WorldWideScience

Sample records for geothermal eis studies

  1. Geothermal Exploration Case Studies on OpenEI (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.; Bennett, M.; Atkins, D.

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessment (Williams et al., 2008) outlined a mean 30 GWe of undiscovered hydrothermal resource in the western United States. One goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) is to accelerate the development of this undiscovered resource. DOE has focused efforts on helping industry identify hidden geothermal resources to increase geothermal capacity in the near term. Increased exploration activity will produce more prospects, more discoveries, and more readily developable resources. Detailed exploration case studies akin to those found in oil and gas (e.g. Beaumont and Foster, 1990-1992) will give developers central location for information gives models for identifying new geothermal areas, and guide efficient exploration and development of these areas. To support this effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been working with GTO to develop a template for geothermal case studies on the Geothermal Gateway on OpenEI. In 2012, the template was developed and tested with two case studies: Raft River Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Raft_River_Geothermal_Area) and Coso Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Coso_Geothermal_Area). In 2013, ten additional case studies were completed, and Semantic MediaWiki features were developed to allow for more data and the direct citations of these data. These case studies are now in the process of external peer review. In 2014, NREL is working with universities and industry partners to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough data set to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  2. Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region of reference

  3. Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region of reference.

  4. Draft Executive Summary Hawaii Geothermal Project - EIS Scoping Meetings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-03-01

    After introductions by the facilitator and the program director from DOE, process questions were entertained. It was also sometimes necessary to make clarifications as to process throughout the meetings. Topics covered federal involvement in the HGP-EIS; NEPA compliance; public awareness, review, and access to information; Native Hawaiian concerns; the record of decision, responsibility with respect to international issues; the impacts of prior and on-going geothermal development activities; project definition; alternatives to the proposed action; necessary studies; Section 7 consultations; socioeconomic impacts; and risk analysis. Presentations followed, in ten meetings, 163 people presented issues and concerns, 1 additional person raised process questions only.

  5. Geothermal studies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji-Yang; Chen Mo-Xiang; Wang Ji-An; Deng Xiao; Wang Jun; Shen Hsien-Chieh; Hsiung Liang-Ping; Yan Shu-Zhen; Fan Zhi-Cheng; Liu Xiu-Wen

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuosly since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research of geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; (3) geothermal studies in mines. (orig./ME)

  6. Geothermal studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji-Yang, Wang; Mo-Xiang, Chen; Ji-An, Wang; Xiao, Deng; Jun, Wang; Hsien-Chieh, Shen; Liang-Ping, Hsiung; Shu-Zhen, Yan; Zhi-Cheng, Fan; Xiu-Wen, Liu; Ge-Shan, Huang; Wen-Ren, Zhang; Hai-Hui, Shao; Rong-Yan, Zhang

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuously since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research on geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; and (3) geothermal studies in mines. Regional geothermal studies have been conducted recently in North China and more than 2000 values of subsurface temperature have been obtained. Temperatures at a depth of 300 m generally range from 20 to 25°C with geothermal gradients from 20 to 40°C/km. These values are regarded as an average for the region with anomalies related to geological factors. To date, 22 reliable heat flow data from 17 sites have been obtained in North China and the data have been categorized according to fault block tectonics. The average heat flow value at 16 sites in the north is 1.3 HFU, varying from 0.7 to 1.8 HFU. It is apparent that the North China fault block is characterized by a relatively high heat flow with wide variations in magnitude compared to the mean value for similar tectonic units in other parts of the world. It is suggested that although the North China fault block can be traced back to the Archaean, the tectonic activity has been strengthening since the Mesozoic resulting in so-called "reactivation of platform" with large-scale faulting and magmatism. Geothermal resources in China are extensive; more than 2000 hot springs have been found and there are other manifestations including geysers, hydrothermal explosions, hydrothermal steam, fumaroles, high-temperature fountains, boiling springs, pools of boiling mud, etc. In addition, there are many Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basins with widespread aquifers containing geothermal water resources in abundance. The extensive exploration and exploitation of these geothermal resources began early in the 1970's. Since then

  7. Comprehensive Summary and Analysis of Oral and Written Scoping Comments on the Hawaii Geothermal Project EIS (DOE Review Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-09-18

    This report contains summaries of the oral and written comments received during the scoping process for the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Oral comments were presented during public scoping meetings; written comments were solicited at the public scoping meetings and in the ''Advance Notice of Intent'' and ''Notice of Intent'' (published in the ''Federal Register'') to prepare the HGP EIS. This comprehensive summary of scoping inputs provides an overview of the issues that have been suggested for inclusion in the HGP EIS.

  8. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  9. DMRC studies geothermal energy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-01

    The Deep Mining Research Consortium (DMRC) is an industry-led research consortium that includes Vale Inco, Xstrata, Rio Tinto, Goldcorp, Agnico-Eagle, Barrick Gold, CANMET and the City of Sudbury. This article reported on the application of geothermal energy technologies to cool deep mine workings and use the heat from underground to produce energy to heat surface buildings. Researchers at the University of British Columbia's Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials have proposed the use of heat pumps and water-to-air heat exchangers at depth to chill mine workings. The heat pumps would act as refrigerators, taking heat from one area and moving it elsewhere. The purpose would be to extract heat from naturally occurring ground water and pass the chilled water through a heat exchanger to cool the air. The heated water would then be pumped to surface and used to heat surface facilities. The technology is well suited for using geothermal energy from decommissioned mines for district heating. The technology has been successfully used in Spring Hill, Nova Scotia, where geothermal energy from a decommissioned coal mine is used to heat an industrial park. A feasibility study is also underway for the city of Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories to produce up to 10 megawatts of heat from the Con Gold Mine, enough energy to heat half of Yellowknife. Geothermal energy can also be used to generate electricity, particularly in the Pacific Rim where underground temperatures are higher and closer to surface. In Sudbury Ontario, the enhanced geothermal systems technology would require two holes drilled to a depth of four kilometers. The ground between the two holes should be fractured to create an underground geothermal circuit. Geothermal energy does not produce any greenhouse gases or chemical wastes. 1 fig.

  10. Study deep geothermal energy; Studie dypgeotermisk energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havellen, Vidar; Eri, Lars Sigurd; Andersen, Andreas; Tuttle, Kevin J.; Ruden, Dorottya Bartucz; Ruden, Fridtjof; Rigler, Balazs; Pascal, Christophe; Larsen, Bjoern Tore

    2012-07-01

    The study aims to analyze the potential energy with current technology, challenges, issues and opportunities for deep geothermal energy using quantitative analysis. It should especially be made to identify and investigate critical connections between geothermal potential, the size of the heating requirements and technical solutions. Examples of critical relationships may be acceptable cost of technology in relation to heating, local geothermal gradient / drilling depth / temperature levels and profitability. (eb)

  11. Geothermal studies of seven interior salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    This report defines and compares the geothermal environments of eight selected Gulf Coast salt domes. The thermal regimes in and around Gulf Coast salt domes are not well documented. The data base used for this study is an accumulation of bottom-hole temperature readings from oil and gas exploration wells and temperature logs run for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. The bottom-hole tempreatures were corrected in order to estimate the actual geothermal environments. Prior thermal studies and models indicate temperatures in and around salt domes are elevated above the norm by 1 0 F to 25 0 F. Using existing geothermal data and accepted theory, geothermal gradients for the selected domes and surrounding sediments were estimated. This study concludes that salt domes within a given basin have similar geothermal gradients, but that the basins differ in average geothermal gradients. This relationship is probably controlled by deep basement structural trends. No evidence of residual heat of emplacement was found associated with any of the selected domes

  12. Coso geothermal environmental overview study ecosystem quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, P.

    1981-09-01

    The Coso Known Geothermal Resource Area is located just east of the Sierra Nevada, in the broad transition zone between the Mohave and Great Basin desert ecosystems. The prospect of large-scale geothermal energy development here in the near future has led to concern for the protection of biological resources. Objectives here are the identification of ecosystem issues, evaluation of the existing data base, and recommendation of additional studies needed to resolve key issues. High-priority issues include the need for (1) site-specific data on the occurrence of plant and animal species of special concern, (2) accurate and detailed information on the nature and extent of the geothermal resource, and (3) implementation of a comprehensive plan for ecosystem protection.

  13. Preliminary geothermal study of Mt. Etna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongelli, F; Morelli, C

    1964-01-01

    The geothermal status of Italy's Mt. Etna region was studied via borehole thermometry at eight experimental sites. The mathematical principles and other criteria used in borehole site and well depth selection are discussed. The soil temperature is regulated by external temperature variations to a certain depth. The minimum drilling distance which would provide accurate temperature determinations was calculated to be 30 m. The geothermal gradient was determined by the application of a Fourier series to three measurements made at different depths using resistance thermometers. The results are presented in tables and the gradients are plotted on graphs. Geothermal gradient determinations were corrected for topographic effects. Two major groups of gradients were discovered, those having linear gradients were interpreted as being due to the effect of meteoric waters. Other possible disturbances are those caused by surface temperature effects and the influence of nearby bodies of water.

  14. Geothermal pilot study final report: creating an international geothermal energy community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresee, J.C.; Yen, W.W.S.; Metzler, J.E. (eds.)

    1978-06-01

    The Geothermal Pilot Study under the auspices of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) was established in 1973 to apply an action-oriented approach to international geothermal research and development, taking advantage of the established channels of governmental communication provided by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Pilot Study was composed of five substudies. They included: computer-based information systems; direct application of geothermal energy; reservoir assessment; small geothermal power plants; and hot dry rock concepts. The most significant overall result of the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study, which is now complete, is the establishment of an identifiable community of geothermal experts in a dozen or more countries active in development programs. Specific accomplishments include the creation of an international computer file of technical information on geothermal wells and fields, the development of studies and reports on direct applications, geothermal fluid injection and small power plants, and the operation of the visiting scientist program. In the United States, the computer file has aready proven useful in the development of reservoir models and of chemical geothermometers. The state-of-the-art report on direct uses of geothermal energy is proving to be a valuable resource document for laypersons and experts in an area of increasing interest to many countries. Geothermal fluid injection studies in El Salvador, New Zealand, and the United States have been assisted by the Reservoir Assessment Substudy and have led to long-range reservoir engineering studies in Mexico. At least seven small geothermal power plants are in use or have been planned for construction around the world since the Small Power Plant Substudy was instituted--at least partial credit for this increased application can be assigned to the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study. (JGB)

  15. Geothermal reservoir insurance study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-09

    The principal goal of this study was to provide analysis of and recommendations on the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. Five major tasks are reported: perception of risk by major market sectors, status of private sector insurance programs, analysis of reservoir risks, alternative government roles, and recommendations.

  16. Isotope study in geothermal fields in Java Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandowo, Z.A.

    1995-01-01

    Study in two geothermal fields, Dieng and Kamojang, in Java island by utilizing isotope technique has been carried out. Isotopic data of wells, springs and other geothermal manifestations providing informations on the recharge area of precipitation contributed to geothermal resources, flow paths and origin of geothermal fluids. The data of oxygen shift has also provided information on the characteristic the fields. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Geothermal power plants principles, applications, case studies and environmental impact

    CERN Document Server

    DiPippo, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Ron DiPippo, Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, is a world-regarded geothermal expert. This single resource covers all aspects of the utilization of geothermal energy for power generation from fundamental scientific and engineering principles. The thermodynamic basis for the design of geothermal power plants is at the heart of the book and readers are clearly guided on the process of designing and analysing the key types of geothermal energy conversion systems. Its practical emphasis is enhanced by the use of case studies from real plants that increase the reader'

  18. Geothermal power plants principles, applications, case studies and environmental impact

    CERN Document Server

    DiPippo, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Now in its 3e, this single resource covers all aspects of the utilization of geothermal energy for power generation using fundamental scientific and engineering principles. Its practical emphasis is enhanced by the use of case studies from real plants that increase the reader's understanding of geothermal energy conversion and provide a unique compilation of hard-to-obtain data and experience. Important new chapters cover Hot Dry Rock, Enhanced Geothermal Systems, and Deep Hydrothermal Systems. New, international case studies provide practical, hands-on knowledge.

  19. Isotope and hydrogeochemical studies of southern Jiangxi geothermal systems, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenbin; Li Xueli; Shi Weijun; Sun Zhanxue

    1999-01-01

    Southern Jiangxi is a geothermally active region, especially in Hengjing area. According to the work plan of IAEA Regional Collaboration in the Development of Geothermal Energy Resources and Environment Management through Isotope Techniques in East Asia and the Pacific (RAS-8-075), field investigation was carried out in Hengjing, southern Jiangxi Province, to demonstrate the use of isotope and geochemical techniques in low to medium temperature geothermal system. During the field investigation, 19 samples were taken from cold springs, hot springs and surface water in the area to determine their hydrochemical and gas compositions, hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and helium isotopes. The results of the study have shown that the geothermal waters in the studying region are of the same characteristics with the local meteoric water in oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition, indicating the geothermal waters are mainly derived from the local precipitation, while the gas composition and carbon and helium isotopes reveal that some gases in the geothermal waters have mantle origin. (author)

  20. Report of studies on geothermal steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-09-01

    At the time of this report the exploitation of geothermal steam wells was only in the experimental stage. A great deal of information was derived for future use however. The steam is described in terms of its origin and characteristics and the life expectancy of the wells is estimated. Experimental work in Otake, Hakuryu, Beppu and Naruko is described. The power generation station at Larderello, Italy, is discussed. Extensive data from the experimental wells are summarized in tables.

  1. Numerical investigation of the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir: a case study of the Daming geothermal field in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuyang; Song, Hongqing; Killough, John; Du, Li; Sun, Pengguang

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of geothermal energy is clean and has great potential worldwide, and it is important to utilize geothermal energy in a sustainable manner. Mathematical modeling studies of geothermal reservoirs are important as they evaluate and quantify the complex multi-physical effects in geothermal reservoirs. However, previous modeling efforts lack the study focusing on the emission reduction efficiency and the deformation at geothermal wellbores caused by geothermal water extraction/circulation. Emission efficiency is rather relevant in geothermal projects introduced in areas characterized by elevated air pollution where the utilization of geothermal energy is as an alternative to burning fossil fuels. Deformation at geothermal wellbores is also relevant as significant deformation caused by water extraction can lead to geothermal wellbore instability and can consequently decrease the effectiveness of the heat extraction process in geothermal wells. In this study, the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir in Daming County, China, are numerically investigated based on a coupled multi-physical model. Relationships between the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction, deformation at geothermal well locations, and geothermal field parameters including well spacing, heat production rate, re-injection temperature, rock stiffness, and geothermal well placement patterns are analyzed. Results show that, although large heat production rates and low re-injection temperatures can lead to decreased heat production in the last 8 years of heat extraction, they still improve the overall heat production capacity and emission reduction capacity. Also, the emission reduction capacity is positively correlated with the heat production capacity. Deformation at geothermal wellbore locations is alleviated by smaller well spacing, lower heat production rates, and smaller numbers of injectors in the well pattern, and by

  2. Companion Study Guide to Short Course on Geothermal Corrosion and Mitigation in Low Temperature Geothermal Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, II, P F

    1985-04-24

    The economic utilization of geothermal resources with temperatures less than 220 degrees Fahrenheit for purposes other than electric power generation (direct utilization) requires creation of systems with long plant life and minimum operation and maintenance costs. Development of such systems requires careful corrosion engineering if the most cost effective material selections and design choices are to be made. This study guide presents guidelines for materials selection for low-temperature geothermal systems (120 - 200 degrees Fahrenheit), as well as guidance in materials design of heat pump systems for very-lowtemperature geothermal resources (less than 120 degrees Fahrenheit). This guideline is divided into five sections and an Appendix.

  3. Geothermal heating systems for bridges from REHAU. Stop with ice and snow; Geothermisches Brueckenheizungssystem von REHAU. Schluss mit Eis und Schnee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, Daniel [REHAU AG und Co., Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The road surfaces on bridges freeze faster than road surfaces of free sections in the winter. This clearly increases the risk of accident and forces winter services to an increased employment. Under this aspect, the polymer specialist Rehau AG and Co. (Rehau, Federal Republic of Germany) developed a piping system for the geothermal heating of bridges. This heating system has to adapt the lane conditions on bridges to the lane conditions of the adjacent roads. The energy demand for the operation of the bridge heating is to be kept as low as possible. In particular, a PE-Xa pipe with an aluminium layer and an outside protective layer consisting of PE-HD (polyethylene high density) was used. The mechanical characteristic values such as the elongation of break and tensile strength as well as the oxidation induction time of this construction lie within the standard range. First practical applications of this geothermal heated bridge are promising.

  4. Studies of geothermal background and isotopic geochemistry of thermal waters in Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenbin; Sun Zhanxue; Li Xueli; Shi Weijun

    1996-10-01

    The terrestrial heat flow measurement, isotope and geochemical techniques have been systematically applied to the geothermal systems in Jiangxi Province. Results show that the thermal waters in the study area all belong to the low-medium temperature convective geothermal system, which essentially differs from high temperature geothermal systems with deep magmatic heat sources. It has been proven that the isotope and geochemical techniques are very useful and effective in geothermal exploration. (13 refs., 14 tabs., 8 figs.)

  5. Magnesium and its alloys as degradable biomaterials: corrosion studies using potentiodynamic and EIS electrochemical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Dieter Müller

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is potentially useful for orthopaedic and cardiovascular applications. However, the corrosion rate of this metal is so high that its degradation occurs before the end of the healing process. In industrial media the behaviour of several magnesium alloys have been probed to be better than magnesium performance. However, the information related to their corrosion behaviour in biological media is insufficient. The aim of this work is to study the influence of the components of organic fluids on the corrosion behaviour of Mg and AZ31 and LAE442 alloys using potentiodynamic, potentiostatic and EIS techniques. Results showed localized attack in chloride containing media. The breakdown potential decreased when chloride concentration increased. The potential range of the passivation region was extended in the presence of albumin. EIS measurements showed that the corrosion behaviour of the AZ31 was very different from that of LAE442 alloy in chloride solutions.

  6. Sedimentary Geothermal Feasibility Study: October 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, Chad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zerpa, Luis [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this project is to analyze the feasibility of commercial geothermal projects using numerical reservoir simulation, considering a sedimentary reservoir with low permeability that requires productivity enhancement. A commercial thermal reservoir simulator (STARS, from Computer Modeling Group, CMG) is used in this work for numerical modeling. In the first stage of this project (FY14), a hypothetical numerical reservoir model was developed, and validated against an analytical solution. The following model parameters were considered to obtain an acceptable match between the numerical and analytical solutions: grid block size, time step and reservoir areal dimensions; the latter related to boundary effects on the numerical solution. Systematic model runs showed that insufficient grid sizing generates numerical dispersion that causes the numerical model to underestimate the thermal breakthrough time compared to the analytic model. As grid sizing is decreased, the model results converge on a solution. Likewise, insufficient reservoir model area introduces boundary effects in the numerical solution that cause the model results to differ from the analytical solution.

  7. Global EiBI-monopole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Xinghua

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A global EiBI-monopole problem is studied under EiBI gravitational theory.The equations of global EiBI-monopole are derived in the curved spacetime and the relation between the spacetime metric and auxiliary metric is found.In the case of a very small parameter,an asymptotic form of equations is given.The series solutions of global EiBI-monopole at infinity are found.

  8. A combined SEM, CV and EIS study of multi-layered porous ceramic reactors for flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Nygaard, Frederik Berg

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sintering temperature of 12-layered porous ceramic reactors (comprising 5 cells) was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The difference in microstructures of the reactors was evaluated by SEM...

  9. Tables of co-located geothermal-resource sites and BLM Wilderness Study Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.

    1982-11-01

    Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.

  10. Geothermal studies in oil field districts of North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-An; Wang, Ji-Yang; Yan, Shu-Zhen; Lu, Xiu-Wen

    In North China, Tertiary sediments give the main oil-genetic series. The mean value of terrestrial heat flow density has been considered to be 60 - 65 mW/m2, and the geothermal gradient in Tertiary sediments usually ranges from 30 to 40° C/km in the region studied. Supposing that the onset of oil generation lies at about 90° C, the upper limit of the depth of oil-generation is at about 2000 to 2500 m depth. Recent paleogeothermal studies using vitrinite reflectance, clay and authigenic minerals, as well as other methods showed that in Eocene the geothermal gradient has been higher than at present. Some results were obtained and discussed.

  11. Case studies of geothermal leasing and development on federal lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trummel, Marc

    1978-09-29

    In response to a widely expressed need to examine the impact of the federal regulatory system on the rate of geothermal power development, the Department of Energy-Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) has established a Streamlining Task Force in cooperation with appropriate federal agencies. The intent is to find a way of speeding development by modification of existing laws or regulations or by better understanding and mechanization of the existing ones. The initial focus was on the leasing and development of federal lands. How do the existing processes work? Would changes produce positive results in a variety of cases? These are questions which must be considered in a national streamlining process. This report presents case studies of federal leasing actions on seven diverse locations in the western region. Characteristics of existing high geothermal potential areas are quite diverse; geography, environment, industry interest and the attitudes and activities of the responsible federal land management agencies and the interested public vary widely. Included are descriptions of post and current activities in leasing exploration and development and discussions of the probable future direction of activities based on current plans. Implications of these plans are presented. The case studies were based on field interviews with the appropriate State and District BLM officer and with the regional forester's office and the particular forest office. Documentation was utilized to the extent possible and has been included in whole or in part in appendices as appropriate.

  12. EIS study on corrosion and scale processes and their inhibition in cooling system media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Cruz, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Quimica, Apdo. Postal 55-534, 09340 Mexico, DF (Mexico) and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Coordinacion de Ingenieria Molecular, Competencia de Quimica Aplicada, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, CP 07730, DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: jmarin@imp.mx; Cabrera-Sierra, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Quimica, Apdo. Postal 55-534, 09340 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas (ESIQIE-IPN), Departamento de Metalurgia, UPALM Zacatenco AP 75-874, CP 07338, DF (Mexico); Pech-Canul, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios, Avanzados del IPN, AP 73 Cordemex, CP 97310, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Gonzalez, I. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Quimica, Apdo. Postal 55-534, 09340 Mexico, DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: igm@xanum.uam.mx

    2006-01-20

    A study of the carbon steel/cooling water interface was carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS spectra reveal that a layer of corrosion and scale products forms naturally and evolves with the immersion time modifying the carbon steel/cooling water interface and giving rise to corrosion and scale processes. In addition, the nature of the layer formed on the metal was found to depend on the inhibitor used. It was established that the corrosion inhibitor (hydroxyphosphonoacetic acid (HPA)) chelates with Ca(II) ion generating a layer with resistive properties that provides good protection against corrosion. In contrast, the scale inhibitor (1-hydroxy-ethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP)) is incorporated into the calcium carbonate crystals at the surface, modifying the structure and diminishing scale formation in the surface; this additive additionally inhibited corrosion. These observations were supported by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and corroborate previous studies performed by other techniques on HPA and HEDP. Finally, a synergistic effect was observed between these inhibitors that provides good protection to steel against corrosion and scaling in cooling media.

  13. EIS study on corrosion and scale processes and their inhibition in cooling system media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Cruz, J.; Cabrera-Sierra, R.; Pech-Canul, M.A.; Gonzalez, I.

    2006-01-01

    A study of the carbon steel/cooling water interface was carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS spectra reveal that a layer of corrosion and scale products forms naturally and evolves with the immersion time modifying the carbon steel/cooling water interface and giving rise to corrosion and scale processes. In addition, the nature of the layer formed on the metal was found to depend on the inhibitor used. It was established that the corrosion inhibitor (hydroxyphosphonoacetic acid (HPA)) chelates with Ca(II) ion generating a layer with resistive properties that provides good protection against corrosion. In contrast, the scale inhibitor (1-hydroxy-ethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP)) is incorporated into the calcium carbonate crystals at the surface, modifying the structure and diminishing scale formation in the surface; this additive additionally inhibited corrosion. These observations were supported by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and corroborate previous studies performed by other techniques on HPA and HEDP. Finally, a synergistic effect was observed between these inhibitors that provides good protection to steel against corrosion and scaling in cooling media

  14. Preliminary study of Songa-Wayaua geothermal prospect area using volcanostratigraphy and remote sensing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokawaty, Ribka; Nugroho, Indra; Satriana, Joshua; Hafidz, Muhamad; Suryantini

    2017-12-01

    Songa-Wayaua geothermal prospect area is located on Bacan Island, Northern Molluca Province. Geothermal systems in this area associated with three Quartenary volcanoes, such as Mt. Pele-pele, Mt. Lansa, and Mt. Bibinoi. Based on literature study, five surface manifestations such as hot springs and alteration occurred within this area. The active manifestations indicate that Songa-Wayaua area has potential geothermal resource. This study objective is to evaluate Songa-Wayaua geothermal system on preliminary study stage by using volcanostratigraphy and remote sensing analysis to delineate the boundary of geothermal system area. The result of this study showed that Songa-Wayaua prospect area has four heat sources potential (e.g. Pele-pele Hummock, Lansa Hummock, Songa Hummock, and Bibinoi Hummock), controlled by geological structure presented by Pele-pele Normal Fault, and had three places as the recharge and discharge area which are very fulfilling as a geothermal system.

  15. The multi-level perspective analysis: Indonesia geothermal energy transition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisaksono, A.; Murphy, J.; Sharp, J. H.; Younger, P. L.

    2018-01-01

    The study adopts a multi-level perspective in technology transition to analyse how the transition process in the development of geothermal energy in Indonesia is able to compete against the incumbent fossil-fuelled energy sources. Three levels of multi-level perspective are socio-technical landscape (ST-landscape), socio-technical regime (ST-regime) and niche innovations in Indonesia geothermal development. The identification, mapping and analysis of the dynamic relationship between each level are the important pillars of the multi-level perspective framework. The analysis considers the set of rules, actors and controversies that may arise in the technological transition process. The identified geothermal resource risks are the basis of the emerging geothermal technological innovations in Indonesian geothermal. The analysis of this study reveals the transition pathway, which yields a forecast for the Indonesian geothermal technology transition in the form of scenarios and probable impacts.

  16. A case study of radial jetting technology for enhancing geothermal energy systems at Klaipeda geothermal demonstration plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, R.; Peters, E.; Sliaupa, S.; Valickas, R.; Petrauskas, S.

    2017-01-01

    In 1996 a geothermal energy project was initiated at Klaipėda, Lithuania, to demonstrate the feasibility of using low enthalpy geothermal water as a renewable energy resource in district heating systems. The Klaipėda geothermal plant is situated within the West Lithuanian geothermal anomaly with a

  17. Exergoeconomic analysis of geothermal district heating systems: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgener, Leyla; Hepbasli, Arif; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    2007-01-01

    An exergoeconomic study of geothermal district heating systems through mass, energy, exergy and cost accounting analyses is reported and a case study is presented for the Salihli geothermal district heating system (SGDHS) in Turkey to illustrate the present method. The relations between capital costs and thermodynamic losses for the system components are also investigated. Thermodynamic loss rate-to-capital cost ratios are used to show that, for the devices and the overall system, a systematic correlation appears to exist between capital cost and exergy loss (total or internal), but not between capital cost and energy loss or external exergy loss. Furthermore, a parametric study is conducted to determine how the ratio of thermodynamic loss rate to capital cost changes with reference temperature and to develop a correlation that can be used for practical analyses. The correlations may imply that devices in successful district heating systems such as the SGDHS are configured so as to achieve an overall optimal design, by appropriately balancing the thermodynamic (exergy-based) and economic (cost) characteristics of the overall systems and their devices

  18. Pueblo of Jemez Geothermal Feasibility Study Fianl Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.A. Kelley; N. Rogers; S. Sandberg; J. Witcher; J. Whittier

    2005-03-31

    This project assessed the feasibility of developing geothermal energy on the Pueblo of Jemez, with particular attention to the Red Rocks area. Geologic mapping of the Red Rocks area was done at a scale of 1:6000 and geophysical surveys identified a potential drilling target at a depth of 420 feet. The most feasible business identified to use geothermal energy on the reservation was a greenhouse growing culinary and medicinal herbs. Space heating and a spa were identified as two other likely uses of geothermal energy at Jemez Pueblo. Further geophysical surveys are needed to identify the depth to the Madera Limestone, the most likely host for a major geothermal reservoir.

  19. Geothermal application feasibility study for the New Mexico State University campus. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunaji, N.N.; Thode, E.F.; Chaturvedi, L.; Walvekar, A.; LaFrance, L.; Swanberg, C.A.; Jiracek, G.R.

    1978-12-01

    The following are covered: a geothermal prospect conceptual study for NMSU campus, geothermal resources on and near NMSU land, present campus heating and cooling system, conceptual design and preliminary cost estimates - alternative systems, economic analysis, and legal and environmental considerations. (MHR)

  20. A Rock Physics Feasibility Study of the Geothermal Gassum Reservoir, Copenhagen Area, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredesen, Kenneth; Dalgaard, Esben Borch; Mathiesen, Anders

    The subsurface of Denmark stores significant amounts of renewable geothermal energy which may contribute to domestic heating for centuries. However, establishing a successful geothermal plant with robust production capacity require reservoirs with sufficient high porosity and permeability. Modern...... quantitative seismic interpretation is a good approach to de-risk prospects and gain reservoir insight, but is so far not widely used for geothermal applications. In this study we perform a rock physics feasibility study as a pre-step towards quantitative seismic interpretation of geothermal reservoirs......, primarily in areas around Copenhagen. The results argue that it may be possible to use AVO and seismic inversion data to distinguish geothermal sandstone reservoirs from surrounding shales and to estimate porosity and permeability. Moreover, this study may represent new possibilities for future rock physics...

  1. Market study for direct utilization of geothermal resources by selected sectors of economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    A comprehensive analysis is presented of industrial markets potential for direct use of geothermal energy by a total of six industry sectors: food and kindred products; tobacco manufactures; textile mill products; lumber and wood products (except furniture); chemicals and allied products; and leather and leather products. A brief statement is presented regarding sectors of the economy and major manufacturing processes which can readily utilize direct geothermal energy. Previous studies on plant location determinants are summarized and appropriate empirical data provided on plant locations. Location determinants and potential for direct use of geothermal resources are presented. The data was gathered through interviews with 30 senior executives in the six sectors of economy selected for study. Probable locations of plants in geothermal resource areas and recommendations for geothermal resource marketing are presented. Appendix A presents factors which impact on industry location decisions. Appendix B presents industry executives interviewed during the course of this study. (MHR)

  2. Geothermal district heating applications in Turkey: a case study of Izmir-Balcova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepbasli, A. [Ege Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir (Turkey); Canakci, C. [Izmir-Balcova Geothermal Energy Inc., Izmir (Turkey)

    2003-05-01

    Turkey is located on the Mediterranean sector of the Alpine-Himalayan Tectonic Belt and is among the first seven countries in abundance of geothermal resources around the world. However, the share of its potential used is only about 2%. This means that considerable studies on geothermal energy could be conducted in order to increase the energy supply and to reduce atmospheric pollution in Turkey. The main objective in doing the present study is twofold, namely: (a) to overview the status and future aspects of geothermal district heating applications in Turkey and (b) to present the Izmir-Balcova geothermal district heating system, which is one example of the high temperature district heating applications in Turkey. The first geothermal heating application was applied in 1981 to the Izmir-Balcova thermal facilities, where the downhole heat exchanger was also used for the first time. Besides this, the first city based geothermal district heating system has been operated in Balikesir-Gonen since 1987. Recently, the total installed capacity has reached 820 MW{sub t} for direct use. An annual average growth of 23% of the residences connected to geothermal district heating systems has been achieved since 1983 in the country, representing a decrease of 5% in the last three years. Present applications have shown that in Turkey, geothermal energy is much cheaper than the other energy sources, like fossil fuels, and can make a significant contribution towards reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. (Author)

  3. Studies on wide area deep geothermal resources reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    In order to establish techniques for the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs of large extent and deep location, the Hachimandaira field was chosen as a model. Studies were carried out using the AFMT system, thermographic, remote sensing and geothermometric methods. In the AFMT study the equipment was custom manufactured. It included a five component receiver and a transmitter with an output current of 10 A. Calculations were made for the electromagnetic fields of each transmitting source using both electric and magnetic dipoles. In the thermographic study a thermo-camera was employed to survey springs in Fukushima prefecture as well as the Ofuka springs in Akita prefecture. These studies were made with the intention of deriving correlations between surface heat flow and subterranean structure.

  4. Interaction of cysteine and copper ions on the surface of iron: EIS, polarization and XPS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Deab, Mohamed S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The current study demonstrates a comprehensive study for Cysteine + Cu(II) ions as an efficient inhibitor as demonstrated by EIS, XPS and potentiodynamic polarization measurements, in addition to traditional weight loss measurements. → The novelty of the current work originates from the combined use of an eco-friendly compound (i.e., cysteine) with a minute amount of copper ions (in the micro molar range) as a corrosion inhibitor for low carbon steel in acidic medium. To this end, cysteine shows only moderate inhibition ca. 60% for iron which jumps up to more than 95% in the presence of micro molar range of Cu(II) ions. → Cysteine-Cu(II) blends are found superior to benzotriazole (BTAH)-Cu(II) blends in terms of their long-term stability in addition to the avoidance of the use of the well-reported highly toxic BTAH. - Abstract: This study addresses the enhancing effect of copper ions on the inhibition efficiency (IE) of cysteine (an eco-friendly compound) against the corrosion of iron in 0.5 M sulphuric acid. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data revealed a significant increase in the polarization resistance (R p ) of the iron/solution interface in the presence of cysteine and Cu(II) ions instead of cysteine alone. That is, IE of 95% is obtained in the presence of 5 mM cysteine and 25 μM Cu(II) ions, compared to 66% in absence of Cu(II) ions. Moreover, electrochemical polarization measurements indicate that cysteine and Cu(II) ions blends act as mixed-type inhibitors for the corrosion of iron. The formation of Cu(I)-cysteinate complex and/or cysteine SAM at Cu atop the iron surface (as evident from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) blocks the underlying iron surface and imparts a pronounced protection against its corrosion. IE of cysteine-Cu(II) blend remains effectively unchanged with immersion time indicating its high stability in the used acidic medium.

  5. Benchmark Problems of the Geothermal Technologies Office Code Comparison Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Podgorney, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelkar, Sharad M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McClure, Mark W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Danko, George [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ghassemi, Ahmad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Pengcheng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bahrami, Davood [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barbier, Charlotte [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cheng, Qinglu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chiu, Kit-Kwan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Detournay, Christine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elsworth, Derek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fang, Yi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Furtney, Jason K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gan, Quan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gao, Qian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guo, Bin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, Yue [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horne, Roland N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Kai [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Im, Kyungjae [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Norbeck, Jack [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Safari, M. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sesetty, Varahanaresh [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tao, Qingfeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); White, Signe K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wong, Yang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xia, Yidong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-02

    A diverse suite of numerical simulators is currently being applied to predict or understand the performance of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). To build confidence and identify critical development needs for these analytical tools, the United States Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office has sponsored a Code Comparison Study (GTO-CCS), with participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories. A principal objective for the study was to create a community forum for improvement and verification of numerical simulators for EGS modeling. Teams participating in the study were those representing U.S. national laboratories, universities, and industries, and each team brought unique numerical simulation capabilities to bear on the problems. Two classes of problems were developed during the study, benchmark problems and challenge problems. The benchmark problems were structured to test the ability of the collection of numerical simulators to solve various combinations of coupled thermal, hydrologic, geomechanical, and geochemical processes. This class of problems was strictly defined in terms of properties, driving forces, initial conditions, and boundary conditions. Study participants submitted solutions to problems for which their simulation tools were deemed capable or nearly capable. Some participating codes were originally developed for EGS applications whereas some others were designed for different applications but can simulate processes similar to those in EGS. Solution submissions from both were encouraged. In some cases, participants made small incremental changes to their numerical simulation codes to address specific elements of the problem, and in other cases participants submitted solutions with existing simulation tools, acknowledging the limitations of the code. The challenge problems were based on the enhanced geothermal systems research conducted at Fenton Hill, near Los Alamos, New Mexico, between 1974 and 1995. The problems

  6. Study theorizes use of geothermal sources for energy in refineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Beintema, K.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal sources for direct heating can theoretically serve as an alternative source of high-temperature heat in processing plants. Cutting CO2 emissions from a refinery requires reducing the amount of fuel burned. Heat obtained from geothermal energy is more efficiently used for directly powering

  7. Geothermal energy in France. Market study for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having recalled the French national objectives for 2020 related to the share of renewable energies in final energy consumption, and given a brief overview of geothermal production in Europe, this report proposes a rather detailed overview of the geothermal market and production in France: evolution of the geothermal production stock, assessment of tonnes equivalent of oil and CO 2 emissions, users, turnover, jobs. It addresses the three main geothermal sectors: high energy (boiling geothermal, the Soultz-sous-Forets power station), direct use of heat, and very low energy (heat demand in France, results and regional distribution, market structure, analysis of the price of an installation). The last part addresses the legal and financial framework: status of French law, quality issue, levers for development (purchase tariff, geologic risk, thermal regulation 2012, energy saving certificates, tax credits, and subsidies)

  8. Geochemical studies of the geothermal area East of the Jombo Hill intrusion Coast Province. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tole, M.P.

    1985-09-01

    Geothermal resources in Kenya can be classified into two types; (i) High temperature geothermal resources, found within the Kenyan section of Rift Valley System, and (ii) Low temperature geothermal resources found outside the main Rift Valley System (figure 1). The high temperature geothermal resources have received first priority in research and development, and this has culminated in their exploitation at the Olkaria Geothermal Field which currently generates 45 MW of electricity, representing approximately 18% of Kenya's electricity requirements. Further research is directed at opening up electricity generating plants within the Rift Valley Geothermal Systems occuring between Lake Bogoria and Lake Magadi. The low temperature geothermal resources have received less attention in Kenya. In some countries, low temperature geothermal resources have been utilised for a number of domestic and commercial undertakings (table 1), among them (a) space heating (b) recreational baths (c) sugar refining. In china, low temperature (less than 90 o C) geothermal reservoirs have been used to provide energy for electrical generating plants (Reed and Bliss, 1983). An examination of the distribution of the low temperature geothermal sites in Kenya (figure 1) indicates that most of them could be easily utilised for one or more of the domestic and commercial activities mentioned above, by virtue of their location. In order that recommendations regarding the type of use that each of these hotsprings can be put to can be made, proper evaluation of each site must be made: in particular the underground hotwater temperatures as well as the extent of the geothermal field at each site must be evaluated. Geochemical studies provide the cheapest (most cost-effective) method of geothermal energy exploration. The purpose of this project was to determine the extent of the hot zone, as well as the underground reservoir temperatures in the geothermal field North East of the Jomo Hill intrusion

  9. Statistical study of seismicity associated with geothermal reservoirs in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, D.M.; Cavit, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical methods are outlined to separate spatially, temporally, and magnitude-dependent portions of both the random and non-random components of the seismicity. The methodology employed compares the seismicity distributions with a generalized Poisson distribution. Temporally related events are identified by the distribution of the interoccurrence times. The regions studied to date include the Imperial Valley, Coso, The Geysers, Lassen, and the San Jacinto fault. The spatial characteristics of the random and clustered components of the seismicity are diffuse and appear unsuitable for defining the areal extent of the reservoir. However, from the temporal characteristics of the seismicity associated with these regions a general discriminant was constructed that combines several physical parameters for identifying the presence of a geothermal system.

  10. Geothermal district heating in Turkey: The Gonen case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oktay, Zuhal; Aslan, Asiye

    2007-01-01

    The status of geothermal district heating in Turkey and its future prospects are reviewed. A description is given of the Gonen project in Balikesir province, the first system to begin citywide operation in the country. The geology and geothermal resources of the area, the history of the project's development, the problems encountered, its economic aspects and environmental contributions are all discussed. The results of this and other such systems installed in Turkey have confirmed that, in this country, heating an entire city based on geothermal energy is a significantly cleaner, cheaper option than using fossil fuels or other renewable energy resources. (author)

  11. Geothermal energy and the public: A case study on deliberative citizens’ engagement in central Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzone, Anna; Allansdottir, Agnes; De Franco, Roberto; Muttoni, Giovanni; Manzella, Adele

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study on the citizens’ engagement with developments towards the harnessing of geothermal energy in central Italy. The research has been conducted within the framework of a larger project on the feasibility of further geothermal developments in Italy, funded by the Italian government. The aims of the case study research were first to explore the role of public and stakeholder engagement in the processes of innovation in the geothermal energy sector. Second, to design, implement and consolidate a methodological framework for comparative analysis of case studies on citizens’ engagement, thus bringing a social scientific perspective into geothermal energy research. The results show general support for renewable energy but knowledge and understanding of the potential of geothermal is remarkably low. Lack of trust in politics and unsure public communication emerged as prominent themes where the common good and community developments are sharply contrasted with corporate and private interests. As geothermal energy is included and encouraged under the European Strategic Energy Plan and in the Paris agreement on halting climate change, the results can make significant input into future policy making, by providing concrete guidelines on citizens’ engagement in processes of culturally sustainable innovation. - Highlights: • Original research, case study on citizens’ engagement with geothermal energy. • Considerable public uncertainty over geothermal energy. • Information is a key issue for all stakeholder and citizens cooperation in the energy sector. • Everyday notions of “the common good” strongly shape community discussions about energy. • Geothermal energy developments need to take the views of communities into account.

  12. Geothermal Potential Analysis Using Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 (Case Study: Mount Ijen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukojo, B. M.; Mardiana, R.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal energy is also a heat energy contained in the earth’s internal. Indonesia has a total geothermal potential of around 27 GWe. The government is eager for the development of geothermal in Indonesia can run well so that geothermal can act as one of the pillars of national energy. However, the geothermal potential has not been fully utilized. One of the geothermal potention is Mount Ijen. Mount Ijen is a strato volcano that has a crater lake with a depth of about 190 m and has a very high degree of acidity and the volume of lake water is very large. With the abundance of potential geothermal potential in Indonesia, it is necessary to have an activity in the form of integrated geoscience studies to be able to maximize the potential content that exists in a geothermal area. One of the studies conducted is to do potential mapping. This research performs image data processing of Landsat 8, Sentinel 2, RBI Map, and preliminary survey data. This research carried out the Vegetation Index, surface temperature and altitude. The equipment used in this research includes image processing software, number processing software, GPS Handheld and Laptop. Surface Temperatures in the Mount Ijen have anomalies with large temperatures ranging between 18° C to 38° C. The best correlation value of altitude and ground surface temperature is -0.89 ie the correlation of January surface temperature. While the correlation value of Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 vegetation index was 0.81. The land cover confidence matrix scored 80%. Land cover in the research area is dominated by forests by 35% of the research area. There is a potential area of geothermal potential is very high on Mount Ijen with an area of 39.43 hectares located in Wongsorejo District and adjacent to District Sempol.

  13. Geothermal studies in oilfield districts of Eastern Margin of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdel Zaher; Mohamed El Nuby; Essam Ghamry; Khamis Mansour; Nureddin M. Saadi; Heba Atef

    2014-01-01

    Results of geothermal studies carried out at 149 onshore oil wells have been used in evaluation of temperature gradient and heat flow values of the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez. The investigations included temperature logs in boreholes, calculation of amplitude temperature, geothermal gradients and heat flow. The results obtained indicate that geothermal gradient values are in the ranges of 0.02–0.044 °C/m and regionally averaged mean heat flow values are found to fall in the interval of...

  14. Combined chemical and EIS study of the reaction of zinc coatings under alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkner, Sarah; Hassel, Achim Walter

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An electrochemical unit for automatic EIS and pH modulation is used. • ZnMg2Al2 and ZnAl53 are studied in alkaline solutions. • Amount of consumed sodium hydroxide allows following hydroxide formation and film thickness. • Cross sections of 13 μm show excellent agreement with consumed hydroxide. • ZnAl53 consumes more hydroxide due to soluble aluminate formation. - Abstract: Two different zinc coatings of composition ZnMg2Al2 (Zn + 2 wt.% Mg + 2 wt.% Al) and ZnAl53 (Zn + 53 wt.% Al) were investigated in aqueous solution at pH 12.0 with a novel setup, the so-called impedance titrator. This device is able to perform electrochemical measurements including, but not limited to, impedance spectroscopy in dependency of different pH-values. The setup allows holding the pH-value with a precision of at least 0.05 by dosing the required amount of titrating agent to the system. If the alkaline pH region is investigated, hydroxide ions are consumed in the course of passive layer formation. The amount of consumed hydroxide allows to quantitatively follow the formation of the hydroxide film and its thickness. Cross section SEM shows an excellent agreement of 13 μm after 7 h for ZnMg2Al2. At a constant pH value, the hydroxide concentration is constant and film formation is well defined and kinetically characterised. The consumption of hydroxide by the ZnAl53 coating is higher resulting from the solubility of the Al as aluminate under alkaline conditions. The composition of the precipitates contains less than 3 wt.% of Al. The observed processes and the formation of corrosion products are recorded and differences in the behaviour of the two coatings are discussed

  15. Modeling study of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field, Kamchatka, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiryukhin, A.V. [Institute of Volcanology, Kamchatsky (Russian Federation); Yampolsky, V.A. [Kamchatskburgeotermia State Enterprise, Elizovo (Russian Federation)

    2004-08-01

    Exploitation of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field started in 1966 with a 5 MW{sub e} power plant. A hydrogeological model of the Pauzhetsky field has been developed based on an integrated analysis of data on lithological units, temperature, pressure, production zones and natural discharge distributions. A one-layer 'well by well' model with specified vertical heat and mass exchange conditions has been used to represent the main features of the production reservoir. Numerical model development was based on the TOUGH2 code [Pruess, 1991. TOUGH2 - A General Purpose Numerical Simulator for Multiphase Fluid and Heat Flow, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report, Berkeley, CA; Pruess et al., 1999. TOUGH2 User's Guide, Version 2.0, Report LBNL-43134, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA] coupled with tables generated by the HOLA wellbore simulator [Aunzo et al., 1991. Wellbore Models GWELL, GWNACL, and HOLA, Users Guide, Draft, 81 pp.]. Lahey Fortran-90 compiler and computer graphical packages (Didger-3, Surfer-8, Grapher-3) were also used to model the development process. The modeling study of the natural-state conditions was targeted on a temperature distribution match to estimate the natural high-temperature upflow parameters: the mass flow-rate was estimated at 220 kg/s with enthalpy of 830-920 kJ/kg. The modeling study for the 1964-2000 exploitation period of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field was targeted at matching the transient reservoir pressure and flowing enthalpies of the production wells. The modeling study of exploitation confirmed that 'double porosity' in the reservoir, with a 10-20% active volume of 'fractures', and a thermo-mechanical response to reinjection (including changes in porosity due to compressibility and expansivity), were the key parameters of the model. The calibrated model of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field was used to forecast reservoir behavior under different exploitation scenarios for

  16. Optimizing the Utility Power of a Geothermal Power Plant using Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) (Case Study: Sibayak Geothermal Power Plant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, R. H. M.; Manik, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Sibayak Geothermal Power Plant (SGPP) is one of the plants being developed by Pertamina Geothermal Energy (PGE) at the upstream phase. At the downstream phase, State - owned Electricity Company (PLN) through PT. Dizamatra Powerindo is the developer. The gross capacity of the power plant is 13.3 MW, consisting 1 unit of Monoblock (2 MW) developed by PGE and 2 units (2×5.65 MW) operated through Energy Sales Contract by PLN. During the development phase of a geothermal power plant, there is a chance to reduce the utility power in order to increase the overall plant efficiency. Reducing the utility power can be attempted by utilizing the wet bulb temperature fluctuation. In this study, a modeling process is developed by using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software version 9.430. The possibility of energy saving is indicated by condenser pressure changes as a result of wet bulb temperature fluctuation. The result of this study indicates that the change of condenser pressure is about 50.8% on the constant liquid/gas (L/G) condition of the wet bulb temperature of 15°C to 25°C. Further result indicates that in this power plant, Cooling Tower Fan (CTF) is the facility that has the greatest utility load, followed by Hot Well Pump (HWP). The saving of the greatest utility load is applied trough Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) instrumentation. The result of this modeling has been validated by actual operations data (log sheet). The developed model has also been reviewed trough Specific Steam Consumption (SSC), resulting that constant L/G condition allows the optimum condition on of the wet bulb temperature of 15°C to 25°C.

  17. EXPLORATION BY MEANS OF GEOPHYSICAL METHODS OF GEOTHERMAL FIELDS AND CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Züheyr KAMACI

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy which is one of the reuseable energy resources, can save as much as 77 million barrels of petroleum equivalent annually when used in the production of electricity and heating-environment. Geophysical exploration methods plays in important role in the fields of geothermal exploration, development and observational studies. Thermal and geoelectrical methods are the most effective methods which shows the temperature variation anomalies and mechanical drilling places. But, when the other methods of gravity, magnetic, radiometric, well geophysics and well logs can be used in conjunction with seismic tomography, apart from the mentioned geophysical exploration method, better results could be obtained. From the above mentioned facts various case history reports are given from our country and worldwide to determine geothermal energy resources by using geophysical exploration technique application. From these results of studies a 55 °C hot water artessian aquifer is found in the Uşak-Banaz geothermal field by applying geoelectrical methods.

