic, and environmental feasibility of the use of low and moderate temperature geothermal heat in the mining and processing of tungsten ore is explored. The following are covered: general engineering evaluation, design of a geothermal energy system, economics, the geothermal resource, the institutional barriers assessment, environmental factors, an alternate geothermal energy source, and alternates to geothermal development. (MHR)

  14. Deep Seawater Intrusion Enhanced by Geothermal Through Deep Faults in Xinzhou Geothermal Field in Guangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G.; Ou, H.; Hu, B. X.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates abnormal sea water intrusion from deep depth, riding an inland-ward deep groundwater flow, which is enhanced by deep faults and geothermal processes. The study site Xinzhou geothermal field is 20 km from the coast line. It is in southern China's Guangdong coast, a part of China's long coastal geothermal belt. The geothermal water is salty, having fueled an speculation that it was ancient sea water retained. However, the perpetual "pumping" of the self-flowing outflow of geothermal waters might alter the deep underground flow to favor large-scale or long distant sea water intrusion. We studied geochemical characteristics of the geothermal water and found it as a mixture of the sea water with rain water or pore water, with no indication of dilution involved. And we conducted numerical studies of the buoyancy-driven geothermal flow in the deep ground and find that deep down in thousand meters there is favorable hydraulic gradient favoring inland-ward groundwater flow, allowing seawater intrude inland for an unusually long tens of kilometers in a granitic groundwater flow system. This work formed the first in understanding geo-environment for deep ground water flow.

  15. GEOTHERMAL / SOLAR HYBRID DESIGNS: USE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FOR CSP FEEDWATER HEATING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Turchi; Guangdong Zhu; Michael Wagner; Tom Williams; Dan Wendt

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines a hybrid geothermal / solar thermal plant design that uses geothermal energy to provide feedwater heating in a conventional steam-Rankine power cycle deployed by a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. The geothermal energy represents slightly over 10% of the total thermal input to the hybrid plant. The geothermal energy allows power output from the hybrid plant to increase by about 8% relative to a stand-alone CSP plant with the same solar-thermal input. Geothermal energy is converted to electricity at an efficiency of 1.7 to 2.5 times greater than would occur in a stand-alone, binary-cycle geothermal plant using the same geothermal resource. While the design exhibits a clear advantage during hybrid plant operation, the annual advantage of the hybrid versus two stand-alone power plants depends on the total annual operating hours of the hybrid plant. The annual results in this draft paper are preliminary, and further results are expected prior to submission of a final paper.

  16. Reservoir engineering studies of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, K. P.; Lippmann, M. J.; Tsang, C. F.

    1982-09-01

    Reservoir engineering studies of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field began in 1978 under a five-year cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy and the Comision Federal de Electricidad de Mexico, with the ultimate objective of simulating the reservoir to forecast its production capacity, energy longevity, and recharge capability under various production and injection scenarios. During the fiscal year 1981, attempts were made to collect information on the evolution history of the field since exploitation began; the information is to be used later to validate the reservoir model. To this end, wellhead production data were analyzed for heat and mass flow and also for changes in reservoir pressures, temperatures, and saturations for the period from March 1973 to November 1980.

  17. The development of geothermal energy constraints and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronicki, L.Y.; Doron, B.

    1990-01-01

    No single resource can meet the world energy demand. What is under consideration is the possible contribution of geothermal energy in the future. According to World Energy Council (WEC) perspectives, by 2020 the new energy resources will contribute 170 to 365 MTOE, of which the share of hydropower will be very significant. This is a realistic view based on the actual state of the market. This paper reports on the competitive advantages and economics of geothermal energy development

  18. A snapshot of geothermal energy potential and utilization in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Turkey is one of the countries with significant potential in geothermal energy. It is estimated that if Turkey utilizes all of her geothermal potential, she can meet 14% of her total energy need (heat and electricity) from geothermal sources. Therefore, today geothermal energy is an attractive option in Turkey to replace fossil fuels. Besides, increase in negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries, including Turkey, to use renewable energy sources. Also, Turkey is an energy importing country; more than two-thirds of her energy requirement is supplied by imports. In this context, geothermal energy appears to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Since geothermal energy will be used more and more in the future, its current potential, usage, and assessment in Turkey is the focus of the present study. The paper not only presents a review of the potential and utilization of the geothermal energy in Turkey but also provides some guidelines for policy makers. (author)

  19. Geothermal energy in Croatia and the world until 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelic, K.; Kevric, I.; Cubric, S.

    1996-01-01

    The use of geothermal energy in watering place, heating, the production of electric power, and for other purposes is increasing throughout the world. Over the past ten years, besides traditional production from natural thermal wells, this energy has also been produced in Croatia from geothermal wells discovered as a results of deep exploration drilling for hydrocarbons. This paper analyses the current state of geothermal energy both in the world and in Croatia, and makes projections about its immediate future. Energy potential data on the croatian part of the Panonian basin are given along with perspective locations for producing this ecologically acceptable and partially reusable energy. (author)

  20. Geothermal energy - Overview of research in 2002; Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohran, H. L.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy reviews activities in the area of geothermal energy usage in Switzerland in 2002. Several main points of interest are discussed, including Deep Heat Mining, the thermal use of drainage water from alpine railway tunnels, the quality assurance aspects of geothermal installations and pilot and demonstration (P+D) activities designed to promote the use of geothermal energy. Also, the use of constructional elements such as energy piles and novel applications such as geothermally heated greenhouses and fish farms are discussed. Examples of various P+D projects that utilise bore-hole heat exchangers and piles are given. Also, examples of the thermal use of deep aquifers are quoted and projects involving the mapping of geothermal resources and the creation of quality labels are described. Prospects for future work are discussed. The report is rounded off with lists of research and development projects and P+D projects.

  1. Application of the geothermal energy in the industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovska-Vasilevska, Sanja

    2001-01-01

    In the worldwide practice, the geothermal energy application, as an alternative energy resource, can be of great importance. This is especially case in the countries where exceptional natural geothermal potential exists. Despite using geothermal energy for both greenhouses heating and balneology, the one can be successfully implemented in the heat requiring industrial processes. This kind of use always provides greater annual heat loading factor, since the industrial processes are not seasonal (or not the greater part of them). The quality of the geothermal resources that are available in Europe, dictates the use within the low-temperature range technological processes. However, these processes are significantly engaged in different groups of processing industries. But, beside this fact the industrial application of geothermal energy is at the beginning in the Europe. (Original)

  2. Status of geothermal energy amongst the world's energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    2003-01-01

    The world primary energy consumption is about 400 EJ/year, mostly provided by fossil fuels (80%), The renewables collectively provide 14% of the primary energy, in the form of traditional biomass (10%), large (>10 MW) hydropower stations (2%), and the ''new renewables''(2%). Nuclear energy provides 6%. The World Energy Council expects the world primary energy consumption to have grown by 50-275% in 2050, depending on different scenarios. The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the primary energy in 2050 and 30-80% in 2100. The technical potential of the renewables is estimated at 7600 EJ/year, and thus certainly sufficiently large to meet future world energy requirements. Of the total electricity production from renewables of 2826 TWh in 1998, 92% came from hydropower, 5.5% from biomass, 1.6% from geothermal and 0.6% from wind. Solar electricity contributed 0.05% and tidal 0.02%. The electricity cost is 2-10 UScents/kWh for geothermal and hydro, 5-13 UScents/kWh for wind, 5-15 UScents/kWh for biomass, 25-125 UScents/kWh for solar photovoltaic and 12-18 UScents/kWh for solar thermal electricity. Biomass constitutes 93% of the total direct heat production from renewables, geothermal 5%, and solar heating 2%. Heat production from renewables is commercially competitive with conventional energy sources. Direct heat from biomass costs 1-5 UScents/kWh, geothermal 0.5-5 UScents/kWh, and solar heating 3-20 UScents/kWh. (author)

  3. Geopressured-geothermal energy development: government incentives and institutional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, D.O.; Prestwood, D.C.L.; Roberts, K.; Vanston, J.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are included: a geothermal resource overview, the evolution of the current Texas geopressured-geothermal institutional structure, project evaluation with uncertainty and the structure of incentives, the natural gas industry, the electric utility industry, potential governmental participants in resource development, industrial users of thermal energy, current government incentives bearing on geopressured-geothermal development, six profiles for utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resources in the mid-term, and probable impacts of new government incentives on mid-term resource utilization profiles. (MHR)

  4. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  5. A guide to geothermal energy and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagel, Alyssa; Bates, Diana; Gawell, Karl

    2005-04-22

    Geothermal energy, defined as heat from the Earth, is a statute-recognized renewable resource. The first U.S. geothermal power plant, opened at The Geysers in California in 1960, continues to operate successfully. The United States, as the world's largest producer of geothermal electricity, generates an average of 15 billion kilowatt hours of power per year, comparable to burning close to 25 million barrels of oil or 6 million short tons of coal per year. Geothermal has a higher capacity factor (a measure of the amount of real time during which a facility is used) than many other power sources. Unlike wind and solar resources, which are more dependent upon weather fluctuations and climate changes, geothermal resources are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. While the carrier medium for geothermal electricity (water) must be properly managed, the source of geothermal energy, the Earth's heat, will be available indefinitely. A geothermal resource assessment shows that nine western states together have the potential to provide over 20 percent of national electricity needs. Although geothermal power plants, concentrated in the West, provide the third largest domestic source of renewable electricity after hydropower and biomass, they currently produce less than one percent of total U.S. electricity.

  6. Industrial application of geothermal energy in Southeast Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batdorf, J.A.; McClain, D.W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    Those phosphate related and food processing industries in Southeastern Idaho are identified which require large energy inputs and the potential for direct application of geothermal energy is assessed. The total energy demand is given along with that fractional demand that can be satisfied by a geothermal source of known temperature. The potential for geothermal resource development is analyzed by examining the location of known thermal springs and wells, the location of state and federal geothermal exploration leases, and the location of federal and state oil and gas leasing activity in Southeast Idaho. Information is also presented regarding the location of geothermal, oil, and gas exploration wells in Southeast Idaho. The location of state and federal phosphate mining leases is also presented. This information is presented in table and map formats to show the proximity of exploration and development activities to current food and phosphate processing facilities and phosphate mining activities. (MHR)

  7. Potential geothermal energy applications for Idaho Elks Rehabilitation Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    Several potential applications of geothermal energy for the Idaho Elks Rehabilitation Hospital are outlined. A brief background on the resource and distribution system, is provided; which hospital heating systems should be considered for potential geothermal retrofit is discussed; and technical and economic feasibility are addressed.

  8. DARPA Workshop on Geothermal Energy for Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    is administered by its Geothermal Program Office (GPO) at the Navy Air Weapons Station, China Lake, CA. GPO manages the Coso Geo- thermal Field at...China Lake and conducts geothermal exploration and develop- ment at other military facilities. Coso has an installed capacity of 270 MW and has

  9. Geothermal Program Review XIV: proceedings. Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XIV in Berkeley, April 8-10, 1996. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focused on ``Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets.`` This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Program Review XIV consisted of eight sessions chaired by industry representatives. Introductory and overview remarks were presented during every session followed by detailed reports on specific DOE-funded research projects. The progress of R&D projects over the past year and plans for future activities were discussed. The government-industry partnership continues to strengthen -- its success, achievements over the past twenty years, and its future direction were highlighted throughout the conference. The comments received from the conference evaluation forms are published in this year`s proceedings. Individual papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Industrial uses of geothermal energy: A framework for application in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, N.C.; Bernardo, R.O.; Cornelio, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a model of approach for agroindustrial development utilizing geothermal energy in an agriculturally based tropical developing country. Presented is the complexity of patterns in raw materials productivity, demand and the present problems of preserving their quality from biological deterioration thru drying. Utilization of a geothermal agroindustrial estate have to be carefully studied and programmed in reply to an almost constant heat demand profile consistent with seasonal available raw materials. This study uses the Tongonan Geothermal Field in Leyte Island as the model for presentation

  11. Environmental aspects of the geothermal energy utilisation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Drabik, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Geothermal energy is considered as a strategic and sustainable source of renewable energy that can be effectively managed in several economic sectors. In Poland, despite the abundant potential of such resources, its share in the energy mix of renewable energy sources remains insubstantial. The utilisation of geothermal resources in Poland is related to the hydrogeothermal resources, however, numerous researches related to petrogeothermal energy resources are being performed. The utilisation of each type of energy, including geothermal, has an impact on the natural environment. In case of the effective development of geothermal energy resources, many environmental benefits are pointed out. The primary one is the extraction of clean, green energy that is characterised by the zero-emission rate of pollutants into the atmosphere, what considering the current environmental pollution in many Polish cities remains the extremely important issue. On the other hand, the utilisation of geothermal energy might influence the natural environment negatively. Beginning from the phase of drilling, which strongly interferes with the local landscape or acoustic climate, to the stage of energy exploitation. It should be noted that the efficient and sustainable use of geothermal energy resources is closely linked with the current law regulations at national and European level.

  12. Synergy potential for oil and geothermal energy exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziabakhsh-Ganji, Zaman; Nick, Hamidreza M.; Donselaar, Marinus E.

    2018-01-01

    and feasibility analyses of the synergy potential of thermally-enhanced oil recovery and geothermal energy production are performed. A series of simulations are carried out to examine the effects of reservoir properties on energy consumption and oil recovery for different injection rates and injection temperature......A new solution for harvesting energy simultaneously from two different sources of energy by combining geothermal energy production and thermal enhanced heavy oil recovery is introduced. Numerical simulations are employed to evaluate the feasibility of generating energy from geothermal resources......, both for thermally enhanced oil recovery from a heavy oil reservoir and for direct heating purposes. A single phase non-isothermal fluid flow modeling for geothermal doublet system and a two-phase non-isothermal fluid flow modelling for water flooding in an oil reservoir are utilised. Sensitivity...

  13. Synergy potential for oil and geothermal energy exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziabakhsh-Ganji, Zaman; Nick, Hamidreza M.; Donselaar, Marinus E.

    2018-01-01

    A new solution for harvesting energy simultaneously from two different sources of energy by combining geothermal energy production and thermal enhanced heavy oil recovery is introduced. Numerical simulations are employed to evaluate the feasibility of generating energy from geothermal resources......, both for thermally enhanced oil recovery from a heavy oil reservoir and for direct heating purposes. A single phase non-isothermal fluid flow modeling for geothermal doublet system and a two-phase non-isothermal fluid flow modelling for water flooding in an oil reservoir are utilised. Sensitivity...... and feasibility analyses of the synergy potential of thermally-enhanced oil recovery and geothermal energy production are performed. A series of simulations are carried out to examine the effects of reservoir properties on energy consumption and oil recovery for different injection rates and injection temperature...

  14. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    Washington's geothermal potential is discussed. The following topics are covered: exploration, drilling, utilization, legal and institutional setting, and economic factors of direct use projects. (MHR)

  15. Shear velocity of the Rotokawa geothermal field using ambient noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civilini, F.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient noise correlation is an increasingly popular seismological technique that uses the ambient seismic noise recorded at two stations to construct an empirical Green's function. Applications of this technique include determining shear velocity structure and attenuation. An advantage of ambient noise is that it does not rely on external sources of seismic energy such as local or teleseismic earthquakes. This method has been used in the geothermal industry to determine the depths at which magmatic processes occur, to distinguish between production and non-production areas, and to observe seismic velocity perturbations associated with fluid extraction. We will present a velocity model for the Rotokawa geothermal field near Taupo, New Zealand, produced from ambient noise cross correlations. Production at Rotokawa is based on the "Rotokawa A" combined cycle power station established in 1997 and the "Nga Awa Purua" triple flash power plant established in 2010. Rotokawa Joint Venture, a partnership between Mighty River Power and Tauhara North No. 2 Trust currently operates 174 MW of generation at Rotokawa. An array of short period seismometers was installed in 2008 and occupies an area of roughly 5 square kilometers around the site. Although both cultural and natural noise sources are recorded at the stations, the instrument separation distance provides a unique challenge for analyzing cross correlations produced by both signal types. The inter-station spacing is on the order of a few kilometers, so waves from cultural sources generally are not coherent from one station to the other, while the wavelength produced by natural noise is greater than the station separation. Velocity models produced from these two source types will be compared to known geological models of the site. Depending on the amount of data needed to adequately construct cross-correlations, a time-dependent model of velocity will be established and compared with geothermal production processes.

  16. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  17. Impact of enhanced geothermal systems on US energy supply in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Jefferson W; Anderson, Brian J; Batchelor, Anthony S; Blackwell, David D; DiPippo, Ronald; Drake, Elisabeth M; Garnish, John; Livesay, Bill; Moore, Michal C; Nichols, Kenneth; Petty, Susan; Toksoz, M Nafi; Veatch, Ralph W; Baria, Roy; Augustine, Chad; Murphy, Enda; Negraru, Petru; Richards, Maria

    2007-04-15

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing US supplies of indigenous renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well distributed nationally. A panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of geothermal becoming a major supplier of primary energy for US base-load generation capacity by 2050. Primary energy produced from both conventional hydrothermal and enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGS) was considered on a national scale. This paper summarizes the work of the panel which appears in complete form in a 2006 MIT report, 'The future of geothermal energy' parts 1 and 2. In the analysis, a comprehensive national assessment of US geothermal resources, evaluation of drilling and reservoir technologies and economic modelling was carried out. The methodologies employed to estimate geologic heat flow for a range of geothermal resources were utilized to provide detailed quantitative projections of the EGS resource base for the USA. Thirty years of field testing worldwide was evaluated to identify the remaining technology needs with respect to drilling and completing wells, stimulating EGS reservoirs and converting geothermal heat to electricity in surface power and energy recovery systems. Economic modelling was used to develop long-term projections of EGS in the USA for supplying electricity and thermal energy. Sensitivities to capital costs for drilling, stimulation and power plant construction, and financial factors, learning curve estimates, and uncertainties and risks were considered.

  18. Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

    1999-09-23

    This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

  19. THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE OPTIMIZATION IN THE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Golub

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of geothermal energy production process means the minimization of all energy losses from the reservoir conditions to the user. As the available energy is being utilized mostly in the wellbore and in the surface equipment, process optimization requires scientific access including the extraction technology parameters.Specific energy on the geothermal wellhead is calculated for two possible cases. The first embraces only geothermal water production, while the other takes into account the saturated steam production as well. Each of these working conditions defines unambiguously designed pressure on the wellhead.The steam and water energy ratio, in function of predicted sink temperature for reinjection of geothermal water, points out the possibilities for commercialization of reservoir Velika Ciglena.

  20. Environment - Geothermal, the energy to wake up - Stimulation rather than fracturing - Iceland, the Texas of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandes, Camille; Moragues, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    A first article comments the current efforts for the development of geothermal in France after a period during which it has been given up. It evokes the project of a geothermal plant near Paris (to supply Arcueil and Gentilly with energy), the increasing number of projects in different countries. It outlines the French delay in this sector, and that geothermal energy is as difficult to find as oil. It evokes the new actors of the sector and outlines the fierce competition in front of Icelander, Italian, US and Japanese actors, and the opportunities for the French ones. A second article comments the use of the hydraulic stimulation in geothermal energy exploration rather than hydraulic fracturing as in shale gas exploration, and outlines that according to geothermal energy actors this technique avoids the risk of micro-earthquake. A last article describes the activity of the geothermal sector in Iceland: geothermal energy supplies two thirds of primary energy consumption in this country. It exploits the Icelander volcanism. This development has been particularly noticeable since 2000, but some questions are raised regarding the production potential

  1. Sources of subsidence at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Andrew J.; Evans, Eileen; Hickman, Stephen H.; Eneva, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    At the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) in Southern California, surface deformation associated with geologic processes including sediment compaction, tectonic strain, and fault slip may be augmented by energy production activities. Separating the relative contributions from natural and anthropogenic sources is especially important at the SSGF, which sits at the apex of a complex tectonic transition zone connecting the southern San Andreas Fault with the Imperial Fault; but this has been a challenging task so far. Here we analyze vertical surface velocities obtained from the persistent scatterer InSAR method and find that two of the largest subsidence anomalies can be represented by a set of volumetric strain nuclei at depths comparable to geothermal well completion zones. In contrast, the rates needed to achieve an adequate fit to the magnitudes of subsidence are almost an order of magnitude greater than rates reported for annual changes in aggregate net-production volume, suggesting that the physical mechanism responsible for subsidence at the SSGF is a complicated interplay between natural and anthropogenic sources.

  2. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of US organizations sponsored by the US Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: (1) surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; (2) the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; (3) geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and (4) reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  3. Numerical and experimental design of coaxial shallow geothermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Niranjan

    Geothermal Energy has emerged as one of the front runners in the energy race because of its performance efficiency, abundance and production competitiveness. Today, geothermal energy is used in many regions of the world as a sustainable solution for decreasing dependence on fossil fuels and reducing health hazards. However, projects related to geothermal energy have not received their deserved recognition due to lack of computational tools associated with them and economic misconceptions related to their installation and functioning. This research focuses on numerical and experimental system design analysis of vertical shallow geothermal energy systems. The driving force is the temperature difference between a finite depth beneath the earth and its surface stimulates continuous exchange of thermal energy from sub-surface to the surface (a geothermal gradient is set up). This heat gradient is captured by the circulating refrigerant and thus, tapping the geothermal energy from shallow depths. Traditionally, U-bend systems, which consist of two one-inch pipes with a U-bend connector at the bottom, have been widely used in geothermal applications. Alternative systems include coaxial pipes (pipe-in-pipe) that are the main focus of this research. It has been studied that coaxial pipes have significantly higher thermal performance characteristics than U-bend pipes, with comparative production and installation costs. This makes them a viable design upgrade to the traditional piping systems. Analytical and numerical heat transfer analysis of the coaxial system is carried out with the help of ABAQUS software. It is tested by varying independent parameters such as materials, soil conditions and effect of thermal contact conductance on heat transfer characteristics. With the above information, this research aims at formulating a preliminary theoretical design setup for an experimental study to quantify and compare the heat transfer characteristics of U-bend and coaxial

  4. Update of geothermal energy development in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutroupis, N.

    1992-01-01

    Following the completion of the Geothermal Reconnaissance Study in Greece and the successful drilling of seven deep geothermal wells in the Aegean islands of Milos and Nisyros, PPC started the first step towards geothermal development for electricity production as follows: A geothermal electric pilot plant of 2 MW e nominal capacity was installed on the Zephyria plain in Milos island (1985). During a nine month operation of the plant, problems connected with its long term operation were solved (hot reinjection of the high salinity brine, turbine washing etc). A feasibility study regarding exploitation of the Nisyros geothermal resources was completed and PPC connected Nisyros island electrically to Kos island via submarine cables. As consequence of the reaction against geothermal development by the people of Milos in early 1989, the power plant is still out of operation and the feasibility study planned for Milos has been postponed. For similar reasons the Nisyros drilling contract for five new geothermal deep wells has not come into force as yet. This paper summarizes the main PPC geothermal activities to date, the problems caused by the reactions of the Milos and Nisyros population and the relevant PPC countermeasures, as well as outlining the PPC development program for the near future

  5. Time lapse gravity monitoring at Coso geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Rachel Vest

    An extensive time lapse gravity data set was acquired over the Coso geothermal field near Ridgecrest, California starting in 1987, with the latest data set acquired in 2013. In this thesis I use these gravity data to obtain a better understanding of mass changes occurring within the geothermal field. Geothermal energy is produced by flashing naturally heated ground water into steam which is used to turn turbines. Brine and re-condensed steam are then re-injected into the reservoir. A percentage of the water removed from the system is lost to the process. The time lapse gravity method consists of gravity measurements taken at the same locations over time, capturing snap shots of the changing field. After careful processing, the final data are differenced to extract the change in gravity over time. This change in gravity can then be inverted to recover the change in density and therefore mass over time. The inversion process also produces information on the three dimensional locations of these mass changes. Thirty five gravity data sets were processed and a subsection were inverted with two different starting times, a sixteen point data set collected continuously between 1991 and 2005, and a thirty-eight point data set collected between 1996 and 2005. The maximum change in gravity in the 1991 data group was -350 microGal observed near station CSE2. For the 1996 data group the maximum gravity change observed over the nine year period was -248 microGal. The gravity data were then inverted using the surface inversion method. Three values of density contrast were used, -0.05 g/cm3, -0.10 g/cm3, and -0.20 g/cm3. The starting surface in 1991 was set to 2,500 ft above sea level. The changes in surfaces were then converted to mass changes. The largest total mass change recovered was -1.39x1011 kg. This mass value is of the same order of magnitude as published well production data for the field. Additionally, the gravity data produces a better understanding of the spatial

  6. Comprehensive Cross-Training among STEM Disciplines in Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, J. A.; Dutrow, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    One of the foremost areas of sustainability is society's need for energy. The US uses more energy per capita than any other country in the world with most of this energy coming from fossil fuels. With its link to climate change coupled with declining resources, renewable alternatives are being pursued. Given the high demand for energy, it is not a question of if these alternatives will be utilized but when and where. One of the "greenest" of the green technologies is geothermal energy. It is a renewable resource with a small environmental footprint. To educate advanced undergraduate and graduate students from across STEM disciplines in geothermal energy, a series of three distinct but linked and related courses are being developed and taught. Courses are focused on one of the STEM disciplines to provide students with essential discipline-specific knowledge and taught by different faculty members in the departments of geology, petroleum engineering and mathematics. These courses provide the foundation necessary for interdisciplinary research projects. The first course on Geologic Properties and Processes of Geothermal Energy was developed and taught in 2012. The class had an enrollment of 27 students including: 5 undergraduates and 4 graduate students in Geology, 12 undergraduates and two graduate students in Petroleum Engineering, and 4 non-matriculated undergraduate students. The course began with the essentials of heat and mass transfer, a common deficiency for all students, then progressed to the geologic materials of these systems: minerals, rocks and fluids. To provide students with first hand experience, two short research projects were embedded into the course. The first project involved analyses of cuttings from a well-studied geothermal system (Salton Sea, CA). Students were in teams consisting of both engineers and geologists. The first assignment was to identify minerals in the cuttings. They were then provided with XRD patterns for their cuttings to

  7. Rodigo Uno (Italy) geothermal thermal energy for crop drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchini, U.; Sordelli, C.; Magnoni, S.; Cantadori, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines the chief design and performance features of a forage drying installation which makes use of locally available geothermal energy. The heat exchange is accomplished through a water-air exchanger directly fed by 59 degrees C geothermal springs. Two 80,000 cubic meter/hour ventilators, making use of this energy (58 to 38 degrees C heat exchange), raise the drying air temperature by 16 degrees C, while providing an overall drying capacity of 43,200 kg/day. The balance of available 38 degrees C geothermal energy is being employed by a local aquaculture farm. The paper comments on the economic and environmental benefits being derived from this direct utilization of geothermal energy

  8. Utilization of geothermal energy for drying fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arason, S.; Arnason, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is about industrial uses of geothermal energy for drying of fish products. Drying is an ancient method for preservation of foods, the main purpose of which is to increase the preservation time. For drying, an external source of energy is needed to extract water. In this paper an emphasis is placed on drying fish and associated processes, and how geothermal energy can be used to substitute oil or electricity. The Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories have been experimenting with different methods of drying, and several drying stations have been designed for indoor drying of fish products. Today there are more than a dozen companies in this country which are drying fish indoors using for that purpose electricity and/or geothermal energy. Further possibilities are available when fish processing plants are located in geothermal areas

  9. Phase 1 report: investigation of geothermal energy information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-14

    A subject screening list was developed which would be used by acquisitions specialists as a guide to the orientation of pertinent literature. The subject screening list was derived primarily from the geothermal subset of the ERDA Energy Thesaurus and from the ERDA Energy Information Data Base Subject Categories (TID-4584). The subject screening list is included. Subsequent to preparation of the subject screening list, a core list of serial publications containing geothermal energy information was generated by SIS library scientists. This list was corelated with the ERDA-TIC serial publications list. Included in both lists is an estimate of the annual geothermal information yield of the serial sources. A listing of sources of geothermal energy information other than serial publications and the conclusions, including methods of acquisitioning to be utilized and the estimated annual volume of information from all sources are presented.

  10. Magnetotelluric-Geochemistry Investigations of Blawan Geothermal Field, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukir Maryanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated magnetotelluric (MT and geochemical study of the Blawan geothermal field has been performed. The character of the hot springs, the reservoir temperature, and geothermal reserve potential of Blawan geothermal field are assessed. MT measurements, with 250 m up to 1200 m spacings, were made at 19 sites, and 6 locations at the Blawan hot springs have been sampled for geochemical survey. The results of 2D modelling indicated that the geothermal system in the research area consisted of a cap rock zone (≤32 Ω•m, reservoir zone (>32 – ≤512 Ω•m, and heat source zone (>512 Ω•m, and also identified faults. The characteristics of the hot spring water were identified through analyzing the major and minor elements. A ternary diagram (Cl-SO4-HCO3 showed that the Blawan hot springs consist of bicarbonate water (at locations of AP-01, AP-02, AP-03 and chloride water (at locations of AP-04, AP-05, and AP-06, with a reservoir temperature of approximately 90 °C based on the Na–K–Ca geothermometer results. An estimate of the geothermal energy using the volumetric method, gave a total geothermal reserve potential of 1.823 MWe.

  11. France in the front line for geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Aude; Talpin, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    A set of articles illustrates that France is among the European leaders in heat networks fed by deep aquifers in sedimentary basins, and will soon possess new types of plants to valorise this hot water. A first article describes the operation principle and the distinction between the different geothermal energy levels (very low, low and medium, high). The still slow but actual development of geothermal energy is commented. It notably concerns local communities and industries, but not yet individuals. A brief focus is proposed on the case of the Aquitaine basin and of Bordeaux, and on the use of geothermal energy to cool the wine. The case of Ferney-Voltaire is then discussed: a whole district will be supplied with probe-based tempered water loops. The interest of the ADEME in geo-cooling is evoked. An article comments the development of a new model of deep geothermal energy developed by France and Germany: a dozen of plants are planned to be built by 2020, and the Ecogi plant in Rittershoffen is a showcase of a first application of fractured rock geothermal technology (the operation is described). A map indicates locations of geothermal search permits which have been awarded for 16 sites in France. An overview is given of various initiatives in Ile-de-France. The case of Geothermie Bouillante plant in Guadeloupe is evoked: it has been purchased by an American group and will multiply its electricity production by a factor 4 by 2025. The two last articles respectively address the need to boost the very low geothermal energy sector, and the use of geothermal energy in cities near Paris (Grigny and Viry-Chatillon) which aim at supplying energy at lower prices, and thus struggle against energy poverty

  12. Geothermal energy prospects for the next 50 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    Three facets of geothermal energy--resource base, electric power potential, and potential nonelectric uses--are considered, using information derived from three sources: (1) analytic computations based on gross geologic and geophysical features of the earth's crust, (2) the literature, and (3) a worldwide questionnaire. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: geothermal resources; electric energy conversion; nonelectric uses; recent international developments; environmental considerations, and bibliography. (JGB)

  13. Energy conversion processes for the use of geothermal heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minder, R. [Minder Energy Consulting, Oberlunkhofen (Switzerland); Koedel, J.; Schaedle, K.-H.; Ramsel, K. [Gruneko AG, Basel (Switzerland); Girardin, L.; Marechal, F. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratory for industrial energy systems (LENI), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on energy conversion processes that can be used when geothermal heat is to be used. The study deals with both theoretical and practical aspects of the conversion of geothermal heat to electricity. The report is divided into several parts and covers general study, practical experience, planning and operation of geothermal power plants as well as methodology for the optimal integration of energy conversion systems in geothermal power plants. In the first part, the specific properties and characteristics of geothermal resources are discussed. Also, a general survey of conversion processes is presented with special emphasis on thermo-electric conversion. The second part deals with practical aspects related to planning, construction and operation of geothermal power plant. Technical basics, such as relevant site-specific conditions, drilling techniques, thermal water or brine quality and materials requirements. Further, planning procedures are discussed. Also, operation and maintenance aspects are examined and some basic information on costs is presented. The third part of the report presents the methodology and results for the optimal valorisation of the thermodynamic potential of deep geothermal systems.

  14. Decree from July 25, 2015 related to general prescriptions applicable to geothermal activities of minor importance. Decree from July 25, 2015 related to the certification of drilling companies intervening in geothermal energy of minor importance. Decree from July 25, 2015 related to the zoning map in the field minor importance geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delduc, P.; Blanc, P.; Michel, L.

    2015-01-01

    These decrees concern various actors of the geothermal sector in the case of projects and works of minor importance. The first one defines general technical prescriptions applicable to a geothermal site of minor importance, the conditions related to the implantation of a geothermal installation of minor importance, measures to be implemented when performing geothermal works and when stopping its exploitation, control and maintenance modalities in order to prevent risks for the environment and to preserve water resource quality. The second decree defines measures to be implemented by drilling companies in the case of geothermal projects of minor importance. The third decree defines the map of geothermal areas of minor importance, specifies the map elaboration methodology and its reviewing modalities

  15. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Geothermal energy in Idaho: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.W.

    1979-07-01

    Detailed site specific data regarding the commercialization potential of the proven, potential, and inferred geothermal resource areas in Idaho are presented. To assess the potential for geothermal resource development in Idaho, several kinds of data were obtained. These include information regarding institutional procedures for geothermal development, logistical procedures for utilization, energy needs and forecasted demands, and resource data. Area reports, data sheets, and scenarios were prepared that described possible geothermal development at individual sites. In preparing development projections, the objective was to base them on actual market potential, forecasted growth, and known or inferred resource conditions. To the extent possible, power-on-line dates and energy utilization estimates are realistic projections of the first events. Commercialization projections were based on the assumption that an aggressive development program will prove sufficient known and inferred resources to accomplish the projected event. This report is an estimate of probable energy developable under an aggressive exploration program and is considered extremely conservative. (MHR)

  17. Determination of Ground Heat Exchangers Temperature Field in Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhurmilova, I.; Shtym, A.

    2017-11-01

    For the heating and cooling supply of buildings and constructions geothermal heat pumps using low-potential ground energy are applied by means of ground exchangers. The process of heat transfer in a system of ground exchangers is a phenomenon of complex heat transfer. The paper presents a mathematical modeling of heat exchange processes, the temperature fields are built which are necessary for the determination of the ground array that ensures an adequate supply of low potential energy excluding the freezing of soil around the pipes in the ground heat exchangers and guaranteeing a reliable operation of geothermal heat pumps.

  18. The possibilities of utilisation of heat from Tattapani Geothermal field, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarolkar, P.B. [Geological Survey of India, Hyderabad (India); Pitale, U.L. [Geological Survey of India, Nagpur (India)

    1996-12-31

    The Tattapani Geothermal field produces + 1800 1pm thermal water of 100{degrees}C from five production wells. The hot water production can sustain electricity production of 300 kWe by using a binary cycle power plant. The heat energy of effluent water from power plant can be utilized for direct heat utilization on horticulture, aquaculture, cold storage, silviculture etc; to augment the economics of the power plant be spot can be developed as a centre for tourist attraction by constructing botanical park, greenhouse, geyser show and crocodile farm. The direct heat utilization shemes can be planned in cascading order to achieve maximum utility of thermal water. Additional deep drilling is essential for optimum commercial utilization of the Geothermal energy. The direct heat utilisation shemes along with binary cycle power plant may help in development of the geothermal energy and boosting the economy of this region.

