WorldWideScience

Sample records for geothermal development promotion

  1. Development of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the geothermal development promotion survey project. NEDO is taking the lead in investigation and development to reduce risks for private business entities and promote their development. The program is being moved forward by dividing the surveys into three ranks of A, B and C from prospects of geothermal resource availability and the state of data accumulation. The survey A lacks number of data, but covers areas as wide as 100 to 300 km{sup 2}, and studies possible existence of high-temperature geothermal energy. The survey B covers areas of 50 to 70 km{sup 2}, investigates availability of geothermal resources, and assesses environmental impacts. The survey C covers areas of 5 to 10 km{sup 2}, and includes production well drilling and long-term discharge tests, other than those carried out by the surveys A and B. Results derived in each fiscal year are evaluated and judged to establish development plans for the subsequent fiscal year. This paper summarizes development results on 38 areas from among 45 areas surveyed since fiscal 1980. Development promotion surveys were carried out over seven areas in fiscal 1994. Development is in progress not only on utilization of high-temperature steam, but also on binary cycle geothermal power generation utilizing hot waters of 80 to 150{degree}C. Fiscal 1994 has carried out discussions for spread and practical use of the systems (particularly on economic effects), and development of small-to-medium scale binary systems. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. FY1997 geothermal development promotion survey. Development feasibility study 'Ashiro area'; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kaihatsu kanosei chosa (Ashiro chiiki) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    With regard to the Ashiro Town area in Iwate Prefecture, this paper reports the result of evaluations based on temperature and pressure logging after a lapse of an extended period of time (well No.2) and a steam jet test (well No.1). These activities were performed as the survey on promotion of geothermal development and survey on development feasibility in fiscal 1997. As a result of the overall analysis based on the present survey and ones in the past, the geothermal system model in the surveyed area may be conceived as follows: in both of the N7-AR-1 and N7-AR-2 wells drilled in the southern part of the surveyed area, temperature as high as 250 degrees C or higher was confirmed; the underground temperature is 200 degrees C or higher at an altitude level of zero meter and 250 degrees C at around -500 m, leading to a belief that the high temperature area spreads to south; as a fracture system holding geothermal fluid, a fault was identified at the N7-AR-1 well drilling depth of 1710 m; in the steam jet test, a geothermal reservoir (a shallow geothermal reservoir) was confirmed to exist; the geothermal fluid that has jetted out shows alkaline Na-SO{sub 4} type; and the deep geothermal reservoir has high temperature and is presumed to be in the two-phase condition, presenting promising factors as the geothermal resources. (NEDO)

  3. Success in geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefansson, V.

    1992-01-01

    Success in geothermal development can be defined as the ability to produce geothermal energy at compatible energy prices to other energy sources. Drilling comprises usually the largest cost in geothermal development, and the results of drilling is largely influencing the final price of geothermal energy. For 20 geothermal fields with operating power plants, the ratio between installed capacity and the total number of well in the field is 1.9 MWe/well. The drilling history in 30 geothermal fields are analyzed by plotting the average cumulative well outputs as function of the number of wells drilled in the field. The range of the average well output is 1-10 MWe/well with the mean value 4.2 MWe/well for the 30 geothermal fields studied. A leaning curve is defined as the number of wells drilled in each field before the average output per well reaches a fairly constant value, which is characteristic for the geothermal reservoir. The range for this learning time is 4-36 wells and the average is 13 wells. In general, the average well output in a given field is fairly constant after some 10-20 wells has been drilled in the field. The asymptotic average well output is considered to be a reservoir parameter when it is normalized to the average drilling depth. In average, this reservoir parameter can be expressed as 3.3 MWe per drilled km for the 30 geothermal fields studied. The lifetime of the resource or the depletion time of the geothermal reservoir should also be considered as a parameter influencing the success of geothermal development. Stepwise development, where the reservoir response to the utilization for the first step is used to determine the timing of the installment of the next step, is considered to be an appropriate method to minimize the risk for over investment in a geothermal field

  4. Policy for geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, S [Public Utilities Bureau, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan

    1973-01-01

    Government actions related to Japanese geothermal energy development in the past include: a mining and industrial research subsidy of 27 million yen granted to Kyushu Electric Power Co. in 1952, a mining and industrial research subsidy of 13 million yen granted to Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. in 1960, a study on steam production technology for geothermal power generation by Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. funded at 3.5 hundred million yen from the Research Development Corporation of Japan, and a study on steam production technology for large scale geothermal power generation by Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. funded at 7.6 hundred million yen by the Research Development Corporation of Japan. The following projects are planned by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry for 1973: a two-year geothermal power promotion including investigations into the utilization of hot water, new methods for geothermal reservoir detection and steam well drilling, and environmental effects, studies on hydrothermal systems, basic investigations for geothermal indicators in 30 areas, and a means to finance the construction of geothermal power plants in Kakkonda (Iwate Prefecture) and Hatchobara (Oita Prefecture).