  18. Reservoir Maintenance and Development Task Report for the DOE Geothermal Technologies Office GeoVision Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Finger, John T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carrigan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foris, Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennedy, Mack B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Corbet, Thomas F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doughty, Christine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pye, Steven [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report documents the key findings from the Reservoir Maintenance and Development (RM&D) Task of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE), Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) Geothermal Vision Study (GeoVision Study). The GeoVision Study had the objective of conducting analyses of future geothermal growth based on sets of current and future geothermal technology developments. The RM&D Task is one of seven tasks within the GeoVision Study with the others being, Exploration and Confirmation, Potential to Penetration, Institutional Market Barriers, Environmental and Social Impacts, Thermal Applications, and Hybrid Systems. The full set of findings and the details of the GeoVision Study can be found in the final GeoVision Study report on the DOE-GTO website. As applied here, RM&D refers to the activities associated with developing, exploiting, and maintaining a known geothermal resource. It assumes that the site has already been vetted and that the resource has been evaluated to be of sufficient quality to move towards full-scale development. It also assumes that the resource is to be developed for power generation, as opposed to low-temperature or direct use applications. This document presents the key factors influencing RM&D from both a technological and operational standpoint and provides a baseline of its current state. It also looks forward to describe areas of research and development that must be pursued if the development geothermal energy is to reach its full potential.

  19. Status of geothermal energy in world and Turkey and studies in ITU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpen, Umran

    2006-01-01

    After roughly 100 years of the first electricity generation, installed capacity of geothermal power plants have grown to 8900 MW in 25 countries, producing 56830 GWh/year. An estimate of the installed thermal power in the world for direct utilization at the end of 2004 is 27825 MW t . Thermal energy used is 261418 TJ/yr. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 33% for geothermal heat pumps, 29% for bathing and swimming, 20% for space heating (of which 77% for district heating), 7.5% for greenhouse heating and open ground heating, 4% for industrial process heat, 4% for aquaculture and 2% for others uses. A conventional steam cycle power plant with 17.8 MW e capacity was installed in Kizildere geothermal field and has been generating an average gross power of 10 MWe since 1984. An air cooled binary cycle power plant with gross capacity of 8.5 MW e is being built in Aydin-Salavatli has been in operation for two months. A decision was made to install another power plant with a capacity of 45 MW e in Aydin-Germencik that reservoir assessment studies are being conducted Direct utilization of geothermal resources in Turkey are about 500 MW t of which 250 MW t is used by district heating,140 MW t utilized by greenhouse heating and 100 MWt belong to bathing Turkeys geothermal potential as geothermal resource base was estimated as 3.1x10 2 3 J. Later information on the geothermal potential was provided by Serpen and Turkeys geothermal resource base was found 2.85x10 2 3 J. Recent studies by Serpen revealed Turkeys convertible energy from geothermal resources in 3 categories as 1.2E22 J for direct use (in two categories) and 1.3E18 J for indirect use. Stochastic studies conducted on economics of geothermal resources in Turkey by Serpen revealed that power generation looks profitable with the electricity selling prices of around 4.5-5 cents/kWh. The payout time for this type of investments reaches 7 to 8 years. District heating systems do not seem

  20. Kenya geothermal private power project: A prefeasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    Twenty-eight geothermal areas in Kenya were evaluated and prioritized for development. The prioritization was based on the potential size, resource temperature, level of exploration risk, location, and exploration/development costs for each geothermal area. Suswa, Eburru and Arus are found to offer the best short-term prospects for successful private power development. It was found that cost per kill developed are significantly lower for the larger (50MW) than for smaller-sized (10 or 20 NW) projects. In addition to plant size, the cost per kill developed is seen to be a function of resource temperature, generation mode (binary or flash cycle) and transmission distance.

  1. WARM SPRINGS CREEK GEOTHERMAL STUDY, BLAIN COUNTY IDAHO, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Warm Springs Creek drainage near Ketchum, Idaho (17040219), a leaking pipeline coveys geothermal water through the valley to heat nearby homes as well as to supply a resorts swimming pool. Several domestic wells in close proximity to this line have exhibited increasing fl...

  2. Oxygen isotope studies of the Salton Sea geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Interbedded shales and sandstones were drilled to a depth of 1588 metres in Sinclair Number Four Well, Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Bottom hole temperatures are approximately 290 0 C. The oxygen dels of hydrothermal and detrital calcite have a systematic relationship at any depth in the geothermal reservoir. Typical values are: vein calcite, +6 0 / 00 ; calcite in white sandstone, +10 0 / 00 ; calcite in dark gray shale, +11 0 / 00 ; calcite in light gray shale, +17 0 / 00 ; calcite in red-brown shale, +20 0 / 00 . This succession represents decreasing water-rock interaction that is also indicated by the clay mineralogy of the shales. Permeability has a marked effect on the equilibration of water and rocks at any given temperature. Original differences in permeability have resulted in partial preservation of original detrital sedimentary compositions. The fluids in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field are probabaly partially evaporated Colorado River water, and their oxygen del values vary as much as 4 0 / 00 throughout the field. Truesdell's (1974) data suggest that dissolved salts may make the water oxygen activity del as much as 6 0 / 00 greater than the concentration del in the geothermal reservoir. Such an uncertainty is a serious impediment to precise isotope geothermometry in this system.(auth.)

  3. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-based evaluation of biological tissue phantoms to study multifrequency electrical impedance tomography (Mf-EIT) systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Tushar Kanti; Nagaraju, J.; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    . In this direction the impedance responses of the saline solution (background) and a number vegetable and fruit tissues (inhomogeneities) are studied with electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the frequency responses of bioelectrical impedance and conductivity

  4. Experimental study on plaeo-geothermal and its history in the central and northern part of Huanghua depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Wei; Xia Yuliang; Ou Guangxi; Liu Dechang; Zhao Yunlong

    1999-11-01

    Started with the research on the unification of material source and pre-stage thermal history of Tertiary sedimentary rocks, the authors firstly analyse and discuss the paleo-geothermal and its gradient of the representative drilling well, identifies the temperature which the strata experienced at different period and the geologic factor that controls the geothermal field with fission track dating; then comprehensively analyse the paleo-geothermal field and its history in the concerned area after restoring the sedimentary and burying history; finally proposed some suggestion for oil- gas exploration in this area and for paleo-geothermal study method

  5. Geothermal direct-heat study: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    Potential applications of geothermal energy which would be compatible with the agricultural activities in the county were identified and a plan to attract potential users to the area was developed. The intent of the first effort was to identify general classifications of industries which could utilize geothermal heat in production processes. Two levels of analyses were utilized for this effort. Initially, activities relying on previously developed engineering and industrial concepts were investigated to determine capital costs, employment, and potential energy savings. Second, innovative concepts not yet fully developed were investigated to determine their potential applicability to the agricultural base of the county. These investigations indicated that the major potential applications of geothermal heat would involve industries related to food processing or other direct agriculture-related uses of raw materials produced or imported to the county. An implementation plan which can be utilized by the county to market direct heat applications was developed. A socioeconomics analysis examined the potential effects on the county from development of direct heat projects. The county's planning and permitting requirements for dirct heat projects were also examined.

  6. Geothermal energy in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1993-11-01

    The potential of geothermal energy utilization in Jordan was discussed. The report gave a summary of the location of geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and of ongoing projects that utilize geothermal energy for greenhouse heating, fish farming, refrigeration by absorption, and water desalination of deep aquifers. The problems facing the utilization of geothermal energy in Jordan were identified to be financial (i.e. insufficient allocation of local funding, and difficulty in getting foreign financing), and inadequate expertise in the field of geothermal energy applications. The report gave a historical account of geothermal energy utilization activities in Jordan, including cooperation activities with international organizations and foreign countries. A total of 19 reports already prepared in the areas of geochemical and hydrological studies were identified. The report concluded that the utilization of geothermal energy offers some interesting economic possibilities. (A.M.H.). 4 refs. 1 map

  7. Exploring public engagement with geothermal energy in southern Italy: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzone, Anna; Allansdottir, Agnes; De Franco, Roberto; Muttoni, Giovanni; Manzella, Adele

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of public views on eventual geothermal energy development in Sicily. The research was carried out under a much wider research project, VIGOR, with the aim to explore the feasibility of geothermal energy utilization in southern Italy. This study has two primary objectives: (1) to explore the views and opinions of local communities regarding the potential of geothermal energy applications; (2) to contribute to the growing literature on public engagement with energy issues. In order to explore public views towards geothermal technologies, we conducted a case study using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Although Italy has enormous geological potential for geothermal energy production, levels of knowledge of this energy source amongst the public are low. The results indicate that the issue is shrouded in uncertainty and that the Sicilian public expresses a diffused lack of trust in decision-making processes. Taken together, these factors are likely to strongly impact eventual further developments in this sector. The results clearly show the need for further societal dialogue supported by a sound communication action strategy as the first stage in a public participation

  8. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, F.; Kappelmeyer, O.; Herde, O.A.

    1992-01-01

    Objective of this brochure is to present the subject Geothermics and the possible use of geothermal energy to the public. The following aspects will be refered to: -present energy situation -geothermal potential -use of geothermal energy -environemental aspects -economics. In addition, it presents an up-dated overview of geothermal projects funded by the German government, and a list of institutions and companies active in geothermal research and developments. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Geothermal application feasibility study for the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.R.

    1978-04-01

    This study was limited to determining the economic feasibility of providing the space heating, water heating, space cooling, and electrical power needs of New Mexico Tech from geothermal energy. The means of obtaining the required heat and water from the earth, and the possibility of corrosive effects were not part of this study. The results indicate that space heating and water heating are economically feasible if the cost of developing a geothermal source is not included. The major expense then is the pipeline used to convey the energy to the campus. calculations show that this cost is approximately two to three times our current annual heating bill, The study also showed that it would not be economically feasible to provide our relatively small space cooling and electrical energy needs from geothermal energy.

  10. Economic study of low temperature geothermal energy in Lassen and Modoc Counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The feasibility of using low cost, low temperature geothermal energy in job-producing industries to increase employment and encourage economic development was investigated. The study, encompassing all of Lassen and Modoc Counties, was to be site-specific, referencing candidate geothermal applications to known hot wells and springs as previously determined, or to new wells with specific characteristics as defined in the Scope of Work. The emphasis was to be placed on economically practical and readily achievable applications from known resources. Although both positive and negative findings were found in specific areas of investigation, it is felt that the overall long term prognosis for geothermal energy stimulus to industry in the area is excellent. The applications studied were; greenhouse heating, kiln drying, onion dehydration, feedlots, and aquaculture.

  11. EIS and potentiodynamic polarization studies on immiscible monotectic Al–In alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osório, Wislei R.; Freitas, Emmanuelle S.; Garcia, Amauri

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The Al–In alloy microstructure is characterized by In droplets spread in an Al matrix. • The scale of phases forming the microstructure affect the electrochemical behavior. • Larger interphase spacing/droplet diameter is related to higher corrosion resistance. • The deleterious effect in corrosion resistance is due to strains and galvanic cells. -- Abstract: The electrochemical behavior of monotectic Al–In alloys is experimentally investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic anodic polarization techniques and an equivalent circuit analysis were used to evaluate the corrosion response in a stagnant and naturally aerated 0.5 M NaCl solution at 25 °C. It was found that a better galvanic protection can be provided for microstructures having indium droplets of larger diameters and larger interphase spacings. From five samples extracted along the length of a directionally solidified Al–In casting, that having smallest interphase spacing (λ = 18 μm) and droplet diameter (d = 0.7 μm) had its corrosion resistance significantly decreased (about 2 and 3 times in terms of the current density and polarization resistance) when compared with that of the sample having the coarsest microstructure (λ = 60 μm and d = 2.5 μm). Such behavior is attributed to both localized strains between aluminum and indium boundaries and the corrosion potential of the indium particles

  12. Preliminary interpretation of isotopic studies of geothermal waters from the Beijing region (P.R. China)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyan, Zheng; Da-Lei, Ma; Changfang, Xie; Shangyao, Huang; Jianghua, Feng; Jingshu, Wu

    1982-01-01

    Isotopic studies of thermal and cold surface waters sampled in Beijing region have shown that the thermal waters are meteoric waters which have been precipitated in the mountainous area lying to the NW of Beijing. ΔD and over distances of more than 150 km in Sinian basement rocks which are 3 to 5 km in the SE sector of the region. Significant 18 O exchange with basement rocks occurs in the Jizhong Depression about 60 km to the SE of Beijing. On a smaller scale, a SE flow of thermal waters in basement rocks in corroborated by Δ 34 S data for the Beijing area and the Beijing geothermal field. The Beijing geothermal field and other geothermal fields in the SE sector of the Beijing region are an example for low temperature systems where the heat is derived from a normal or slightly greater than normal, terrestrial heat flow

  13. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  14. Problem definition study of subsidence caused by geopressured geothermal resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The environmental and socio-economic settings of four environmentally representative Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal fairways were inventoried. Subsidence predictions were prepared using feasible development scenarios for the four representative subsidence sites. Based on the results of the subsidence estimates, an assessment of the associated potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts was prepared. An inventory of mitigation measures was also compiled. Results of the subsidence estimates and impact assessments are presented, as well as conclusions as to what are the major uncertainties, problems, and issues concerning the future study of geopressured geothermal subsidence.

  15. Geothermal area detection using Landsat ETM+ thermal infrared data and its mechanistic analysis—A case study in Tengchong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qiming; Zhang, Ning; Nan, Peng; Chai, Leilei

    2011-08-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is an important technique in the exploration of geothermal resources. In this study, a geothermal survey is conducted in Tengchong area of Yunnan province in China using TIR data from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. Based on radiometric calibration, atmospheric correction and emissivity calculation, a simple but efficient single channel algorithm with acceptable precision is applied to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST) of study area. The LST anomalous areas with temperature about 4-10 K higher than background area are discovered. Four geothermal areas are identified with the discussion of geothermal mechanism and the further analysis of regional geologic structure. The research reveals that the distribution of geothermal areas is consistent with the fault development in study area. Magmatism contributes abundant thermal source to study area and the faults provide thermal channels for heat transfer from interior earth to land surface and facilitate the present of geothermal anomalies. Finally, we conclude that TIR remote sensing is a cost-effective technique to detect LST anomalies. Combining TIR remote sensing with geological analysis and the understanding of geothermal mechanism is an accurate and efficient approach to geothermal area detection.

  16. The Momotombo Geothermal Field, Nicaragua: Exploration and development case history study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-07-01

    This case history discusses the exploration methods used at the Momotombo Geothermal Field in western Nicaragua, and evaluates their contributions to the development of the geothermal field models. Subsequent reservoir engineering has not been synthesized or evaluated. A geothermal exploration program was started in Nicaragua in 1966 to discover and delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in western Nicaragua. Exploration began at the Momotombo field in 1970 using geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods. A regional study of thermal manifestations was undertaken and the area on the southern flank of Volcan Momotombo was chosen for more detailed investigation. Subsequent exploration by various consultants produced a number of geotechnical reports on the geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the field as well as describing production well drilling. Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. This report presents the description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development. Our principal finding is that data developed at each stage were not sufficiently integrated to guide further work at the field, causing inefficient use of

  17. Resource engineering and economic studies for direct application of geothermal energy. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The feasibility of utilizing geothermal energy at a selected plant in New York State was studied. Existing oil and gas records suggests that geothermal fluid is available in the target area and based on this potential. Friendship Dairies, Inc., Friendship, NY, was selected as a potential user of geothermal energy. Currently natural gas and electricity are used as its primary energy sources. Six geothermal system configurations were analyzed based on replacement of gas or oil-fired systems for producing process heat. Each system was evaluated in terms of Internal Rate of Return on Investment (IRR), and simple payback. Six system configurations and two replaced fuels, representative of a range of situations found in the state, are analyzed. Based on the potential geothermal reserves at Friendship, each of the six system configurations are shown to be economically viable, compared to continued gas or oil-firing. The Computed IRR's are all far in excess of projected average interest rates for long term borrowings: approximately 15% for guarantee backed loans or as high as 20% for conventional financing. IRR is computed based on the total investment (equity plus debt) and cash flows before financing costs, i.e., before interest expense, but after the tax benefit of the interest deduction. The base case application for the Friendship analysis is case B/20 yr-gas which produces an IRR of 28.5% and payback of 3.4 years. Even better returns could be realized in the cases of oil-avoidance and where greater use of geothermal energy can be made as shown in the other cases considered.

  18. Geothermal Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluska, Oscar P.; Tangir, Daniel; Perri, Matias S.

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of geothermal energy is given that includes a short description of the active and stable areas in the world. The possibilities of geothermal development in Argentina are analyzed taking into account the geothermal fields of the country. The environmental benefits of geothermal energy are outlined

  19. Study of the flooding and dehydration processes of a PEM fuel cell using the EIS technique; Estudio de los procesos de inundacion y deshidratacion en una celda de combustible tipo PEM mediante la tecnica EIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyola-Morales, F.; Cano-Castillo, U. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: feloyola@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-09-15

    In this work, a study was conducted of the flooding and dehydration processes of a PEM fuel cell using the EIS technique. The experiments were conducted in a 50 cm{sup 2} cell. The gradual flooding of the system was induced by operating the cell at a potential of 0.3 V and maintaining the gas outlet closed (that is, stoichiometry of 1 for the anode (H{sub 2}) and the cathode (O{sub 2})) to enable the water produced by the reaction to accumulate inside. The gradual dehydration was induced by operating the cell at a potential of 0.3V and establishing a oxidized gas flow at a stoichiometry of 4. EIS tests were applied throughout both processes. The results showed that the EIS technique is highly sensitive for the analysis of the different degrees of the flooding processes by monitoring variations in the imaginary components of total impedance (Z{sup )} or the phase angle ({theta}). For low degrees of flooding, the technique had good sensitivity, between 1 and 6 Hz, while at high degrees of flooding the technique's greatest sensitivity was limited to a range between 1 and 2 Hz. In the case of the dehydration process of the system, the results showed that this type of process can be analyzed for variations in the value of the real component (Z{sup '}) as well as for the imaginary component of total impedance and variations in the phase angle. The analysis of dehydration with Z{sup '} was possible at a rather wide range, from 100 to 1000 Hz; with Z{sup }or {theta} it was only possible at a range of 20 to 200 Hz. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo, se llevo a cabo el estudio de los procesos de inundacion y deshidratacion de una celda de combustible tipo PEM mediante la tecnica EIS. Los experimentos fueron realizados en una celda de 50 cm{sup 2}. La inundacion gradual del sistema se indujo operando la celda a un potencial de 0.3 V de celda y manteniendo la salida de gases cerrada (i. e. estequiometria de 1 tanto en anodo (H{sub 2}) como en catodo (O{sub 2

  20. Study of caffeine as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel in chloride solution containing hydrogen sulfide using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solehudin, Agus; Berman, Ega Taqwali; Nurdin, Isdiriayani

    2015-09-01

    The corrosion behaviour of steel surface in the absence and presence of caffeine in 3.5% NaCl solution containing dissolved H2S gas is studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results of carbon steel corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution containing 500 mg/l H2S at different caffeine concentrations showed that corrosion rate of carbon steel decreases with increasing of caffeine concentrations from 0 to 0,1 mmol/l. Whereas, the corrosion rate increase with increasing of caffeine concentrations from 1 to 10 mmol/l. It is clear that no inhibition efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration. The optimum value of inhibition efficiency was 90% at a caffeine concentration of 0.1 mmol/l. This suggests that caffeine's performance as a corrosion inhibitor is more effective at a concentration of 0.1 mmol/l.

  1. Environmental Impacts of a Multi-Borehole Geothermal System: Model Sensitivity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, M.; Daemi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Problems associated with fossil fuel consumption has increased worldwide interest in discovering and developing sustainable energy systems. One such system is geothermal heating, which uses the constant temperature of the ground to heat or cool buildings. Since geothermal heating offers low maintenance, high heating/cooling comfort, and a low carbon footprint, compared to conventional systems, there has been an increasing trend in equipping large buildings with geothermal heating. However, little is known on the potential environmental impact geothermal heating can have on the subsurface, such as the creation of subsurface thermal plumes or changes in groundwater flow dynamics. In the present study, the environmental impacts of a closed-loop, ground source heat pump (GSHP) system was examined with respect to different system parameters. To do this a three-dimensional model, developed using FEFLOW, was used to examine the thermal plumes resulting from ten years of operation of a vertical closed-loop GSHP system with multiple boreholes. A required thermal load typical of an office building located in Canada was calculated and groundwater flow and heat transport in the geological formation was simulated. Consequently, the resulting thermal plumes were studied and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effect of different parameters like groundwater flow and soil type on the development and movement of thermal plumes. Since thermal plumes can affect the efficiency of a GSHP system, this study provides insight into important system parameters.

  2. Geothermal system boundary at the northern edge of Patuha Geothermal Field based on integrated study of volcanostratigraphy, geological field mapping, and cool springs contamination by thermal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryantini; Rachmawati, C.; Abdurrahman, M.

    2017-12-01

    Patuha Geothermal System is a volcanic hydrothermal system. In this type of system, the boundary of the system is often determined by low resistivity (10 ohm.m) anomaly from Magnetotelluric (MT) or DC-Resistivity survey. On the contrary, during geothermal exploration, the system boundary often need to be determined as early as possible even prior of resistivity data available. Thus, a method that use early stage survey data must be developed properly to reduce the uncertainty of the geothermal area extent delineation at the time the geophysical data unavailable. Geological field mapping, volcanostratigraphy analysis and fluid chemistry of thermal water and cold water are the data available at the early stage of exploration. This study integrates this data to delineate the geothermal system boundary. The geological mapping and volcanostratigraphy are constructed to limit the extent of thermal and cold springs. It results that springs in the study area are controlled hydrologically by topography of Patuha Volcanic Crown (complex) or so called PVC, the current geothermal field and Masigit Volcanic Crown (complex) or so called MVC, the dormant volcano not associated with active geothermal system. Some of the cold springs at PVC are contaminated by subsurface steam heated outflow while others are not contaminated. The contaminated cold springs have several characteristics such as higher water temperature than ambient temperature at the time it was measured, higher total disolved solid (TDS), and lower pH. The soluble elements analysis support the early contamination indication by showing higher cation and anion, and positive oxygen shifting of stable isotope of these cool springs. Where as the uncontaminated spring shows similar characteristic with cool springs occur at MVC. The boundary of the system is delineated by an arbitrary line drawn between distal thermal springs from the upflow or contaminated cool springs with the cool uncontaminated springs. This boundary is

  3. Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-20

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the Western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.

  4. Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.

  5. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  6. Application of a computer model to the study of the geothermic field of Mofete, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannone, G.; Turriani, C; Pistellie, E

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a reliable and comprehensive reservoir simulation package for a better understanding of ''in-situ'' processes pertinent to geothermal reservoir hydrodynamics and thermodynamics, and to enable an assessment of optimum reservoir management strategies as to production and reinjection policies. The study consists of four parts: The first deals with the computer programme. This is based on a programme called ''CHARG''developed in the US. Some adaptation was necessary. The second part concerns the fall-off and pit-tests of the geothermal well close to Naples ''Mofete 2''. This has been a crucial test for the CHARG model using asymmetric cylindrical coordinates and 14 different layers. Part three deals with predictions about longevity of the geothermal field of Mofete. The area is divided into 2500 blocs distibuted over 14 layers. Several configurations (various numbers of production and reinjection wells) have been tested. The last chapter delas with a comparison between the ISMES reservoir model, based on the finite elements approach and the AGIP model (finite differences). Both models give nearly the same results when applied to the geothermal field of Travale.

  7. Geothermal studies in oilfield districts of Eastern Margin of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel Zaher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of geothermal studies carried out at 149 onshore oil wells have been used in evaluation of temperature gradient and heat flow values of the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez. The investigations included temperature logs in boreholes, calculation of amplitude temperature, geothermal gradients and heat flow. The results obtained indicate that geothermal gradient values are in the ranges of 0.02–0.044 °C/m and regionally averaged mean heat flow values are found to fall in the interval of 45–120 mW/m2. Temperature gradients and heat flow values change from low values eastward to high values toward the axial of Gulf of Suez rift. The result of this research work has been highly successful in identifying new geothermal resources eastward of the Gulf of Suez. Additionally, this study shows that the areas with relatively higher temperature gradients have lower oil window, mature earlier, than those with low gradient values. Thus, high temperature gradients cause to expedite the formation of oil at relatively shallow depths and narrow oil windows. On the other hand, low temperature gradient makes the oil window to be quite broad when locate at high depths.

  8. Reservoir Simulation on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field: A Continuing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, M.; Marquez, R.; Arellano, V.; Esquer, C.A.

    1983-12-15

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field is a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of complex geological and hydrological structure. It is located at the southern end of the Salton-Mexicali trough which includes other geothermal anomalies as Heber and East Mesa. Although in 1973, the initial power plant installed capacity was 75 MW of electrical power, this amount increased to 180 MW in 1981 as field development continued. It is expected to have a generating capacity of 620 MW by the end of 1985, when two new plants will be completely in operation. Questions about field deliverability, reservoir life and ultimate recovery related to planned installations are being presently asked. Numerical modeling studies can give very valuable answers to these questions, even at the early stages in the development of a field. An effort to simulate the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir has been undergoing for almost two years. A joint project among Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Intercomp of Houstin, Texas, was created to perform reservoir engineering and simulation studies on this field. The final project objective is tosimulate the behavior of the old field region when production from additional wells located in the undeveloped field zones will be used for feeding the new power plants.

  9. Success in geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefansson, V.

    1992-01-01

    Success in geothermal development can be defined as the ability to produce geothermal energy at compatible energy prices to other energy sources. Drilling comprises usually the largest cost in geothermal development, and the results of drilling is largely influencing the final price of geothermal energy. For 20 geothermal fields with operating power plants, the ratio between installed capacity and the total number of well in the field is 1.9 MWe/well. The drilling history in 30 geothermal fields are analyzed by plotting the average cumulative well outputs as function of the number of wells drilled in the field. The range of the average well output is 1-10 MWe/well with the mean value 4.2 MWe/well for the 30 geothermal fields studied. A leaning curve is defined as the number of wells drilled in each field before the average output per well reaches a fairly constant value, which is characteristic for the geothermal reservoir. The range for this learning time is 4-36 wells and the average is 13 wells. In general, the average well output in a given field is fairly constant after some 10-20 wells has been drilled in the field. The asymptotic average well output is considered to be a reservoir parameter when it is normalized to the average drilling depth. In average, this reservoir parameter can be expressed as 3.3 MWe per drilled km for the 30 geothermal fields studied. The lifetime of the resource or the depletion time of the geothermal reservoir should also be considered as a parameter influencing the success of geothermal development. Stepwise development, where the reservoir response to the utilization for the first step is used to determine the timing of the installment of the next step, is considered to be an appropriate method to minimize the risk for over investment in a geothermal field

  10. Performance and Feasibility Study of a Standing Column Well (SCW System Using a Deep Geothermal Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Heum Cho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Deep geothermal heat pump systems have considerable energy saving potential for heating and cooling systems that use stable ground temperature and groundwater as their heat sources. However, deep geothermal systems have several limitations for real applications such as a very high installation cost and a lack of recognition as heating and cooling systems. In this study, we performed a feasibility assessment of a Standing Column Well (SCW system using a deep geothermal well, based on a real-scale experiment in Korea. The results showed that the temperature of the heat source increased up to 42.04 °C in the borehole after the heating experiment, which is about 30 °C higher than that of normal shallow geothermal wells. Furthermore, the coefficient of performance (COP of the heat pump during 3 months of operation was 5.8, but the system COP was only 3.6 due to the relatively high electric consumption of the pump. Moreover, the payback period of the system using a deep well for controlled horticulture in a glass greenhouse was calculated as 6 years compared with using a diesel boiler system.

  11. Magnetotelluric Studies for Hydrocarbon and Geothermal Resources: Examples from the Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Prasanta K.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetotellurics (MT) and the other related electrical and electromagnetic methods play a very useful role in resource exploration. This review paper presents the current scenario of application of MT in the exploration for hydrocarbons and geothermal resources in Asia. While seismics is the most preferred method in oil exploration, it is, however, beset with several limitations in the case of sedimentary targets overlain by basalts or evaporate/carbonate rocks where the high-velocity layers overlying the lower velocity layers pose a problem. In such cases, MT plays an important and, in some cases, a crucial role in mapping these potential reservoirs because of significant resistivity contrast generally observed between the basalts and the underlying sedimentary layers. A few case histories are presented that typically illustrate the role of MT in this context. In the case of geothermal exploration, MT is known to be highly effective in deciphering the target areas because of the conductivity structures arising from the presence and circulation of highly conductive fluids in the geothermal target areas. A few examples of MT studies carried out in some of the potential areas of geothermal significance in the Asian region are also discussed. While it is a relatively favorable situation for application of EM and MT methods in the case of exploration of the high-enthalpy region due to the development of well-defined conceptual models, still the low-enthalpy regions need to be understood well, particularly because of more complex structural patterns and the fluid circulation under relatively low-temperature conditions. Currently, a lot of modeling in both geothermal and hydrocarbon exploration is being done using three-dimensional techniques, and it is the right time to go for integration and three-dimensional joint inversion of the geophysical parameters such as resistivity, velocity, density, from MT, electromagnetics (EM), seismics and gravity.

  12. Diffuse CO2 degassing studies to reveal hidden geothermal resources in oceanic volcanic islands: The Canarian archipelago case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, F.; Perez, N. M.; García-Merino, M.; Padron, E.; Melián, G.; Asensio-Ramos, M.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Padilla, G.; Barrancos, J.; Cótchico, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Canary Islands, owing to their recent volcanism, are the only Spanish territory with potential high enthalpy geothermal resources. The final goal of geothermal exploration in a specific area is to locate and define the size, shape, structure of hidden geothermal resources, and determine their characteristics (fluid type, temperature, chemical composition an ability to produce energy). At those areas where there is not any evidence of endogenous fluids manifestations at surface, that traditionally evidence the presence of an active geothermal system) the geochemical methods for geothermal exploration must include soil gas surveys. This is the case of five mining licenses for geothermal exploration in the Canay Islands, four in Tenerife and one in Gran Canaria Island. We report herein the results of diffuse CO2 emission studies in the five mining licenses during 2011-2014. The primary objective of the study was to sort the possible geothermal potential of these five mining licenses, thus reducing the uncertainty inherent to the selection of the areas with highest geothermal potential for future exploration works. The criterion used to sort the different areas was the contribution of volcano-hydrothermal CO2 in the degassing at each study area. Several hundreds of measurements of diffuse CO2 emission, soil CO2 concentration and isotopic composition were performed at each study area. Based in three different endmembers (biogenic, atmospheric and deep-seated CO2) with different CO2 concentrations (100, 0.04 and 100% respectively) and isotopic compositions (-20, -8 and -3 per mil vs. VPDB respectively) a mass balance to distinguish the different contribution of each endmember in the soil CO2 at each sampling site was made. The percentage of the volcano-hydrothermal contribution in the current diffuse CO2 degassing was in the range 2-19%.The Abeque mining license, that comprises part of the north-west volcanic rift of Tenerife, seemed to show the highest geothermal

  13. Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endeshaw, A.; Belaineh, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

  14. Ei viitsi! / Aado Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Aado, 1937-

    2002-01-01

    Põhjus-tagajärg diagramm (Ishikawa diagramm) annab piltliku ülevaate põhjustest, miks õpilased ei viitsi õppida. Pareto diagramm kajastab näitlikult erinevate põhjuste osa halva tagajärje kujunemises

  15. Perturbation method of studying the EI Niño oscillation with two parameters by using the delay sea-air oscillator model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zeng-Ji; Lin Wan-Tao; Mo Jia-Qi

    2012-01-01

    The EI Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO) is an interannual phenomenon involved in tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. In this paper, we develop an asymptotic method of solving the nonlinear equation using the ENSO model. Based on a class of the oscillator of the ENSO model, a approximate solution of the corresponding problem is studied employing the perturbation method

  16. Confirmation study On the effectiveness of prospecting techniques for deep geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Annual study results in 1992 of this study were summarized which has been promoted as a part of the geothermal energy R and D based on the Sunshine Project. In 1992, as for the exploration method using electromagnetic waves, after the previously developed array CSMT equipment was improved to make its data acquisition system faster and more accurate, the equipment was applied to a geothermal field, and the resistivity structure of the field was also studied. As for the method using seismic waves, seismic tomography and vertical seismic profiling experiments were conducted to improve measurement and analysis techniques for fracture systems, and the development of high-temperature downhole instruments was continued, while the correlation between fractures and hydrological characteristics was derived from various data obtained by comprehensive analysis method. As for the method using microearthquake, several program modules were improved, and the programs were mostly completed for calculating hypocenters, magnitudes and focal mechanisms from various observed data. 6 figs.

  17. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of geothermal energy may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of geothermal energy, the geothermal resource, hydrothermal fluids, electricity production, district heating, process heating, geopressured brines, technology and costs, hot dry rock, magma, and environmental and siting issues

  18. Case studies for utilizing groundwater-source and low-enthalpy geothermal resources in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.-H.; Shin, J.; Lee, K.-K.; Lee, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    As one of the top 10 oil-consuming countries in the world, Korea recently has had a great interest in extending the ways to utilize renewable energy. In this regard, geothermal energy resource is attracting more concerns from both of the government and the research field. Korea has neither active volcanic sites nor areas with abnormally higher heat flow. In spite of these natural conditions, many efforts have been exerted to utilize geothermal energy. Here, we introduce two case studies of using groundwater-source geothermal energy with relatively low-enthalpy: One is a riverbank filtration facility, which has been using some of its riverbank filtrate water for the indoor air-conditioning. The other is the first EGS plant planning site, where a few fault-related artesian wells reaching 70C were discovered lately. Numerical simulations to predict the temperature evolution of the two sites, which is dominated by several hydrogeologic factors, were carried out and compared. Simulation of temperature profile of riverbank filtrate water using HydroGeoSphere shows that the primary factor in determining filtrate water temperature is the pumping rate. It also shows that maintaining the facility operation with present pumping rate for the next 30 years will not cause any significant change of water temperature. However, following the new plan of the facility to install additional 37 wells with 6 times higher pumping rate than the current rate might cause about 2C decrease in filtrate water temperature in 10 years after the extension. Simulation for the temperature evolution in a faulted geothermal reservoir in EGS planning site under the supposed injection-extraction operating conditions were carried out using TOUGH2. A MINC model including a hydraulic discontinuity, which reflected the analysis from several geophysical explorations, was generated. Temperature distribution calculated from the simulation shows a rise of relatively hot geothermal water along the fault plane

  19. Economic study of low temperature geothermal energy in Lassen and Modoc counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using low cost, low temperature geothermal energy in job-producing industries to increase employment and encourage economic development. The study, encompassing all of Lassen and modoc Counties, was to be site-specific, referencing candidate geothermal applications to known hot wells and springs as previously determined, or to new wells with specific characteristics as defined in the Scope of Work. The emphasis was to be placed on economically practical and readily achievable applications from known resources, thus complimenting the recently completed ERDA-Susanville Study where a designated community was used as a ''laboratory'' in which land-use planning, institutional aspects, geological assessments, technical modeling and socioeconomic impacts were all examined in overview. During the course of the study, monthly progress reports were prepared and reviewed with the Commission so that emphasis on particular features of study could be changed as necessary to reflect updated findings and to redirect efforts into additional areas of potential promise as they became apparent. In this manner, a degree of flexibility was maintained which allowed a more comprehensive study than would have been otherwise possible. Although the report generates both positive and negative findings in specific areas of investigation, it is felt that the overall long term prognosis for geothermal energy stimulus to industry in the area is excellent.

  20. Study of benzotriazole as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel in chloride solution containing hydrogen sulfide using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solehudin, Agus, E-mail: asolehudin@upi.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering Education, Indonesia University of Education (UPI), Bandung, West Java (Indonesia); Nurdin, Isdiriayani [Department of Chemical Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, West Java (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Corrosion and inhibition studies on API 5LX65 carbon steel in chloride solution containing various concentrations of benzotriazole has been conducted at temperature of 70°C using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Corroded carbon steel surface with and without inhibitor have been observed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The objectives of this research are to study the performance of benzotriazole as corrosion inhibitors. The experimental results of carbon steel corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution containing 500 mg/l H{sub 2}S at different BTAH concentrations showed that corrosion rate of carbon steel decreases with increasing of BTAH concentrations from 0 to 10 mmol/l. The inhibition efficiency of BTAH was found to be affected by its concentration. The optimum efficiency obtained of BTAH is 93% at concentration of 5 mmol/l. The result of XRD and EDS analysis reveal the iron sulfide (FeS) formation on corroded carbon steel surface without inhibitor. The EDS spectrum show the Nitrogen (N) bond on carbon steel surface inhibited by BTAH.

  1. Microearthquake Study of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California: Evidence of Stress Triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, Austin A.

    2002-01-01

    A digital network of 24 seismograph stations was operated from September 15, 1987 to September 30, 1988, by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Unocal as part of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project to study seismicity related to tectonics and geothermal activity near the drilling site. More than 2001 microearthquakes were relocated in this study in order to image any pervasive structures that may exist within the Salton Sea geothermal field. First, detailed velocity models were obtained through standard 1-D inversion techniques. These velocity models were then used to relocate events using both single event methods and Double-Differencing, a joint hypocenter location method. An anisotropic velocity model was built from anisotropy estimates obtained from well logs within the study area. During the study period, the Superstition Hills sequence occurred with two moderate earthquakes of MS 6.2 and MS 6.6. These moderate earthquakes caused a rotation of the stress field as observed from the inversion of first motion data from microearthquakes at the Salton Sea geothermal field. Coulomb failure analysis also indicates that microearthquakes occurring after the Superstition Hills sequence are located within a region of stress increase suggesting stress triggering caused by the moderate earthquakes

  2. The potential of district heating using geothermal energy. A case study, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agioutantis, Zacharias; Bekas, Athanassios

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of using low-enthalpy geothermal energy from the geothermal field of Sousaki in the province of Korinthos, Greece, to cover the thermal needs of the nearby town of Ag. Theodori. The possibility of developing a system of district heating was examined based on a proposed town model. Total thermal demands were calculated on the basis of a model dwelling and prevailing weather conditions in the area. Subsequently, a heat transfer circuit is proposed, including the distribution network, the heat exchanger, the production and reinjection pumps, and the pumping station. Finally, energy indices are presented, such as demand in tons of equivalent oil and CO 2 emissions. (Author)

  3. Geothermal environmental studies, Heber Region, Imperial Valley, California. Environmental baseline data acquisition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been studying the feasibility of a Low Salinity Hydrothermal Demonstration Plant as part of its Geothermal Energy Program. The Heber area of the Imperial Valley was selected as one of the candidate geothermal reservoirs. Documentation of the environmental conditions presently existing in the Heber area is required for assessment of environmental impacts of future development. An environmental baseline data acquisition program to compile available data on the environment of the Heber area is reported. The program included a review of pertinent existing literature, interviews with academic, governmental and private entities, combined with field investigations and meteorological monitoring to collect primary data. Results of the data acquisition program are compiled in terms of three elements: the physical, the biological and socioeconomic settings.

  4. Magnesium and its alloys as degradable biomaterials : Corrosion studies using potentiodynamic and EIS electrochemical techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Wolf Dieter; Nascimento, Maria Lucia; Zeddies, Miriam; Córsico, Mariana; Gassa, Liliana Mabel; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica Alicia

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium is potentially useful for orthopaedic and cardiovascular applications. However, the corrosion rate of this metal is so high that its degradation occurs before the end of the healing process. In industrial media the behaviour of several magnesium alloys have been probed to be better than magnesium performance. However, the information related to their corrosion behaviour in biological media is insufficient. The aim of this work is to study the influence of the components of organic f...

  5. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.; Camacho, M.E.; Chavez, A.; Perez, H.; Gomez, J.

    1999-01-01

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m -3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies

  6. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Tavera, L; Camacho, M E; Chavez, A; Pérez, H; Gómez, J

    1999-01-01

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m sup - sup 3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies.

  7. Geothermal spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, J.L.; Takahashi, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    The spa business, part of the health and fitness industry that has sprung up in recent years, is highly successful world-wide. The most traditional type of spa is the geothermal spa, found in geothermal areas around the world. In Japan, for example, some 2,000 geothermal spas and resorts generate $6 billion annually. Hawaii has an ideal environment for geothermal spas, and several locations in the islands could supply warm mineral water for spa development. Hawaii receives about 6 million visitors annually, a high percentage of whom are familiar with the relaxing and therapeutic value of geothermal spas, virtually guaranteeing the success of this industry in Hawaii. Presently, Hawaii does not have a single geothermal spa. This paper reports that the geothermal spa business is an industry whose time has come, an industry that offers very promising investment opportunities, and one that would improve the economy while expanding the diversity of pleasurable vacation options in Hawaii

  8. Uranium mining and milling environmental studies. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex plus database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning environmental and social aspects of uranium mining, milling and ore treatment. Environmental and social aspects include air and water pollution, public health, occupational safety, land reclamation, and waste disposal. The citations refer to monitoring and control of contaminants, and environmental surveys and impact statements for specific areas in the vicinity of mining and ore treatment facilities. There are also references to health studies performed on miners and millworkers. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Seismic velocity uncertainties and their effect on geothermal predictions: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbel, Wolfgang; Köhn, Daniel; Bahadur Motra, Hem; Niederau, Jan; Thorwart, Martin; Wuttke, Frank; Descramble Working Group

    2017-04-01

    Geothermal exploration relies in large parts on geophysical subsurface models derived from seismic reflection profiling. These models are the framework of hydro-geothermal modeling, which further requires estimating thermal and hydraulic parameters to be attributed to the seismic strata. All petrophysical and structural properties involved in this process can be determined only with limited accuracy and thus impose uncertainties onto the resulting model predictions of temperature-depth profiles and hydraulic flow, too. In the present study we analyze sources and effects of uncertainties of the seismic velocity field, which translate directly into depth uncertainties of the hydraulically and thermally relevant horizons. Geological sources of these uncertainties are subsurface heterogeneity and seismic anisotropy, methodical sources are limitations in spread length and physical resolution. We demonstrate these effects using data of the EU-Horizon 2020 project DESCRAMBLE investigating a shallow super-critical geothermal reservoir in the Larderello area. The study is based on 2D- and 3D seismic reflection data and laboratory measurements on representative rock samples under simulated in-situ conditions. The rock samples consistently show P-wave anisotropy values of 10-20% order of magnitude. However, the uncertainty of layer depths induced by anisotropy is likely to be lower depending on the accuracy, with which the spatial orientation of bedding planes can be determined from the seismic reflection images.

  10. Preliminary Study of UAS Equipped with Thermal Camera for Volcanic Geothermal Monitoring in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Shih-Hong; Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2017-07-18

    Thermal infrared cameras sense the temperature information of sensed scenes. With the development of UASs (Unmanned Aircraft Systems), thermal infrared cameras can now be carried on a quadcopter UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle) to appropriately collect high-resolution thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring in a local area. Therefore, the quadcopter UAS used to acquire thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring has been developed in Taiwan as part of this study to overcome the difficult terrain with highly variable topography and extreme environmental conditions. An XM6 thermal infrared camera was employed in this thermal image collection system. The Trimble BD970 GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) board was also carried on the quadcopter UAV to gather dual-frequency GNSS observations in order to determine the flying trajectory data by using the Post-Processed Kinematic (PPK) technique; this will be used to establish the position and orientation of collected thermal images with less ground control points (GCPs). The digital surface model (DSM) and thermal orthoimages were then produced from collected thermal images. Tests conducted in the Hsiaoyukeng area of Taiwan's Yangmingshan National Park show that the difference between produced DSM and airborne LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data are about 37% between -1 m and 1 m, and 66% between -2 m and 2 m in the area surrounded by GCPs. As the accuracy of thermal orthoimages is about 1.78 m, it is deemed sufficient for volcanic geothermal monitoring. In addition, the thermal orthoimages show some phenomena not only more globally than do the traditional methods for volcanic geothermal monitoring, but they also show that the developed system can be further employed in Taiwan in the future.

  11. Preliminary Study of UAS Equipped with Thermal Camera for Volcanic Geothermal Monitoring in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hong Chio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared cameras sense the temperature information of sensed scenes. With the development of UASs (Unmanned Aircraft Systems, thermal infrared cameras can now be carried on a quadcopter UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle to appropriately collect high-resolution thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring in a local area. Therefore, the quadcopter UAS used to acquire thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring has been developed in Taiwan as part of this study to overcome the difficult terrain with highly variable topography and extreme environmental conditions. An XM6 thermal infrared camera was employed in this thermal image collection system. The Trimble BD970 GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer board was also carried on the quadcopter UAV to gather dual-frequency GNSS observations in order to determine the flying trajectory data by using the Post-Processed Kinematic (PPK technique; this will be used to establish the position and orientation of collected thermal images with less ground control points (GCPs. The digital surface model (DSM and thermal orthoimages were then produced from collected thermal images. Tests conducted in the Hsiaoyukeng area of Taiwan’s Yangmingshan National Park show that the difference between produced DSM and airborne LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data are about 37% between −1 m and 1 m, and 66% between −2 m and 2 m in the area surrounded by GCPs. As the accuracy of thermal orthoimages is about 1.78 m, it is deemed sufficient for volcanic geothermal monitoring. In addition, the thermal orthoimages show some phenomena not only more globally than do the traditional methods for volcanic geothermal monitoring, but they also show that the developed system can be further employed in Taiwan in the future.

  12. Study of Shallow Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources Using Integrated Geophysical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giorgi, Lara; Leucci, Giovanni

    2015-02-01

    The paper is focused on low enthalpy geothermal exploration performed in south Italy and provides an integrated presentation of geological, hydrogeological, and geophysical surveys carried out in the area of municipality of Lecce. Geological and hydrogeological models were performed using the stratigraphical data from 51 wells. A ground-water flow (direction and velocity) model was obtained. Using the same wells data, the ground-water annual temperature was modeled. Furthermore, the ground surface temperature records from ten meteorological stations were studied. This allowed us to obtain a model related to the variations of the temperature at different depths in the subsoil. Integrated geophysical surveys were carried out in order to explore the low-enthalpy geothermal fluids and to evaluate the results of the model. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and self-potential (SP) methods were used. The results obtained upon integrating the geophysical data with the models show a low-enthalpy geothermal resource constituted by a shallow ground-water system.

  13. Geothermal source heat pump performance for a greenhouse heating system: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Sotirios Anifantis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouses play a significant function in the modern agriculture economy even if require great amount of energy for heating systems. An interesting solution to alleviate the energy costs and environmental problems may be represented by the use of geothermal energy. The aim of this paper, based on measured experimental data, such as the inside greenhouse temperature and the heat pump performance (input and output temperatures of the working fluid, electric consumption, was the evaluation of the suitability of low enthalpy geothermal heat sources for agricultural needs such as greenhouses heating. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the University of Bari, where a greenhouse was arranged with a heating system connected to a ground-source heat pump (GSHP, which had to cover the thermal energy request. The experimental results of this survey highlight the capability of the geothermal heat source to ensue thermal conditions suitable for cultivation in greenhouses even if the compressor inside the heat pump have operated continuously in a fluctuating state without ever reaching the steady condition. Probably, to increase the performance of the heat pump and then its coefficient of performance within GSHP systems for heating greenhouses, it is important to analyse and maximise the power conductivity of the greenhouse heating system, before to design an expensive borehole ground exchanger. Nevertheless, according to the experimental data obtained, the GSHP systems are effective, efficient and environmental friendly and may be useful to supply the heating energy demand of greenhouses.

  14. Summary of geothermal studies in Montana, 1980 through 1983. DOE final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonderegger, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The geology, hydrology, and surface manifestations of geothermal systems in Montana are described by area. Water-quality information, tables of inventory and water analysis data for springs and wells, and a geothermal resource map are included. (MHR)

  15. Phase 1 Feasibility Study, Canby Cascaded Geothermal Project, April 2, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrick, Dale E [CanbyGeo, LLC

    2013-04-02

    A small community in Northern California is attempting to use a local geothermal resource to generate electrical power and cascade residual energy to an existing geothermal district heating system, greenhouse, and future fish farm and subsequent reinjection into the geothermal aquifer, creating a net-zero energy community, not including transportation.

  16. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, Ph.; Lemale, J.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source which consists in exploiting the heat coming from the Earth. It covers a wide range of techniques and applications which are presented in this article: 1 - the Earth, source of heat: structure of the Earth, geodynamic model and plate tectonics, origin of heat, geothermal gradient and terrestrial heat flux; 2 - geothermal fields and resources; 3 - implementation of geothermal resources: exploration, main characteristic parameters, resource exploitation; 4 - uses of geothermal resources: power generation, thermal uses, space heating and air conditioning heat pumps, district heating, addition of heat pumps; 5 - economical aspects: power generation, heat generation for district heating; 6 - environmental aspects: conditions of implementation, impacts as substitute to fossil fuels; 7 - geothermal energy in France: resources, organisation; 8 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  17. Geothermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. Fo...

  18. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Du, H.; Bouchot, V.; Lopez, S.; Bialkowski, A.; Colnot, A.; Rigollet, C.; Sanjuan, B.; Millot, R.; Brach, M.; Asmundsson, R.; Giroud, N.