  19. Technology, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) is the technology pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy. The goal of the SET-Plan is to achieve EU worldwide leadership in the production of energy technological solutions capable of delivering EU 2020 and 2050 targets for a low carbon economy. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs and manages the SET-Plan Information System (SETIS) to support the SET-Plan. Under SETIS, the JRC publishes a number of regularly updated key references on the state of low carbon technology, research and innovation in Europe. Within the framework of the SET-Plan, the geothermal sector is placed into context with other power and heat generation technologies. The talk will give an introduction to some of JRC's geothermal research activities. Amongst others, the JRC Geothermal status report will be presented. This report aims to contribute to the general knowledge about the geothermal sector, its technology, economics and policies, with a focus on innovation, research, development and deployment activities as well as policy support schemes within the European Union. The speech will present the main findings of the report, providing an overview of the activities and progress made by the geothermal energy sector, the status of its sub-technologies and current developments. In addition, the speech will discuss the economic, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy for power production, direct use and ground source heat pumps in Europe and beyond.

  20. Geothermal energy in Yugoslavia, potentials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreli, F.; Paradjanin, Lj.; Stankovic, Srb.

    2002-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of Geothermal energy (GTE) in Serbia, and argues that while GTE is both a viable and environmentally friendly energy source, as demonstrated elsewhere in the world, there is also a multitude of opportunities in this region, and the local knowledge and capabilities required for implementing the GTE plants. First, a general introduction to GTE in is given. The basis of GTE is the thermal energy accumulated in fluids and rocks masses in the Earth's Crust. The main GTE advantage compared to the traditional energy sources like thermo-electric plants is the absence of environmental deterioration, however GTE also has advantages compared to other NARES, as the GT sources are permanently available and independent of weather conditions. Worldwide energy potential of GTE is huge, as the reduction of Earth Crust temperature for just 0.1 deg. C would give enough Energy to produce Electrical Energy, at the present dissipation level, for the next 15,000 years. An overview of the regions in Yugoslavia which have a high GTE potential is given. There are two distinct regions with higher GTE values in Serbia: the first is a part of the South Panonian basin including Vojvodina, with Macva and Yu-part along Danube and Morava rivers. This is a sedimental part of the Tercier's Panonic Sea 'Parathetis', with partial depression and Backa subsupression, and is well investigated due to oil and gas holeboring. The second region includes Central and Southern part of Serbia, south from the Panonia basin, with pretercier's and tercier's magmatic volcanic intrusions, which produce a very high and stable thermal flux. This Region is rich in GT-warm water springs with stable yields, and includes 217 locations with 970 natural springs with temperature above 20 deg. C. These compare very favorably with international locations where GTE is exploited. GTE can be used for Electric Energy production using corresponding heat pump systems, for house heating and warm water

  1. Swiss geothermal energy update 1985 - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Hauber, L.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, geothermal R and D has evolved steadily in Switzerland. REgional low-enthalphy exploration and resource assessment are largely complete; emphasis is now on drilling and development. Vertical earth-heat exchangers (small-scale, decentralized, heat pump-coupled heating facilities) increase rapidly in number; the governmental system of risk coverage for geothermal drilling, established in 1987, gives rise to several drilling projects. Of these, a single well and a doublet have been successfully completed so far. Numerical modeling of coupled thermohydraulic processes in fracture-dominate Hot Dry Rock systems including rock-mechanics aspects, is in progress. In this paper some further efforts such as contributions to general geothermics, exploration and resource assessment activities in Switzerland, and financing of geothermal development abroad by Swiss banks are described

  2. Geothermal Energy Research Development and Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Federal program's goal, strategy, plans, and achievements are summarized. In addition, geothermal development by state and local governments and, where available, by the private sector is described. (MHR)

  3. Institutional and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, O. R.

    1977-01-01

    Until recently, the majority of work in geothermal energy development has been devoted to technical considerations of resource identification and extraction technologies. The increasing interest in exploiting the variety of geothermal resources has prompted an examination of the institutional barriers to their introduction for commercial use. A significant effort was undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a part of a national study to identify existing constraints to geothermal development and possible remedial actions. These aspects included legislative and legal parameters plus environmental, social, and economic considerations.

  4. Geothermal energy utilisation in Slowakia and its future development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorová Marína

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Owing to favourable geological conditions Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The government of the state sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas, agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing and heating of houses. Effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and hot water supply from geothermal sources are supported. Recently company Slovgeoterm has initiated heating of greenhouses in Podhajska and heating of hospital and 1231 flats in town Galanta. Nowadays, research for the biggest geothermal project in the Middle Europe – construction in Košice basin has started.

  5. Geothermal energy, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    A survey is presented in order to determine the technology status, gaps, and needs for research and development programs in the environment and safety areas of this resource. The information gathered from a survey of geothermal energy development undertaken to provide background for an environment and safety overview program is summarized. A technology assessment for resource development is presented. The three specific environmental problems identified as most potentially limiting to geothermal development; hydrogen sulfide control, brine disposal, and subsidence, are discussed. Current laws, regulations, and standards applying to geothermal systems are summarized. The elements of the environment, health, and safety program considered to be intrinsically related to the development of geothermal energy systems are discussed. Interagency interfaces are touched on briefly. (MHR)

  6. Geothermal energy in Wyoming: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    An overview of geothermal energy and its current and potential uses in Wyoming is presented. Chapters on each region are concluded with a summary of thermal springs in the region. The uniqueness of Yellowstone is discussed from both an institutional point of view and a natural one. The institutional situation at the federal and state level is discussed as it applies to geothermal development in Wyoming. (MHR)

  7. Population analysis relative to geothermal energy development, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pick, J.B.; Jung, T.H.; Butler, E.

    1977-01-01

    The historical and current population characteristics of Imperial County, California, are examined. These include vital rates, urbanization, town sizes, labor force composition, income, utility usage, and ethnic composition. Inferences are drawn on some of the important social and economic processes. Multivariate statistical analysis is used to study present relationships between variables. Population projections for the County were performed under historical, standard, and geothermal projection assumptions. The transferability of methods and results to other geothermal regions anticipating energy development is shown. (MHR)

  8. Some comments on the La Primavera geothermal field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A, B.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1983-12-01

    The La Primavera geothermal field is located about 20 km west of the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, in the western part of the Mexican Neovolcanic Axis. Initial results of five deep exploration wells (down to 2000 m depth) were very promising; measured downhole temperatures exceed 300/sup 0/C. During production, however, downhole temperatures dropped, and the chemistry of the fluids changed. The analysis of geologic, mineralogic, geochemical, and well completion data indicate that colder fluids flow down the wellbore from shallower aquifers cooling the upper zones of the geothermal reservoir. This problem is attributed to inadequate well completions. Doubts have arisen about continuing the exploration of the field because of the somewhat disappointing drilling results. However, a more thorough analysis of all available data indicates that a good geothermal prospect might exist below 3000 m, and that it could be successfully developed with appropriately located and completed wells.

  9. Use of Geothermal Energy for Aquaculture Purposes - Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.C.; Smith, K.C.

    1981-09-01

    This project, financed by the Pacific Northwest Regional Commission (PNRC), was designed to provide information to evaluate the best methods to use for intensive aquaculture of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using geothermal energy. The freshwater prawn is a tropical organism and is native to southeast Asia. Earlier projects at Oregon Institute of Technology have shown the feasibility of culturing this aquatic animal in geothermal water. This phase of the project was designed to investigate intensive culture of this animal as well as the advantages of growing rainbow trout, ornamental tropical fin fish, and mosquito fish, Gambusia affnis, for vector control using geothermal energy. The research data collected on the prawns was obtained from the stocking and sampling of two 0.2- ha (half-acre) ponds constructed as a part of the project. The ponds are equipped with recording monitors for temperature and flow. The geothermal energy used is the geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology heating system. This water is of potable quality and ranges in temperature from 50 to 70oC. The geothermal water used in the ponds is controlled at 27oC, ± 2oC, by using thermostats and solenoid valves. A small building next to the ponds contains facilities for hatching larvae prawns and tanks for growing post-larvae prawns. The hatchery facility makes the project self-sustaining. The hatchery was obtained as part of an earlier PNRC project.

  10. 75 FR 33613 - Notice of the Carbon Sequestration-Geothermal Energy-Science Joint Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of the Carbon Sequestration--Geothermal Energy--Science Joint Workshop... Fossil Energy-Carbon Sequestration Program will be holding a joint workshop on Common Research Themes for...-- http://www.geothermal.energy.gov . DATES: The Carbon Sequestration--Geothermal Energy--Science Joint...

  11. Geothermal energy: opportunities for California commerce. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    California's geographic and end-use markets which could directly use low and moderate temperature geothermal resources are ranked and described, as well as those which have the highest potential for near-term commercial development of these resources. Building on previous market surveys, the assessment determined that out of 38 geothermal resource areas with characteristics for direct use development, five areas have no perceived impediments to near-term development: Susanville, Litchfield, Ontario Hot Springs, Lake Elsinore, and the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Twenty-nine applications were compared with previously selected criteria to determine their near-term potential for direct use of geothermal fluids. Seven categories were found to have the least impediments to development; agriculture and district heating applications are considered the highest. Ten-year projections were conducted for fossil fuel displacement from the higher rated applications. It is concluded that greenhouses have the greatest displacement of 18 x 10/sup 6/ therms per year.

  12. Atmospheric dispersion and noise propagation at Imperial Valley Geothermal Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.E.

    1976-04-15

    Quantitative estimations are made for the atmospheric dispersion of gases, heat, and noise due to geothermal energy sources in Southern California's Imperial Valley. In particular, gas concentration per unit source strength, change in mixing ratio, relative humidity, temperature, and the ratio of heat flux to solar constant are calculated. The possibility of atmospheric refraction of source noise is also considered.

  13. Innovations in the financing of geothermal energy for direct-use applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwass, P.

    1981-10-01

    The applications of direct use geothermal energy, its advantages, and its relative costs are examined. The following are discussed: capital needs for direct-use geothermal development, sources of geothermal financing, barriers to geothermal financing, and selected case studies of curent financing alternatives.

  14. DEVELOPING DIRECT USE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN ORADEA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASIU I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal energy demand for district heating in the city of Oradea is supplied at present, almost at whole, by the Cogeneration Thermal Power Plant, based on classical fuels, mainly consisting of low grade coal and natural gas, with a small contribution of the geothermal energy. Geothermal resource at low enthalpy, located within the city area of Oradea, available at an estimated level of 250 GWh/year, exploited at present by 12 production wells, can provide a share of 55 GWh/year for district heating, representing at present about 7 % from the overall thermal demand at the end users inlet. Geothermal energy is delivered by means of 3 main thermal stations, in order to prepare, especially household warm water, but sometimes also secondary agent for space heating, using additionally heat, based on natural gas. At present, in the city area of Oradea, more than 7,000 dwellings are supplied by geothermal stations with warm water and in addition for about 3,400 dwellings is assured simultaneously warm water and space heating. Even if the geothermal energy provides at present only a small part of the overall heating requirement at the city level, nevertheless by increased financial support, in the near future is expected its much more contribution, as an alternative to polluting energy of coal and natural gas.

  15. Direct application of geothermal energy in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin

    1995-01-01

    The use of geothermal energy for balneology purposes has a history of many centuries. There is also a more than 30 years tradition for heating greenhouses. So called energy crisis of 70-ties and 80-ties provoked geology investigations in order to find possible energy sources, and development of systems for application of low-temperature geothermal water. Tere are a list of projects with direct application of geothermal energy for heating greenhouses, drying agricultural products. heating of public buildings and industrial projects, swimming pools , sanitary warm water preparation, industrial uses, etc. The essential energetic characteristics of different projects are presented in the paper. For the main projects a technical description of characteristics of the heating systems is given, and good technical solutions are underlined. Also the mistakes presented in some projects are listed. (Original)

  16. Technically exploitable geothermal energy by using Borehole Heat Exchangers: A revisit of the Cologne case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haibing; Hein, Philipp; Bucher, Anke; Kolditz, Olaf

    2017-04-01

    In previous studies, the amount of shallow geothermal energy was estimated by assuming a uniform temperature drop of at least 2 °C in the aquifer. In this work, a more comprehensive numerical model has been employed to evaluate the technically exploitable geothermal energy by using Borehole Heat Exchanger coupled Ground Source Heat Pump systems. A case study on the city of Cologne was revisited, adopting the same hydrogeological conditions and simulating the long-term evolution of the subsurface temperature field subject to the operation of borehole heat exchangers. It is found that the cities' heating demand could potentially be fully covered by BHE-coupled GSHP systems. The resulting equivalent uniform temperature drop is then around 1.6 °C . It was also found that utilising geothermal energy will lead to at least 50% reduction of CO2 equivalent emission in comparison to conventional district heating, depending on the source of electricity used for heat pump operation.

  17. National Geothermal Data System: Interactive Assessment of Geothermal Energy Potential in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Lee [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Richard, Stephen [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Clark, Ryan; Patten, Kim; Love, Diane; Coleman, Celia; Chen, Genhan; Matti, Jordan; Pape, Estelle; Musil, Leah

    2012-01-30

    Geothermal-relevant geosciences data from all 50 states (www.stategeothermaldata.org), federal agencies, national labs, and academic centers are being digitized and linked in a distributed online network via the U.S. Department of Energy-funded National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) to foster geothermal energy exploration and development through use of interactive online ‘mashups,’data integration, and applications. Emphasis is first to make as much information as possible accessible online, with a long range goal to make data interoperable through standardized services and interchange formats. An initial set of thirty geoscience data content models is in use or under development to define a standardized interchange format: aqueous chemistry, borehole temperature data, direct use feature, drill stem test, earthquake hypocenter, fault feature, geologic contact feature, geologic unit feature, thermal/hot spring description, metadata, quaternary fault, volcanic vent description, well header feature, borehole lithology log, crustal stress, gravity, heat flow/temperature gradient, permeability, and feature descriptions data like developed geothermal systems, geologic unit geothermal properties, permeability, production data, rock alteration description, rock chemistry, and thermal conductivity. Map services are also being developed for isopach maps, aquifer temperature maps, and several states are working on geothermal resource overview maps. Content models are developed preferentially from existing community use in order to encourage widespread adoption and promulgate minimum metadata quality standards. Geoscience data and maps from other NGDS participating institutions, or “nodes” (USGS, Southern Methodist University, Boise State University Geothermal Data Coalition) are being supplemented with extensive land management and land use resources from the Western Regional Partnership (15 federal agencies and 5 Western states) to provide access to a comprehensive

  18. Identification of linear features at geothermal field based on Segment Tracing Algorithm (STA) of the ALOS PALSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeruddin; Saepuloh, A.; Heriawan, M. N.; Kubo, T.

    2016-09-01

    Indonesia has about 40% of geothermal energy resources in the world. An area with the potential geothermal energy in Indonesia is Wayang Windu located at West Java Province. The comprehensive understanding about the geothermal system in this area is indispensable for continuing the development. A geothermal system generally associated with joints or fractures and served as the paths for the geothermal fluid migrating to the surface. The fluid paths are identified by the existence of surface manifestations such as fumaroles, solfatara and the presence of alteration minerals. Therefore the analyses of the liner features to geological structures are crucial for identifying geothermal potential. Fractures or joints in the form of geological structures are associated with the linear features in the satellite images. The Segment Tracing Algorithm (STA) was used for the basis to determine the linear features. In this study, we used satellite images of ALOS PALSAR in Ascending and Descending orbit modes. The linear features obtained by satellite images could be validated by field observations. Based on the application of STA to the ALOS PALSAR data, the general direction of extracted linear features were detected in WNW-ESE, NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE. The directions are consistent with the general direction of faults system in the field. The linear features extracted from ALOS PALSAR data based on STA were very useful to identify the fractured zones at geothermal field.

  19. The Use of Geothermal Energy at Military Installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    Geothermal Province Source: Austin and Pringle , 1974 Salton Sea Cerro Prieto geothermal field geotherma l field I.I.D. No. 1a I.I.D. No. 2b M_ SC M_ 8C Sodium...1973 at 4.8 MWe . Otake. Japan 13 1 FS 200 ? 5 3000 7~ Growth: Operation began in 1967 at 12 MWe . 60 — expected by 1980 Cerro Prieto , Mexico 75 2...of power plant operati on is infl uenced by one or more of the chemical constituents. In the V Cerro Prieto and Wairakei fields the

  20. Oxygen isotope studies of the Salton Sea geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Interbedded shales and sandstones were drilled to a depth of 1588 metres in Sinclair Number Four Well, Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Bottom hole temperatures are approximately 290 0 C. The oxygen dels of hydrothermal and detrital calcite have a systematic relationship at any depth in the geothermal reservoir. Typical values are: vein calcite, +6 0 / 00 ; calcite in white sandstone, +10 0 / 00 ; calcite in dark gray shale, +11 0 / 00 ; calcite in light gray shale, +17 0 / 00 ; calcite in red-brown shale, +20 0 / 00 . This succession represents decreasing water-rock interaction that is also indicated by the clay mineralogy of the shales. Permeability has a marked effect on the equilibration of water and rocks at any given temperature. Original differences in permeability have resulted in partial preservation of original detrital sedimentary compositions. The fluids in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field are probabaly partially evaporated Colorado River water, and their oxygen del values vary as much as 4 0 / 00 throughout the field. Truesdell's (1974) data suggest that dissolved salts may make the water oxygen activity del as much as 6 0 / 00 greater than the concentration del in the geothermal reservoir. Such an uncertainty is a serious impediment to precise isotope geothermometry in this system.(auth.)

  1. Use of Geothermal Energy for Electric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashaw, John M.; Prichett, III, Wilson (eds.)

    1980-10-23

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association and its 1,000 member systems are involved in the research, development and utilization of many different types of supplemental and alternative energy resources. We share a strong commitment to the wise and efficient use of this country's energy resources as the ultimate answer to our national prosperity and economic growth. WRECA is indebted to the United States Department of Energy for funding the NRECA/DOE Geothermal Workshop which was held in San Diego, California in October, 1980. We would also like to express our gratitude to each of the workshop speakers who gave of their time, talent and experience so that rural electric systems in the Western U. S. might gain a clearer understanding of the geothermal potential in their individual service areas. The participants were also presented with practical, expert opinion regarding the financial and technical considerations of using geothermal energy for electric power production. The organizers of this conference and all of those involved in planning this forum are hopeful that it will serve as an impetus toward the full utilization of geothermal energy as an important ingredient in a more energy self-sufficient nation. The ultimate consumer of the rural electric system, the member-owner, expects the kind of leadership that solves the energy problems of tomorrow by fully utilizing the resources at our disposal today.

  2. Environmental impact directory system: preliminary implementation for geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, F.D.; Hall, R.T.; Fullenwider, E.D.

    1976-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Directory System (EIDS) was proposed as a method for a computerized search of the widely distributed data files and models pertaining to energy-related environmental effects. To define the scope and content of the system, an example was prepared for the case of geothermal energy. The resulting sub-directory is known as GEIDs (Geothermal Environmental Impact Directory System). In preparing or reviewing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the user may employ GEIDS as an extensive checklist to make sure he has taken into account all predictable impacts at any level of severity.

  3. Absence of remote earthquake triggering within the Coso and Salton Sea geothermal production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Lin, Guoqing; Zhan, Zhongwen; Chen, Xiaowei; Qin, Yan; Wdowinski, Shimon

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal areas are long recognized to be susceptible to remote earthquake triggering, probably due to the high seismicity rates and presence of geothermal fluids. However, anthropogenic injection and extraction activity may alter the stress state and fluid flow within the geothermal fields. Here we examine the remote triggering phenomena in the Coso geothermal field and its surrounding areas to assess possible anthropogenic effects. We find that triggered earthquakes are absent within the geothermal field but occur in the surrounding areas. Similar observation is also found in the Salton Sea geothermal field. We hypothesize that continuous geothermal operation has eliminated any significant differential pore pressure between fractures inside the geothermal field through flushing geothermal precipitations and sediments out of clogged fractures. To test this hypothesis, we analyze the pore-pressure-driven earthquake swarms, and they are found to occur outside or on the periphery of the geothermal production field. Therefore, our results suggest that the geothermal operation has changed the subsurface fracture network, and differential pore pressure is the primary controlling factor of remote triggering in geothermal fields.

  4. Magnetotelluric-Geochemistry Investigations of Blawan Geothermal Field, East Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sukir Maryanto; Cinantya N. Dewi; Vanisa Syahra; Arief Rachmansyah; James Foster; Ahmad Nadhir; Didik R. Santoso

    2017-01-01

    An integrated magnetotelluric (MT) and geochemical study of the Blawan geothermal field has been performed. The character of the hot springs, the reservoir temperature, and geothermal reserve potential of Blawan geothermal field are assessed. MT measurements, with 250 m up to 1200 m spacings, were made at 19 sites, and 6 locations at the Blawan hot springs have been sampled for geochemical survey. The results of 2D modelling indicated that the geothermal system in the research area consisted...

  5. Correlation between the seismic activities and geothermal energy in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janchevski, Jane

    1995-01-01

    The manifestation of of contemporary seismicity and geothermal energy is a consequence of the effect of the geo tectonic processes within the most recent, neotectonic stage of evolution. The terrains within Macedonia during the Neogene-Quatemary period were subjected to the effect of extensive regime of stresses causing gravity faulting with zonation of the territory into morpho-structures of uplifting and subsidence. The destructive neotectonic processes act, basically, diametrically within two units: Western-Macedonian region of Iongitudal, stretching direction structures and the region of Central and Eastern macedonia, where structures have transversal and diagonal stretching direction. Both the seismicity and the geothermal energy can be incorporated in the stated scheme, i.e. the longitudal and the transversal zones of seismicity and geothermal energy are defined, whereby the zones mostly follow the fault dislocations along the boundary lined of the neotectonic uplifting and sinking. The fault structures represent the prevailing factor since displacement of blocks and accumulation of seismic energy occur along them and at the same time the fault inter spaces serve as supply channels for circulation of thermal waters from the deeper parts towards the ground surface. In addition to the global correlation, there are specific relations in the effect of the former or the later phenomenon, i.e., the earthquake can cause modifications in the geothermal regime, and vice versa, the geothermal disturbances can serve a precursory of an earthquake. Apart from exerting seismic activity areas with distribution of dominant structure elements particularly fault structures may represent a favorable environment for discovering of profitable geothermal energy. (Original)

  6. Agribusiness geothermal energy utilization potential of Klamath and Western Snake River Basins, Oregon. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1978-03-01

    Resource assessment and methods of direct utilization for existing and prospective food processing plants have been determined in two geothermal resource areas in Oregon. Ore-Ida Foods, Inc. and Amalgamated Sugar Company in the Snake River Basin; Western Polymer Corporation (potato starch extraction) and three prospective industries--vegetable dehydration, alfalfa drying and greenhouses--in the Klamath Basin have been analyzed for direct utilization of geothermal fluids. Existing geologic knowledge has been integrated to indicate locations, depth, quality, and estimated productivity of the geothermal reservoirs. Energy-economic needs and balances, along with cost and energy savings associated with field development, delivery systems, in-plant applications and fluid disposal have been calculated for interested industrial representatives.

  7. Energy R and D. Geothermal energy and underground reservoirs; R et D energie. Geothermie et reservoirs souterrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Geothermal energy appears as a viable economic alternative among the different renewable energy sources. The French bureau of geological and mining researches (BRGM) is involved in several research and development programs in the domain of geothermal energy and underground reservoirs. This document presents the content of 5 programs: the deep hot dry rock system of Soultz-sous-Forets (construction and testing of the scientific pilot, modeling of the reservoir structure), the development of low and high enthalpy geothermal energy in the French West Indies, the comparison of the geothermal development success of Bouillante (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) with the check of the geothermal development of Nyssiros (Greece) and Pantelleria (Italy), the development of the high enthalpy geothermal potentialities of Reunion Island, and the underground storage of CO{sub 2} emissions in geologic formations (deep aquifers, geothermal reservoirs, abandoned mines or oil reservoirs). (J.S.)

  8. Neutron radigoraphy of fluid flow for geothermal energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD; Jacobson, David [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced geothermal systems seek to expand the potential for geothermal energy by engineering heat exchange systems within the earth. A neutron radiography imaging method has been developed for the study of fluid flow through rock under environmental conditions found in enhanced geothermal energy systems. For this method, a pressure vessel suitable for neutron radiography was designed and fabricated, modifications to imaging instrument setups were tested, multiple contrast agents were tested, and algorithms developed for tracking of flow. The method has shown success for tracking of single phase flow through a manufactured crack in a 3.81 cm (1.5 inch) diameter core within a pressure vessel capable of confinement up to 69 MPa (10,000 psi) using a particle tracking approach with bubbles of fluorocarbon-based fluid as the “particles” and imaging with 10 ms exposures.

  9. Geothermal energy systems plan for Boise City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This is a plan for development of a downtown Boise geothermal district space heating system incorporating legal, engineering, organizational, geological, and economic requirements. Topics covered include: resource characteristics, system design and feasibility, economic feasibility, legal overview, organizational alternatives, and conservation. Included in appendices are: property ownership patterns on the Boise Front, existing hot well data, legal briefs, environmental data, decision point communications, typical building heating system retrofit schematics, and background assumptions and data for cost summary. (MHR)

  10. Geothermal energy in Switzerland - outline lecture; Uebersichtsvortrag Geothermie Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, M. [Bundesamt fuer Energiewirtschaft, Bern (Switzerland); Gorhan, H.L. [Elektrowatt Engineering AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    CO{sub 2}- emission in Switzerland need to be reduced over the next 50 years. In 1990, a first step towards improvement was taken by the Swiss Feseral Office of Energy by establishing the ``Energy 2000`` action plan. Apart from practical recommendations for general energy saving measures, this programme provides also clear objectives in respect to increased and more effecient utilization of indigenious and renewable energy resources. Geothermal energy is one of these resources. In addition to the amount of geothermal heat delivered in 1990, it is planned to produce a further 170 GWh of geothermal energy by the year 2000. This correesponnds to about 6% of a total of 3000 GWh which, it is envisaged, will be produced by all alternative heat resources together by the year 2000. Today, most geothermal energy is provided by shallow borehole heat exchangers. However, intensive development of wide ranging and innovative geothermal techniques is taking place at present. These R and D activities, as well as projects at present being realised, receive significant support from the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den kommenden 50 Jahren soll und muss CO{sub 2}-Emission in der Sweiz betraechtlich reduziert werden. Einen ersten Schritt dazu bildet das. im Jahre 1990 vom bundesamtes fuer Energiewirtschaft erarbeitete, Programm ``Energie 2000``. Nebst konkreten Vorschlaegen zum allgemeinen Energiesparen wurden in diesem programm auch Zielsetzungen fuer eine vermehrte, innovative und efficiente Nutzung von einheimischen und erneuerbaren Energieressourcen formuliert. Dazu zaelt auch die Geometrie. Zusaetzlich zur bereits im Jahre 1990 produzierten Waerme soll die Geometrie im Jahr 2000 ca. 170 GWh an Waermeenergie lifern. Das entspricht ca.6% der fuer das Jahr 2000 geplanten Gesamtalternativ- Energieproduktion von 3000 GWh. Bei der geothermischen Energieproduktion satmmt bis heute der groesste Anteil von untiefen Erdwaermesonden. Die Anwendung neuer und

  11. Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP) With Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (USTES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    TECHNICAL GUIDANCE Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP) With Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (USTES) ESTCP Project EW-201135 MARCH...Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Geothermal Heat Pumps, thermal , energy storage Page Intentionally Left Blank i TECHNICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL

  12. Geothermal energy in the world and its use for heating and electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levterov, B.

    2000-01-01

    The use of the geothermal energy for energy production is reviewed for different countries. The basic schemes for a geothermal power plant are given. A system with combined cycle (ORMAT GCCU) is described. In Bulgaria, two sources of thermal waters are identified as suitable for geothermal energy production

  13. Development of technologies for utilizing geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    In verifying the effectiveness of the deep geothermal resource exploration technology, development is being carried out on a fracture-type reservoir exploration method. The seismic exploration method investigates detailed structures of underground fracture systems by using seismic waves generated on the ground surface. Verification experiments for fiscal 1994 were carried out by selecting the Kakkonda area in which small fracture networks form reservoir beds. Geothermal resources in deep sections (deeper than 2000 m with temperatures higher than 350{degree}C) are promising in terms of amount of the resources, but anticipated with difficulty in exploration and impediments in drilling. To avoid these risks, studies are being progressed on the availability of resources in deep sections, their utilization possibility, and technologies of effective exploration and drilling. This paper summarizes the results of deep resource investigations during fiscal 1994. It also describes such technological development as hot water utilizing power generation. Development is performed on a binary cycle power generation plant which pumps and utilizes hot water of 150 to 200{degree}C by using a downhole pump. The paper also reports development on element technologies for hot rock power generation systems. It also dwells on development of safe and effective drilling and production technologies for deep geothermal resources.

  14. Status of Environmental Controls for Geothermal Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, John F.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the initial findings and recommendations of the Environmental Controls Panel to the Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council (IGCC). The Panel has been charged to assess the adequacy of existing environmental controls for geothermal energy systems, to review ongoing programs to develop environmental controls, and to identify controls-related research areas where redirection of federal efforts are appropriate to assure the availability of controls on a timely basis. In its deliberations, the Panel placed greatest emphasis on the use of geothermal resources for electricity generation, the application of geothermal energy receiving greatest attention today. The Panel discussed major known environmental concerns and their potential impact on the commercialization of geothermal resources, control options, regulatory considerations, and ongoing and planned research programs. The environmental concerns reviewed in this report include: air emissions, liquid discharges, solid wastes, noise, subsidence, seismicity, and hydrological alterations. For each of these concerns a brief description of the concern, associated legislation and regulations, control approaches, federal funding trend, and the Panel's recommendations and priorities are presented. In short, the Panel recommends that controls-related research efforts be rebalanced and enhanced, with the greatest emphasis placed on controls for hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and non-H{sub 2}S gaseous emissions, injection monitoring methods, systems to treat and use nongeothermal waters for environmental control purposes, solid waste characterization and management methods evaluation, and subsidence controls.

  15. Geothermics - energy for the future. Proceedings; Geothermie - Energie der Zukunft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The proceedings volume of the 4th Geothermal Congress, held in Constance in 1996, comprises 74 papers on the following subjects: 1. Practical applications of hydrogeothermal resources; 2. Hot dry rock; 3. Geothermal heat pumps; 4; Economic aspects of geothermal energy. (AKF) [Deutsch] Der Tagungsband zur 4. Geothermischen Fachtagung 1996 in Konstanz enthaelt 74 Beitraege, die sich mit den folgenden Schwerpunkten befassen: 1. Praktische Anwendungen der Hydrogeothermie; 2. Hot-dry-rock; 3. Oberflaechennahe/untiefe Geothermie; 4. Geothermie und wirtschaftliche Fragen. (AKF)

  16. Geothermal energy - effective solutions for heating and cooling of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleska, Viktorija

    2014-01-01

    Energy and natural resources are essential prerequisites for the maintenance of the life and the development of human civilization. With the advancement of technology is more emphasis on energy efficiency and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Energy efficiency is using less power without reducing the quality of life. Almost half of the energy used is devoted to buildings, including heating and cooling. Buildings are a major source of CO 2 emissions in the atmosphere. Reducing the impact of buildings on the environment and the development of renewable energy, energy solutions are key factor in terms of sustainable development. Energy and geothermal pumps posts represent effective solutions for large facilities for heating and cooling. Geothermal energy piles represent a system of pipes that circulate thermal fluid and embedded in earth, thus extracting heat from the bearing to satisfy the needs for heating and cooling. Experience has shown that this type of energy piles can save up to two thirds of the cost of conventional heating, while geothermal pump has the ability to low temperature resources (such as groundwater and earth) to extract energy and raise the higher level needed for heating buildings. Their implementation is supported by an active group of researchers working with industry to demonstrate the benefits of dual benefit performance at the foundations. Initiative for renewable heat and potential for further adoption of solutions with these technologies is rapidly expanding. The use of this source of energy has great potential due to environmental, economic and social benefits. (author)

  17. Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Program, Erie County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiswanger, Robert C. [Daemen College, Amherst, NY (United States)

    2013-02-28

    The purpose of the Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Project is to demonstrate the use of geothermal technology as model for energy and environmental efficiency in heating and cooling older, highly inefficient buildings. The former Marian Library building at Daemen College is a 19,000 square foot building located in the center of campus. Through this project, the building was equipped with geothermal technology and results were disseminated. Gold LEED certification for the building was awarded. 1) How the research adds to the understanding of the area investigated. This project is primarily a demonstration project. Information about the installation is available to other companies, organizations, and higher education institutions that may be interested in using geothermal energy for heating and cooling older buildings. 2) The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated or demonstrated. According to the modeling and estimates through Stantec, the energy-efficiency cost savings is estimated at 20%, or $24,000 per year. Over 20 years this represents $480,000 in unrestricted revenue available for College operations. See attached technical assistance report. 3) How the project is otherwise of benefit to the public. The Daemen College Geothermal Technologies Ground Source Heat Pumps project sets a standard for retrofitting older, highly inefficient, energy wasting and environmentally irresponsible buildings that are quite typical of many of the buildings on the campuses of regional colleges and universities. As a model, the project serves as an energy-efficient system with significant environmental advantages. Information about the energy-efficiency measures is available to other colleges and universities, organizations and companies, students, and other interested parties. The installation and renovation provided employment for 120 individuals during the award period. Through the new Center

  18. Building a regulatory framework for geothermal energy development in the NWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holroyd, Peggy; Dagg, Jennifer [Pembina Institute (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    There is a high potential in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT) for using geothermal energy, the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth, and this could help the NWT meet their greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets. The Pembina Institute was engaged by the government of the NWT to perform a jurisdictional analysis of geothermal energy legislation and policy around the world; this report presents its findings. The jurisdictional review was carried out in 9 countries and interviews were conducted with various geothermal energy experts. Following this research, the Pembina Institute made recommendations to the NWT government on the development of a geothermal energy regulatory framework which would cover the need to define geothermal energy legislation and resource ownership as well as a plan and vision for geothermal energy use. This report highlighted that with an effective government policy in place, the use of geothermal energy in the NWT could provide the territories with a stable and secure energy supply.

  19. Geothermal energy planning and communication for native Americans. Final report. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, T.A.

    1982-03-30

    The purpose was to explore and develop geothermal energy resources on Indian lands. Activities included the following: (1) continued review of Indian communities and their potential for geothermal energy development; (2) introduced tribes to the availability of geothermal energy and removed the barriers to the implementation of this energy source; (3) provided information by telephone and by mailing packages of information; (4) published articles on geothermal energy development in the UIPA newsletter and supplied articles to other Indian publication; (5) conducted two seminars specific to geothermal energy development on Indian lands in western states; (6) carried out survey of Indian attitudes and opinions toward energy in general and geothermal energy in specific; (7) incorporated geothermal energy development information in Economic Development Administration sponsored tribal government management programs, and (8) developed draft written material addressing Indian planning problems and supporting their ability to affect a more productive working relationship with government agencies and reduced dependency.

  20. Some Comments on the La Primavera Geothermal Field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A., Bernardo Dominguez; Lippmann, Marcelo J.

    1983-12-15

    The La Primavera geothermal field is located about 20 km west of the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, in the western part of the Mexican Neovolcanic Axis. Initial results of five deep exploration wells (down to 2000 m depth) were very promising; measured downhole temperatures exceed 300{degrees}C. During production, however, downhole temperatures dropped, and the chemistry of the fluids changed. The analysis of geologic, mineralogic, geochemical, and well completion data indicate that colder fluids flow down the wellbore from shallower aqifers cooling the upper zones of the gothermal reservoir. This problem is attributed to inadequate well completions. Doubts have arisen about continuing the exploration of the field because of the somewhat disappointing drilling results. However, a more thorough analysis of all available data indicates that a good geothermal prospect might exist below 3000 m, and that it could be successfully developed with appropriately located and completed wells.