  5. FY 1993 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Survey of geothermal water (No.36 - Amemasu-dake area); 1993 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Nessui no chosa hokokusho (No.36 Amemasu dake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion in FY 1993, survey of geothermal fluid was made using a precise structure drilling well N5-AM-5 as exploration well in the Amemasu-dake area, Hokkaido. The induced jetting of geothermal fluid was carried out by the Swabbing method in the total number of times of 185 in 11 days at 10-20 times/day, but did not result in the jetting of geothermal water. The sampling of geothermal water was conducted by guiding the geothermal water that overflowed the guide pipe to the tank. The temperature of geothermal water indicated approximately 20 degrees C in the 1st time and 40-60 degrees C in and after the 2nd time every day. The electric conductivity of geothermal water was 2.033 mS/cm, chlorine ion concentration was 420-500 ppm, and pH value was 7.17-7.72. As a result of the survey, it was presumed that the geothermal water of this well originated in the meteoric water around the area and formed slightly supported by emitted volcanic matters. As to the geochemical temperature, the silica temperature indicated about 120 degrees C and the alkali ratio temperature did about 180 degrees C. It was considered that there possibly existed geothermal reservoirs of approximately 180 degrees C in alkali ratio temperature around the well. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1992 report on geothermal development promotion survey (Development of geothermal reservoir assessment technique); 1989 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa (Chinetsu choryusou hyoka shuho kaihatsu hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Efforts were exerted in fiscal 1984-1992 to develop techniques for appropriately assessing a geothermal reservoir for its productivity for duly predicting the optimum scale of power generation to be provided thereby. In the development of simulators, geothermal reservoir simulators (SING-1, -2, -3) and a geothermal well 2-phase flow simulator (WENG) were developed. As for the treatment of fractures in a reservoir and of substances soluble in the hot water, the methods for dealing with them were improved and augmented. In a model field study in a Hokkaido forest, reservoir pressure continuous observation and monitoring, temperature logging and pressure logging for existing wells, and geothermal fluid chemical analysis were performed for reservoir analysis, in which both natural state simulation and history mapping excellently reproduced the temperature and pressure distributions. The temperature and pressure distributions in a natural state simulation, out of the results of an analysis of the Oguni district model field, Kumamoto Prefecture, agreed not only with those in the natural state but also with the pressure transition data in the observation well. (NEDO)

  7. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-7. Kuwanosawa area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey B 'Kuwanosawa area' which was carried out in Yuzawa city, Akita prefecture, from FY 1998 to FY 1999. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: geology/alteration zone survey, gravity exploration, electromagnetic exploration, environmental effect survey, well geology survey by drilling structural boreholes of N11-KN-1 and N12-KN-2, cuttings test, temperature log, temperature recovery test, electrical log, water injection test, etc. The geology in the Kuwanosawa area is composed of Pre-neogene period basement rocks, Neogene system and Quaternary system. In this area, there were recognized no gush of geothermal fluids such as hot spring and fumarolic gas and no obvious geothermal manifestation such as high-temperature places and new geothermal alteration zones. Around N12-KN-2, there exists the geothermal water with comparatively high-temperature/high-Cl concentration which is similar to that in the Wasabizawa area, but how it flows is unknown because there was no lost circulation in the depths of the borehole. Around N11-KN-1, there exists the low-temperature/low-Cl concentration geothermal water originating in meteoric water, and therefore, the area can be a rechargeable area. The Kuwanosawa area is regarded as the periphery of the Wasabizawa-Akinomiya geothermal area. (NEDO)

  8. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-7. Kuwanosawa area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey B 'Kuwanosawa area' which was carried out in Yuzawa city, Akita prefecture, from FY 1998 to FY 1999. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: geology/alteration zone survey, gravity exploration, electromagnetic exploration, environmental effect survey, well geology survey by drilling structural boreholes of N11-KN-1 and N12-KN-2, cuttings test, temperature log, temperature recovery test, electrical log, water injection test, etc. The geology in the Kuwanosawa area is composed of Pre-neogene period basement rocks, Neogene system and Quaternary system. In this area, there were recognized no gush of geothermal fluids such as hot spring and fumarolic gas and no obvious geothermal manifestation such as high-temperature places and new geothermal alteration zones. Around N12-KN-2, there exists the geothermal water with comparatively high-temperature/high-Cl concentration which is similar to that in the Wasabizawa area, but how it flows is unknown because there was no lost circulation in the depths of the borehole. Around N11-KN-1, there exists the low-temperature/low-Cl concentration geothermal water originating in meteoric water, and therefore, the area can be a rechargeable area. The Kuwanosawa area is regarded as the periphery of the Wasabizawa-Akinomiya geothermal area. (NEDO)