    2010-01-01

    Geothermal energy has shown a revival for several years and should strongly develop in a near future. Its potentiality is virtually unexhaustible. Its uses are multiple and various: individual and collective space heating, heat networks, power generation, heat storage, heat exchanges etc.. Re-launched by the demand of renewable energy sources, geothermal energy has become credible thanks to the scientific works published recently which have demonstrated its economical and technical relevance. Its image to the public is changing as well. However, lot of work remains to do to make geothermal energy a real industry in France. Several brakes have to be removed rapidly which concern the noise pollution of geothermal facilities, the risk of bad results of drillings, the electricity costs etc. This dossier gives an overview of today's main research paths in the domain of geothermal energy: 1 - geothermal energy in France: historical development, surface and deep resources, ambitions of the French national energy plan (pluri-annual investment plan for heat generation, incentives, regional 'climate-air-energy' schemes), specific regulations; 2 - geothermal energy at the city scale - sedimentary basins: Ile-de-France 40 years of Dogger reservoir exploitation, potentialities of clastic reservoirs - the Chaunoy sandstones example; 3 - geothermal power generation: conventional reservoirs - the Bouillante model (Guadeloupe, French Indies); the Soultz-sous-Forets pilot plant (Bas-Rhin, France); the supercritical reservoirs - the Krafla geothermal area (Iceland). (J.S.)

  19. Final Report and Strategic Plan on the Feasibility Study to Assess Geothermal Potential on Warm Springs Reservation Lands. Report No. DOE/GO/15177

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Manion, Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises; David McClain, McClain & Associates

    2007-05-17

    In 2005 the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Tribal Council authorized an evaluation of the geothermal development potential on the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises obtained a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct a geological assessment and development estimate. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises utilized a team of expert consultants to conduct the study and develop a strategic plan. The resource assessment work was completed in 2006 by GeothermEx Inc., a consulting company specializing in geothermal resource assessments worldwide. The GeothermEx report indicates there is a 90% probability that a commercial geothermal resource exists on tribal lands in the Mt. Jefferson area. The geothermal resource assessment and other cost, risk and constraints information has been incorporated into the strategic plan.

  20. NGDC Geothermal Data Bases

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geothermics is the study of heat generated in Earth's interior and its manifestation at the surface. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has a variety of...

  1. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappelmeyer, O.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth. It represents an inexhaustible source of energy. In many countries, which are mostly located within the geothermal belts of the world, geothermal energy is being used since many decades for electricity generation and direct heating applications comprising municipal, industrial and agricultural heating. Outside the geothermal anomalous volcanic regions, hot ground water from deep rock formations at temperatures above 70 o C is used for process heat and space heating. Low prices for gas and oil hinder the development of geothermal plants in areas outside positive geothermal anomalies; the cost of drilling to reach depths, where temperatures are above 50 o C to 70 o C, is high. The necessary total investment per MW th installed capacity is in the order of 5 Mio- DM/MW th (3 Mio $/MW th ). Experience shows, that an economic break even with oil is reached at an oil price of 30$ per barrel or if an adequate bonus for the clean, environmentally compatible production of geothermal heat is granted. Worldwide the installed electric capacity of geothermal power plants is approximately 6 000 MW e . About 15 000 MW th of thermal capacity is being extracted for process heat and space heat. The importance of the terrestrial heat as an energy resource would be substantially increased, if the heat, stored in the hot crystalline basement could be extracted at economical production costs. Geothermal energy is a competitive energy source in areas with high geothermal gradients (relative low cost for drilling) and would be competitive in areas with normal geothermal gradients, if a fair compensation for environmental implications from fossil and nuclear power production would be granted. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  2. Autonomic Neuropathy—a Prospective Cohort Study of Symptoms and E/I Ratio in Normal Glucose Tolerance, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Zimmerman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAutonomic neuropathy in diabetes, in addition to causing a range of symptoms originating from the autonomic nervous system, may increase cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to study the progression of autonomic neuropathy, based on symptom score and evaluation of an autonomic test, in persons with normal and impaired glucose tolerance and in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D.MethodsParticipants were recruited in 2003/2004 with a follow-up in 2014. The participants’ glucose tolerance was categorized using oral glucose tolerance tests. Symptoms were evaluated using an autonomic symptom score (ASS, ECG was used to test cardiac autonomic function based on the expiration/inspiration ratio (E/I ratio, and blood samples were taken on both occasions.ResultsASSs were higher at follow-up in the T2D patients than in the normal glucose tolerance group (mean 1.21 ± 1.30 vs. 0.79 ± 0.7; p < 0.05. E/I ratio did not deteriorate more than could be expected as an aging effect in well-controlled T2D. No relationship was found between E/I ratio and HbA1c or ASS.ConclusionThe presence of autonomic symptoms increased over time in T2D patients, but the symptoms did not correlate with the E/I ratio in this metabolically well-controlled cohort. ASSs can be a useful clinical tool when assessing the progression of autonomic dysfunction in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism.

  3. Probability-of-success studies for geothermal projects: from subsurface data to geological risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sandra; Pierau, Roberto; Wirth, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, the development of geothermal plants in Germany has increased significantly due to a favorable political setting and resulting financial incentives. However, most projects are developed by local communities or private investors, which cannot afford a project to fail. To cover the risk of total loss if the geothermal well should not provide the energy output necessary for an economically viable project, investors try to procure insurances for this worst case scenario. In order to issue such insurances, the insurance companies insist on so called probability-of-success studies (POS studies), in which the geological risk for not achieving the necessary temperatures and/or flow rates for an economically successful project is quantified. Quantifying the probability of reaching a minimum temperature, which has to be defined by the project investors, is relatively straight forward as subsurface temperatures in Germany are comparatively well known due tens of thousands of hydrocarbon wells. Moreover, for the German Molasse Basin a method to characterize the hydraulic potential of a site based on pump test analysis has been developed and refined in recent years. However, to quantify the probability of reaching a given flow rate with a given drawdown is much more challenging in areas where pump test data are generally not available (e.g. the North German Basin). Therefore, a new method based on log and core derived porosity and permeability data was developed to quantify the geological risk of reaching a determined flow rate in such areas. We present both methods for POS studies and show how subsurface data such as pump tests or log and core measurements can be used to predict the chances of a potential geothermal project from a geological point of view.

  4. Native Hawaiian Ethnographic Study for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Proposed for Puna and Southeast Maui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, J.K; Minerbi, L. [Cultural Advocacy Network for Developing Options (CANDO) (United States); Kanahele, P.; Kelly, M.; Barney-Campbell, N.; Saulsbury [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Trettin, L.D. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report makes available and archives the background scientific data and related information collected for an ethnographic study of selected areas on the islands of Hawaii and Maui. The task was undertaken during preparation of an environmental impact statement for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. Information is included on the ethnohistory of Puna and southeast Maui; ethnographic fieldwork comparing Puna and southeast Maui; and Pele beliefs, customs, and practices.

  5. Engineering Information System (EIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-31

    be availabe and usefu for creating powerful tailored contro and mangeen functions. Mode and Framwork Wirth further elaboration of the EIS portio of...control data and activities of the engineering process. The EIM is a conceptual model of administrative and electroic design information. It records...of the access opeations are derived from the instance variable name and type. An attribute conceptually holds one or more instances of a basic type

  6. Diffuse helium and hydrogen degassing to reveal hidden geothermal resources in oceanic volcanic islands: The Canarian archipelago case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Padrón, Eleazar; Dionis, Samara; López, Gabriel; Melián, Gladys V.; Asensio-Ramos, María; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padilla, German; Barrancos, José; Marrero, Rayco; Hidalgo, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    During geothermal exploration, the geochemical methods are extensively used and play a major role in both exploration and exploitation phases. They are particularly useful to assess the subsurface temperatures in the reservoir, the origin of the fluid, and flow directions within the reservoir. The geochemical exploration is based on the assumption that fluids on the surface reflect physico-chemical and thermal conditions in the geothermal reservoir at depth. However, in many occasions there is not any evidence of endogenous fluids manifestations at surface, that traditionally evidence the presence of an active geothermal system. Discovery of new geothermal systems will therefore require exploration of areas where the resources are either hidden or lie at great depths. Geochemical methods for geothermal exploration at these areas must include soil gas surveys, based on the detection of anomalously high concentrations of some hydrothermal gases in the soil atmosphere, generally between 40 cm and 1 meter depth from the surface. Among soil gases, particularly interest has been addressed to non-reactive and/or highly mobile gases. They offer important advantages for the detection of vertical permeability structures, because their interaction with the surrounding rocks or fluids during the ascent toward the surface is minimum. This is the case of helium (He) and hydrogen (H2), that have unique characteristics as a geochemical tracer, owing to their chemical and physical characteristics. Enrichments of He and H2 observed in the soil atmosphere can be attributed almost exclusively to migration of deep-seated gas toward the surface. In this work we show the results of soil gas geochemistry studies, focused mainly in non-reactive and/or highly mobile gases as He and H2, in five minning grids at Tenerife and Gran Canaria, Canay Islands, Spain, during 2011-2014. The primary objective was to use different geochemical evidences of deep-seated gas emission to sort the possible

  7. A feasibility study of bridge deck deicing using geothermal energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a ground-coupled system that utilizes heat energy harvested from the ground for : deicing of bridge decks. Heat exchange is performed using circulation loops integrated into the deep foundations suppo...

  8. An Economic Evaluation of Binary Cycle Geothermal Electricity Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzgerald, Crissie

    2003-01-01

    .... Variables such as well flow rate, geothermal gradient and electricity prices were varied to study their influence on the economic payback period for binary cycle geothermal electricity production...

  9. Preliminary analysis of dry-steam geothermal power plant by employing exergy assessment: Case study in Kamojang geothermal power plant, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Rudiyanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to perform the exergy analysis and ambient temperature optimization of the Kamojang geothermal power plant by employing Engineering Equation Solver (EES. The geothermal capacity is 55 MW and the field is vapor-dominated reservoir with temperature 245 °C. In the initial state temperature, pressure and mass flow data are collected from the plant operation. The study results show that system has overall efficiency of 35.86% which means that only 111,138.92 kW electrical power can be extracted from 309,000 kW thermal power being produced by 10 production wells of Kamojang. This low efficiency is due to irreversibility associated with different processes and components in the system. The largest irreversibility occurs in condenser due to which 53% of total energy is disposed into the environment. Ambient temperature at Kamojang varies from 17 to 20 °C. The effect of this variation in temperature is also investigated and it is observed that higher temperature does not have any significant impact on system efficiency.

  10. Supply of geothermal power from hydrothermal sources: A study of the cost of power in 20 and 40 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S. (Petty (Susan) Consulting, Solano Beach, CA (United States)); Livesay, B.J. (Livesay Consultants, Inc., Encinitas, CA (United States)); Long, W.P. (Carlin Gold Co., Inc., Grass Valley, CA (United States)); Geyer, J. (Geyer (John) and Associates, Vancouver, WA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    This study develops estimates for the amount of hydrothermal geothermal power that could be on line in 20 and 40 years. This study was intended to represent a snapshot'' in 20 and 40 years of the hydrothermal energy available for electric power production should a market exist for this power. This does not represent the total or maximum amount of hydrothermal power, but is instead an attempt to estimate the rate at which power could be on line constrained by the exploration, development and support infrastructure available to the geothermal industry, but not constrained by the potential market for power.

  11. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuataz, F.-D.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives a general overview of the past and present development of geothermal energy worldwide and a more detailed one in Switzerland. Worldwide installed electrical power using geothermal energy sources amounts to 8900 MW el . Worldwide utilization of geothermal energy for thermal applications amounts to 28,000 MW th . The main application (56.5%) is ground-coupled heat pumps, others are thermal spas and swimming pools (17.7%), space heating (14.9%), heating of greenhouses (4.8%), fish farming (2.2%), industrial uses (1,8%), cooling and melting of snow (1.2%), drying of agricultural products (0.6 %). Switzerland has become an important user of geothermal energy only in the past 25 years. Earlier, only the exploitation of geothermal springs (deep aquifers) in Swiss thermal baths had a long tradition, since the time of the Romans. Today, the main use of geothermal energy is as a heat source for heat pumps utilizing vertical borehole heat exchangers of 50 to 350 meters length. 35,000 installations of this type with heating powers ranging from a few kW to 1000 kW already exist, representing the highest density of such installations worldwide. Other developments are geostructures and energy piles, the use of groundwater for heating and cooling, geothermal district heating, the utilization of draining water from tunnels and the project 'Deep Heat Mining' allowing the combined production of heat and electric power

  12. Feasibility study and energy efficiency estimation of geothermal power station based on medium enthalpy water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work presented are the results of investigations regarding the effectiveness of operation of power plant fed by geothermal water with the flow rate of 100, 150, and 200 m3/h and temperatures of 70, 80, and 90 °C, i. e. geothermal water with the parameters available in some towns of West Pomeranian region as well as in Stargard Szczecinski (86.4 °C, Poland. The results of calculations regard the system of geothermal power plant with possibility of utilization of heat for technological purposes. Analyzed are possibilities of application of different working fluids with respect to the most efficient utilization of geothermal energy. .

  13. Study of structural change in volcanic and geothermal areas using seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhana, Najwa; Foulger, Gillian; Julian, Bruce; peirce, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Long Valley caldera is a large silicic volcano. It has been in a state of volcanic and seismic unrest since 1978. Farther escalation of this unrest could pose a threat to the 5,000 residents and the tens of thousands of tourists who visit the area. We have studied the crustal structure beneath 28 km X 16 km area using seismic tomography. We performed tomographic inversions for the years 2009 and 2010 with a view to differencing it with the 1997 result to look for structural changes with time and whether repeat tomography is a capable of determining the changes in structure in volcanic and geothermal reservoirs. Thus, it might provide a useful tool to monitoring physical changes in volcanoes and exploited geothermal reservoirs. Up to 600 earthquakes, selected from the best-quality events, were used for the inversion. The inversions were performed using program simulps12 [Thurber, 1983]. Our initial results show that changes in both V p and V s were consistent with the migration of CO2 into the upper 2 km or so. Our ongoing work will also invert pairs of years simultaneously using a new program, tomo4d [Julian and Foulger, 2010]. This program inverts for the differences in structure between two epochs so it can provide a more reliable measure of structural change than simply differencing the results of individual years.

  14. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured geothermal resources in Texas. 1982 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Kaiser, W.R.; Finley, R.J.

    1983-03-01

    Detailed structural mapping at several horizons in selected study areas within the Frio growth-fault trend demonstrates a pronounced variability in structural style. At Sarita in South Texas, shale mobilization produced one or more shale ridges, one of which localized a low-angle growth fault trapping a wedge of deltaic sediments. At Corpus Christi, shale mobilization produced a series of large growth faults, shale-cored domed anticlines, and shale-withdrawal basins, which become progressively younger basinward. At Blessing, major growth faults trapped sands of the Greta/Carancahua barrier system with little progradation. At Pleasant Bayou, a major early growth-fault pattern was overprinted by later salt tectonics - the intrusion of Danbury Dome and the development of a salt-withdrawal basin. At Port Arthur, low-displacement, long-lived faults formed on a sand-poor shelf margin contemporaneously with broad salt uplifts and basins. Variability in styles is related to the nature and extent of Frio sedimentation and shelf-margin progradation and to the presence or absence of salt. Structural styles that are conducive to the development of large geothermal reservoirs include blocks between widely spaced growth faults having dip reversal, salt-withdrawal basins, and shale-withdrawal basins. These styles are widespread on the Texas Gulf Coast. However, actually finding a large reservoir depends on demonstrating the existence of sufficient sandstone with adequate quality to support geopressured geothermal energy production.

  15. GIS based geothermal potential assessment: A case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuefekci, Nesrin; Luetfi Suezen, M.; Guelec, Nilguen [Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Potential geothermal areas are identified through investigation of spatial relations between geothermal occurrences and their surrounding geological phenomena in western Anatolia, Turkey. The identification is based on only publicly available data. It is expected that the study will guide further preliminary investigations performed for large areas having limited information. Magnetic anomaly, Bouger gravity anomaly, earthquake epicenter and lineament datasets are used for the analysis. The first is used without any modification whereas the rest are utilized to extract three evidence maps; distance to major grabens, Gutenberg-Richter b-value and distance to lineaments, respectively. Predictor maps are produced from these evidence maps as well as from the unprocessed magnetic anomaly map by applying two different binarization procedures. From each binarization procedure a favorability map is produced separately using Index Overlay (IO) and Weights of Evidence (WofE) methods. The findings reveal that weighting predictor maps according to spatial association between evidence maps and training points lead to more accurate prediction in both WofE and IO methods. The potential areas in the final maps are Aydin, Denizli, Manisa, Balikesir and Kutahya of which first two have been explored and exploited, and thus found to be favorable, while the rest are nearly unexplored. (author)

  16. A Geological and Geophysical Study of the Geothermal Energy Potential of Pilgrim Springs, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Donald L.; Forbes, Robert B. [eds.

    1980-01-01

    The Pilgrim Springs geothermal area, located about 75 km north of Nome, was the subject of an intensive, reconnaissance-level geophysical and geological study during a 90-day period in the summer of 1979. The thermal springs are located in a northeast-oriented, oval area of thawed ground approximately 1.5 km{sup 2} in size, bordered on the north by the Pilgrim River. A second, much smaller, thermal anomaly was discovered about 3 km northeast of the main thawed area. Continuous permafrost in the surrounding region is on the order of 100 m thick. Present surface thermal spring discharge is {approx} 4.2 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 3} s{sup -1} (67 gallons/minute) of alkali-chloride-type water at a temperature of 81 C. The reason for its high salinity is not yet understood because of conflicting evidence for seawater vs. other possible water sources. Preliminary Na-K-Ca geothermometry suggests deep reservoir temperatures approaching 150 C, but interpretation of these results is difficult because of their dependence on an unknown water mixing history. Based on these estimates, and present surface and drill hole water temperatures, Pilgrim Springs would be classified as an intermediate-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system.

  17. Estimation of tritium radiotracer activity for interconnection study in geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasi Prasetio; Satrio

    2016-01-01

    Tritium radiotracer (3H) has been applied widely in many geothermal fields around the world. This application was done by injecting radiotracer with certain amount of activity into reinjection well in order to investigate interconnection between reinjection well with surrounding production wells. The activity of injected radiotracer must meets the field condition and the volume of reservoir, detection limit of instrument, as well as safety aspect for the workers and environment from radioactive hazard. The planning of injection process must consider the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) and minimum detection limit (MDL). Based on calculation, tritium radiotracer injection in Kamojang geothermal field can be done with minimal activity of 0.15 Ci and maximum 22100 Ci, while in Lahendong field minimum activity of 0.65 Ci and maximum 7230 Ci. In these two injection studies, tritium was detected in monitoring wells between MDL and MPC limit. By using this estimation calculation, the activity of tritium that released into the environment within safety limit, thus monitoring wells with undetectable tritium infer no connectivity between those wells with reinjection well. (author)

  18. Parameter changes during gradual flooding of a PEM fuel cell through EIS studies; Cambio en parametros de una celda de combustible PEM durante inundacion gradual mediante estudios de EIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises; Cruz Manzo, Samuel; Arriaga Hurtado, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ortiz, Alondra; Orozco, German [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C. (CIDETEQ) (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The gradual flooding of a single PEM fuel cell was produced and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were realized in order to follow changes of the fuel cell impedance parameters. These changes were followed by using two equivalent circuit models: one simple model of the Randles type accounting for cathode and anode interfaces and a more complex model based on distributed elements, more suitable for porous electrodes in order to include protonic resistance of the catalyst layers. [Spanish] La inundacion gradual de una monocelda de combustible tipo PEM fue estudiada empleando espectroscopia de impedancia electroquimica (EIS), con el proposito de seguir cambios en los parametros de impedancia de la celda. Estos cambios fueron estudiados utilizando dos circuitos equivalentes: un modelo simple de tipo Randles, el cual considerara las interfaces del catodo y del anodo, y un modelo mas complejo basado en elementos distribuidos, el cual fuera adecuado para electrodos porosos, a fin de incluir la resistencia protonica de las capas catalizadoras.

  19. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemale, J.

    2009-01-01

    The geothermal energy, listed among the new and renewable energy sources, is characterized by a huge variety of techniques and applications. This book deals with the access to underground geothermal resources and with their energy valorization as well. After a presentation of the main geological, hydrogeological and thermal exploitation aspects of this resource, the book presents the different geothermal-related industries in detail, in particular the district heating systems, the aquifer-based heat pumps, the utilizations in the agriculture, fishery and balneology sectors, and the power generation. (J.S.)

  20. Direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  1. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.

    2010-08-03

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  2. Polarization and EIS studies to evaluate the effect of aluminum concentration on the corrosion behavior of SAC105 solder alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyana N. K.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on corrosion behavior of Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu-XAl (X = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 by means of polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results show that addition of aluminum into SAC105 shifts the corrosion current density and passivation current density towards more positive values. It is also found that with an increase in aluminum concentration in SAC105 solder alloy, the corrosion current density increases and polarization resistance decreases. This suggests that SAC105 with the highest concentration of Al has the lowest corrosion resistance. In this case, the corrosion behavior seems to be attributed to anodic dissolution of aluminum and Sn-matrix.

  3. Analysis of influencing factors of production performance of enhanced geothermal system: A case study at Yangbajing geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Yuchao; Tang, Liansheng; Wu, Nengyou; Cao, Yifei

    2017-01-01

    Deep geological exploration indicates that there is a high-temperature fractured granite reservoir at depth of 950–1350 m in well ZK4001 in the north of Yangbajing geothermal field, with an average temperature of 248 °C and a pressure within 8.01–11.57 MPa. In this work we established a conceptual and numerical model of this granite reservoir, evaluated heat production and electricity generation potential from this fractured reservoir by means of numerical simulation, and analyzed main factors affecting the heat production performance. The results indicate that in the reference case the system attains an electric power of 29.5–25.1 MW, a reservoir impedance of 0.12–0.21MPa/(kg/s), a pump power of 0.7–1.6 MW and an energy efficiency of 41.1–15.7 during a 50 year period. Main factors affecting the electric power are water production rate and injection temperature. Main factors affecting the reservoir impedance are the reservoir permeability, the water production rate and the injection temperature. Main factors affecting the pump power are the reservoir permeability, the water production rate and the injection temperature. Main factors affecting the energy efficiency are the reservoir permeability, the water production rate and the injection temperature. Within certain ranges main measures to improve the reservoir performance are to increase the reservoir permeability or adopt more reasonable water production rate and injection temperature. - Highlights: • We established a numerical model of the 950–1350 m fractured granite reservoir. • Desirable electricity production performance can be obtained under suitable conditions. • The system attains an electric power of 29.5–25.1 MW with an efficiency of about 41.1–15.7. • Electric power mainly depends on water production rate and injection temperature. • Higher permeability within a certain range is favorable for electricity generation.

  4. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  5. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  6. A Study on the Efficiency Improvement of Multi-Geothermal Heat Pump Systems in Korea Using Coefficient of Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ju Jung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Korean government is fostering a renewable energy industry as a means of handling the energy crisis. Among the renewable energy systems available, geothermal energy has been highlighted as highly efficient, safely operable and relatively unaffected by outdoors air conditions. Despite the increasing use of renewable energy, the devices using renewables may not be operating appropriately. This study examined current problems in the operation of a geothermal heat pump (GHP system. The efficiency of a geothermal heat pump system to studied to maximize the operation plan. Our study modelled the target building and analyzed the energy using TRNSYS, which is a dynamic energy simulation tool, to apply the coefficient of performance (COP and evaluate the operation method. As a result, the GHP total energy consumption from the COP control method was reduced by 46% compared to the current operation. The proposed control method was evaluated after applying the system to a building. The results showed that efficient operation of a geothermal heat pump system is possible.

  7. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-based evaluation of biological tissue phantoms to study multifrequency electrical impedance tomography (Mf-EIT) systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Tushar Kanti

    2016-03-18

    Abstract: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) phantoms are essential for the calibration, comparison and evaluation of the EIT systems. In EIT, the practical phantoms are typically developed based on inhomogeneities surrounded by a homogeneous background to simulate a suitable conductivity contrast. In multifrequency EIT (Mf-EIT) evaluation, the phantoms must be developed with the materials which have recognizable or distinguishable impedance variations over a wide range of frequencies. In this direction the impedance responses of the saline solution (background) and a number vegetable and fruit tissues (inhomogeneities) are studied with electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the frequency responses of bioelectrical impedance and conductivity are analyzed. A number of practical phantoms with different tissue inhomogeneities and different inhomogeneity configurations are developed and the multifrequency impedance imaging is studied with the Mf-EIT system to evaluate the phantoms. The conductivity of the vegetable inhomogeneities reconstructed from the EIT imaging is compared with the conductivity values obtained from the EIS studies. Experimental results obtained from multifrequency EIT reconstruction demonstrate that the electrical impedance of all the biological tissues inhomogenity decreases with frequency. The potato tissue phantom produces better impedance image in high frequency ranges compared to the cucumber phantom, because the cucumber impedance at high frequency becomes lesser than that of the potato at the same frequency range. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2016 The Visualization Society of Japan

  8. Surveys of arthropod and gastropod diversity in the geothermal resource subzones, Puna, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.E.; Burgett, J.; Bruegmann, M.

    1995-04-01

    The invertebrate surveys reported here were carried out as part of ecological studies funded by the Department of Energy in support of their environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Hawaii Geothermal Project. Currently, preparation of the EIS has been suspended, and all supporting information is being archived and made available to the public. The invertebrate surveys reported here assessed diversity and abundance of the arthropod and gastropod fauna in forested habitat and lava tubes in or near the three geothermal resource subzones. Recommendations for conservation of these organisms are given in this report. Surveys were conducted along three 100-m transect lines at each of the six forested locations. Malaise traps, baited pitfall traps, yellow pan traps, baited sponge lures, and visual examination of vegetation were used to assess invertebrate diversity along each transect line. Three of these locations were adjacent to roads, and three were adjacent to lava flows. Two of these lava-forest locations (Keauohana Forest Reserve and Pu`u O`o) were relatively remote from direct human impacts. The third location (Southeast Kula) was near a low-density residential area. Two lava tubes were surveyed. The forest over one of these tubes (Keokea tube) had recently been burned away. This tube was used to assess the effects of loss of forest habitat on the subterranean fauna. An undisturbed tube (Pahoa tube) was used as a control. Recommendations offered in this report direct geothermal development away from areas of high endemic diversity and abundance, and toward areas where natural Hawaiian biotic communities have already been greatly disturbed. These disturbed areas are mainly found in the lower half of the Kamaili (middle) geothermal subzone and throughout most of the Kapoho (lower) geothermal subzone. These recommendation may also generally apply to other development projects in the Puna District.

  9. Confirmation study of the effectiveness of prospect techniques for deep geothermal resources. Deep-seated geothermal resources survey report (Fiscal year 1993); 1993 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Drilling and survey of deep geothermal exploration wells were conducted in order to grasp the existing situation of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of geothermal systems in the area where geothermal resource was already developed. Following fiscal 1992, the well was drilled in fiscal 1993 down to depths of 605m-1505m, and a 13-3/8 inch casing was inserted down to a depth of 1500m. In the drilling, four cores including oriented cores were sampled, and microscopic observation, X-ray diffraction analysis, fluid inclusion survey, core property test, etc. were conducted. In the FMI logging, detected were 273 bedding planes, 483 fractures, etc. Further made were a velocity structure survey, a gravity survey in the area of 270 km{sup 2} including deep exploration wells, a quality survey of the Kakkonda river water, etc. As to geothermal structure models in the Kakkonda area, results of the drilling were added to prediction models before drilling deep exploration wells, but the revision was not very much. Besides, studies were made of a survey method using microearthquakes, a survey technique using resistivity, etc. 61 refs., 259 figs., 95 tabs.

  10. Confirmation study of the effectiveness of prospect techniques for geothermal resources. Deep-seated geothermal resources survey report (Fiscal year 1994); 1994 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Drilling and survey of deep geothermal exploration wells were conducted to grasp the existing situation of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of geothermal systems in the area where geothermal resource was already developed. In the drilling work in fiscal 1994, 4000m-class rigs and the top drive system were planned to be used for drilling of 12-1/4 inch wells, but 9-5/8 inch liners were used for drilling down to depths of 2550m or deeper since the amount of lost circulation is large and the withdrawal of devices may be very difficult. And in 8-1/2 inch wells, the well was drilled down to a depth of 2950m. As to the deep resistivity exploration technology using electromagnetic method, studies were made of a multiple-frequency array induction logging (MAIL) method, a vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP) method, a joint analysis method, etc. Concerning the synthetic fluid inclusion logging technology, containers were lowered into the well and a comparison was made between data of the homogenization temperature analysis of the formed fluid inclusion and those of the temperature log analysis. With relation to the making of deep geothermal structural models, revision was made according to the determination of depths of Miocene formations, Pre-tertiary formations, and the Kakkonda granite. 65 refs., 268 figs., 79 tabs.

  11. Isotopic and chemical studies of geothermal waters of Northern Areas in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dildar Hussain, S; Ahmad, M; Akram, W; Sajjad, M I [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Gonfiantini, R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Isotope Hydrology Section; Tasneem, M A

    1995-02-01

    Northern Areas is one of the major thermal fields of Pakistan with more than two dozen known hot springs having discharge temperature ranging from 35 deg. C to 94 deg. C. Isotopic and chemical techniques applied to study the geothermal fields show that thermal waters are of meteoric origin and can be classified as Na-HCO{sub 3}, Na-SO{sub 4} and mixed type on the basis of their chemical contents. At some places cooling of thermal waters seems to be due to steam separation whereas mixing with fresh cold water is prominent at the remaining sites. The temperatures estimated by isotopic and chemical geothermometers for the two major fields i.e. Tatta Pani and Murtazabad are 83-257 deg. C and 65-296 deg. C respectively. (author). 24 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs.

  12. Rasch Analysis of Lebanese Nurses’ Responses to the EIS Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Clinton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a 32-item modified version of the Ethical Issues Scale (EIS. Data were collected from 59 registered nurses at the American University of Beirut Medical Centre (AUBMC. Data were analyzed using WINSTEPS Rasch analysis software. The four-category EIS rating scale needs modification for future studies in Lebanon. All EIS scale items need rewording prior to translation into Arabic to avoid confusion among Lebanese nurses. Principal component analysis (PCA of residuals indicated the possible presence of additional dimensions. Additional EIS items are needed to improve targeting.

  13. Geothermal handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management offered over 400,000 hectares (one million acres) for geothermal exploration and development in 1975, and figure is expected to double this year. The Energy Research and Development Administration hopes for 10-15,000 megawatts of geothermal energy by 1985, which would require, leasing over 16.3 million hectares (37 million acres) of land, at least half of which is federal land. Since there is an 8 to 8-1/2 year time laf between initial exploration and full field development, there would have to be a ten-fold increase in the amount of federal land leased within the next three years. Seventy percent of geothermal potential, 22.3 million hectares (55 million acres), is on federal lands in the west. The implication for the Service are enormous and the problems immediate. Geothermal resource are so widespread they are found to some extent in most biomes and ecosystems in the western United States. In most cases exploitation and production of geothermal resources can be made compatible with fish and wildlife management without damage, if probable impacts are clearly understood and provided for before damage has unwittingly been allowed to occur. Planning for site suitability and concern with specific operating techniques are crucial factors. There will be opportunities for enhancement: during exploration and testing many shallow groundwater bodies may be penetrated which might be developed for wildlife use. Construction equipment and materials needed for enhancement projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote by land managers. A comprehensive knowledge of geothermal development is necessary to avoid dangers and seize opportunities. This handbook is intended to serve as a working tool in the field. It anticipated where geothermal resource development will occur in the western United States in the near future. A set of environmental assessment procedures are

  14. Study of corrosion behavior on the addition of sodium citrate in nickel electroplating on SPCC steel using EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riastuti, R.; Ramadini, C.; Siallagan, S. T.; Rifki, A.; Herdino, F.

    2018-04-01

    The addition of sodium citrate to nickel electroplating process as additive is useful for refining the grain size of nickel deposit. The refining of grain size in nickel deposit as coating layer can improve surface performance, one of which corrosion resistance. This paper aims to investigate the effect of sodium citrate addition as grain refiner to promote corrosion resistance on SPCC steel. This experiment used Watt’s Bath solution of NiSO4 300 g/L, NiCl4 45 g/L, H3BO3 60 g/L, wetting agent 0.2 cc/L. Sodium citrate was added in composition of 45g/L and 60g/L. Nickel were deposited by direct current using current density on 6 A/dm2 at the acidity level of 5 for 30 minutes by keeping the operating temperature stable at 50°C. The grain size of nickel deposit was observed through Optical Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The corrosion behavior of SPCC was observed by linear polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) methods using 3% NaCl solution. Based on the research, the addition of sodium citrate as grain refiner will increasing corrosion resistance on SPCC steel from 0.35 to 0.05 mm/year.

  15. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  16. Geothermal energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Geothermal energy research and development by the Sunshine Project is subdivided into five major categories: exploration and exploitation technology, hot-water power generation technology, volcanic power generation technology, environmental conservation and multi-use technology, and equipment materials research. The programs are being carried out by various National Research Institutes, universities, and private industry. During 1976 and 1977, studies were made of the extent of resources, reservoir structure, ground water movement, and neotectonics at the Onikobe and Hachimantai geothermal fields. Studies to be performed in the near future include the use of new prospecting methods, including artificial magnetotellurics, heat balance calculation, brightspot techniques, and remote sensing, as well as laboratory studies of the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of rock. Studies are continuing in the areas of ore formation in geothermal environments, hot-dry-rock drilling and fracturing, large scale prospecting technology, high temperature-pressure drilling muds and well cements, and arsenic removal techniques.

  17. Research status of geothermal resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincheng; Li, Guang

    2017-08-01

    As the representative of the new green energy, geothermal resources are characterized by large reserve, wide distribution, cleanness and environmental protection, good stability, high utilization factor and other advantages. According to the characteristics of exploitation and utilization, they can be divided into high-temperature, medium-temperature and low-temperature geothermal resources. The abundant and widely distributed geothermal resources in China have a broad prospect for development. The medium and low temperature geothermal resources are broadly distributed in the continental crustal uplift and subsidence areas inside the plate, represented by the geothermal belt on the southeast coast, while the high temperature geothermal resources concentrate on Southern Tibet-Western Sichuan-Western Yunnan Geothermal Belt and Taiwan Geothermal Belt. Currently, the geothermal resources in China are mainly used for bathing, recuperation, heating and power generation. It is a country that directly makes maximum use of geothermal energy in the world. However, China’s geothermal power generation, including installed generating capacity and power generation capacity, are far behind those of Western European countries and the USA. Studies on exploitation and development of geothermal resources are still weak.

  18. Development of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the geothermal development promotion survey project. NEDO is taking the lead in investigation and development to reduce risks for private business entities and promote their development. The program is being moved forward by dividing the surveys into three ranks of A, B and C from prospects of geothermal resource availability and the state of data accumulation. The survey A lacks number of data, but covers areas as wide as 100 to 300 km{sup 2}, and studies possible existence of high-temperature geothermal energy. The survey B covers areas of 50 to 70 km{sup 2}, investigates availability of geothermal resources, and assesses environmental impacts. The survey C covers areas of 5 to 10 km{sup 2}, and includes production well drilling and long-term discharge tests, other than those carried out by the surveys A and B. Results derived in each fiscal year are evaluated and judged to establish development plans for the subsequent fiscal year. This paper summarizes development results on 38 areas from among 45 areas surveyed since fiscal 1980. Development promotion surveys were carried out over seven areas in fiscal 1994. Development is in progress not only on utilization of high-temperature steam, but also on binary cycle geothermal power generation utilizing hot waters of 80 to 150{degree}C. Fiscal 1994 has carried out discussions for spread and practical use of the systems (particularly on economic effects), and development of small-to-medium scale binary systems. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Public service impacts of geothermal development: cumulative impacts study of the Geysers KGRA. Final staff report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, K.M.

    1983-07-01

    The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in the Geysers are identified. Using two different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in the Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdications are examined, and these costs are compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed and a framework presented for calculating mitigation costs for school and road impacts.

  20. Stable isotope studies of some low enthalpy geothermal systems in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tole, Mwakio P.

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of some low enthalpy geothermal systems in Kenya have been determined. Plots on δ 18O versus δD diagrams show that the compositions do not deviate appreciably from local meteoric water values. This would indicate that local meteoric waters are heated at depth and rise to the surface without much interaction with the country rocks. This is interpreted to be the case for the geothermal systems at Majimoto and Narosura, which have salinities of less than 350 ppm TDS and calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 110°C. The geothermal systems at Kapedo and Homa mountain which have high salinities (> 2 000 ppm TDS) and relatively higher calculated reservoir temperatures (> 150° C) are interpreted to have been operating for long periods of time, such that the rocks through which the present day geothermal waters are circulating have attained isotopic equilibrium with local meteoric waters.

  1. Japanese geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, P.

    1995-01-01

    At the end of the seventies, the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry have started two independent projects of deep geothermics research in Honshu island (Japan). The two sites are 50 km apart of each other and the boreholes have been drilled up to 2300 and 1100 m of depth, respectively, in hot-dry moderately fractured volcanic rocks. These sites are characterized by high geothermal gradients with a rock temperature reaching 250 C at the bottom of the wells. Hydraulic circulation tests are still in progress to evaluate the profitability of these sites. (J.S.). 1 fig., 1 photo

  2. Geothermal Field Investigations of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayın, N.; Özer, N.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal energy is a type of energy that are found in the accessible depth of the crust, in the reservoirs by way of the permeable rocks, specially in heated fluid. Geothermal system is made of 3 main components; heat source, reservoir, and fluid bearing heat. Geothermal system mechanism is comprise of fluid transmission. Convection current (heat transmission) is caused by heating and causes the fluid in the system to expand. Heated fluid with low density show tendency to rise in system. Geothermal system occurs with variable geophysics and geochemical properties. Geophysical methods can determine structural properties of shallow and deep reservoirs with temperature, mineralization, gas amount, fluid movement, faulting, and sudden change in lithostratigraphic strata. This study revealed possible reservoir structures and showed examples of geophysics and gas measuring results in Turkey which is wealthy in regard to Geothermal sources.

  3. Geophysical studies of the Crump Geyser known geothermal resource area, Oregon, in 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouff, Donald

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical studies in support of the resource appraisal of the Crump Geyser Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). This area was designated as a KGRA by the USGS, and this designation became effective on December 24, 1970. The land classification standards for a KGRA were established by the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-581). Federal lands so classified required competitive leasing for the development of geothermal resources. The author presented an administrative report of USGS geophysical studies entitled 'Geophysical background of the Crump Geyser area, Oregon, KGRA' to a USGS resource committee on June 17, 1975. This report, which essentially was a description of geophysical data and a preliminary interpretation without discussion of resource appraisal, is in Appendix 1. Reduction of sheets or plates in the original administrative report to page-size figures, which are listed and appended to the back of the text in Appendix 1, did not seem to significantly degrade legibility. Bold print in the text indicates where minor changes were made. A colored page-size index and tectonic map, which also show regional geology not shown in figure 2, was substituted for original figure 1. Detailed descriptions for the geologic units referenced in the text and shown on figures 1 and 2 were separately defined by Walker and Repenning (1965) and presumably were discussed in other reports to the committee. Heavy dashed lines on figures 1 and 2 indicate the approximate KGRA boundary. One of the principal results of the geophysical studies was to obtain a gravity map (Appendix 1, fig. 10; Plouff, and Conradi, 1975, pl. 9), which reflects the fault-bounded steepness of the west edge of sediments and locates the maximum thickness of valley sediments at about 10 kilometers south of Crump Geyser. Based on the indicated regional-gravity profile and density-contrast assumptions for the two-dimensional profile, the maximum

  4. Performance analysis of electricity generation by the medium temperature geothermal resources: Velika Ciglena case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rašković, Predrag; Guzović, Zvonimir; Cvetković, Svetislav

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, a design of an energy efficient and cost effective geothermal plant represents a significant and on-going technical challenge in all the Western Balkan countries. In the Republic of Croatia, the geothermal field Velika Ciglena is identified as one of the most valuable geothermal heat sources and probably the location where the first geothermal plant in the Western Balkan area will be built. The purpose of this work is the conceptual design and performance analysis of the binary plants–the one which operates under the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and the other under Kalina (KLN) cycle–which can be used for geothermal energy utilization in Velika Ciglena. A conceptual plant design is performed by the equation-oriented modelling approach and supported by the two steady-state spreadsheet simulators. The performance analysis of all design solutions is conducted through energy and exergy analysis, and by the estimated total cost of operating units in the plant. The results of the analysis indicate that the plant design based on the ORC cycle has a higher thermodynamic efficiency and lower cost of equipment, and consequently, it is more suitable for the future geothermal plant in Velika Ciglena. - Highlights: ► Paper presents the analysis of binary geothermal plant for the utilization of recourses in Velika Ciglena field (Croatia). ► Thermodynamic and economical parameters of both cycles are calculated by the spreadsheet simulation software. ► The results of performance analysis indicate the advantage of electricity production based on ORC cycle

  5. Development of geothermal-well-completion systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.B.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a three year study concerning the completion of geothermal wells, specifically cementing, are reported. The research involved some specific tasks: (1) determination of properties an adequate geothermal well cement must possess; (2) thorough evaluation of current high temperature oilwell cementing technology in a geothermal context; (3) basic research concerning the chemical and physical behavior of cements in a geothermal environment; (4) recommendation of specific cement systems suitable for use in a geothermal well.

  6. A novel study of screening and confirmation of modafinil, adrafinil and their metabolite modafinilic acid under EI-GC-MS and ESI-LC-MS-MS ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, S; Ahi, S; Reddy, I M; Kaur, T; Beotra, A; Jain, S

    2009-12-01

    Adrafinil and modafinil have received wide publicity and have become controversial in the sporting world when several athletes were discovered allegedly using these drugs as doping agents. By acknowledging the facts, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) banned these drugs in sports since 2004. The present study explores the possibility of differentiating adrafinil and modafinil and their major metabolites under electron impact ionization in gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MSD) and electrospray ionization in liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) by studying the fragmentation pattern of these drugs. Adrafinil, modafinil and their major metabolite, modafinilic acid were analyzed on EI-GC-MSD and ESI-LC-MS/MS using various individual parameters on both the instruments. The analytical technique and equipment used in the analysis were an Agilent 6890N GC with 5973 mass selective detector for the GC-MSD analysis and an Agilent 1100 HPLC with API-3200 Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for the LC-MS/MS analysis. Validation of both methods was performed using six replicates at different concentrations. The results show that adrafinil, modafinil and their major metabolite modafinilic acid could be detected as a single artifact without differentiation under EI-GC-MSD analysis. However, all drugs could be detected and differentiated under ESI-LCMS/MS analysis without any artifaction. The GC-MSD analysis gives a single artifact for both the drugs without differentiation and thus can be used as a marker for screening purposes. Further, the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) method developed under LC-MS/MS is fit for the purpose for confirmation of suspicious samples in routine sports testing and in forensic and clinical analysis.

  7. Mechanisms of mineral scaling in oil and geothermal wells studied in laboratory experiments by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.; Stamatakis, E.

    2006-01-01

    Two independent nuclear methods have been developed and tested for studies of mineral scaling mechanisms and kinetics related to the oil and geothermal industry. The first is a gamma transmission method to measure mass increase with a 30 MBq source of 133 Ba. The other method applies radioactive tracers of one or more of the scaling components. CaCO 3 -precipitation has been used as an example here where the main tracer has been 47 Ca 2+ . While the transmission method is an indirect method, the latter is a direct method where the reactions of specific components may be studied. Both methods are on-line, continuous and non-destructive, and capable to study scaling of liquids with saturation ratios approaching the solubility product. A lower limit for detection of CaCO 3 with the transmission method in sand-packed columns with otherwise reasonable experimental parameters is estimated to be < 1 mg in a 1 cm section of the tube packed with silica sand while the lower limit of detection for the tracer method with reasonable experimental parameters is estimated to < 1 μg in the same tube section. (author)

  8. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  9. Geologic study for evaluation of geothermal resources in northern Tohoku area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, Hirofumi

    1986-10-01

    Similar geothermal signs are widely distributed not only in the neighborhood of the Hakkoda volcano but all over the Hakkoda area. In this report, the area is defined as the Hakkoda regional volcanic field. Part of the geothermal signs are closely related with the Hakkoda volcano. But for the many others, relations with specific volcanos remained unknown. Surveys and investigations carried out in the present work clarified that there exists a group of volcanos that correspond well to these geothermal signs. They are referred to as the Yunosawa caldera, Ikarigaseki caldera and Okiura caldera. Thus, with the Hakkoda caldera and Towada caldera, which have already been known, there are five calderas in the Hakkoda area. The basic structure is characterized by a combination of horst/graben structures bounded by reversed faults, and depressed zones resulting from the formation of calderas. The volcanos were generated in the Pliocene or succeeding epochs. Observations have shown that the geothermal sources, reservoir layer structures and geothermal flows are basically governed by these calderas. (10 figs, 3 tabs, 14 refs)

  10. Geothermal characteristics of the molasse basin (pilot study - thermal conductivity); Geothermische Eigenschaften des Molassebeckens (Pilotstudie - Waermeleitfaehigkeit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, W; Greber, E [Geoform, Geologische Beratungen und Studien AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Hopkirk, R J [Polydynamics Engineering, Maennedorf (Switzerland); Keller, B [Mengis und Lorenz AG, Luzern (Switzerland); Rybach, L [ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Radiometrie

    1997-12-01

    Detailed knowledge of the geothermal properties (thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity) of the undergorund becomes more and more important with increasing exploitation of geothermal resources by deep vertical borehole heat exchangers or by seasonal storage installations. For this pilot study all existing thermal conductivity data of the Swiss Molasse were compiled and supplemented with new laboratory measurements on core and cutting samples from deep wells (2.5 to 3.0 W/mK). In a second step top-to-bottom thermal conductivity profiles were calculated from geophysical well logs. These profiles show a clear dependence on lithology and variations in thermal conductivity of up to 1 W/mK over 50-200 m thick intervals. In clay-rich lithofacies thermal conductivity is only slightly dependent on the sedimentary architecture, whereas, in sandy facies obvious distinctions are possible. The modelling of a theoretical 750 m long vertical borehole heat exchanger shows that the potential quality of extractable heat increases or decreases by up to 20% by varying the thermal conductivity with only {+-}0.5 W/mK. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Nutzung geothermischer Ressourcen mit tiefen Erdwaermesonden und saisonalen Speicheranlagen werden detaillierte Kenntnisse der geothermischen Eigenschaften (Waermeleitfaehigkeit und Waemekapazitaet) des Untergrundes zunehmend wichtig. Im Rahmen dieser Pilotstudie wurden saemtliche verfuegbaren Waermeleitfaehigkeits-Daten von Schweizer Molassegesteinen kompiliert und mit Neumessungen an Kern- und Cuttingsmaterial von Tiefbohrungen ergaenzt (2.5 bis 3.0 W/mK). In einem zweiten Schritt wurden Waermeleitfaehigkeits-Profile mit geophysikalischen Bohr-Logs berechnet. Diese Profile zeigen eine deutliche Abhaengigkeit von der Lithologie mit einer Variation der Waermeleitfaehigkeit von bis zu 1 W/mK ueber 50-200 m maechtige Intervalle. In den tonigen Lithologien kann nur eine schwache Abhaengigkeit der Waermeleitfaehigkeit von der sedimentaeren

  11. Feasibility study of a hybrid renewable energy system with geothermal and solar heat sources for residential buildings in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ju; Woo, Nam Sub; Jang, Sung Cheol; Choi, Jeong Ju

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the economic feasibility of a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) that uses geothermal and solar heat sources for water heating, space heating, and space cooling in a residential building in Korea. A small-scale HRES consists of a geothermal heat pump for heating and cooling, solar collectors for hot water, a gas-fired backup boiler, and incidental facilities. To determine whether the Hares will produce any economic benefits for homeowners, an economic analysis is conducted to compare the Hares with conventional methods of space heating and cooling in Korea. The payback period of a small-scale Hares is predicted as a maximum of 9 yrs by life cycle costing based on a performance index compared with conventional systems. However, the payback period of large-scale HRES above 400 RT is 6 yrs to 7 yrs.

  12. Exergo-economic evaluation of electricity generation by the medium temperature geothermal resources, using a Kalina cycle: Simav case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguz, Arslan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Recent technical developments have made it possible to generate electricity from geothermal resources with low and medium enthalpy. One of these technologies is the Kalina Cycle System (KCS-34). In this study, electricity generation from Simav geothermal field is investigated. The optimum operating conditions for the KCS-34 plant design are determined on the basis of the exergetic and life-cycle-cost concepts. With the best design, power generation of 41.2 MW and electricity production of 346.1 GWh/a can be obtained with an energetic efficiency of 14.9% and exergetic efficiency of 36.2%. It is shown that, with the currently prevailing interest and inflation rates, the plant designs considered are economically feasible for values of the present worth factor (PWF) higher than 6. (author)

  13. Feasibility study of a hybrid renewable energy system with geothermal and solar heat sources for residential buildings in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ju; Woo, Nam Sub [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Sung Cheol [Mechatronics Department of the Korea Aviation Polytechnic College, Sacheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong Ju [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    This study investigates the economic feasibility of a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) that uses geothermal and solar heat sources for water heating, space heating, and space cooling in a residential building in Korea. A small-scale HRES consists of a geothermal heat pump for heating and cooling, solar collectors for hot water, a gas-fired backup boiler, and incidental facilities. To determine whether the Hares will produce any economic benefits for homeowners, an economic analysis is conducted to compare the Hares with conventional methods of space heating and cooling in Korea. The payback period of a small-scale Hares is predicted as a maximum of 9 yrs by life cycle costing based on a performance index compared with conventional systems. However, the payback period of large-scale HRES above 400 RT is 6 yrs to 7 yrs.