  1. Systems and methods for multi-fluid geothermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2017-09-19

    A method for extracting geothermal energy from a geothermal reservoir formation. A production well is used to extract brine from the reservoir formation. At least one of nitrogen (N.sub.2) and carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) may be used to form a supplemental working fluid which may be injected into a supplemental working fluid injection well. The supplemental working fluid may be used to augment a pressure of the reservoir formation, to thus drive a flow of the brine out from the reservoir formation.

  2. Balancing energy and the environment: the case of geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellickson, P.L.; Brewer, S.

    1978-06-01

    The results of part of a Rand study on the federal role in resolving environmental issues arising out of the implementation of energy projects are reported. The projects discussed are two geothermal programs in California: the steam resource development at The Geysers (Lake and Sonoma counties) in northern California, and the wet brine development in the Imperial Valley in southern California.

  3. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  4. Success in geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefansson, V.

    1992-01-01

    Success in geothermal development can be defined as the ability to produce geothermal energy at compatible energy prices to other energy sources. Drilling comprises usually the largest cost in geothermal development, and the results of drilling is largely influencing the final price of geothermal energy. For 20 geothermal fields with operating power plants, the ratio between installed capacity and the total number of well in the field is 1.9 MWe/well. The drilling history in 30 geothermal fields are analyzed by plotting the average cumulative well outputs as function of the number of wells drilled in the field. The range of the average well output is 1-10 MWe/well with the mean value 4.2 MWe/well for the 30 geothermal fields studied. A leaning curve is defined as the number of wells drilled in each field before the average output per well reaches a fairly constant value, which is characteristic for the geothermal reservoir. The range for this learning time is 4-36 wells and the average is 13 wells. In general, the average well output in a given field is fairly constant after some 10-20 wells has been drilled in the field. The asymptotic average well output is considered to be a reservoir parameter when it is normalized to the average drilling depth. In average, this reservoir parameter can be expressed as 3.3 MWe per drilled km for the 30 geothermal fields studied. The lifetime of the resource or the depletion time of the geothermal reservoir should also be considered as a parameter influencing the success of geothermal development. Stepwise development, where the reservoir response to the utilization for the first step is used to determine the timing of the installment of the next step, is considered to be an appropriate method to minimize the risk for over investment in a geothermal field

  5. Design and Implementation of Geothermal Energy Systems at West Chester University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuprak, Greg [West Chester Univ. of Pennsylvania, PA (United States)

    2016-11-02

    West Chester University has launched a comprehensive transformation of its campus heating and cooling systems from traditional fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) to geothermal. This change will significantly decrease the institution’s carbon footprint and serve as a national model for green campus efforts. The institution has designed a phased series of projects to build a district geo-exchange system with shared well fields, central pumping station and distribution piping to provide the geo-exchange water to campus buildings as their internal building HVAC systems is changed to be able to use the geo-exchange water. This project addresses the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) goal to invest in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy, protect the environment, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. In addition, this project advances EERE’s efforts to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the US energy supply.

  6. Design and Implementation of Geothermal Energy Systems at West Chester University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, James [West Chester Univ., West Chester (PA)

    2016-08-05

    West Chester University has launched a comprehensive transformation of its campus heating and cooling systems from traditional fossil fuels to geothermal. This change will significantly decrease the institution's carbon footprint and serve as a national model for green campus efforts. The institution has designed a phased series of projects to build a district geo-exchange system with shared well fields, central pumping station and distribution piping to provide the geo-exchange water to campus buildings as their internal building HVAC systems are changed to be able to use the geo-exchange water. This project addresses the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) goal to invest in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy, protect the environment, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. In addition, this project advances EERE's efforts to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the US energy supply.

  7. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Mike; Detwiler, Russell L; Lao, Kang; Serajian, Vahid; Elkhoury, Jean; Diessl, Julia; White, Nicky

    2012-09-30

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. Terralog USA, in collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), are currently investigating advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. This two-year research project, funded by the US Department of Energy, includes combined efforts for: 1) Resource characterization; 2) Small and large scale laboratory investigations; 3) Numerical simulation at both the laboratory and field scale; and 4) Engineering feasibility studies and economic evaluations. The research project is currently in its early stages. This paper summarizes our technical approach and preliminary findings related to potential resources, small-scale laboratory simulation, and supporting numerical simulation efforts.

  8. World geothermal congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povarov, O.A.; Tomarov, G.V.

    2001-01-01

    The World geothermal congress took place in the period from 28 May up to 10 June 2000 in Japan. About 2000 men from 43 countries, including specialists in the area of developing geothermal fields, creating and operating geothermal electrical and thermal plants and various systems for the earth heat application, participated in the work of the Congress. It was noted at the Congress, that development of the geothermal power engineering in the world is characterized by the large-scale application of geothermal resources for the electrical energy generation [ru

  9. Desalination of Impaired Water Using Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cath, Tzahi [Colorado School of Mines; Vanneste, Johan [Colorado School of Mines; Gustafson, Emily [Colorado School of Mines

    2017-10-04

    Membrane distillation (MD) and nanofiltration (NF) are explored as a means to provide high quality water for on-site use at the Tuscarora geothermal power plant in northern Nevada. The plant uses a wet cooling tower, but decreasing flow from the wells providing makeup water necessitates exploration for alternative water or alternative cooling sources. Scenarios are explored to extend cooling water by (1) extracting fresh water from the geothermal brine, (2) upgrading the makeup-water quality to allow for increased cycles of concentration in the cooling tower, or (3) recovering water from the cooling tower blowdown. The preliminary cost analysis indicates that applying NF to extract water from the injection brine is the most attractive option of the scenarios examined. This approach may be useful for other plants as well. The estimated cost for the NF treatment of the injection brine ranges from $0.63/m3 to $0.45/m3 and provides a reduction in the current makeup well flows of 35% to 71%. Savings from the reduction in makeup well pumping and chemical treatment do not fully offset the estimated cost of the proposed treatment systems; the site will have to weigh the cost of these water treatment options versus alternatives in light of the diminishing flows from the existing cooling-water wells. Testing is planned to quantify the performance of the proposed NF and MD technologies and help refine the estimated system costs.

  10. Interstratified Illite/Montmorillonite in Kamojang Geothermal Field, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Yudiantoro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i4.167Kamojang geothermal field located in West Java Province, falls under the Pangkalan Subregency, Bandung Regency. The researched area is a geothermal field located in the Quaternary volcanic caldera system of about 0.452 to 1.2 Ma. The volcanic activity generated hydrothermal fluids, interacting with rocks producing mineral alteration. The minerals formed in the areas of research are interstratified illite/montmorillonite (I/M. Analyses to identify interstratified I/M have been performed by X-ray diffraction using ethylene glycol, while the determination of the type and percentage of interstratified I/M was based on the calculation method of Watanabe. The methodology was applied on core and cutting samples from Wells KMJ-8, 9, 11, 13, 16, 23, 49, 51, and 54. The result of analysis of the samples shows that the type of clay is interstratified illite/montmorillonite and the minerals are formed at temperatures ranging from 180 to 220° C. The type of interstratified I/M in the studied area is S = 0 and S = 1. The percentage of illite type S = 0 is between 20 - 35% illite, whereas type S = 1 has about 45 - 72% illite. Along with the increasing depth, the percentage of illite is getting greater. This is consistent with the vertical distribution of temperature which increases according to the depth. This correlation results in an interpretation that the upflow zone of the geothermal reservoir is located in the centre of the Kamojang geothermal field.

  11. Developing advocacy for geothermal energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    There is little public advocacy for geothermal energy in the United States outside of the geothermal community itself. Yet, broad-based advocacy is needed to provide impetus for a nourishing economic, regulatory and R and D environment. If such an environment could be created, the prosperity of the geothermal industry would improve and positive environmental effects compared to most other energy sources would be realized. We need an organized sustained effort to provide information and education to all segments of our society, including market-makers and end users, administrators, legislators, regulators, educators, special-interest groups and the public. This effort could be provided by an organization of three main components, a network to gather and disseminate pertinent information on marketing, educational and lobbying opportunities to action committees, a repository of current information on geothermal energy, and action committees each responsible for certain parts of the total marketing, education and lobbying task. In this paper, the author suggests a mechanism for forming such an organization and making it work. The author proposes an informal organization staffed largely by volunteered labor in which no one person would have to devote more than a few percent of his or her work time

  12. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  13. Possibilities for electricity production from geothermal energy in Slovenia in the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Rajver

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to raise awareness of the public, with the aim that anyone can judge reality and accuracyof records that appear in the media on the exploitation of geothermal energy. It provides a comprehensive overviewof geothermal systems, potential of hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems, of mechanisms and characteristicsof middle and high enthalpy geothermal resources. It also deals with a mode of their conversion into electricity.Featured are the main factors affecting the decision on effectiveness of conversion of geothermal energy intoelectricity. Given are the review of the research necessary to establish the geothermal potential and assessment oftechnological and economic possibilities of installing geothermal power plants in Slovenia. The paper also describesthe state of knowledge of middle- and high temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia with initial conditions forconstructing geothermal power plants. In addition, we present theoretical calculations of the conversion efficiencyof geothermal energy into electricity with conventional turbines and present some problems for the exploitationof geothermal energy, which are associated with additional costs and further reduce the efficiency of investment.Described are the characteristics and performance of binary geothermal power plants and foreign experience inobtaining electricity from the EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System. We also address the overlapping of the oil andgas industry with the operation of the EGS and the possibility of exploiting oil and gas wells for producing thegeothermal electricity.

  14. Geothermal Potential Evaluation for Northern Chile and Suggestions for New Energy Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Procesi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chile is a country rich in natural resources, and it is the world’s largest producer and exporter of copper. Mining is the main industry and is an essential part of the Chilean economy, but the country has limited indigenous fossil fuels—over 90% of the country’s fossil fuels must be imported. The electricity market in Chile comprises two main independent systems: the Northern Interconnected Power Grid (SING and the Central Interconnected Power Grid (SIC. Currently, the primary Chilean energy source is imported fossil fuels, whereas hydropower represents the main indigenous source. Other renewables such as wind, solar, biomass and geothermics are as yet poorly developed. Specifically, geothermal energy has not been exploited in Chile, but among all renewables it has the greatest potential. The transition from thermal power plants to renewable energy power plants is an important target for the Chilean Government in order to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels. In this framework, the proposed study presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential for northern Chile in terms of power generation. The El Tatio, Surire, Puchuldiza, Orriputunco-Olca and Apacheta geothermal fields are considered for the analysis. The estimated electrical power is approximately 1300 MWe, and the energy supply is 10,200 GWh/year. This means that more than 30% of the SING energy could be provided from geothermal energy, reducing the dependence on imported fossil fuels, saving 8 Mton/year of CO2 and supplying the mining industry, which is Chile’s primary energy user.

  15. Deep Unconventional Geothermal Resources: a major opportunity to harness new sources of sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, G.O.; Albertsson, A.; Stefansson, B.; Gunnlaugsson, E.; Adalsteinsson, H.

    2007-07-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is a long-term program to improve the efficiency and economics of geothermal energy by harnessing Deep Unconventional Geothermal Resources (DUGR). Its aim is to produce electricity from natural supercritical hydrous fluids from drillable depths. Producing supercritical fluids will require drilling wells and sampling fluids and rocks to depths of 3.5 to 5 km, and at temperatures of 450-600{sup o}C. The long-term plan is to drill and test a series of such deep boreholes in Iceland at the Krafla, the Hengill, and the Reykjanes high temperature geothermal systems. Beneath these three developed drill fields temperatures should exceed 550-650{sup o}C, and the occurrence of frequent seismic activity below 5 km, indicates that the rocks are brittle and therefore likely to be permeable. Modeling indicates that if the wellhead enthalpy is to exceed that of conventionally produced geothermal steam, the reservoir temperature must be higher than 450{sup o}C. A deep well producing 0.67 m3/sec steam ({approx}2400 m3/h) from a reservoir with a temperature significantly above 450{sup o}C could yield enough high-enthalpy steam to generate 40-50 MW of electric power. This exceeds by an order of magnitude the power typically obtained from conventional geothermal wells. (auth)

  16. Strain rate orientations near the Coso Geothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasa, N. T.; Kaven, J. O.; Barbour, A. J.; von Huene, R.

    2016-12-01

    Many geothermal reservoirs derive their sustained capacity for heat exchange in large part due to continuous deformation of preexisting faults and fractures that permit permeability to be maintained. Similarly, enhanced geothermal systems rely on the creation of suitable permeability from fracture and faults networks to be viable. Stress measurements from boreholes or earthquake source mechanisms are commonly used to infer the tectonic conditions that drive deformation, but here we show that geodetic data can also be used. Specifically, we quantify variations in the horizontal strain rate tensor in the area surrounding the Coso Geothermal Field (CGF) by analyzing more than two decades of high accuracy differential GPS data from a network of 14 stations from the University of Nevada Reno Geodetic Laboratory. To handle offsets in the data, from equipment changes and coseismic deformation, we segment the data, perform a piecewise linear fit and take the average of each segment's strain rate to determine secular velocities at each station. With respect to North America, all stations tend to travel northwest at velocities ranging from 1 to 10 mm/yr. The nearest station to CGF shows anomalous motion compared to regional stations, which otherwise show a coherent increase in network velocity from the northeast to the southwest. We determine strain rates via linear approximation using GPS velocities in Cartesian reference frame due to the small area of our network. Principal strain rate components derived from this inversion show maximum extensional strain rates of 30 nanostrain/a occur at N87W with compressional strain rates of 37nanostrain/a at N3E. These results generally align with previous stress measurements from borehole breakouts, which indicate the least compressive horizontal principal stress is east-west oriented, and indicative of the basin and range tectonic setting. Our results suggest that the CGF represents an anomaly in the crustal deformation field, which

  17. Geothermal energy: clean power from the Earth's heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Sass, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Societies in the 21st century require enormous amounts of energy to drive the machines of commerce and to sustain the lifestyles that many people have come to expect. Today, most of this energy is derived from oil, natural gas, and coal, supplemented by nuclear power. Local exceptions exist, but oil is by far the most common source of energy worldwide. Oil resources, however, are nonrenewable and concentrated in only a few places around the globe, creating uncertainty in long-term supply for many nations. At the time of the Middle East oil embargo of the 1970s, about a third of the United States oil supply was imported, mostly from that region. An interruption in the flow of this import disrupted nearly every citizen’s daily life, as well as the Nation’s economy. In response, the Federal Government launched substantial programs to accelerate development of means to increasingly harness “alternative energies”—primarily biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind. The new emphasis on simultaneously pursuing development of several sources of energy recognized the timeless wisdom found in the proverb of “not putting all eggs in one basket.” This book helps explain the role that geothermal resources can play in helping promote such diversity and in satisfying our Nation’s vast energy needs as we enter a new millennium. For centuries, people have enjoyed the benefits of geothermal energy available at hot springs, but it is only through technological advances made during the 20th century that we can tap this energy source in the subsurface and use it in a variety of ways, including the generation of electricity. Geothermal resources are simply exploitable concentrations of the Earth’s natural heat (thermal energy). The Earth is a bountiful source of thermal energy, continuously producing heat at depth, primarily by the decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes—principally of uranium, thorium, and potassium—that occur in small amounts in all rocks

  18. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    This document represents the final report from the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of The Johns Hopkins University on its efforts on behalf of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Department of Energy (DOE). For the past four years, the Laboratory has been fostering development of geothermal energy in the Eastern United States. While the definition of ''Eastern'' has changed somewhat from time to time, basically it means the area of the continental United States east of the Rocky Mountains, plus Puerto Rico but excluding the geopressured regions of Texas and Louisiana. During these years, the Laboratory developed a background in geology, hydrology, and reservoir analysis to aid it in establishing the marketability of geothermal energy in the east. Contrary to the situation in the western states, the geothermal resource in the east was clearly understood to be inferior in accessible temperature. On the other hand, there were known to be copious quantities of water in various aquifers to carry the heat energy to the surface. More important still, the east possesses a relatively dense population and numerous commercial and industrial enterprises, so that thermal energy, almost wherever found, would have a market. Thus, very early on it was clear that the primary use for geothermal energy in the east would be for process heat and space conditioning--heating and cool electrical production was out of the question. The task then shifted to finding users colocated with resources. This task met with modest success on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A great deal of economic and demographic analysis pinpointed the prospective beneficiaries, and an intensive ''outreach'' campaign was mounted to persuade the potential users to invest in geothermal energy. The major handicaps were: (1) The lack of demonstrated hydrothermal resources with known temperatures and expected longevity; and (2) The lack of a &apos

  19. Deep Geothermal Energy for Lower Saxony (North Germany) - Combined Investigations of Geothermal Reservoir Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, Barbara; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, successful deep geothermal projects are mainly situated in Southern Germany in the Molassebecken, furthermore in the Upper Rhine Graben and, to a minor extend, in the North German Basin. Mostly they are hydrothermal projects with the aim of heat production. In a few cases, they are also constructed for the generation of electricity. In the North German Basin temperature gradients are moderate. Therefore, deep drilling of several thousand meters is necessary to reach temperatures high enough for electricity production. However, the porosity of the sedimentary rocks is not sufficient for hydrothermal projects, so that natural fracture zones have to be used or the rocks must be hydraulically stimulated. In order to make deep geothermal projects in Lower Saxony (Northern Germany) economically more attractive, the interdisciplinary research program "Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling" (gebo) was initiated in 2009. It comprises four focus areas: Geosystem, Drilling Technology, Materials and Technical System and aims at improving exploration of the geothermal reservoir, reducing costs of drilling and optimizing exploitation. Here we want to give an overview of results of the focus area "Geosystem" which investigates geological, geophysical, geochemical and modeling aspects of the geothermal reservoir. Geological and rock mechanical investigations in quarrys and core samples give a comprehensive overview on rock properties and fracture zone characteristics in sandstones and carbonates. We also show that it is possible to transfer results of rock property measurements from quarry samples to core samples or to in situ conditions by use of empirical relations. Geophysical prospecting methods were tested near the surface in a North German Graben system. We aim at transferring the results to the prospection of deep situated fracture zones. The comparison of P- and S-wave measurements shows that we can get hints on a possible fluid content of the

  20. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The village of Elim, Alaska is 96 miles west of Nome, on the Seward Peninsula. The Darby Mountains north of the village are rich with hydrothermal systems associated with the Darby granitic pluton(s). In addition to the hot springs that have been recorded and studied over the last 100 years, additional hot springs exist. They are known through a rich oral history of the region, though they are not labeled on geothermal maps. This research primarily focused on Kwiniuk Hot Springs, Clear Creek Hot Springs and Molly’s Hot Springs. The highest recorded surface temperatures of these resources exist at Clear Creek Hot Springs (67°C). Repeated water sampling of the resources shows that maximum temperatures at all of the systems are below boiling.

  1. Hydraulic model and steam flow numerical simulation of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico, pipeline network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Gutiérrez, A.; Hernández, A.F.; Martínez, J.I.; Ceceñas, M.; Ovando, R.; Canchola, I.

    2015-01-01

    The development of a hydraulic model and numerical simulation results of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CPGF) steam pipeline network are presented. Cerro Prieto is the largest water-dominant geothermal field in the world and its transportation network has 162 producing wells, connected through a network of pipelines that feeds 13 power-generating plants with an installed capacity of 720 MWe. The network is about 125 km long and has parallel high- and low-pressure networks. Prior to this study, it was suspected that steam flow stagnated or reversed from its planned direction in some segments of the network. Yet, the network complexity and extension complicated the analysis of steam transport for adequate delivery to the power plants. Thus, a hydraulic model of the steam transportation system was developed and implemented numerically using an existing simulator, which allowed the overall analysis of the network in order to quantify the pressure and energy losses as well as the steam flow direction in every part of the network. Numerical results of the high-pressure network were obtained which show that the mean relative differences between measured and simulated pressures and flowrates are less than 10%, which is considered satisfactory. Analysis of results led to the detection of areas of opportunity and to the recommendation of changes for improving steam transport. A main contribution of the present work is having simulated satisfactorily the longest (to our knowledge), and probably the most complex, steam pipeline network in the world. - Highlights: • Extensive literature review of flow models of geothermal steam gathering networks. • Hydraulic model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field steam network. • Selection and validation of the employed pressure-drop model. • Numerical flow simulation of the world's largest geothermal steam gathering network. • Detailed network pressure drop analysis and mapping of steam flow distribution

  2. Exploitation of geothermal energy as a priority of sustainable energetic development in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golusin, Mirjana; Bagaric, Ivan; Ivanovic, Olja Munitlak; Vranjes, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    The actual global economic crisis, including all other well-known problems of sustainable development, reflects the direction of development of all countries in the world. Serbia, as a European country in its early stage of development, is trying to synchronize its progress with experience of other countries from the field of sustainable development and in accordance with rules in the field of energetic and energetic efficiency, and, as well as to promote and develop the sector of use of renewable sources of energy. On the other hand, Serbia is a country which largely depends on import of all forms of energy, which to a great extent affects its economic stability. Therefore, in Serbia the strategy for development of energetic was imposed and it considers all the aspects of development of energetic until 2015 and it also defines the priorities which can be mostly seen in the choice of forms of alternative sources of energy. These sources, based on some criteria, can be considered the most convenient for a gradual substitution of energy which is gotten from the conventional sources. Taking into account strategically defined goals and domestic potentials which are at disposal, as well as economic parameters, an alternative source of energy of basic importance for the future exploitation on the territory of Serbia geothermal energy, was chosen. The research points to the fact that Serbia will be capable to respond adequately to Kyoto protocol demands and to the European rules regarding the substitution of a certain amounts of fossil fuels by the fuel origin from the raw biological materials. The research defines the existent and non-existent capacities and the assessment of positive effects of usage of geothermal energy. At the moment, 160 long holes are being exploited whose water temperature is around 60 C (140 F) and their heat power reach 160 MJ/s. It was stated that adequate exploitation of existing and new geothermal sources a yearly would save about 500,000 tons

  3. Hot dry rock geothermal energy: A renewable energy resource that is ready for development now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. W.; Potter, R. M.; Myers, C. W.

    Hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy, which utilizes the natural heat contained in the earth's crust, is a very large and well-distributed resource of nonpolluting, and essentially renewable, energy that is available globally. Its use could help mitigate climatic change and reduce acid rain, two of the major environmental consequences of our ever-increasing use of fossil fuels for heating and power generation. In addition, HDR, as a readily available source of indigenous energy, can reduce our nations's dependence on imported oil, enhancing national security and reducing our trade deficit. On a national scale we can begin to develop this new source, using it directly for power generation or for direct-heat applications, or indirectly in hybrid geothermal/fossil-fuel power plants. In the HDR concept, which has been demonstrated in the field in two different applications and flow-tested for periods up to one year, heat is recovered from the earth by pressurized water in a closed-loop circulation system. As a consequence, minimal effluents are released to the atmosphere, and no wastes are produced. This paper describes the nature of the HDR resource and the technology required to implement the heat-mining concept. An assessment of the requirements for establishing HDR feasibility is presented in the context of providing a commercially competitive energy source.

  4. Hydrothermal surface alteration in the Copahue Geothermal Field (Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, Graciela R.; Mas, Luis C.; Bengochea, Leandro

    1996-01-24

    In the area of the Copahue Geothermal Field, there are five active geothermal manifestations, which mainly consist of fumaroles, hot springs and mud pots. Four of these manifestations are located in Argentina: Las Máquinas, Termas de Copahue, Las Maquinitas and El Anfiteatro, and the fifth on the Chilean side: Chancho Co. All of them present a strong acid sulfate country rock alteration, characterized by the assemblage alunite + kaolinite + quartz + cristobalite + pyrite + sulfur + jarosite, as the result of the base leaching by fluids concentrated in H2SO4 by atmospheric oxidation at the water table in a steam heated environment of H2S released by deeper boiling fluids. Another alteration zone in this area, called COP-2, is a fossil geothermal manifestation which shows characteristics of neutral to alkaline alteration represented mainly by the siliceous sinter superimposed over the acid alteration. The mineralogy and zoning of these alteration zones, and their relation with the hidrothermal solutions and the major structures of the area are analized.

  5. Proceedings of the second NATO-CCMS information meeting on dry hot rock geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, J.J. (comp.)

    1977-11-01

    A summary is presented of the second and last NATO-CCMS (North Atlantic Treaty Organization--Committee on Challenges of Modern Society) Geothermal Pilot Study Information Meeting on Dry Hot Rock Geothermal Energy. Only summaries of the formal presentations are included. Overviews of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geothermal projects are included with emphasis on the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Project. Reports of developments in nine foreign countries and on geothermal projects in US universities are also presented.

  6. Seismicity and coupled deformation modeling at the Coso Geothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaven, J. O.; Hickman, S. H.; Davatzes, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    Micro-seismicity in geothermal reservoirs, in particular in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), is a beneficial byproduct of injection and production, as it can indicate the generation of high-permeability pathways on either pre-existing or newly generated faults and fractures. The hazard of inducing an earthquake large enough to be felt at the surface, however, is not easily avoided and has led to termination of some EGS projects. To explore the physical processes leading to permeability creation and maintenance in geothermal systems and the physics of induced earthquakes , we investigated the evolution of seismicity and the factors controlling the migration, moment release rate, and timing of seismicity in the Coso Geothermal Field (CGF). We report on seismicity in the CGF that has been relocated with high precision double-difference relocation techniques and simultaneous velocity inversions to understand hydrologic reservoir compartmentalization and the nature of subsurface boundaries to fluid flow. We find that two distinct compartments are present within the CGF, which are divided by an aseismic gap showing a relatively low Vp/Vs ratio, likely indicating lower temperatures or lower pore pressures within the gap than in the adjacent reservoir compartments. Well-located events with Mw> 3.5 tend to map onto reactivated fault structures that were revealed when imaged by the relocated micro-seismicity. We relate the temporal and spatial migration of moment release rate to the injection and production histories in the reservoir by employing a thermo-poro-elastic finite element model that takes into account the compartment boundaries defined by the seismicity. We find that pore pressure effects alone are not responsible for the migration of seismicity and that poro-elastic and thermo-elastic stress changes are needed in addition to fluid pressure effects to account for the observed moment release rates.

  7. Field testing advanced geothermal turbodrill (AGT). Phase 1 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, W.C.; Cohen, J.H.

    1999-06-01

    Maurer Engineering developed special high-temperature geothermal turbodrills for LANL in the 1970s to overcome motor temperature limitations. These turbodrills were used to drill the directional portions of LANL`s Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Wells at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The Hot Dry Rock concept is to drill parallel inclined wells (35-degree inclination), hydraulically fracture between these wells, and then circulate cold water down one well and through the fractures and produce hot water out of the second well. At the time LANL drilled the Fenton Hill wells, the LANL turbodrill was the only motor in the world that would drill at the high temperatures encountered in these wells. It was difficult to operate the turbodrills continuously at low speed due to the low torque output of the LANL turbodrills. The turbodrills would stall frequently and could only be restarted by lifting the bit off bottom. This allowed the bit to rotate at very high speeds, and as a result, there was excessive wear in the bearings and on the gauge of insert roller bits due to these high rotary speeds. In 1998, Maurer Engineering developed an Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) for the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technology (NADET) at MIT by adding a planetary speed reducer to the LANL turbodrill to increase its torque and reduce its rotary speed. Drilling tests were conducted with the AGT using 12 1/2-inch insert roller bits in Texas Pink Granite. The drilling tests were very successful, with the AGT drilling 94 ft/hr in Texas Pink Granite compared to 45 ft/hr with the LANL turbodrill and 42 ft/hr with a rotary drill. Field tests are currently being planned in Mexico and in geothermal wells in California to demonstrate the ability of the AGT to increase drilling rates and reduce drilling costs.

  8. The R and D program on geothermal energy of the commission of the European communities results and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louwrier, K.P.; Garnish, J.D.; Staroste, E.

    1992-01-01

    DGXII of the Commission of the European Communities has supported research and development in the field of the geothermal energy since 1975, and has just begun the fifth, and probably final, four year program. The first program concentrated on the data collection in order to establish the geothermal potential of the Community. This work resulted in the drafting and publication of two Atlases, one dealing with sub-surface temperatures and one with geothermal resources. Three multidisciplinary studies were undertaken on three known geothermal reservoirs with different characteristics, in order to test the validity of various exploration methods. A major element in recent years has been Hot Dry Rock studies, which have evolved during the course of the various program s from laboratory experiments and work in shallow holes towards a European test site where an international team of scientists coordinates research teams from different Member States. Basic scientific support to exploitation of geothermal energy has been given by geochemistry. The present R and D program centers on HDR research and abatement of corrosion and scaling in geothermal systems. Besides the geothermal work the program also supports studies in deep reservoir geology

  9. Strategies and Perceptions of Students' Field Note-Taking Skills: Insights from a Geothermal Field Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohaney, Jacqueline; Brogt, Erik; Kennedy, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Field note-taking skills are fundamental in the geosciences but are rarely explicitly taught. In a mixed-method study of an introductory geothermal field lesson, we characterize the content and perceptions of students' note-taking skills to derive the strategies that students use in the field. We collected several data sets: observations of the…

  10. Orthogonal Test Analysis on Conditions Affecting Electricity Generation Performance of an Enhanced Geothermal System at Yangbajing Geothermal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchao Zeng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main conditions affecting electricity generation performance of an enhanced geothermal system (EGS include reservoir porosity, reservoir permeability, rock heat conductivity, water production rate and injection temperature. Presently there is lack of systematic research the relative importance of the five aforementioned conditions. The orthogonal test method is a statistical approach to analyze multi-factor and multi-level influence on system performance. In this work, based on the geological data at Yangbajing geothermal field, we analyzed the five conditions affecting the electricity generation performance of EGS, and ranked the relative importance of the five factors. The results show that the order of the relative importance of the conditions on electric power is water production rate > injection temperature > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity > reservoir permeability; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on reservoir impedance is reservoir permeability > injection temperature > water production rate > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on pump power is water production rate > reservoir permeability > injection temperature > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity, and; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on energy efficiency is water production rate > reservoir permeability > reservoir porosity > injection temperature > rock heat conductivity. The construction of an EGS reservoir should be located at a formation with higher reservoir porosity or rock heat conductivity, while the determination of reservoir permeability, water production rate and injection temperature should be based on the comprehensive target.

  11. El Centro Geothermal Utility Core Field Experiment environmental-impact report and environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    The City of El Centro is proposing the development of a geothermal energy utility core field experiment to demonstrate the engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing moderate temperature geothermal heat, on a pilot scale, for space cooling, space heating, and domestic hot water. The proposed facility is located on part of a 2.48 acre (1 hectare) parcel owned in fee by the City in the southeastern sector of El Centro in Imperial County, California. Geothermal fluid at an anticipated temperature of about 250/sup 0/F (121/sup 0/C) will heat a secondary fluid (water) which will be utilized directly or processed through an absorption chiller, to provide space conditioning and water heating for the El Centro Community Center, a public recreational facility located approximately one-half mile north of the proposed well site. The geothermal production well will be drilled to 8500 feet (2590m) and an injection well to 4000 feet (1220m) at the industrially designated City property. Once all relevant permits are obtained it is estimated that site preparation, facility construction, the completion and testing of both wells would be finished in approximately 26 weeks. The environmental impacts are described.

  12. Geothermal energy: opportunities for California commerce. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B. (ed.)

    1981-12-01

    The potential geothermal direct-use energy market and its application to projects in California are assessed. Project identification effort is to be focused on those that have the highest probability for near-term successful commercial operations. Near-term herein means 2 to 5 years for project implementation. Phase I has been focused on defining and assessing: (1) the geothermal direct-use resources that are suitable for near-term utilization; and (2) the generic applications (municipal heating districts, horticultural greenhouse firms, laundries, etc.) that are suitable for near-term projects. Five economic development regions in the state, containing recognized geothermal direct-use resources, have been defined. Thirty-eight direct use resources have been evaluated in these regions. After assessment against pre-selected criteria, twenty-seven have been rated with a priority of I, II or III, thereby qualifying them for further marketing effort. The five areas with a priority of I are summarized. These areas have no perceived impediments to near-term development. Twenty-nine generic categories of applications were assessed against previously selected criteria to determine their near term potential for direct use of geothermal fluids. Some twenty industry, commercial and institutional application categories were rated with a priority of I, II or III and warrant further marketing efforts. The seven categories with a priority of I are listed. These categories were found to have the least impediments to near-term application projects.

  13. Geothermal energy statistics 2002-2003 for Switzerland; Projekt 'Statistik Geothermische Nutzung der Schweiz fuer die Jahre 2002 und 2003'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signorelli, S.; Andenmatten Bertoud, N.; Kohl, T.; Rybach, L.

    2004-07-01

    Herein, the Swiss geothermal energy production of the years 2002 and 2003 is statistically compiled. Again, an increase of the total geothermal-driven energy can be noted, reaching more than 1.1 TWh, with a geothermal energy share greater than 860 GWh. (The difference is the non-geothermal energy needed by the heat pump systems involved.) Since 2000 the installed capacity could be increased by 20%, i.e. 40 MW per year. Geothermal energy is mainly used in combination with heat pump- (HP-) systems for heating purposes (>700 GWh), of which >80% are produced by borehole heat exchanger (BHE) systems. The remaining HP-utilization splits up into ground water utilization (about 15%), deep BHE, foundation pile systems and tunnel water. Non HP-dependent geothermal utilizations are mainly thermal-springs applications for balneological use. Their contribution is nearly constant over the year. Together with the HP sales figures, the BHE drilling meters are now included in the present statistics. Since 2003, the compilation of the drilled lengths also includes the specifications of BHE fields with more than 10 BHE each. Such BHE fields make up >10% of the total drilled length. More and more frequently, such fields are used for the cooling of buildings as well. In order to clearly display these geothermal applications in the future, such BHE fields should be systematically registered, as it is now done for foundation pile systems and BHE systems. Of great importance for the promotion of geothermal energy are the activities of the Center of Competence 'Geothermal energy' and its regional information centers. The currently available funding allows the financing of information and know-how dissemination as well as education. All of these activities are essential for a further increase in geothermal energy production. (author)

  14. Probabilistic approach of resource assessment in Kerinci geothermal field using numerical simulation coupling with monte carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Iki; Sutopo; Pratama, Heru Berian

    2017-12-01

    The Kerinci geothermal field is one phase liquid reservoir system in the Kerinci District, western part of Jambi Province. In this field, there are geothermal prospects that identified by the heat source up flow inside a National Park area. Kerinci field was planned to develop 1×55 MWe by Pertamina Geothermal Energy. To define reservoir characterization, the numerical simulation of Kerinci field is developed by using TOUGH2 software with information from conceptual model. The pressure and temperature profile well data of KRC-B1 are validated with simulation data to reach natural state condition. The result of the validation is suitable matching. Based on natural state simulation, the resource assessment of Kerinci geothermal field is estimated by using Monte Carlo simulation with the result P10-P50-P90 are 49.4 MW, 64.3 MW and 82.4 MW respectively. This paper is the first study of resource assessment that has been estimated successfully in Kerinci Geothermal Field using numerical simulation coupling with Monte carlo simulation.

  15. Geothermal energy and the law. I. The Federal Lands Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C.D.; McNamara, J.

    1975-09-30

    A broad range of problems in the legal and institutional environment which hampers the development of the geothermal industry is discussed. The topics include: the development of geothermal energy; pre-leasing procedures--public vs. private assessment; exploratory permits and related strategies; the rate of geothermal leasing-past and future; compensation strategies; lessee qualifications; lands available for leasing; noncompensatory lease terms; ongoing leasehold and production requirements; problems of ''secondary'' geothermal uses; and water law conflicts. (LBS)

  16. The total flow concept for geothermal energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    A geothermal development project has been initiated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to emphasize development of methods for recovery and conversion of the energy in geothermal deposits of hot brines. Temperatures of these waters vary from 150 C to more than 300 C with dissolved solids content ranging from less than 0.1% to over 25% by weight. Of particular interest are the deposits of high-temperature/high-salinity brines, as well as less saline brines, known to occur in the Salton Trough of California. Development of this resource will depend on resolution of the technical problems of brine handling, scale and precipitation control, and corrosion/erosion resistant systems for efficient conversion of thermal to electrical energy. Research experience to date has shown these problems to be severe. Hence, the LLL program emphasizes development of an entirely different approach called the Total Flow concept.