  9. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  10. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.36. Mt. Amemasudake area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 36 Amemasudake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Amemasudake area' which was carried out at Akaigawa village, Yoichi county, Hokkaido, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey, gravity exploration, electromagnetic exploration and electric exploration, core test by drilling 5 boreholes, test to induce jetting of geothermal fluids, measurement of in-borehole temperature/pressure, survey of geochemical properties of geothermal water. As to the fracture system in this area, the Amemasudake fault and the Amemasuzawa fault are especially important, and it was assumed that these faults had relation to the present geothermal distribution. It is thought that structural conditions of geothermal reservoirs are fractures in basement rocks. As a result of the borehole survey, it was indicated that the center of the high-temperature part with a temperature of 250 degrees C or more was in the boundary zone southeast of this area at a level of 500m below sea level. The scale, which reached about 3km both in east/west and north/south, is almost the same scale as that of the neighboring Toyoha area where great potentiality of the geothermal development is expected. (NEDO)

  11. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.36. Mt. Amemasudake area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 36 Amemasudake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Amemasudake area' which was carried out at Akaigawa village, Yoichi county, Hokkaido, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey, gravity exploration, electromagnetic exploration and electric exploration, core test by drilling 5 boreholes, test to induce jetting of geothermal fluids, measurement of in-borehole temperature/pressure, survey of geochemical properties of geothermal water. As to the fracture system in this area, the Amemasudake fault and the Amemasuzawa fault are especially important, and it was assumed that these faults had relation to the present geothermal distribution. It is thought that structural conditions of geothermal reservoirs are fractures in basement rocks. As a result of the borehole survey, it was indicated that the center of the high-temperature part with a temperature of 250 degrees C or more was in the boundary zone southeast of this area at a level of 500m below sea level. The scale, which reached about 3km both in east/west and north/south, is almost the same scale as that of the neighboring Toyoha area where great potentiality of the geothermal development is expected. (NEDO)

  12. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.C-2. Wasabizawa area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.C-2 Wasabizawa chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of the geothermal development promotion survey - Wasabizawa area which was carried out in Yuzawa City and Ogachi Town, Akita Prefecture, from FY 1993 to FY 1996. In the survey, the following were conducted: surface survey such as geological alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, gravity survey and electromagnetic exploration, temperature log by drilling 9 exploration wells, short-term/long-term jetting test, etc. Further, using the data obtained from these, analysis was made of geology/reservoir structure, thermal structure, geothermal water/hydraulic structure, geothermal system models, etc. As a result, a high-temperature (about 300 degrees C) zone promising as the geothermal development area was picked out, and the existence was confirmed of a dominant geothermal reservoir around the fault. In the jetting test, a total steam amount of 111.6 t/h was confirmed, and from the reservoir simulation, the result was obtained that there was a high possibility of 30-year power generation of 30MW/y. As a result of studying 'a power generation system by small-scale unit serial development' considering regional characteristics in the Wasabizawa area, the power generation cost (sending end, 15-year average) was estimated at approximately 9-10 yen/kWh. (NEDO)

  13. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.C-2. Wasabizawa area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.C-2 Wasabizawa chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of the geothermal development promotion survey - Wasabizawa area which was carried out in Yuzawa City and Ogachi Town, Akita Prefecture, from FY 1993 to FY 1996. In the survey, the following were conducted: surface survey such as geological alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, gravity survey and electromagnetic exploration, temperature log by drilling 9 exploration wells, short-term/long-term jetting test, etc. Further, using the data obtained from these, analysis was made of geology/reservoir structure, thermal structure, geothermal water/hydraulic structure, geothermal system models, etc. As a result, a high-temperature (about 300 degrees C) zone promising as the geothermal development area was picked out, and the existence was confirmed of a dominant geothermal reservoir around the fault. In the jetting test, a total steam amount of 111.6 t/h was confirmed, and from the reservoir simulation, the result was obtained that there was a high possibility of 30-year power generation of 30MW/y. As a result of studying 'a power generation system by small-scale unit serial development' considering regional characteristics in the Wasabizawa area, the power generation cost (sending end, 15-year average) was estimated at approximately 9-10 yen/kWh. (NEDO)