  14. Application of fission track and other new technics in the study of geothermal history for Liaohe Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuliang; Zhu Jiechen; Zheng Maogong; Zhao Yunlong; Hu Zhenduo; Guo Xiuying; Gao Shangkui

    1994-11-01

    Mainly based on the study of fission track of the apatites, as well as geochronology, stable isotope composition and inclusion analysis, the principle and method of studying the geothermal history of sedimentary basin have been expounded systematically, and the source of sediment materials, and the geothermal characteristics of five section areas in Liaohe Basin were determined. The results of apatites and zircons U-Pb dating indicate that the materials of Shahejie Group in Liaohe Basin derived from the Shanhaiguan old land, and the record time of fission track of the apatites started at 172 Ma ago. On the basis of the studies of fission track characters of 100 apatite samples, stable isotopes and inclusion analysis, the annealing zone of fission track, oil generation zone and the old geothermal gradient were determined respectively in the western slope, southern part of western depression, Niuju area, Huangjindai area of eastern depression and Shallow sea area. It has provided the important scientific basis of reevaluating oil resources in Liaohe Basin. (2 tabs.)

  15. Geochemical study of water-rock interaction processes on geothermal systems of alkaline water in granitic massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buil gutierrez, B.; Garcia Sanz, S.; Lago San Jose, M.; Arranz Yague, E.; Auque Sanz, L.

    2002-01-01

    The study of geothermal systems developed within granitic massifs (with alkaline waters and reducing ORP values) is a topic of increasing scientific interest. These systems are a perfect natural laboratory for studying the water-rock interaction processes as they are defined by three main features: 1) long residence time of water within the system, 2) temperature in the reservoir high enough to favour reaction kinetics and finally, 3) the comparison of the chemistry of the incoming and outgoing waters of the system allows for the evaluation of the processes that have modified the water chemistry and its signature, The four geothermal systems considered in this paper are developed within granitic massifs of the Spanish Central Pyrenes; these systems were studied from a geochemical point of view, defining the major, trace and REE chemistry of both waters and host rocks and then characterizing the composition and geochemical evolution of the different waters. Bicarbonate-chloride-sodic and bicarbonate-sodic compositions are the most representative of the water chemistry in the deep geothermal system, as they are not affected by secondary processes (mixing, conductive cooling, etc). (Author)

  16. Policy for geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, S [Public Utilities Bureau, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan

    1973-01-01

    Government actions related to Japanese geothermal energy development in the past include: a mining and industrial research subsidy of 27 million yen granted to Kyushu Electric Power Co. in 1952, a mining and industrial research subsidy of 13 million yen granted to Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. in 1960, a study on steam production technology for geothermal power generation by Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. funded at 3.5 hundred million yen from the Research Development Corporation of Japan, and a study on steam production technology for large scale geothermal power generation by Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. funded at 7.6 hundred million yen by the Research Development Corporation of Japan. The following projects are planned by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry for 1973: a two-year geothermal power promotion including investigations into the utilization of hot water, new methods for geothermal reservoir detection and steam well drilling, and environmental effects, studies on hydrothermal systems, basic investigations for geothermal indicators in 30 areas, and a means to finance the construction of geothermal power plants in Kakkonda (Iwate Prefecture) and Hatchobara (Oita Prefecture).

  17. Geothermal industry assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

  18. The underground geothermal resource about Bure is not exceptional. Answers by the ANDRA to critics made by associations on the geothermal resource in the Cigeo study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Marc-Antoine

    2013-01-01

    As some documents published by associations stated that the site chosen for Cigeo (Industrial centre for geological storage of nuclear materials and wastes) could be a geothermal resource of interest, the ANDRA herein states again that this resource is neither exceptional nor attractive in the present technological and economical conditions. In order to precisely answer to the arguments stated by the associations, it notably refers to some drillings performed in this area. It discusses drilling conditions and tests, test result interpretation, measurements, the process transparency, and the actual assessment of geothermal resources

  19. Hydrochemical and isotopic studies in Aksaray geothermal fields central Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burcak, M.

    2005-01-01

    The studied area is located at eastern part of Aksaray province in Central Anatolia. The basement rocks of studied area is Paleozoic aged Bozcaldag formation composed of marble, schist and gneiss and Cretaseous aged granitoid intrusion intrude within these basement rocks. These rock units are overlain uncomfortably by middle miocene to Quaternary aged volcanic rocks of Cappadocian volcanic belt interlayer sediments. The compositions of these units are mainly represented by tuff, ignimbrite, reworked tuff interlayer sediments, basalt lavas, ash fall deposits, pumice and dasite to rhyodasitic lava domes.The study area contains Ziga and Acigoel (Narkoey) thermal area, which they have similar geologic environments with in the Cappadocian volcanic belt of the Tertiary to Quaternary age. Existence of surface manifestation like that high regional heat flow, the presence of expanding acidic to weakly acidic hydrothermal alteration surrounding the geothermal area, hot springs which have a temperature of 44-65 degrees indicating the important of geothermal possibilities in the area. Water chemistry studies have been carried out on 34 water samples to estimate relation between hot and cold water, calculate reservoir temperature using geothermometre and mixing models, hydrological isotope studies were carried out to on 10 samples to clarify extending of recharging area and travel time from recharging area to discharging area. Water analyses results were assested using some diagram such as Fournier Cl-Entalphy, SiO 2 -Entalphy, Langelier- Ludwig, Piper, schoeller etc to classify them. Water-rock interaction have been tried to be define on the base of these result.On the base of water chemistry analyses, all of the cold waters are Ca-Mg-HCO 3 and CaHCO 3 type. the hot waters in Ziga field classified as Na-Cl-HCO 3 type and As and B bearing mineralized hot water. Geothermal fluids in Acigoel field, classified as Ca-Na-HCO 3 -Cl type and B bearing mineralized hot water, and

  20. CFE-DOE agreement for the study of Mexican geothermal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bert, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Commission Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is the public utility in Mexico in charge of electric energy service, as well as harnessing geothermal resources. An agreement of mutual benefit to achieve a thorough understanding of the nature of geothermal reservoirs was signed on April 17, 1986 with the United State Department of Energy (DOE). The major objective of this agreement was to investigate how geothermal resources can best be explored and exploited. The duration of the agreement was for 3 years, but as happens in many long-term research programs, new topics and problems appear. Thus an extension of 5 years was foreseen. A brief discussion on the results of the main tasks is presented in this paper, as well as of the new tasks and scopes for the 5-year extension of the agreement

  1. Modeling study of the natural state of the Heber geothermal field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1983-06-01

    As a first step in simulating the behavior of the Heber field under exploitation, the system is modeled in its natural (pre-exploitation) state. Using Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) computer code PT and a radially symmetric model, a reasonable match between published and calculated temperature and pressure distributions is obtained. The results of the study indicate that the Heber geothermal system is created by the upflow of hot water through a central zone of higher permeability. The model shows that in its natural state the system is recharged at depth by a 15 MW(thermal) convective heat source. The existence of a radially symmetric convection pattern, whose axis coincides with that of the Heber anomaly is suggested. At the lower part of the ascending hot water plume, the deep recharge water mixes with colder water moving laterally towards the axis of the system. On the upper part, the rising plume spreads radially outward before reaching the bottom of the caprock, at 550 m depth. The model results suggest that the caprock is quite permeable, with convection controlling the temperature distribution. The low permeability of the upper zones in the outer region of the system may be due to mineral precipitation.

  2. Environmental studies conducted at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock geothermal development site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miera, F.R. Jr.; Langhorst, G.; McEllin, S.; Montoya, C.

    1984-05-01

    An environmental investigation of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal development was conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, during 1976-1979. Activities at the Fenton Hill Site included an evaluation of baseline data for biotic and abiotic ecosystem components. Identification of contaminants produced by HDR processes that had the potential for reaching the surrounding environment is also discussed. Three dominant vegetative communities were identified in the vicinity of the site. These included grass-forb, aspen, and mixed conifer communities. The grass-forb area was identified as having the highest number of species encountered, with Phleum pratense and Dactylis glomerata being the dominant grass species. Frequency of occurrence and mean coverage values are also given for other species in the three main vegetative complexes. Live trapping of small mammals was conducted to determine species composition, densities, population, and diversity estimates for this component of the ecosystem. The data indicate that Peromyscus maniculatus was the dominant species across all trapping sites during the study. Comparisons of relative density of small mammals among the various trapping sites show the grass-forb vegetative community to have had the highest overall density. Comparisons of small mammal diversity for the three main vegetative complexes indicate that the aspen habitat had the highest diversity and the grass-forb habitat had the lowest. Analyses of waste waters from the closed circulation loop indicate that several trace contaminants (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, fluoride, boron, and lithium) were present at concentrations greater than those reported for surface waters of the region.

  3. Numerical study of coupled heat and mass transfer in geothermal water cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourouni, K.; Bassem, M.M.; Chaibi, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Cross flow mechanical cooling towers, widely spreads all over the south region of Tunisia are used for cooling geothermal water for agriculture and domestic ends. These towers are sized empirically and present several problems in regard to operation and electrical energy consumption. This work aims to study the thermal behaviour of this type of cooling towers through a developed mathematical model considering the variation of the water mass flow rate inside the tower. The analysis of the water and air temperatures distribution along the cooling tower had underlined the negative convection phenomenon at a certain height of the tower. This analysis has shown also that the difference in water temperature between the inlet and the outlet of the tower is much higher than the one of air due to the dominance of the evaporative potential compared to the convective one. In addition, the variations of the air humidity along the cooling tower and the quantity of evaporated water have been investigated. The loss of water by evaporation is found to be 5.1% of the total quantity of water feeding the cooling tower. Interesting future prospects are expected for validation of the developed model to optimize the operating of the cooling tower

  4. Numerical Study on CO2-Brine-Rock Interaction of Enhanced Geothermal Systems with CO2 as Heat Transmission Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yuyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS with CO2 instead of water as heat transmission fluid is an attractive concept for both geothermal resources development and CO2 geological sequestration. Previous studies show that CO2 has lots of favorable properties as heat transmission fluid and also can offer geologic storage of CO2 as an ancillary benefit. However, after CO2 injection into geological formations, chemical reaction between brine and rock can change chemical characteristics of saline and properties of rock such as porosity and permeability. Is this advantage or disadvantage for EGS operating? To answer this question, we have performed chemically reactive transport modeling to investigate fluid-rock interactions and CO2 mineral carbonation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS site at Desert Peak (Nevada operated with CO2. The simulation results show that (1 injection CO2 can create a core zone fulfilled with CO2 as main working domain for EGS, and (2 CO2 storage can induced self-enhancing alteration of EGS.

  5. Geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparovic, N

    1962-07-01

    Live steam, transformed steam, and steam produced by expansion flashing are outlined with respect to their use in the production of electricity. The capacity, pressure, and temperature of a steam must be determined empirically by exploratory drilling. These factors are dependent on time and on the extent of nearby drilling-activity. Particulars of geothermal-steam power-plants such as steam dryness, hot-water flashing, condensation, gas extraction, and corrosion are discussed in detail. All available data (as per 1962) concerning the costs of operation and construction of geothermal power plants are tabulated. For space-heating purposes, two basic systems are utilized. When little corrosion or precipitation is expected, an open system is used, otherwise, closed systems are necessary. The space-heating system of Reykjavik, Iceland is cited as an example. A brief description of industrial applications of geothermal energy, such as the extraction of NaCl, D/sub 2/O, or boric acid, is provided. Thirty-two references are given.

  6. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  7. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.; Mahmoudi, H.; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability

  8. Feasibility study of Copahue geothermal development project, Argentina; Aruzenchin kyowakoku Copahue chiiki no chinetsu kaihatsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, M.; Yamada, M.; Nakanishi, S.; Todaka, N. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, T.

    1996-03-15

    Geothermal resources have been evaluated in the Copahue district. For this survey administrated by JICA, drilling of a deep test well with a small bore (COP-3) and blowout tests were conducted. This district is located at the east side of the Andes elongated in the N-S direction. Volcanoes with similar active periods and active states are distributed in the N-S direction, which forms a divide with the Pacific Ocean side. The Copahue-Caviahue composite volcano in the surveyed area is located nearly in the central part of the volcanic zone, which forms a special ring topography. Geology of the Copahue district consists of volcanic effusive rocks during the Tertiary and Quaternary periods. There are five prospecting fields with geothermal indications in the surveyed area. From the survey, an area of about 13 km{sup 2} was evaluated as a geothermal resource field. Especially, in the area of about 4 km{sup 2} including COP-1, 2 and 3 wells, the steam predominant type reservoirs were found out. As a result of estimation of the geothermal resource potential by the volumetric method, a highly prospective power generation potential of 30 MW was evaluated in the field where the steam predominant type reservoirs were confirmed by the boring wells. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Geochemical Study of Ampallas Geothermal Area, Mamuju District, West Sulawesi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziyyah, F.; Prabowo, T. R.; Shalihin, M. G. J.; Setiawan, D. I.; Yushantarti, A.

    2016-09-01

    Ampallas is one of the areas with geothermal potential which located in Mamuju district, near from the capital city of West Sulawesi. This research was carried out to understand the characteristic of this geothermal field based on chemistry of the surface manifestation, including fluid characteristic and soil anomaly. Geothermal research in Ampallas area focused on 4 hot springs; Ampallas, Batupane, Karema, and Gantungan. With average temperature around 34 - 67°C. Ampallas 1,2,3,4,7,8 hot springs water type is chloride - bicarbonate, which means it came from the reservoir while Batupane, Gantungan, Karema and Ampallas 5 are all bicarbonate type. Ampallas 1,2,3,4,7,8, Karema and Gantungan hot springs fluid plotted in partial equilibrium zone while Batupane and Ampallas 5 plotted in immature water zone. It means the Ampallas hot springs (except Ampallas-5) mixed with meteoric water right after reached the equilibrium state. It is also concluded that Ampallas 5 hot springs came from the same reservoir with Batupane, but not Gantungan and Karema hot springs. The speculative resource potential of Ampallas geothermal system is estimated around 30 MWe. But if detailed geophysical method was applied the result could be more accurate.

  10. 2012 geothermal energy congress. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    ); (15) GEOGRUND*: Transfer of the TCS process into the borehole (David Sauer); (16) 'Heat-in-place-density' - An example for the evaluation of the geothermal potential in Saarland (Hagen Deckert); (17) Experiences of the acidity stimulation of geothermal aquifers and plants (Markus Wolfgramm); (18) Geothermal Atlas for the depiction of possible utilization competitions between CCS and deep geothermy - Methodology and results (E. Suchi); (19) Development of a cooling system for geothermal bore hole probes (Benedict Holbein); (20) Geothermal energy in the context of international radiation protection recommendations (Sebastian Feige); (21) Innovative treatment of groundwater as a condition of an efficient air conditioning in buildings by utilization of near-surface geothermal energy (C. Meyer); (22) Preparation of planning maps for the utilization of near-surface geothermal energy with geo-physical methods (Reinhard Kirsch); (23) Deep geothermal probe Heubach - Progress of the project and facility planning by using an application example (David Kuntz); (24) Realistic numeric models for the simulation of potential geothermal reservoirs in the north-west German basin (Dorothea Reyer); (25) Monobore tracer test sensitivity compared with crack parameters and rock parameter: Lection Horstberg (Iulia Ghergut); (26) Infrastructure of fault zones in red sandstone of the Upper Rhine basin - Digestion analogue studies (Johanna F. Bauer); (27) Characterization of fault zones in shell limestone of the Upper Rhine basin - Digestion analogue studies (Silke Meier).

  11. Volcanostratigraphic Study in Constructing Volcano Chronology and Its Implication for Geothermal Resource Estimation; Case Study Mount Sawal, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermawan, F. A.; Hamka, H.; Malik, R. T. A.; Sianipar, J. Y.; Ramadhan, Q. S.

    2016-09-01

    One of the researches that should be done before carrying out a preliminary survey on the geothermal exploration with a volcanic system or volcanic-hydrothermal is by studying the volcanic stratigraphy. Determining the center of the volcanic eruption and its distribution based on the volcanostratigraphic study will be very helpful in a direct mapping that will be implemented, given that the type and characteristics of volcanic rocks are nearly the same between one source of the eruption and the other. On this case, volcanostratigraphic study had been done on Mount Sawal, where a topographic map with a scale of 1: 100,000 is used to determine the center of eruption of each crowns, while another map with a scale of 1: 50,000 is used to identify the distribution of the monogenetic (Hummock) eruption products and crowns border in detail. It is found approximately three crowns, which are Langlayang, Sawal big crown, Pamokolan, and the Cikucang Hummock that is located on the southern edge of the Langlayang crater. These Hummock and Crowns collection will be grouped into Tasik Bregade. Based on the volcanostratigraphic analysis, DEM, and geology, the chronology of how Tasik Bregade is formed is originally from the Langlayang, Sawal big Crowns, and Pamokolan. Tasik Bregade is classified into sub-mature potential geothermal system, from the analysis results, the potential magnitude of the electrical capacity contained in the system is around 0.74 to 1.24 MWe for 30 years, but further research needs to be done because of the detailed geological and other support data that are still lacking.

  12. An economic prefeasibility study of geothermal energy development at Platonares, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.K.

    1989-01-01

    The expected economic benefits from development of a geothermal power plant at Plantanares in the Department of Copan, Honduras are evaluated in this report. The economic benefits of geothermal plants ranging in size from a 10-MW plant in the shallow reservoir to a 20-, 30-, 55-, or 110-MW plant in the assumed deeper reservoir were measured by computing optimal expansion plans for each size of geothermal computing optimal expansion plans for each size of geothermal plant. Savings are computed as the difference in present value cost between a plan that contains no geothermal plant and one that does. Present value savings in millions of 1987 dollars range from $25 million for the 10-MW plant to $110 million for the 110-MW plant -- savings of 6% to 25% over the time period 1988 through 2008. The existence of the shallow reservoir is relatively well-characterized, and much indirect scientific evidence indicate the existence of the deeper reservoir. Based on probability distributions estimated by geologists of temperature, areal extent, depth, and porosity, the expected size of power plant that the deep reservoir can support was estimated with the following results: O-MW -- 16% (i.e., there is a 16% chance that the deep reservoir will not support a power plant); 20-MW -- 38%; 30-MW -- 25%; 55-MW -- 19%; and 110-MW -- 2%. When the cost savings from each size of plant are weighted by the probability that the reservoir will support a plant of that size, the expected monetary value of the deep reservoir can be computed. It is $42 million in present value 1987 dollars -- a cost savings of 10%. The expected savings from the 10-MW plant in the shallow reservoir are expected to be close to the computed value of $25 million, i.e., the probability that the shallow reservoir can support the plant is high. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Biochemical and Structural Analysis of an Eis Family Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase from Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Keith D.; Biswas, Tapan; Chang, Changsoo; Wu, Ruiying; Chen, Wenjing; Janes, Brian K.; Chalupska, Dominika; Gornicki, Piotr; Hanna, Philip C.; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-05-26

    Proteins from the enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) family are versatile acetyltransferases that acetylate amines at multiple positions of several aminoglycosides (AGs). Their upregulation confers drug resistance. Homologues of Eis are present in diverse bacteria, including many pathogens. Eis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Eis_Mtb) has been well characterized. In this study, we explored the AG specificity and catalytic efficiency of the Eis family protein from Bacillus anthracis (Eis_Ban). Kinetic analysis of specificity and catalytic efficiency of acetylation of six AGs indicates that Eis_Ban displays significant differences from Eis_Mtb in both substrate binding and catalytic efficiency. The number of acetylated amines was also different for several AGs, indicating a distinct regiospecificity of Eis_Ban. Furthermore, most recently identified inhibitors of Eis_Mtb did not inhibit Eis_Ban, underscoring the differences between these two enzymes. To explain these differences, we determined an Eis_Ban crystal structure. The comparison of the crystal structures of Eis_Ban and Eis_Mtb demonstrates that critical residues lining their respective substrate binding pockets differ substantially, explaining their distinct specificities. Our results suggest that acetyltransferases of the Eis family evolved divergently to garner distinct specificities while conserving catalytic efficiency, possibly to counter distinct chemical challenges. The unique specificity features of these enzymes can be utilized as tools for developing AGs with novel modifications and help guide specific AG treatments to avoid Eis-mediated resistance.

  14. Proceedings of NEDO International Geothermal Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-11

    This is a proceedings of the NEDO International Geothermal Symposium held in Sendai in 1997. The worldwide geothermal energy power generation capacity exceeds 7000 MW. Geothermal energy is widely used also for heating, snow melting, greenhouse cultivation as well as electric power generation. Geothermal energy generates far less CO2 causing the global warming than fossil fuels. The geothermal energy is clean and renewable. Considering the environmental issue and energy supply/demand of the world, we have to exert further efforts for the geothermal development. In this conference, discussions were made on each country`s experiences of the geothermal development, and future prediction and strategies for geothermal utilization in the Asia/Pacific region, in particular. Further, in the technical session, conducted were the IEA study and technical presentation/discussion for technical cooperation. The proceedings includes research reports of more than 30, which are clarified into three fields: impacts of the geothermal development on the environment, technical development of the hot dry rock power generation system, and development of technology for collecting deep-seated geothermal resource

  15. Geothermal in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the current market for geothermal projects in the US and overseas. The topics of the article include future capacity needs, upgrading the Coso Geothermal project, the productivity of the Geysers area of Northern California, the future of geothermal, and new projects at Soda Lake, Carson Basin, Unalaska Island, and the Puna Geothermal Venture in Hilo, Hawaii

  16. Geothermal energy development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, S.; Okandan, E.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal fields in Turkey are related to rather complex zones of collision between the Eurasian and African continents, and penetration of the Arabian plate into the Anatolian continental mass. These processes gave rise to fracturing of the lithosphere and eruption of magmas. Geothermal regional assessment studies have proven several low enthalpy sources and some high enthalpy fields suitable for electricity generation. This paper summarizes developments in exploration-drilling and give examples of direct utilization implemented in recent years

  17. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  18. Erapooletuid ei olnud / Reet Roos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roos, Reet, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Menetlusest langes välja eelnõu, mille mõte oli, et riik tagaks elatise lapsele, kelle ühelt vanemalt on elatis kohtulikult välja mõistetud, kuid kes seda ise maksta ei taha või ei saa. Sama ka Koit 23. mai 2006, lk. 6 ; Valgamaalane 23. mai 2006, lk. 2 ; Järva Teataja 23. mai 2006, lk. 2 ; Elva Postipoiss 20. mai 2006, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 16. mai 2006, lk. 2 ; Vali Uudised 17. mai 2006, lk. 2 ; Nädaline 16. mai 2006, lk. 2

  19. Simulation studies for wells AH-4bis/AH-17 and AH-18, Ahuachapan Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterrosa, Manuel Ernesto

    1996-01-24

    Well AH-4bis, at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field is planned to be drilled on the same pad as the former AH-4. A simulation study was carried out for two casing dameters 13 5/8 and 9 5/8” in order to estimate its production and to know its economic feasibility. The simulation results indcate a high probability of production in the range of 7 Mwe, equivalent to 120 kg/s total mass flow rate, 1250 kJ/kg at 6 bar-a for the new well AH-4bis. Well AH- 17 is good producer, during 1991 after ten years of production, the well was shut-in due to silica scaling problems. A wellbore simulation was carried out in order to predict the new production conditions after the work-over, mainly to estimate the water flow rate in order to reduce the silica scaling. The results indicate a very low water flow rate. The match between the simulated and measured production curves after the work-over was successful. The well AH-18 is located at the southern part of the actual bore field. CEL is planning to expand the borefield at this area and it is neccessary to estimate the possible production condtions at that zone. The results indicate a high probabilty of production at that area. The power potential is estimated at 3.5 Mwe per well at WHP 6 bar-a and the wells will not require induction.

  20. Geothermal Potential Based on Physical Characteristics of the Region (Case Study: Mount Karang, Pandeglang Regency and Banten Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel Fhillipo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is about geothermal potential of Mount Karang, Banten Province which is based on the characteristics of the region. This research method used is geochemistry sample of hot springs and integrated with GIS method for spatial of geothermal potential. Based on the geothermal potential, Mount Karang is divided into three regions, ie high potential, normal potential, and low potential. The high geothermal potential region covers an area of 24.16 Km2 and which there are Cisolong and Banjar 2 hot springs. The normal potential covers Kawah hot spring. Index of the fault of Mount Karang region is one of the significant physical characteristics to determine geothermal potential.

  1. Geothermal energy utilization and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dickson, Mary H; Fanelli, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal energy refers to the heat contained within the Earth that generates geological phenomena on a planetary scale. Today, this term is often associated with man's efforts to tap into this vast energy source. Geothermal Energy: utilization and technology is a detailed reference text, describing the various methods and technologies used to exploit the earth's heat. Beginning with an overview of geothermal energy and the state of the art, leading international experts in the field cover the main applications of geothermal energy, including: electricity generation space and district heating space cooling greenhouse heating aquaculture industrial applications The final third of the book focuses upon environmental impact and economic, financial and legal considerations, providing a comprehensive review of these topics. Each chapter is written by a different author, but to a set style, beginning with aims and objectives and ending with references, self-assessment questions and answers. Case studies are includ...

  2. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  3. Geothermal Modesty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the uses for radioactivity, the future of the green electricity, the energy policy of Rhone-alps region, the end of the nuclear in Belgium, the nuclear propulsion to explore the solar system, the involvement of the Unites States in the hydrogen development, the gas exportation of China. A special part is devoted to the possibility of the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)

  4. EIS study of the redox reaction of Fe(CN)63-/4- at glassy carbon electrode via diazonium reduction in aqueous and acetonitrile solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoshroo, M.; Rostami, A. [Mazandaran Univ., Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that characterized soluble electroactive species by cyclic voltammetry to investigate the presence of grafted films and their blocking properties. In particular, the authority of the glassy carbon electrode modification conditions on the cyclic voltammetric response of Fe(CN)63-/4- oxido-reduction was examined for 2 layers grafted by electrochemical reduction of diazonium salts in acetonitrile and aqueous solutions. PAA and Fast Black K modified glassy carbon electrodes exhibited a significant blocking behaviour for oxidation and reduction reactions of the Fe(CN)63-/4- redox system in aqueous and acetonitrile solutions. The study showed that the blocking effect increased which changes in time and concentration of diazonium salts in acetonitrile solution. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements showed that the physical barrier of grafted layers prevent the access of Fe(CN)63-/4- to the underlying glassy carbon electrode. Therefore the RCT resistance increases during the modification treatment. The substituted phenyl layers are much more compact and less permeable in a nonaqueous solvent than with an aqueous solvent. Electrochemical impedance measurements indicate that the kinetics of electron transfer slow down when the time and the concentration used to modify the glassy carbon electrode increase. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  6. Study of geothermal potential. Nordrhein-Westfalen intends to provide geothermal heat to all citizens; Geothermische Potenzialstudie. In Nordrhein-Westfalen soll Erdwaerme fuer alle Buerger nutzbar werden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burghardt, U. [Landesinitiative Zukunftsenergien, Duesseldorf (Germany); Holl-Hagemeier, C. [Geologischen Dienst Nordrhein-Westfalen, Krefeld (Germany)

    2001-01-01

    Nordrhein-Westfalen is leading in the field of renewable energy sources. In addition to solar energy, wind power and bioenergy, geothermal energy is now being developed. [German] Nordrhein-Westfalen ist nicht mehr der klassische Stein- und Braunkohlenproduzent, sondern in Deutschland mittlerweile auch fuehrend auf dem Sektor der Zukunftsenergien. Zusammen mit der Wind-, Solar- und Bioenergie gehoert die Geothermie zu den vier Saeulen der von der Landesregierung Nordrhein-Westfalen und der Landesinitiative Zukunftsenergien gefoerderten erneuerbaren Energietechnologien. (orig.)

  7. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Maricopa County Geothermal Development Plan evaluated the market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified six potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 100{sup 0}C (212{sup 0}F) and in addition, four suspected intermediate temperature areas (90{sup 0} to 150{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0} to 300{sup 0}F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in and near the Phoenix metropolitan area where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing, trade and service sectors of the regional economy provides opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. A regional energy use analysis is included containing energy use and price projections. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support this growth, though agricultural water use is expected to diminish. The study also contains a detailed section matching geothermal resources to potential users. Two comparative analyses providing economic details for space heating projects are incorporated.

  8. Geothermal energy in Italy and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo di Calvisi, C.

    2001-01-01

    Geothermal systems and fields are analysed giving particular evidence to the value of the geothermal source as an important natural source of energy. The paper analyses hydrothermal systems and describes the international experimental studies on the use of geothermal reservoirs in hot rocks with geopressured and magmatic systems. Experts are optimistic as far as the use of this innovative source of energy is possible in the medium-short term [it

  9. Baseline studies in the desert ecosystem at East Mesa Geothermal Test Site, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Lunt, O.R.; Ackerman, T.A.; Kinnear, J.E.

    1977-09-01

    Baseline data reported herein for soil, vegetation, and small mammal components of the East Mesa desert ecosystem represent a collection period from October 1975 to September 1977. Inasmuch as changes in salt balance from geothermal brine sources are of potential impact upon the ecosystem, considerable analytical effort was given to the determination of element constituents in soil, plant, and animal samples. A preliminary synthesis of data was done to investigate the heterogeneity of element constituents among the sampled population and to summarize results. Findings indicate that periodic sampling and chemical analysis of vegetation around an industrialized geothermal energy source is probably the best way to monitor the surrounding ecosystem for assuring containment of any resource pollutants.

  10. President ei pruugi uuesti kandideerida

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Proua Ingrid Rüütel viitas Kanal 2 uudistesaates "Reporter" võimalusele, et Arnold Rüütel enam uueks ametiajaks ei kandideeri. Ilmunud ka Eesti Päevaleht, 2006/Mar/1, lk. 5 ; Koit, 2006/Mar/2, lk. 2

  11. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  12. Isotopic geothermometers in geothermal areas. A comparative experimental study in Larderella, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuti, S.; Panichi, C.

    1979-06-01

    The stable isotope composition of some geothermal fluid components has been determined in view of evaluating the temperature at depth in Italian geothermal fields (Larderello, Mt. Amiata, Travale). The isotopic systems used are: 13 C(CO 2 -CH 4 ), 18 O(CO 2 -H 2 O), D(H 2 -CH 4 ) and D(H 2 O-H 2 ), for which the isotopic equilibrium variation with temperature are known either experimentally or theoretically. The 18 O(CO 2 -H 2 O) geothermometer gives temperatures similar to those observed at the well-head, and provides therefore useful information on the physical state of water (steam or evaporating liquid water) at the well bottom. On the contrary, all other geothermometers produce too high temperatures which can be explained by incomplete equilibration or lack of equilibrium between components and, perhaps in some cases, by the insufficient knowledge of the fractionation factors. The comparison between the different isotopic geothermometers, along with some chemical and physico-chemical evidence, suggests that the reaction already proposed, i.e. CO 2 +4H 2 =CH 4 +2H 2 O, is unable to explain the isotopic composition observed. On the contrary, the water dissociation reaction (H 2 O=H 2 +1/2O 2 ) and the synthesis reaction of methane (C+2H 2 =CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (C+O 2 =CO 2 ) seem able to provide an appropriate explanation of the isotopic behaviour of the geothermal field fluid components

  13. Corrosion studies using potentiodynamic and EIS electrochemical techniques of welded lean duplex stainless steel UNS S82441

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytan, Z.; Niagaj, J.; Reiman, Ł.

    2016-12-01

    The corrosion characterisation of lean duplex stainless steel (1.4662) UNS S82441 welded joints using the potentiodynamic test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 M NaCl solution are discussed. The influence of autogenous TIG welding parameters (amount of heat input and composition of shielding gases like Ar and Ar-N2 and an Ar-He mixture), as well as A-TIG welding was studied. The influence of welding parameters on phase balance, microstructural changes and the protective properties of passive oxide films formed at the open circuit potential or during the anodic polarisation were studied. From the results of the potentiodynamic test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of TIG and A-TiG, welded joints show a lower corrosion resistance compared to non-welded parent metal, but introducing heat input properly during welding and applying shielding gases rich in nitrogen or helium can increase austenitic phase content, which is beneficial for corrosion resistance, and improves surface oxide layer resistance in 1 M NaCl solution.

  14. Geothermal well log interpretation midterm report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1979-02-01

    Reservoir types are defined according to fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, and salinity and fluid chemistry. Improvements are needed in lithology and porosity definition, fracture detection, and thermal evaluation for more accurate interpretation. Further efforts are directed toward improving diagnostic techniques for relating rock characteristics and log response, developing petrophysical models for geothermal systems, and developing thermal evaluation techniques. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated only on hydrothermal geothermal reservoirs. Other geothermal reservoirs (hot dry rock, geopressured, etc.) are not considered.

  15. Feasibility study report for the Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery: a 14. 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel refinery utilizing geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The construction and operation of a 14,980,000 gallon per year fuel ethanol from grain refinery in the Imperial Valley of California is proposed. The Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery (refinery) will use hot geothermal fluid from geothermal resources at the East Mesa area as the source of process energy. In order to evaluate the economic viability of the proposed Project, exhaustive engineering, cost analysis, and financial studies have been undertaken. This report presents the results of feasibility studies undertaken in geothermal resource, engineering, marketing financing, management, environment, and permits and approvals. The conclusion of these studies is that the Project is economically viable. US Alcohol Fuels is proceeding with its plans to construct and operate the Refinery.

  16. Geothermal training at Auckland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochstein, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 297 candidates from developing countries have attended the annual Geothermal Diploma Course at the University of Auckland between 1979 and 1989. Additional training in the form of post-graduate studies and short-term specialized courses has been given to 69 candidates from these countries between 1989 and 1989. In this paper performance indicators for the training are discussed, namely: demand, job retention rate, regional intake in relation to demand, and publication record of fellows

  17. EL : Iiri "ei" Lissaboni lepingut ei surmanud / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    Iirlased hääletasid Lissaboni lepingu vastu. EL-i välisministrite nõupidamisel Luksemburgis ütles Iiri välisminister, et rahva tahet tuleb austada. Enamik EL-i riike soovib, et lepingu ratifitseeriksid ka need riigid, kes pole veel seda teinud, Tšehhi asepeaministri Alexander Vondra on seisukohal, et riikidele ei tohi survet avaldada. Vt. samas: Pariis süüdistab juba Brüsselit

  18. The geothermal KWh cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous factors can influence the cost of geothermal electricity production: the size and power of production units, the conversion technology used (Rankine cycle or water steam), the resource quality (dry vapor or water-vapor mixing), the resource depth, the drilling activity in the country and the work people costs. In the United States of America the geothermal kWh cost ranges from 2.5 to 8.5 US cents, while in Italy and Nicaragua it ranges from 3 and 10 cents and from 5.7 to 6 cents, respectively. Results of a comparative study of the kWh production cost from different energy sources is also summarized. (J.S.). 1 tab

  19. Muutuv kommunikatsioon kultuuri ei ohusta / Annika Poldre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poldre, Annika

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna Konverentside poolt Sokos Hotel Virus 28. aprillil 2011 korraldatud kommunikatsiooni aastakonverentsist "Muutuv kommunikatsioon: vana ei taha ja uut ei oska. Kuidas edasi?", kus esinesid Ahto Lobjakas, Priit Põiklik, Piia Tamm ja Marju Lauristin

  20. Efektivitas Program CSR/CD dalam Pengentasan Kemiskinan: Studi terhadap Model Peran Perusahaan Geothermal di Jawa Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dody Prayogo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses model of measurement to assess the effectiveness of programs of corporate social responsibility (CSR held by corporation of mines, oil and gas, and geothermal in relation with poverty alleviation within the surrounding communities. The case study is conducted in a geothermal company in West Java. Results of study indicate that measurements of CSR should be developed in accordance with the scale of program, and should as well make use micro indicators which are relevant with elements of poverty. Also, the assessment should mainly be focused to the target group of beneficiaries. The role of corporation can be differentiated with the role of government in alleviating the poverty, and hence the effectiveness should be measured with micro indicators. In general, the significances of CSR program in poverty alleviation are high in the variables of effectivity and relevance, but low in variables of sustainability and empowerment. Programs of economic and infrastructure development are predominant than that other programs such as education and health.

  1. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  2. Investigation of the geothermal state of sedimentary basins using oil industry thermal data: case study from Northern Alberta exhibiting the need to systematically remove biased data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan Gray, D; Majorowicz, Jacek; Unsworth, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface temperature data from industrial sources may contain significant biases that greatly reduce their overall quality. However, if these biases can be identified and removed, the data can provide a good preliminary source of information for further studies. In this paper, industrial thermal data from three sources: bottom hole temperatures, annual pool pressure tests and drill stem tests are evaluated to provide an updated view of the subsurface temperatures below the oil sand regions of Northern Alberta. The study highlights some of the potentially large systematic biases inherent in industrial temperature data which affect estimates of geothermal gradient and regional mapping of the geothermal field. (paper)

  3. Environmental change and human occupation in the floodplain area of Balta Ialomiţei. The case study of Bordusani Popinǎ Chalcolithic tell settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haita, Constantin; Nicolae Popovici, Dragomir; Panaiotu, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    The floodplain area of Balta Ialomiței, between Cǎl\\varasi and Giurgeni, delimited by Borcea River and Danube is formed by an anostomosing system, up to 13 km wide and 70 km long; this zone has a particular important evolution in Holocene for the alluvial system and associated environment. The Chalcolithic occupation in southern and eastern Romania is marked by the development of tell type settlements along the Danube and its main tributaries, chronologically attributed to Gumelnița culture, Vth millenium BC, one of the most important civilisation in the Lower Danube zone. In this area, the most representative settlements are: Borduşani Popinǎ, Hârşova tell and Popina Blagodeasca, situated either on erosional remnants from terraces ("popine") or on the edge of the lower terrace. Bordusani Popinǎ is located inside the floodplain zone, on a remnant separated from the lower terrace of Borcea River, in Romanian Plain. On this site, a pluridisciplinary research program allowed the investigation of Chalcolithic occupation in terms of archaeological, geomorphological, archaeozoological, archaeobotanical and petrographical point of view. The Chalcolithic occupation is represented by successive levels of dwellings, destroyed by fire and also unburned; their stratigraphic relationships, together with the presence of passageways and domestic waste areas, revealed an organised internal space. In Balta Ialomiței meadow area, a paleoenvironmental research was iniatiated with a Cobra TT percussion corer in five important locations, on a West-East alignament. The bulk samples were investigated for grainsize, clay mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility. This study was completed with the micromorphology analysis on undisturbed samples of the sedimentary succession from a tubed core located in the eastern vecinity of the tell. Our results show important environmental changes in the period from Chalcolithic to Iron Age and Middle Ages. The analysed sequence, from the

  4. Status on high enthalpy geothermal resources in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutinas, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Greece is privileged to have many high and medium enthalpy geothermal resources. Related activities during the last 5 years were conducted mainly on the previously discovered geothermal fields of Milos, Nisyros and Lesvos islands, without any deep geothermal drilling. Most efforts were focused on the demonstration of a high enthalpy geothermal reservoir on Milos, by generating electricity from high salinity fluid, with a 2 MW pilot plant. Significant experience has been gained there, by solving technical problems, but still site specific constraints have to be overcome in order to arrive at a comprehensive feasibility study, leading to the development phase. A pre-feasibility study has been carried out in the Nisyros geothermal field. Moreover, a detailed geoscientific exploration program has been completed on Lesvos island, where very promising geothermal areas have been identified. In this paper, reference is made to the most important data concerning high enthalpy geothermal resources by emphasizing the Milos geothermal field

  5. Preservation of Microbial Lipids in Geothermal Sinters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaur, G.; Mountain, B.W.; Hopmans, E.C.; Pancost, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lipid biomarkers are widely used to study the earliest life on Earth and have been invoked as potential astrobiological markers, but few studies have assessed their survival and persistence in geothermal settings. Here, we investigate lipid preservation in active and inactive geothermal silica

  6. Study of Seulawah Agam’s Geothermal Source Using Gravity Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Marwan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gravity method was carried out at Seulawah Agam Area to delineate the existence of geothermal source, which is specifically existed in both the geothermal filed of Heutsz’s Crater and.Cempaga’s Crater. The Seulawah Agam is located in Aceh Besar district. Geologically, the area is dominated by volcanic mudflow and Lam Teuba’s rocks having age from Tersier to Resen Period. The equipment used includes Gravimeter CG-5 Autograv, Portable GPS (Global Positioning System, Navigation type (map of the survey area, computer and the other technical supports, such as handy talky, umbrella, watch, pens and observed data notes. This research was conducted by doing two stages.  Firstly, establishing the base station which is a reference point for all gravity data measurements at each point. Secondly, measuring gravity data at each point by repeating three times following looping pattern as pathway of measurement either in Heutsz’s crater whose nine points recording or in Cempaga’s crater whose seventeen points. The data was simply processed using Microsoft Excel that can just plot the Bouguer anomaly and interpreted qualitatively due to preliminary research. The resultof this research has shown that both areas have two kinds of Bougeur anomalies which slightly attract attention who’s high and low anomaly. At Heutsz’s Crater has high and low density existed at F125 FR and B6 point. The Point whose high density means that it was formed mineralization by hydrothermal process through fracture materials, meanwhile the point whose low density indicates that there is existed the fault which is quite related to Seulimum’s Fault based on Aceh map. This result is also same as obtained at Cempaga’s Crater which means also same interpretation. In addition, it can be sum up that fault zones are essentially important in geothermal system that plays vital role in term of fluid circulation. Employing the gravity method in this research effectively can be

  7. Oilfield geothermal exploitation in China-A case study from the Liaohe oilfield in Bohai Bay Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shejiao; Yao, Yanhua; Fan, Xianli; Yan, Jiahong

    2017-04-01

    The clean geothermal energy can play a huge role in solving the problem of severe smog in China as it can replace large coal-fired heating in winter. Chinese government has paid close attention on the development and utilization of geothermal energy. In the "13th Five-Year" plan, the geothermal development is included into the national plan for the first time. China is very rich in the medium and low-temperature geothermal resources, ranking first in the geothermal direct use in the world for a long time. The geothermal resources are mainly concentrated in sedimentary basins, especially in petroliferous basins distributed in North China (in North China, heating is needed in winter). These basins are usually close to the large- and medium-sized cities. Therefore, tapping oilfield geothermal energy have attracted a great attention in the last few years as the watercut achieved above 90% in most oilfields and significant progress has been made. In this paper, taking the Liaohe Oilfield in the Bohai Bay Basin as an example, we discussed the distribution and potential of the geothermal resources, discussed how to use the existed technology to harness geothermal energy more effectively, and forecasted the development prospect of the oilfield geothermal energy. By using the volumetric method, we calculated the geothermal resources of the Guantao Formation, Dongying Formation, Shahejie Formation and basement rock in the Liaohe depression. We tested the geothermal energy utilization efficiency in different conditions by applying different pump technologies and utilizing geothermal energy in different depth, such as shallow geothermal energy (0-200m), middle-deep depth geothermal energy (200-4000m), and oilfield sewage heat produced with oil production. For the heat pump systems, we tested the conventional heat pump system, high-temperature heat pump system, super high-temperature heat pump system, and gas heat pump system. Finally, based on the analysis of national policy

  8. Preliminary studies of dry rock geothermal exploitation in south west England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchelor, A. S.; Pearson, C. M.

    1978-07-01

    A research program to develop a method to exploit the heat usually found in mines in the Cornwall area is described. Temperature gradients range from 27 to 34/sup 0/C/Km with a mean of 29.8/sup 0/C/Km. The exploitable area is defined and methods of creating an artificial geothermal field or artificial reservoir are described. Tests to determine fractures in rocks including gamma-gamma logging, tv camera, caliper, and 3-D sonic are described as are pumping tests. 15 references, 3 figures.

  9. Improving the Environmental Sustainability of Flash Geothermal Power Plants—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Bruscoli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of geothermal energy production is analyzed with reference to a production plant located in a specific area (Monte Amiata, Italy. Four solutions combining a flash power plant with an Organic Rankine Cycle in a hybrid configuration are analyzed in terms of production of electricity, exergy balance and emissions level (CO2, H2S, Hg. The different solutions correspond to increasing environmental performance, and for the most advanced case achieve near-zero emissions (complete reinjection of the natural resource, including incondensable gases. The results show that this can be achieved at the price of a progressive reduction of electrical productivity.

  10. Panel discussion on exploitation of geothermal resources in thermal zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viramonte, J G; Mange, J; Stefani, G

    1978-03-01

    The topics discussed include the major known geothermal resources, varying ways of exploiting geothermal resources, technical and economic difficulties in the exploitation, the place of geothermal energy in the total energy policy of a given country, advanced exploration techniques, and indications of needed areas of study. The panelists represented most of the South American countries, Mexico, and Italy. (JSR)

  11. Geothermal Technologies Program: Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-02-01

    This fact sheets provides a summary of geothermal potential, issues, and current development in Alaska. This fact sheet was developed as part of DOE's GeoPowering the West initiative, part of the Geothermal Technologies Program.

  12. Environmental impact directory system: preliminary implementation for geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, F.D.; Hall, R.T.; Fullenwider, E.D.

    1976-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Directory System (EIDS) was proposed as a method for a computerized search of the widely distributed data files and models pertaining to energy-related environmental effects. To define the scope and content of the system, an example was prepared for the case of geothermal energy. The resulting sub-directory is known as GEIDs (Geothermal Environmental Impact Directory System). In preparing or reviewing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the user may employ GEIDS as an extensive checklist to make sure he has taken into account all predictable impacts at any level of severity.

  13. Saugus River and Tributaries, Lynn, Malden, Revere and Saugus, Massachusetts. Flood Damage Reduction. Volume 7. Appendix J. Feasibility Study and EIS/EIR Comments and Responses. Section A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    project nor affect significantly the projects econmic efficiency. These effects are described in the Feasibility Report, EIS/EIR and suportin...modifications beca necesary. To insure the econmic efficiency of the project using the accelerated rise rate in NRc Case III, the Regional Project was...is a str econmic candidate. 23 Table 14 RICtOALL P3ECr ECONaMEC FEABILIY WI H SEA LEVEL RISE (1988 Price Level) Oticon 3 Historical NRC Project

  14. South Dakota geothermal handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

  15. Fifteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Fifteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23--25, 1990. Major topics included: DOE's geothermal research and development program, well testing, field studies, geosciences, geysers, reinjection, tracers, geochemistry, and modeling.

  16. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The following are included: geothermal power plants proposed and on-line; direct heat applications proposed and operational; trends in drilling activities; exploration; leases; outreach and technical assistance; feasibility studies and application demonstrations; geothermal loan guaranty program; research and development activities; legal, institutional, and regulatory activities; environmental activities; reports and publications; and a directory. (MHR)

  17. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A. (eds.)

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  18. Geothermal Heat Pumps in K-12 Schools -- A Case Study of the Lincoln, Nebraska, Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonder, J.A.

    2000-05-02

    Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) have been shown to have a number of benefits over other technologies used to heat and cool buildings and provide hot water, combining high levels of occupant comfort with low operating and maintenance costs. Public facilities represent an increasingly important market for GHPs, and schools are a particularly good application, given the large land area that normally surrounds them. Nevertheless, some barriers remain to the increased use of GHPs in institutional and commercial applications. First, because GHPs are perceived as having higher installation costs than other space conditioning technologies, they are sometimes not considered as an option in feasibility studies. When they are considered, it can be difficult to compile the information required to compare them with other technologies. For example, a life cycle cost analysis requires estimates of installation costs and annually recurring energy and maintenance costs. But most cost estimators are unfamiliar with GHP technology, and no published GHP construction cost estimating guide is available. For this reason, estimates of installed costs tend to be very conservative, furthering the perception that GHPs are more costly than other technologies. Because GHP systems are not widely represented in the various softwares used by engineers to predict building energy use, it is also difficult to estimate the annual energy use of a building having GHP systems. Very little published data is available on expected maintenance costs either. Because of this lack of information, developing an accurate estimate of the life cycle cost of a GHP system requires experience and expertise that are not available in all institutions or in all areas of the country. In 1998, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) entered into an agreement with the Lincoln, Nebraska, Public School District and Lincoln Electric Service, the local electric utility in the Lincoln area, to study four new, identical elementary

  19. Update of geothermal energy development in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutroupis, N.

    1992-01-01

    Following the completion of the Geothermal Reconnaissance Study in Greece and the successful drilling of seven deep geothermal wells in the Aegean islands of Milos and Nisyros, PPC started the first step towards geothermal development for electricity production as follows: A geothermal electric pilot plant of 2 MW e nominal capacity was installed on the Zephyria plain in Milos island (1985). During a nine month operation of the plant, problems connected with its long term operation were solved (hot reinjection of the high salinity brine, turbine washing etc). A feasibility study regarding exploitation of the Nisyros geothermal resources was completed and PPC connected Nisyros island electrically to Kos island via submarine cables. As consequence of the reaction against geothermal development by the people of Milos in early 1989, the power plant is still out of operation and the feasibility study planned for Milos has been postponed. For similar reasons the Nisyros drilling contract for five new geothermal deep wells has not come into force as yet. This paper summarizes the main PPC geothermal activities to date, the problems caused by the reactions of the Milos and Nisyros population and the relevant PPC countermeasures, as well as outlining the PPC development program for the near future

  20. Thermo-mechanical controls on geothermal energy resources: case studies in the Pannonian Basin and other natural laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloetingh, S.; Wees, J.D. van; Wesztergom, V.