  17. Geothermal energy: an important but disregarded form of renewable energy; geological situation, projects and economy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker-Hertkorn, S.

    2000-05-01

    This study deals with the topic geothermal energy. Although geothermal energy is an important energy sector within the area of the renewable energies, the European policy downgraded this important, promising energy sector in 1999. Normally, geothermal energy cannot be regarded as a renewable energy source because the heat content of the Earth, the gravitational heat, the source heat, frictional heat and the decay of radioactive isotopes in the further process of geologic history will eventually be exhausted. However, we are referring here to many millions of years. At the present time, geothermal energy can thus be regarded as an inexhaustible renewable energy source. This work is focused on the geothermal situation in Austria. For many people, the term 'geothermal energy' is associated with countries such as Iceland, Italy (Larderello) and New Zealand. However, in Austria there are also innovative projects in the geothermal energy sector that only very few people know about. Some of these trend-setting projects are presented here. Regarding the total situation in Austria, the geothermal potential is described specifically for the Calcareous Alpine nappe and the Vienna Basin. Furthermore, the first results concerning successful injection in Upper Austria and up to now unconsidered locations for geothermal energy plants are presented. This work attempts to present the attractiveness of geothermal energy projects to the public, thus emphasizing the importance of discussing it again on the political level. (author)

  18. Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Hawthorne, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-04

    Site characteristics pertinent to the geothermal development are described, including: physiography, demography, economy, and goals and objectives of the citizens as they relate to geothermal development. The geothermal reservoir is characterized on the basis of available information. The probable drilling depth to the reservoir, anticipated water production rates, water quality, and resource temperature are indicated. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the near future at Hawthorne are described. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development are discussed, including the financial, environmental, and legal and regulatory aspects. The various steps that are necessary to accomplish the construction of the geothermal district heating system are described.

  19. Geothermal energy sources and possibilities of their exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Rybár

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The geothermal energy is everywhere beneath the surface of the earth. The earth’s interior is enormous thermal reservoir of energy, which can be utilized if favorable geological conditions exist.The electricity generation in 1942 at Larderello was a commercial success. The installed geothermoelectric capacity had reached 127 650 kWe. Several countries were soon to follow the example set by Italy. In 1919, first geothermal wells were drilled at Beppu in Japan, followed in 1921 by wells drilled at The Geysers, California, USA. In 1958 a small geothermal power plant began operating in New Zealand; in 1959 another one in Mexico, in 1960 in the USA, followed by many other countries in the years to come.The heat source can be either a very high temperature (> 600 °C magmatic intrusion reaching relatively shallow depths (5-10 km or, as in certain low-temperature systems at the Earth's normal temperature, which increases with depth. The reservoir is a volume of hot permeable rocks from which circulating fluids extract the heat. The reservoir is generally overlain by a cover of impermeable rocks and connected to a superficial recharge area through which the meteoric waters can replace or partly replace the fluids that escape from the reservoir through springs or are extracted by boreholes. The geothermal fluid is water, in majority of cases the meteoric water, in the liquid or vapour phase, depending on its temperature and pressure. This water often carries chemicals and gases such as CO2, H2S, etc.Another source of underground heat is so called the hot dry rock. The mater is to extract heat by creating a subsurface fracture system to which water can be added through injection wells. A creation of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal system requires improving the natural permeability of rock. Rocks are permeable due to minute fractures and pore spaces between mineral grains. The injected water is heated by a contact with the rock and returns to the

  20. The Ngatamariki Geothermal Field, NZ: Surface Manifestations - Past and Present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotheridge, J.M.A.; Browne, P.R.L.; Hochstein, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    The Ngatamariki geothermal field, located 7 km south of Orakeikorako, discharges dilute chloride-bicarbonate waters of almost neutral pH from springs mostly on the margins of the field. Rhyolite tuffs in the northwestern part of the field are weakly silicified, probably due to their having reacted with heated groundwaters. Sinter deposits are common at Ngatamariki but are mostly relict from former activity. In 1994, the natural heat loss from the field was 30 {+-} 5 MW{sub thermal}. There has been a shift of thermal activity southward over the past 60 years; the changes were recognized by comparing air photographs taken in 1941 and 1991. In 1948, a hydrothermal eruption deposited breccia around its crater, which is now occupied by a pool at 52.5 C. Another pool at 88 C, first noticed in 1993, deposits a mixture of silica and calcite.

  1. A method of fundamental solutions in poroelasticity to model the stress field in geothermal reservoirs

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, Matthias Albert

    2015-01-01

    This monograph focuses on the numerical methods needed in the context of developing a reliable simulation tool to promote the use of renewable energy. One very promising source of energy is the heat stored in the Earth’s crust, which is harnessed by so-called geothermal facilities. Scientists from fields like geology, geo-engineering, geophysics and especially geomathematics are called upon to help make geothermics a reliable and safe energy production method. One of the challenges they face involves modeling the mechanical stresses at work in a reservoir. The aim of this thesis is to develop a numerical solution scheme by means of which the fluid pressure and rock stresses in a geothermal reservoir can be determined prior to well drilling and during production. For this purpose, the method should (i) include poroelastic effects, (ii) provide a means of including thermoelastic effects, (iii) be inexpensive in terms of memory and computational power, and (iv) be flexible with regard to the locations of data ...

  2. Development of a geothermal resource in a fractured volcanic formation: Case study of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, S.K.; Pritchett, J.W.; Stevens, J.L.; Luu, L. [Maxwell Federal Div., Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Combs, J. [Geo-Hills Associates, Los Altos, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The principal purpose of this case study of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field is to document and to evaluate the use of drilling logs, surface and downhole geophysical measurements, chemical analyses, and pressure transient data for the assessment of a high temperature volcanic geothermal field. The work accomplished during Year 1 of this ongoing program is described in the present report. A brief overview of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field is given. The drilling information and downhole pressure, temperature, and spinner surveys are used to determine feedzone locations, pressures and temperatures. Available injection and production data from both slim holes and large-diameter wells are analyzed to evaluate injectivity/productivity indices and to investigate the variation of discharge rate with borehole diameter. Finally, plans for future work are outlined.

  3. The state of exploitation of geothermal energy and some interesting achievements in geothermal research and development in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Rajver

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the latest status of geothermal energy use worldwide and the comparison with the previous period, both in electricity generation as well as in the various categories of direct use. Electricity production takes place in 26 countries and has at the end of 2014 reached 73,700 GWh from geothermal power plants with nearly 12.8 GW of installed power. This is still only 0.31 % of the total electricity produced in the world and it will be interesting to monitor the future share of geothermal energy in doing so. In the last 5-year period the development was particularly rapid in countries where it was slower in the past and, however, with favorable geological (tectonic conditions (Iceland, Kenya, New Zealand, Turkey, etc.. Direct use of geothermal energy covers a signifiant number of countries, today there are 82, although some of them are such where it takes place almost solely by geothermal (ground-source heat pumps (GHP on shallow subsurface energy (Finland. Installed capacity in the direct use is 70,885 MWt and geothermal energy used, including the GHP, is 592,638 TJ/year (end of 2014. Within the used energy the share of GHP dominates with 55.2 %, followed by the bathing and swimming pools complexes incl. balneology by 20.2 %, space heating by 15.0 % (the majority of it is district heating, heating of greenhouses and soil with 4.9 %, etc. The second part presents some interesting technological and scientifi innovations in exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy.

  4. Geothermal energy utilized in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the geothermal resources and reserves that have been estimated for selected aquifers in the Northwest German Basin, the Upper Rhine Graben and the South German Molasse Basin. The highest reserves (31 · 10 18 J) are located in the Malm aquifer in the Molasse Basin. Geothermal energy is utilized in 15 localities using low enthalpy water. The total installed capacity is about 8 MW t . Two small new installations (Waldsee, Weiden) have been realized in the last years. In another project (Bruchsal) the doublet, which is necessary because of the high saline water, is now in a working order. A prefeasibility study for a Hot Dry Rock system has been performed by a German-French group. The HDR test site is located in the Upper Rhine Graben

  5. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Arizona geothermal planning/commercialization team. Quarterly topical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Mancini, F.; Goldstone, L.A.; Malysa, L.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reviewed on the following: area development plans, evaluation of geothermal applications, continued evaluation of geothermal resources, engineering and economic analyses, technical assistance in the state of Arizona, the impact of various growth patterns upon geothermal energy development, and the outreach program. (MHR)

  6. Reference book on geothermal direct use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Rafferty, K.; Culver, G.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Topics discussed include: low-temperature geothermal energy resources; energy reserves; geothermal heat pumps; geothermal energy for residential buildings; and geothermal energy for industrial usage.

  7. Characterization of Hydrologic and Thermal Properties at Brady Geothermal Field, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J.; Cardiff, M. A.; Lim, D.; Coleman, T.; Wang, H. F.; Feigl, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding and predicting the temperature evolution of geothermal reservoirs is a primary focus for geothermal power plant operators ensuring continued financial sustainability of the resource. Characterization of reservoir properties - such as thermal diffusivity and hydraulic conductivity - facilitates modeling efforts to develop a better understanding of temperature evolution. As part of the integrated "PoroTomo" experiment, borehole pressure measurements were collected in three monitoring wells of various depths under varying operational conditions at the Brady Geothermal Field near Reno, NV. During normal operational conditions, a vertical profile of borehole temperature to 330 m depth was collected using distributed temperature sensing (DTS) for a period of 5 days. Borehole pressure data indicates 2D flow and shows rapid responses to changes in pumping /injection rates, likely indicating fault-dominated flow. The temperature data show that borehole temperature recovery following cold water slug injection is variable with depth. Late time vertical temperature profiles show the borehole following a shallow geotherm to a depth of approximately 275 meters, below which the temperature declines until a depth of approximately 320 meters, with a stable zone of cold water forming below this, possibly indicating production-related thermal drawdown. A validated heat transfer model is used in conjunction with the temperature data to determine depth-dependent reservoir thermal properties. Hydraulic reservoir properties are determined through inversion of the collected pressure data using MODFLOW. These estimated thermal and hydraulic properties are synthesized with existing structural and stratigraphic datasets at Brady. The work presented herein was funded in part by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-EE0006760.

  8. Application of oil-field well log interpretation techniques to the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershaghi, I.; Phillips, L.B.; Dougherty, E.L.; Handy, L.L.

    1979-10-01

    An example is presented of the application of oil-field techniques to the Cerro Prieto Field, Mexico. The lithology in this field (sand-shale lithology) is relatively similar to oil-field systems. The study was undertaken as a part of the first series of case studies supported by the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program (GLIP) of the US Department of Energy. The suites of logs for individual wells were far from complete. This was partly because of adverse borehole conditions but mostly because of unavailability of high-temperature tools. The most complete set of logs was a combination of Dual Induction Laterolog, Compensated Formation Density Gamma Ray, Compensated Neutron Log, and Saraband. Temperature data about the wells were sketchy, and the logs had been run under pre-cooled mud condition. A system of interpretation consisting of a combination of graphic and numerical studies was used to study the logs. From graphical studies, evidence of hydrothermal alteration may be established from the trend analysis of SP (self potential) and ILD (deep induction log). Furthermore, the cross plot techniques using data from density and neutron logs may help in establishing compaction as well as rock density profile with depth. In the numerical method, R/sub wa/ values from three different resistivity logs were computed and brought into agreement. From this approach, values of formation temperature and mud filtrate resistivity effective at the time of logging were established.

  9. Geothermal pump down-hole energy regeneration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal deep well energy extraction apparatus is provided of the general kind in which solute-bearing hot water is pumped to the earth's surface from a subterranean location by utilizing thermal energy extracted from the hot water for operating a turbine motor for driving an electrical power generator at the earth 3 s surface, the solute bearing water being returned into the earth by a reinjection well. Efficiency of operation of the total system is increased by an arrangement of coaxial conduits for greatly reducing the flow of heat from the rising brine into the rising exhaust of the down-well turbine motor.

  10. Notre Dame Geothermal Ionic Liquids Research: Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennecke, Joan F. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2017-03-07

    The goal of this project was to develop ionic liquids for two geothermal energy related applications. The first goal was to design ionic liquids as high temperature heat transfer fluids. We identified appropriate compounds based on both experiments and molecular simulations. We synthesized the new ILs, and measured their thermal stability, measured storage density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. We found that the most promising compounds for this application are aminopyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide based ILs. We also performed some measurements of thermal stability of IL mixtures and used molecular simulations to better understand the thermal conductivity of nanofluids (i.e., mixtures of ILs and nanoparticles). We found that the mixtures do not follow ideal mixture theories and that the addition of nanoparticles to ILs may well have a beneficial influence on the thermal and transport properties of IL-based heat transfer fluids. The second goal was to use ionic liquids in geothermally driven absorption refrigeration systems. We performed copious thermodynamic measurements and modeling of ionic liquid/water systems, including modeling of the absorption refrigeration systems and the resulting coefficients of performance. We explored some IL/organic solvent mixtures as candidates for this application, both with experimentation and molecular simulations. We found that the COPs of all of the IL/water systems were higher than the conventional system – LiBr/H2O. Thus, IL/water systems appear very attractive for absorption refrigeration applications.

  11. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  12. A sustainability analysis of geothermal energy development on the island of Dominica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kiyana Marie-Jose

    Dominica is heavily dependent on fossil fuels to meet its electricity generation needs. Dominica's volcanic origin and current volcanic activity allow the island to be an ideal place for the production of geothermal energy. Once geothermal exploration and development has begun in Dominica, it is uncertain whether the efforts will produce an environmentally, economically and socially feasible exploitation of the resource. Using content analysis and cost benefit analysis, this study examined the impacts of geothermal energy development based on the triple bottom line of sustainability for the Wotten Waven community, as well as the island as a whole. The results indicate that this project will have an overall positive impact on the triple bottom line of sustainability for Dominica. Therefore, geothermal energy may provide substantial net benefits to economic and sustainable development of the island. Assessing the sustainability of geothermal development is important as Dominica begins to produce geothermal energy.

  13. Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (EW-201135)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    FINAL REPORT Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage ESTCP Project EW-201135 MARCH 2017...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 2.1. Borehole Thermal Energy Storage (BTES) Overview ............................................................ 8

  14. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  15. The National Energy Strategy - The role of geothermal technology development: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. Topics in this year's conference included Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology, Hydrothermal Reservoir Technology, Hydrothermal Hard Rock Penetration Technology, Hot Dry Rock Technology, Geopressured-Geothermal Technology and Magma Energy Technology. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.

  16. Geothermal energy used in a cooling generation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzaoui, A.; El Gharbi, N.; Merabti, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the geothermal energy recovery and use. It is available in an important water reservoir at 1800 m deep. Some drilled wells deliver each one about 200 1/s at 75-95 degree centigrade for agricultural use. It is necessarily cooled to be in irrigation conditions at 20-25 degree centigrade. Our purpose is to install the adequate sized heat exchangers to recover this important energy and to use it in different needs. Furthermore, a systematic survey is made, on the basis od Lindal Diagram, about different possibilities to use this geothermal reservoir available in arid area. Several applications are experimented and presented to farmers: air conditioning, domestic space heating, bathing, fruits and products drying, aqua fishing, etc.. In this report we present the study including scientific and technical questions (heat and mass transfer, absorption cooling generating, energy and mass balances, etc..). The available heat must be upgraded.The solar energy is used for this need. The total experimental cooled space is: 4 rooms X 210 m 3 . The coefficient of performance of the set up is 44% and could be enhanced. Inhabitants could use this fresh atmosphere to stock their products and to pay some home comfort. All calculations and theoretical simulations will be presented and commented.(Author)

  17. Geothermal energy: potential applications to diversify the energy matrix of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernuschi, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Geothermal energy is a promising renewable energy source due to the low to null CO2 emissions and the stability of energy production. In Uruguay, high geothermal gradients related to magmatism are extinct since the Cretaceous, limiting its geothermal potential. However, a moderate geothermal gradient in northwest Uruguay is estimated at an average of ∼ 28.6 oC/km. Here, thermally insolating Cretaceous flood basalts confine aquifers in Carboniferous to Jurassic sedimentary rocks of the Parana basin. In this area geothermal applications are possible: 1) The over-pressurized, warm waters of the Guarani Aquifer System (∼45°, >1000 m), presently only used by the tourism industry, could be used for domestic or industrial heating (eg. greenhouses) to reduce the consumption of energy from other sources. 2) Waters from possibly deeper Carboniferous-Permian aquifers (≤75 °C, ∼2300 m), may allow the generation of electricity using binary power plants cooled by superficial cold water. If these or other sedimentary rocks extend deeper (≤150 °C, ∼4500 m), conventional binary plants could contribute to the national energy demand. 3) If viable, creating an enhanced geothermal systems in the granitic basement, below 5000 m depth, could also enable the generation of significant amounts of electricity with binary plants. To develop these scenarios, detailed research of the geothermal gradient and its variations at depths, the stratigraphy and structural geology of the Parana basin, the hydrogeology of its aquifers and the localization of granitic intrusions on the basement are needed. All the above, have yet to be systematically and comprehensively studied

  18. Transported Low-Temperature Geothermal Energy for Thermal End Uses Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhiyao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Jan-Mou [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The use of geothermal energy is an emerging area for improving the nation’s energy resiliency. Conventionally, geothermal energy applications have focused on power generation using high temperature hydrothermal resources or enhanced geothermal systems. However, many low temperature (below 150°C/300°F) geothermal resources are also available but have not been fully utilized. For example, it is estimated that 25 billion barrels of geothermal fluid (mostly water and some dissolved solids) at 176°F to 302°F (80°C to 150°C) is coproduced annually at oil and gas wells in the United States (DOE 2015). The heat contained in coproduced geothermal fluid (also referred as “coproduced water”) is typically wasted because the fluid is reinjected back into the ground without extracting the heat.

  19. Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. I. Geothermal and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A. P.; Etnier, E. L.

    1981-07-01

    An evaluation of potential occupational and public health aspects of geopressure, hydrothermal, hot dry rock, silviculture, crop and animal residues, fermentable plant products, municipal waste, and plantation energy technologies has been performed. Future development of these energy options in the United States will contain hazards that could easily be eliminated by safer equipment design and common-sense attention to operation and maintenance. Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide gas occurs near all geothermal sites and wherever organic matter decomposes anaerobically. Respiratory damage has occurred to laborers in geothermal fields, while farm workers have been fatally overcome when employed near agitating liquid manure systems. However, the most frequent and severe of reported injuries to geothermal workers is dermal exposure to caustic sludges produced by H2S abatement systems. Principal health and safety considerations of biomass pathways are directly related to the diffuse nature of solar energy fixation by photosynthesis and subsequent transfer to animal food chains. Since the potential fuel is in an unconcentrated form, cultivation, harvest, and transport are necessarily laborintensive. Thus, a significant potential for occupational injuries and fatalities exists. Of all biomass systems evaluated, direct burning of solid fuels presents the greatest public health risk. Data are presented to characterize the population at risk and the frequency and severity of injuries.

  20. Geothermal power plants around the world. A sourcebook on the production of electricity from geothermal energy, draft of Chapter 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.

    1979-02-01

    This report constitutes a consolidation and a condensation of several individual topical reports dealing with the geothermal electric power stations around the world. An introduction is given to various types of energy conversion systems for use with geothermal resouces. Power plant performance and operating factors are defined and discussed. Existing geothermal plants in the following countries are covered: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Turkey, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the United States. In each case, the geological setting is outlined, the geothermal fluid characteristics are given, the gathering system, energy conversion system, and fluid disposal method are described, and the environmental impact is discussed. In some cases the economics of power generation are also presented. Plans for future usage of geothermal energy are described for the above-mentioned countries and the following additional ones: the Azores (Portugal), Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Nicaragua, and Panama. Technical data is presented in twenty-two tables; forty-one figures, including eleven photographs, are also included to illustrate the text. A comprehensive list of references is provided for the reader who wishes to make an in-depth study of any of the topics mentioned.

  1. Results of investigation at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field, El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.B. (HydroGeophysics, Tucson, AZ (United States))

    1990-04-01

    The Ahuachapan Geothermal Field (AGF) is a 95 megawatt geothemal-sourced power-plant operated by the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) of El Salvador. During the past decade, as part of an effort to increase in situ thermal reserves in order to realize the full generation capacity of the AGF, extensive surface geophysical coverage has been obtained over the AGF and the prospective Chipilapa area to the east. The geophysical surveys were performed to determine physical property characteristics of the known reservoir and then to search for similar characteristics in the Chipilapa area. A secondary objective was to evaluate the surface recharge area in the highlands to the south of the AGF. The principal surface electrical geophysical methods used during this period were DC resistivity and magnetotellurics. Three available data sets have been reinterpreted using drillhole control to help form geophysical models of the area. The geophysical models are compared with the geologic interpretations.

  2. Effective geothermal heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelsen, Atle

    2006-01-01

    Scandinavia's currently largest geothermal heating project: the New Ahus hospital, is briefly presented. 300-400 wells on a field outside the hospital are constructed to store energy for both heating and cooling purposes

  3. A reservoir engineering assessment of the San Jacinto-Tizate Geothermal Field, Nicaragua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostapenko, S.; Spektor, S.; Davila, H.; Porras, E.; Perez, M.

    1996-01-24

    More than twenty yews have passed since geothermal research and drilling took place at the geothermal fields in Nicaragua- Tbe well horn Momotombo Geothermal Field (70 We) has been generating electricity since 1983, and now a new geothermal field is under exploration. the San Jacinto-Tizate. Two reservoirs hydraulic connected were found. The shallow reservoir (270°C) at the depth of 550 - 1200 meters, and the deep one at > 1600 meters. Both of theme are water dominated reservoirs, although a two phase condition exist in the upper part of the shallow one. Different transient tests and a multi-well interference test have been carried out, very high transmissivity value were estimated around the well SJ-4 and average values for the others. A preliminar conceptual model of the geothermal system is given in this paper, as the result of the geology, geophysics, hydrology studies, drilling and reservoir evaluation.

  4. Colorado geothermal commercialization program. Geothermal energy opportunities at four Colorado towns: Durango, Glenwood Springs, Idaho Springs, Ouray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.; Zimmerman, J.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of four prospective geothermal development sites in Colorado was analyzed and hypothetical plans prepared for their development. Several broad areas were investigated for each site. The first area of investigation was the site itself: its geographic, population, economic, energy demand characteristics and the attitudes of its residents relative to geothermal development potential. Secondly, the resource potential was described, to the extent it was known, along with information concerning any exploration or development that has been conducted. The third item investigated was the process required for development. There are financial, institutional, environmental, technological and economic criteria for development that must be known in order to realistically gauge the possible development. Using that information, the next concern, the geothermal energy potential, was then addressed. Planned, proposed and potential development are all described, along with a possible schedule for that development. An assessment of the development opportunities and constraints are included. Technical methodologies are described in the Appendix. (MHR)

  5. Enhancement of subsurface geologic structure model based on gravity, magnetotelluric, and well log data in Kamojang geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustin Kamah, Muhammad; Armando, Adilla; Larasati Rahmani, Dinda; Paramitha, Shabrina

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical methods such as gravity and magnetotelluric methods commonly used in conventional and unconventional energy exploration, notably for exploring geothermal prospect. They used to identify the subsurface geology structures which is estimated as a path of fluid flow. This study was conducted in Kamojang Geothermal Field with the aim of highlighting the volcanic lineament in West Java, precisely in Guntur-Papandayan chain where there are three geothermal systems. Kendang Fault has predominant direction NE-SW, identified by magnetotelluric techniques and gravity data processing techniques. Gravity techniques such as spectral analysis, derivative solutions, and Euler deconvolution indicate the type and geometry of anomaly. Magnetotelluric techniques such as inverse modeling and polar diagram are required to know subsurface resistivity charactersitics and major orientation. Furthermore, the result from those methods will be compared to geology information and some section of well data, which is sufficiently suitable. This research is very useful to trace out another potential development area.

  6. Heat Recovery from Exhaust Air as a Thermal Storage Energy Source for Geothermal Energy Piles

    OpenAIRE

    Fadejev, Jevgeni; Simson, Raimo; Kurnitski, Jarek; Kesti, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    In pursuit of EU directive 2010/31/EU energy performance targets towards design of nearly zero-energy buildings consideration of renewable energy sources in the design is expected. Application of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) and energy piles in cold climate conditions for utilization of renewable geothermal energy may results in GSHP plant high seasonal coefficient of performance (SCOP) as long as source of thermal storage is considered in plant design. This numerical study investigates exh...

  7. The multi-level perspective analysis: Indonesia geothermal energy transition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisaksono, A.; Murphy, J.; Sharp, J. H.; Younger, P. L.

    2018-01-01

    The study adopts a multi-level perspective in technology transition to analyse how the transition process in the development of geothermal energy in Indonesia is able to compete against the incumbent fossil-fuelled energy sources. Three levels of multi-level perspective are socio-technical landscape (ST-landscape), socio-technical regime (ST-regime) and niche innovations in Indonesia geothermal development. The identification, mapping and analysis of the dynamic relationship between each level are the important pillars of the multi-level perspective framework. The analysis considers the set of rules, actors and controversies that may arise in the technological transition process. The identified geothermal resource risks are the basis of the emerging geothermal technological innovations in Indonesian geothermal. The analysis of this study reveals the transition pathway, which yields a forecast for the Indonesian geothermal technology transition in the form of scenarios and probable impacts.

  8. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA); Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report describes the work done during the first year of the study (FY 1988--89), and includes the (1) development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) evaluation of the initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline, and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. The geological model of the field indicates that there are seven (7) major and five (5) minor faults that control the fluid movement in the Ahuachapan area. Some of the faults act as a barrier to flow as indicated by large temperature declines towards the north and west. Other faults act as preferential pathways to flow. The Ahuachapan Andesites provide good horizontal permeability to flow and provide most of the fluids to the wells. The underlying Older Agglomerates also contribute to well production, but considerably less than the Andesites. 84 refs.

  9. Governance Obstacles to Geothermal Energy Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Winters

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having 40 per cent of the world’s potential for geothermal power production, Indonesia exploits less than five per cent of its own geothermal resources. We explore the reasons behind this lagging development of geothermal power and highlight four obstacles: (1 delays caused by the suboptimal decentralisation of permitting procedures to local governments that have few incentives to support geothermal exploitation; (2 rent-seeking behaviour originating in the point-source nature of geothermal resources; (3 the opacity of central government decision making; and (4 a historically deleterious national fuel subsidy policy that disincentivised geothermal investment. We situate our arguments against the existing literature and three shadow case studies from other Pacific countries that have substantial geothermal resources. We conclude by arguing for a more centralised geothermal governance structure.

  10. Use of geothermal energy for desalination in New Mexico: a feasibility study. Final report, January 1, 1977-May 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, L.; Keyes, C.G. Jr.; Swanberg, C.A.; Gupta, Y.F.; Davis, R.J.

    1979-06-01

    The water requirements and availability for New Mexico are described. The possibility of using geothermal resources for desalination of the state's saline water sources is discussed. The following aspects of the problem are covered: resource evaluation, geothermal desalination technology, potential geothermal desalination sites, saline and geothermal aquifer well fields design, geothermal desalination plant waste brine disposal, process water pumping and brine disposal unit costs, environmental considerations, and legal and institutional considerations. (MHR)

  11. Towards a Geocognition of Geothermal Energy: an Evolving Research Partnership in South West England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, H.; Stewart, I. S.; Ledingham, P.

    2017-12-01

    The development and deployment of novel geological technologies in industry often raise anxiety in the public sphere. New technologies are intrinsically unfamiliar, not only to the public, but also to other technical specialists in the field. This can focus conflict and uncertainty around issues that may not actually be problematic, or obscure other issues that may actually warrant closer inspection. An example of an emergent geo-technology that has received little attention in the public or general technical spheres is the introduction of Enhanced Geothermal Power in the UK. In early 2018, a project testing the viability of deep geothermal heat and power will begin in Cornwall, England, and is likely to face contested issues of public perception that have confronted other novel geological technologies, such as Carbon Capture and Storage and hydraulic fracturing. To address concerns about how the UK public will conceptualise this new technology, the Cornish deep geothermal project has developed an innovative partnership between the industry partner operating the test drilling site and a geoscience cognition research partner. That research partner integrates geoscience, cognitive psychology and media communication specialists in a three-year project that will track evolving public perceptions of and community attitudes to geothermal energy; from initial community engagements to the drilling operations and, ultimately, to the operation of the facility. Key in this study will be an exploration of how the industrial partnership impacts and affects the research process as the site testing proceeds, but also how the research process can engage with issues of communication between the industrial partner and the public. Overall, the interdisciplinary research aims to better understand how public/industry partnerships develop and evolve over the lifetime of an active geo-energy project and thereby help inform and improve community-centred geo-communication around novel

  12. Geothermal handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management offered over 400,000 hectares (one million acres) for geothermal exploration and development in 1975, and figure is expected to double this year. The Energy Research and Development Administration hopes for 10-15,000 megawatts of geothermal energy by 1985, which would require, leasing over 16.3 million hectares (37 million acres) of land, at least half of which is federal land. Since there is an 8 to 8-1/2 year time laf between initial exploration and full field development, there would have to be a ten-fold increase in the amount of federal land leased within the next three years. Seventy percent of geothermal potential, 22.3 million hectares (55 million acres), is on federal lands in the west. The implication for the Service are enormous and the problems immediate. Geothermal resource are so widespread they are found to some extent in most biomes and ecosystems in the western United States. In most cases exploitation and production of geothermal resources can be made compatible with fish and wildlife management without damage, if probable impacts are clearly understood and provided for before damage has unwittingly been allowed to occur. Planning for site suitability and concern with specific operating techniques are crucial factors. There will be opportunities for enhancement: during exploration and testing many shallow groundwater bodies may be penetrated which might be developed for wildlife use. Construction equipment and materials needed for enhancement projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote by land managers. A comprehensive knowledge of geothermal development is necessary to avoid dangers and seize opportunities. This handbook is intended to serve as a working tool in the field. It anticipated where geothermal resource development will occur in the western United States in the near future. A set of environmental assessment procedures are

  13. Modeling study of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field, Kamchatka, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiryukhin, A.V. [Institute of Volcanology, Kamchatsky (Russian Federation); Yampolsky, V.A. [Kamchatskburgeotermia State Enterprise, Elizovo (Russian Federation)

    2004-08-01

    Exploitation of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field started in 1966 with a 5 MW{sub e} power plant. A hydrogeological model of the Pauzhetsky field has been developed based on an integrated analysis of data on lithological units, temperature, pressure, production zones and natural discharge distributions. A one-layer 'well by well' model with specified vertical heat and mass exchange conditions has been used to represent the main features of the production reservoir. Numerical model development was based on the TOUGH2 code [Pruess, 1991. TOUGH2 - A General Purpose Numerical Simulator for Multiphase Fluid and Heat Flow, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report, Berkeley, CA; Pruess et al., 1999. TOUGH2 User's Guide, Version 2.0, Report LBNL-43134, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA] coupled with tables generated by the HOLA wellbore simulator [Aunzo et al., 1991. Wellbore Models GWELL, GWNACL, and HOLA, Users Guide, Draft, 81 pp.]. Lahey Fortran-90 compiler and computer graphical packages (Didger-3, Surfer-8, Grapher-3) were also used to model the development process. The modeling study of the natural-state conditions was targeted on a temperature distribution match to estimate the natural high-temperature upflow parameters: the mass flow-rate was estimated at 220 kg/s with enthalpy of 830-920 kJ/kg. The modeling study for the 1964-2000 exploitation period of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field was targeted at matching the transient reservoir pressure and flowing enthalpies of the production wells. The modeling study of exploitation confirmed that 'double porosity' in the reservoir, with a 10-20% active volume of 'fractures', and a thermo-mechanical response to reinjection (including changes in porosity due to compressibility and expansivity), were the key parameters of the model. The calibrated model of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field was used to forecast reservoir behavior under different exploitation scenarios for

  14. Modelling of the thermal structure of the Mexican Volcanic Belt for geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, Damien; María Prol-Ledesma, Rosa; Smit, Jeroen; Limberger, Jon; van Wees, Jan-Diederik

    2017-04-01

    Mexico is a major geothermal energy player in the world with an installed capacity of over 900 MW for electricity production, positioning Mexico at the 6th position. The installed capacity is supported by 4 geothermal location: Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, Los Humeros, and Las Tres Virgenes. Two of these sites are in Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) a volcanic arc structure that is the result of the subduction of the Cocos Plate underneath the North American plate. The interesting feature of this onshore volcanic arc is the combination of magmatism with the extentional stress field within the arc with a shear component as a result of the oblique subduction. As a result of this combination, is a very favourable regional setup for the development of geothermal energy. The core of the work is the establishment of a thermal model at present day at the scale of TMVB. The elements considered in the thermal-tectonic model are the composition of the lithosphere, the volcanic evidences, and temperature measurements available. The newly developed b3t software at Utrecht University and TNO will perform the modelling, which allow the identification of thermal variation in the lithosphere at present-day with the data integration. The result of the thermal-tectonic modelling is a thermal model of the TMVB lithosphere that is considered according to the general geological and geodynamical context. The variation of temperature are intricately related to the magmatic centres and the lithological composition of the TMVB.

  15. Market Analysis of Geothermal Energy for California and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-10-01

    This is one of the earlier market analyses for geothermal electric power and direct heat. The market for geothermal power was found to be large enough to absorb anticipated developments in California. For direct use, geothermal resources and urban markets in CA and HI are not well collocated.

  16. A comparison of long-term changes in seismicity at The Geysers, Salton Sea, and Coso geothermal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trugman, Daniel T.; Shearer, Peter M.; Borsa, Adrian A.; Fialko, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal energy is an important source of renewable energy, yet its production is known to induce seismicity. Here we analyze seismicity at the three largest geothermal fields in California: The Geysers, Salton Sea, and Coso. We focus on resolving the temporal evolution of seismicity rates, which provides important observational constraints on how geothermal fields respond to natural and anthropogenic loading. We develop an iterative, regularized inversion procedure to partition the observed seismicity rate into two components: (1) the interaction rate due to earthquake-earthquake triggering and (2) the smoothly varying background rate controlled by other time-dependent stresses, including anthropogenic forcing. We apply our methodology to compare long-term changes in seismicity to monthly records of fluid injection and withdrawal. At The Geysers, we find that the background seismicity rate is highly correlated with fluid injection, with the mean rate increasing by approximately 50% and exhibiting strong seasonal fluctuations following construction of the Santa Rosa pipeline in 2003. In contrast, at both Salton Sea and Coso, the background seismicity rate has remained relatively stable since 1990, though both experience short-term rate fluctuations that are not obviously modulated by geothermal plant operation. We also observe significant temporal variations in Gutenberg-Richter b value, earthquake magnitude distribution, and earthquake depth distribution, providing further evidence for the dynamic evolution of stresses within these fields. The differing field-wide responses to fluid injection and withdrawal may reflect differences in in situ reservoir conditions and local tectonics, suggesting that a complex interplay of natural and anthropogenic stressing controls seismicity within California's geothermal fields.