  14. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.34. Kaminoyu/Santai area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 34 Kaminoyu Santai chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Kaminoyu/Santai area' which was carried out at Yakumo town, Yamakoshi county, and Mori town, Kayabe county, Hokkaido, from FY 1990 to FY 1992. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and gravity exploration, test to induce jetting of geothermal fluids by drilling 7 boreholes, temperature/pressure log, etc. The geological structure of this area is featured by the uplift structure/caldera structure and the anticline structure. In the wide-area geothermal system, it is thought that the low-temperature seawater permeates underground by mixture with meteoric water, is heated, and forms the deep geothermal water. It is thought that the hot spring water in this area is stored in the hot spring reservoir by mixture with the surface water, and it is gushing. In the area, the region which is regarded as favorable as passage/storage place of geothermal fluid is a region of 1.5km width extending linearly in the E-W direction from the Nigorikawa basin to Kaminoyu. Further, it is thought that fractures were unfavorably developed in the Santai/Kaminoyu area. (NEDO)

  15. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.34. Kaminoyu/Santai area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 34 Kaminoyu Santai chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Kaminoyu/Santai area' which was carried out at Yakumo town, Yamakoshi county, and Mori town, Kayabe county, Hokkaido, from FY 1990 to FY 1992. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and gravity exploration, test to induce jetting of geothermal fluids by drilling 7 boreholes, temperature/pressure log, etc. The geological structure of this area is featured by the uplift structure/caldera structure and the anticline structure. In the wide-area geothermal system, it is thought that the low-temperature seawater permeates underground by mixture with meteoric water, is heated, and forms the deep geothermal water. It is thought that the hot spring water in this area is stored in the hot spring reservoir by mixture with the surface water, and it is gushing. In the area, the region which is regarded as favorable as passage/storage place of geothermal fluid is a region of 1.5km width extending linearly in the E-W direction from the Nigorikawa basin to Kaminoyu. Further, it is thought that fractures were unfavorably developed in the Santai/Kaminoyu area. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1995 survey of promotion of the geothermal development. Report on a usage feasibility test of a small scale geothermal binary cycle power generation system; 1995 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chusho chinetsu binary hatsuden system jissho shiken hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In this survey, studies for popularization and practical utilization of small and medium size geothermal binary cycle power systems which assesses low and medium temperature geothermal resources were conducted, and studies for development of the system to be introduced for practical use and for promotion of the popularization were made. A study was carried out of preconditions and various conditions of a demonstrative test plant (100kW class, 500kW class) in view of the initial cost of the actual plant, and an analysis was made of the power generation cost. Acceptability of the demonstrative test plant (100kW class) was examined to analyze problems on the introduction. A thermodynamic analysis was made of the output of geothermal binary cycle power generation. Analysis/evaluation of the results of the 100kW demonstrative test plant were carried out in view of the operation results of the plant of the same kind, and checks/reviews were conducted of performance and reliability of the system, equipment simplification, etc. Inspection of the system was made in the stage of design/manufacture of the 500kW demonstrative test plant. Concerning the spread/expansion of the system, studied were multiple stage geothermal utilization and PR promotion method. 14 refs., 62 figs., 55 tabs.

  17. NEDO Forum 2000. Geothermal technology development session (new development of geothermal energy); Chinetsu gijutsu kaihatsu session. Chinetsu energy no shintenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The following themes were presented at this session: (1) geothermal development in the future, (2) the current status of geothermal development and utilization, (3) surveys on the promotion of geothermal development, and (4) verification and investigation on geothermal exploration technologies, development of hot water utilizing power generation plants, and international cooperation on geothermal development and utilization. In Item 2, report was made on the current status of geothermal power plants in Japan and their future development targets, long-term overview of geothermal development, measures and budgets to achieve the targets of geothermal development. In Item 3, it is reported that out of 48 areas completed of the survey (including the new promotion surveyed areas), the areas possible of steam power generation and confirmed of temperatures higher than 200 degrees C are 30 areas, and the areas possible of binary power generation (using down hole pumps) and small to medium scale power generation, confirmed of temperatures of 100 to 200 degrees C are 13 areas. In Item 4, reports were made on the reservoir bed variation exploring method, surveys on deep geothermal resources, a 10-MW demonstration plant, a system to detect well bottom information during excavation of geothermal wells, a technology to collect deep geothermal resources, and a hot-rock using power generation system. In Item 5, geothermal exploration in remote islands in the eastern part of Indonesia, and the IEA cooperation projects were reported. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1995 geothermal development promotion survey. Natural environment survey report; 1995 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Shizen kankyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In Candidate C area for the geothermal development survey, the natural environment was surveyed and `the secondary landscape assessment` was summed up in which places proposed for drilling of large-size wells and for construction of power generation facilities are extracted and a simulation of the landscape is conducted. The area for survey is the Shiramizu-gawa region in the south of Lake Akan, Akan-cho, Akan-gun, Hokkaido. The field survey was carried out about three items of landscape, plants and animals during the June-November period, 1995. As to the flora, diverse florae including vegetation unique to alpine areas, wetlands, and fumarole surrounding areas were found in the region, which is covered with summer-green broad-leaved forests or mixed forests of coniferous and broad-leaved trees. As to the fauna, faunae inhabitant of the highly natural forests were found including black woodpeckers and mountain hawk eagles. As a result of studying the places proposed for geothermal development from the above-mentioned survey, two places were picked up in the west of the survey area, where geothermal development is comparatively less influential in the natural environment and landscape and there is a high locational adaptability. 19 refs., 56 figs., 49 tabs.