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal energy is an important renewable energy resource, whose share is growing rapidly in the energy mix. Geosciences provide fundamental knowledge on Earth system processes and properties, required for the development of new methods to identify prospective geothermal resources suitable for

  1. Inventory and case studies of Louisiana, non-electric industrial applications of geopressured geothermal resources. Quarterly progress report, March 1-May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnadelbach, T.W. Jr.

    1977-06-01

    An inventory is provided of geopressured geothermal resources in Louisiana. The Louisiana industries; classified as Food and Kindred Products were cataloged and inventoried to determine potential and specific uses of the known energy resources. The possibility of relocating industries to the available resources is explored. Individual case studies are presented for near term industrial conversion for resource application. (MHR)

  2. Status of geothermal resources in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Bert, G.

    1990-01-01

    Except for some isolated instances with tourist or therapeutic objectives and some attempts in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, there are no projects for direct heat utilization of geothermal resources in Mexico. Therefore, all places that are studied are studied with geothermal-electric objectives. It is convenient to keep in mind that in Mexico, by law, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is the public utility in charge of electrical energy service. This institution is directly responsible for the exploration, development and commercial use of geothermal energy for electrical generation. Therefore, this paper includes the present and planned exploration and utilization of geothermal resources only for electricity generation for the period 1985 to the present. Likewise, starting 5 years ago, the CFE efforts have been directed toward the development of high enthalpy fields

  3. Assessment of geothermal assisted coal-fired power generation using an Australian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Cheng [Priority Research Centre for Energy, Discipline of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Doroodchi, Elham [Priority Research Centre for Advanced Particle Processing and Transport, Discipline of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Moghtaderi, Behdad [Priority Research Centre for Energy, Discipline of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Systematic techno-economic analyses of GAPG system completed for Australian conditions. • Greater utilisation efficiency of both geothermal and fossil fuel resources was achieved. • Reference maps developed to predict conditions when hybrid plant outperforms two stand-alone plants. • Carbon tax and RECs rates of 40 $/tonne and 60 cents/kW h are adequate. • HDR resources should be located no further than 20 km from the plant. - Abstract: A systematic techno-economic analysis of geothermal assisted power generation (GAPG) was performed for a 500 MW unit of a typical coal-fired power plant located at the upper Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Specifically, the GAPG viability and performance was examined by investigating the impacts of reservoir temperature, resource distance, hybridisation scheme, and economic conditions including carbon tax and Renewable Energy Certificates (REC). The process simulation package, Aspen HYSYS, was employed for all simulation purposes. Thermodynamically, GAPG system was found to increase the power output of the plant by up to 19% under the booster mode whilst in fuel saving mode the coal consumption reduced by up to 0.3 million tonne/year decreasing the Green House Gas (GHG) emission by up to 15% (0.6 million tonne/year). Economic analyses showed that for a typical HDR resource with a reservoir temperature about 150 °C located within a 5 km radius from the power plant, the GAPG system becomes economically competitive to the stand-alone fossil fuel based plant when minimum carbon tax and RECs rates of 40 $/tonne and 60 cents/kW h are introduced. The figure of merit analyses comparing GAPG system with both stand-alone fossil fuel and stand-alone geothermal plants showed that an economically feasible GAPG system requires the use of HDR resources located no further than 20 km from the plants. Reference maps were also developed to predict suitable conditions for which the hybrid plant outperforms the

  4. Assessment of geothermal assisted coal-fired power generation using an Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Cheng; Doroodchi, Elham; Moghtaderi, Behdad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic techno-economic analyses of GAPG system completed for Australian conditions. • Greater utilisation efficiency of both geothermal and fossil fuel resources was achieved. • Reference maps developed to predict conditions when hybrid plant outperforms two stand-alone plants. • Carbon tax and RECs rates of 40 $/tonne and 60 cents/kW h are adequate. • HDR resources should be located no further than 20 km from the plant. - Abstract: A systematic techno-economic analysis of geothermal assisted power generation (GAPG) was performed for a 500 MW unit of a typical coal-fired power plant located at the upper Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Specifically, the GAPG viability and performance was examined by investigating the impacts of reservoir temperature, resource distance, hybridisation scheme, and economic conditions including carbon tax and Renewable Energy Certificates (REC). The process simulation package, Aspen HYSYS, was employed for all simulation purposes. Thermodynamically, GAPG system was found to increase the power output of the plant by up to 19% under the booster mode whilst in fuel saving mode the coal consumption reduced by up to 0.3 million tonne/year decreasing the Green House Gas (GHG) emission by up to 15% (0.6 million tonne/year). Economic analyses showed that for a typical HDR resource with a reservoir temperature about 150 °C located within a 5 km radius from the power plant, the GAPG system becomes economically competitive to the stand-alone fossil fuel based plant when minimum carbon tax and RECs rates of 40 $/tonne and 60 cents/kW h are introduced. The figure of merit analyses comparing GAPG system with both stand-alone fossil fuel and stand-alone geothermal plants showed that an economically feasible GAPG system requires the use of HDR resources located no further than 20 km from the plants. Reference maps were also developed to predict suitable conditions for which the hybrid plant outperforms the

  5. EIS Response of MIC on Carbon Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Maahn, Ernst

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Microbially influenced corrosion of carbon steel under sulphate reducing (sulphide-producing) bacterial activity (SRB) results in the formation of both ferrous sulphides as well as biofilm on the metal surface. The electrochemical characteristics of the ferrous sulphide/steel interface...... as compared to the biofilm/ferrous sulphide/steel interface has been studied with EIS, DC polarisations (Tafel, LPR) and a potentiostatic step technique. The electrochemical response is related to a threshold sulphide concentration above which very characteristic changes such as indications of finite...

  6. Geothermal fields of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearey, P.; HongBing, Wei

    1993-08-01

    There are over 2500 known occurrences of geothermal phenomena in China. These lie mainly in four major geothermal zones: Xizang (Tibet)-Yunnan, Taiwan, East Coast and North-South. Hot water has also been found in boreholes in major Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basins. This paper presents a summary of present knowledge of these geothermal zones. The geological settings of geothermal occurrences are associated mainly with magmatic activity, fault uplift and depressional basins and these are described by examples of each type. Increased multipurpose utilisation of geothermal resources is planned and examples are given of current usages.

  7. World geothermal congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povarov, O.A.; Tomarov, G.V.

    2001-01-01

    The World geothermal congress took place in the period from 28 May up to 10 June 2000 in Japan. About 2000 men from 43 countries, including specialists in the area of developing geothermal fields, creating and operating geothermal electrical and thermal plants and various systems for the earth heat application, participated in the work of the Congress. It was noted at the Congress, that development of the geothermal power engineering in the world is characterized by the large-scale application of geothermal resources for the electrical energy generation [ru

  8. Hawaii geothermal project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamins, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii's Geothermal Project is investigating the occurrence of geothermal resources in the archipelago, initially on the Island of Hawaii. The state's interest in geothermal development is keen, since it is almost totally dependent on imported oil for energy. Geothermal development in Hawaii may require greater participation by the public sector than has been true in California. The initial exploration has been financed by the national, state, and county governments. Maximization of net benefits may call for multiple use of geothermal resources; the extraction of by-products and the application of treated effluents to agricultural and aquacultural uses.

  9. Remote Sensing Techniques as a Tool for Geothermal Exploration: the Case Study of Blawan Ijen, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqua, Claudio; Verdoya, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques in the initial phase of geothermal surveys represents a very cost-effective tool, which can contribute to a successful exploration program. Remote sensing allows the analysis of large surfaces and can lead to a significant improvement of the identification of surface thermal anomalies, through the use of thermal infra red data (TIR), as well as of zones of widespread and recent faulting, which can reflect larger permeability of geological formations. Generally, the fractures analysis from remote sensing can be fundamental to clarify the structural setting of an area. In a regional volcanic framework, it can also help in defining the spatial and time evolution of the different volcanic apparatuses. This paper describes the main results of a remote sensing study, conducted in the Blawan-Ijen volcanic area (East Java), which is at present subject of geothermal exploration. This area is characterized by the presence of a 15 km wide caldera originated by a collapsed strato volcano. This event was followed by the emplacement of several peri-calderic and intra-calderic volcanoes, among which G. Raung, as testified by the frequent occurrence of shallow earthquakes and by H2S emission and sulfur deposition, and G. Kawah Ijen, occurring at the eastern rim of the caldera, are still active. The summit of G. Kawah Ijen volcano consists of two interlocking craters forming an E-W elongated depression filled up by a hyperacidic lake. Along the southern shore of the lake, a small rhyolitic dome occurs, which exhibits strong fumarolic activity with temperature of as much as 600 °C. We performed an analysis based on the combined interpretation of Landsat ETM+7, Aster and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, focused on the identification of subsurface high permeability zones. The main trends of the linear features as derived from the fractures analysis, as well as their relation with the distribution of volcanic centres, were identified

  10. Fiscal 1995 verification survey of geothermal exploration technology. Report on a deep geothermal resource survey; 1995 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk of deep geothermal resource development, the paper investigated three factors for the formation of geothermal resource in the deep underground, that is, heat supply from heat source, supply of geothermal fluids, and the developmental status of fracture systems forming reservoir structures. The survey further clarified the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system including shallow geothermal energy in order to research/study usability of deep geothermal resource. In the deep geothermal resource survey, drilling/examination were made of a deep geothermal exploration well (`WD-1,` target depth: approximately 3,000-4,000m) in the already developed area, with the aim of making rationalized promotion of the geothermal development. And the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system were clarified to investigate/study usability of the geothermal system. In fiscal 1995, `WD-1` in the Kakkonda area reached a depth of 3,729m. By this, surveys were made to grasp the whole image of the shallow-deep geothermal system and to obtain basic data for researching usability of deep geothermal resource. 22 refs., 531 figs., 136 tabs.

  11. Radon measurements at IC-09 well of Chingshui geothermal field (Taiwan): A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Kuo, T.; Fan, K.; Liang, H.; Tsai, C.; Chiang, C.; Su, C.

    2011-01-01

    Radon concentration was monitored during the flow tests of well IC-09 at the Chingshui geothermal field. The radon concentration was found to increase from 54 ± 29 to 983 ± 65 Bq/m 3 as a step function of production time, or cumulative production. The observed radon behavior can be explained by a radial composite model with the carbonate scales deposited in the skin zone near the well. The radius of skin zone near well IC-09 can be estimated with radon data at about 20 m using a plug flow model. Monitoring natural radon during the well flow tests is a helpful tracer to diagnose the formation damage near the well.

  12. STUDY OF PLANT-WIDE CONTROL IMPLEMENTATION IN PRODUCTION PROCESS OF GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHERIN INDRIAWATI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of plant-wide control system to optimize electricity production in geothermal power plant is proposed in this research. The objective is to overcome the deficiency due to changes in the characteristics of production well and fluctuation in electricity demand load. The proposed plant-wide control system has two main tasks; to maintain production process at optimum value and to increase efficiency. The pressure in separator and condenser is maintained at the respective set points under electrical load fluctuations in order to ensure optimum efficiency. The control system also reduce the usage of auxialiary electrical power and increase efficiency. The task was performed by controlling inlet cooling water temperatures to the condenser. It was concluded that the proposed control structure was able to increase efficiency and maintain production.

  13. Geothermal for kids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemzer, M.; Condy, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that educating children about geothermal energy is crucial to the future growth of the geothermal industry. The Geothermal Education Office (GEO) was founded in 1989 to provide materials and support to teachers and the geothermal community in educating grades K-12 about geothermal energy. GEO's goals are to: provide easy access to or referral to appropriate sources of geothermal information; foster teacher interest; create posters, booklets, lesson plans and other educational materials; monitor and review textbooks, encyclopedias and other educational materials distributed by educational groups to ensure inclusion of appropriate, accurate information and to encourage fair treatment of alternative energy resources; contribute articles to industry, science and educational publications; and foster communication and cooperation among GEO, the geothermal industry, government agencies, and educational and environmental groups

  14. Preliminary study on the characteristics of carbon and oxygen isotopes in the Shiziping geothermal field groundwater in Emei Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiujing; Jia Shuyuan

    2000-01-01

    Emei Mountain is a well-known scenic tourism spot in China. In order to promote the development of tourist trade, the authors have explored the hydrothermal water in Emei Mountain. At the beginning of 1998, the hydrothermal water was successfully drilled from the Shiziping geothermal field. In the process of prospecting the hydrothermal water, the authors adopted the geochemical method such as carbon and oxygen isotopes. The result indicates that the groundwater of different genetic types has different constitution characteristics of carbon and oxygen isotopes. This provides the important basis for finding out the forming conditions of underground hydrothermal water. So, it is prospective to study the growth characteristics of hydrothermal water with the carbon and oxygen isotopes of HCO 3 in groundwater

  15. Integrating geothermal into coal-fired power plant with carbon capture: A comparative study with solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fu; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Zhao, Jiapei; Yang, Guohua; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Post-combustion carbon capture integrating geothermal energy was proposed. • A 300 MWe subcritical coal-fired plant was selected as the baseline. • The geothermal assisted carbon capture system was compared with solar assisted carbon capture plant. • Two different locations were chosen for the technical and economical comparison. • Using medium temperature geothermal thermal energy to replace steam extraction performs better performance. - Abstract: A new system integrating geothermal energy into post-combustion carbon capture is proposed in this paper. Geothermal energy at medium temperatures is used to provide the required thermal heat for solvent regeneration. The performance of this system is compared with solar assisted carbon capture plant via technical and economic evaluation. A 300 MWe coal-fired power plant is selected as the reference case, and two different locations based on the local climatic conditions and geothermal resources are chosen for the comparison. The results show that the geothermal assisted post-combustion carbon capture plant has better performances than the solar assisted one in term of the net power output and annual electricity generation. The net plant average efficiency based on lower heating value can be increased by 2.75% with a thermal load fraction of about 41%. Results of economic assessment show that the proposed geothermal assisted post-combustion carbon capture system has lower levelized costs of electricity and cost of carbon dioxide avoidance compared to the solar assisted post-combustion carbon capture plant. In order to achieve comparative advantages over the reference post-combustion carbon capture plant in both locations, the price of solar collector has to be lower than 70 USD/m 2 , and the drilling depth of the geothermal well shall be less than 2.1 km.

  16. Geothermal heat pump performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  17. Geothermal Heat Pump Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  18. Geothermal energy. Pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal energy has certain features that make it highly recommendable as a source of power production. It is noted by its high load factor; it may be used as a basic or peak source; its versatility and high availability among others. In spite of these advantages, geothermal energy has not attained a significant development up to now. There are several reasons for this to happen, while the main one is that it requires an important initial investment. Assessing if an area is potentially profitable for the obtention of a given type of energy implies performing a complex set of analyses and prospective work, but it is not so significant as that associated with petroleum. The strategy for the exploration of geothermal resources is based on the execution of consecutive stages ranging from a surveillance at a regional scale to a project feasibility study, with growing investments and using more and more complex techniques. Many Latin American countries are located in areas considered as promisory concerning the development of this type of exploitation. Another factor supporting this view is a special demographic feature, showing a very irregular distribution of the population, with extense isolated areas with a minimun number of inhabitants that does not justify the extension of the electric power network. There are plants operating in four countries producing, as a whole, 881 MW. In Argentina the activities are aimed to intensifying the knowledge about the availability of this resource within the local territory and to estimating the feasibility of its usage in areas where exploration is more advanced [es

  19. Low enthalpy geothermal for oil sands (LEGO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Geothermal energy is generated by the slow decay of radioactive materials within the Earth. Geothermal energy resources include the water from hot springs used for heating; the withdrawal of high temperature steam from deep wells; and the use of stable ground or water temperatures near the Earth's surface to heat or cool buildings or in industrial processes. Heat pumps are used to transfer heat or water from the ground into buildings in winter. This paper discussed low enthalpy geothermal options for oil sands processes in order to reduce the use of natural gas and emissions from greenhouse gases (GHGs). The study was also conducted to aid in the development of a portfolio of renewable energy options for the oil and gas sector. The study estimated the costs and benefits of operating a shallow geothermal borehole cluster for meeting a portion of process heat demands for the Nexen's Albian mine. The costs and benefits of operating thermo-chillers integrated with a shallow geothermal borehole cluster for waste heat mitigation were also evaluated. The study showed that geothermal designs can be used to meet a portion of oil sands process heat and cooling demands. Mining operators may reduce carbon emissions and energy costs for process heat demands by installing closed loop borehole heat exchangers. Geothermal heat storage capacity can also be used to increase the efficiency of thermal chillers. It was concluded that pilot plant studies would contribute to a better understanding of the technology. tabs., figs.

  20. OpenEIS. Developer Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neubauer, Casey C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Brandon J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Monson, Kyle E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Allwardt, Craig H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sharma, Poorva [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) is supporting the development of an open-source software tool for analyzing building energy and operational data: OpenEIS (open energy information system). This tool addresses the problems of both owners of building data and developers of tools to analyze this data. Building owners and managers have data but lack the tools to analyze it while tool developers lack data in a common format to ease development of reusable data analysis tools. This document is intended for developers of applications and explains the mechanisms for building analysis applications, accessing data, and displaying data using a visualization from the included library. A brief introduction to the visualizations can be used as a jumping off point for developers familiar with JavaScript to produce their own. Several example applications are included which can be used along with this document to implement algorithms for performing energy data analysis.

  1. Sustainable Development of Geothermal Industry in China: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With a wide distribution, large reserves, low cost, sustainable energy use and environmental protection and other unparalleled advantages, geothermal energy resources is important for China’s energy structure adjustment, energy conservation and environment improvement. Currently, geothermal utilization in China is still in its infancy, and Sustainable Development of the geothermal industry is also having a lot of problems. In this paper, the current research on sustainable development of geothermal industry focuses on two aspects: 1. the current situation of geothermal industry development and existing problems, 2. the current situation of sustainable development of the geothermal industry. On the basis of the review, some suggestions for further study on the sustainable development of geothermal industry are put forward.

  2. Multidisciplinary exploratory study of a geothermal resource in the active volcanic arc of Basse-Terre (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navelot, Vivien; Favier, Alexiane; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Corsini, Michel; Verati, Chrystèle; Lardeaux, Jean-Marc; Mercier de Lépinay, Jeanne; Munschy, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The GEOTREF project (high enthalpy geothermal energy in fractured reservoirs), supported by the French government program, "Investissements d'avenir" develops a sustainable geothermal resource in the Vieux Habitants area, 8-km south of the currently exploited Bouillante geothermal field. The Basse Terre Island is a recent volcanic arc (meta-andesite. This metamorphism forms cleavage plans thanks to a pressure-solution mechanism. Mineralogical transformations associated with these cleavage planes have an impact on petrophysical properties. The solid phase density and porosity decrease. An anisotropy of permeability develops due to cleavage plans. Thermodynamics modelling based on the rock chemical composition and petrography observations emphasizes a steady-state mineral assemblage between 1.5 - 2 kbar and 280 - 320˚ C. This is consistent with an in situ measured volcanic arc conductive geothermal gradient of 70 ˚ C/km.

  3. Insight into the Geothermal Structure in Chingshui, Ilan, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Tao Tong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chingshui geothermal field is the largest known productive geothermal area in Taiwan. The purpose of this paper is to delineate this geothermal structure by integrating geophysical data and borehole information. The existence of a magma chamber in the shallow crust and shallow intrusive igneous rock results in a high heat flow and geothermal gradient; furthermore, the NE deep fault system within the meta-sandstones provides meteoric recharge from a higher elevation to artesianally drive the geothermal system. There is evidence that geothermal fluid deeply circulated within the fracture zone and was heated by a deeply located body of hot rock. The geothermal reservoir of the Chingshui geothermal field might be related to the fracture zone of the Chingshuihsi fault. It is bounded by the C-fault in the north and Xiaonanao fault in the south. Based on information obtained from geophysical interpretations and well logs, a 3-D geothermal conceptual model is constructed in this study. Further, the geothermal reservoir is confined to an area that is 260 m in width, N21°W, 1.5 km in length, and has an 80° dip toward the NE. Ahigh-temperature zone is found in the SE region of the reservoir, which is about 500 m in length; this zone is located near the intersection of the Chingshuihsi and Xiaonanao faults. An area on the NE side of the high-temperature zone has been recommended for the drilling of production wells for future geothermal development.

  4. Geothermal data-base study: mine-water temperatures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, D.C.; Sonderegger, J.L.

    1978-07-01

    Investigation of about 1,600 mines and prospects for perennial discharge resulted in the measurement of temperature, pH, specific conductance, and discharge at 80 sites to provide information for a geothermal data base. Measurements were made in the fall, winter, and late spring or early summer to provide information about seasonal variability. None of the temperatures measured exceeded the mean annual air temperature by 15/sup 0/F, but three areas were noted where discharges were anomalously warm, based upon high temperatures, slight temperature variation, and quantity of discharge. The most promising area, at the Gold Bug mine in the Little Rockies, discharges water averaging 7.3/sup 0/C (12.1/sup 0/F) above the mean annual air temperature. The discharge may represent water heated during circulation within the syenite intrusive body. If the syenite is enriched in uranium and thorium, an abnormal amount of heat would be produced by radioactive decay. Alternatively, the water may move through deep permeable sedimentary strata, such as the Madison Group, and be discharged to the surface through fractures in the pluton.

  5. Geothermal energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Enriko

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal energy, as a natural steam and hot water, has been exploited for decades in order to generate electricity as well as district heating and industrial processes. The present geothermal electrical installed capacity in the world is about 10.000 MWe and the thermal capacity in non-electrical uses is about 8.200 MWt. Electricity is produced with an efficiency of 10-17%, and the cost of the kWh is competitive with conventional energy sources. In the developing countries, where a total installed electrical power is still low, geothermal energy can play a significant role: in El Salvador, for example, 25% of electricity comes from geothermal spring, 20% in the Philippines and 8% in Kenya. Present technology makes it possible to control the environmental impact of geothermal exploitation. Geothermal energy could also be extracted from deep geopressured reservoirs in large sedimentary basins, hot dry rock systems and magma bodies. (author)

  6. Coordination of geothermal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessop, A.M.; Drury, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Visits were made in 1983 to various investigators and institutions in Canada to examine developments in geothermal research. Proposals for drilling geothermal wells to provide hot water for heating at a college in Prince Edward Island were made. In Alberta, the first phase of a program examining the feasibility of mapping sedimentary geothermal reservoirs was discussed. Some sites for possible geothermal demonstration projects were identified. In British Columbia, discussions were held between BC Hydro and Energy, Mines and Resources Canada on the drilling of a research hole into the peak of a temperature anomaly in the Meager Creek Valley. The British Columbia government has offered blocks of land in the Mount Cayley volcanic complex for lease to develop geothermal resources. A list of papers of interest to the Canadian geothermal energy program is appended.

  7. The geothermal power organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, K.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  8. The Bonneville Power Administration's geothermal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darr, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    Despite being a power source with many desirable characteristics, geothermal has not been developed in the Pacific Northwest because of high costs, high risks, and the lack of a market for power. The region will require new power sources in the 1990s, and will need to know to what extent it can rely on geothermal. The Bonneville Power Administration has developed a geothermal RD and D program which includes a proposal to award power contracts to three pilot projects in the Northwest. Public outreach efforts, environmental base line studies, and economic and land use impact studies will also be undertaken. In this paper two projects already under way are discussed

  9. Geothermal Today - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-05-01

    U.S. Department of Energy 1999 Geothermal Energy Program Highlights The Hot Facts Getting into Hot Water Turning Waste water into Clean Energy Producing Even Cleaner Power Drilling Faster and Cheaper Program in Review 1999: The Year in Review JanuaryCal Energy announced sale of Coso geothermal power plants at China Lake, California, to Caithness Energy, for $277 million. U.S. Export-Import Bank completed a $50 million refinancing of the Leyte Geothermal Optimization Project in the Philippines. F

  10. Sign of Radon for locate geothermic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Teran, D.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of a geothermic field is based upon geological, geophysical and geochemical studies that enable the evaluation of the deposit potential, that is to say, the amount of energy per unit mass, the volume of the trapped fluid, vapor fraction and fluid chemistry. This thesis has as its objective the evaluation of radon gas emanation in high potential geothermic zones in order to utilize the results as a low cost and easy to manage complimentary tool in geothermic source prospection. In chapter I the importance and evaluation of a geothermic deposit is discussed. In chapter II the general characteristics of radon are discussed: its radioactivity and behavior upon diffusion over the earth's surface> Chapter III establishes the approach used in the geothermic field of Los Azufres, Michoacan, to carry out samplings of radon and the laboratory techniques that were used to evaluate the concentration of radon in the subsoil. Finally in chapter IV measurements of radon in the field are compared to geological faults in the area under study. The sampling zones were: low geothermic potential zone of the northern and the southern zone having a greater geothermic potential than that in the north. The study was carried out at different sampling times using plastics detectors of from 30 to 46 days from February to July. From the results obtained we concluded that the emission of radon was greater in the zones of greatest geothermic potential than in the low geothermic potential zones it was also affected by the fault structure and the time of year in which sampling was done. (Author)

  11. Study of the variation of the E-I curves in the superconducting to normal transition of Bi-2212 textured ceramics by Pb addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotelo, A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitreous cylinders with compositions Bi2-xPbxSr2CaCu2Oy, (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 were prepared and used as precursors to fabricate textured bars through a laser floating zone melting method (LFZ. The resulting textured cylindrical bars were annealed, followed by their electrical characterization. The microstructure was determined and correlated with the electrical measured properties. The influence of Pb doping on the sharpness of the superconducting to normal transition on the E-I curves has been determined. The sharpest transitions have been obtained for samples doped with 0.4Pb.

    Se han preparado precursores de tipo vítreo en forma de cilindro con composiciones nominales Bi2-xPbxSr2CaCu2Oy, con x = 0, 0.2, 0.4 y 0.6. Estos cilindros se han utilizado como precursores para fabricar barras texturadas por medio de una técnica de fusión zonal inducida por láser (LFZ. Estas barras texturadas se recocieron a diferentes temperaturas y se caracterizaron eléctricamente. Además, se examinó su microestructura para correlacionarla con las propiedades eléctricas medidas. La variación de la transición del estado superconductor al normal se ha relacionado con el dopaje con Pb a través de las curvas E-I. Las mejores transiciones se han obtenido para muestras dopadas con 0.4 Pb.

  12. Geothermal Power Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Chamorro, C.R.

    2017-01-01

    Although geothermal energy has been widely deployed for direct use in locations with especial geologic manifestations, its potential for power generation has been traditionally underestimated. Recent technology developments in drilling techniques and power conversion technologies from low......-temperature heat resources are bringing geothermal energy to the spotlight as a renewable baseload energy option for a sustainable energy mix. Although the environmental impact and economic viability of geothermal exploitation must be carefully evaluated for each case, the use of deep low-temperature geothermal...... reservoirs could soon become an important contributor to the energy generation around the world....

  13. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  14. Geothermal Energy Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained with the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost- effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy -- the heat of the Earth -- is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40% of the total US energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma ( the four types of geothermal energy) still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program

  15. Ameerika ei ole Jaapan / Michael Craig

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Craig, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Kuidas Jaapani ärimees Minoru Isutani 1981. aastal ei arvestnud, et ameeriklased ei osta golfiklubi eluaegset liikmekaarti 750 000 dollari eest, ning kaotas USA kuulsaima Pebble Beachi golfiväljaku. Katkend raamatust "50 parimat ja halvimat tehingut läbi aegade"

  16. 32 CFR 989.20 - Final EIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limited to factual corrections and responses to comments, the proponent and EPF may, with the prior..., the EPF must submit the Draft EIS and all of the above documents, with a new cover sheet indicating... more extensive modifications are required, the EPF must prepare a preliminary final EIS incorporating...

  17. Geothermal and volcanism in west Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, I.; Indarto, S.; Sudarsono; Fauzi I, A.; Yuliyanti, A.; Lintjewas, L.; Alkausar, A.; Jakah

    2018-02-01

    Indonesian active volcanoes extend from Sumatra, Jawa, Bali, Lombok, Flores, North Sulawesi, and Halmahera. The volcanic arc hosts 276 volcanoes with 29 GWe of geothermal resources. Considering a wide distribution of geothermal potency, geothermal research is very important to be carried out especially to tackle high energy demand in Indonesia as an alternative energy sources aside from fossil fuel. Geothermal potency associated with volcanoes-hosted in West Java can be found in the West Java segment of Sunda Arc that is parallel with the subduction. The subduction of Indo-Australian oceanic plate beneath the Eurasian continental plate results in various volcanic products in a wide range of geochemical and mineralogical characteristics. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of volcanic and magmatic rocks associated with geothermal systems are ill-defined. Comprehensive study of geochemical signatures, mineralogical properties, and isotopes analysis might lead to the understanding of how large geothermal fields are found in West Java compared to ones in Central and East Java. The result can also provoke some valuable impacts on Java tectonic evolution and can suggest the key information for geothermal exploration enhancement.

  18. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Agemar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  19. A closely-spaced magnetotelluric study of the Ahuachapan-Chipilapa geothermal field, El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo, Jose Manuel; Flores, Carlos; Vega, Raymundo; Vazquez, Rogelio; Flores, Marco A. Perez; Trevino, Enrique Gomez; Esparza, Francisco J; Garcia, Victor H [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Quijano, Julio E [Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL), Santa Tecla (El Salvador)

    1997-12-01

    The distribution of electrical conductivity beneath the Ahuachapan-Chipilapa geothermal area was simulated using 2-D models based on 126 closely-spaced magnetotelluric (MT) measurements. The observed MT response was interpreted as being produced by the superposition of two orthogonal geological structural systems: an approximately E-W regional trend associated with the Central Graben structure, which affects the loner period response, and a local and younger N-S fault system that is responsible for the short-to-intermediate period data. The MT response in the 0.02-10 s range period was used to simulate the conductivity structure within the first 2 km depth. By correlating the low-resistivity zones between twelve 2-D models, maps of the spatial distribution of conductors at three different depth levels were constructed. Three deep conductors were identified, one of the associated with the Ahuachapan reservoir, another apparently related to the Laguna Verde volcano, and a third one controlled by El Tortuguero Graben. The subsurface geometry of these conductivity anomalies suggests that the the Chipilapa and La Labor hot springs are supplied by two separate sources of hot fluids, one coming from the east and the other from the south or southwest. The distribution of the shallow high-conductivity zones agrees with the hydrothermal alteration zones mapped at the surface, suggesting that at shallow levels the argillitization process contributes significantly to the low resistivity. The large number of drillholes and the dense MT site coverage allowed the definition of important correlations between high temperatures and high conductivity, as well as between deep conductivity anomalies and productive wells. On this basis two years for future drilling are proposed. (Author)

  20. Geothermal energy prospecting in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Flores, J.H.; Gonzalez, E.; Ortega, M.

    1993-01-01

    Geochronological and geological studies carried out in El Salvador C. A., located a production geothermal zone to the north of the volcanic belt, in a region named Ahuachapan-Chipilapa. Hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis indicate the existence of active geothermal faults aligned to the directions South-North and Northwest-Southeast. Radon mapping in that region covered a total of 8.7 km 2 where plastic detectors were placed 200 m apart. Results confirmed the existence of active faults and two producing geothermal wells were located. (author)

  1. The low-energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Low-energy geothermal resources are characterized by temperatures ranging from 30 to 100 C. The principal worldwide applications are: towns and greenhouses heating, spa bathing, agriculture products drying, etc.. Sources depth ranges from 1500 to 2500 m in porous and permeable formations (sandstones, sands, conglomerates, limestones..) carrying aquifers. The worldwide installed power was of about 11500 MWth in 1990, with an annual production of about 36000 GWh (about 1% of worldwide energy consumption). The annual production rate is estimated to 10% and would represent a 30000 and 80000 MWth power in 2000 and 2010, respectively. In France, low-energy geothermal resources are encountered principally in Mesozoic sediments of the Parisian and Aquitanian basins. French geothermics has developed during the last 30 years and principally between 1980 and 1985 after the second petroleum crack. After 1985, the decay of fossil fuel costs and the development of corrosion problems in the geothermal wells have led to the abandonment of the less productive fields and to the study of technical solutions to solve the corrosion problems. (J.S.). 1 fig., 5 photos

  2. Systematic study of the effects of scaling techniques in numerical simulations with application to enhanced geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Thomas; Jansen, Gunnar; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Numerical modeling is a well established tool in rock mechanics studies investigating a wide range of problems. Especially for estimating seismic risk of a geothermal energy plants a realistic rock mechanical model is needed. To simulate a time evolving system, two different approaches need to be separated: Implicit methods for solving linear equations are unconditionally stable, while explicit methods are limited by the time step. However, explicit methods are often preferred because of their limited memory demand, their scalability in parallel computing, and simple implementation of complex boundary conditions. In numerical modeling of explicit elastoplastic dynamics the time step is limited by the rock density. Mass scaling techniques, which increase the rock density artificially by several orders, can be used to overcome this limit and significantly reduce computation time. In the context of geothermal energy this is of great interest because in a coupled hydro-mechanical model the time step of the mechanical part is significantly smaller than for the fluid flow. Mass scaling can also be combined with time scaling, which increases the rate of physical processes, assuming that processes are rate independent. While often used, the effect of mass and time scaling and how it may influence the numerical results is rarely-mentioned in publications, and choosing the right scaling technique is typically performed by trial and error. Also often scaling techniques are used in commercial software packages, hidden from the untrained user. To our knowledge, no systematic studies have addressed how mass scaling might affect the numerical results. In this work, we present results from an extensive and systematic study of the influence of mass and time scaling on the behavior of a variety of rock-mechanical models. We employ a finite difference scheme to model uniaxial and biaxial compression experiments using different mass and time scaling factors, and with physical models

  3. West Florida continental shelf: a study of geothermal flows and other processes affecting radionuclides and trace metals. Final report, July 1, 1977-September 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, K.A.; Betzer, P.R.; Byrne, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics and distribution of submarine geothermal springs along Florida's west coast were studied. The composition of the effluent, expressed as chlorinity ratios, indicates the source is normal seawater. Six springs have been definitely identified, occupying an 85 km 2 area off Fort Myers, Florida. The effluent is acidified, impoverished in magnesium and phosphate, and enriched in calcium, silica, Ra-226, Rn-222 and metals, and reduced compared to the parent seawater. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  4. Geothermal Today: 2003 Geothermal Technologies Program Highlights (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-05-01

    This outreach publication highlights milestones and accomplishments of the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program for 2003. Included in this publication are discussions of geothermal fundamentals, enhanced geothermal systems, direct-use applications, geothermal potential in Idaho, coating technology, energy conversion R&D, and the GeoPowering the West initiative.

  5. Operation strategy analysis of a geothermal step utilization heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Guozhong; Li, Feng; Tian, Zhe; Zhu, Neng; Li, Qianru; Zhu, Han

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal energy has been successfully applied in many district heating systems. In order to promote better use of geothermal energy, it is important to analyze the operation strategy of geothermal heating system. This study proposes a comprehensive and systematic operation strategy for a geothermal step utilization heating system (GSUHS). Calculation models of radiator heating system (RHS), radiant floor heating system (RFHS), heat pump (HP), gas boiler (GB), plate heat exchanger (PHE) and pump are first established. Then the operation strategy of the GSUHS is analyzed with the aim to substantially reduce the conventional energy consumption of the whole system. Finally, the energy efficiency and geothermal tail water temperature are analyzed. With the operation strategy in this study, the geothermal energy provides the main heating amount for the system. The heating seasonal performance factor is 15.93. Compared with coal-fired heating, 75.1% of the standard coal equivalent can be saved. The results provide scientific guidance for the application of an operation strategy for a geothermal step utilization heating system. -- Highlights: ► We establish calculation models for the geothermal step utilization heating system. ► We adopt minimal conventional energy consumption to determine the operation strategy. ► The geothermal energy dominates the heating quantity of the whole system. ► The utilization efficiency of the geothermal energy is high. ► The results provide guidance to conduct operation strategy for scientific operation.

  6. A preliminary study on the feedback of heat transfer on groundwater flow in a Karst geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Y.; Pang, Z.; Hu, S.; Pang, J.; Shao, H.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    In deep sedimentary basins, groundwater movement can significantly alter the heat flow pattern. At the same time, heat flux induced temperature change can reversely determine the flow regime through density dependent convection process. In Karst aquifers, the heterogeneity in the carbonate rocks makes the identification of this feedback much more complex. In this work, a preliminary study has been made on this feedback in Xiongxian geothermal field. The Karst aquifer in our site has an average thickness of about 1000 m, and is overlaid by over 400 m of quaternary clay, and subsequently 600 m of Neogene sandstone. Geothermal energy has been exploited in the site for space heating. During the heating period from Nov 15th to Mar 15th every year, hot water was extracted from the aquifer and re-injected after the heat extraction. A detailed temperature logging has been carried out in the field, both before and after the heating period, with the consideration that temperature distribution will be affected by the re-injection of cold water. The vertical distribution of temperature in the cap rock shows a constant positive gradient over depth. The heat flux at different locations has been calculated respectively. It is found to decline from southwest to northeast, with the highest value of 113.9 mW/m2 to the lowest of 80.6 mW/m2. This pattern can be well explained by the tectonic features. More interestingly, two inflection points appear on the temperature profile of the Karst layer, revealing strong influence from the cold re-injection water. Also, a 3℃ temperature difference was observed in the June and October measurement, which is related to the reservoir recovery. Currently, a 3D numerical model is being constructed, using the open-source software OpenGeoSys. Heat transport process is coupled with density dependent flow in a monolithic approach, to simulate both heat conduction and groundwater convection. This model will help to quantify the feedback from heat

  7. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  8. Geothermal energy for greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacky Friedman

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy is heat (thermal) derived from the earth (geo). The heat flows along a geothermal gradient from the center of the earth to the surface. Most of the heat arrives at the surface of the earth at temperatures too low for much use. However, plate tectonics ensure that some of the heat is concentrated at temperatures and depths favorable for its commercial...

  9. Prospects of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzella, A.; Bianchi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy has great potential as a renewable energy with low environmental impact, the use of heat pumps is becoming established in Italy but the national contributions are still modest when compared to other nations. Mature technologies could double the installed geothermal power in Italy at 2020. [it

  10. Implementation Plan for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Environmental Impact Statement (DOE Review Draft:)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-09-18

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that identifies and evaluates the environmental impacts associated with the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP), as defined by the State of Hawaii in its 1990 proposal to Congress (DBED 1990). The location of the proposed project is shown in Figure 1.1. The EIS is being prepared pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as implemented by the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and the DOE NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021), effective May 26, 1992. The State's proposal for the four-phase HGP consists of (1) exploration and testing of the geothermal resource beneath the slopes of the active Kilauea volcano on the Island of Hawaii (Big Island), (2) demonstration of deep-water power cable technology in the Alenuihaha Channel between the Big Island and Mau, (3) verification and characterization of the geothermal resource on the Big Island, and (4) construction and operation of commercial geothermal power production facilities on the Big Island, with overland and submarine transmission of electricity from the Big Island to Oahu and possibly other islands. DOE prepared appropriate NEPA documentation for separate federal actions related to Phase 1 and 2 research projects, which have been completed. This EIS will consider Phases 3 and 4, as well as reasonable alternatives to the HGP. Such alternatives include biomass coal, solar photovoltaic, wind energy, and construction and operation of commercial geothermal power production facilities on the Island of Hawaii (for exclusive use on the Big Island). In addition, the EIs will consider the reasonable alternatives among submarine cable technologies, geothermal extraction, production, and power generating technologies; pollution control technologies; overland and submarine power transmission routes; sites reasonably suited to

  11. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  12. Renewability of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, Michael; Yeh, Angus [Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Mannington, Warren [Contact Energy Limited, Taupo (New Zealand)

    2010-12-15

    In almost all geothermal projects worldwide, the rate of extraction of heat energy exceeds the pre-exploitation rate of heat flow from depth. For example, current production of geothermal heat from the Wairakei-Tauhara system exceeds the natural recharge of heat by a factor of 4.75. Thus, the current rate of heat extraction from Wairakei-Tauhara is not sustainable on a continuous basis, and the same statement applies to most other geothermal projects. Nevertheless, geothermal energy resources are renewable in the long-term because they would fully recover to their pre-exploitation state after an extended shut-down period. The present paper considers the general issue of the renewability of geothermal resources and uses computer modeling to investigate the renewability of the Wairakei-Tauhara system. In particular, modeling is used to simulate the recovery of Wairakei-Tauhara after it is shut down in 2053 after a hundred years of production. (author)

  13. FY 1974 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Feasibility study on techniques for measurement of conditions within geothermal wells; 1974 nendo chinetsu koseinai sokutei gijutsu ni kansuru feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report covers the principles and methods of various bed-detecting techniques and their application, to begin with, current status of these techniques, results of feasibility studies on system data processing, well mouth analyzing systems, how to develop techniques for detecting geothermal beds, bed-detecting systems and environment-simulating devices, and finally conclusions, for the subject research and development project. The detecting techniques used for the geothermal area include those based on electrical properties, temperature, pressure and flow rate, analysis of core and fluids collected by analyzing systems at the well mouths, and detection of H{sub 2}S gas. Evaluation of geothermal reservoirs needs the data of absolute temperature of the geothermal sources, quantities of vapors spouting out of the wells, depth of boiling planes and pressure; and other basic data, e.g., void volumes of broad sense, quantitative evaluation results of cracks, shapes of naked well walls, expansion of reservoirs relative to bed, and effective bed thickness, which are determined by bed-detecting techniques for physical properties. It is necessary to develop the bed-detection systems adequately covering bed-detection items, detection of production beds for geothermal measurement, other bed-detection systems, and heat-resistant wire line cables and other cables serviceable at high temperature, as the essential items for obtaining the above data. (NEDO)

  14. Geothermal country update of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higo, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of geothermal energy in Japan. Topics covered include: present and planned production of electricity, present utilization of geothermal energy for direct heat, information about geothermal localities, and wells drilled for electrical utilization of geothermal resources to January 1, 1990

  15. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  16. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  17. Geothermal energy of Slovakia - CO2 emissions reduction contribution potential (background study for conservative and non-conservative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Fričovský

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Total geothermal energy potential is estimated for 209 714 TJ per year or 6 650 MWth. Natural conditions define a use of thermalwaters for heat generation only. Accepting proportion of real achievable output of geothermal projects in the non-conservative scenarioat a rate of 1 861 MWth or 13 440 TJ per year, yearly carbon dioxide savings are up to reach 0,357 MtCO2.yr-1 or 12,5 of cumulativeMtCO2 in 35 years. By a contrast, introduction of conservative approach points to increase in a geothermal heat production from 145 to243 TJ per period or 6 944 TJ of cumulative 35 years production, with a real outcome of 0,45 MtCO2 cumulative carbon dioxidesavings, corresponding to yearly real savings from 9,4 .10-3 to 15,8 .10-3 MtCO2.

  18. Low-enthalpy geothermal resources for electricity production: A demand-side management study for intelligent communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George A.; Nanaki, Evanthia A.; Koroneos, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The geological conditions in Greece contributed to the creation of important low-enthalpy geothermal energy resources (LEGERs). The resources are divided into low, medium and high enthalpy, or temperature, based on criteria that are generally based on the energy content of the fluid. LEGERs...... and northern part of the country, as well as in many of the Aegean Islands. The aim of this work is to review the options for managing wind load by using low-enthalpy geothermal energy for electricity (through heat pump utilisation) according to the local energy demand....... are those sources of the hot water whose temperature is between 25 and 100°C, which are used for heating residences and in the agricultural or industrial sector. The investigation for the exploitation of low-enthalpy geothermal fluids, which began around 1980, intensified in the last two decades. The low...

  19. Geothermal Injection Monitoring in Klamath Falls, OR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culver, G

    1990-01-01

    Klamath Falls has nearly a 150-year history of geothermal utilization. The geothermal aquifer has been the subject of many studies and is probably the most tested direct use reservoir in the world. This provides good background data for increased monitoring needed as new injection wells are drilled. Prior to July 1990, few injection wells existed. A city ordinance requires injection after July 1990. The city and major injectors have initiated a monitoring system.

  20. Low-enthalpy geothermal resources for electricity production: A demand-side management study for intelligent communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xydis, George A.; Nanaki, Evanthia A.; Koroneos, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The geological conditions in Greece contributed to the creation of important low-enthalpy geothermal energy resources (LEGERs). The resources are divided into low, medium and high enthalpy, or temperature, based on criteria that are generally based on the energy content of the fluid. LEGERs are those sources of the hot water whose temperature is between 25 and 100 °C, which are used for heating residences and in the agricultural or industrial sector. The investigation for the exploitation of low-enthalpy geothermal fluids, which began around 1980, intensified in the last two decades. The low-enthalpy geothermal potential in Greece is rather significant as most of the geothermal fields have been found in regions with favourable developmental conditions, and it seems that they do not present serious environmental or technical exploitation problems. LEGER areas are abundant in Greece, mainly in the eastern and northern part of the country, as well as in many of the Aegean Islands. The aim of this work is to review the options for managing wind load by using low-enthalpy geothermal energy for electricity (through heat pump utilisation) according to the local energy demand. -- Highlights: •Approximately 45.43 GWh per year of electricity can be covered from low-enthalpy geothermal energy resources (LEGERs). •In particular, 10% of the electricity demand can be covered from the LEGER N. Kessani (NK). •The needs for LEGER contribution were increased when wind turbine (WT) production was low. •In winter, where there is abundance of wind, LEGER can be used mostly for heating. •During summer, LEGER can assist more in electricity when heating is not needed

  1. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  2. State of knowledge on potential risks, impacts and disturbances related to deep geothermal energy - Study report 10/07/2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, Philippe; Lahaie, Franz; Cherkaoui, Auxane; Farret, Regis; Franck, Christian; Bigarre, Pascal; Pokryszka, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Deep geothermal is a renewable and non-intermittent source of energy that can contribute to the world transition for a less carbon-intensive and greenhouse gas-emitting energy mix. Only a small part of the worldwide geothermal potential has been exploited so far and many countries, including France, are aiming for a fast growing of this industry in the next decades. Like most industrial activities, deep geothermal energy shows potential local inconveniences and possible risks for the safety of persons and of the environment. Preventing and managing those risks is of utmost importance to ensure that deep geothermal development is fully compatible with the needs and expectations of citizens, especially those of neighboring inhabitants. Indeed, in the past years, concerns have been raised by local populations regarding the development of some deep geothermal projects, especially in the field of high temperature geothermal, based on the risks related to this industry. This report is intended as a scientific and objective contribution to this matter. It aims to present, in a factual and documented way, the state of knowledge on the risks, impacts and potential inconveniences associated with deep geothermal energy. In addition to the scientific literature, it is based on lessons from incidents or accidents in this field of activity. It also makes use of INERIS expertise in the field of risks related to other sectors of activity dealing with underground operations and geo-resources, especially oil wells drilling, to provide a distanced view of deep geothermal technologies. Main lessons learned from this work are provided in the synthesis chapter ending the document. It includes a global and comparative analysis of the risks, impacts or potential inconveniences identified in this sector. Considering the large amount of published works related to this field of this industry both in the research and engineering areas, the authors do not claim to be exhaustive. They tried to

  3. Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyczkowski, Brenda; Vandenhouten, Christine; Reilly, Janet; Bansal, Gaurav; Kubsch, Sylvia M; Jakkola, Raelynn

    2015-01-01

    Less than 12.5% of nurses aspire to leadership roles, noting lack of support and stress as major factors in their decision not to pursue this area of practice. Psychological resiliency, described as the ability to properly adapt to stress and adversity, is key to successful nurse managers. Emotional intelligence (EI) is a related concept to resiliency and is another noteworthy predictor of leadership and management success. This study was undertaken to determine the level of and relationship between EI and leadership style of nurse managers employed in Wisconsin and Illinois facilities. A descriptive, exploratory study design was utilized, with a convenience sample of nurse managers working in 6 large Midwestern health systems. Nurse managers were invited to participate in the study by their employer, completing the online consent form and the demographic, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2.0) surveys. Statistically significant positive relationships were noted between EI and transformational leadership and the outcomes of leadership (extra effort, effectiveness, and satisfaction). No statistically significant relationships were noted between EI and transactional or laissez-faire leadership styles.

  4. Deep Seawater Intrusion Enhanced by Geothermal Through Deep Faults in Xinzhou Geothermal Field in Guangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G.; Ou, H.; Hu, B. X.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates abnormal sea water intrusion from deep depth, riding an inland-ward deep groundwater flow, which is enhanced by deep faults and geothermal processes. The study site Xinzhou geothermal field is 20 km from the coast line. It is in southern China's Guangdong coast, a part of China's long coastal geothermal belt. The geothermal water is salty, having fueled an speculation that it was ancient sea water retained. However, the perpetual "pumping" of the self-flowing outflow of geothermal waters might alter the deep underground flow to favor large-scale or long distant sea water intrusion. We studied geochemical characteristics of the geothermal water and found it as a mixture of the sea water with rain water or pore water, with no indication of dilution involved. And we conducted numerical studies of the buoyancy-driven geothermal flow in the deep ground and find that deep down in thousand meters there is favorable hydraulic gradient favoring inland-ward groundwater flow, allowing seawater intrude inland for an unusually long tens of kilometers in a granitic groundwater flow system. This work formed the first in understanding geo-environment for deep ground water flow.