  17. Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical modeling of heat extraction from the Tattapani geothermal field, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand Pandey, Sachchida; Vishal, Vikram

    2017-04-01

    Modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in enhanced geothermal systems is presented using the finite element method of modeling for a 3-D domain. The reservoir consists of a single horizontal fracture surrounded by low permeable rock matrix. The flow is imposed on a fracture plane, consisting of a doublet system. The reservoir rock mechanical properties were taken from the field data of the Tattapani geothermal field, India. We investigate the effects of injection temperature and mass flow rate on the energy output. The results indicate that temperature and pressure changes within the reservoirs occur due to injection of cold water. The temperature drop and fluid overpressure inside the reservoirs/fracture affect the transport properties of the fracture. The spatial-temporal variations of fracture aperture inside the reservoir greatly impact the thermal drawdown and therefore net energy output. The results showed that maximum aperture evolution occurs near the injection zone than the production zone. The fracture aperture evolution is a result of combined effects of thermal stress and fluid overpressure inside the fracture. The fracture opening reduces the injection pressure required to circulate the fixed volume of water. The effects of the injection temperature on heat extraction were also analyzed under different reservoir formations. The results indicate that reservoir permeability plays a significant role on heat extraction, highlighting the important effect of water losses. For each factor, it is concluded that thermal breakthrough primarily depends on injection temperate, mass flow rate, reservoir permeability and well distances. The results of this study can help in choosing the operational parameters for successful operation of geothermal system. The study will also be helpful to optimize the EGS performance under varying reservoir conditions.

  18. Geothermal Program Review XV: proceedings. Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XV in Berkeley, March 24-26, 1997. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focussed on {open_quotes}The Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply.{close_quotes} This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this conference.

  19. State of knowledge on potential risks, impacts and disturbances related to deep geothermal energy - Study report 10/07/2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, Philippe; Lahaie, Franz; Cherkaoui, Auxane; Farret, Regis; Franck, Christian; Bigarre, Pascal; Pokryszka, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Deep geothermal is a renewable and non-intermittent source of energy that can contribute to the world transition for a less carbon-intensive and greenhouse gas-emitting energy mix. Only a small part of the worldwide geothermal potential has been exploited so far and many countries, including France, are aiming for a fast growing of this industry in the next decades. Like most industrial activities, deep geothermal energy shows potential local inconveniences and possible risks for the safety of persons and of the environment. Preventing and managing those risks is of utmost importance to ensure that deep geothermal development is fully compatible with the needs and expectations of citizens, especially those of neighboring inhabitants. Indeed, in the past years, concerns have been raised by local populations regarding the development of some deep geothermal projects, especially in the field of high temperature geothermal, based on the risks related to this industry. This report is intended as a scientific and objective contribution to this matter. It aims to present, in a factual and documented way, the state of knowledge on the risks, impacts and potential inconveniences associated with deep geothermal energy. In addition to the scientific literature, it is based on lessons from incidents or accidents in this field of activity. It also makes use of INERIS expertise in the field of risks related to other sectors of activity dealing with underground operations and geo-resources, especially oil wells drilling, to provide a distanced view of deep geothermal technologies. Main lessons learned from this work are provided in the synthesis chapter ending the document. It includes a global and comparative analysis of the risks, impacts or potential inconveniences identified in this sector. Considering the large amount of published works related to this field of this industry both in the research and engineering areas, the authors do not claim to be exhaustive. They tried to

  20. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs

  1. Geothermal energy: opportunities for California commerce. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    This report provides a preliminary engineering and economic assessment of five direct use projects using low and moderate temperature geothermal resources. Each project site and end-use application was selected because each has a high potential for successful, near-term (2 to 5 years) commercial development. The report also includes an extensive bibliography, and reference and contact lists. The five projects are: Wendel Agricultural Complex, East Mesa Livestock Complex, East Mesa Vegetable Dehydration Facility, Calapatria Heating District and Bridgeport Heating District. The projects involve actual investors, resource owners, and operators with varying financial commitments for project development. For each project, an implementation plan is defined which identifies major barriers to development and methods to overcome them. All projects were determined to be potentially feasible. Three of the projects cascade heat from a small-scale electric generator to direct use applications. Small-scale electric generation technology (especially in the 0.5 to 3 MW range) has recently evolved to such a degree as to warrant serious consideration. These systems provide a year-round heating load and substantially improve the economic feasibility of most direct use energy projects using geothermal resources above 200/sup 0/F.

  2. Geothermal power for communities and industry. Lecture meeting; Geothermische Energie fuer Kommunen und Industrie. Vortragsveranstaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Geothermal energy is utilized in many ways in Germany for heating, cooling and power generation. The first industrial-scale power generation plant was commissioned in Neustadt-Glewe, Mecklenburg, in late 2003. This marks the beginning of an era of rapid development which will make geothermal power a key element of power supply in Germany. Studies show a vast geothermal potential. This proceedings volume comprises 17 papers which illustrate the many applications of geothermal power and its legal and economic boundary conditions. (orig.)

  3. Feasibility study and energy efficiency estimation of geothermal power station based on medium enthalpy water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work presented are the results of investigations regarding the effectiveness of operation of power plant fed by geothermal water with the flow rate of 100, 150, and 200 m3/h and temperatures of 70, 80, and 90 °C, i. e. geothermal water with the parameters available in some towns of West Pomeranian region as well as in Stargard Szczecinski (86.4 °C, Poland. The results of calculations regard the system of geothermal power plant with possibility of utilization of heat for technological purposes. Analyzed are possibilities of application of different working fluids with respect to the most efficient utilization of geothermal energy. .

  4. Design and Implementation of Geothermal Energy Systems at West Chester University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Cuprak

    2011-08-31

    West Chester University is launching a comprehensive transformation of its campus heating and cooling systems from traditional fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) to geothermal. This change will significantly decrease the institution's carbon footprint and serve as a national model for green campus efforts. The institution is in the process of designing and implementing this project to build well fields, a pumping station and install connecting piping to provide the geothermal heat/cooling source for campus buildings. This project addresses the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) goal to invest in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy, protect the environment, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. In addition, this project advances EERE's efforts to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the US energy supply. For this grant, WCU will extend piping for its geo-exchange system. The work involves excavation of a trench approximately 8 feet wide and 10-12 feet deep located about 30 feet north of the curb along the north side of West Rosedale for a distance of approximately 1,300 feet. The trench will then turn north for the remaining distance (60 feet) to connect into the mechanical room in the basement of the Francis Harvey Green Library. This project will include crossing South Church Street near its intersection with West Rosedale, which will involve coordination with the Borough of West Chester. After installation of the piping, the trench will be backfilled and the surface restored to grass as it is now. Because the trench will run along a heavily-used portion of the campus, it will be accomplished in sections to minimize disruption to the campus as much as possible.

  5. The use of residual geothermal energy in an edible mushroom production plant, Los Humeros geothermal fields (Mexico): Achievements and alternatives; El uso de la energia geotermica residual en la planta productora de hongos comestibles del campo geotermico Los Humeros (Mexico): Logros y alternativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel Rangel, Maria Elena [Proteccion ambiental, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    A plant for raising edible mushrooms with residual geothermal energy is a project of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The results reflect important achievements in the development of technology for the productions of wholesome and available food with geothermal heat instead of conventional energy sources. The installations have an enormous technological and commercial potential- demonstrated by the cultivation of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), which success has awakened the interest of research institutions. The Instituto of Ecologia, A.C., has begun a joint project with CFE cultivating shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) with geothermal energy. These achievements mark a clear trend toward the integral use of facilities, the establishment of a crop with greater economic advantages, and the diffusion of this project. [Spanish] La planta productora de hongos comestibles es un proyecto de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) para dar un uso alterno a la energia geotermica residual. Los resultados obtenidos hasta el momento reflejan logros importantes en la generacion de tecnologia propia para la produccion de un alimento sano y accesible, sustituyendo la energia proveniente de combustibles convencionales por calor geotermico. Las instalaciones creadas cuentan con un enorme potencial tecnologico y comercial demostrando con el cultivo de las setas (Pleurotus ostreatus) con un exito tal que ha despertado el interes de instituciones dedicadas a la investigacion. Tal es el caso de Instituto de Ecologia, A.C que acualmente se encuentra involucrado en un proyecto conjunto sobre el cultivo del hongo Lentinula edodes (shiitake) utilizando energia geotermica en su proceso productivo. Con lo anterior, se esta marcando una clara tendencia hacia el aprovechamiento integral de las instalaciones, el establecimiento de un cultivo con mayores ventajas economicas y la difusion de este proyecto.

  6. Plate boundary deformation and man-made subsidence around geothermal fields on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Keiding, Marie

    2010-07-01

    We present Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from 1992-1999 and 2003-2008 as well as GPS data from 2000-2009 for the active plate boundary on the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland. The geodetic data reveal deformation mainly due to plate spreading, anthropogenic subsidence caused by geothermal fluid extraction and, possibly, increasing pressure in a geothermal system. Subsidence of around 10. cm is observed during the first 2. years of production at the Reykjanes geothermal power plant, which started operating in May 2006. We model the surface subsidence around the new power plant using point and ellipsoidal pressure sources in an elastic halfspace. Short-lived swarms of micro-earthquakes as well as aseismic fault movement are observed near the geothermal field following the start of production, possibly triggered by the stresses induced by geothermal fluid extraction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Resistivity Imaging by CSAMT Method in Takigami Geothermal Field in Kyushu, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Mustopa, Enjang Jaenal; Furuya, Shigetsugu; Jotaki, Hisashi; Ushijima, Keisuke

    2003-01-01

    Controlled-source audiofrequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) survey was carried out in Takigami geothermal field. Stations were taken closely with regular grid spacing of 150 m. The purpose of the measurements is to delineate a detailed resistivity structure

  8. Seismotectonics of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollar, C. J.; Reyes, L. M.; Quintanar, L.; Arellano, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    We studied the background seismic activity in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CPGF) using a network of 21 digital stations. Earthquakes are located below the exploitation area of the CPGF, between 3 and 12 km depth, within the basement. Earthquakes follow roughly a N30°E trend perpendicular to the Cerro Prieto fault. This activity is located on a horst-like structure below the geothermal field and coincides with the zone of maximum subsidence in the CPGF. Two earthquake swarms occurred along the SE-NW strike of the Cerro Prieto fault and in the neighborhood of the Cerro Prieto volcano. Magnitudes range from -0.3 to 2.5. A Vp/Vs=1.91 ratio of the activity below the volcano suggests a water-saturated medium and/or a partial-melt medium. We calculated 76 focal mechanisms of individual events. On June 1 and September 10, 1999, two earthquakes of Mw 5.2 and 5.3 occurred in the basement at depths of 7.4 and 3.8 km below the CPGF. Maximum peak accelerations above the hypocenter ranged from 128.0 to 432.0 cm/s2. Waveform modeling results in a fault geometries given by strike=236°, dip=60°, rake=-58° (normal) and strike=10°, dip=90°, rake=159° (right lateral strike-slip) for the June and September events. Observed triangular source time function of 0.7 seconds and a double source with a total duration of 1.9 seconds for the June and September events were used to calculate the synthetics seismograms. Static stress drops and seismic moments for the June and September events are: Δ\\sigma=82.5 MPa (825 bars), Mo= 7.65x1016 Nm (7.65x1023 dyne-cm) and Δ\\sigma=31.3 MPa (313 bars) and Mo=1.27x1017 Nm (1.27x1024 dyne-cm). These stress drops are typical of continental events rather than stress drops of events originated in spreading centers. We concluded from the focal mechanisms of the background seismicity and June and September 1999 events, that a complex stress environment exits in the CPGF due to the continual thinning of the crust in the Cerro Prieto basin.

  9. Geothermal energy and the public: A case study on deliberative citizens’ engagement in central Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzone, Anna; Allansdottir, Agnes; De Franco, Roberto; Muttoni, Giovanni; Manzella, Adele

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study on the citizens’ engagement with developments towards the harnessing of geothermal energy in central Italy. The research has been conducted within the framework of a larger project on the feasibility of further geothermal developments in Italy, funded by the Italian government. The aims of the case study research were first to explore the role of public and stakeholder engagement in the processes of innovation in the geothermal energy sector. Second, to design, implement and consolidate a methodological framework for comparative analysis of case studies on citizens’ engagement, thus bringing a social scientific perspective into geothermal energy research. The results show general support for renewable energy but knowledge and understanding of the potential of geothermal is remarkably low. Lack of trust in politics and unsure public communication emerged as prominent themes where the common good and community developments are sharply contrasted with corporate and private interests. As geothermal energy is included and encouraged under the European Strategic Energy Plan and in the Paris agreement on halting climate change, the results can make significant input into future policy making, by providing concrete guidelines on citizens’ engagement in processes of culturally sustainable innovation. - Highlights: • Original research, case study on citizens’ engagement with geothermal energy. • Considerable public uncertainty over geothermal energy. • Information is a key issue for all stakeholder and citizens cooperation in the energy sector. • Everyday notions of “the common good” strongly shape community discussions about energy. • Geothermal energy developments need to take the views of communities into account.

  10. Resistivity imaging of Aluto-Langano geothermal field using 3-D magnetotelluric inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkose, Biruk Abera; Mizunaga, Hideki

    2018-03-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) method is a widely used geophysical method in geothermal exploration. It is used to image subsurface resistivity structures from shallow depths up to several kilometers of depth. Resistivity imaging using MT method in high-enthalpy geothermal systems is an effective tool to identify conductive clay layers that cover the geothermal systems and to detect a potential reservoir. A resistivity model is vital for deciding the location of pilot and production sites at the early stages of a geothermal project. In this study, a 3-D resistivity model of Aluto-Langano geothermal field was constructed to map structures related to a geothermal resource. The inversion program, ModEM was used to recover the 3-D resistivity model of the study area. The 3-D inversion result revealed the three main resistivity structures: a high-resistivity surface layer related to unaltered volcanic rocks at shallow depth, underlain by a conductive zone associated with the presence of conductive clay minerals, predominantly smectite. Beneath the conductive layer, the resistivity increases gradually to higher values related to the formation of high-temperature alteration minerals such as chlorite and epidote. The resistivity model recovered from 3-D inversion in Aluto-Langano corresponds very well to the conceptual model for high-enthalpy volcanic geothermal systems. The conductive clay cap is overlying the resistive propylitic upflow zone as confirmed by the geothermal wells in the area.

  11. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, C.K.; Erickson, M.V.; Lowe, G.D.

    1980-02-01

    The status of the engineering and economic feasibility study of utilizing geothermal energy for the mining and processing of tungsten ore at the Union Carbide-Metals Division Pine Creek tungsten complex near Bishop, Calfironia is reviewed. Results of geophysical data analysis including determination of assumed resource parameters are presented. The energy utilization evaluation identifies potential locations for substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuel energy using current technology. Preliminary analyses for local environmental and institutional barriers to development of a geothermal system are also provided.

  12. Uses of geothermal energy in Jordan for heating greenhouses; project proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.; Masarwah, Rober; Elkarmi, Fawwaz

    1993-08-01

    A proposal for the exploration of geothermal energy in Jordan for heating greenhouses. The report gives some background information on geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and outlines some on-going uses of geothermal energy in various parts of Jordan. The proposal is modelled on the 2664 square meter Filclair Super 9 Multispan greenhouse from France. The overall cost of the project involves three variables, the cost of the borehole, the cost of the greenhouse, and the cost of engineering services. The total cost ranges between three to four million dollars depending on the quantity and quality of information to be collected from the borehole. The advantages of geothermal heating compared with oil heating are emphasized. The project will enable geothermal heating and horticultural production to be monitored throughout the year, will produce data enabling rational and reliable water resources management, and will produce environmentally clean and efficient energy. (A.M.H.). 1 tab. 1 map

  13. Geothermal Energy R&D Program Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-07-01

    Geothermal budget actual amounts are shown for FY 1989 -1992, broken down by about 15 categories. Here, the main Program categories are: Exploration Technology, Drilling Technology, Reservoir Technology, Conversion Technology (power plants and materials), Industry-Coupled Drilling, Drilling Applications, Reservoir Engineering Applications, Direct Heat, Geopressured Wells Operation, and Hot Dry Rock Research. Here the title--Industry-Coupled Drilling--covered case studies of the Coso, CA, and Dixie Valley, NV, fields, and the Long Valley Exploratory Well (which had started as a magma energy exploration project, but reported here as a hydrothermal prospect evaluation well). (DJE 2005)

  14. The use of geothermal energy at a chieftan's farm in medieval Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sveinbjarnardottir

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at the farm site of Reykholt, in the Reykholtsdalur valley in western Iceland (Fig. 1 , have produced evidence of sophisticated use of geothermal energy in the medieval period that is unmatched by comparable finds elsewhere in this geothermally and volcanically active country.

  15. A review of the microbiology of the Rehai geothermal field in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, Brian P.; Cole, Jessica K.; Williams, Amanda J.; Hou, Weiguo; Zhou, Enmin; Li, Wenjun; Dong, Hailiang

    2012-01-01

    The Rehai Geothermal Field, located in Tengchong County, in central-western Yunnan Province, is the largest and most intensively studied geothermal field in China. A wide physicochemical diversity of springs (ambient to ∼97 °C; pH from ≤1.8 to ≥9.3) provides a multitude of niches for extremophilic microorganisms. A variety of studies have focused on the cultivation, identification, basic physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnological potential of thermophilic microorganisms from Rehai. Thermophil...

  16. Optimal Energy Extraction From a Hot Water Geothermal Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabi, Kamal; Scherer, Charles R.; Tsang, Chin Fu; Mozumder, Sashi

    1981-01-01

    An analytical decision model is presented for determining optimal energy extraction rates from hot water geothermal reservoirs when cooled brine is reinjected into the hot water aquifer. This applied economic management model computes the optimal fluid pumping rate and reinjection temperature and the project (reservoir) life consistent with maximum present worth of the net revenues from sales of energy for space heating. The real value of product energy is assumed to increase with time, as is the cost of energy used in pumping the aquifer. The economic model is implemented by using a hydrothermal model that relates hydraulic pumping rate to the quality (temperature) of remaining heat energy in the aquifer. The results of a numerical application to space heating show that profit-maximizing extraction rate increases with interest (discount) rate and decreases as the rate of rise of real energy value increases. The economic life of the reservoir generally varies inversely with extraction rate. Results were shown to be sensitive to permeability, initial equilibrium temperature, well cost, and well life.

  17. Optimization of Wellhead Piping Design for Production Wells at Development of Steam-Water Geothermal Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Shulyupin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the exploitation of geothermal resources develops in a fair competition with other types of energy resources. This leads to actuality of questions which associated with the more efficient use of existing wells, because cost of their drilling is a significant share of geothermal projects. In domestic practice of development of geothermal resources the steam-water wells have greatest energy potential. One way to improve the performance of these wells is a providing of smooth change of direction of motion of steam-water mixture from the vertical, in the well, to the horizontal, in steam gathering system. Typical wellhead piping of domestic steam-water wells involves the removal of the mixture through a cross bar at a right angle. Cross bar can generate considerable pressure loss that increases the operating pressure at the mouth of the well and reduces flow rate. It seems reasonable to substitute the typical cross bar by smooth pipe bend. This reduces wellhead resistance coefficient by more than on 2. Increase of curvature radius of pipe bend reduces the pressure loss to a local resistance but increases the friction pressure loss. There is an optimal curvature radius of pipe bend for minimum pressure loss in view of a local resistance and friction in the pipe bend. Calculations have shown that the optimum value for the radius of curvature is found in the range from 1.4 to 4.5 tube internal diameters. However, for technological reasons it is recommended to choose the radius of curvature from 1.4 to 2.4 diameters. Mounting of smooth pipe bend on the wellhead can provide significant economic benefits. For Mutnovka field (Kamchatka, this effect is estimated at 17.5 million rubles in year.

  18. The Silting-Up Prevention in the Geothermal Absorbent Openings of Geothermal Energy Plant Pyrzyce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noga Bogdan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents precipitation results from cold thermal water deposits that are the main cause of clogging in absorbent geothermal wells and borehole areas. As a result of physical and chemical analysis, laboratory tests and observation of the operation of a geothermal installation, a new method was developed to prevent the precipitation of sludge from cooled thermal water. The method being a modification of soft acidising was tentatively named as a super soft acidising method

  19. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  20. Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness. [Geothermally heated]. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogleman, S.F.; Fisher, L.A.; Black, A.R.; Singh, D.P.

    1977-05-01

    An engineering and economic study was made to determine a practical balance of selected agribusiness subsystems resulting in realistic estimated produce yields for a geothermally heated system known as the Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness. The subsystem cycles for an average application at an unspecified hydrothermal resources site in the western United States utilize waste and by-products from their companion cycles insofar as practicable. Based on conservative estimates of current controlled environment yields, produce wholesale market prices, production costs, and capital investment required, it appears that the family-operation-sized TERSA module presents the potential for marginal recovery of all capital investment costs. In addition to family- or small-cooperative-farming groups, TERSA has potential users in food-oriented corporations and large-cooperative-agribusiness operations. The following topics are considered in detail: greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers; fish farming; mushroom culture; biogas generation; integration methodology; hydrothermal fluids and heat exchanger selection; and the system. 133 references. (MHR)

  1. Radon and ammonia transects across the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semprini, L.; Kruger, P.

    1981-01-01

    Radon and ammonia transects, conducted at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, involve measurement of concentration gradients at wells along lines of structural significance in the reservoir. Analysis of four transects showed radon concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 3.60 nCi/kg and ammonia concentrations from 17.6 to 59.3 mg/l. The data showed the lower concentrations in wells of lowest enthalpy fluid and the higher concentrations in wells of highest enthalpy fluid. Linear correlation analysis of the radon-enthalpy data indicated a strong relationship, with a marked influence by the two-phase conditions of the produced fluid. It appears that after phase separation in the reservoir, radon achieves radioactive equilibrium between fluid and rock, suggesting that the phase separation occurs well within the reservoir. A two-phase mixing model based on radon-enthalpy relations allows estimation of the fluid phase temperatures in the reservoir. Correlations of ammonia concentration with fluid enthalpy suggests an equilibrium partitioning model in which enrichment of ammonia correlates with higher enthalpy vapor.

  2. Field Studies of Geothermal Reservoirs Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C Witcher

    2002-07-30

    The Rio Grande rift provides an excellent field laboratory to study the nature of geothermal systems in an extensional environment. Much of the geologic complexity that is found in the Basin and Range is absent because the rift is located on cratonic crust with a thin and well-characterized Phanerozoic stratigraphy and tectonic history. On the other hand, the Neogene thermo-tectonic history of the rift has many parallels with the Basin and Range to the west. The geology of the southern Rio Grande rift is among the best characterized of any rift system in the world. Also, most geologic maps for the region are rather unique in that detailed analyses of Quaternary stratigraphic and surficial unit are added in concert with the details of bedrock geology. Pleistocene to Holocene entrenchment of the Rio Grande and tributaries unroofs the alteration signatures and permeability attributes of paleo outflow plumes and upflow zones, associated with present-day, but hidden or ''blind,'' hydrothermal systems at Rincon and San Diego Mountain.

  3. Results of investigations at the Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, B.; Goff, F.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Hanold, B. (comps.)

    1990-04-01

    Well logging operations were performed in eight of the geothermal wells at Ahuachapan. High-temperature downhole instruments, including a temperature/rabbit, caliper, fluid velocity spinner/temperature/pressure (STP), and fluid sampler, were deployed in each well. The caliper tool was used primarily to determine if chemical deposits were present in well casings or liners and to investigate a suspected break in the casing in one well. STP logs were obtained from six of the eight wells at various flow rates ranging from 30 to 80 kg/s. A static STP log was also run with the wells shut-in to provide data to be used in the thermodynamic analysis of several production wells. The geochemical data obtained show a system configuration like that proposed by C. Laky and associates in 1989. Our data indicate recharge to the system from the volcanic highlands south of the field. Additionally, our data indicate encroachment of dilute fluids into deeper production zones because of overproduction. 17 refs., 50 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterson, Roelof; Boyles, Joseph Michael; Diebold, Peter Ulrich

    2010-06-08

    Methods of using geothermal energy to treat subsurface formations are described herein. Methods for using geothermal energy to treat a subsurface treatment area containing or proximate to hydrocarbons may include producing geothermally heated fluid from at least one subsurface region. Heat from at least a portion of the geothermally heated fluid may be transferred to the subsurface treatment area to heat the subsurface treatment area. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  5. Geothermal heat can cool, too

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellstein, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at how geothermal energy can not only be used to supply heating energy, but also be used to provide cooling too. The article reports on a conference on heating and cooling with geothermal energy that was held in Duebendorf, Switzerland, in March 2008. The influence of climate change on needs for heating and cooling and the need for additional knowledge and data on deeper rock layers is noted. The seasonal use of geothermal systems to provide heating in winter and cooling in summer is discussed. The planning of geothermal probe fields and their simulation is addressed. As an example, the geothermal installations under the recently renewed and extended 'Dolder Grand' luxury hotel in Zurich are quoted. The new SIA 384/6 norm on geothermal probes issued by the Swiss Association of Architects SIA is briefly reviewed.

  6. Geothermal energy in Montana: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    A short description of the state's geothermal characteristics, economy, and climate is presented. More specific information is included under the planning regions and site specific data summaries. A brief discussion of the geothermal characteristics and a listing of a majority of the known hot springs is included. The factors which influence geothermal development were researched and presented, including: economics, financing, state leasing, federal leasing, direct-use technology, water quality laws, water rights, and the Major Facility Siting Act. (MHR)

  7. Geothermal research and development program of the US Atomic Energy Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Within the overall federal geothermal program, the Atomic Energy Commission has chosen to concentrate on development of resource utilization and advanced research and technology as the areas most suitable to the expertise of its staff and that of the National Laboratories. The Commission's work in geothermal energy is coordinated with that of other agencies by the National Science Foundation, which has been assigned lead agency by the Office of Management and Budget. The objective of the Commission's program, consistent with the goals of the total federal program is to facilitate, through technological advancement and pilot plant operations, achievement of substantial commercial production of electrical power and utilization of geothermal heat by the year 1985. This will hopefully be accomplished by providing, in conjunction with industry, credible information on the economic operation and technological reliability of geothermal power and use of geothermal heat.

  8. Application of ethanol as a geothermal tracer: a field-test in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello Hinojosa, Enrique [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Pal Verma, Mahendra [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Suarez Arriaga, Mario C. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Barrera Conzalez, Victor; Sandoval Medina, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    The thermal decomposition rate of ethanol, rhodamine WT and fluoroscein was determined from laboratory data obtained under conditions of temperature and pressure that simulated a geothermal reservoir. It was found that ethylic alcohol had better thermal stability rhodamine and fluoroscein. Using data obtained from de-ionized water experiments after 168 hours and 200 degree centigrade of temperature, the rhodamine WT and fluoroscein presented a degradation of 99.4% and 99.7%, respectively, while for the ethanol the degradation percentage under the same conditions was only of 44.6%. According to this, ethylic alcohol can be used as a conservative tracer up to about 250 degree centigrade, while rhodamine WT and fluoroscein can be used only at less than 200 degree centigrade, and only where the transit return time is expected to be less than 7 days. Ethanol was used as a conservative tracer in a field test in the southern zone of the Los Azufres geothermal field. The highest concentration was detected in a monitoring well in the steam phase 15 days after the injection, and in the liquid phase, or brine, 34 days after the injection. This suggests that alcohol fractionates preferentially in the steam phase and moves or migrates twice as fast than it does in the liquid phase. The tracer speed can be calculated in 176 m/day in the steam phase and 77.5 m/day in the brine. The ethanol presents good enough characteristics to be used as a tracer in both phases in geothermal environments. [Spanish] Se determino la velocidad de descomposicion termica del etanol, la rodamina y la fluoresceina a partir de datos de laboratorio obtenidos bajo condiciones de presion y de temperatura que simulan las de un yacimiento geotermico. Se encontro que el alcohol etilico presenta una mayor estabilidad termica que la rodamina y la fluoresceina. Empleando los datos obtenidos de experimentos con agua de-ionizada despues de 168 horas y a 200 grados centigrados de temperatura, la rodamina y la

  9. The Potential of Geothermal as a Major Supplier of U.S. Primary Energy using EGS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing our supply of indigenous, renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well-distributed nationally. To transition from our current hydrocarbon-based energy system, we will need to expand and diversify the portfolio of options we currently have. One such option that has been undervalued and often ignored completely in national assessments is geothermal energy from both conventional hydrothermal resources and enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Although geothermal energy is currently used for both electric and non-electric applications worldwide from conventional hydrothermal resources and in groundsource heat pumps, most of the emphasis in the US has been generating electricity. For example, a 2006 MIT-led study focused on the potential for EGS to provide 100,000 MWe of base-load electric generating capacity in the US by 2050. Since that time, a Cornell-led study has evaluated the potential for geothermal to meet the more than 25 EJ per year demand in the US for low temperature thermal energy for heating and other direct process applications Field testing of EGS in the US, Europe, and Australia is reviewed to outline what remains to be done for large-scale deployment. Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) needs in five areas important to geothermal deployment on a national scale will be reviewed: 1. Resource - estimating the magnitude and distribution of the US resource 2. Reservoir Technology - establishing requirements for extracting and utilizing energy from EGS reservoirs including drilling, reservoir design and stimulation 3. Utilization - exploring end use options for district heating, electricity generation and co-generation. 4. Environmental impacts and tradeoffs -- dealing with water and land use and seismic risk and quantifying the reduction in carbon emissions with increased deployment 5. Economics - projecting costs

  10. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  11. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  12. Testing for the ‘predictability’ of dynamically triggered earthquakes in Geysers Geothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Chastity; Meng, Xiaofeng; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2018-01-01

    The Geysers geothermal field is well known for being susceptible to dynamic triggering of earthquakes by large distant earthquakes, owing to the introduction of fluids for energy production. Yet, it is unknown if dynamic triggering of earthquakes is ‘predictable’ or whether dynamic triggering could lead to a potential hazard for energy production. In this paper, our goal is to investigate the characteristics of triggering and the physical conditions that promote triggering to determine whether or not triggering is in anyway foreseeable. We find that, at present, triggering in The Geysers is not easily ‘predictable’ in terms of when and where based on observable physical conditions. However, triggered earthquake magnitude positively correlates with peak imparted dynamic stress, and larger dynamic stresses tend to trigger sequences similar to mainshock–aftershock sequences. Thus, we may be able to ‘predict’ what size earthquakes to expect at The Geysers following a large distant earthquake.

  13. Testing for the 'predictability' of dynamically triggered earthquakes in The Geysers geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Chastity; Meng, Xiaofeng; Hardebeck, Jeanne

    2018-03-01

    The Geysers geothermal field is well known for being susceptible to dynamic triggering of earthquakes by large distant earthquakes, owing to the introduction of fluids for energy production. Yet, it is unknown if dynamic triggering of earthquakes is 'predictable' or whether dynamic triggering could lead to a potential hazard for energy production. In this paper, our goal is to investigate the characteristics of triggering and the physical conditions that promote triggering to determine whether or not triggering is in anyway foreseeable. We find that, at present, triggering in The Geysers is not easily 'predictable' in terms of when and where based on observable physical conditions. However, triggered earthquake magnitude positively correlates with peak imparted dynamic stress, and larger dynamic stresses tend to trigger sequences similar to mainshock-aftershock sequences. Thus, we may be able to 'predict' what size earthquakes to expect at The Geysers following a large distant earthquake.

  14. Options for shallow geothermal energy for horticulture; Kansen voor Ondiepe Geothermie voor de glastuinbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellebrand, K. [IF-Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands); Post, R.J. [DLV glas en energie, Naaldwijk (Netherlands); In ' t Groen, B. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    Geothermal energy is too expensive to serve as energy supply for most horticultural entrepreneurs. Therefore, research has been carried out into options to use heat from more shallow layers (shallow geothermal energy). Unlike shallow geothermal energy deep geothermal energy can be applied on a smaller scale, possibly also for individual growers. It can be applied in combination with an existing heating system, but with a more sustainable outcome. Because drilling is done in shallow layers, drilling costs and financial risks are lower [Dutch] Geothermie is voor de meeste tuinbouwondernemers teduur om als energievoorziening te dienen. Daarom is onderzoek gedaan naar mogelijkheden om warmte te gebruiken uit ondiepere lagen (ondiepe geothermie). In tegenstelling tot diepe geothermie is ondiepe geothermie op kleinere schaal toepasbaar, mogelijk ook voor individuele kwekers. Het kan in combinatie met de bestaande verwarmingsinstallatie worden ingezet maar met een duurzamer resultaat. Omdat ondieper wordt geboord zijn de boorkosten en de financiele risico's lager.

  15. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program. Annual report, fiscal year 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, G.M.; Duffield, R.B.; Smith, M.C.; Wilson, M.G. (comps.)

    1980-08-01

    The Fenton Hill Project is still the principal center for developing methods, equipment, and instrumentation for creating and utilizing HDR geothermal reservoirs. The search for a second site for a similar experimental system in a different geological environment has been intensified, as have the identification and characterization of other HDR areas that may prove suitable for either experimental or commercial development. The Phase I fracture system was enlarged during FY79. Drilling of the injection well of the Phase II system began at Fenton Hill in April 1979. Environmental monitoring of the Fenton Hill area continued through FY79. The environmental studies indicate that the hot dry rock operations have caused no significant environmental impact. Other supporting activities included rock physics, rock mechanics, fracture mapping, and instrumentation development. Two closely related activities - evaluation of the potential HDR energy resource of the US and the selection of a site for development of a second experimental heat-extraction system generally similar to that at Fenton Hill - have resulted in the collection of geology, hydrology, and heat-flow data on some level of field activity in 30 states. The resource-evaluation activity included reconnaissance field studies and a listing and preliminary characterization of US geothermal areas in which HDR energy extraction methods may be applicable. The selection of Site 2 has taken into account such legal, institutional, and economic factors as land ownership and use, proximity to possible users, permitting and licensing requirements and procedures, environmental issues, areal extent of the geothermal area, and visibility to and apparent interest by potential industrial developers.

  16. PNAS Plus: Origin of first cells at terrestrial, anoxic geothermal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.; Bychkov, Andrew Yu.; Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2012-04-01

    All cells contain much more potassium, phosphate, and transition metals than modern (or reconstructed primeval) oceans, lakes, or rivers. Cells maintain ion gradients by using sophisticated, energy-dependent membrane enzymes (membrane pumps) that are embedded in elaborate ion-tight membranes. The first cells could possess neither ion-tight membranes nor membrane pumps, so the concentrations of small inorganic molecules and ions within protocells and in their environment would equilibrate. Hence, the ion composition of modern cells might reflect the inorganic ion composition of the habitats of protocells. We attempted to reconstruct the "hatcheries" of the first cells by combining geochemical analysis with phylogenomic scrutiny of the inorganic ion requirements of universal components of modern cells. These ubiquitous, and by inference primordial, proteins and functional systems show affinity to and functional requirement for K+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and phosphate. Thus, protocells must have evolved in habitats with a high K+/Na+ ratio and relatively high concentrations of Zn, Mn, and phosphorous compounds. Geochemical reconstruction shows that the ionic composition conducive to the origin of cells could not have existed in marine settings but is compatible with emissions of vapor-dominated zones of inland geothermal systems. Under the anoxic, CO2-dominated primordial atmosphere, the chemistry of basins at geothermal fields would resemble the internal milieu of modern cells. The precellular stages of evolution might have transpired in shallow ponds of condensed and cooled geothermal vapor that were lined with porous silicate minerals mixed with metal sulfides and enriched in K+, Zn2+, and phosphorous compounds.

  17. Niland development project geothermal loan guaranty: 49-MW (net) power plant and geothermal well field development, Imperial County, California: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The proposed federal action addressed by this environmental assessment is the authorization of disbursements under a loan guaranteed by the US Department of Energy for the Niland Geothermal Energy Program. The disbursements will partially finance the development of a geothermal well field in the Imperial Valley of California to supply a 25-MW(e) (net) power plant. Phase I of the project is the production of 25 MW(e) (net) of power; the full rate of 49 MW (net) would be achieved during Phase II. The project is located on approximately 1600 acres (648 ha) near the city of Niland in Imperial County, California. Well field development includes the initial drilling of 8 production wells for Phase I, 8 production wells for Phase II, and the possible need for as many as 16 replacement wells over the anticipated 30-year life of the facility. Activities associated with the power plant in addition to operation are excavation and construction of the facility and associated systems (such as cooling towers). Significant environmental impacts, as defined in Council on Environmental Quality regulation 40 CFR Part 1508.27, are not expected to occur as a result of this project. Minor impacts could include the following: local degradation of ambient air quality due to particulate and/or hydrogen sulfide emissions, temporarily increased ambient noise levels due to drilling and construction activities, and increased traffic. Impacts could be significant in the event of a major spill of geothermal fluid, which could contaminate groundwater and surface waters and alter or eliminate nearby habitat. Careful land use planning and engineering design, implementation of mitigation measures for pollution control, and design and implementation of an environmental monitoring program that can provide an early indication of potential problems should ensure that impacts, except for certain accidents, will be minimized.

  18. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field based on well log interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwe, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-08-10

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine the direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.

  19. Geothermal energy program summary: Volume 2, Research summaries, fiscal year 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division (GTD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with the lead federal role in the research and development (R&D) of technologies that will assist industry in economically exploiting the nation`s vast geothermal resources. The GTD R&D program represents a comprehensive, balanced approach to establishing all forms of geothermal energy as significant contributors to the nation`s energy supply. It is structured both to maintain momentum in the growth of the existing hydrothermal industry and to develop long-term options offering the greatest promise for practical applications. The Geothermal Energy Program Summary for Fiscal Year 1988 is a two-volume set designed to be an easily accessible reference to inform the US geothermal industry and other interested parties of the technological advances and progress achieved in the DOE geothermal program as well as to describe the thrust of the current R&D effort and future R&D directions. This volume, Volume II, contains a detailed compilation of each GTD-funded R&D activity performed by national laboratories or under contract to industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions. The Program Summary is intended as an important technology transfer vehicle to assure the wide and timely dissemination of information concerning the department`s geothermal research.

  20. Environmental considerations for geothermal energy as a source for district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1996-01-01

    Geothermal energy currently provides a stable and environmentally attractive heat source for approximately 20 district heating (DH) systems in the United States. The use of this resource eliminates nearly 100% of the conventional fuel consumption (and, hence, the emissions) of the loads served by these systems. As a result, geothermal DH systems can rightfully claim the title of the most fuel-efficient CH systems in operations today. The cost of producing heat from a geothermal resource (including capitalization of the production facility and cost for pumping) amounts to an average of $1.00 per mission Btu (0.0034 $/kWh). The major environmental challenge for geothermal systems is proper management of the producing aquifer. Many systems are moving toward injection of the geothermal fluids to ensure long-term production.

  1. Geothermal energy sources as opportunity for Turkish greenhouse horticulture and the Dutch commercial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de H.F.; Ruijs, M.N.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to identify the opportunities offered by exploration of geothermal energy sources, and to specify actions to be taken by Dutch governmental bodies and private companies in collaboration with Turkish partners.

  2. Development of the Geothermal Heat Pump Market in China; Renewable Energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-03-01

    This case study is one in a series of Success Stories on developing renewable energy technologies in China for a business audience. It focuses on the development of the geothermal heat pump market in China.

  3. Outlook on principles for designing integrated and cascade use of low enthalpy geothermal energy in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasheri, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    In the countries of Western Europe, USA and Japan, the technologies of a new generation evolved to exploit high and low enthalpy geothermal sources and mineral waters. There are great experiences for modern complex exploitation of these resources, which increase natural wealth values, in European Community Countries. In Albania, rich in geothermal resources of low enthalpy and mineral waters, similar new technologies have been either partly developed or remain still untouched. Modern complex exploitation is very rare phenomena. Large numbers of geothermal energy of high and low enthalpy resources, a lot of mineral water sources and some CO 2 gas reservoirs represent the base for successfully application of modern technologies in Albania, to achieve economic effectively and success of complex exploitation. Actuality, there are many geothermal, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, biological and medical investigations and studies of thermal and mineral water resources carried out in Albania. Generally, these investigations and studies are separated each from the other. Their information and data will serve for studies and evaluations in Albania regional scale. These studies and evaluations are necessary to well know in regional plane the thermal and mineral water resources potential and geothermal market of the Albania. According to results of these new studies, the evaluation for the perspective level of the best areas in country will be necessary. After the evaluation is possible to start investments in these areas. These investments will be profitable in a short period of time. Integrated and cascade use of geothermal energy of low enthalpy it is important condition for profitable investment. In Albania, there are several geothermal energy sources that can be used. Such geothermal energy sources are natural thermal water springs and deep wells with a temperature of up to 65,5 o C. Deep abandoned oil wells can be used as 'Vertical Earth Heat Probe'. The integrated and

  4. Ecologically Safe Geothermal Energy Resources in Western Siberia near high-rise construction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Alexandr; Shiganova, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The development of geothermal energy in combination with other renewable energy sources (the sun, the wind) will help to solve the problem of heat supply and electrification in near high-rise construction zones of the country, especially in sparsely populated parts, where centralized energy and heat supply is economically unacceptable, and will improve the ecological situation. The aim of the research is to analyze the geothermal resources of the main aquifers in Western Siberia and to develop recommendations for further study and use of heat and power resources of this territory. The article gives retrospective of state research programs and potential use of hydrothermal resources of administrative units geographically entering the territory under consideration. It is noted that by now such programs have been curtailed for various reasons, although there are examples of their successful and effective use in various fields of industry and agriculture. According to the decision of the Supreme Ecological Council of the State Duma Committee of the Russian Federation adopted in 2014 on the beginning of the development of federal targeted programs for the use of heat power water as a source of electricity and heat supply, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation made proposals for further research and use of hydrothermal waters in Western Siberia. Implementation of the programs proposed by the authors, alongside with other positive aspects, will solve the problems of heat supply in remote territories and improve the environmental situation in the region.

  5. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Laney

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently possible or

  6. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently

  7. Proceedings of second geopressured geothermal energy conference, Austin, Texas, February 23--25, 1976. Volume V. Legal, institutional, and environmental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Three separate abstracts were prepared for Volume V of the Proceedings of the Conference. Sections are entitled: Legal Issues in the Development of Geopressured--Geothermal Resources of Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast; The Development of Geothermal Energy in the Gulf Coast; Socio-economic, Demographic, and Political Considerations; and Geothermal Resources of the Texas Gulf Coast--Environmental Concerns arising from the Production and Disposal of Geothermal waters. (MCW)

  8. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers : A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Limberger, J.; Boxem, T.; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Bruhn, David; Manzella, Adelle; Calcagno, Philippe; Beekman, F.; Cloetingh, S.; van Wees, J.-D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a volumetric heat-in-place method to improve current global geothermal resource base estimates for direct heat applications. The amount of thermal energy stored within aquifers depends on the Earth's he...

  9. Progress of the LASL dry hot rock geothermal energy project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    The possibilities and problems of extracting energy from geothermal reservoirs which do not spontaneously yield useful amounts of steam or hot water are discussed. The system for accomplishing this which is being developed first is a pressurized-water circulation loop intended for use in relatively impermeable hot rock. It will consist of two holes connected through the hot rock by a very large hydraulic fracture and connected at the surface through the primary heat exchanger of an energy utilization system. Preliminary experiments in a hole 2576 ft (0.7852 km) deep, extending about 470 ft (143 m) into the Precambrian basement rock underlying the Jemez Plateau of north-central New Mexico, revealed no unexpected difficulties in drilling or hydraulically fracturing such rock at a temperature of approximately 100 C, and demonstrated a permeability low enough so that it appeared probable that pressurized water could be contained by the basement rock. Similar experiments are in progress in a second hole, now 6701 ft (2.043 km) deep, about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south of the first one.

  10. Economic analysis of potential uses of geothermal energy in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, B.W.

    1978-02-01

    The economic feasibility and water quality considerations of the cultural practice of soil warming was evaluated using existing technical, agronomic, and economic data. It was hypothesized that it is technically and economically feasible to use geothermal energy in the cultural practice of soil warming for specific crops. The analysis attempted to reject the hypothesis. Since the hypothesis could not be rejected, the results are presented as a profit equation suitable for inclusion in the GEOCOST computer program. This determination of economic feasibility utilized heterogeneous crop yield data by comparing the elasticity of response with a normalized product-factor price ratio. Soil warming was determined to be feasible when the elasticity of production was equal to or greater than the normalized product-factor price ratio. A farm enterprise was determined profitable if net returns were positive. An empirical model in which the energy dissipation rate is a function of the difference between heat source temperature and mean monthly air temperature was transformed to utilize data describing the total heat applied during the growing season. Heat input was then measured as the total number of calories per square centimeter applied during the growing season.

  11. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  12. The Momotombo Geothermal Field, Nicaragua: Exploration and development case history study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-07-01

    This case history discusses the exploration methods used at the Momotombo Geothermal Field in western Nicaragua, and evaluates their contributions to the development of the geothermal field models. Subsequent reservoir engineering has not been synthesized or evaluated. A geothermal exploration program was started in Nicaragua in 1966 to discover and delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in western Nicaragua. Exploration began at the Momotombo field in 1970 using geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods. A regional study of thermal manifestations was undertaken and the area on the southern flank of Volcan Momotombo was chosen for more detailed investigation. Subsequent exploration by various consultants produced a number of geotechnical reports on the geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the field as well as describing production well drilling. Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. This report presents the description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development. Our principal finding is that data developed at each stage were not sufficiently integrated to guide further work at the field, causing inefficient use of

  13. Improving Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning Efficiency with Wintertime Cooling using Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES). Application Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    APPLICATION MANUAL Improving Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning Efficiency with Wintertime Cooling using Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage...manual is to describe the use of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) technology, particularly through the employment of wintertime cooling...application projects to increase energy efficiency and occupant comfort. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) technology, energy efficiency, geothermal heat

  14. Contributions of arsenic and chloride from the Kawerau geothermal field to the Tarawera River, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroczek, E.K.

    2005-01-01

    The Tarawera River flows through the Kawerau geothermal field. Natural geothermal drainage as well as geothermal production fluid effluent (0.193 m 3 /s) discharge to the river. The concentrations and fluxes of arsenic and chloride were measured upstream and downstream of the field to quantify the proportion of natural inflows of geothermal fluid compared to the discharge of effluent. Upstream of the geothermal effluent outfalls, the arsenic and chloride concentrations in the river are about 0.021 mg/l and 39 mg/l, respectively. The discharge of effluent increases the concentrations in the river to 0.029 mg/l and 48 mg/l, respectively. Calculated concentrations, given the known discharge of effluent, are 0.038 mg/l for arsenic and 50 mg/l for chloride. The differences between the measured and calculated concentrations are within the gauging and analytical errors. At minimum and maximum mean river flows (1984-1992), the concentrations would increase and decrease by 23% and 46%, respectively. Arsenic appears to be soluble and not associated with suspended solids. However, increased transport of arsenic by suspended solids may be a factor at higher river flows. The input of natural geothermal fluid upstream of the effluent outfalls (estimated < 0.170 m3/s) could not be detected (within the errors) by an increase in river chloride concentrations. (author)

  15. The Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Geothermal Exploitation Monitoring: Khankala Field Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Cherkasov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of unmanned aerial vehicle for geothermal waters exploitation monitoring. Development of a geothermal reservoir usually requires a system of wells, pipelines and pumping equipment and control of such a system is quite complicated. In this regard, use of unmanned aerial vehicle is relevant. Two test unmanned aerial vehicle based infrared surveys have been conducted at the Khankala field (Chechen Republic with the Khankala geothermal plant operating at different regimes: during the first survey – with, and the second – without reinjection of used geothermal fluid. Unmanned aerial vehicle Geoscan 201 equipped with digital (Sony DSX-RX1 and thermal imaging (Thermoframe-MX-TTX cameras was used. Besides different images of the geothermal plant obtained by the surveys, 13 thermal anomalies have been identified. Analysis of the shape and temperature facilitated determination of their different sources: fire, heating systems, etc., which was confirmed by a ground reconnaissance. Results of the study demonstrate a high potential of unmanned aerial vehicle based thermal imagery use for environmental and technological monitoring of geothermal fields under operation.

  16. Observing and Modeling Temporal Variations of Seismic Velocities at the Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, V. H.; Tsai, V. C.; Taira, T.

    2016-12-01

    Perturbations in subsurface elastic parameters induce changes in seismic velocity. To understand the stress perturbations due to geothermal operation, we apply seismic noise interferometry to examine the temporal variations of seismic velocity (dv/v) at the Geysers Geothermal Field, California. Our observations show a strong positive correlation between dv/v and net production (steam production minus fluid injection), and a strong negative correlation between dv/v and fluid injection. Notably, there is little time lag (less than a month) between dv/v and fluid injection in the SE region of the field, suggesting a rapid response in elastic properties in this highly saturated region. The influx of fluid decreases the effective shear modulus, which in turn decreases the velocities. A number of hypotheses have been suggested to cause stress perturbations in the field, including poroelastic-induced stresses, direct elastic loading and thermoelastic-induced stresses. We perform a 1-D hydrological simulation to calculate the expected variations in dv/v due to different stresses by considering Murnaghan's theory of finite deformations and the third-order terms in the strain energy function. The synthetic dv/v measurements are spatially averaged based on computed sensitivity kernels, allowing for direct comparison with both the amplitude and phase of dv/v observations. We show the order-of-magnitude effect that each of the stresses have on the dv/v measurement, and explore the possibility of using dv/v to constrain important hydrological and elastic properties such as hydraulic conductivity in the field.

  17. Colorado geothermal commercialization program: community development of geothermal energy in Pagosa Springs, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    A district heating system for the Pagosa Springs central business district is in the planning stage. A detailed analysis of the project is presented. It comprises area and site specific studies and describes in detail the recent, current, anticipated, and postulated geothermal development activities. (MHR)

  18. Geopressured geothermal bibliography (Geopressure Thesaurus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This thesaurus of terminology associated with the geopressured geothermal energy field has been developed as a part of the Geopressured Geothermal Information System data base. A thesaurus is a compilation of terms displaying synonymous, hierarchical, and other relationships between terms. These terms, which are called descriptors, constitute the special language of the information retrieval system, the system vocabulary. The Thesaurus' role in the Geopressured Geothermal Information System is to provide a controlled vocabulary of sufficient specificity for subject indexing and retrieval of documents in the geopressured geothermal energy field. The thesauri most closely related to the Geopressure Thesaurus in coverage are the DOE Energy Information Data Base Subject Thesaurus and the Geothermal Thesaurus being developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The Geopressure Thesaurus differs from these thesauri in two respects: (1) specificity of the vocabulary or subject scope and (2) display format.

  19. Economic Feasibility Analysis of the Application of Geothermal Energy Facilities to Public Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present an efficient plan for the application of a geothermal energy facility at the building structure planning phase. Energy consumption, energy cost and the primary energy consumption of buildings were calculated to enable a comparison of buildings prior to the application of a geothermal energy facility. The capacity for energy savings and the costs related to the installation of such a facility were estimated. To obtain more reliable criteria for economic feasibility, the lifecycle cost (LCC analysis incorporated maintenance costs (reflecting repair and replacement cycles based on construction work specifications of a new renewable energy facility and initial construction costs (calculated based on design drawings for its practical installation. It is expected that the findings of this study will help in the selection of an economically viable geothermal energy facility at the building construction planning phase.

  20. Thermal Properties of Cement-Based Composites for Geothermal Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaohua; Memon, Shazim Ali; Yang, Haibin; Dong, Zhijun; Cui, Hongzhi

    2017-04-27

    Geothermal energy piles are a quite recent renewable energy technique where geothermal energy in the foundation of a building is used to transport and store geothermal energy. In this paper, a structural-functional integrated cement-based composite, which can be used for energy piles, was developed using expanded graphite and graphite nanoplatelet-based composite phase change materials (CPCMs). Its mechanical properties, thermal-regulatory performance, and heat of hydration were evaluated. Test results showed that the compressive strength of GNP-Paraffin cement-based composites at 28 days was more than 25 MPa. The flexural strength and density of thermal energy storage cement paste composite decreased with increases in the percentage of CPCM in the cement paste. The infrared thermal image analysis results showed superior thermal control capability of cement based materials with CPCMs. Hence, the carbon-based CPCMs are promising thermal energy storage materials and can be used to improve the durability of energy piles.

  1. Geothermal energy technology: issues, R and D needs, and cooperative arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, the National Research Council, through its Energy Engineering Board, formed the Committee on Geothermal Energy Technology. The committee's study addressed major issues in geothermal energy technology, made recommendations for research and development, and considered cooperative arrangements among government, industry, and universities to facilitate RandD under current severe budget constraints. The report addresses four types of geothermal energy: hydrothermal, geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma systems. Hydrothermal systems are the only type that are now economically competitive commercially. Further technology development by the Department of Energy could make the uneconomical hydrothermal resources commercially attractive to the industry. The economics are more uncertain for the longer-term technologies for extracting energy from geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma systems. For some sites, the cost of energy derived from geopressured and hot dry rock systems is projected within a commercially competitive range. The use of magma energy is too far in the future to make reasonable economic calculations.

  2. Efficient Use of Geothermal Energy in Spas - Call for Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, W.; Ponweiser, K.; Gollob, K.; Götzl, G.; Schneider, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    In Central Europe, the Pannonian Basin and adjacent areas are holding some of the most attractive geothermal energy resources available from subsurface hot water reservoirs. In fact, utilization of geothermal energy has a long-standing tradition in the region, mainly for thermal and medicinal bathing. Nevertheless, putting to use the extractable heat in a technical and economical optimum manner, and integrating the various energy flows (heating, cooling, vitiated air, etc.) in the application system as well as returning the cooled effluent (excluding used bath water) back to the reservoir, has not found general acceptance to date. This is regrettable not least because thermal spas can be regarded as virtually ideal objects for an integrated management of energy flows on a low temperature level. Hardly any other facilities are in nearly constant, year-round need of heat at a low temperature, as is actually delivered by most thermal aquifers. Also, waste heat and solar energy can be added without much inconvenience, and if hotels and/or therapeutic facilities are to be supplied, there will be cooling demand as well. Many spas in the region are about to update their technology. Complementing this development by an initiative for an integrated and therefore economical use of all the heat sinks and sources that may be present was the main objective of the "network project" PANTHERM (www.pantherm.eu) designed at the University of Applied Life Sciences and Natural Resources, Vienna, in cooperation with four Austrian and ten Hungarian, Slovak and Slovenian partners, and funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, Vienna. In the course of a technical feasibility study it was dealt with the problem, and - by example of the spa of Sárvár in Hungary - demonstrated also, in which way the given mass and energy flows need to be interconnected in order to achieve an optimum energy yield, always with an eye on cost-effectiveness and sustainability. The other Eastern

  3. Evaluation of mineral-aqueous chemical equilibria of felsic reservoirs with low-medium temperature: A comparative study in Yangbajing geothermal field and Guangdong geothermal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiexiang; Sagoe, Gideon; Yang, Guang; Lu, Guoping

    2018-02-01

    Classical geothermometers are useful tools for estimating reservoir temperatures of geothermal systems. However, their application to low-medium temperature reservoirs is limited because large variations of temperatures calculated by different classical geothermometers are usually observed. In order to help choose the most appropriate classical geothermometer for calculating the temperatures of low-medium temperature reservoirs, this study evaluated the mineral-aqueous equilibria of typical low-medium temperature felsic reservoirs in the Yangbajing geothermal field and Guangdong geothermal fields. The findings of this study support that reservoirs in the Guangdong geothermal fields have no direct magma influence. Also, natural reservoirs may represent the intermediate steady state before reaching full equilibrium, which rarely occurs. For the low-medium temperature geothermal systems without the influence of magma, even with seawater intrusion, the process of minerals reaching mineral-aqueous equilibrium is sequential: chlorite and chalcedony are the first, then followed by K-feldspar, kaolinite and K-mica. Chlorite may reach equilibrium at varying activity values, and the equilibrium between K-feldspar and kaolinite or K-feldspar and K-mica can fix the contents of K and Al in the solutions. Although the SiO2 and Al attain equilibrium state, albite and laumontite remain unsaturated and thus may affect low-medium temperature calculations. In this study, the chalcedony geothermometer was found to be the most suitable geothermometer for low-medium temperature reservoirs. The results of K-Mg geothermometer may be useful to complement that of the chalcedony geothermometer in low-medium temperature reservoir systems. Na-K geothermometer will give unreliable results at low-medium temperatures; and Na-K-Ca will also be unsuitable to calculate reservoir temperatures lower than 180 °C, probably caused by the chemical imbalance of laumontite.

  4. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary and Crystalline Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Mike S. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Detwiler, Russell L. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Lao, Kang [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Serajian, Vahid [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Elkhoury, Jean [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Diessl, Julia [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); White, Nicky [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-12-13

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. The primary objectives of this DOE research effort are to develop and document optimum design configurations and operating practices to produce geothermal power from hot permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations using advanced horizontal well recirculation systems. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine (UCI), have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery. These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

  5. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Antunez, Emilio u.

    1996-01-24

    In order to remain competitive it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them is also given.

  6. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Antunez, E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to remain competitive, it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them, is also given.

  7. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  8. Oregon: a guide to geothermal energy development. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justus, D.; Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    The following subjects are covered: Oregons' geothermal potential, exploration methods and costs, drilling, utilization methods, economic factors of direct use projects, and legal and institutional setting. (MHR)

  9. Geothermal Energy Research and Development Program; Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-03-01

    This is an internal DOE Geothermal Program document. This document contains summaries of projects related to exploration technology, reservoir technology, drilling technology, conversion technology, materials, biochemical processes, and direct heat applications. [DJE-2005

  10. Geothermal energy in Idaho: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The various factors affecting geothermal resource development are summarized for Idaho, including: resource data base, geological description, reservoir characteristics, environmental character, lease and development status, institutional factors, legal aspects, population and market, and development. (MHR)

  11. Geothermal energy in Washington: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.

    1979-04-01

    This is an attempt to identify the factors which have affected and will continue to affect geothermal assessment and development in the state. The eight potential sites chosen for detailed analysis include: Indian Heaven KGRA, Mount St. Helens KGRA, Kennedy Hot Springs KGRA, Mount Adams PGRA (Potential Geothermal Resource Area), Mount Rainier PGRA, Mount Baker PGRA, Olympic-Sol Duc Hot Springs, and Yakima. The following information is included for each site: site data, site location and physical description, geological/geophysical description, reservoir characteristics, land ownership and leasing, geothermal development status, institutional characteristics, environmental factors, transportation and utilities, and population. A number of serious impediments to geothermal development were identified which can be solved only by legislative action at the state or federal level and/or changes in attitudes by regulatory agencies. (MHR)

  12. Geothermal energy in Alaska: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markle, D.R.

    1979-04-01

    The various factors affecting geothermal resource development are summarized for Alaska including: resource data base, geological description, reservoir characteristics, environmental character, base and development status, institutional factors, economics, population and market, and development potential. (MHR)

  13. Geothermal energy in Idaho: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.V.

    1979-07-01

    A summary of known information about the nature of the resource, its potential for development, and the infrastructure of government which will guide future development is presented. Detailed site specific data regarding the commercialization potential of the proven, potential, and inferred geothermal resource areas in Idaho are included. Leasing and development status, institutional parameters, and a legal overview of geothermal resources in Idaho are given. (MHR)

  14. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  15. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  16. Current state of exploitation of low enthalpy geothermal energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisdet, A.; Fouillac, C.; Jaudin, F.; Menjoz, A.; Rojas, J.; Ferrandes, R.; Lemale, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that at present, the geothermal exploitation in France is characterized by sixty plants using geothermal energy for direct heat in district heating. Drilling and connection to networks occurred mainly during the years 1980-1985. From 1985 to 1990, the research efforts have been focused on detailed reservoir knowledge, corrosion-scaling process induced by the fluid composition, methods and techniques for maintenance, rehabilitation of some wells and equipments after work over. Concentrated in two main area, the Paris and Aquitaine basins, the French geothermal potential is large. The improved knowledge obtained during the last five years spared to the valorization of existing plants will allow a new start of geothermal exploitation. Nevertheless this latter is highly dependent on the international energy context

  17. Session 10: The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico: The Experiences Gained from Its Exploration and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippman, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Cerro Prieto case study demonstrated the value of a multidisciplinary effort for exploring and developing a geothermal field. There was no problem in recognizing the geothermal potential of the Cerro Prieto area because of the many obvious surface manifestations. However, the delineation of the geothermal reservoir at depth was not so straightforward. Wells drilled near the abundant surface manifestations only produced fluids of relatively low enthalpy. Later it was determined that these zones of high heat loss corresponded to discharge areas where faults and fractures allowed thermal fluids to leak to the surface, and not to the main geothermal reservoir. The early gravity and seismic refraction surveys provided important information on the general structure of the area. Unaware of the existence of a higher density zone of hydrothermally altered sediments capping the geothermal reservoir, CFE interpreted a basement horst in the western part of the field and hypothesized that the bounding faults were controlling the upward flow of thermal fluids. Attempting to penetrate the sedimentary column to reach the ''basement horst'', CFE discovered the {alpha} geothermal reservoir (in well M-5). The continuation of the geothermal aquifer (actually the {beta} reservoir) east of the original well field was later confirmed by a deep exploration well (M-53). The experience of Cerro Prieto showed the importance of chemical ratios, and geothermometers in general, in establishing the subsurface temperatures and fluid flow patterns. Fluid chemical and isotopic compositions have also been helpful to determine the origin of the fluids, fluid-production mechanisms and production induced effects on the reservoir.

  18. Geothermal system boundary at the northern edge of Patuha Geothermal Field based on integrated study of volcanostratigraphy, geological field mapping, and cool springs contamination by thermal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryantini; Rachmawati, C.; Abdurrahman, M.

    2017-12-01

    Patuha Geothermal System is a volcanic hydrothermal system. In this type of system, the boundary of the system is often determined by low resistivity (10 ohm.m) anomaly from Magnetotelluric (MT) or DC-Resistivity survey. On the contrary, during geothermal exploration, the system boundary often need to be determined as early as possible even prior of resistivity data available. Thus, a method that use early stage survey data must be developed properly to reduce the uncertainty of the geothermal area extent delineation at the time the geophysical data unavailable. Geological field mapping, volcanostratigraphy analysis and fluid chemistry of thermal water and cold water are the data available at the early stage of exploration. This study integrates this data to delineate the geothermal system boundary. The geological mapping and volcanostratigraphy are constructed to limit the extent of thermal and cold springs. It results that springs in the study area are controlled hydrologically by topography of Patuha Volcanic Crown (complex) or so called PVC, the current geothermal field and Masigit Volcanic Crown (complex) or so called MVC, the dormant volcano not associated with active geothermal system. Some of the cold springs at PVC are contaminated by subsurface steam heated outflow while others are not contaminated. The contaminated cold springs have several characteristics such as higher water temperature than ambient temperature at the time it was measured, higher total disolved solid (TDS), and lower pH. The soluble elements analysis support the early contamination indication by showing higher cation and anion, and positive oxygen shifting of stable isotope of these cool springs. Where as the uncontaminated spring shows similar characteristic with cool springs occur at MVC. The boundary of the system is delineated by an arbitrary line drawn between distal thermal springs from the upflow or contaminated cool springs with the cool uncontaminated springs. This boundary is

  19. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Fruit drying with geothermal energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-14

    Largest problem was lack of proper recording and controlling instrumentation. Agricultural products tested were green papaya powder, banana slices, and pineapple slices. Results show that a temperature of 120 F is a good drying temperature. Papaya should be mature green and not overly ripe; banana ripeness is also important; and pineapple slice thickness should be very uniform for even drying. Geothermal drying is feasible. Figs, tabs.

  20. Seismic discrimination of a geothermal field: Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakeslee, S.

    1984-04-01

    Extensive reprocessing of a subset of the seismic reflection data from Cerro Prieto has been performed. The formations and faults identified in the resulting seismic profile were correlated to cross-sections constructed from well log data. The production region coincides with a zone of reflection attenuation. A detailed velocity analysis reveals a lid of high velocity events rimming the reflection attenuation zone. This may prove to be a valuable discriminant for locating a geothermal resource using seismic reflection data.

  1. Proceedings of the Conference on Research for the Development of Geothermal Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the development of geothermal energy resources are presented. The purpose of the conference was to acquaint potential user groups with the Federal and National Science Foundation geothermal programs and the method by which the users and other interested members can participate in the program. Among the subjects discussed are: (1) resources exploration and assessment, (2) environmental, legal, and institutional research, (3) resource utilization projects, and (4) advanced research and technology.

  2. Is development of geothermal energy resource in Macedonia justified or not?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril; Popovska Vasilevska, Sanja

    2007-01-01

    During the 80-ies of last century, Macedonia has been one of the world leaders in development of direct application of geothermal energy. During a period of only 6-7 years a participation of 0,7% in the State energy balance has been reached. However, situation has been changed during the last 20 years and the development of this energy resource has been not only stopped but some of the existing projects have been abandoned leading to regression. This situation is illogical, due the fact that it practically proved of being technically feasible and absolutely economically justified. A summary of the present situation with geothermal projects in Macedonia is made in the paper, and possibilities for their improvement and possibilities and justifications for development of new resources foreseen. Final conclusion is that the development of direct application of geothermal energy in Macedonia offer (in comparison with other renewable energy resources) the best energy and economic effects. (Author)

  3. Numerical simulations of passing seismic waves at the Larderello-Travale Geothermal Field, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Matteo; Fuchs, Florian; Saenger, Erik H.

    2017-06-01

    Passing seismic waves released by large-magnitude earthquakes may affect geological systems located thousands of miles far from the epicenter. The M9.0 Tohoku earthquake struck on 11 March 2011 in Japan. We detected local seismic activity at the Larderello-Travale geothermal field, Italy, coinciding with the maximum amplitudes of the Rayleigh waves generated by the Tohoku earthquake. We suggest that the earthquakes were triggered by passing Rayleigh waves that induced locally a maximum vertical displacement of approximately 7.5 mm (for waves with period of 100 s). The estimated dynamic stress was about 8 kPa for a measured peak ground velocity of 0.8 mm/s. Previous similar observations pointed out local seismicity at the Larderello-Travale Geothermal Field triggered by the 2012 Mw5.9 Po Plain earthquake. We conducted forward numerical modeling to investigate the effects caused by passing P, S, Love, and Rayleigh waves through the known velocity structure of the geothermal field. Results indicate that maximum displacements focus differently when considering body or surface waves, with displacement values being higher within the first 2 km of depth. The focusing of the displacement below 3 km seems to be strongly controlled by the velocity structure of the Larderello-Travale geothermal field. We propose that seismic activity triggered by passing seismic waves may be related to a clock-advancing mechanism for local seismic events that may have occurred in any case. Furthermore, our analysis shows that local anisotropies in the velocity structure of the Larderello-Travale geothermal field (possibly linked to compartments of elevated pore pressures) strongly control the reactivation of regions of the geothermal field affected by passing seismic waves.

  4. Regulatory aspects, an important factor for geothermal energy application for district heating development. European insurance scheme to cover geological risk related to geothermal operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril

    2000-01-01

    District heating is one of the most interesting fields of geothermal energy application development in Europe. However, besides the technical/technological/economical and organizational aspects of the problem in question, the related legal and regulatory aspects influence very much the real possibilities for wider introduction of this energy source in the state energy balances in most of the countries. Based on the official EU report for the State-of-the-art of the problem of the insurance to cover geological risks and necessary aspects to be developed and resolved in a better and 'common' way in order to enable higher investments in bigger projects (district heating) development, the paper presents the situation in different European countries in relation to the Macedonian one. Conclusions extracted should give a positive contribution to the process of the Macedonian laws accommodation to the common EU practice. (Author)

  5. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for Pagosa Springs, Colorado. Final report, June 1979-June 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.

    1984-08-01

    The Pagosa Springs Geothermal District Heating System was conceptualized, designed, and constructed between 1979 to 1984 under the US Department of Energy Program Opportunity Notice (PON) program to demonstrate the feasibility for utilizing moderate temperature geothermal resources for direct-use applications. The Pagosa Springs system successfully provides space heating to public buildings, school facilities, residences, and commercial establishments at costs significantly lower than costs of available conventional fuels. The Pagosa Springs project encompassed a full range of technical, institutional, and economic activities. Geothermal reservoir evaluations and testing were performed, and two productive approx.140/sup 0/F geothermal supply wells were successfully drilled and completed. Transmission and distribution system design, construction, startup, and operation were achieved with minimum difficulty. The geothermal system operation during the first two heating seasons has been fully reliable and well respected in the community. The project has proven that low to moderate-temperature waters can effectively meet required heating loads, even for harsh winter-mountain environments. The principal difficulty encountered has been institutional in nature and centers on the obtaining of the geothermal production well permits and the adjudicated water rights necessary to supply the geothermal hot water fluids for the full operating life of the system. 28 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Analysis of Injection-Induced Micro-Earthquakes in a Geothermal Steam Reservoir, The Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2008-05-15

    In this study we analyze relative contributions to the cause and mechanism of injection-induced micro-earthquakes (MEQs) at The Geysers geothermal field, California. We estimated the potential for inducing seismicity by coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical analysis of the geothermal steam production and cold water injection to calculate changes in stress (in time and space) and investigated if those changes could induce a rock mechanical failure and associated MEQs. An important aspect of the analysis is the concept of a rock mass that is critically stressed for shear failure. This means that shear stress in the region is near the rock-mass frictional strength, and therefore very small perturbations of the stress field can trigger an MEQ. Our analysis shows that the most important cause for injection-induced MEQs at The Geysers is cooling and associated thermal-elastic shrinkage of the rock around the injected fluid that changes the stress state in such a way that mechanical failure and seismicity can be induced. Specifically, the cooling shrinkage results in unloading and associated loss of shear strength in critically shear-stressed fractures, which are then reactivated. Thus, our analysis shows that cooling-induced shear slip along fractures is the dominant mechanism of injection-induced MEQs at The Geysers.

  7. Cost of district heating using geothermal energy; Ist geothermische Waerme wirtschaftlich?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppermann, G. [GRUNEKO AG, Ingenieure fuer Energiewirtschaft, Basel (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    The environmental advantages of a district heating network using geothermal energy are obvious. On the other hand utilizing geothermal energy is considered to be very expensive. The goal of this paper is to compare the costs of geothermal energy with other renewable energy sources. Based on the costs of realized plants and projects the following energy sources have been analysed. Geothermal energy, water of tunnel-drainage, waste heat of a sewage disposal platn and waste wood. All plants have a district heating network. The results are a contribution to the actuel discussion about public subsiding of geothermal energy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die oekologischen Vorteile einer geothermischen Fernwaermeversorgung sind fuer jeden, der Bohrungen in Erwaegung zieht, unschwer erkennbar. Wie steht es aber mit den Kosten einer geothermischen Nutzung? Hier beleben Horrorzahlen wie auch Wunschdenken die Diskussionen. Der Artikel beabsichtigt einen sachlichen Beitrag zu dieser Diskussion uz liefern. Konkrete Bauprojekte im Megawattbereich der GRUNEKO AG werden kostenmaessig nach gleichen Kriterien analysiert und verglichen. Auf goethermischer Seite wird ein Doublettensystem und eine Tunnelwasserwaermenutzung kostenmaessig analysiert. Als Quervergleich werden ebenfalls GRUNEKO-Projekte mit regenerierbaren Energietraegern herangezogen (Holzschnitzelanlage, Klaeranlagenabwaerme, Seewasser-Abkuehlung). Alle Analgen haben Waermeverteilnetze. Die nachgewiesenen Kostendifferenzen zwischen Geothermie und anderen regenerativen Waermversorgungen koennten einen Beitrag leisten zu der gegenwaertig aktuellen `Ueberpruefung staatlicher Foerderungsmassnahmen zugunsten einer verstaerkten Nutzung der Geothermie`. (orig.)