  5. Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanloz, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); Stone, H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); et al.

    2013-12-31

    DOE, through the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, requested this study, identifying a focus on: i) assessment of technologies and approaches for subsurface imaging and characterization so as to be able to validate EGS opportunities, and ii) assessment of approaches toward creating sites for EGS, including science and engineering to enhance permeability and increase the recovery factor. Two days of briefings provided in-depth discussion of a wide range of themes and challenges in EGS, and represented perspectives from industry, government laboratories and university researchers. JASON also contacted colleagues from universities, government labs and industry in further conversations to learn the state of the field and potential technologies relevant to EGS.

  6. Kui õppimine ei edene / Tiia Lister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lister, Tiia

    2006-01-01

    Soome Instituudis toimus 27. veebruaril õppepäev "Kui õppimine ei edene", et tutvustada, kuidas Soomes on nii riiklikul kui ka koolisisesel tasandil liigutud õpilasele kõige sobivama ja kasulikuma abistamisvormi otsingul

  7. FY 1994 Report on the feasibility study results of the geothermal exploitation technologies for the international joint demonstration research; 1994 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu no kaigai kyodo jissho kenkyu kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 1994 results of the feasibility study of the geothermal exploitation technologies for the international joint demonstration research with Indonesia. The survey methods are considered for the areas difficult to access by land transportation means (e.g., tropical rain forests) to promote development of geothermal resources in remote areas (small- to medium-scale geothermal power generation plans). The satellite and air remote sensing are used for the wide-area survey. The data obtained by the satellite are analyzed using the JERS-1 data, and then surveyed in detail by the air remote sensing for the selected areas to find, e.g., abnormal ground temperature regions, faults, volcanoes, geothermally altered regions and landslide regions. They are surveyed in more detail by the air electromagnetic and magnetic exploitation methods. Although they have high resolution, their application tends to be hindered by hot and humid climates in the prospective exploitation areas. The GEMS-aided resources analysis is used to establish the geothermal models, to help extract the promising areas. These techniques are basically common, but it is necessary to take into consideration, e.g., the environments and regional characteristics of these areas when they are actually used. Diversification of fossil fuel supply sources is advantageous for Japan, and her energy security will be improved by supporting geothermal resources development promotion in the supply sources. (NEDO)

  8. Trace element hydrochemistry indicating water contamination in and around the Yangbajing geothermal field, Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Wang, Yanxin

    2009-10-01

    Thirty-eight water samples were collected at Yangbajing to investigate the water contamination resulting from natural geothermal water discharge and anthropogenic geothermal wastewater drainage. The results indicate that snow or snow melting waters, Yangbajing River waters and cold groundwaters are free from geothermal water-related contamination, whereas Zangbo river waters are contaminated by geothermal wastewaters. Moreover, there may exist geothermal springs under the riverbed of a tributary stream of Zangbo River as shown by its Cd, Li, Mo and Pb concentrations. The efforts made in this study show trace element hydrochemistry can well indicate water quality degradation related to geothermal water exploitation.

  9. Geothermal energy in Montana: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    A short description of the state's geothermal characteristics, economy, and climate is presented. A listing of the majority of the known hot springs is included. A discussion of present and projected demand is included. The results of the site specific studies are addressed within the state energy picture. Possible uses and process requirements of geothermal resources are discussed. The factors which influence geothermal development were researched and presented according to relative importance. (MHR)

  10. Nevada low-temperaure geothermal resource assessment: 1994. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garside, L.J.

    1994-12-31

    Data compilation for the low-temperature program is being done by State Teams in two western states. Final products of the study include: a geothermal database, in hardcopy and as digital data (diskette) listing information on all known low- and moderate- temperature springs and wells in Nevada; a 1:1,000,000-scale map displaying these geothermal localities, and a bibliography of references on Nevada geothermal resources.

  11. Lithium Isotopes in Geothermal Fluids from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Asmundsson, R.; Sanjuan, B.

    2008-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the HITI project (HIgh Temperature Instruments for supercritical geothermal reservoir characterization and exploitation), partially funded by the European Union, is to develop methods to characterize the reservoir and fluids of deep and very high temperature geothermal systems. The chemical composition of geothermal waters in terms of major and trace elements is related to the temperature, the degree of water/rock interaction and the mineralogical assemblage of the bedrock. Traditional geothermometers, such as silica, Na-K, Na-K-Ca or K-Mg applied to geothermal waters, make it possible to estimate the temperature at depth of the reservoir from which the waters are derived. However, the values estimated for deep temperature are not always concordant. The chemical geothermometer Na/Li which presents the singularity of associating two chemical elements, one a major element (sodium) and the other a trace element (Li), can be also used and gives an additional temperature estimation. The primary objective of this work was to better understand the behavior of this last geothermometer using the isotopic systematics of Li in order to apply it at very high temperature Icelandic geothermal systems. One particularly important aspect was to establish the nature, extent and mechanism of Li isotope fractionation between 100 and 350°C during water/rock interaction. For that purpose, we measured Li isotopes of about 25 geothermal waters from Iceland by using a Neptune MC-ICP-MS that enabled the analysis of Li isotopic ratios in geothermal waters with a level of precision of ±0.5‰ (2 standard deviations) on quantities of 10-50 ng of Li. Geothermal waters from Reykjanes, Svartsengi, Nesjavellir, Hveragerdi, Namafjall and Krafla geothermal systems were studied and particular emphasis was placed on the characterization of the behavior of Li isotopes in this volcanic context at high temperature with or without the presence of seawater during water

  12. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements Project and Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project. Draft EIR/EIS, Volume 2 of 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (SERWTP) Facilities Improvement Plan and Geysers Effluent Pipeline and Effluent Injection Project are proposed as a plan to provide expanded wastewater treatment capabilities and to dispose of the effluent by injection in The Geysers geothermal field for purposes of power production. The project is located predominantly in the County of Lake, California, and also in part of Sonoma County. The plan includes various conventional facilities improvements in wastewater treatment to a secondary level of treatment at the SWERWTP. The plan includes facilities to convey the treated effluent in a 26-mile, 24-inch inside diameter pipeline to the Southeast Geysers. The wastewater from the SERWTP would be supplemented by raw lake water diverted from nearby Clear Lake. At The Geysers, the effluent would be directed into a system of distribution lines to wells. In the geothermal reservoir, the water will be converted to steam and collected in production wells that will direct the steam to six existing power plants. This document is a summary of a combined full Environmental Impact Report (EIR) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The EIR/EIS describes the environmental impacts of the various components of the project. Mitigation measures are suggested for reducing impacts to a less than significant level. This report contains appendices A and B. Appendix A contains notices of preparation/notices of intent and EIR/EIS scoping comments. Appendix B contains GeothermEx, Inc., analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Effects and Induced Seismicity

  14. Geothermal studies of the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland: Vertical variation in heat flow and palaeoclimatic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kukkonen, I. T.; Rath, V.; Kivekäs, L.; Šafanda, Jan; Čermák, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 188, č. 1-2 (2011), s. 9-25 ISSN 0031-9201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : heat flow * geothermal gradient * thermal conductivity * paleoclimatology * Fennoscandian Shield Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.319, year: 2011

  15. Global geothermal energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.; Singh, A.; Pandey, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    To resolve the energy crisis efforts have been made in exploring and utilizing nonconventional energy resources since last few decades. Geothermal energy is one such energy resource. Fossil fuels are the earth's energy capital like money deposited in bank years ago. The energy to build this energy came mainly from the sun. Steam geysers and hot water springs are other manifestations of geothermal energy. Most of the 17 countries that today harness geothermal energy have simply tapped such resources where they occur. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Geothermal survey handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this handbook is to publicize widely the nature of geothermal surveys. It covers geothermal survey planning and measurement as well as measurement of thermal conductivity. Methods for the detection of eruptive areas, the measurement of radiative heat using snowfall, the measurement of surface temperature using infrared radiation and the measurement of thermal flow are described. The book also contains information on physical detection of geothermal reservoirs, the measurement of spring wells, thermographic measurement of surface heat, irregular layer surveying, air thermographics and aerial photography. Isotope measurement techniques are included.

  17. Worldwide installed geothermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, P.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide electric energy production data are easy to compile, according to the informations given by individual countries. On the contrary, thermal applications of geothermics are difficult to quantify due to the variety of applications and the number of countries concerned. Exhaustive informations sometimes cannot be obtained from huge countries (China, Russia..) because of data centralization problems or not exploitable data transmission. Therefore, installed power data for geothermal heat production are given for 26 countries over the 57 that have answered the International Geothermal Association questionnaire. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 1 photo

  18. Geothermal electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal conversion, as discussed here, is the conversion of the heat bound within the topmost three kilometres of the upper crust of the earth into useful energy, principally electricity. The characteristics of a geothermal reservoir and its individual technical features are highly site-specific. Applications therefore must be designed to match the specific geothermal reservoir. An estimate of the electric energy potential world-wide made by the Electric Power Research Institute (United States) in 1978 and based on sustaining a continuous 30-year operation is given in the box at the right for comparison purposes only. 8 refs, 5 figs

  19. Navy Geothermal Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    Domestic geothermal resources with the potential for decreasing fossil fuel use and energy cost exist at a significant number of Navy facilities. The Geothermal Plan is part of the Navy Energy R and D Program that will evaluate Navy sites and provide a technical, economic, and environmental base for subsequent resource use. One purpose of the program will be to provide for the transition of R and D funded exploratory efforts into the resource development phase. Individual Navy geothermal site projects are described as well as the organizational structure and Navy decision network. 2 figs.

  20. Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-15

    Mexican Institute de Investigaciones de la Industria Electrica is actively participating. The program is itself a part of a natural resources study in...brtlan de Los Hervores geothermax area. Michoacan. Mexico. IN: ibid., v. 2, pt. 1, 381-398. 215. Mercado , S. Hißh activ.dy...indiciated that in the volcanic environment of the Taupo graben the most useful technique is de -resistivity profiling using linear arrays. 58

  1. Geothermal Heat Pump Benchmarking Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-01-17

    A benchmarking study was conducted on behalf of the Department of Energy to determine the critical factors in successful utility geothermal heat pump programs. A Successful program is one that has achieved significant market penetration. Successfully marketing geothermal heat pumps has presented some major challenges to the utility industry. However, select utilities have developed programs that generate significant GHP sales. This benchmarking study concludes that there are three factors critical to the success of utility GHP marking programs: (1) Top management marketing commitment; (2) An understanding of the fundamentals of marketing and business development; and (3) An aggressive competitive posture. To generate significant GHP sales, competitive market forces must by used. However, because utilities have functioned only in a regulated arena, these companies and their leaders are unschooled in competitive business practices. Therefore, a lack of experience coupled with an intrinsically non-competitive culture yields an industry environment that impedes the generation of significant GHP sales in many, but not all, utilities.

  2. Economic and financial aspects of geothermal energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazo, F.M.; Datuin, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the historical development of geothermal energy in the Philippines, its present status and future possibilities. It also illustrates the average power generation and utilization from primary energy sources (hydro, oil, coal, and geothermal energy) in the country from 1981 to 1988. A comparison is made between electricity generating costs and results of operations from these power sources, showing that geothermal energy utilization is very competitive. Moreover, it also discusses the economic viability of geothermal energy utilization as a result of separate studies conducted by World Bank and an Italian energy consulting firm

  3. Annotated geothermal bibliography of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budding, K.E.; Bugden, M.H. (comps.)

    1986-01-01

    The bibliography includes all the Utah geothermal references through 1984. Some 1985 citations are listed. Geological, geophysical, and tectonic maps and reports are included if they cover a high-temperature thermal area. The references are indexed geographically either under (1) United States (national studies), (2) regional - western United States or physiographic province, (3) Utah - statewide and regional, or (4) county. Reports concerning a particular hot spring or thermal area are listed under both the thermal area and the county names.

  4. Aqueous systems and geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Significant unpublished results reported include: osmotic coefficients of KCl solutions vs. molality at 109 to 201 0 C; cadmium ion diffusivities in CaCl 2 hydrous melts; a x-ray diffraction study of the uranyl complex in water; solubility of amorphous silica in aqueous NaNO 3 solutions at 100 to 300 0 C; and corrosion of carbon steel by geothermal brine

  5. The USGS national geothermal resource assessment: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Reed, M.J.; Galanis, S.P.; DeAngelo, J.

    2007-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program and other geothermal organizations on a three-year effort to produce an updated assessment of available geothermal resources. The new assessment will introduce significant changes in the models for geothermal energy recovery factors, estimates of reservoir volumes, and limits to temperatures and depths for electric power production. It will also include the potential impact of evolving Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology. An important focus in the assessment project is on the development of geothermal resource models consistent with the production histories and observed characteristics of exploited geothermal fields. New models for the recovery of heat from heterogeneous, fractured reservoirs provide a physically realistic basis for evaluating the production potential of both natural geothermal reservoirs and reservoirs that may be created through the application of EGS technology. Project investigators have also made substantial progress studying geothermal systems and the factors responsible for their formation through studies in the Great Basin-Modoc Plateau region, Coso, Long Valley, the Imperial Valley and central Alaska, Project personnel are also entering the supporting data and resulting analyses into geospatial databases that will be produced as part of the resource assessment.

  6. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  7. Effective geothermal heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelsen, Atle

    2006-01-01

    Scandinavia's currently largest geothermal heating project: the New Ahus hospital, is briefly presented. 300-400 wells on a field outside the hospital are constructed to store energy for both heating and cooling purposes

  8. Geothermics in Aquitaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The geothermal exploitation of the Aquitanian Basin (S W France) started 15 years ago and has extended today to 12 different places. Three main aquifers of different depth are exploited in Bordeaux region: the old alluvial deposits of Garonne river (20-30 m), the Middle Eocene aquifer (300-400 m), and the Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer (900-1100 m) which is the deepest and most exploited for geothermal purposes. The drinkable quality of the water and the use of single-well technique are important factors that reduce the operating costs. Geothermics remains competitive with other energy sources due to the long-term stability of geothermal energy costs. (J.S.). 2 figs., 1 tab., 5 photos

  9. Renewable Energy Essentials: Geothermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Geothermal energy is energy available as heat contained in or discharged from the earth's crust that can be used for generating electricity and providing direct heat for numerous applications such as: space and district heating; water heating; aquaculture; horticulture; and industrial processes. In addition, the use of energy extracted from the constant temperatures of the earth at shallow depth by means of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) is also generally referred to as geothermal energy.

  10. Geothermal environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armannsson, H.; Kristmannsdottir, H.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal utilization can cause surface disturbances, physical effects due to fluid withdrawal noise, thermal effects and emission of chemicals as well as affect the communities concerned socially and economically. The environmental impact can be minimized by multiple use of the energy source and the reinjection of spent fluids. The emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuels as an industrial energy source wherever possible

  11. A complementary geothermal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedard, R.

    1998-01-01

    A geothermal project for air conditioning and heating at four health centres in Quebec was presented. The four health centres are: le centre Dominique-Tremblay, le centre Cardinal-Villeneuve, le centre Louis-Hebert, et le centre Francois-Charon. The investment made to install the geothermal heating and cooling system, the cost of operating the system, and energy savings resulting from the investment were discussed

  12. Geological model of supercritical geothermal reservoir related to subduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2017-04-01

    C under lithostatic pressures, and then pressures dropped drastically. The solubility of silica also dropped, resulting in formation of quartz veins under a hydrostatic pressure regime. Connections between the lithostatic and hydrostatic pressure regimes were key to the formation of the hydrothermal breccia veins, and the granite-porphyry system provides useful information for creation of fracture clouds in supercritical geothermal reservoirs. A granite-porphyry system, associated with hydrothermal activity and mineralization, provides a suitable natural analog for studying a deep-seated geothermal reservoir where stockwork fracture systems are created in the presence of supercritical geothermal fluids. I describe fracture networks and their formation mechanisms using petrology and fluid inclusion studies in order to understand this "beyond brittle" supercritical geothermal reservoir, and a geological model for "Beyond Brittle" and "Supercritical" geothermal reservoir in the subduction zone were was revealed.

  13. Structural investigations of Great Basin geothermal fields: Applications and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nicholas H. [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark F [Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Because fractures and faults are commonly the primary pathway for deeply circulating hydrothermal fluids, structural studies are critical to assessing geothermal systems and selecting drilling targets for geothermal wells. Important tools for structural analysis include detailed geologic mapping, kinematic analysis of faults, and estimations of stress orientations. Structural assessments are especially useful for evaluating geothermal fields in the Great Basin of the western USA, where regional extension and transtension combine with high heat flow to generate abundant geothermal activity in regions having little recent volcanic activity. The northwestern Great Basin is one of the most geothermally active areas in the USA. The prolific geothermal activity is probably due to enhanced dilation on N- to NNE-striking normal faults induced by a transfer of NW-directed dextral shear from the Walker Lane to NW-directed extension. Analysis of several geothermal fields suggests that most systems occupy discrete steps in normal fault zones or lie in belts of intersecting, overlapping, and/or terminating faults. Most fields are associated with steeply dipping faults and, in many cases, with Quaternary faults. The structural settings favoring geothermal activity are characterized by subvertical conduits of highly fractured rock along fault zones oriented approximately perpendicular to the WNW-trending least principal stress. Features indicative of these settings that may be helpful in guiding exploration for geothermal resources include major steps in normal faults, interbasinal highs, groups of relatively low discontinuous ridges, and lateral jogs or terminations of mountain ranges.

  14. Geothermal System Extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnerson, Jon [Boise City Corporation, ID (United States); Pardy, James J. [Boise City Corporation, ID (United States)

    2017-09-30

    This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0000318. The City of Boise operates and maintains the nation’s largest geothermal heating district. Today, 91 buildings are connected, providing space heating to over 5.5 million square feet, domestic water heating, laundry and pool heating, sidewalk snowmelt and other related uses. Approximately 300 million gallons of 177°F geothermal water is pumped annually to buildings and institutions located in downtown Boise. The closed loop system returns all used geothermal water back into the aquifer after heat has been removed via an Injection Well. Water injected back into the aquifer has an average temperature of 115°F. This project expanded the Boise Geothermal Heating District (Geothermal System) to bring geothermal energy to the campus of Boise State University and to the Central Addition Eco-District. In addition, this project also improved the overall system’s reliability and increased the hydraulic capacity.

  15. Analysis of how changed federal regulations and economic incentives affect financing of geothermal projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, D.; Wiseman, E.; Bennett, V.

    1980-11-04

    The effects of various financial incentives on potential developers of geothermal electric energy are studied and the impact of timing of plant construction costs on geothermal electricity costs is assessed. The effect of the geothermal loan guarantee program on decisions by investor-owned utilities to build geothermal electric power plants was examined. The usefulness of additional investment tax credits was studied as a method for encouraging utilities to invest in geothermal energy. The independent firms which specialize in geothermal resource development are described. The role of municipal and cooperative utilities in geothermal resource development was assessed in detail. Busbar capital costs were calculated for geothermal energy under a variety of ownerships with several assumptions about financial incentives. (MHR)

  16. Geothermal Program Review XI: proceedings. Geothermal Energy - The Environmental Responsible Energy Technology for the Nineties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    These proceedings contain papers pertaining to current research and development of geothermal energy in the USA. The seven sections of the document are: Overview, The Geysers, Exploration and Reservoir Characterization, Drilling, Energy Conversion, Advanced Systems, and Potpourri. The Overview presents current DOE energy policy and industry perspectives. Reservoir studies, injection, and seismic monitoring are reported for the geysers geothermal field. Aspects of geology, geochemistry and models of geothermal exploration are described. The Drilling section contains information on lost circulation, memory logging tools, and slim-hole drilling. Topics considered in energy conversion are efforts at NREL, condensation on turbines and geothermal materials. Advanced Systems include hot dry rock studies and Fenton Hill flow testing. The Potpourri section concludes the proceedings with reports on low-temperature resources, market analysis, brines, waste treatment biotechnology, and Bonneville Power Administration activities. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. The transformative potential of geothermal heating in the U.S. energy market: A regional study of New York and Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reber, Timothy J.; Beckers, Koenraad F.; Tester, Jefferson W.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) could supply a significant fraction of the low-temperature (<125 °C) thermal energy used in the United States through Geothermal District Heating (GDH). In this study we develop a regional model to evaluate the potential for EGS district heating in the states of New York and Pennsylvania by simulating an EGS district heating network at each population center within the study region and estimating the levelized cost of heat (LCOH) from GDH for each community. LCOHs were then compiled into a supply curve from which several conclusions could be drawn. Our evaluation revealed that EGS district heating has the potential to supply cost-effective energy for space and water heating in several New York and Pennsylvania communities in the near future. To realize wider deployment, modest improvements in EGS technology, escalation of natural gas prices, and/or government incentives will likely be required to enable GDH to compete with other heating alternatives today. EGS reservoir flow rates, drilling costs, system lifetimes, and fluid return temperatures have significant effects on the LCOH of GDH and thus will provide the highest return on R and D investment, while creative implementation strategies can help EGS district heating overcome initial cost barriers that exist today. - Highlights: • EGS district heating potential evaluated for 2894 towns in New York and Pennsylvania. • Supply curves developed using estimated levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for each town. • Geothermal district heating has cost-saving potential in NY, PA and the US. • Initial candidate communities, R and D targets, and deployment strategies identified

  18. Exploration and comparison of geothermal areas in Indonesia by fluid-rock geochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deon, F.; Barnhoorn, A.; Lievens, C.; Saptadij, N.; Sutopo, S.; van der Meer, F; den Hartog, T.; Brehmer, M; Bruhn, D.F.; de Jong, M; Ryannugroho, R.; Hutami, R.; Sule, R.; Hecker, C.; Bonté, D

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia with its large, but partially unexplored geothermal potential is one of the most interesting and suitable places in the world to conduct geothermal exploration research.
    This study focuses on geothermal exploration based on fluid-rock geochemistry/geomechanics and aims to compile an

  19. Utilising geothermal energy in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Geothermal energy is generated from the radioactive decay of naturally occurring isotopes and about 20% is generated from primordial heat associated with the formation of the earth. Geothermal project reduce energy and water cost and reduces greenhouse gas emissions

  20. The economics of Plowshare geothermal power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, J B; Stewart, D H [Battelle-Northwest (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Geothermal energy is not a new concept. Naturally occurring hot water has been used for centuries in Iceland for heating purposes. About 20% of Klamath Falls, Oregon is today heated by hot water from geothermal wells. The generation of electricity is a relatively new use for geothermal energy which has developed over the last half century. There are plants in operation in Italy, New Zealand and the U. S.; these have a total capacity of more than 700 MWe. Geothermal generation is being explored and developed today in Japan, USSR, Mexico, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala. Whenever a favorable combination of recent magmatic intrusion and favorable groundwater conditions occurs to create the necessary steam conditions it is usually economic to build a generating plant. With fuel essentially free the plants are usually economically competitive even in small sizes. Naturally occurring geothermal steam sites are rather limited. Witness to this statement can be found in the small number of plants (less than a dozen) in operation or under construction. On the other hand, geothermal anomalies are prevalent in every one of the world's continents. The possible coupling of Plowshare with geothermal power tp produce electricity is based on the idea to use rock crushing power of nuclear device to produce large cavity filled with broken rock from which the sensible heat can be removed. This paper is based on preliminary analysis of the concept. It is recognized that a more in-depth feasibility study is required before firm conclusions can be drawn. Also, a demonstration experiment is required to prove the concept in practical application.

  1. The economics of Plowshare geothermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, J.B.; Stewart, D.H.

    1970-01-01

    Geothermal energy is not a new concept. Naturally occurring hot water has been used for centuries in Iceland for heating purposes. About 20% of Klamath Falls, Oregon is today heated by hot water from geothermal wells. The generation of electricity is a relatively new use for geothermal energy which has developed over the last half century. There are plants in operation in Italy, New Zealand and the U. S.; these have a total capacity of more than 700 MWe. Geothermal generation is being explored and developed today in Japan, USSR, Mexico, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala. Whenever a favorable combination of recent magmatic intrusion and favorable groundwater conditions occurs to create the necessary steam conditions it is usually economic to build a generating plant. With fuel essentially free the plants are usually economically competitive even in small sizes. Naturally occurring geothermal steam sites are rather limited. Witness to this statement can be found in the small number of plants (less than a dozen) in operation or under construction. On the other hand, geothermal anomalies are prevalent in every one of the world's continents. The possible coupling of Plowshare with geothermal power tp produce electricity is based on the idea to use rock crushing power of nuclear device to produce large cavity filled with broken rock from which the sensible heat can be removed. This paper is based on preliminary analysis of the concept. It is recognized that a more in-depth feasibility study is required before firm conclusions can be drawn. Also, a demonstration experiment is required to prove the concept in practical application

  2. The use of novel DNA nanotracers to determine groundwater flow paths - a test study at the Grimsel Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG) Laboratory in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittilä, Anniina; Evans, Keith; Puddu, Michela; Mikutis, Gediminas; Grass, Robert N.; Deuber, Claudia; Saar, Martin O.

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater flow in fractured media is heterogeneous and takes place in structures with complex geometry and scale effects, which make the characterization and modeling of the groundwater flow technically challenging. Surface geophysical surveys have limited resolution of permeable structures, and often provide ambiguous results, whereas the interpretation of borehole flow logs to infer hydraulic flow paths within fractured reservoirs is usually non-unique. Nonetheless, knowledge of the hydraulic properties of individual fractures and the role they play in determining the larger-scale flow within the fracture network (i.e. the overall flow conditions) is required in many hydrogeological and geo-engineering situations, such as in geothermal reservoir studies. Tracer tests can overcome some of the aforementioned limitations by providing strong constraints on the geometry and characteristics of flow paths linking boreholes within both porous media and fracture-dominated types of reservoirs. In the case of geothermal reservoirs, tracer tests are often used to provide estimates of the pore/fracture volume swept by flow between injection and production wells. This in turn places constraints on the swept surface area, a parameter that is key for estimating the commercial longevity of the geothermal system. A problem with conventional tracer tests is that the solute species used as the tracer tend to persist in detectable quantities within the reservoir for a long time, thereby impeding repeat tracer tests. DNA nanotracers do not suffer from this problem as they can be designed with a unique signature for each test. DNA nanotracers are environmentally friendly, sub-micron sized silica particles encapsulating small fragments of synthetic DNA which can be fabricated to have a specified, uniquely detectable configuration. For this reason, repeat tracer tests conducted with a differently-encoded DNA fragment to that used in the original will not suffer interference from the

  3. Development of concepts for the management of shallow geothermal resources in urban areas - Experience gained from the Basel and Zaragoza case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Mueller, Matthias H.; Huggenberger, Peter; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric

    2015-04-01

    In urban areas the shallow subsurface often is used as a heat resource (shallow geothermal energy), i.e. for the installation and operation of a broad variety of geothermal systems. Increasingly, groundwater is used as a low-cost heat sink, e.g. for building acclimatization. Together with other shallow geothermal exploitation systems significantly increased groundwater temperatures have been observed in many urban areas (urban heat island effect). The experience obtained from two selected case study cities in Basel (CH) and Zaragoza (ES) has allowed developing concepts and methods for the management of thermal resources in urban areas. Both case study cities already have a comprehensive monitoring network operating (hydraulics and temperature) as well as calibrated high-resolution numerical groundwater flow and heat-transport models. The existing datasets and models have allowed to compile and compare the different hydraulic and thermal boundary conditions for both groundwater bodies, including: (1) River boundaries (River Rhine and Ebro), (2) Regional hydraulic and thermal settings, (3) Interaction with the atmosphere under consideration of urbanization and (4) Anthropogenic quantitative and thermal groundwater use. The potential natural states of the considered groundwater bodies also have been investigated for different urban settings and varying processes concerning groundwater flow and thermal regimes. Moreover, concepts for the management of thermal resources in urban areas and the transferability of the applied methods to other urban areas are discussed. The methods used provide an appropriate selection of parameters (spatiotemporal resolution) that have to be measured for representative interpretations of groundwater flow and thermal regimes of specific groundwater bodies. From the experience acquired from the case studies it is shown that understanding the variable influences of the specific geological and hydrogeological as well as hydraulic and thermal

  4. Experimental-numerical study of heat flow in deep low-enthalpy geothermal conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeid, S.; Al-Khoury, R.; Nick, H.M.; Barends, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an intensive experimental-numerical study of heat flow in a saturated porous domain. A temperature and a flow rate range compared to that existing in a typical deep low-enthalpy hydrothermal system is studied. Two main issues are examined: the effect of fluid density and

  5. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  6. The Study of Geological Structures in Suli and Tulehu Geothermal Regions (Ambon, Indonesia Based on Gravity Gradient Tensor Data Simulation and Analytic Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lewerissa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In early 2017, the geothermal system in the Suli and Tulehu areas of Ambon (Indonesia was investigated using a gravity gradient tensor and analytic signal. The gravity gradient tensor and analytic signal were obtained through forward modeling based on a rectangular prism. It was applied to complete Bouguer anomaly data over the study area by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. The analysis was conducted to enhance the geological structure like faults as a pathway of geothermal fluid circulation that is not visible on the surface because it is covered by sediment. The complete Bouguer anomaly ranges of 93 mGal up to 105 mGal decrease from the southwest in Suli to the northeast in Tulehu. A high gravity anomaly indicates a strong magmatic intrusion below the Suli region. The gravity anomalies decrease occurs in the Eriwakang mountain and most of Tulehu, and it is associated with a coral limestone. The lower gravity anomalies are located in the north to the northeast part of Tulehu are associated with alluvium. The residual anomaly shows that the drill well TLU-01 and geothermal manifestations along with the Banda, and Banda-Hatuasa faults are associated with lowest gravity anomaly (negative zone. The gravity gradient tensor simulation and an analytic signal of Suli and Tulehu give more detailed information about the geological features. The gzz component allows accurate description of the shape structures, especially the Banda fault associated with a zero value. This result will be useful as a geophysical constraint to subsurface modeling according to gravity gradient inversion over the area.

  7. Experimental and numerical study of the stability of phyllosilicates in a strong thermal gradient. Test in the geothermal site of Soultz-sous-Forets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldeyrou-Bailly, A.

    2003-01-01

    Thermodynamic data of hydrated phyllosilicates, in particular clay minerals are not well known. The stability fields of these minerals are not well determined; following some authors they even do not exist. We have developed an experimental approach, in which a sequence of local equilibrium states between a fluid and minerals take place in a closed gold cell along a strong thermal gradient. The experiments were conducted in the chemical systems: Mg-Al-Si-H 2 O (MASH), K-Al-Si-H 2 O (KASH), and K-Mg-Al-Si-H 2 O (KMASH). The sequences of crystallization observed along the thermal gradient are the same if one exchanges the position of the cells containing the initial reacting materials with respect to the thermal gradient end-members. The crystallization sequences correspond to local equilibrium states. Following the temperature increase (from 200 to 350 C) one observes the following sequences: di-octahedral smectite? tri-octahedral smectite; kaolinite? donbassite? tri-octahedral chlorite; smectite? illite? muscovite; or even kaolinite? illite + smectite? donbassite; commonly observed in hydrothermal systems. They allow to develop a thermodynamic model for hydrated phyllosilicates, taking into account their hydration state as a function of temperature. This model shows the stability fields of clay minerals between 200 and 350 C.The chemical and mineralogical dynamics showed in these experimental systems has been applied to predict the possible dissolutions and/or precipitations which may take place between the circulated hot fluid and the geothermal granitic reservoir in the geothermal system at Soultz-sous-Forets. These processes may affect the duration of the geothermal reservoir, as a function of evolution in the morphology of the porosity. Our experimental approach shows that feldspars and smectites are forming the major part of the total volume of silicates which may precipitate in addition to carbonates already described in previous studies. (author)

  8. Effect of heat loss in a geothermal reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, Sayantan; Tan, Lippong; Date, Abhijit; Mohan Kumar, Mandalagiri Subbarayappa

    This paper reports a three-dimensional (3D) numerical study to determine the effect of heat loss on the transient heat transport and temperature distribution in a geothermal reservoir. The operation of a geothermal power plant, which is essentially an injection-production process, involves

  9. Use of geothermal piles combined with pile foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kuzytskyi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of use of geothermal piles in conditions of cold climate is considered. Full-scale experiment is conducted for using this technology in Kiev. Obtained results testify about a possibility for using the system in conditions of Ukraine, but this technology requires more detailed study and simulation of multiannual cycle of use of geothermal piles 

  10. GEOTHERM programme supports geothermal energy world-wide. Geothermal energy, a chance for East African countries; GEOTHERM: BGR foerdert weltweit Nutzung geothermischer Energie. Geothermie - eine Chance fuer ostafrikanische Laender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraml, M.; Kessels, K.; Kalberkamp, U.; Ochmann, N.; Stadtler, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The high geothermal potential of East Africa, especially of the Eastern Rift, is known for a long time. Since these pioneer studies, geothermal plants have been constructed at three sites in East Africa. Nevertheless, up to now geothermal has been a success story only in Kenya. The steam power plant Olkaria I in Kenya is running reliability since 25 years. Today, the country produces more than 12% of its electricity from geothermal. Now, Eritrea, Djibouti, Uganda, Tanzania and Ethiopia which are also situated along the East African Rift, are planning similar projects. The countries need to develop new energy sources because oil prices have reached a critical level. In the past, hydro power was regarded to be a reliable source of energy, but increased droughts changed the situation. Thus, the african states are searching for alternatives to be able to stabilise their energy supply and to cover the growing energy demand. There is much hope that the success of the Kenyan geothermal power plants will be repeated in the neighbouring countries. The East African countries have joined their forces to give impetus to the use of the regional geothermal resources. On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources supports the countries in realising their plans as part of the GEOTHERM Programme. Together with further donors (Iceland, France, USA, Global Environment Facility) the path will be paved for geothermal power plants in the above mentioned six East African countries. The following main steps are necessary: - Awareness raising of political decision makers about the advantages of including geothermal into the national power plans - Improvement of knowledge about potentials geothermal sites - Development of a regional equipment pool including the necessary geophysical equipment, laboratories, etc. - Training in geothermal exploration and plant maintenance, to minimise risks of site

  11. Quantifying the undiscovered geothermal resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released summary results of an assessment of the electric power production potential from the moderate- and high-temperature geothermal resources of the United States (Williams et al., 2008a; USGS Fact Sheet 2008-3082; http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3082). In the assessment, the estimated mean power production potential from undiscovered geothermal resources is 30,033 Megawatts-electric (MWe), more than three times the estimated mean potential from identified geothermal systems: 9057 MWe. The presence of significant undiscovered geothermal resources has major implications for future exploration and development activities by both the government and private industry. Previous reports summarize the results of techniques applied by the USGS and others to map the spatial distribution of undiscovered resources. This paper describes the approach applied in developing estimates of the magnitude of the undiscovered geothermal resource, as well as the manner in which that resource is likely to be distributed among geothermal systems of varying volume and temperature. A number of key issues constrain the overall estimate. One is the degree to which characteristics of the undiscovered resources correspond to those observed among identified geothermal systems. Another is the evaluation of exploration history, including both the spatial distribution of geothermal exploration activities relative to the postulated spatial distribution of undiscovered resources and the probability of successful discoveries from the application of standard geothermal exploration techniques. Also significant are the physical, chemical, and geological constraints on the formation and longevity of geothermal systems. Important observations from this study include the following. (1) Some of the largest identified geothermal systems, such as The Geysers vapor-dominated system in northern California and the diverse geothermal manifestations found in Yellowstone

  12. Current source enhancements in Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) to cancel unwanted capacitive effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarafshani, Ali; Bach, Thomas; Chatwin, Chris; Xiang, Liangzhong; Zheng, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has emerged as a non-invasive imaging modality to detect and quantify functional or electrical properties related to the suspicious tumors in cancer screening, diagnosis and prognosis assessment. A constraint on EIS systems is that the current excitation system suffers from the effects of stray capacitance having a major impact on the hardware subsystem as the EIS is an ill-posed inverse problem which depends on the noise level in EIS measured data and regularization parameter in the reconstruction algorithm. There is high complexity in the design of stable current sources, with stray capacitance reducing the output impedance and bandwidth of the system. To confront this, we have designed an EIS current source which eliminates the effect of stray capacitance and other impacts of the capacitance via a variable inductance. In this paper, we present a combination of operational CCII based on a generalized impedance converter (OCCII-GIC) with a current source. The aim of this study is to use the EIS system as a biomedical imaging technique, which is effective in the early detection of breast cancer. This article begins with the theoretical description of the EIS structure, current source topologies and proposes a current conveyor in application of a Gyrator to eliminate the current source limitations and its development followed by simulation and experimental results. We demonstrated that the new design could achieve a high output impedance over a 3MHz frequency bandwidth when compared to other types of GIC circuits combined with an improved Howland topology.

  13. "Kurgibakter" ei tulnudki importkurgiga? / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2011-01-01

    Nakkuspuhang Saksamaal ei pruugi olla põhjustatud Hispaaniast toodud kurkidest. Mitmed riigid on peatanud kurkide ja mõnede muude köögiviljade impordi Hispaaniast, Hispaania tahab nõuda Euroopa Komijonilt kompensatsiooni müümata jäänud köögiviljade eest

  14. Hispaania ei usu ETA rahupakkumisse / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Baski terrorirühmitus kutsus uut peaministrit Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapaterot dialoogile, hiljuti valimised võitnud Sotsialistlik Töölispartei teatas vastuseks, et ETA on terroristlik rühmitus ja selle avaldustele tähelepanu ei osutata. Vt. samas: Vaherahule järgnes terrorilaine

  15. Euroopa põllumehed ei taha muutusi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa põllumajandusühistuid koondava ühenduse COGECA ja Euroopa põllumeeste suurima esindusorganisatsiooni COPA seisukoht on, et praegu ei ole õige aeg võtta Euroopa põllumehelt tootmiseks ette nähtud toetust ning suunata see ümber maaelu arenguks

  16. Challenges and Possibilities of EIS on PEMEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Katrine; Kraglund, Mikkel Rykær; Hjelm, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been proven a very strong electrochemical characterization tool in electrochemical research in general and in the areas of fuel cell and battery research in particular. However, this is not the case for polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis cells...

  17. Ekskantslerit ei kollita huvide konflikt / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2010-01-01

    Kaitseministeeriumi vastuse kohaselt vaatasid sealsed audiitorid üle teadus-arendustegevususe uurimistoetuste maksmise ja seni sõlmitud lepingud ning selgus, et kahtlustused, nagu oleks kaitseministeeriumi endine kantsler Lauri Almann oma eraäri juba kantslerina ette valmistanud, ei vasta tõele. Autor vabandab Lauri Almanni ees

  18. Kes ei maga, see vaatab / Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulli, Jaanus, 1955-

    2004-01-01

    Peale mängufilmi "Täna öösel me ei maga" esilinastust Coca-Cola Plazas : režissöör Ilmar Taska : produtsent ning üks stsenariste Kristian Taska. Lisaks vastavad Signe Kivi ja Urmas Paet küsimusele "Millised on teie esmamuljed filmist?"

  19. Tallinna Ülikool ei kiida riiki

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikool teatas läbi kõneisiku, et juhtkonna otsusel ei laulda tänasel avaaktusel, kus osalevad keskerakondlased, üliõpilashümni "Gaudeamus" neljandat salmi - "Elagu vabariik ja need, kes teda juhivad"

  20. E-I 90. Proceedings. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The developments and technology trends taking place in the power industry in South Africa were examined at the E-I 90 conference. Some of the developments in local nuclear power technology were also discussed. Separate abstracts were prepared for five of the papers presented at the conference. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  1. Madal palk ei ole konkurentsieelis / Kristo Kiviorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiviorg, Kristo

    2007-01-01

    Seminaril "Peidetud väärtus: kuidas ettevõtted saavutavad tavaliste inimeste abiga erakordseid tulemusi" ettekannetega esinenud Stanfordi Ülikooli professor Jeffrey Pfeffer ning inimressursside juhtimise konsultant David Russo tõdesid, et madal palk ei taga firmadele konkurentsieelist, kuigi paljud juhid nõnda arvavad

  2. Vale, mis ei taha surra / Urmas Kiil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiil, Urmas

    2005-01-01

    Juuditar Hadassa Ben-Itto raamatu "Vale, mis ei taha surra" (The Lie That Wouldn't Die: the Protocols of the Elders of Zion) sünniloost. Autor, kes oli Iisraelis kõrge kohtunik, loobus oma karjäärist, et tuua avalikkuse ette tõde XX sajandil palju surma külvanud plagiaadist "Siioni tarkade protokollid"

  3. The experimental study of heat extraction of supercritical CO2 in the geothermal reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Cyun-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer phenomena of supercritical CO2 are experimentally investigated in a horizontal tube for improving the efficiency of CO2-EGS.This study discuss the experimental verification of the numerical simulations. The experiment is conducted for the pressure, the flow rate, and particle size 1.54mm. In addition, the experiment and simulation that the maximum heat extraction is occurred at the 9MPa pressure and mass flow rate of 0.00109 kg/s. The maximum specific heat extraction at 9MPa and flow rate of 0.00082 kg/s. The results show that the numerical model has been experimentally verified of the feasibility. Furthermore, the pseudo-critical point had a significant influence on the heat extraction, temperature difference and specific heat extraction.

  4. Minutes of the conference 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98'. Symposium on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-22

    This paper summarizes the proceedings presented at the 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98' held on October 22, 1998 in the Philippines. The Philippines, Japan, Indonesia, China, Malaysia, and Vietnam presented proceedings on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in each country. Technical theses presented relate to the following matters: a geothermal development model in the Khoy geothermal area in Iran, the result of surveys on promotion of geothermal development in Japan, the thermal fluid sources in the geothermal fluid systems in the Hachijo volcanic island in Japan, strategies for heat reservoir management by using numerical simulation in the Hacchobari geothermal area in Japan, a geological model for the north Negros geothermal area in the center of the Philippines, application of the NEDO rock core analyzing method in the Wasabizawa geothermal development area in Japan, measurements of geomagnetism, geocurrent, and gravity in the north Negros in the center of the Philippines, geophysical studies in geothermal exploration in the Mataloko area in the Nustenggara island in the eastern Indonesia, and the background of magma/crust structure in the geothermal systems. (NEDO)

  5. Minutes of the conference 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98'. Symposium on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-22

    This paper summarizes the proceedings presented at the 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98' held on October 22, 1998 in the Philippines. The Philippines, Japan, Indonesia, China, Malaysia, and Vietnam presented proceedings on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in each country. Technical theses presented relate to the following matters: a geothermal development model in the Khoy geothermal area in Iran, the result of surveys on promotion of geothermal development in Japan, the thermal fluid sources in the geothermal fluid systems in the Hachijo volcanic island in Japan, strategies for heat reservoir management by using numerical simulation in the Hacchobari geothermal area in Japan, a geological model for the north Negros geothermal area in the center of the Philippines, application of the NEDO rock core analyzing method in the Wasabizawa geothermal development area in Japan, measurements of geomagnetism, geocurrent, and gravity in the north Negros in the center of the Philippines, geophysical studies in geothermal exploration in the Mataloko area in the Nustenggara island in the eastern Indonesia, and the background of magma/crust structure in the geothermal systems. (NEDO)

  6. The Main Problems in the Development of Geothermal Energy Industry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiahong; Wang, Shejiao; Li, Feng

    2017-04-01

    As early as 1980-1985, the geothermal energy research group of the Institute of Geology and Geophisics (Chinese Academy of Sciences) has proposed to pay attention to geothermal energy resources in oil fields. PetroChina began to study the geothermal energy resources in the region of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei from 1995. Subsequently, the geothermal resources in the Huabei, Daqing and Liaohe oil regions were evaluated. The total recoverable hot water of the three oilfields reached 19.3 × 1011m3. PetroChina and Kenya have carried out geothermal energy development and utilization projects, with some relevant technical achievements.On the basis of many years' research on geothermal energy, we summarized the main problems in the formation and development of geothermal energy in China. First of all, China's geothermal resources research is still unable to meet the needs of the geothermal energy industry. Secondly, the development and utilization of geothermal energy requires multi-disciplinary cooperation. Thirdly, the development and utilization of geothermal energy needs consideration of local conditions. Finally, the development and utilization of geothermal energy resources requires the effective management of local government.

  7. Geothermal heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.; Tinti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, for several types of buildings and users, the choice of conditioning by heat pump and low enthalpy geothermal reservoir has been increasing in the Italian market. In fact, such systems are efficient in terms of energy and consumption, they can perform, even at the same time, both functions, heating and cooling and they are environmentally friendly, because they do not produce local emissions. This article will introduce the technology and will focus on critical points of a geothermal field design, from actual practice, to future perspectives for the geo exchanger improvement. Finally, the article presents a best practice case in Bologna district, with an economic analysis showing the convenience of a geothermal heat pump. Conclusions of the real benefits of these plants can be drawn: compared to a non-negligible initial cost, the investment has a pay-back period almost always acceptable, usually less than 10 years. [it

  8. Performance of deep geothermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikonda, Nikhil

    Geothermal energy is an important source of clean and renewable energy. This project deals with the study of deep geothermal power plants for the generation of electricity. The design involves the extraction of heat from the Earth and its conversion into electricity. This is performed by allowing fluid deep into the Earth where it gets heated due to the surrounding rock. The fluid gets vaporized and returns to the surface in a heat pipe. Finally, the energy of the fluid is converted into electricity using turbine or organic rankine cycle (ORC). The main feature of the system is the employment of side channels to increase the amount of thermal energy extracted. A finite difference computer model is developed to solve the heat transport equation. The numerical model was employed to evaluate the performance of the design. The major goal was to optimize the output power as a function of parameters such as thermal diffusivity of the rock, depth of the main well, number and length of lateral channels. The sustainable lifetime of the system for a target output power of 2 MW has been calculated for deep geothermal systems with drilling depths of 8000 and 10000 meters, and a financial analysis has been performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the system for a practical range of geothermal parameters. Results show promising an outlook for deep geothermal systems for practical applications.

  9. Synthesis of mordenite in geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konoya, M [Geological Survey of Hokkaido, Japan

    1970-03-01

    A study of the possible synthesis of mordenite in geothermal wells was conducted. In 1966 as part of a series of exploratory geothermal investigations, a 500 m well was drilled which had a temperature at 250 m of 120/sup 0/C. The well has constant temperature and constant pressure and has been used to study alteration. Specimens which were placed in the well were tested for mordenite. Mordenite was synthesized when Benki clay and a 10% KOH solution were placed in a Teflon tube at 250 m (120/sup 0/C and 22.3 kg/cm/sup 2/) for three months. No mordenite was synthesized when obsidian powder was used. These results indicate the possibility of synthesis of zeolite and clay minerals in geothermal wells. Two figures and four tables are provided.

  10. Geophysical considerations of geothermics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, M

    1967-01-01

    The development and utilization of geothermal energy is described from the standpoint of geophysics. The internal temperature of the Earth and the history and composition of magmas are described. Methods of exploration such as gravity, magnetic, thermal and electrical surveys are discussed, as are geochemical and infrared photogrammetric techniques. Examples are provided of how these techniques have been used in Italy and at the Matsukawa geothermal field in Japan. Drilling considerations such as muds, casings and cementing materials are discussed. Solutions are proposed for problems of environmental pollution and plant expansion.

  11. Victorian first for geothermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2014-01-01

    AGL Limited (AGL) will assist Maroondah Sports Club to save hundreds of thousands of dollars on its energy bills over the next decade by commencing work to install Victoria's first GeoAir geothermal cooling and heating system. Utilising the earth's constant temperature, the new GeoAir geothermal system provides a renewable source of energy that will save the club up to $12,000 in the first year and up to $150,000 over the next 10 years

  12. Geothermal and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The production of geothermal-electric energy, presents relatively few contamination problems. The two bigger problems associated to the geothermal production are the disposition of waste fluids and the discharges to the atmosphere of non-condensable gases as CO 2 , H 2 O and NH 3 . For both problems the procedures and production technologies exist, like it is the integral use of brines and gases cleaning systems. Other problems consist on the local impact to forest areas for the effect of the vapor discharge, the contamination for noise, the contamination of aquifer shallow and the contamination related with the construction and termination of wells

  13. Analysis of Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian

    2015-06-30

    Full realization of the potential of what might be considered “low-grade” geothermal resources will require that we examine many more uses for the heat than traditional electricity generation. To demonstrate that geothermal energy truly has the potential to be a national energy source we will be designing, assessing, and evaluating innovative uses for geothermal-produced water such as hybrid biomass-geothermal cogeneration of electricity and district heating and efficiency improvements to the use of cellulosic biomass in addition to utilization of geothermal in district heating for community redevelopment projects. The objectives of this project were: 1) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the integration and utilization potential of low-temperature geothermal sources. Innovative uses of low-enthalpy geothermal water were designed and examined for their ability to offset fossil fuels and decrease CO2 emissions. 2) To perform process optimizations and economic analyses of processes that can utilize low-temperature geothermal fluids. These processes included electricity generation using biomass and district heating systems. 3) To scale up and generalize the results of three case study locations to develop a regionalized model of the utilization of low-temperature geothermal resources. A national-level, GIS-based, low-temperature geothermal resource supply model was developed and used to develop a series of national supply curves. We performed an in-depth analysis of the low-temperature geothermal resources that dominate the eastern half of the United States. The final products of this study include 17 publications, an updated version of the cost estimation software GEOPHIRES, and direct-use supply curves for low-temperature utilization of geothermal resources. The supply curves for direct use geothermal include utilization from known hydrothermal, undiscovered hydrothermal, and near-hydrothermal EGS resources and presented these results at the Stanford

  14. A feasibility study on the expected seismic AVA signatures of deep fractured geothermal reservoirs in an intrusive basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleardi, Mattia; Mazzotti, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The deep geothermal reservoirs in the Larderello-Travale field (southern Tuscany) are found in intensively fractured portions of intrusive/metamorphic rocks. Therefore, the geothermal exploration has been in search of possible fracture signatures that could be retrieved from the analysis of geophysical data. In the present work we assess the feasibility of finding seismic markers in the pre-stack domain which may pinpoint fractured levels. Thanks to the availability of data from boreholes that ENEL GreenPower drilled in the deep intrusive basement of this geothermal field, we derived the expected amplitude versus angle (AVA) responses of the vapour reservoirs found in some intensely, but very localized, fractured volumes within the massive rocks. The information we have available limit us to build 1D elastic and isotropic models only and thus anisotropy effects related to the presence of fractures cannot be properly modelled. We analysed the velocities and the density logs pertaining to three wells which reached five deep fractured zones in the basement. The AVA response of the fractured intervals is modelled downscaling the log data to seismic scale and comparing the analytical AVA response (computed with the Aki and Richards approximation) and the AVA extracted from a synthetic common mid point (calculated making use of a reflectivity algorithm). The results show that the amplitude of the reflections from the fractured level is characterized by negative values at vertical incidence and by decreasing absolute amplitudes with the increase of the source to receiver offset. This contrasts with many observations from hydrocarbon exploration in clastic reservoirs where gas-sand reflections often exhibit negative amplitudes at short offsets but increasing absolute amplitudes for increasing source to receiver offsets. Thereby, some common AVA attributes considered in silicoclastic lithologies would lead to erroneous fracture localization. For this reason we propose a

  15. Epilepsy, E/I balance and GABAA receptor plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Fritschy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available GABAA receptors mediate most of the fast inhibitory transmission in the CNS. They form heteromeric complexes assembled from a large family of subunit genes. The existence of multiple GABAA receptor subtypes differing in subunit composition, localization and functional properties underlies their role for fi ne-tuning of neuronal circuits and genesis of network oscillations. The differential regulation of GABAA receptor subtypes represents a major facet of homeostatic synaptic plasticity and contributes to the excitation/inhibition (E/I balance under physiological conditions and upon pathological challenges. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent fi ndings highlighting the signifi cance of GABAA receptor heterogeneity for the concept of E/I balance and its relevance for epilepsy. Specifi cally, we address the following issues: (1 role for tonic inhibition, mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, for controlling neuronal excitability; (2 signifi cance of chloride ion transport for maintenance of the E/I balance in adult brain; and (3 molecular mechanisms underlying GABAA receptor regulation (traffi cking, posttranslational modifi cation, gene transcription that are important for homoeostatic plasticity. Finally, the relevance of these fi ndings is discussed in light of the involvement of GABAA receptors in epileptic disorders, based on recent experimental studies of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE and absence seizures and on the identifi cation of mutations in GABAA receptor subunit genes underlying familial forms of epilepsy.

  16. Volcanostratigraphic Approach for Evaluation of Geothermal Potential in Galunggung Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhan, Q. S.; Sianipar, J. Y.; Pratopo, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    he geothermal systems in Indonesia are primarily associated with volcanoes. There are over 100 volcanoes located on Sumatra, Java, and in the eastern part of Indonesia. Volcanostratigraphy is one of the methods that is used in the early stage for the exploration of volcanic geothermal system to identify the characteristics of the volcano. The stratigraphy of Galunggung Volcano is identified based on 1:100.000 scale topographic map of Tasikmalaya sheet, 1:50.000 scale topographic map and also geological map. The schematic flowchart for evaluation of geothermal exploration is used to interpret and evaluate geothermal potential in volcanic regions. Volcanostratigraphy study has been done on Galunggung Volcano and Talaga Bodas Volcano, West Java, Indonesia. Based on the interpretation of topographic map and analysis of the dimension, rock composition, age and stress regime, we conclude that both Galunggung Volcano and Talaga Bodas Volcano have a geothermal resource potential that deserve further investigation.

  17. Geothermal properties of deep crystalline rock formations in the Rhone valley - Preliminary study; Geothermie du cristallin profond de la vallee du Rhone - Etude preliminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchetti, G; Crestin, G [Alpgeo Sarl, Sierre (Switzerland); Kohl, T [Geowatt AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Graf, G [Bureau de service et d' ingenierie BSI SA, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    This report prepared for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibility of cogenerating electric power and heat from geothermal energy stored in deep aquifers in the southwestern Swiss Alps. The project AGEPP (Alpine Geothermal Power Production) investigates an alternative to the well known Hot-Dry-Rock systems by looking at the crystalline formations in the alpine Rhone valley. Since centuries, these formations have been utilized for thermal spas. Two locations, Brigerbad and Lavey-les-Bains have been evaluated in the present report by the companies ALPGEO Sarl, GEOWATT AG and BSI SA. Existing boreholes at both locations show ample flow and substantial temperature gradients down to 600 meters, suggesting possible reservoir temperatures above 110 {sup o}C and a low mineralization (below 5 grams per liter). Flow rates of 50 to 75 liters/s at 110 {sup o}C seem possible and could be utilized in an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) for power production up to 1.3 MW. The power production costs are estimated at 0.08 CHF/kWh (singlet system) and 0.27 CHF/kWh (doublet system) respectively. The study implies that cogenerated heat is sold at a price of 0.08 CHF/kWh. These prices could compete with other alternative energies. Phase 2 of the project will evaluate the feasibility at the location of Lavey-les-Bains.

  18. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  19. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  20. THE IMPROVEMENT AND APPLICATION OF EI-GUN (ELECTRICAL INSEMINATION GUN FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION (AI USING GOAT FRESH SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsa Ita Dewi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Insemination Gun (EI-GUN was a tool for Artificial Insemination (AI using fresh semen with an electric control system. The research objective was to produced EI-GUN for AI using fresh semen on small ruminants (goat. The research was conducted from March to June 2015. The process of EI-GUN creation implemented in Design and Prototype Laboratory and Aero Modeling Research Laboratory at Engineering Faculty, University of Brawijaya (UB. Testing tools EI-GUN on goat was conducted in the Sumber Sekar Laboratory, Animal Husbandry Faculty, UB.  The methods of research were literature study, tool specification determination, designing EI-GUN, running test, semen evaluation passed EI-GUN and application on Goat. EI-GUN has seven important parts, which supports each other in this operating system. Those parts consist of stylet, servo, system controlled, insemination pump, connecting rod, battery, and holder. EI-GUN work system sucked the semen into insemination pump as much as 5 ml, and release the semen 0.25 ml appropriate standard of AI. It was applicable for 20 times AI. The results showed that the cell motility of spermatozoa ≥ 70% were still in ranging of Indonesian National Standard (SNI.   Keywords: artificial insemination, EI-GUN, fresh semen.

  1. Geopressured geothermal bibliography. Volume 1 (citation extracts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography was compiled by the Center for Energy Studies at The University of Texas at Austin to serve as a tool for researchers in the field of geopressured geothermal energy resources. The bibliography represents citations of papers on geopressured geothermal energy resources over the past eighteen years. Topics covered in the bibliography range from the technical aspects of geopressured geothermal reservoirs to social, environmental, and legal aspects of tapping those reservoirs for their energy resources. The bibliography currently contains more than 750 entries. For quick reference to a given topic, the citations are indexed into five divisions: author, category, conference title, descriptor, and sponsor. These indexes are arranged alphabetically and cross-referenced by page number.

  2. A comparison of economic evaluation models as applied to geothermal energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziman, G. M.; Rosenberg, L. S.

    1983-01-01

    Several cost estimation and financial cash flow models have been applied to a series of geothermal case studies. In order to draw conclusions about relative performance and applicability of these models to geothermal projects, the consistency of results was assessed. The model outputs of principal interest in this study were net present value, internal rate of return, or levelized breakeven price. The models used were VENVAL, a venture analysis model; the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPC Model); the Alternative Power Systems Economic Analysis Model (APSEAM); the Geothermal Loan Guarantee Cash Flow Model (GCFM); and the GEOCOST and GEOCITY geothermal models. The case studies to which the models were applied include a geothermal reservoir at Heber, CA; a geothermal eletric power plant to be located at the Heber site; an alcohol fuels production facility to be built at Raft River, ID; and a direct-use, district heating system in Susanville, CA.

  3. Proceedings of the second NATO-CCMS information meeting on dry hot rock geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, J.J. (comp.)

    1977-11-01

    A summary is presented of the second and last NATO-CCMS (North Atlantic Treaty Organization--Committee on Challenges of Modern Society) Geothermal Pilot Study Information Meeting on Dry Hot Rock Geothermal Energy. Only summaries of the formal presentations are included. Overviews of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geothermal projects are included with emphasis on the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Project. Reports of developments in nine foreign countries and on geothermal projects in US universities are also presented.

  4. Kohtunik, ma ei saa teist aru! / Marko Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marko

    2007-01-01

    Kohtuasjast USAs Arizonas kolme inimsmugeldamises kahtlustatava Mehhiko mehe üle, kelle suhtes ei saa kohtuotsust langetada, kuna ei suudeta tuvastada keelt, mida kohtualused on võimelised mõistma süüdistusest aru saamiseks

  5. INEL Geothermal Environmental Program. Final environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurow, T.L.; Cahn, L.S.

    1982-09-01

    An overview of environmental monitoring programs and research during development of a moderate temperature geothermal resource in the Raft River Valley is presented. One of the major objectives was to develop programs for environmental assessment and protection that could serve as an example for similar types of development. The monitoring studies were designed to establish baseline conditions (predevelopment) of the physical, biological, and human environment. Potential changes were assessed and adverse environmental impacts minimized. No major environmental impacts resulted from development of the Raft River Geothermal Research Facility. The results of the physical, biological, and human environment monitoring programs are summarized.

  6. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  7. Geothermal energy. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    Brief descriptions of geothermal projects funded through the Department of Energy during FY 1978 are presented. Each summary gives the project title, contractor name, contract number, funding level, dates, location, and name of the principal investigator, together with project highlights, which provide informaion such as objectives, strategies, and a brief project description. (MHR)

  8. Geothermal investigations in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ravnik

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology and the results of geothermal investigations, based on seventy-two boreholes in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia.The data of fundamental geothermal quantities: formation temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production of rocks as well as surface heat flow density are stored in a computerized data base. Their synthesis is given in the map of formation temperatures at 1000 m depth and in the map of surface heat flow density. In both maps the thermal difference between the Pannonian basin in theeastern and the Dinarides in the western part of Slovenia is clearly expressed.However, in the boundary area between these two tectonic units, for a distance of about 100 km in SW-NE direction, elevated horizontal gradients of formation temperature as well as heat flow density are evident. A small positive thermal anomaly in the Ljubljana depression is conspicuous.The low-temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia such as thermalsprings and thermal water from boreholes, are estimated to have a flow rate of 1120 kg/s, corresponding to the ideal total heat production of 144 MWt. In the geothermally promising areas amounting to 3200 km2 the rate of accessible resource base (ARB down to the depth of 3 km has been assessed to about 8.5 x lO 20» J.

  9. Very low energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Very low energy geothermics correspond to temperatures below 30 C and has been developed to cover heating and cooling needs of recent individual houses or tertiary industries using heat pumps and low depth aquifers (<100 m). Geothermal heat pumps industry has made great strides in European Northern countries, China, Japan and the United States of America. Geothermal heat pumps are less energy consuming than air heat pumps and require less cooling fluid and maintenance. The Aquapac procedure has been developed in France in 1983 by the AFME (French Energy Control Agency), EdF and the BRGM (Geologic and Mining Research Office) to encourage the use of geothermal heat pump for domestic and sanitary water heating and to make a survey of low-depth aquifers in the whole french territory. The decay of energy costs that started in 1986 has led to a loss of interest for the Aquapac procedure, even in the tertiary industries for which the air-conditioning demand is growing up. (J.S.). 1 tab

  10. Geothermal Grows Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  11. 75 FR 51448 - Withdrawal of Notice for Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... sustainable solutions for reducing head-cutting and scouring in the Ark-White Cutoff area. The two rivers are... Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Arkansas White River Cutoff Study AGENCY... Impact Statement (EIS) for the Arkansas White River Cutoff Study. The original Notice of Intent (NOI) was...

  12. Long-term pumping test to study the impact of an open-loop geothermal system on seawater intrusion in a coastal aquifer: the case study of Bari (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementina Caputo, Maria; Masciale, Rita; Masciopinto, Costantino; De Carlo, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    The high cost and scarcity of fossil fuels have promoted the increased use of natural heat for a number of direct applications. Just as for fossil fuels, the exploitation of geothermal energy should consider its environmental impact and sustainability. Particular attention deserves the so-called open loop geothermal groundwater heat pump (GWHP) system, which uses groundwater as geothermal fluid. From an economic point of view, the implementation of this kind of geothermal system is particularly attractive in coastal areas, which have generally shallow aquifers. Anyway the potential problem of seawater intrusion has led to laws that restrict the use of groundwater. The scarcity of freshwater could be a major impediment for the utilization of geothermal resources. In this study a new methodology has been proposed. It was based on an experimental approach to characterize a coastal area in order to exploit the low-enthalpy geothermal resource. The coastal karst and fractured aquifer near Bari, in Southern Italy, was selected for this purpose. For the purpose of investigating the influence of an open-loop GWHP system on the seawater intrusion, a long-term pumping test was performed. The test simulated the effects of a prolonged withdrawal on the chemical-physical groundwater characteristics of the studied aquifer portion. The duration of the test was programmed in 16 days, and it was performed with a constant pumping flowrate of 50 m3/h. The extracted water was outflowed into an adjacent artificial channel, by means of a piping system. Water depth, temperature and electrical conductivity of the pumped water were monitored for 37 days, including also some days before and after the pumping duration. The monitored parameters, collected in the pumping and in five observation wells placed 160 m down-gradient with respect to the groundwater flow direction, have been used to estimate different scenarios of the impact of the GWHP system on the seawater intrusion by mean of a

  13. Spatial data analysis and integration for regional-scale geothermal potential mapping, West Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Barritt, Sally D. [Department of Earth Systems Analysis, International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Enschede (Netherlands); Wibowo, Hendro; Sumintadireja, Prihadi [Laboratory of Volcanology and Geothermal, Geology Department, Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), Bandung (Indonesia)

    2008-06-15

    Conceptual modeling and predictive mapping of potential for geothermal resources at the regional-scale in West Java are supported by analysis of the spatial distribution of geothermal prospects and thermal springs, and their spatial associations with geologic features derived from publicly available regional-scale spatial data sets. Fry analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have regional-scale spatial distributions that are related to Quaternary volcanic centers and shallow earthquake epicenters. Spatial frequency distribution analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have strong positive spatial associations with Quaternary volcanic centers, Quaternary volcanic rocks, quasi-gravity lows, and NE-, NNW-, WNW-trending faults. These geological features, with their strong positive spatial associations with geothermal occurrences, constitute spatial recognition criteria of regional-scale geothermal potential in a study area. Application of data-driven evidential belief functions in GIS-based predictive mapping of regional-scale geothermal potential resulted in delineation of high potential zones occupying 25% of West Java, which is a substantial reduction of the search area for further exploration of geothermal resources. The predicted high potential zones delineate about 53-58% of the training geothermal areas and 94% of the validated geothermal occurrences. The results of this study demonstrate the value of regional-scale geothermal potential mapping in: (a) data-poor situations, such as West Java, and (b) regions with geotectonic environments similar to the study area. (author)

  14. Optimal Management of Geothermal Heat Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, I. H.; Bielicki, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geothermal energy technologies use the constant heat flux from the subsurface in order to produce heat or electricity for societal use. As such, a geothermal energy system is not inherently variable, like systems based on wind and solar resources, and an operator can conceivably control the rate at which heat is extracted and used directly, or converted into a commodity that is used. Although geothermal heat is a renewable resource, this heat can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal (Rybach, 2003). For heat extraction used for commodities that are sold on the market, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into profit, on a net present value basis. We present a model that couples natural resource economic approaches for managing renewable resources with simulations of geothermal reservoir performance in order to develop an optimal heat mining strategy that balances economic gain with the performance and renewability of the reservoir. Similar optimal control approaches have been extensively studied for renewable natural resource management of fisheries and forests (Bonfil, 2005; Gordon, 1954; Weitzman, 2003). Those models determine an optimal path of extraction of fish or timber, by balancing the regeneration of stocks of fish or timber that are not harvested with the profit from the sale of the fish or timber that is harvested. Our model balances the regeneration of reservoir temperature with the net proceeds from extracting heat and converting it to electricity that is sold to consumers. We used the Non-isothermal Unconfined-confined Flow and Transport (NUFT) model (Hao, Sun, & Nitao, 2011) to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are incorporated into the natural resource economics model to determine production strategies that

  15. FY1997 geothermal development promotion survey. Development feasibility study 'Ashiro area'; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kaihatsu kanosei chosa (Ashiro chiiki) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    With regard to the Ashiro Town area in Iwate Prefecture, this paper reports the result of evaluations based on temperature and pressure logging after a lapse of an extended period of time (well No.2) and a steam jet test (well No.1). These activities were performed as the survey on promotion of geothermal development and survey on development feasibility in fiscal 1997. As a result of the overall analysis based on the present survey and ones in the past, the geothermal system model in the surveyed area may be conceived as follows: in both of the N7-AR-1 and N7-AR-2 wells drilled in the southern part of the surveyed area, temperature as high as 250 degrees C or higher was confirmed; the underground temperature is 200 degrees C or higher at an altitude level of zero meter and 250 degrees C at around -500 m, leading to a belief that the high temperature area spreads to south; as a fracture system holding geothermal fluid, a fault was identified at the N7-AR-1 well drilling depth of 1710 m; in the steam jet test, a geothermal reservoir (a shallow geothermal reservoir) was confirmed to exist; the geothermal fluid that has jetted out shows alkaline Na-SO{sub 4} type; and the deep geothermal reservoir has high temperature and is presumed to be in the two-phase condition, presenting promising factors as the geothermal resources. (NEDO)

  16. IT ei loe / Nicholas G. Carr

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Carr, Nicholas G.

    2003-01-01

    Harvard Business Review endise toimetaja arvates on infotehnoloogia (IT) strateegiline tähtsus ettevõtetes oluliselt vähenenud ning innovaatilised IT lahendused ei anna enam konkurentsieeliseid, mille tõttu peab muutuma ka juhtide suhtumine IT riskidesse, investeeringutesse ja juhtimisse. Vt. samas: Kuidas vältida üleinvesteerimist IT-sse?; Liiga palju head; Mis saab müüjatest?; Uued reeglid IT juhtimises. Kommenteerivad Henn Sarv, Avo Kokk, Olli Heinonen ja Jüri Kaljundi

  17. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal resources are used to produce electrical energy and to supply heat for non-electric applications like residential heating and crop drying. The utilization of geothermal energy consists of the extraction of hot water or steam from an underground reservoir followed by different methods of surface processing along with the disposal of liquid, gaseous, and even solid wastes. The focus of this paper is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 150 0 C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of non-condensing gases such as hydrogen sulphide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. In this paper it is shown that hydrogen sulphide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odour annoyances among members of the exposed public -some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 ppmv. A risk-assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukaemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. Also assessed is the risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry is briefly summarized. (author)

  18. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Evolution of Geothermal Fluids in the Chabu High-Temperature Geothermal System, Southern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study defines reasonable reservoir temperatures and cooling processes of subsurface geothermal fluids in the Chabu high-temperature geothermal system. This system lies in the south-central part of the Shenzha-Xietongmen hydrothermal active belt and develops an extensive sinter platform with various and intense hydrothermal manifestations. All the geothermal spring samples collected systematically from the sinter platform are divided into three groups by cluster analysis of major elements. Samples of group 1 and group 3 are distributed in the central part and northern periphery of the sinter platform, respectively, while samples of group 2 are scattered in the transitional zone between groups 1 and 3. The hydrochemical characteristics show that the geothermal waters of the research area have generally mixed with shallow cooler waters in reservoirs. The reasonable reservoir temperatures and the mixing processes of the subsurface geothermal fluids could be speculated by combining the hydrochemical characteristics of geothermal springs, calculated results of the chemical geothermometers, and silica-enthalpy mixing models. Contour maps are applied to measured emerging temperatures, mass flow rates, total dissolved solids of spring samples, and reasonable subsurface temperatures. They indicate that the major cooling processes of the subsurface geothermal fluids gradually transform from adiabatic boiling to conduction from the central part to the peripheral belt. The geothermal reservoir temperatures also show an increasing trend. The point with the highest reservoir temperature (256°C appears in the east-central part of the research area, which might be the main up-flow zone. The cooling processes of the subsurface geothermal fluids in the research area can be shown on an enthalpy-chloride plot. The deep parent fluid for the Chabu geothermal field has a Cl− concentration of 290 mg/L and an enthalpy of 1550 J/g (with a water temperature of

  19. Multi-disciplinary study for the exploration of deep low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs, Neuchâtel, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, G.; Abdelfettah, Y.; Negro, F.; Schill, E.; Vuataz, F.

    2011-12-01

    The authorities of the canton of Neuchâtel, in the Western part of Switzerland, are willing to develop geothermal energy for district heating in the two main cities of the canton: Neuchâtel, located along the Lake of Neuchâtel, and La Chaux-de-Fonds situated in a high valley of the Jura Massif. The geology of both areas is linked to the Jura Range and present complex structures, where the landscape is composed of anticlines associated with overthrust faults, which are overcut by strike-slip fault and secondary faulting events. The rock formations go from the Trias, which forms the detachment layer, up to the Quaternary rock. Bedrocks are mainly composed of limestones and marls, which can reach a thickness of several hundreds meters. The three main deep aquifers investigated in this area, from the shallowest (≤ 400 m below surface) to deepest (geological models and 3D gravimetry models to best characterize the underground structures and to find areas where the rock properties would be favourable to geothermal exploitation. This means targets where permeability and porosity are high in the potential aquifers, allowing a significant flow at the future production wells. The results indicate that gravity anomalies are associated with both shallow and deep geological structures in the two exploration sites and that high resolution of dense grid gravity measurements combined with realistic 3D models of the geological structures allow to characterize interesting features for deep geothermal exploration. Gravity corrections were carried out with a computing code using different DEM resolution ranging from a very high resolution (0.5 m pixel in the vicinity of each station) toward a lower resolution (25 m for the distal areas as far as 110 km away from each station). The bathymetry of the Lake of Neuchâtel (218 km2) has been used to correct gravity effects from the large volume of water along the Lake shore of Neuchâtel. The combination of 3D geological models with a

  20. Water Intensity of Electricity from Geothermal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, G. S.; Glassley, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    BACKGROUND Electricity from geothermal resources could play a significant role in the United States over the next few decades; a 2006 study by MIT expects a capacity of 100GWe by 2050 as feasible; approximately 10% of total electricity generating capacity up from less than 1% today. However, there is limited research on the water requirements and impacts of generating electricity from geothermal resources - conventional as well as enhanced. To the best of our knowledge, there is no baseline exists for water requirements of geothermal electricity. Water is primarily required for cooling and dissipation of waste heat in the power plants, and to account for fluid losses during heat mining of enhanced geothermal resources. MODEL DESCRIPTION We have developed a model to assess and characterize water requirements of electricity from hydrothermal resources and enhanced geothermal resources (EGS). Our model also considers a host of factors that influence cooling water requirements ; these include the temperature and chemical composition of geothermal resource; installed power generation technology - flash, organic rankine cycle and the various configurations of these technologies; cooling technologies including air cooled condensers, wet recirculating cooling, and hybrid cooling; and finally water treatment and recycling installations. We expect to identify critical factors and technologies. Requirements for freshwater, degraded water and geothermal fluid are separately estimated. METHODOLOGY We have adopted a lifecycle analysis perspective that estimates water consumption at the goethermal field and power plant, and accounts for transmission and distribution losses before reaching the end user. Our model depends upon an extensive literature review to determine various relationships necessary to determine water usage - for example relationship between thermal efficiency and temperature of a binary power plant, or differences in efficiency between various ORC configurations

  1. Geothermal policy project. Quarterly report, March 1-May 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, T.D.

    1980-06-01

    Efforts continued to initiate geothermal and groundwater heat pump study activities in newly selected project states and to carry forward policy development in existing project states. Minnesota and South Carolina have agreed to a groundwater heat pump study, and Maryland and Virginia have agreed to a follow-up geothermal study in 1980. Follow-up contacts were made with several other existing project states and state meetings and workshops were held in eleven project states. Two generic documents were prepared, the Geothermal Guidebook and the Guidebook to Groundwater Heat Pumps, in addition to several state-specific documents.

  2. Understanding the circulation of geothermal waters in the Tibetan Plateau using oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hongbing; Zhang, Yanfei; Zhang, Wenjie; Kong, Na; Zhang, Qing; Huang, Jingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Unique geothermal resources in Tibetan Plateau were discussed. • Isotopes were used to trace circulation of geothermal water. • Magmatic water mixing dominates geothermal water evolution. - Abstract: With the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, many of the world’s rarest and most unique geothermal fields have been developed. This study aims to systematically analyze the characteristics of the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of geothermal, river, and lake waters to understand the circulation of groundwater and to uncover the mechanism of geothermal formation in the Tibetan Plateau. Field observations and isotopic data show that geothermal water has higher temperatures and hydraulic pressures, as well as more depleted D and 18 O isotopic compositions than river and lake waters. Thus, neither lakes nor those larger river waters are the recharge source of geothermal water. Snow-melt water in high mountains can vertically infiltrate and deeply circulate along some stretching tensile active tectonic belts or sutures and recharge geothermal water. After deep circulation, cold surface water evolves into high-temperature thermal water and is then discharged as springs at the surface again in a low area, under high water-head difference and cold–hot water density difference. Therefore, the large-scale, high-temperature, high-hydraulic-pressure geothermal systems in the Tibetan Plateau are developed and maintained by rapid groundwater circulation and the heat source of upwelled residual magmatic water. Inevitably, the amount of geothermal water will increase if global warming accelerates the melting of glaciers in high mountains

  3. Analysis of Geothermal Pathway in the Metamorphic Area, Northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Wu, M. Y.; Song, S. R.; Lo, W.

    2016-12-01

    A quantitative measure by play fairway analysis in geothermal energy development is an important tool that can present the probability map of potential resources through the uncertainty studies in geology for early phase decision making purpose in the related industries. While source, pathway, and fluid are the three main geologic factors in traditional geothermal systems, identifying the heat paths is critical to reduce drilling cost. Taiwan is in East Asia and the western edge of Pacific Ocean, locating on the convergent boundary of Eurasian Plate and Philippine Sea Plate with many earthquake activities. This study chooses a metamorphic area in the western corner of Yi-Lan plain in northeastern Taiwan with high geothermal potential and several existing exploration sites. Having high subsurface temperature gradient from the mountain belts, and plenty hydrologic systems through thousands of millimeters annual precipitation that would bring up heats closer to the surface, current geothermal conceptual model indicates the importance of pathway distribution which affects the possible concentration of extractable heat location. The study conducts surface lineation analysis using analytic hierarchy process to determine weights among various fracture types for their roles in geothermal pathways, based on the information of remote sensing data, published geologic maps and field work measurements, to produce regional fracture distribution probability map. The results display how the spatial distribution of pathways through various fractures could affect geothermal systems, identify the geothermal plays using statistical data analysis, and compare against the existing drilling data.

  4. Energy conversion processes for the use of geothermal heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minder, R. [Minder Energy Consulting, Oberlunkhofen (Switzerland); Koedel, J.; Schaedle, K.-H.; Ramsel, K. [Gruneko AG, Basel (Switzerland); Girardin, L.; Marechal, F. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratory for industrial energy systems (LENI), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on energy conversion processes that can be used when geothermal heat is to be used. The study deals with both theoretical and practical aspects of the conversion of geothermal heat to electricity. The report is divided into several parts and covers general study, practical experience, planning and operation of geothermal power plants as well as methodology for the optimal integration of energy conversion systems in geothermal power plants. In the first part, the specific properties and characteristics of geothermal resources are discussed. Also, a general survey of conversion processes is presented with special emphasis on thermo-electric conversion. The second part deals with practical aspects related to planning, construction and operation of geothermal power plant. Technical basics, such as relevant site-specific conditions, drilling techniques, thermal water or brine quality and materials requirements. Further, planning procedures are discussed. Also, operation and maintenance aspects are examined and some basic information on costs is presented. The third part of the report presents the methodology and results for the optimal valorisation of the thermodynamic potential of deep geothermal systems.

  5. Spatial data analysis for exploration of regional scale geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Majid Kiavarz; Noorollahi, Younes; Samadzadegan, Farhad; Sharifi, Mohammad Ali; Itoi, Ryuichi

    2013-10-01

    Defining a comprehensive conceptual model of the resources sought is one of the most important steps in geothermal potential mapping. In this study, Fry analysis as a spatial distribution method and 5% well existence, distance distribution, weights of evidence (WofE), and evidential belief function (EBFs) methods as spatial association methods were applied comparatively to known geothermal occurrences, and to publicly-available regional-scale geoscience data in Akita and Iwate provinces within the Tohoku volcanic arc, in northern Japan. Fry analysis and rose diagrams revealed similar directional patterns of geothermal wells and volcanoes, NNW-, NNE-, NE-trending faults, hotsprings and fumaroles. Among the spatial association methods, WofE defined a conceptual model correspondent with the real world situations, approved with the aid of expert opinion. The results of the spatial association analyses quantitatively indicated that the known geothermal occurrences are strongly spatially-associated with geological features such as volcanoes, craters, NNW-, NNE-, NE-direction faults and geochemical features such as hotsprings, hydrothermal alteration zones and fumaroles. Geophysical data contains temperature gradients over 100 °C/km and heat flow over 100 mW/m2. In general, geochemical and geophysical data were better evidence layers than geological data for exploring geothermal resources. The spatial analyses of the case study area suggested that quantitative knowledge from hydrothermal geothermal resources was significantly useful for further exploration and for geothermal potential mapping in the case study region. The results can also be extended to the regions with nearly similar characteristics.

  6. Geothermic Characters Of The Most Promising Geothermal Filed For Power Generation In Republic Of Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Kubati M.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents geothermal exploration and their geothermometric characteristics in the western part of Yemen. Geologically this volcanic province totals areas approximately 45000 km2. Tectonically the study area is considered one of the most active in the Arabian Plate boundaries that affected by the opening of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden as well as by the African rift valley. Extensive field work had been carried out to evaluate the geothermal characteristics of this area. Water and gas samples were collected from hundreds of thermal springs and shallow domestic wells and geochemically analyzed and reported. Temperatures and PH values range from 35 to 96.3 C and from 4.5 to 8.5 respectively. Deep geothermal gradient indicates that the geothermal gradients in the western part of the province Red Sea coast are relatively high up to 182 C at the depth of 3290 m. Volcanic units are affected by hydrothermal processes and became intensively altered. By applying geothermometric methods four geothermal fields have been primarily identified they are Al-Lisi and Isbil Dhamar province Al-Qafr Ibb province Damt Dhala province and the Red Sea coast geothermal fields and three water types were recognized which are Na-HCO3-Cl-S and Ca-Na-Cl and Na HCO3.Results from Al-Lisi and Isbil geothermal area are considered the most promising field. Geothermal detail studies have been achieves and location of the first geothermal exploration well is located in Al-Lisi and Isbil field.By applyig geophisical methods Iso- Resistivity contour mapsthese maps reflected high resistivity areas and low.Clearly shows the low resistivity values incentral and Western part of the study area about 11amp937mWhile up Resistivity values to the area in the eastern 600amp937m.Also through the use ofthe different current electrode spacing AB2 700 1000 1500 and 2000m.We find the low- Resistivity areas becoming more widespread and concentrated in the center of the study area and

  7. Geothermal heat can cool, too

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellstein, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at how geothermal energy can not only be used to supply heating energy, but also be used to provide cooling too. The article reports on a conference on heating and cooling with geothermal energy that was held in Duebendorf, Switzerland, in March 2008. The influence of climate change on needs for heating and cooling and the need for additional knowledge and data on deeper rock layers is noted. The seasonal use of geothermal systems to provide heating in winter and cooling in summer is discussed. The planning of geothermal probe fields and their simulation is addressed. As an example, the geothermal installations under the recently renewed and extended 'Dolder Grand' luxury hotel in Zurich are quoted. The new SIA 384/6 norm on geothermal probes issued by the Swiss Association of Architects SIA is briefly reviewed.

  8. Geothermal energy utilization in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svalova, V. [Institute of Environmental Geoscience, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Geothermal energy use is the way to clean, sustainable energy development for the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and is making progress using them - mostly with low-temperature geothermal resources and heat pumps This is optimal for many regions of Russia -in the European part, in the Urals and others. Electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands There are two possible ways of using geothermal resources, depending on the properties of thermal waters heat/power and mineral extraction. The mineral-extraction direction is basic for geothermal waters, which contain valuable components in industrial quantities The most significant deposits of thermal waters represent the brines containing from 35 up to 400 and more g/l of salts. These are the minerals of many chemical dements. (author)

  9. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  10. Exergoeconomic optimization of integrated geothermal system in Simav, Kutahya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Oguz; Kose, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the integrated use of the geothermal resources in the Kutahya-Simav region, Turkey. Although geothermal energy has been in use for years in the others countries, the integrated use of the geothermal fluid is new in Turkey. The high temperature level of the geothermal fluid in the Simav field makes it possible to utilize it for electricity generation, space heating and balneology. In this regard, a multiple complex has been proposed there in order to use the energy of the geothermal fluid more efficiently. Therefore, the possibility of electricity generation by a binary cycle has been preliminarily researched. After the electricity generation process, the waste geothermal fluid has been conducted to residences and greenhouses later for heating purpose in the field. In this regard, twenty one different models have been formed and analyzed using exergy and LCC methods. As a conclusion, the pre-feasibility study indicates that utilization of this geothermal capacity for multiple uses would be an attractive investment for Simav region.

  11. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  12. NANA Geothermal Assessment Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-06-22

    In 2008, NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) assessed geothermal energy potential in the NANA region for both heat and/or electricity production. The Geothermal Assessment Project (GAP) was a systematic process that looked at community resources and the community's capacity and desire to develop these resources. In October 2007, the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17075 to NRC for the GAP studies. Two moderately remote sites in the NANA region were judged to have the most potential for geothermal development: (1) Granite Mountain, about 40 miles south of Buckland, and (2) the Division Hot Springs area in the Purcell Mountains, about 40 miles south of Shungnak and Kobuk. Data were collected on-site at Granite Mountain Hot Springs in September 2009, and at Division Hot Springs in April 2010. Although both target geothermal areas could be further investigated with a variety of exploration techniques such as a remote sensing study, a soil geochemical study, or ground-based geophysical surveys, it was recommended that on-site or direct heat use development options are more attractive at this time, rather than investigations aimed more at electric power generation.

  13. FY 1998 report on the verification survey of geothermal exploration technology, etc. 2/2. Survey of deep geothermal resource; 1998 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. 2/2. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    For the purpose of commercializing deep geothermal resource, a deep exploration well of 4000m class was drilled in the existing geothermal development area to survey the situation of deep geothermal resource existence and the availability. Concretely, the deep geothermal exploration well was drilled for study in the Kakkonda area, Shizukuishi town, Iwate prefecture, to clarify the situation of deep geothermal resource existence and the whole image of geothermal system. Consideration was made of the deep geothermal exploration method, systematization of deep high temperature drilling technology, and availability of deep geothermal resource. The results of the survey were summed up as follows: 1) general remarks; 2) deep exploration well drilling work; 3) details of the study. This report contained 3). In 3), the items were as follows: heightening of accuracy of the deep geothermal resource exploration method, making of a geothermal model in the Kakkonda area, study of deep drilling technology, study of deep fluid utilization technology, and making of a guide for deep geothermal resource exploration/development in the Kakkonda area. As to the technology of high temperature deep geothermal well drilling, studies were made of the borehole cooling method, mud water cooling method, survey of deterioration of casing with age, etc. (NEDO)

  14. FY 1974 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Study on physicochemical properties of rocks in geothermal districts; 1974 nendo chinetsu chitai ni okeru ganseki no butsuri kagakuteki tokusei ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    The geothermal district is characterized by distributions of high temperature and hot water. The beds and rocks in these areas are characteristically altered by these conditions. It is an object of this research and development project to clarify how properties of the beds and rocks in these areas, exposed to the characteristic physicochemical conditions, differ from properties of those in other areas. There are may rock properties. In this project, the studied properties are centered by those used for physical exploitation (or geophysical methods), e.g., electrical properties (electrical exploitation), magnetic properties (magnetic exploitation), and thermal conductivity (measurement of heat flow rates and geothermal gradients). The FY 1974 project covers pigeonholing the basic data, establishment of the experimental procedures, and measurement of water quality characteristics and temperature distributions (geothermal temperature gradients) at the test site. This paper reports the results categorized by (I) measurement of rock resistivity and effects on moisture content on this property, (II) properties of water in the geothermal district (Yahata-daira District), and (III) relationships between rock thermal conductivity and other properties. (NEDO)

  15. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  16. A snapshot of geothermal energy potential and utilization in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Turkey is one of the countries with significant potential in geothermal energy. It is estimated that if Turkey utilizes all of her geothermal potential, she can meet 14% of her total energy need (heat and electricity) from geothermal sources. Therefore, today geothermal energy is an attractive option in Turkey to replace fossil fuels. Besides, increase in negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries, including Turkey, to use renewable energy sources. Also, Turkey is an energy importing country; more than two-thirds of her energy requirement is supplied by imports. In this context, geothermal energy appears to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Since geothermal energy will be used more and more in the future, its current potential, usage, and assessment in Turkey is the focus of the present study. The paper not only presents a review of the potential and utilization of the geothermal energy in Turkey but also provides some guidelines for policy makers. (author)

  17. Novel approaches for an enhanced geothermal development of residential sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelenz, Sophie; Firmbach, Linda; Shao, Haibing; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    An ongoing technological enhancement drives an increasing use of shallow geothermal systems for heating and cooling applications. However, even in areas with intensive shallow geothermal use, planning of geothermal systems is in many cases solely based on geological maps, drilling databases, and literature references. Thus, relevant heat transport parameters are rather approximated than measured for the specific site. To increase the planning safety and promote the use of renewable energies in the domestic sector, this study investigates a novel concept for an enhanced geothermal development of residential neighbourhoods. This concept is based on a site-specific characterization of subsurface conditions and the implementation of demand-oriented geothermal usage options. Therefore, an investigation approach has been tested that combines non-invasive with minimum-invasive exploration methods. While electrical resistivity tomography has been applied to characterize the geological subsurface structure, Direct Push soundings enable a detailed, vertical high-resolution characterization of the subsurface surrounding the borehole heat exchangers. The benefit of this site-specific subsurface investigation is highlighted for 1) a more precise design of shallow geothermal systems and 2) a reliable prediction of induced long-term changes in groundwater temperatures. To guarantee the financial feasibility and practicability of the novel geothermal development, three different options for its implementation in residential neighbourhoods were consequently deduced.

  18. Federal Interagency Geothermal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Prencipe, Loretta [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Todaro, Richard M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Cuyler, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eide, Elizabeth [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This collaborative document describes the roles and responsibilities of key Federal agencies in the development of geothermal technologies including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), including the U.S. Forest Service; the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI), including the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and the Department of Defense (DOD).

  19. NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM (NGDS) GEOTHERMAL DATA DOMAIN: ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY DATA NEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [United States Department of Energy; Blackwell, David [Southern Methodist University; Chickering, Cathy [Southern Methodist University; Boyd, Toni [Oregon Institute of Technology; Horne, Roland [Stanford University; MacKenzie, Matthew [Uberity Technology Corporation; Moore, Joseph [University of Utah; Nickull, Duane [Uberity Technology Corporation; Richard, Stephen [Arizona Geological survey; Shevenell, Lisa A. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-01-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to ad- vance geothermal energy as a viable renewable ener- gy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is in- vesting in the development of the National Geother- mal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to sup- ply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are dis- cussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geother- mal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS in- cludes a work plan that addresses data assets and re- sources of interest to users, a survey of data provid- ers, data content models, and how data will be ex- changed and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  20. THE FUTURE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Renner

    2006-11-01

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing our supply of indigenous, renewable energy underscores the need for reevaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and welldistributed nationally. This analysis will help determine how we can enlarge and diversify the portfolio of options we should be vigorously pursuing. One such option that is often ignored is geothermal energy, produced from both conventional hydrothermal and Enhanced (or engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS). An 18-member assessment panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of EGS becoming a major supplier of primary energy for U.S. base-load generation capacity by 2050. This report documents the work of the panel at three separate levels of detail. The first is a Synopsis, which provides a brief overview of the scope, motivation, approach, major findings, and recommendations of the panel. At the second level, an Executive Summary reviews each component of the study, providing major results and findings. The third level provides full documentation in eight chapters, with each detailing the scope, approach, and results of the analysis and modeling conducted in each area.

  1. Institutional and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, O. R.

    1977-01-01

    Until recently, the majority of work in geothermal energy development has been devoted to technical considerations of resource identification and extraction technologies. The increasing interest in exploiting the variety of geothermal resources has prompted an examination of the institutional barriers to their introduction for commercial use. A significant effort was undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a part of a national study to identify existing constraints to geothermal development and possible remedial actions. These aspects included legislative and legal parameters plus environmental, social, and economic considerations.

  2. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-01-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development

  3. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  4. Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program and its impact on geothermal exploration and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, L.H.

    1978-05-01

    The study showed that the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program has had only a negligible effect on geothermal development and the response to the program was far less than expected. The streamlining of environmental regulations and leasing policies, and the granting of intangible drilling cost write-offs and depletion allowances to operators would have had a greater impact on geothermal energy development. The loan guaranty program did not promote the undertaking of any new projects that would not have been undertaken without it. The program only accelerated the pace for some development which might have commenced in the future. Included in the study are recommendations for improving the operation of the program thereby increasing its attractiveness to potential applicants.

  5. On the use of flow-storage repartitions derived from artificial tracer tests for geothermal reservoir characterization in the Malm-Molasse basin: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Dina Silvia; Osaigbovo Enomayo, Augustine; Mohsin, Rizwan; Karmakar, Shyamal; Ghergut, Julia; Sauter, Martin

    2016-04-01

    needed to calculate FSR. Looking at the Sauerlach example, we find that premature interruption of tracer sampling systematically leads to overestimating the reservoir's storage capacity and underestimating its flow capacity, with misestimation generally increasing as the bedded/reef interfacial area per volume is increased. It is interesting to correlate these findings with the tracer-based approach to facies identification for the shallower Malm aquifers of the Southern Franconian Alb, proposed by Seiler et al. (1989, 1995) and with expectations from the direct (i. e., distributed-parameter) modeling of matrix-diffusive effects (Maloszewski and Zuber 1985) on measured tracer signals. References: Maloszewski P, Zuber A (1985) On the theory of tracer experiments in fissured rocks with a porous matrix, Journal of Hydrology, 79, 333-358 Seiler K-P, Behrens H, Wolf M (1995) Use of artificial and environmental tracers to study storage and drainage of groundwater in the Franconian Alb, Germany, and the consequences for groundwater protection, Proc Isotopes in Water Resources Management, 2, 135-146 (IAEA, Vienna) Seiler K-P, Maloszewski P, Behrens H (1989) Hydrodynamic dispersion in karstified limestones and dolomites in the Upper Jurassic of the Franconian Alb, FRG, Journal of Hydrology, 108, 235-247 Shook G M (2003) A Simple, Fast Method of Estimating Fractured Reservoir Geometry from Tracer Tests, Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, 27, 407-411 Financial support from the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy is gratefully acknowledged. - Gefördert durch BMWi aufgrund eines Beschlusses des Deutschen Bundestages (FKZ 0325515 "TRENDS").

  6. Potential for enhanced geothermal systems in Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Hannes; Weides, Simon; Babadagli, Tayfun; Zimmermann, Günter; Moeck, Inga; Majorowicz, Jacek; Unsworth, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    The province of Alberta has a high demand of thermal energy for both industrial and residential applications. Currently, the vast majority of the heat used in these applications is obtained by burning natural gas. Geothermal energy production from deep aquifer systems in the sedimentary basin could provide an alternative sustainable source of heat that would significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To date there has been no geothermal field development in Alberta because the average geothermal gradient was considered to be too low for economic geothermal energy generation. However, with new technologies for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), it may be possible to develop geothermal resources from the sedimentary rocks in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). A numerical feasibility study based on a regional geological model and existing and newly gained data was conducted to identify scenarios for geothermal energy production in the region. In central Alberta, three Devonian carbonate formations (Cooking Lake, Nisku, Wabamun) and the Cambrian Basal Sandstone Unit were identified as the highest geothermal potential zones. Thermal-hydraulic reservoir simulations for a 5 km × 5 km site in the city of Edmonton were performed to evaluate reservoir development concepts for these four potential target formations; therefore, hydraulic fracturing treatments were also simulated. Different utilization concepts are presented for possible applications of geothermal energy generation in residential, industrial and agricultural areas. The Cooking Lake formation and the Basal Sandstone Unit are potentially the most promising reservoirs because the most heat can be extracted and the applications for the heat are widespread although the costs are higher than utilizing the shallower formations. Reservoir stimulation considerably improves the economics in all formations

  7. Four EIS Perspectives: A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Svejvig, Per

    A literature review of the Enterprise Information Systems literature reveals a number of recurring issues. We identify and detail four different perspectives that together categorizes the topics found. The first being a technical-rational perspective. The second being a social perspective....... The third being a more political and emergent perspective. Fourth, we identify a design-oriented perspective. We categorize the literature on EIS using these four perspectives, and for each perspective we identify core issues. Finally we discuss how the four perspectives complement each other....

  8. Research on geochemical exploration in geotherm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirowatari, Kazuo; Imaizumi, Yukio; Koga, Akito; Iwanaga, Tatsuto.

    1987-01-01

    The decisive factor of geotherm development is to improve the exploration techniques. By effectively carrying out the selection of promising development spots and the decision of well drilling positions, the geotherm development exceeding existing energy sources becomes feasible. There have been many problems in conventional geotherm exploration such as the high cost and long work period, therefore, it was decided to advance the research on geochemical exploration techniques which are relatively simple and can be carried out with low cost. When the techniques of geochemistry are used, for example, in the case that there are hot springs or fumaroles, the temperature, origin, properties and so on of underground hot water reservoirs can be estimated from their chemical composition. The method of examining the mercury concentration in soil and soil air has been in practical use in the geothermal districts where the ground surface symptom lacks. This time, the method of investigation using radon, thoron and gamma ray as the exploration indices was newly studied. The index compositions for geochemical exploration, new exploration index compositions, the method of measurement, the basic investigation and on-the-spot investigation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. Geothermal progress monitor: Report No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    DOE is particularly concerned with reducing the costs of geothermal power generation, especially with the abundant moderate to low-temperature resources in the US. This concern is reflected in DOE`s support of a number of energy conversion projects. Projects which focus on the costs and performance of binary cycle technology include a commercial demonstration of supersaturated turbine expansions, which earlier studies have indicated could increase the power produced per pound of fluid. Other binary cycle projects include evaluations of the performance of various working fluid mixtures and the development and testing of advanced heat rejection systems which are desperately needed in water-short geothermal areas. DOE is also investigating the applicability of flash steam technology to low-temperature resources, as an economic alternative to binary cycle systems. A low-cost, low-pressure steam turbine, selected for a grant, will be constructed to utilize fluid discharged from a flash steam plant in Nevada. Another project addresses the efficiency of high-temperature flash plants with a demonstration of the performance of the Biphase turbine which may increase the power output of such installations with no increase in fluid flow. Perhaps the most noteworthy feature of this issue of the GPM, the 17th since its inception in 1980, is the high degree of industry participation in federally-sponsored geothermal research and development. This report describes geothermal development activities.

  10. Geothermal energy. A national proposal for geothermal resources research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J.C. (ed.)

    1972-01-01

    Discussions are given for each of the following topics: (1) importance to the Nation of geothermal resources, (2) budget recommendations, (3) overview of geothermal resources, (4) resource exploration, (5) resource assessment, (6) resource development and production, (7) utilization technology and economics, (8) environmental effects, (9) institutional considerations, and (10) summary of research needs.

  11. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, J.D.; Rapport, A.

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request. ?? 1983.

  12. CSAMT investigations of the Caferbeyli (Manisa/Turkey) geothermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geothermal energy is the accumulation of heat energy as hot ... of this study was to delineate the fracture zones in ... southern margin of the basin has been raised along ... Quaternary continental sequence with alkali olivine ..... Turkish Petrol.