  8. Reservoir Simulation on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field: A Continuing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, M.; Marquez, R.; Arellano, V.; Esquer, C.A.

    1983-12-15

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field is a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of complex geological and hydrological structure. It is located at the southern end of the Salton-Mexicali trough which includes other geothermal anomalies as Heber and East Mesa. Although in 1973, the initial power plant installed capacity was 75 MW of electrical power, this amount increased to 180 MW in 1981 as field development continued. It is expected to have a generating capacity of 620 MW by the end of 1985, when two new plants will be completely in operation. Questions about field deliverability, reservoir life and ultimate recovery related to planned installations are being presently asked. Numerical modeling studies can give very valuable answers to these questions, even at the early stages in the development of a field. An effort to simulate the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir has been undergoing for almost two years. A joint project among Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Intercomp of Houstin, Texas, was created to perform reservoir engineering and simulation studies on this field. The final project objective is tosimulate the behavior of the old field region when production from additional wells located in the undeveloped field zones will be used for feeding the new power plants.

  9. Non-electric utilization of geothermal energy in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorum, M.; Coury, G.E.; Goering, S.W.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1978-02-01

    Information on the geothermal resources of the San Luis Valley, Colorado, has been gathered and reviewed and a preliminary, quantitative assessment of the magnitude and quality of resources present was carried out. Complete process designs were developed for the processes of producing crystal sugar from beets and for malting barley for use in the brewing industry, in each case adapting the processes to use a 302/sup 0/F geothermal water supply as the main process energy source. A parametric design analysis was performed for a major pipeline to be used to ship geothermal water, and thus deliver its heat, out of the San Luis Valley to three major Colorado cities along the eastern threshold of the Rocky Mountains. Cost estimates for capital equipment and energy utilization are presented. The analyses of the two process applications indicate favorable economics for conversion and operation as geothermally-heated plants. A major geothermal water pipeline for this region is seriously limited on achievement of the economy of scale by the physical absence of significant demand for heat energy. Finally, the development and utilization of Colorado's San Luis Valley geothermal groundwaters hold the potential to contribute to the prudent and beneficial management of that area's natural water resources systems.

  10. Thermodynamic evaluation of geothermal energy powered hydrogen production by PEM water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Ceyhun; Kanoglu, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis of a PEM water electrolyzer driven by geothermal power for hydrogen production is performed. For this purpose, work is produced from a geothermal resource by means of the organic Rankine cycle; the resulting work is used as a work input for an electrolysis process; and electrolysis water is preheated by the waste geothermal water. The first and second-law based performance parameters are identified for the considered system and the system performance is evaluated. The effects of geothermal water and electrolysis temperatures on the amount of hydrogen production are studied and these parameters are found to be proportional to each other. We consider a geothermal resource at 160 °C available at a rate of 100 kg/s. Under realistic operating conditions, 3810 kW power can be produced in a binary geothermal power plant. The produced power is used for the electrolysis process. The electrolysis water can be preheated to 80 °C by the geothermal water leaving the power plant and hydrogen can be produced at a rate of 0.0340 kg/s. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the binary geothermal power plant are 11.4% and 45.1%, respectively. The corresponding efficiencies for the electrolysis system are 64.0% and 61.6%, respectively, and those for the overall system are 6.7% and 23.8%, respectively. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production by PEM electrolysis powered by geothermal energy. • Power is used for electrolyser; used geothermal water is for preheating electrolysis water. • Effect of geothermal water and electrolysis temperatures on the amount of hydrogen production. • Hydrogen can be produced at a rate of 0.0340 kg/s for a resource at 160 °C available at 100 kg/s. • Energy and exergy efficiencies of the overall system are 6.7% and 23.8%, respectively

  11. CFE-DOE agreement for the study of Mexican geothermal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bert, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Commission Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is the public utility in Mexico in charge of electric energy service, as well as harnessing geothermal resources. An agreement of mutual benefit to achieve a thorough understanding of the nature of geothermal reservoirs was signed on April 17, 1986 with the United State Department of Energy (DOE). The major objective of this agreement was to investigate how geothermal resources can best be explored and exploited. The duration of the agreement was for 3 years, but as happens in many long-term research programs, new topics and problems appear. Thus an extension of 5 years was foreseen. A brief discussion on the results of the main tasks is presented in this paper, as well as of the new tasks and scopes for the 5-year extension of the agreement

  12. Chemical Variations in the Rocks of La Primavera Geothermal Field (Mexico) Related with Hydrothermal Alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prol-Ledesma, R.M.; Hernandez-Lombardini, S.I.; Lozano-Santa Cruz, R.

    1995-01-01

    The origin and fate of the components dissolved in the geothermal fluids are of great importance in the study of epithermal deposits, and in the environmental considerations for exploitation of geothermal fields. The chemical study of La Primavera geothermal field in Mexico has environmental importance due to the high arsenic concentration observed in the thermal water and the possible contamination of aquifers in the area. The variations in the chemistry of all altered samples with respect to unaltered samples indicates depletion of manganese, and the alkalis; and enrichment in iron and magnesium. Most samples show an enrichment in aluminum and titanium, and depletion in silica and calcium. Trace elements follow different trends at various depths: shallow depths are more favorable for deposition of the analyzed trace elements than the surface or the deep part of the reservoir.

  13. Microseismic monitoring during production and reinjection tests in the Chipilapa geothermal field (El Salvador)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabriol, H.; Beauce, A.; Jacobo, R.; Quijano, J.

    1992-01-01

    The microseismic monitoring of the Chipilapa geothermal field has investigated the microseismic activity prior to and during the production and injection tests of three wells drilled between 1989 and 1991. Two surveys were carried out, in 1988 and 1991-1992 respectively, in order to study the reservoir and its recharge and to monitor microseismicity induced by reinjection. Natural microseismicity is distributed around the known geothermal area, and related either to tectonic activity under the volcanic range sited at the south (and which is the upflow zone of the geothermal field) or to the Central Graben at the north. No evidences of induced microseismicity appeared at this stage of interpretation, probably due to the unfavourable conditions prevailing during the tests: Namely reinjection by gravity and low productivity

  14. Development of an active solar humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination system integrated with geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elminshawy, Nabil A.S.; Siddiqui, Farooq R.; Addas, Mohammad F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Productivity increases with increasing geothermal water flow rate up to 0.15 kg/s. • Geothermal energy increases productivity by 187–465% when used with solar energy. • Daytime experimental productivity (8AM-5PM) up to 104 L/m 2 was achieved. • Daily experimental productivity (24 h) up to 192 L/m 2 was achieved. • Fresh potable water can be produced at 0.003 USD/L using this desalination setup. - Abstract: This paper investigates the technical and economic feasibility of using a hybrid solar-geothermal energy source in a humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination system. The newly developed HDH system is a modified solar still with air blower and condenser used at its inlet and outlet respectively. A geothermal water tank in a temperature range 60–80 °C which imitates a low-grade geothermal energy source was used to supply heat to water inside the humidification chamber. The experiments were conducted in January 2015 under the climatological conditions of Madinah (latitude: 24°33′N, longitude: 39°36′0″E), Saudi Arabia to study the effect of geothermal water temperature and flow rate on the performance and productivity of proposed desalination system. Analytical model was also developed to compare the effect of solar energy and combined solar-geothermal energy on accumulated productivity. Daytime experimental accumulated productivity up to 104 L/m 2 and daily average gained output ratio (GOR) in the range 1.2–1.58 was achieved using the proposed desalination system. Cost of fresh water produced using the presented desalination system is 0.003 USD/L.

  15. Calculations of environmental benefits from using geothermal energy must include the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    and energy production patterns are simulated using data from countries with similar environmental conditions but do not use geothermal or hydropower to the same extent as Iceland. Because of the rapid shift towards renewable energy and exclusion of external energy provision, the country is considered...

  16. Exploring public engagement with geothermal energy in southern Italy: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzone, Anna; Allansdottir, Agnes; De Franco, Roberto; Muttoni, Giovanni; Manzella, Adele

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of public views on eventual geothermal energy development in Sicily. The research was carried out under a much wider research project, VIGOR, with the aim to explore the feasibility of geothermal energy utilization in southern Italy. This study has two primary objectives: (1) to explore the views and opinions of local communities regarding the potential of geothermal energy applications; (2) to contribute to the growing literature on public engagement with energy issues. In order to explore public views towards geothermal technologies, we conducted a case study using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Although Italy has enormous geological potential for geothermal energy production, levels of knowledge of this energy source amongst the public are low. The results indicate that the issue is shrouded in uncertainty and that the Sicilian public expresses a diffused lack of trust in decision-making processes. Taken together, these factors are likely to strongly impact eventual further developments in this sector. The results clearly show the need for further societal dialogue supported by a sound communication action strategy as the first stage in a public participation

  17. Options for shallow geothermal energy for horticulture. Annexes; Kansen voor Ondiepe Geothermie voor de glastuinbouw. Bijlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellebrand, K. [IF-Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands); Post, R.J. [DLV glas en energie, Naaldwijk (Netherlands); In ' t Groen, B. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    Geothermal energy is too expensive to serve as energy supply for most horticultural entrepreneurs. Therefore, research has been carried out into options to use heat from more shallow layers (shallow geothermal energy). Unlike shallow geothermal energy deep geothermal energy can be applied on a smaller scale, possibly also for individual growers. It can be applied in combination with an existing heating system, but with a more sustainable outcome. Because drilling is done in shallow layers, drilling costs and financial risks are lower. This report comprises the annexes (A) Geologic Framework, and (B) Maps of the Netherlands (depth, thickness of sand layers, temperature and shallow geothermal energy potential [Dutch] Geothermie is voor de meeste tuinbouwondernemers teduur om als energievoorziening te dienen. Daarom is onderzoek gedaan naar mogelijkheden om warmte te gebruiken uit ondiepere lagen (ondiepe geothermie). In tegenstelling tot diepe geothermie is ondiepe geothermie op kleinere schaal toepasbaar, mogelijk ook voor individuele kwekers. Het kan in combinatie met de bestaande verwarmingsinstallatie worden ingezet maar met een duurzamer resultaat. Omdat ondieper wordt geboord zijn de boorkosten en de financiele risico's lager. Dit rapport bevat de bijlagen: (A) Geologisch kader, en (B) B Kaarten Nederland (diepte, zandlaagdikte, temperatuur en ondiepe geothermie (OGT) potentie.

  18. IN SITU GEOTHERMAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY: AN APPROACH FOR BUILDING CLEANER AND GREENER ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faruque Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is abundant everywhere in the world. It certainly would be a great benefit for human being once it is produced by a sophisticated technology. Consequently, it would be the biggest console for earth considering environmental sustainability. Unfortunately, the current status of commercial production of geothermal energy primarily from hydrothermal, geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma are limited to a few countries due to technological difficulties and production cost. This paper describes a simple technology where an in situ geothermal plant assisted by a heat pump would act as a high-temperature production (>150°C to provide excellent capacity of energy generation. The issue related to costs is interestingly cheaper on production, comparing to other technologies, such as solar, hydro, wind, and traditional geothermal technology as described in this article. Therefore, it is suggested that heat pump assisted in situ geothermal energy sources has a great potentiality to be a prime energy source in near future. Since the technology has a number of positive characteristics (simple, safe, and provides continuous baseload, load following, or peaking capacity and benign environmental attributes (zero emissions of CO2, SOx, and NOx, it certainly would be an interesting technology in both developed, and developing countries as an attractive option to produce clean energy to confirm a better environment.

  19. Concerted actions to support investments exploiting low-enthalpy geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catsis, P.; Papadopoulou, A.; Petrogona-Emmanouil, E.

    1996-01-01

    A brief outline is presented of the project 'Information and support to investors for establishment of plants exploiting geothermal energy' co-financed by the Directorate General for Energy of the European Commission in the context of ALTENER programme for promotion of renewable energy sources. The basic supporting products of this project are: 1) Information Guide on the Geothermal Energy Exploitation Possibilities in Greece: 2) Investment Guide for the Use of Geothermal Energy in Productive Activities in Greece: 3) A convenient and user-friendly software GAIN (Microsoft Access 2.0)) for designing and economic evaluation of investments for an 'ideal' geothermal plant . The following steps are executed by GAIN: representation of the entire plant; determination of the size and energy requirements of each respective uses; determination of the type of application installations (heating system); determination of equipment needed for the geothermal plant: series of calculations for economic evaluation. In addition, some organizational measures as training of personnel, demonstration activities, conferences etc. are also foreseen in the programme

  20. The projection of world geothermal energy consumption from time series and regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanullang, Elwin Y.; Supriatna, Agus; Supriatna, Asep K.

    2015-12-01

    World population growth has many impacts on human live activities and other related aspects. One among the aspects is the increase of the use of energy to support human daily activities, covering industrial aspect, transportation, domestic activities, etc. It is plausible that the higher the population size in a country the higher the needs for energy to support all aspects of human activities in the country. Considering the depletion of petroleum and other fossil-based energy, recently there is a tendency to use geothermal as other source of energy. In this paper we will discuss the prediction of the world consumption of geothermal energy by two different methods, i.e. via the time series of the geothermal usage and via the time series of the geothermal usage combined with the prediction of the world total population. For the first case, we use the simple exponential smoothing method while for the second case we use the simple regression method. The result shows that taking into account the prediction of the world population size giving a better prediction to forecast a short term of the geothermal energy consumption.

  1. Integrated Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar Observations of Underground Seepage of Hot Water at Blawan-Ijen Geothermal Field

    OpenAIRE

    Maryanto, Sukir; Suciningtyas, Ika Karlina Laila Nur; Dewi, Cinantya Nirmala; Rachmansyah, Arief

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal resource investigation was accomplished for Blawan-Ijen geothermal system. Blawan geothermal field which located in the northern part of Ijen caldera presents hydrothermal activity related with Pedati fault and local graben. There were about 21 hot springs manifestations in Blawan-Ijen area with calculated temperature about 50°C. We have performed several geophysical studies of underground seepage of hot water characterization. The geoelectric resistivity and GPR methods are used i...

  2. Thermo-mechanical controls on geothermal energy resources: case studies in the Pannonian Basin and other natural laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloetingh, S.; Wees, J.D. van; Wesztergom, V.

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal energy is an important renewable energy resource, whose share is growing rapidly in the energy mix. Geosciences provide fundamental knowledge on Earth system processes and properties, required for the development of new methods to identify prospective geothermal resources suitable for

  3. Magnetotelluric Study on the Donan Geothermal Field, Southern Part of Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, M.; Mogi, T.

    2016-12-01

    We performed a MT study in the Donan geothermal field where deep seated hot granitic rocks are distributing as a source of geothermal resources. But no prominent fracture zone were found in this area. Imaging a fracture zone and clarifying geothermal reservoirs are purpose of the study. Quaternary volcanoes, such as Hokkaido Komagatake and Esan in the southern part, and Karibayama in the northern part, are situated in the surroundings of the Donan area, southwestern Hokkaido, Japan. Even though recent volcanic activity is not seen in the central part, geothermal gradient is high. The geological structure of this region is dominated by the movement of basement blocks aligning in the north-south, and folds and fractures have developed. Many hot springs and geothermal manifestations are seen in this region where called "Yakumo-Nigorikawa geothermal zone." The Mori geothermal power plant, located at south area, is operating in the Nigorikawa caldera formed about 12,000 years ago. Like Nigorikawa, the Yakumo area, located at the central part of the Donan area, have been thought as promising geothermal area, and many geothermal study were performed in the 1990th. Six drilling holes were excavated and they showed that hot granitic rock are distributing at around below 1000m depth, and temperature is higher than 200 degrees in this area. We carried out new magnetotelluric (MT) survey at 20 stations in the Yakumo area. We constructed 2-D and 3-D resistivity model with MT data. Because the anomalous phases exceeding 90 degree were seen in some sites at frequency less than 0.1Hz, we only used the data at frequency range of 320Hz and 0.1Hz in this study. We used Ogawa and Uchida (1996) as a 2D inversion and Han et al. (2008) that have applied approximate sensitivity, as 3D inversion respectively. From the resistivity models, the remarkable low resistivity zone extending from deep to shallower is seen at the center of the survey area, that is inclined from south to north. A

  4. Geothermal energy probes. Increasing the radiation exposures of the population?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melzer, Danica; Wilhelm, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    In Baden-Wuerttemberg 10 private geothermal drilling projects in geologically interesting areas have been accompanied by measurements. During the drillings samples of the excavated earth were taken to determine the concentration of natural nuclides in the bored strata. Before and after finishing the geothermal construction works the airborne radon concentration of surrounding dwellings was measured. On the basis of the obtained measuring data the maximum expected additional effective annual doses received by individuals as a result of geothermal drilling were calculated. The exposure pathways were observed, i.e. air, water, sold - plant - human and terrestrial gamma radiation. In spite of conservative accounts in each case that should be considered as worst case scenario no relevant increase of radiation exposure could be detected. (orig.)

  5. Energy efficient data center liquid cooling with geothermal enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2017-11-07

    A data center cooling system is operated in a first mode, and has an indoor portion wherein heat is absorbed from components in the data center by a heat transfer fluid, and an outdoor heat exchanger portion and a geothermal heat exchanger portion. The first mode includes ambient air cooling of the heat transfer fluid in the outdoor heat exchanger portion and/or geothermal cooling of the heat transfer fluid in the geothermal heat exchanger portion. Based on an appropriate metric, a determination is made that a switch should be made from the first mode to a second mode; and, in response, the data center cooling system is switched to the second mode. The second mode is different than the first mode.

  6. Measured ground-surface movements, Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley, 30 kilometers southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, incurred slight deformation because of the extraction of hot water and steam, and probably, active tectonism. During 1977 to 1978, the US Geological Survey established and measured two networks of horizontal control in an effort to define both types of movement. These networks consisted of: (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from stations on an existing US Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border; and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the present and planned geothermal production area. Electronic distance measuring instruments were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks in 1978, 1979 and 1981. Lines in the regional net averaged 25 km. in length and the standard deviation of an individual measurement is estimated to be approx. 0.3 part per million of line length. The local network was measured using different instrumentation and techniques. The average line length was about 5 km. and the standard deviation of an individual measurement approached 3 parts per million per line length. Ground-surface movements in the regional net, as measured by both the 1979 and 1981 resurveys, were small and did not exceed the noise level. The 1979 resurvey of the local net showed an apparent movement of 2 to 3 centimeters inward toward the center of the production area. This apparent movement was restricted to the general limits of the production area. The 1981 resurvey of the local net did not show increased movement attributable to fluid extraction.

  7. Advanced 3D Geological Modelling Using Multi Geophysical Data in the Yamagawa Geothermal Field, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochinaga, H.; Aoki, N.; Mouri, T.

    2017-12-01

    We propose a robust workflow of 3D geological modelling based on integrated analysis while honouring seismic, gravity, and wellbore data for exploration and development at flash steam geothermal power plants. We design the workflow using temperature logs at less than 10 well locations for practical use at an early stage of geothermal exploration and development. In the workflow, geostatistical technique, multi-attribute analysis, and artificial neural network are employed for the integration of multi geophysical data. The geological modelling is verified by using a 3D seismic data which was acquired in the Yamagawa Demonstration Area (approximately 36 km2), located at the city of Ibusuki in Kagoshima, Japan in 2015. Temperature-depth profiles are typically characterized by heat transfer of conduction, outflow, and up-flow which have low frequency trends. On the other hand, feed and injection zones with high permeability would cause high frequency perturbation on temperature-depth profiles. Each trend is supposed to be caused by different geological properties and subsurface structures. In this study, we estimate high frequency (> 2 cycles/km) and low frequency (inversion, an ant-tracking seismic volume, and a geostatistical temperature model prior to application of artificial neural network on the geothermal modelling. As a result, the band-limited stepwise approach predicts a more precise geothermal model than that of full-band temperature profiles at a time. Besides, lithofacies interpretation confirms reliability of the predicted geothermal model. The integrated interpretation is significantly consistent with geological reports from previous studies. Isotherm geobodies illustrate specific features of geothermal reservoir and cap rock, shallow aquifer, and its hydrothermal circulation in 3D visualization. The advanced workflow of 3D geological modelling is suitable for optimization of well locations for production and reinjection in geothermal fields.

  8. Geothermal energy potential for district and process heating applications in the U. S. : an economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Fassbender, L.L.; McDonald, C.L.

    1977-08-01

    Geothermal energy is competitive for space and process heating applications over significant distances when employed on a large scale to serve concentrated markets. Under these conditions geothermal energy from 90 to 150/sup 0/C hydrothermal resources should be economically competitive for high-density urban district heating out to distances of 50 miles from the wellhead. Supply curves (price-quantity relationships) were developed for both process heating and district heating applications for distances out to 50 miles. The 90 to 150/sup 0/C hydrothermal resources, which were identified in the assessment of geothermal resources by the U.S. Geological Survey, contain usable energy for space and process heat equivalent to 50 billion barrels of oil. The potential demand for space and process heat near these hydrothermal resources is large; over 10% of the U.S. population resides within 40 miles of the resources. The sensitivity of production costs to the important factors of production was determined. The most important factors are well costs, well flow rate, resource temperature, distance separating demand and supply, population density, size of demand, and the system load factor. Technological advances are needed to reduce costs and increase the distances over which geothermal energy can be competitive. Institutional deterrents to widespread nonelectric applications of geothermal energy will probably be significant. Among these will be the acquisition of rights-of-way, the need to organize concentrated markets, and price competition from the conventional fuels based on average cost rather than marginal cost.

  9. Sustainable renewable energy seawater desalination using combined-cycle solar and geothermal heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Key goals in the improvement of desalination technology are to reduce overall energy consumption, make the process "greener," and reduce the cost of the delivered water. Adsorption desalination (AD) is a promising new technology that has great potential to reduce the need for conventional power, to use solely renewable energy sources, and to reduce the overall cost of water treatment. This technology can desalt seawater or water of even higher salinity using waste heat, solar heat, or geothermal heat. An AD system can operate effectively at temperatures ranging from 55 to 80 °C with perhaps an optimal temperature of 80 °C. The generally low temperature requirement for the feedwater allows the system to operate quite efficiently using an alternative energy source, such as solar power. Solar power, particularly in warm dry regions, can generate a consistent water temperature of about 90 °C. Although this temperature is more than adequate to run the system, solar energy collection only can occur during daylight hours, thereby necessitating the use of heat storage during nighttime or very cloudy days. With increasing capacity, the need for extensive thermal storage may be problematic and could add substantial cost to the development of an AD system. However, in many parts of the world, there are subsurface geothermal energy sources that have not been extensively used. Combining a low to moderate geothermal energy recovery system to an AD system would provide a solution to the thermal storage issue. However, geothermal energy development from particularly Hot Dry Rock is limited by the magnitude of the heat flow required for the process and the thermal conductivity of the rock material forming the heat reservoir. Combining solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle would reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of renewable energy. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  10. An Analysis of the Geothermal Energy Extraction and Utilization Technology R&D Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Van Thanh; Dhillon, Harpal S.

    1979-05-01

    The Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) in the Department of Energy is currently reviewing its RD&D programs to evaluate their relevance to the national goals for the development of geothermal energy during the next 22 years. This report presents the results of an analysis of the RD&D program for geothermal energy extraction and conversion technology. A review of the state-of-the-art was conducted to identify opportunities for improvement. The current RDBD program was checked against the opportunities for improvement to determine if any potential improvements are being ignored, Finally, a benefit/cost analysis was conducted by estimating the benefits expected to result from successful completion of various projects.

  11. Recoverable Resource Estimate of Identified Onshore Geopressured Geothermal Energy in Texas and Louisiana (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, A.; Augustine, C.

    2012-04-01

    Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are characterized by high temperatures and high pressures with correspondingly large quantities of dissolved methane. Due to these characteristics, the reservoirs provide two sources of energy: chemical energy from the recovered methane, and thermal energy from the recovered fluid at temperatures high enough to operate a binary power plant for electricity production. Formations with the greatest potential for recoverable energy are located in the gulf coastal region of Texas and Louisiana where significantly overpressured and hot formations are abundant. This study estimates the total recoverable onshore geopressured geothermal resource for identified sites in Texas and Louisiana. In this study a geopressured geothermal resource is defined as a brine reservoir with fluid temperature greater than 212 degrees F and a pressure gradient greater than 0.7 psi/ft.

  12. Direct use of geothermal energy, Elko, Nevada district heating. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattin, M.W.; Hoppe, R.D.

    1983-06-01

    In early 1978 the US Department of Energy, under its Project Opportunity Notice program, granted financial assistance for a project to demonstrate the direct use application of geothermal energy in Elko, Nevada. The project is to provide geothermal energy to three different types of users: a commercial office building, a commercial laundry and a hotel/casino complex, all located in downtown Elko. The project included assessment of the geothermal resource potential, resource exploration drilling, production well drilling, installation of an energy distribution system, spent fluid disposal facility, and connection of the end users buildings. The project was completed in November 1982 and the three end users were brought online in December 1982. Elko Heat Company has been providing continuous service since this time.

  13. Use of weighted brines in recovery of geothermal energy from hot, dry rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, L. R.

    1980-02-01

    Two processes for recovering geothermal energy from hot dry rock of low permeability are studied. The processes are based on connecting two or three wells with a hydraulically created fracture and circulating a weighted brine solution through the connected system to recover heat from the rock to power an electric generating plant. Data obtained in field experiments in hot rock near Los Alamos, N.M., are used to perform economic assessments of the processes. The results indicate that a price of 6 to 8 cents per kWh is economical for the two-well process and a price of 2 to 3 cents is economical for the three-well process.

  14. Characterisation of Ground Thermal and Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour for Shallow Geothermal Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Ana; Alberdi-Pagola, Maria; Christodoulides, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Increasing use of the ground as a thermal reservoir is expected in the near future. Shallow geothermal energy (SGE) systems have proved to be sustainable alternative solutions for buildings and infrastructure conditioning in many areas across the globe in the past decades. Recently novel solutions......-hydro-mechanical behaviour of soil is introduced and discussed. These coupled processes are important for confirming the structural integrity of energy geostructures, but routine methods for parameter determination are still lacking (Energies). Keywords: shallow geothermal systems; soil thermal behaviour; laboratory testing...

  15. THE PROBLEM OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF THE GEOTHERMAL CIRCULATION SYSTEM IN DIFFERENT MODES OF REINJECTION OF THE COOLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Djavatov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Advanced technologies are crucial for widespread use of geothermal energy to ensure its competitiveness with conventional forms of energy. To date, the basis for the development of geothermal energy is the technology of extracting the heat transfer fluids from the subsoil. There are the following ways to extract the coolant: freeflow; pumping and circular methods. Of greatest interest is the technology to harness the geothermal energy based on geothermal circulatory system (GCS. There is the problem of the right choice of technological parameters for geothermal systems to ensure their effective functioning.Methods. We consider the development of geothermal energy technology based on geothermal circulatory system, as this technology solves the dumping of the waste water containing environmentally harmful substances. In addition to the environmental issues, this technology makes it possible to intensify the process of production and the degree of extraction of thermal resources, which significantly increases the potential for geothermal heat resources in terms of the fuel and energy balance.Findings. Were carried out optimization calculations for Ternairsky deposits of thermal waters. In the calculations, was taken into account the temperature dependence of important characteristics, such as the density and heat capacity of the coolant.Conclusions. There is the critical temperature of the coolant injected, depending on the flow rate and the diameter of the well, ensuring the effective functioning of the geothermal circulatory systems. 

  16. Multidisciplinary exploratory study of a geothermal resource in the active volcanic arc of Basse-Terre (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navelot, Vivien; Favier, Alexiane; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Corsini, Michel; Verati, Chrystèle; Lardeaux, Jean-Marc; Mercier de Lépinay, Jeanne; Munschy, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The GEOTREF project (high enthalpy geothermal energy in fractured reservoirs), supported by the French government program, "Investissements d'avenir" develops a sustainable geothermal resource in the Vieux Habitants area, 8-km south of the currently exploited Bouillante geothermal field. The Basse Terre Island is a recent volcanic arc (geothermal gradient of 70 ˚ C/km.

  17. Workshop on CSDP data needs for the BACA geothermal field: a summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, D.C.; Tsang, C.F. (eds.)

    1984-06-01

    These workshop summaries discuss the data needs of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) community and provide an introduction to the available geological, geophysical, geochemical and reservoir engineering data of the Baca geothermal field, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Individual abstracts have been prepared for the presentations. (ACR)

  18. Proceedings of NEDO International Geothermal Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-11

    This is a proceedings of the NEDO International Geothermal Symposium held in Sendai in 1997. The worldwide geothermal energy power generation capacity exceeds 7000 MW. Geothermal energy is widely used also for heating, snow melting, greenhouse cultivation as well as electric power generation. Geothermal energy generates far less CO2 causing the global warming than fossil fuels. The geothermal energy is clean and renewable. Considering the environmental issue and energy supply/demand of the world, we have to exert further efforts for the geothermal development. In this conference, discussions were made on each country`s experiences of the geothermal development, and future prediction and strategies for geothermal utilization in the Asia/Pacific region, in particular. Further, in the technical session, conducted were the IEA study and technical presentation/discussion for technical cooperation. The proceedings includes research reports of more than 30, which are clarified into three fields: impacts of the geothermal development on the environment, technical development of the hot dry rock power generation system, and development of technology for collecting deep-seated geothermal resource

  19. Guide to financing: small-scale geothermal energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    A brief overview is given of the current financing sources for projects requiring $1 million or less in capital investment and the major considerations commonly encountered in assembling financing. A directory of technical and financial assistance and a glossary of geothermal/financial terms are included.

  20. Geothermal Technology: A Smart Way to Lower Energy Bills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calahan, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Heating costs for both natural gas and oil have risen dramatically in recent years--and will likely continue to do so. Consequently, it is important that students learn not only about traditional heating technology, but also about the alternative methods that will surely grow in use in the coming years. One such method is geothermal. In this…

  1. Influence of fluvial sandstone architecture on geothermal energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.J.L.; Maghami Nick, Hamidreza M.; Weltje, G.J.; Donselaar, M.E.; Bruhn, D.F.

    2015-01-01

    Fluvial sandstone reservoirs composed of stacked meander belts are considered as potential geothermal resources in the Netherlands. Net-to-gross, orientation and stacking pattern of the channel belts is of major importance for the connectivity between the injection and production well in such

  2. Biomass production and energy source of thermophiles in a Japanese alkaline geothermal pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kousuke; Nashimoto, Hiroaki; Hattori, Shohei; Yamada, Keita; Koba, Keisuke; Yoshida, Naohiro; Kato, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    Microbial biomass production has been measured to investigate the contribution of planktonic bacteria to fluxations in dissolved organic matter in marine and freshwater environments, but little is known about biomass production of thermophiles inhabiting geothermal and hydrothermal regions. The biomass production of thermophiles inhabiting an 85 degrees C geothermal pool was measured by in situ cultivation using diffusion chambers. The thermophiles' growth rates ranged from 0.43 to 0.82 day(-1), similar to those of planktonic bacteria in marine and freshwater habitats. Biomass production was estimated based on cellular carbon content measured directly from the thermophiles inhabiting the geothermal pool, which ranged from 5.0 to 6.1 microg C l(-1) h(-1). This production was 2-75 times higher than that of planktonic bacteria in other habitats, because the cellular carbon content of the thermophiles was much higher. Quantitative PCR and phylogenetic analysis targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that thermophilic H2-oxidizing bacteria closely related to Calderobacterium and Geothermobacterium were dominant in the geothermal pool. Chemical analysis showed the presence of H2 in gases bubbling from the bottom of the geothermal pool. These results strongly suggested that H2 plays an important role as a primary energy source of thermophiles in the geothermal pool.

  3. Design of a novel geothermal heating and cooling system: Energy and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angrisani, G.; Diglio, G.; Sasso, M.; Calise, F.; Dentice d’Accadia, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A desiccant-based air handling unit is coupled with a geothermal source. • A TRNSYS model is developed to simulate both winter and summer period. • Sensitivity analysis is carried out in order to evaluate the effects of the design parameters. • Pay back period about 1.2 years and Primary Energy Savings higher than 90% were founded. • Economic and energetic performance increase with to the use of Domestic Hot Water. - Abstract: A dynamic simulation study in TRNSYS environment has been carried out to evaluate energy and economic performance of a novel heating and cooling system based on the coupling between a low or medium-enthalpy geothermal source and an Air Handling Unit, including a Desiccant Wheel. During summer season, a Downhole Heat Exchanger supplies heat to regenerate the desiccant material, while a certain amount of geothermal fluid is continuously extracted by the well in order to maintain high operating temperatures. Simultaneously, the extracted geothermal fluid drives an absorption chiller, producing chilled water to the cooling coil of the Air Handling Unit. Conversely, during the winter season, geothermal energy is used to cover a certain amount of the space heating demand. In both summer and winter operation modes, a geothermal energy is also used to supply Domestic Hot Water. A case study was analyzed, in which an existing low-enthalpy geothermal well (96 °C), located in Ischia (an island close to Naples, Southern Italy), is used to drive the geothermal system. Results showed that the performance of the proposed system is significantly affected by the utilization factor of Domestic Hot Water. In fact, considering a range of variation of such parameter between 5% and 100%, Primary Energy Saving increase from 77% to 95% and Pay-Back Period decreases from 14 years to 1.2 years, respectively. The simulations proved the technical and economic viability of the proposed system. In fact, a comparison with similar systems available

  4. Engineered Geothermal System Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, Susan

    2014-06-19

    In June 2009, AltaRock Energy began field work on a project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “Use of Multiple Stimulations to Improve Economics of Engineered Geothermal Systems in Shallow High Temperature Intrusives.” The goal of the project was to develop an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) in the portion of The Geysers geothermal field operated by the Northern California Power Agency (NCPA). The project encountered several problems while deepening Well E-7 which culminated in the suspension of field activities in September 2009. Some of the problems encountered are particular to The Geysers area, while others might be encountered in any geothermal field, and they might be avoided in future operations.

  5. State of the art of heating greenhouses with geothermal energy in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milivojevic, M.; Martinovic, M.; Vidovic, S.