  13. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Batista-Foguet, Joan M.; Fernández-i-Marín, Xavier; Truninger, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI) among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g), is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person’s GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person’s self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females. PMID:25713545

  14. Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements Project and Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project. Draft EIR/EIS: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (SERWTP) Facilities Improvement Plan and Geysers Effluent Pipeline and Effluent Injection Project are proposed as a plan to provide expanded wastewater treatment capabilities and to dispose of the effluent by injection in The Geysers geothermal field for purposes of power production. The project is located predominantly in the County of Lake, California, and also in part of Sonoma County. The plan includes various conventional facilities improvements in wastewater treatment to a secondary level of treatment at the SWERWTP. The plan includes facilities to convey the treated effluent in a 26-mile, 24-inch inside diameter pipeline to the Southeast Geysers. The wastewater from the SERWTP would be supplemented by raw lake water diverted from nearby Clear Lake. At The Geysers, the effluent would be directed into a system of distribution lines to wells. In the geothermal reservoir, the water will be converted to steam and collected in production wells that will direct the steam to six existing power plants. This document is a summary of a combined full Environmental Impact Report (EIR) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The EIR/EIS describes the environmental impacts of the various components of the project. Mitigation measures are suggested for reducing impacts to a less than significant level

  15. Vegetation and geothermal development in the vicinity of the Takinogami geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, T

    1973-07-01

    After site studies for a new geothermal power plant at the Takinogami geothermal field, the Japan Natural Conservation Association recommended against locating the plant near the office and dormitory complexes at Matsukurasawa junction. An alternate site located about 1 km upstream on the Takinogami River was proposed. It was recommended that a buffer zone be established between the construction road and the local forest. This zone would be planted with Uwamizu cherry, Azuki pear, Tani deutia, Tamu brushwood, Clathracea, Rowan, Kobano ash and Yama (Japanese lacquer tree). A road embankment would be constructed of terraced masonry which would be landscaped with Tani deutia, Kuma raspberry, giant knotweed and mugwort. Previous development of geothermal wells in the area resulted in severe effects on the local flora. Consequently, further development was not recommended.

  16. Geothermal Resource Exploration by Stream pH Mapping in Mutsu Hiuchi Dake Volcano, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yota Suzuki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although pH measurements of hot spring water are taken in conventional geothermal resource research, previous studies have seldom created pH distribution maps of stream and spring waters for an entire geothermal field as a technique for geothermal exploration. In this study, a pH distribution map was created by measuring stream and spring water pH at 75 sites in the Mutsu Hiuchi Dake geothermal field, Japan. Areas of abnormally high pH were detected in midstream sections of the Ohaka and Koaka rivers; these matched the location of the Mutsu Hiuchi Dake East Slope Fault, which is believed to have formed a geothermal reservoir. The abnormally high pH zone is attributed to the trapping of rising volcanic gases in a mature geothermal reservoir with neutral geothermal water. This causes the gas to dissolve and prevents it from reaching the surface. Thus, the mapping of stream water pH distribution in a geothermal field could provide a new and effective method for estimating the locations of geothermal reservoirs. As the proposed method does not require laboratory analysis, and is more temporally and economically efficient than conventional methods, it might help to promote geothermal development in inaccessible and remote regions.

  17. An economic prefeasibility study of geothermal energy development at Platanares, Honduras. Estudio economico de prefactibilidad del desarrollo de energia geotermica en Platanares, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.K.

    1989-09-01

    The expected economic benefits from development of a geothermal power plant at Platanares in the Department of Copan, Honduras are evaluated in this report. The economic benefits of geothermal plants ranging in size from a 10-MW plant in the shallow reservoir to a 20-, 30-, 55-, or 110-MW plant in the assumed deeper reservoir were measured by computing optimal expansion plans for each size of geothermal plant. Savings are computed as the difference in present value cost between a plan that contains no geothermal plant and one that does. Present value savings in millions of 1987 dollars range from $25 million for the 10-MW plant to $110 million for the 110-MW plant -- savings of 6% to 25% over the time period 1988 through 2008. 8 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  19. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  20. The Future of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik, Michelle [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

  1. Geothermal engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the engineering required to bring geothermal resources into use. The book covers specifically engineering aspects that are unique to geothermal engineering, such as measurements in wells and their interpretation, transport of near-boiling water through long pipelines, turbines driven by fluids other than steam, and project economics. The explanations are reinforced by drawing comparisons with other energy industries.

  2. Multipurpose Use of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.; Lund, John W. (eds.)

    1974-10-09

    The conference was organized to review the non-electric, multipurpose uses of geothermal energy in Hungary, Iceland, New Zealand, United States and the USSR. The international viewpoint was presented to provide an interchange of information from countries where non-electric use of geothermal energy has reached practical importance.

  3. Geothermal resources in the Asal Region, Republic of Djibouti: An update with emphasis on reservoir engineering studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houssein, Daher E. [Centre d' Etudes et de Recherche de Djibouti, CERD, Earth Science, B.P. 486 Djibouti (Djibouti); Axelsson, Gudni [Slenskar Orkurannsoknir (ISOR), 9 Grensasvegi, Reykjavik, 108 (Iceland)

    2010-09-15

    Three independent geothermal systems have been identified, so far, in the Asal region of the Republic of Djibouti (i.e. Gale le Goma, Fiale and South of Lake). Six deep wells have been drilled in the region, the first two in 1975 and the others in 1987-88. Well A2 was damaged and wells A4 and A5 encountered impermeable yet very hot (340-365 C) rocks. Wells A1, A2, A3 and A6 produce highly saline (120 g/L TDS) fluids leading to mineral scaling. Well test data indicate that the reservoir might be producing from fractured and porous zones. The estimated permeability-thickness of the deep Gale le Goma reservoir is in the 3-9 darcy-meter range. Lumped-parameter modeling results indicate that well A3 should be operated at about 20 kg/s total flow rate and that injection should be considered to reduce pressure drawdown. The estimated power generation potential of well A3 is 2.5 MWe, and that of all Asal high-temperature hydrothermal systems is between 115 and 329 MWe for a 25-year exploitation period. (author)

  4. Geothermal Energy Potential in Low Enthalpy Areas as a Future Energy Resource: Identifying Feasible Targets, Quebec, Canada, Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Majorowicz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow of the sedimentary succession of the Eastern Canada Sedimentary Basins varies from 40 mW/m2 close to the exposed shield in the north to high 60–70 mW/m2 in the southwest–northeast St. Lawrence corridor. As high fluid flow rates are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important targets are deep existing permeable aquifers rather than hard rock, which would need to be fracked. Unfortunately, the ten most populated Québec urban centers are in the areas where the Grenville (Canadian Shield is exposed or at shallow depths with sedimentary cover where temperatures are 30 °C or less. The city of Drummondville will be the exception, as the basement deepens sharply southwest, and higher temperatures reaching >120 °C are expected in the deep Cambrian sedimentary aquifers near a 4–5-km depth. Deep under the area where such sediments could be occurring under Appalachian nappes, temperatures significantly higher than 140 °C are predicted. In parts of the deep basin, temperatures as high as 80 °C–120 °C exist at depths of 3–4 km, mainly southeast of the major geological boundary: the Logan line. There is a large amount of heat resource at such depths to be considered in this area for district heating.

  5. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Cross

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the GTP’s involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including GHPs.† The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  6. Environmental Assessment Lakeview Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treis, Tania [Southern Oregon Economic Development Department, Medford, OR (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The Town of Lakeview is proposing to construct and operate a geothermal direct use district heating system in Lakeview, Oregon. The proposed project would be in Lake County, Oregon, within the Lakeview Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA). The proposed project includes the following elements: Drilling, testing, and completion of a new production well and geothermal water injection well; construction and operation of a geothermal production fluid pipeline from the well pad to various Town buildings (i.e., local schools, hospital, and Lake County Industrial Park) and back to a geothermal water injection well. This EA describes the proposed project, the alternatives considered, and presents the environmental analysis pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. The project would not result in adverse effects to the environment with the implementation of environmental protection measures.

  7. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    Small businesses are the cornerstone of the American economy. Over 22 million small businesses account for approximately 99% of employers, employ about half of the private sector workforce, and are responsible for about two-thirds of net new jobs. Many small businesses fared better than the Fortune 500 in 2001. Non-farm proprietors income rose 2.4% in 2001 while corporate profits declined 7.2%. Yet not all is rosy for small businesses, particularly new ones. One-third close within two years of opening. From 1989 to 1992, almost half closed within four years; only 39.5% were still open after six years. Why do some new businesses thrive and some fail? What helps a new business succeed? Industry knowledge, business and financial planning, and good management. Small geothermal businesses are no different. Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A recent survey of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop many of these sites into thriving small businesses. The ''Geothermal Small Business Workbook'' (''Workbook'') was written to give geothermal entrepreneurs, small businesses, and developers the tools they need to understand geothermal applications--both direct use and small-scale power generation--and to write a business and financing plan. The Workbook will: Provide background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; Refer you to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations; Break down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps; Lead you

  8. An Investigation of the 3D Electrical Resistivity Structure in the Chingshui Geothermal Area, NE Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chingshui geothermal area southwest of the Ilan plain is identified as a western extension of the Okinawa Trough in the northern Taiwan subduction system. Numerous geophysical, geological and geochemical investigations have been conducted since the 1970s by the Industrial Technology Research Institute, the Chinese Petroleum Corporation of Taiwan and the National Science Council of Taiwan. These studies indicated that the Chingshui stream is one of the largest geothermal areas for electricity generation in Taiwan. However, the power generation efficiency has not met initial expectations. Magnetotelluric (MT data analyses show that the Chingshui geothermal region is a geologically complex area. A full three-dimensional (3D inversion was therefore applied to reprocess the MT data and provide the detailed electrical structure beneath the Chingshui geothermal region. The 3D geoelectrical model displays an improved image that clearly delineates the Chingshui geothermal system geometry. Two conductive anomalies are imaged that possibly indicate high potential areas for geothermal energy in the Chingshui geothermal system. One of the potential areas is located in the eastern part of the Chingshui Fault at shallow depths. A significant conductive anomaly is associated with high heat flow and fluid content situations southwest of the geothermal manifest area at depth. A higher interconnected fluid indicates that this area contains the highest potential for geothermal energy in the Chingshui geothermal system.

  9. Geothermal Economics Calculator (GEC) - additional modifications to final report as per GTP's request.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowda, Varun; Hogue, Michael

    2015-07-17

    This report will discuss the methods and the results from economic impact analysis applied to the development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), conventional hydrothermal, low temperature geothermal and coproduced fluid technologies resulting in electric power production. As part of this work, the Energy & Geoscience Institute (EGI) has developed a web-based Geothermal Economics Calculator (Geothermal Economics Calculator (GEC)) tool that is aimed at helping the industry perform geothermal systems analysis and study the associated impacts of specific geothermal investments or technological improvements on employment, energy and environment. It is well-known in the industry that geothermal power projects will generate positive economic impacts for their host regions. Our aim in the assessment of these impacts includes quantification of the increase in overall economic output due to geothermal projects and of the job creation associated with this increase. Such an estimate of economic impacts of geothermal investments on employment, energy and the environment will also help us understand the contributions that the geothermal industry will have in achieving a sustainable path towards energy production.

  10. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Discussion is presented under the following section headings: background and some technical characteristics of geothermal resources; geology and geohydrology, geophysics, and, conclusions regarding availability of geothermal energy for nonelectric uses; agricultural assessment of Lake County, site assessment for potential agricultural development, analysis of potential agricultural applications, special application of low cost geothermal energy to algae harvesting, development of an integrated agribusiness, geothermal complex in Lake County, analysis of individual enterprises, and, recommendations for subsequent work; demographic characteristics, economic condition and perspective of Lake County, economic impact of geothermal in Lake County, social and economic factors related to geothermal resource development, socioeconomic impact of nonelectric uses of geothermal energy, and, identification of direct heat applications of geothermal energy for Lake County based on selected interviews; cost estimate procedure, example, justification of procedure, and, typical costs and conclusions; and, recommended prefeasibility and feasibility studies related to construction of facilities for nonelectric applications of geothermal resource utilization. (JGB)

  11. INTEGRATED EXPLORATION OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Alkhasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim. The aim is to develop the energy efficient technologies to explore hydro geothermal resources of different energy potential.Methods. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technologies has been carried out with the use of physical and mathematical, thermodynamic and optimization methods of calculation and the physical and chemical experimental research.Results. We propose the technology of integrated exploration of low-grade geothermal resources with the application of heat and water resource potential on various purposes. We also argue for the possibility of effective exploration of geothermal resources by building a binary geothermal power plant using idle oil and gas wells. We prove the prospect of geothermal steam and gas technologies enabling highly efficient use of thermal water of low energy potential (80 - 100 ° C degrees to generate electricity; the prospects of complex processing of high-temperature geothermal brine of Tarumovsky field. Thermal energy is utilized in a binary geothermal power plant in the supercritical Rankine cycle operating with a low-boiling agent. The low temperature spent brine from the geothermal power plant with is supplied to the chemical plant, where the main chemical components are extracted - lithium carbonate, magnesium burning, calcium carbonate and sodium chloride. Next, the waste water is used for various water management objectives. Electricity generated in the binary geothermal power plant is used for the extraction of chemical components.Conclusions. Implementation of the proposed technologies will facilitate the most efficient development of hydro geothermal resources of the North Caucasus region. Integrated exploration of the Tarumovsky field resources will fully meet Russian demand for lithium carbonate and sodium chloride.

  12. Geothermal heat-pump systems of heat supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    The data on the multilayer operation of the objects, located in the climatic conditions of the central area of Russia and equipped with the geothermal heat-pumping systems of the heat supply are presented. The results of the analytical studies on evaluating the geothermal heat-pumping systems of the heat supply integration efficiency into the structure of the energy supply system, prevailing in the country, are presented [ru

  13. Numerical Simulation of Nanofluid Suspensions in a Geothermal Heat Exchanger

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Hui Sun; Hongbin Yan; Mehrdad Massoudi; Zhi-Hua Chen; Wei-Tao Wu

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that using nanofluids as heat carrier fluids enhances the conductive and convective heat transfer of geothermal heat exchangers. In this paper, we study the stability of nanofluids in a geothermal exchanger by numerically simulating nanoparticle sedimentation during a shut-down process. The nanofluid suspension is modeled as a non-linear complex fluid; the nanoparticle migration is modeled by a particle flux model, which includes the effects of Brownian motion, gravity, turb...

  14. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denninger, Kate; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Bell, Sean; Jacobs, Amelia; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Tilley, Mitch; Quick, Ralph

    2015-09-02

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling. This study of drilling operations seeks opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies. The scope of this study included analyzing 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'Perfect Well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.) and poor data collection practices An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate figures for analysis. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/ equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averaged 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million was spent on non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells, compared with only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry using Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time services, and official glossary terms to describe rig operations, and advanced drilling rigs/technology.

  15. Population analysis relative to geothermal energy development, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pick, J.B.; Jung, T.H.; Butler, E.

    1977-01-01

    The historical and current population characteristics of Imperial County, California, are examined. These include vital rates, urbanization, town sizes, labor force composition, income, utility usage, and ethnic composition. Inferences are drawn on some of the important social and economic processes. Multivariate statistical analysis is used to study present relationships between variables. Population projections for the County were performed under historical, standard, and geothermal projection assumptions. The transferability of methods and results to other geothermal regions anticipating energy development is shown. (MHR)

  16. Goechemical and Hydrogeochemical Properties of Cappadocia Geothermal Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furkan Sener, Mehmet; Sener, Mehmet; Uysal, Tonguc

    2016-04-01

    In order to determine the geothermal resource potential of Niǧde, Nevşehir and Aksaray provinces in Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP), geothermal fluids, surface water, and alteration rock samples from the Cappadocia volcanic zone in Turkey were investigated for their geochemical and stable isotopic characteristics in light of published geological and tectonic studies. Accordingly, the Cappadocia Geothermal Province (CGP) has two different geothermal systems located along tectonic zones including five active and two potential geothermal fields, which are located between Tuzgölü Fault Zone and Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault and north of Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault. Based on water chemistry and isotope compositions, samples from the first area are characterized by Ca-Mg-HCO3 ve Ca-HCO3 type mineral poor waters and Ca-Na-SO4 and Ca-Mg-SO4 type for the cold waters and the hot waters, respectively, whereas hot waters from the second area are Na-Cl-HCO3 and Ca-Na-HCO3 type mineral poor waters. According to δ18O and δ2H isotope studies, the geothermal waters are fed from meteoric waters. Results of silica geothermometer indicate that the reservoir temperature of Dertalan, Melendiz Mount, Keçiboyduran Mount, Hasan Mount (Keçikalesi), Ziga, Acıgöl, and Derinkuyu geothermal waters are 150-173 oC, 88-117 oC, 91-120 oC, 94-122 oC, 131-156 oC, 157-179 oC; 152-174 oC and 102-130 oC, respectively. The REE composition of geothermal fluids, surface water, and mineral precipitates indicate that temperature has a strong effect on REE fractionation of the sampled fluids. Eu- and Ce- anomalies (Eu/Eu*, Ce/Ce*) are visible in several samples, which are related to the inheritance from the host reservoir rocks and redox-controlled fractionation of these elements during water-rock interactions. REE and Yttrium geochemistry results of altered rock samples and water samples, which were taken from same locations exhibited quite similar features in each system. Hence, it was

  17. Geothermal Information Dissemination and Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clutter, Ted J. [Geothermal Resources Council (United States)

    2005-02-18

    Project Purpose. To enhance technological and topical information transfer in support of industry and government efforts to increase geothermal energy use in the United States (power production, direct use, and geothermal groundsource heat pumps). Project Work. GRC 2003 Annual Meeting. The GRC convened the meeting on Oct. 12-15, 2003, at Morelia's Centro de Convenciones y ExpoCentro in Mexico under the theme, International Collaboration for Geothermal Energy in the Americas. The event was also sponsored by the Comision Federal de Electricidad. ~600 participants from more than 20 countries attended the event. The GRC convened a Development of Geothermal Projects Workshop and Geothermal Exploration Techniques Workshop. GRC Field Trips included Los Azufres and Paricutin Volcano on Oct. 11. The Geothermal Energy Association (Washington, DC) staged its Geothermal Energy Trade Show. The Annual Meeting Opening Session was convened on Oct. 13, and included the governor of Michoacan, the Mexico Assistant Secretary of Energy, CFE Geothermal Division Director, DOE Geothermal Program Manager, and private sector representatives. The 2003 Annual Meeting attracted 160 papers for oral and poster presentations. GRC 2004. Under the theme, Geothermal - The Reliable Renewable, the GRC 2004 Annual Meeting convened on Aug. 29-Sept. 1, 2004, at the Hyatt Grand Champions Resort at Indian Wells, CA. Estimated total attendance (including Trade Show personnel, guests and accompanying persons) was ~700. The event included a workshop, Geothermal Production Well Pump Installation, Operation and Maintenance. Field trips went to Coso/Mammoth and Imperial Valley/Salton Sea geothermal fields. The event Opening Session featured speakers from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the private sector. The Geothermal Energy Association staged its Geothermal Energy Trade Show. The Geothermal Education Office staged its Geothermal Energy Workshop. Several local radio and

  18. Geological interpretation of Mount Ciremai geothermal system from remote sensing and magneto-teluric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sumintadireja, Prihadi; Saepuloh, Asep; Irawan, Dasapta E.; Irawan, Diky; Fadillah, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of geothermal system at Mount Ciremai has been started since the early 1980s and has just been studied carefully since the early 2000s. Previous studies have detected the potential of geothermal system and also the groundwater mechanism feeding the system. This paper will discuss the geothermal exploration based on regional scale surface temperature analysis with Landsat image to have a more detail interpretation of the geological setting and magneto-telluric or MT survey at p...

  19. The analysis of subsidence associated with geothermal development. Volume 1. Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, R.W.; Finnemore, E.J.; Gillam, M.L.

    1976-09-01

    This study evaluates the state of knowledge of subsidence associated with geothermal development, and provides preliminary methods to assess the potential of land subsidence for any specific geothermal site. The results of this study are presented in three volumes. Volume 1 is designed to serve as a concise reference, a handbook, for the evaluation of the potential for land subsidence from the development of geothermal resources.

  20. Geothermal heating saves energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romsaas, Tor

    2003-01-01

    The article reviews briefly a pioneer project for a construction area of 200000 m''2 with residences, business complexes, a hotel and conference centre and a commercial college in Oslo. The energy conservation potential is estimated to be about 60-70 % compared to direct heating with oil, gas or electricity as sources. There will also be substantial reduction in environmentally damaging emissions. The proposed energy central combines geothermal energy sources with heat pump technology, utilises water as energy carrier and uses terrestrial wells for energy storage. A cost approximation is presented

  1. The comparision of a basic and a dual-pressure ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle): Geothermal Power Plant Velika Ciglena case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzović, Zvonimir; Rašković, Predrag; Blatarić, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    In the Republic of Croatia there is some medium temperature geothermal fields (between 100 and 180 °C) by means of which it is possible to produce electricity. However, only recently concrete initiatives for the construction of geothermal power plants have been started. In previous papers, the possible cycles for geothermal fields in the Republic of Croatia are proposed: ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) and Kalina cycle. Also for the most prospective geothermal fields, energy and exergy analysis for the proposed cycles are performed, on the basis of which the most suitable cycle is proposed. It is ORC which in all cases has better both the thermal efficiency (the First Law efficiency) and the exergy efficiency (the Second Law efficiency). With aim to further improving of geothermal energy utilization in this paper the replacement of a basic ORC with a dual-pressure ORC is analysed. A dual-pressure cycle reduces the thermodynamic losses incurred in the geothermal water-working fluid heat exchangers of the basic ORC, which arise through the heat transfer process across a large temperature difference. The dual-pressure cycle maintains a closer match between the geothermal water cooling curve and the working fluid heating/boiling curve and these losses can be reduced. Now, on the example of the most prospective geothermal field, Velika Ciglena (175 °C), energy and exergy analysis for the proposed the dual-pressure cycle are performed. As a conclusion, in case of Geothermal Power Plant Velika Ciglena, a dual-pressure ORC has slightly lower thermal efficiency (13.96% vs. 14.1%) but considerably higher both exergy efficiency (65% vs. 52%) and net power (6371 kW vs. 5270 kW). - Highlights: • In Croatia there are several medium temperature geothermal sources (100–180 °C). • Electricity production is possible in binary plants with ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) or with the Kalina cycle. • In all cases ORC has better thermodynamic characteristics than Kalina cycle.

  2. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes a study initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  3. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This study was initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  4. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Harney County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifford, A.; Beale, K.

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  5. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Deschutes County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifford, A.; Beale, K.

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  6. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Deschutes County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  7. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  8. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  9. Geothermal Energy and its Prospects in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeckas, B.

    1995-01-01

    Data on the geothermal resources in lithuania and on their prospective usage are presented. The analysis covers water horizons of the geothermal anomaly in West Lithuania and their hydrogeology. The energy of the 3 km thick geothermal source was evaluated. Technical and economical possibilities of using geothermal energy in West Lithuania are described. Some aspects of the investment and of the project of a geothermal power plant in Klaipeda are considered. (author). 6 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Outline of geothermal activity in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franko, O.; Bodis, D.; Dendek, M.; Remsik, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that in respect of different geothermal conditions in the Bohemian Massif (unfavorable) and in the West Carpathians (favorable), the development and utilization of geothermal energy are concentrated in Slovakia. THe utilization of geothermal energy for the heating of buildings in spas commenced in 1958. Thermal energy of geothermal waters was used for direct heating through heat exchangers, and in one case by a heat pump. Concentrated continuous development and utilization of geothermal energy started in 1971

  11. Potential of geothermal systems in Picardy

    OpenAIRE

    Dourlat, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal systems are not only about electrical plants or urban heating networks, but also concerned with geothermal energy assisted with a heat pump. In the former region of Picardy (North of France), 97% of the territory is suitable for very low temperature geothermal power. The French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management and the Picardy Region decided in 2016 to finance a facilitator to encourage geothermal use. To carry out this aim, it is important to consider the geothermal...

  12. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  13. EI: A Program for Ecological Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary King

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The program EI provides a method of inferring individual behavior from aggregate data. It implements the statistical procedures, diagnostics, and graphics from the book A Solution to the Ecological Inference Problem: Reconstructing Individual Behavior from Aggregate Data (King 1997. Ecological inference, as traditionally defined, is the process of using aggregate (i.e., "ecological" data to infer discrete individual-level relationships of interest when individual-level data are not available. Ecological inferences are required in political science research when individual-level surveys are unavailable (e.g., local or comparative electoral politics, unreliable (racial politics, insufficient (political geography, or infeasible (political history. They are also required in numerous areas of ma jor significance in public policy (e.g., for applying the Voting Rights Act and other academic disciplines ranging from epidemiology and marketing to sociology and quantitative history.

  14. Narbalek uranium mine: from EIS to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggitt, P.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Nabarlek uranium mine operated in Northern Australia from 1979 until 1989 and was the first of the 'new generation' of uranium mines to go through the cycle of EIS, operation and decommissioning. The paper describes the environmental and operational approval processes, the regulatory regime and the decommissioning procedures at the mine. The mine was located on land owned by indigenous Aboriginal people and so there were serious cultural considerations to be taken into account throughout the mine's life. Site work for decommissioning and rehabilitation was completed in 1995 but revegetation assessment has continued until the present time (1999). The paper concludes with the latest assessment and monitoring data and discusses the lessons learned by all parties from the completion of the cycle of mine life 'from cradle to grave'. (author)

  15. Outcrop analogue study of Permocarboniferous geothermal sandstone reservoir formations (northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany): impact of mineral content, depositional environment and diagenesis on petrophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Achim; Bär, Kristian; Götz, Annette E.; Sass, Ingo

    2016-07-01

    The Permocarboniferous siliciclastic formations represent the largest hydrothermal reservoir in the northern Upper Rhine Graben in SW Germany and have so far been investigated in large-scale studies only. The Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous Saar-Nahe Basin, a Variscan intramontane molasse basin. Due to the subsidence in this graben structure, the top of the up to 2-km-thick Permocarboniferous is located at a depth of 600-2900 m and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. At this depth, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150 °C, which are sufficient for geothermal electricity generation with binary power plants. To further assess the potential of this geothermal reservoir, detailed information on thermophysical and hydraulic properties of the different lithostratigraphical units and their depositional environment is essential. Here, we present an integrated study of outcrop analogues and drill core material. In total, 850 outcrop samples were analyzed, measuring porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Furthermore, 62 plugs were taken from drillings that encountered or intersected the Permocarboniferous at depths between 1800 and 2900 m. Petrographic analysis of 155 thin sections of outcrop samples and samples taken from reservoir depth was conducted to quantify the mineral composition, sorting and rounding of grains and the kind of cementation. Its influence on porosity, permeability, the degree of compaction and illitization was quantified. Three parameters influencing the reservoir properties of the Permocarboniferous were detected. The strongest and most destructive influence on reservoir quality is related to late diagenetic processes. An illitic and kaolinitic cementation and impregnation of bitumina document CO2- and CH4-rich acidic pore water conditions, which are interpreted as fluids that migrated along a hydraulic contact from an underlying Carboniferous hydrocarbon source rock. Migrating

  16. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifford, A.; Beale, K.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

  17. Boron isotopes in geothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, J.

    1997-01-01

    Boron is a highly mobile element and during water-rock reactions, boron is leached out of rocks with no apparent fractionation. In geothermal systems where the water recharging the systems are meteoric in origin, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal fluid reflects the B isotope ratio of the rocks. Seawater has a distinctive B isotope ratio and where seawater recharges the geothermal system, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal system reflects the mixing of rock derived B and seawater derived B. Any deviations of the actual B isotope ratio of a mixture reflects subtle differences in the water-rock ratios in the cold downwelling limb of the hydrothermal system. This paper will present data from a variety of different geothermal systems, including New Zealand; Iceland; Yellowston, USA; Ibusuki, Japan to show the range in B isotope ratios in active geothermal systems. Some of these systems show well defined mixing trends between seawater and the host rocks, whilst others show the boron isotope ratios of the host rock only. In geothermal systems containing high amounts of CO 2 boron isotope ratios from a volatile B source can also be inferred. (auth)

  18. Cooltel'prep: preliminary study on the potential of geothermal cooling for mobile telephone relays; COOLTEL'PREP: etude preliminaire du potentiel de rafraichissement geothermique pour les relais de telephonie mobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachal, B.; Hollmuller, P. [Centre Universitaire d' Etude des Problemes de l' Energie (CUEPE), University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Pahud, D. [Scuola Universitaria Professionale della Svizzera Italiana (SUPSI), Dipartimento Costruzioni e Territorio (DCT), Lugano (Switzerland); Gauman, A. [ENERGECO, Le Lignon - Geneva (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study carried out on the possibilities of using geothermal probes for the cooling of the electronics used in mobile telephone relay stations and thus help save electrical energy. Topics covered include the information delivered and the estimates made by mobile telephone operators, the requirements placed on a possible geothermal cooling system and experience already gained in this area in Sweden. Two variants are looked at: vertical borehole heat-exchangers and horizontal heat exchangers laid in trenches that have to be dug anyway. The conclusions made by the authors are presented: They are of the opinion that the cooling loads to be expected do not justify in-depth studies. The realisation of one or two pilot installations - possibly with heat-exchangers buried in cable trenches - is recommended, however.

  19. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  20. Geothermal energy. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    As most of the alternative power sources, geothermal energy started being considered as a tentative one during the early 1970s. At that time the world's demand for energy was mostly fed by means of petroleum, coal, gas and other primary materials. The low prices of these raw materials at that time and the lack of general consciousness on the environmental contamination problems caused by the combustion processes did not forecast any significant changes for the coming years. However, as from 1973, a constant raise in prices, specially for liquid fuels, started to take place. A few years later, in the early 1980s, a growing interest for nature and for the delicate equilibrium of the ecological and for systems started to awaken. These facts led several countries to re-evaluate their power resources and to reconsider those showing less negative incidence upon the environment. Among such alternatives, geothermal energy introduces certain features that make it highly advisable for developing countries, in addition to the fact that the mean heat reservoirs are located within this group of nations [es

  1. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash

    2004-03-01

    Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

  2. Geothermal Energy in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Eduardo; Villalba, Fabio

    1999-11-01

    Energy represents an essential element for economy, and for any sustainable development strategy, assuming it is a basic input for all production activities. It is a fundamental contra int for country's competitivity and also a main component of population's standard of life. The Agenda 21 and the General Agreement on Climatic Changes emphasize that the development and sustainable use of energy should promote economy, but taking care of the environment. Under these basic concepts, for the particular case of energy, the sustain ability of development requires the adoption of a strategy which guarantee an energy supply in terms of quality, opportunity, continuity and afford ability and, in addition, without production of negative environmental impacts. Geothermal energy is a serious energetic option for sustainable development, since presents technical and economic advantages for production of electricity at medium and large scale. Furthermore, geothermal energy allows a wide spectrum of direct applications of heat in profitable projects of high social impact as green houses, drying of seeds and wood products, fish farming, recreation and others. All of them can help the increase of communal production activities in rural areas affected by poverty

  3. Estimate of Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Resource in Daqing Oilfield, Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Guangzheng Jiang; Yi Wang; Yizuo Shi; Chao Zhang; Xiaoyin Tang; Shengbiao Hu

    2016-01-01

    Development and utilization of deep geothermal resources, especially a hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource, is beneficial for both economic and environmental consideration in oilfields. This study used data from multiple sources to assess the geothermal energy resource in the Daqing Oilfield. The temperature logs in boreholes (both shallow water wells and deep boreholes) and the drilling stem test temperature were used to create isothermal maps in depths. Upon the temperature field and the...

  4. Geothermal Alteration of Basaltic Core from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Christopher Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Snake River Plain is located in the southern part of the state of Idaho. The eastern plain, on which this study focuses, is a trail of volcanics from the Yellowstone hotspot. Three exploratory geothermal wells were drilled on the Snake River Plain. This project analyzes basaltic core from the first well at Kimama, north of Burley, Idaho. The objectives of this project are to establish zones of geothermal alteration and analyze the potential for geothermal power production using sub-aquife...

  5. Detection of geothermal anomalies in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China from MODIS multi-temporal night LST imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Kusky, T. M.; Peng, S.; Zhu, M.

    2012-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is an important technique in the exploration of geothermal resources. In this study, a geothermal survey is conducted in Tengchong area of Yunnan province in China using multi-temporal MODIS LST (Land Surface Temperature). The monthly night MODIS LST data from Mar. 2000 to Mar. 2011 of the study area were collected and analyzed. The 132 month average LST map was derived and three geothermal anomalies were identified. The findings of this study agree well with the results from relative geothermal gradient measurements. Finally, we conclude that TIR remote sensing is a cost-effective technique to detect geothermal anomalies. Combining TIR remote sensing with geological analysis and the understanding of geothermal mechanism is an accurate and efficient approach to geothermal area detection.

  6. Design and optimization of geothermal power generation, heating, and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Mehmet

    Most of the world's geothermal power plants have been built in 1970s and 1980s following 1973 oil crisis. Urgency to generate electricity from alternative energy sources and the fact that geothermal energy was essentially free adversely affected careful designs of plants which would maximize their performance for a given geothermal resource. There are, however, tremendous potentials to improve performance of many existing geothermal power plants by retrofitting, optimizing the operating conditions, re-selecting the most appropriate binary fluid in binary plants, and considering cogeneration such as a district heating and/or cooling system or a system to preheat water entering boilers in industrial facilities. In this dissertation, some representative geothermal resources and existing geothermal power plants in Nevada are investigated to show these potentials. Economic analysis of a typical geothermal resource shows that geothermal heating and cooling may generate up to 3 times as much revenue as power generation alone. A district heating/cooling system is designed for its incorporation into an existing 27 MW air-cooled binary geothermal power plant. The system as designed has the capability to meet the entire heating needs of an industrial park as well as 40% of its cooling needs, generating potential revenues of $14,040,000 per year. A study of the power plant shows that evaporative cooling can increase the power output by up to 29% in summer by decreasing the condenser temperature. The power output of the plant can be increased by 2.8 percent by optimizing the maximum pressure in the cycle. Also, replacing the existing working fluid isobutane by butane, R-114, isopentane, and pentane can increase the power output by up to 2.5 percent. Investigation of some well-known geothermal power generation technologies as alternatives to an existing 12.8 MW single-flash geothermal power plant shows that double-flash, binary, and combined flash/binary designs can increase the

  7. Geothermal energy program summary: Volume 1: Overview Fiscal Year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Geothermal energy is a here-and-now technology for use with dry steam resources and high-quality hydrothermal liquids. These resources are supplying about 6 percent of all electricity used in California. However, the competitiveness of power generation using lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma still depends on the technology improvements sought by the DOE Geothermal Energy R and D Program. The successful outcome of the R and D initiatives will serve to benefit the U.S. public in a number of ways. First, if a substantial portion of our geothermal resources can be used economically, they will add a very large source of secure, indigenous energy to the nation's energy supply. In addition, geothermal plants can be brought on line quickly in case of a national energy emergency. Geothermal energy is also a highly reliable resource, with very high plant availability. For example, new dry steam plants at The Geysers are operable over 99 percent of the time, and the small flash plant in Hawaii, only the second in the United States, has an availability factor of 98 percent. Geothermal plants also offer a viable baseload alternative to fossil and nuclear plants -- they are on line 24 hours a day, unaffected by diurnal or seasonal variations. The hydrothermal power plants with modern emission control technology have proved to have minimal environmental impact. The results to date with geopressured and hot dry rock resources suggest that they, too, can be operated so as to reduce environmental effects to well within the limits of acceptability. Preliminary studies on magma are also encouraging. In summary, the character and potential of geothermal energy, together with the accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal R and D Program, ensure that this huge energy resource will play a major role in future U.S. energy markets.

  8. Report on achievements in fiscal 1974 in Sunshine Project. Study on hot water systems in geothermal areas; 1974 nendo chinetsu chiiki no netsusuikei ni kansuru kenkyu seika chukan hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This study has begun in fiscal 1973 under a five year plan with an objective to elucidate origin and maintenance of reservoirs of geothermal fluids. To achieve the objective, estimation was made on the systems of infiltration, storage and gushing of the fluids, particularly on infiltration areas. In the hydraulic flow rate study, observation was carried out in the Onikubi area on amount of rainfall, air pressures, temperatures, electric conductivity, and pH, and in ten fluid sources on flow rates, temperatures and pH. Flow rate observation was started at three rivers. In the Kuju area, flow rate observation was started on four fluid sources. Observations were started on temperatures, electric conductivity, flow rates, amount of rainfall by using the Takenoyu geothermal steal wells, and on amount of rainfall in the Teraono and Hacchobara areas. In the study of isotopic geology, site analyses and water collection were carried out in the Kuju area for underground water in six locations, hot spring water in seven locations, and 17 test samples from two geothermal wells. As a study on reservoirs, observation was started in the southern Hachimantai area on measurement of ground fluctuation in association with steam collection. In parallel, fracture survey and gravity measurement were carried out. In order to investigate transformed geology, analytic samples were collected from 12 survey wells in the Onikubi area. A spinner flow mater was tested in that area. (NEDO)

  9. Environmental impact in geothermal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkle, P.; Torres R, V.; Gonzalez P, E.; Guevara G, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generally, water exploitation and deep steam of geothermal fields may be cause of a pollution potential on the surface, specially by the chemical composition of geothermal water which has a high concentration of minerals, salts and heavy metals. The utilization of stable isotopes as deuterium and oxygen 18 as radioactive tracers and water origin indicators allow to know the trajectories and sources of background waters as well as possible moistures between geothermal waters and meteoric waters. Some ions such as chlorides and fluorides present solubilities that allow their register as yet long distances of their source. (Author)

  10. An integrated study of fluid–rock interaction in a CO2-based enhanced geothermal system: A case study of Songliao Basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Jin; Xu, Tianfu; Yuan, Yilong; Feng, Bo; Tian, Hailong; Bao, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluated the interactions between rock, brine, and CO 2 in CO 2 -EGS using laboratory experiments. • We examined changes of the dissolved ionic composition of the solution. • Minerals dissolve (feldspar and calcite) or precipitate (secondly carbonates). • We used numerical simulations to reproduce chemical processes of CO 2 -EGS. • Numerical simulations were generally consistent with experimental results. - Abstract: The reactive behavior of a mixture of supercritical CO 2 and brine under physical–chemical conditions relevant to the CO 2 -based Enhanced Geothermal System (CO 2 -EGS) is largely unknown. Thus, laboratory experiments and numerical simulations were employed in this study to investigate the fluid–rock interaction occurring in the CO 2 -EGS. Rock samples and thermal–physical conditions specific to the Yingcheng Formation of Songliao Basin, China, an EGS research site, were used. Experiments were conducted by using of reactors at high temperature and pressure. Six batch reaction experiments injected with supercritical CO 2 were designed at temperatures of 150–170 °C and a pressure of 35 MPa. Moreover, a separate experiment at the same experimental conditions without injection of CO 2 was also conducted for comparison. Analyses of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the resulting solids were conducted to characterize changes in mineral phases. Numerical simulations were also performed under the same conditions as those used in the experiments. Significant mineral alterations were detected at the CO 2 -EGS reservoir, which may change the properties of fluid flow. The presence of supercritical CO 2 led to an dissolution of primary minerals such as calcite and K-feldspar and precipitations of secondary carbonate such as calcite and ankerite. The numerical simulations were generally consistent with laboratory experiments, which provide a tool for scaling the time up for long period of reservoir

  11. Geochemical study of the Sakalol-Harralol geothermal field (Republic of Djibouti): Evidences of a low enthalpy aquifer between Manda-Inakir and Asal rift settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaleh, Mohamed Osman; Boschetti, Tiziano; Soubaneh, Youssouf Djibril; Baudron, Paul; Kawalieh, Ali Dirir; Dabar, Omar Assowe; Ahmed, Moussa Mahdi; Ahmed, Samaleh Idriss; Daoud, Mohamed Ahmed; Egueh, Nima Moussa; Mohamed, Jalludin

    2017-02-01

    Eighty-six sodium bicarbonate to sodium chloride hot springs and four water wells in the Tadjourah Region of Djibouti were investigated for major, minor (B, Br, F, Sr, Li) chemistry and isotope composition of water and dissolved components (87Sr/86Sr, 11B/10B, 13C/12C and 14C of DIC, 34S/32S and 18O/16O of sulfate). The deep saline Na-Cl reservoir at 143 °C shows affinity with the shallow geothermal water from the "active" Asal rift. Asal water is a diluted and recycled seawater component with the major cation composition obliterated by equilibration with Stratoid basalt. Locally, the deep reservoir is differentiated in term of recharge, and re-equilibration with rocks and mixing. In particular, two spring groups reveal contributions from evaporites typical of the "passive" graben setting of the Afar. A model on 34S/32S and 18O/16O demonstrates the isotope imprint of magmatic SO2 disproportionation on dissolved and solid sulfate, whose values probably persists in a sedimentary environment without trace of seawater. On the other hand a seawater signature, modified by mixing and secondary fractionation effects, is partially maintained according to the boron isotope composition (up to + 27.4‰). Temperature estimation in low-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs is notoriously difficult, especially where mixing with fluids of differing genesis and/or conduction cooling take place. From a geothermometric point of view, the multi-method approach followed in this study (up-to-date theoretical and thermodynamic equations, ad-hoc silica geothermometers inferred from local rocks, checking of the results on a 18Oαsulfate-water vs. temperature diagram) provides some insights and perspectives on how to tackle the problem. Table S2. Sampling locations, T, pH, EC, TDS and hydrochemical types of the sampled waters. Table S3. Chemical analyses of thermal and cold waters from Sakalaol-Haralol geothermal field. Table S4. Mineral saturation indices of SHGF hot springs waters calculated

  12. Third workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P. (eds.)

    1977-12-15

    Workshop under the Stanford Geothermal Program was supported by a grant from DOE through a subcontract with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory of the University of California. A second significant event was the first conference under the ERDA (DOE)-ENEL cooperative program where many of the results of well testing in both nations were discussed. The Proceedings of that conference should be an important contribution to the literature. These Proceedings of the Third Workshop should also make an important contribution to the literature on geothermal reservoir engineering. Much of the data presented at the Workshop were given for the first time, and full technical papers on these subjects will appear in the professional journals. The results of these studies will assist markedly in developing the research programs to be supported by the Federal agencies, and in reducing the costs of research for individual developers and utilities. It is expected that future workshops of the Stanford Geothermal Program will be as successful as this third one. Planning and execution of the Workshop... [see file; ljd, 10/3/2005] The Program Committee recommended two novel sessions for the Third Workshop, both of which were included in the program. The first was the three overviews given at the Workshop by George Pinder (Princeton) on the Academic aspect, James Bresee (DOE-DGE) on the Government aspect, and Charles Morris (Phillips Petroleum) on the Industry aspect. These constituted the invited slate of presentations from the several sectors of the geothermal community. The Program Committee acknowledges their contributions with gratitude. Recognition of the importance of reservoir assurance in opting for geothermal resources as an alternate energy source for electric energy generation resulted in a Panel Session on Various Definitions of Geothermal Reservoirs. Special acknowledgments are offered to Jack Howard and Werner Schwarz (LBL) and to Jack Howard as moderator; to the panelists: James Leigh

  13. Study on scale formation and suppression in heat-exchange systems for simulated geothermal brines. Final report, January 12, 1976-March 5, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.S.; King, J.E.; Bullard, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    Control of scale formation in heat exchangers using simulated geothermal waters can be achieved by lowering the pH of the water to pH 6 or lower. This does not, however, appear to be an economic approach for highly buffered geothermal brines and would lead to severe corrosion problems. Two commercial scale control agents, Calgon CL-165 and Monsanto Dequest 2060, showed promise of effecting scaling in a minor way and should be tested further on actual geothermal waters. Other scale control methods tested were unsuccessful. These included seeding experiments, turbulence promotin and electostatic and electromagnetic devices reputated to modify scale formation. The experiments were performed with tube-in-shell heat exchangers using simulated geothermal waters prepared from a salt dome solution based brine. The scale formed was primarily silica with a small percent of calcium carbonate and traces of magnesium and iron. Physically it was a hydrous soft solid adhering only lightly to the heat exchange surface. This is not typical of geothermal water scales encountered in high temperature brine operations and the results of the scale control expeirments should be evaluated with that in mind.

  14. Performance analyses of a hybrid geothermal–fossil power generation system using low-enthalpy geothermal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiang; Shang, Linlin; Duan, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Geothermal energy is used to preheat the feedwater in a coal-fired power unit. • The performance of a hybrid geothermal–fossil power generation system is analyzed. • Models for both parallel and serial geothermal preheating schemes are presented. • Effects of geothermal source temperatures, distances and heat losses are analyzed. • Power increase of the hybrid system over an ORC and tipping distance are discussed. - Abstract: Low-enthalpy geothermal heat can be efficiently utilized for feedwater preheating in coal-fired power plants by replacing some of the high-grade steam that can then be used to generate more power. This study analyzes a hybrid geothermal–fossil power generation system including a supercritical 1000 MW power unit and a geothermal feedwater preheating system. This study models for parallel and serial geothermal preheating schemes and analyzes the thermodynamic performance of the hybrid geothermal–fossil power generation system for various geothermal resource temperatures. The models are used to analyze the effects of the temperature matching between the geothermal water and the feedwater, the heat losses and pumping power during the geothermal water transport and the resource distance and temperature on the power increase to improve the power generation. The serial geothermal preheating (SGP) scheme generally generates more additional power than the parallel geothermal preheating (PGP) scheme for geothermal resource temperatures of 100–130 °C, but the SGP scheme generates slightly less additional power than the PGP scheme when the feedwater is preheated to as high a temperature as possible before entering the deaerator for geothermal resource temperatures higher than 140 °C. The additional power decreases as the geothermal source distance increases since the pipeline pumping power increases and the geothermal water temperature decreases due to heat losses. More than 50% of the power decrease is due to geothermal

  15. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C L [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure

  16. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Casie L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cabe, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-20

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure

  17. The deep geothermal project in Lavey, Switzerland - Phase B: Technical and financial feasibility study - Synthesis report; Projet de geothermie profonde a Lavey (VD). Phase B : Etude de faisabilite technicofinanciere - Rapport de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchetti, G.; Crestin, G. [Alpgeo Sarl, Sierre (Switzerland); Dewarrat, P.; Perritaz, D. [Energie Concept SA, Bulle, (Switzerland)] [and others

    2009-06-15

    An overview of the deep geothermal project in Lavey, Switzerland is presented. The site is located near the Rhone river, where this river crosses a mountain chain in the Alps. The geology of the region is described. A well known spa is located in Lavey. The aim of the project is to generate power and deliver heat to a local district heating. Two wells should be bored to capture underground water at an appropriate temperature. The present report summarises the previous studies and focuses on the technical and financial feasibility of the future cogeneration plant. In particular, it presents the foreseen installations and the potential heat users. The costs are estimated in several possible boring scenarios. The most promising strategy is similar to that adopted decades ago in the Austrian spa of Bad Blumau. It combines geothermal energy and biomass. A business plan is presented. Recommendations for the next steps are given.

  18. Geochemical study of water-rock interaction processes on geothermal systems of alkaline water in granitic massif; Estudio geoquimico de los procesos de interaccion agua-roca sobre sistemas goetermales de aguas alcalinas en granitoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buil gutierrez, B; Garcia Sanz, S; Lago San Jose, M; Arranz Uague, E; Auque Sanz, L [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    The study of geothermal systems developed within granitic massifs (with alkaline waters and reducing ORP values) is a topic of increasing scientific interest. These systems are a perfect natural laboratory for studying the water-rock interaction processes as they are defined by three main features: 1) long residence time of water within the system, 2) temperature in the reservoir high enough to favour reaction kinetics and finally, 3) the comparison of the chemistry of the incoming and outgoing waters of the system allows for the evaluation of the processes that have modified the water chemistry and its signature, The four geothermal systems considered in this paper are developed within granitic massifs of the Spanish Central Pyrenes; these systems were studied from a geochemical point of view, defining the major, trace and REE chemistry of both waters and host rocks and then characterizing the composition and geochemical evolution of the different waters. Bicarbonate-chloride-sodic and bicarbonate-sodic compositions are the most representative of the water chemistry in the deep geothermal system, as they are not affected by secondary processes (mixing, conductive cooling, etc). (Author)

  19. Deep geothermal processes acting on faults and solid tides in coastal Xinzhou geothermal field, Guangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guoping; Wang, Xiao; Li, Fusi; Xu, Fangyiming; Wang, Yanxin; Qi, Shihua; Yuen, David

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigated the deep fault thermal flow processes in the Xinzhou geothermal field in the Yangjiang region of Guangdong Province. Deep faults channel geothermal energy to the shallow ground, which makes it difficult to study due to the hidden nature. We conducted numerical experiments in order to investigate the physical states of the geothermal water inside the fault zone. We view the deep fault as a fast flow path for the thermal water from the deep crust driven up by the buoyancy. Temperature measurements at the springs or wells constrain the upper boundary, and the temperature inferred from the Currie temperature interface bounds the bottom. The deepened boundary allows the thermal reservoir to revolve rather than to be at a fixed temperature. The results detail the concept of a thermal reservoir in terms of its formation and heat distribution. The concept also reconciles the discrepancy in reservoir temperatures predicted from both quartz and Na-K-Mg. The downward displacement of the crust increases the pressure at the deep ground and leads to an elevated temperature and a lighter water density. Ultimately, our results are a first step in implementing numerical studies of deep faults through geothermal water flows; future works need to extend to cases of supercritical states. This approach is applicable to general deep-fault thermal flows and dissipation paths for the seismic energy from the deep crust.

  20. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... issues and impacts. The transmittal letter to EPA as well as the cover sheet should clearly identify the...