    2000-01-01

    The surface of Yugoslavia is relatively small (about 80.000 km 2 ) but its geological and tectonic structure are very complex. Because of that, geothermal characteristics of its territory are interesting. On two thirds of Yugoslav territory values of the heat flow density are greater than average values for the continental part of Europe and on the half of the territory they are around 100 MW/m 2 (Milivojevic, 1989). Consequently, on the territory of Yugoslavia there are more than 60 hydro-geo-thermal low-temperature connective systems (T o C) as well as enormous hydrothermal conductive system in the Yugoslav part of Pannonic basin. In the last three years a lot of effort is put into continuing geothermal researches but the progress is very small. Thus, since the UN embargo was rescinded in 1995 not a single well has been bored yet. The reasons for this are: economic crisis, the beginning of the transition process, energetic focus on the import of oil and gas as well as the fact that people are not conscious about the necessity of increasing energy efficiency and energy rationalisation. Nowadays, geothermal energy is used for the heating of greenhouses and plastic houses here in Yugoslavia. Although that surfaces of geothermal greenhouses and plastic buildings are very small, just about 8 ha on three locations, their owners want to enlarge them since economic indicators show that the production of flowers and vegetables in geothermal greenhouses is better than in those heated on gas or liquid fuel. However, the lack of money for building new and modem complexes of greenhouses as well as for the revitalisation of existing ones prevents the development and enlarging of these buildings. Because of the fact that geothermal resources can be immediately used if the financial problem could be solved, the surfaces of geothermal greenhouses and plastic buildings in Yugoslavia could be several hectares larger. (Authors)

  6. An evaluation for harnessing low-enthalpy geothermal energy in the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufeeq Dhansay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa generates most of its energy requirements from coal, and is now the leading carbon emitter in Africa, and has one of the highest rates of emissions of all nations in the world. In an attempt to decrease its CO2 emissions, South Africa continues to research and develop alternative forms of energy, expand on the development of nuclear and has began to explore potentially vast shale gas reserves. In this mix, geothermal has not been considered to date as an alternative energy source. This omission appears to stem largely from the popular belief that South Africa is tectonically too stable. In this study, we investigated low-enthalpy geothermal energy from one of a number of anomalously elevated heat flow regions in South Africa. Here, we consider a 75-MW enhanced geothermal systems plant in the Limpopo Province, sustainable over a 30-year period. All parameters were inculcated within a levelised cost of electricity model that calculates the single unit cost of electricity and tests its viability and potential impact toward South Africa's future energy security and CO2 reduction. The cost of electricity produced is estimated at 14 USc/KWh, almost double that of coal-generated energy. However, a USD25/MWh renewable energy tax incentive has the potential of making enhanced geothermal systems comparable with other renewable energy sources. It also has the potential of CO2 mitigation by up to 1.5 gCO2/KWh. Considering the aggressive nature of the global climate change combat and South Africa's need for a larger renewable energy base, low-enthalpy geothermal energy could potentially form another energy option in South Africa's alternative energy basket.

  7. Utilization of geothermal energy resources in rural Alaskan communities. Final report, June 1-December 31, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, R.B.; Leonard, L.; Dinkel, D.H.

    1974-12-01

    Three potential geothermal sites in Alaska are discovered. The history of previous use of the hot springs, the socio-economic factors, energy needs, and total energy utilization plans of selected Alaskan thermal springs are presented. Proposed research programs for the sites and environmental hazards and protection are described. (MHR)

  8. Geothermal energy as a source of electricity. A worldwide survey of the design and operation of geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of geothermal power generation is presented. A survey of geothermal power plants is given for the following countries: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Turkey, USSR, and USA. A survey of countries planning geothermal power plants is included. (MHR)

  9. Brine treatment test for reinjection on Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, R.; Mercado, S.; Gamino, H. (Departamento de Geotermia, Division de Fuentes de Energia, Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Justo Sierra y Herreros Sur 2098-Altos C.P. 21020, Mexicali, B.C. (MX))

    1989-01-01

    Reinjection of disposal brine from the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant System is attractive mainly because, on top of solving the brine disposal problem, it may significantly contribute to extend the reservoir useful lifetime, through thermal and hydraulic recharge. Because the high concentration of colloidal silica in the disposal brine, laboratory and pilot plant tests were conducted in order to develop the brine treatment process. Addition of 20-40 mg/1 lime to flashed and aged brine for 10-20 minutes yields a clarified brine relatively low in suspended solids (10-30 mg/1) when the over flow rate is 38.5 1/min-m/sup 2/. 1.1 mills/kWh was the estimated cost for treatment of 800 kg/s of separated brine from the Cerro Prieto I power station.

  10. INTEGRATED EXPLORATION OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Alkhasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim. The aim is to develop the energy efficient technologies to explore hydro geothermal resources of different energy potential.Methods. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technologies has been carried out with the use of physical and mathematical, thermodynamic and optimization methods of calculation and the physical and chemical experimental research.Results. We propose the technology of integrated exploration of low-grade geothermal resources with the application of heat and water resource potential on various purposes. We also argue for the possibility of effective exploration of geothermal resources by building a binary geothermal power plant using idle oil and gas wells. We prove the prospect of geothermal steam and gas technologies enabling highly efficient use of thermal water of low energy potential (80 - 100 ° C degrees to generate electricity; the prospects of complex processing of high-temperature geothermal brine of Tarumovsky field. Thermal energy is utilized in a binary geothermal power plant in the supercritical Rankine cycle operating with a low-boiling agent. The low temperature spent brine from the geothermal power plant with is supplied to the chemical plant, where the main chemical components are extracted - lithium carbonate, magnesium burning, calcium carbonate and sodium chloride. Next, the waste water is used for various water management objectives. Electricity generated in the binary geothermal power plant is used for the extraction of chemical components.Conclusions. Implementation of the proposed technologies will facilitate the most efficient development of hydro geothermal resources of the North Caucasus region. Integrated exploration of the Tarumovsky field resources will fully meet Russian demand for lithium carbonate and sodium chloride.

  11. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Discussion is presented under the following section headings: background and some technical characteristics of geothermal resources; geology and geohydrology, geophysics, and, conclusions regarding availability of geothermal energy for nonelectric uses; agricultural assessment of Lake County, site assessment for potential agricultural development, analysis of potential agricultural applications, special application of low cost geothermal energy to algae harvesting, development of an integrated agribusiness, geothermal complex in Lake County, analysis of individual enterprises, and, recommendations for subsequent work; demographic characteristics, economic condition and perspective of Lake County, economic impact of geothermal in Lake County, social and economic factors related to geothermal resource development, socioeconomic impact of nonelectric uses of geothermal energy, and, identification of direct heat applications of geothermal energy for Lake County based on selected interviews; cost estimate procedure, example, justification of procedure, and, typical costs and conclusions; and, recommended prefeasibility and feasibility studies related to construction of facilities for nonelectric applications of geothermal resource utilization. (JGB)

  12. Origin of rainwater acidity near the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.P.; Quijano, J.L.; Johnson, Chad; Gerardo, J.Y.; Arellano, V.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of rainwater were monitored at Los Azufres geothermal field (88 MWe) and its surroundings during May - September 1995, which is the rainy season. Samples were collected from eight sites: three within the field, three in its surroundings and two sufficiently far from the field such that they have no geothermal input. The concentrations of Cl-, SO42- and NO3- were measured in about 350 samples and found to be generally rainwater sulfur. The determination of pH was found to be necessary, but is not sufficient to characterize rainwater acidity. The Gran titration method was used to determine alkalinity with respect to equivalence point of H2CO3(*). Values of alkalinity were found to range from 10-4 to 10-6 eq/L, and were negative only for some samples from Vivero and Guadalajara. Thus, SO42- and NO3- are in general not in acidic form (i.e. balanced by Na+, Ca2+, etc. rather than H+). Sulfate ??34S values were about -1.5??? in Los Azufres and its surroundings, and in Morelia, but differed from the value of -0.2??? for Guadalajara. The ??34S values for H2S from the Los Azufres geothermal wells are in the range -3.4 to 0.0???. The ??34S ranges for the natural and anthropogenic sources for environmental sulfur overlap, making it difficult to differentiate between the contribution of different sources. However, a similarity of values of ??34S at Los Azufres and Morelia (85 km distant) suggest a regional source of sulfate that is not associated with geothermal emissions from Los Azufres. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of CNR.The chemical compositions of rainwater were analyzed at Los Azufres geothermal field in Spain from May-September 1995. The concentrations of Cl-, SO42- and NO3- were measured and found to be generally rainwater sulfur.

  13. Energy Returned On Investment of Engineered Geothermal Systems Annual Report FY2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A.J.

    2011-12-31

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. The embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished plant. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy - heat is not as valuable as electrical energy.

  14. Case history report on East Mesa and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, DG.; Sanyal, S.K.

    1979-06-01

    Well log analysis as applied to the geothermal industry is one of the areas of technology in great need of further development. One means of improving log analysis technology is to study case histories of the past uses of log analysis as applied to specific fields. The project described in this report involved case history studies on two well-known geothermal areas in North America: the East Mesa field in California and the Cerro Prieto field in Mexico. Since there was considerably more pertinent material available on East Mesa, a major part of the effort on this project was devoted to studying the East Mesa field. One particular problem that first came to attention when studying the Cerro Prieto data was the difficulty in determining actual formation temperature at the time of logging. Since the temperature can have a significant effect on well log readings, an accurate temperature determination was considered to be important.

  15. Economic study of low temperature geothermal energy in Lassen and Modoc Counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The feasibility of using low cost, low temperature geothermal energy in job-producing industries to increase employment and encourage economic development was investigated. The study, encompassing all of Lassen and Modoc Counties, was to be site-specific, referencing candidate geothermal applications to known hot wells and springs as previously determined, or to new wells with specific characteristics as defined in the Scope of Work. The emphasis was to be placed on economically practical and readily achievable applications from known resources. Although both positive and negative findings were found in specific areas of investigation, it is felt that the overall long term prognosis for geothermal energy stimulus to industry in the area is excellent. The applications studied were; greenhouse heating, kiln drying, onion dehydration, feedlots, and aquaculture.

  16. Health and environmental effects document on geothermal energy: 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; O' Banion, K.D.

    1981-12-04

    Several of the important health and environmental risks associated with a reference geothermal industry that produces 21,000 MW/sub e/ for 30 y (equivalent to 20 x 10/sup 18/ J) are assessed. The analyses of health effects focus on the risks associated with exposure to hydrogen sulfide, particulate sulfate, benzene, mercury, and radon in air and arsenic in water. Results indicate that emissions of hydrogen sulfide are likely to cause odor-related problems in geothermal resources areas, assuming that no pollution controls are employed. For individuals living within an 80 km radius of the geothermal resources, chronic exposure to particulate sulfate could result in between 0 to 95 premature deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity generated. The mean population risk of leukemia from the inhalation of benzene was calculated to be 3 x 10/sup -2/ cases per 10/sup 18/ J. Exposure to elemental mercury in the atmosphere could produce between 0 and 8.2 cases of tremors per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity. Inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters poses a mean population risk of 4.2 x 10/sup -1/ lung cancers per 10/sup 18/ J. Analysis of skin cancer risk from the ingestion of surface water contaminated with geothermally derived arsenic suggests that a dose-response model is inconsistent with data showing that arsenic is an essential element and that excessive body burdens do not appear even when arsenic reaches 100 ..mu..g/liter in drinking water. Estimates of occupational health effects were based on rates of accidental deaths and occupational diseases in surrogate industries. According to calculations, there would be 14 accidental deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity and 340 cases of occupational diseases per 10/sup 18/ J. The analysis of the effects of noncondensing gases on vegetation showed that ambient concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are more likely to enhance rather than inhibit the growth of plants.

  17. Geothermal energy developments in the district heating of Szeged

    OpenAIRE

    Osvald, Máté; Szanyi, János; Medgyes, Tamás; Kóbor, Balázs; Csanádi, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The District Heating Company of Szeged supplies heat and domestic hot water to 27,000 households and 500 public buildings in Szeged. In 2015, the company decided to introduce geothermal sources into 4 of its 23 heating circuits and started the preparation activities of the development. Preliminary investigations revealed that injection into the sandstone reservoir and the hydraulic connection with already existing wells pose the greatest hydrogeological risks, while placement and operation of...

  18. Inverse modeling and forecasting for the exploitation of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field, Kamchatka, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, Stefan; Kiryukhin, A.V.; Asaulova, N.P.; Finsterle, S.

    2008-04-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field has been developed based on a conceptual hydrogeological model of the system. It extends over a 13.6-km2 area and includes three layers: (1) a base layer with inflow; (2) a geothermal reservoir; and (3) an upper layer with discharge and recharge/infiltration areas. Using the computer program iTOUGH2 (Finsterle, 2004), the model is calibrated to a total of 13,675 calibration points, combining natural-state and 1960-2006 exploitation data. The principal model parameters identified and estimated by inverse modeling include the fracture permeability and fracture porosity of the geothermal reservoir, the initial natural upflow rate, the base-layer porosity, and the permeabilities of the infiltration zones. Heat and mass balances derived from the calibrated model helped identify the sources of the geothermal reserves in the field. With the addition of five makeup wells, simulation forecasts for the 2007-2032 period predict a sustainable average steam production of 29 kg/s, which is sufficient to maintain the generation of 6.8 MWe at the Pauzhetsky power plant.

  19. 36Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems: preliminary measurements from the Coso Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimz, G.J.; Moore, J.N.; Kasameyer, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    The 36 Cl/Cl isotopic composition of chlorine in geothermal systems can be a useful diagnostic tool in characterizing hydrologic structure, in determining the origins and age of waters within the systems, and in differentiating the sources of chlorine (and other solutes) in the thermal waters. The 36 Cl/Cl values for several geothermal water samples and reservoir host rock samples from the Coso, California geothermal field have been measured for these purposes. The results indicate that most of the chlorine is not derived from the dominant granitoid that host the geothermal system. If the chlorine was originally input into the Coso subsurface through meteoric recharge, that input occurred at least 1-1.25 million years ago. The results suggest that the thermal waters could be connate waters derived from sedimentary formations, presumably underlying and adjacent top the granitic rocks, which have recently migrated into the host rocks. Alternatively, most of the chlorine but not the water, may have recently input into the system from magmatic sources. In either case, the results indicate that most of the chlorine in the thermal waters has existed within the granitoid host rocks for no more than about 100,00-200,00 years. this residence time for the chlorine is similar to residence times suggested by other researchers for chlorine in deep groundwaters of the Mono Basin north of the Coso field

  20. 36Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems: preliminary measurements from the Coso Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimz, G.J.; Moore, J.N.; Kasameyer, P.W.

    1997-07-01

    The {sub 36}Cl/Cl isotopic composition of chlorine in geothermal systems can be a useful diagnostic tool in characterizing hydrologic structure, in determining the origins and age of waters within the systems, and in differentiating the sources of chlorine (and other solutes) in the thermal waters. The {sub 36}Cl/Cl values for several geothermal water samples and reservoir host rock samples from the Coso, California geothermal field have been measured for these purposes. The results indicate that most of the chlorine is not derived from the dominant granitoid that host the geothermal system. If the chlorine was originally input into the Coso subsurface through meteoric recharge, that input occurred at least 1-1.25 million years ago. The results suggest that the thermal waters could be connate waters derived from sedimentary formations, presumably underlying and adjacent top the granitic rocks, which have recently migrated into the host rocks. Alternatively, most of the chlorine but not the water, may have recently input into the system from magmatic sources. In either case, the results indicate that most of the chlorine in the thermal waters has existed within the granitoid host rocks for no more than about 100,00-200,00 years. this residence time for the chlorine is similar to residence times suggested by other researchers for chlorine in deep groundwaters of the Mono Basin north of the Coso field.

  1. Sustainability and policy for the thermal use of shallow geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hähnlein, Stefanie; Bayer, Peter; Ferguson, Grant; Blum, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Shallow geothermal energy is a renewable energy resource that has become increasingly important. However, the use has environmental, technical and social consequences. Biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of groundwater and subsurface are influenced by the development of this resource. To guarantee a sustainable use it is therefore necessary to consider environmental and technical criteria, such as changes in groundwater quality and temperature. In the current study a comprehensive overview of consequences of geothermal systems in shallow aquifers is provided. We conclude that there is still a lack of knowledge on long-term environmental consequences. Due to local differences in geology and hydrogeology as well as in technical requirements, it is not recommendable to define only static regulations, such as fixed and absolute temperature thresholds. Flexible temperature limits for heating and cooling the groundwater and subsurface are therefore advisable. The limits should be oriented on previously undisturbed temperatures, and chemical, physical and biological conditions of aquifers. Based on these findings, recommendations for a sustainable policy for shallow geothermal systems are provided including a potential legal framework for a sustainable use. - Highlights: • We provide an overview of consequences of geothermal systems in shallow aquifers. • Static regulations for heating or cooling groundwater are not recommendable. • Temperature limits should be flexible and orientated on background values. • Suggestions for a sustainable policy for shallow geothermal systems are provided. • A potential legal framework for a sustainable use is presented

  2. Cascaded Use of Geothermal Energy and the Thermal Energy Production with Low Costs at the University of Oradea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANCEA Cristian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of heat pump technology has led to new opportunities of approaching issues about geothermalism and in particular the use of low and very low enthalpy geothermal resources. Regarding the use of geothermal energy, a special place have the research aimed to ensure the indoor thermal comfort using this form of energy. There have been made a series of research on the best option to use geothermal energy cascade, accompanied by the heat pump technology in the existing thermal station at the University of Oradea. As shown in the research undertaken until now, the possibilities of exploiting geothermal energy within a substation are not entirely used, the research can successfully continue addressing variants with hot air or by other methods. As a remarkable result of this research, it should be noted that the theoretical analyzes performed for some case and the analyzes carried out on a similar functional system, led to the possibility to optimize the automation strategies of the existing thermal power station and implicitly to its operation.

  3. Geothermal source heat pumps under energy services companies finance scheme to increase energy efficiency and production in stockbreeding facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borge-Diez, David; Colmenar-Santos, Antonio; Pérez-Molina, Clara; López-Rey, África

    2015-01-01

    In Europe energy services are underutilized in terms of their potential to improve energy efficiency and reduce external energy dependence. Agricultural and stockbreeding sectors have high potential to improve their energy efficiency. This paper presents an energy model for geothermal source heat pumps in stockbreeding facilities and an analysis of an energy services business case. The proposed solution combines both energy cost reduction and productivity increases and improves energy services company financing scheme. CO 2 emissions drop by 89%, reducing carbon footprint and improving added value for the product. For the two different evaluated scenarios, one including winter heating and one including heating and cooling, high IRR (internal return rate) values are obtained. A sensitivity analysis reveals that the IRR ranges from 10.25% to 22.02%, making the investment attractive. To make the research highly extensible, a sensitivity analysis for different locations and climatic conditions is presented, showing a direct relationship between financial parameters and climatic conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed showing that initial fuel cost and initial investment are the most decisive in the financial results. This work proves that energy services based on geothermal energy can be profitable in these sectors and can increase sustainability, reduce CO 2 emissions and improve carbon footprint. - Highlights: • Geothermal heat pumps are studied to promote industrial energy services. • Geothermal energy in farming facilities improves global competitiveness. • Research shows profitability of low enthalpy geothermal energy services. • Climatic conditions sensitivity analysis reveals IRR ranges from 10.25% to 22.02%. • Added market value for the product as carbon footprint reduction, are achieved

  4. Resource engineering and economic studies for direct application of geothermal energy. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The feasibility of utilizing geothermal energy at a selected plant in New York State was studied. Existing oil and gas records suggests that geothermal fluid is available in the target area and based on this potential. Friendship Dairies, Inc., Friendship, NY, was selected as a potential user of geothermal energy. Currently natural gas and electricity are used as its primary energy sources. Six geothermal system configurations were analyzed based on replacement of gas or oil-fired systems for producing process heat. Each system was evaluated in terms of Internal Rate of Return on Investment (IRR), and simple payback. Six system configurations and two replaced fuels, representative of a range of situations found in the state, are analyzed. Based on the potential geothermal reserves at Friendship, each of the six system configurations are shown to be economically viable, compared to continued gas or oil-firing. The Computed IRR's are all far in excess of projected average interest rates for long term borrowings: approximately 15% for guarantee backed loans or as high as 20% for conventional financing. IRR is computed based on the total investment (equity plus debt) and cash flows before financing costs, i.e., before interest expense, but after the tax benefit of the interest deduction. The base case application for the Friendship analysis is case B/20 yr-gas which produces an IRR of 28.5% and payback of 3.4 years. Even better returns could be realized in the cases of oil-avoidance and where greater use of geothermal energy can be made as shown in the other cases considered.

  5. Financing and regulation for the new and renewable energy sources: the geothermal case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coviello, M.

    1998-01-01

    The development and rational utilization of energy sources promotes economic growth and alleviates the environmental worries. Within the first frame, the use of new and renewable energy sources - wind, solar, photovoltaic, biomass, small hydroelectrical and geothermal - progressively reaches the highest priority in the context of the energy reforms that have been undertaken in the countries of the region. Among renewable energies, besides those of the hydraulic origin, geothermal is the one with the highest grade of safety as was demonstrated by its technical and economical reliability. If the estimation that the geothermal electricity potential of the Latin American region will reach more than 6000 MWe is correct, this is only indicative of its nature. The enormous financial resources of the Andean geothermal systems have to this date been ignored, while in Central America there exits a large number of financial resources still untouched. The rationale and the problems connected with this that remain - in all of Latin America, with the exception of Mexico - are of different natures. Most importantly, in first place, the economical difficulties; in effect, the fault of the ad-hoc economic initiatives have very much obstructed the sustained geothermal development and support. Other relevant obstacles for the use of this type of resource have been the lacking of specific and reliable legal aspects. Last but not least, the financial obstacles of the projects, under private or mixed schemes, should be emphasized. Because of the crucial role that these problems are asked to play in the implementation and development of geothermal projects in Latin America, it has been decided to prepare this document which is a part of the global view about the subject (making comparisons with experiences of other countries), and tries to identify possible solutions for the future

  6. NEDO geothermal energy subcommittee. 18th project report meeting; NEDO chinetsu bunkakai. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Reporting on geothermal energy-related efforts, Taro Yamayasu, a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) director, explains the promotion of researches on geothermal energy exploitation, researches on small and medium scale geothermal binary power system utilization, researches on geothermal exploration technology verification, and joint researches on small scale geothermal exploration on remote islands. Achievement reports are delivered concerning geothermal survey technology verification involving the development of reservoir fluctuation probing technology, deep-seated geothermal resources survey, and international joint projects. Concerning the research cooperation promotion project, a joint research program is reported involving a comprehensive geothermal resources analysis system for a remote island in the eastern part of Indonesia. In relation with the development of thermal water power plants, reports are delivered on the development of a 10MW class demonstration plant, development of technologies (study of elements) for a hot dry rock power system, development of a hole bottom data detection system for drilling in thermal water, and the development of deep-seated geothermal resources sampling technologies. (NEDO)

  7. Tracking Hydrothermal Fluid Pathways from Surface Alteration Mineralogy: The Case of Licancura Geothermal Field, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, E.; Elizalde, J. D.; Morata, D.; Wechsler, C.

    2017-12-01

    In geothermal systems alteration minerals are evidence of hot fluid flow, being present even in absence of other surface manifestations. Because these minerals result from the interaction between geothermal fluids and surrounding host rocks, they will provide information about features of thermal fluids as temperature, composition and pH, allowing tracking their changes and evolution. In this work, we study the Licancura Geothermal field located in the Andean Cordillera in Northern Chile. The combination of Principal Components Analysis on ASTER-L1T imagery and X Ray Diffraction (XRD) allow us to interpret fluid conditions and the areas where fluid flow took place. Results from red, green, blue color composite imagery show the presence of three types of secondary paragenesis. The first one corresponds to hematite and goethite, mainly at the east of the area, in the zone of eroded Pliocene volcanic edifices. The second one, mainly at the center of the area, highlighting propylitic alteration, includes minerals such as chlorite, illite, calcite, zeolites, and epidote. The third paragenesis, spatially related to the intersection between faults, represents advanced argillic alteration, includes minerals as alunite, kaolinite, and jarosite. XRD analysis support results from remote sensing techniques. These results suggest an acid pH hydrothermal fluid reaching temperatures at surface up to 80-100°C, which used faults as a conduit, originating advanced argillic minerals. The same fluid was, probably, responsible for propylitic paragenesis. However, iron oxides paragenesis identified in the area of eroded volcanoes probably corresponds to other processes associated with weathering rather than geothermal activity. In this work, we propose the applicability of remote sensing techniques as a first level exploration tool useful for high-altitude geothermal fields. Detailed clay mineral studies (XRD and SEM) would allow us to a better characterization of the geothermal fluid

  8. Use of Low-Temperature Geothermal Energy for Desalination in the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cath, Tzahi [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Vanneste, Johan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Geza, Mengistu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This joint project between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Colorado School of Mines has examined the potential of using low-temperature geothermal resources for desalination. The temperature range in question is not well suited for electricity generation, but can be used for direct heating. Accordingly, the best integration approaches use thermal desalination technologies such as multi-effect distillation (MED) or membrane distillation (MD), rather than electric-driven technologies such as reverse osmosis (RO). The examination of different desalination technologies led to the selection of MD for pairing with geothermal energy. MD operates at near-ambient pressure and temperatures less than 100°C with hydrophobic membranes. The technology is modular like RO, but the equipment costs are lower. The thermal energy demands of MD are higher than MED, but this is offset by an ability to run at lower temperatures and a low capital cost. Consequently, a geothermal-MD system could offer a low capital cost and, if paired with low-cost geothermal energy, a low operating cost. The target product water cost is $1.0 to $1.5 per cubic meter depending on system capacity and the cost of thermal energy.

  9. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Energy Conversion 1976-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mines, Gregory L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report, the last in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in energy conversion and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  10. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J. (comps.)

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  11. Structural Controls of Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Field, Malhuer County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J. H.; Faulds, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed mapping (1:24,000) of the Neal Hot Springs area (90 km2) in eastern Oregon is part of a larger study of geothermal systems in the Basin and Range, which focuses on the structural controls of geothermal activity. The study area lies within the intersection of two regional grabens, the middle-late Miocene, N-striking, Oregon-Idaho graben and younger late Miocene to Holocene, NW-striking, western Snake River Plain graben. The geothermal field is marked by Neal Hot Springs, which effuse from opaline sinter mounds just north of Bully Creek. Wells producing geothermal fluids, with temperatures at 138°C, intersect a major, W-dipping, NNW-striking, high-angle normal fault at depths of 850-915 m. Displacement along this structure dies southward, with likely horse-tailing, which commonly produces high fracture density and a zone of high permeability conducive for channeling hydrothermal fluids. Mapping reveals that the geothermal resource lies within a local, left step-over. 'Hard-linkage' between strands of the left-stepping normal fault, revealed through a study of well chips and well logs, occurs through two concealed structures. Both are W-striking faults, with one that runs parallel to Cottonwood Creek and one 0.5 km N of the creek. Injection wells intersect these two transverse structures within the step-over. Stepping and displacement continue to the NW of the known geothermal field, along W-dipping, N-striking faults that cut lower to middle Miocene Hog Creek Formation, consisting of silicic and mafic volcanic rocks. These N-striking faults were likely initiated during initial Oregon-Idaho graben subsidence (15.3-15.1 Ma), with continued development through late Miocene. Bully Creek Formation deposits, middle to upper Miocene lacustrine and pyroclastic rocks, concomitantly filled the sub half-grabens, and they dip gently to moderately eastward. Younger, western Snake River Plain deposits, upper Miocene to Pliocene fluvial, lacustrine, and pyroclastic rocks

  12. Numerical simulation of electricity generation potential from fractured granite reservoir through vertical wells at Yangbajing geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Yu-chao; Zhan, Jie-min; Wu, Neng-you; Luo, Ying-ying; Cai, Wen-hao

    2016-01-01

    Yangbajing geothermal field is the first high-temperature hydrothermal convective geothermal system in China. Research and development of the deep fractured granite reservoir is of great importance for capacity expanding and sustaining of the ground power plant. The geological exploration found that there is a fractured granite heat reservoir at depth of 950–1350 m in well ZK4001 in the north of the geothermal field, with an average temperature of 248 °C and a pressure of 8.01–11.57 MPa. In this work, electricity generation potential and its dependent factors from this fractured granite reservoir by water circulating through vertical wells are numerically investigated. The results indicate that the vertical well system attains an electric power of 16.8–14.7 MW, a reservoir impedance of 0.29–0.46 MPa/(kg/s) and an energy efficiency of about 29.6–12.8 during an exploiting period of 50 years under reference conditions, showing good heat production performance. The main parameters affecting the electric power are water production rate and injection temperature. The main parameters affecting reservoir impedance are reservoir permeability, injection temperature and water production rate. The main parameters affecting the energy efficiency are reservoir permeability, injection temperature and water production rate. Higher reservoir permeability or more reasonable injection temperature or water production rate within certain ranges will be favorable for improving the electricity generation performance. - Highlights: • We established a numerical model of vertical well heat mining system. • Desirable electricity production performance can be obtained under suitable conditions. • The system attains an electric power of 16.8–14.7 MW with an efficiency of about 29.6–12.8. • Electric power mainly depends on water production rate and injection temperature. • Higher permeability within a certain range is favorable for electricity generation.

  13. Wine Valley Inn: A mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. Geothermal-energy-system conceptual design and economic feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-26

    The purpose of this study is to determine the engineering and economic feasibility for utilizing geothermal energy for air conditioning and service water heating at the Wine Valley Inn, a mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. The study evaluates heating, ventilating, air conditioning and water heating systems suitable for direct heat geothermal application. Due to the excellent geothermal temperatures available at this site, the mechanics and economics of a geothermally powered chilled water cooling system are evaluated. The Wine Valley Inn has the resource potential to have one of the few totally geothermal powered air conditioning and water heating systems in the world. This total concept is completely developed. A water plan was prepared to determine the quantity of water required for fresh water well development based on the special requirements of the project. An economic evaluation of the system is included to justify the added capital investment needed to build the geothermally powered mineral spa. Energy payback calculations are presented. A thermal cascade system is proposed to direct the geothermal water through the energy system to first power the chiller, then the space heating system, domestic hot water, the two spas and finally to heat the swimming pool. The Energy Management strategy required to automatically control this cascade process using industrial quality micro-processor equipment is described. Energy Management controls are selected to keep equipment sizing at a minimum, pump only the amount of geothermal water needed and be self balancing.

  14. National and global exploitation of deep geothermal energy. 2013 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczik, Sebastian; Kaltschmitt, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A number of plants for the utilisation of deep geothermal energy have been completed in Germany and other parts of the world in the course of the past year. In Germany four cogeneration plants with an total electrical capacity of 12 MW were in operation in 2012, producing a total of around 25 GWh of electrical energy and 0.32 PJ of thermal energy in that year. Furthermore, Germany's national fleet of geothermal heating plants had an overall thermal output capacity of 200 MW and a thermal yield of 1.2 PJ (330 GWh) in 2012. This amounts to savings of 107,000 tons of CO 2 equivalent. Total electricity and heat production from geothermal energy worldwide showed continued growth through 2012. The total electrical capacity installed rose by almost 3% to 11.3 GW. Between them the world's geothermal power plants in existence at the end of 2012 had fed around 72 TWh of electrical energy into the grids in the course of the year. In addition these plants totalled an installed thermal capacity of approximately 15.4 GW, producing some 217 PJ (60 TWh) of heat. Many other activities towards making greater use of thermal energy from the deep underground were observed both in Germany and around the globe in 2012. In view of these developments it appears probable that the production of heat and/or electricity from geothermal energy will continue to grow in the years to come and that this option will gain significance in the realms of economic and environmental policy at both the national and international level.

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on project for supporting the formation of energy/environmental technology verification project. International joint verification research project (Use of combined binary power generation systems at new geothermal fields on Mindoro Island, the Philippines, and comparison with conventional power generation systems); 1999 nendo Philippines koku Mindoro to no shinki chinetsutai ni okeru combined binary hatsuden hoshiki no tekiyo seika hokokusho. Conventional hatsuden hoshiki tono hikaku kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Concerning the Manito Lowlands geothermal field and the Montelago geothermal field where the systems are to be newly installed, the geothermal reservoir characteristics are assessed, and cost effectiveness is compared between different power generating systems. According to the investigations conducted into the two geothermal fields in the past, they are supposed to have geothermal potentials of the medium grade. Chemical analyses are conducted anew on this occasion into the hot spring water and fumarole gas, and the MT (magnetotelluric) method is implemented for the survey of reservoir distribution. It is now expected that approximately 20MWe will be exploited from each of the two geothermal fields. The power generation systems studied are the single flash type and double flash type for the conventional power generation system, and the cascade type, bottoming type, and two-phase binary type for the combined binary power generation system. As the result, it is concluded that the double flash type or two-phase binary type will be advantageous to the Manito Lowlands geothermal field, and the double flash type or bottoming type or two-phase binary type will be advantageous to the Montelago geothermal field. (NEDO)

  16. Results of investigations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala: Well logging and brine geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, A.; Dennis, B.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Goff, F.; Lawton, R.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Archuleta, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Medina, V. (Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Unidad de Desarollo Geotermico)

    1991-07-01

    The well logging team from Los Alamos and its counterpart from Central America were tasked to investigate the condition of four producing geothermal wells in the Zunil Geothermal Field. The information obtained would be used to help evaluate the Zunil geothermal reservoir in terms of possible additional drilling and future power plant design. The field activities focused on downhole measurements in four production wells (ZCQ-3, ZCQ-4, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6). The teams took measurements of the wells in both static (shut-in) and flowing conditions, using the high-temperature well logging tools developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two well logging missions were conducted in the Zunil field. In October 1988 measurements were made in well ZCQ-3, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6. In December 1989 the second field operation logged ZCQ-4 and repeated logs in ZCQ-3. Both field operations included not only well logging but the collecting of numerous fluid samples from both thermal and nonthermal waters. 18 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Application of modern well test analysis techniques to pressure transient tests in Kizildere geothermal field, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onur, M.; Serpen, U.; Gok, I.M. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Mines; Zeybek, A.D. [Al-Mutlaq Compound, Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia)

    2003-04-01

    The analyses of two build-up tests and one interference test in the Kizildere geothermal field, Turkey, are presented. Modern well test analysis methods based on pressure-derivative (logarithmic time rate of pressure) and non-linear regression, as well as conventional log-log and semi-log straight-line methods, have been used in the interpretation of these field pressure tests. Pressure transient models based on both homogeneous reservoirs and fractal reservoirs without matrix participation are considered in the analysis. It is shown that the use of conventional analysis methods alone can lead to an inaccurate interpretation of these field tests, and the use of modern analysis techniques in conjunction with conventional analysis techniques provides a more reliable and accurate interpretation of the well test data in the Kizildere geothermal field. The information obtained (e.g., estimates of permeability thickness and fractal dimensions) from analyses of these tests should prove useful for reservoir characterization studies in the Kizildere field, where reinjection is scheduled to begin soon. Finally, the modern interpretation methods described in this paper are recommended for analysis of well test pressure data from geothermal reservoirs. (Author)

  18. Detecting Events Beyond the Catalog - Applying Empirical Matched Field Processing to Salton Sea Geothermal Field Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, D. C.; Wang, J.; Harris, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    We apply the empirical Matched Field Processing (MFP) method to continuous seismic data obtained from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field to detect and locate more micorearthquakes than can be detected using only traditional earthquake detections methods. The empirical MFP method compares the amplitude and phase of the incoming seismic data to a set of pre-computed master templates. The master templates are created from previously observed earthquakes with good signal-to-noise ratio. We will relocate the seismicity using two different methods: hypoDD and BayesLoc. hypoDD is a double-difference earthquake relocation method that utilizes absolute P- and S-wave travel-time measurements and cross-correlation P- and S- wave differential travel-time measurements to determine high-resolution relative hypocenter locations (Waldhouser and Ellsworth, 2000). BayesLoc is a probabilistic (Bayesian) multiple-event locator that simultaneously provides a probabilistic characterization of the unknown origin parameters, corrections to the assumed travel-time model, improvements in the precision of the observed arrival-time data and accuracy of the assigned phase labels (Myers et al., 2007, 2009). Additionally, we will model the Coulomb stress changes, assuming the seismicity is due to an opening or shearing crack. We will match the location of the modeled stress increases with the locations of the mapped seismicity using a grid-search method.

  19. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Drilling 1976-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    This report, the second in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in drilling and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  20. Heat Mining or Replenishable Geothermal Energy? A Project for Advanced-Level Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Pam

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of low enthalpy geothermal (LEG) energy schemes, whereby heated water is extracted from sandstone aquifers for civic heating projects. While prevalent in countries with volcanic activity, a recently proposed scheme for Manchester offered the perfect opportunity to engage students in the viability of this form…