  19. Issues related to geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, G.O.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of potential barriers to geothermal development in Hawaii which have been overcome but some remain. Efforts continue to address issues relating to transmission, project economics, the regulatory process, resource verification, and public acceptance

  20. Geothermal energy development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, S.; Okandan, E.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal fields in Turkey are related to rather complex zones of collision between the Eurasian and African continents, and penetration of the Arabian plate into the Anatolian continental mass. These processes gave rise to fracturing of the lithosphere and eruption of magmas. Geothermal regional assessment studies have proven several low enthalpy sources and some high enthalpy fields suitable for electricity generation. This paper summarizes developments in exploration-drilling and give examples of direct utilization implemented in recent years

  1. FY 2000 report on the results of the data processing in the geothermal development promotion survey. Tertiary. No.B-7 Kuwanosawa area; 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki (Dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    The comprehensive analysis was conducted of various data obtained in the geothermal development promotion survey conducted in the Kuwanosawa area, Yuzawa city, Akita prefecture, from FY 1998 to FY 2000. The geology of the Kuwanosawa area consists of the Pretertiary system and Quarternary system, through which intrusive rocks are recognized. Basement rocks are composed of the Paleozoic-origin crystalline schist and the Cretaceous-period granites which intruded into the schist. In the Kuwanosawa area, there were recognized no clear geothermal signs such as the discharge of geothermal fluids like hot spring, fumarolic gas, etc., places of high temperature and new geothermal alteration zones. The geothermal water of borehole N11-KN-1 is a low temperature/low CL concentration geothermal water which was stored in basement rocks, which is supposed to be the one conductively heated in the process of the meteoric water penetrating deep-underground. The geothermal system heat source in the Kuwanosawa area and the periphery is regarded as the relic magma which spewed out the volcanic rocks of Mt. Takamatsu-dake in the Quaternary period. However, the geothermal fluid included no components originating in high temperature volcanic emissions, and therefore, it is considered that the geothermal fluid was formed by the meteoric water conductively heated by volcanic heat source. (NEDO)

  2. FY 2000 report on the survey for introduction of the hot spring effect prediction method in the geothermal development promotion survey. Improvement of the hot spring effect prediction method in the geothermal development promotion survey; 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Onsen eikyo yosoku shuho donyu chosa - Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa ni okeru onsen eikyo yosoku shuho no kairyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Supposing the case where the geothermal development promotion survey was carried out in promising geothermal areas in Japan, investigational study was conducted on possibilities of introducing the hot spring effect prediction method, improvement of the method, etc. In the survey, adjustment/classification of formation mechanisms of hot spring were made. For each of the formation mechanisms, the mechanisms in case of the geothermal development having effects were studied/summarized. As to how effects are brought about, presumed were the lowering of water level and decrease in discharge amount in accordance with the decreasing pressure and the dilution by increase in mixture of the ground water around the area. Also cited were the vaporization of hot spring aquifers by the increasing rate of vapor inflow, etc. For the introduction of the hot spring effect prediction method to the geothermal development promotion survey, the problem is short supply of various data, and the examination for it was made. Based on the results of the survey, items to be studied in case of introducing the hot spring effect prediction method were selected. Further, the hot spring effect prediction flow in case of introducing surface survey and well survey was made out. (NEDO)

  3. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Maricopa County Geothermal Development Plan evaluated the market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified six potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 100{sup 0}C (212{sup 0}F) and in addition, four suspected intermediate temperature areas (90{sup 0} to 150{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0} to 300{sup 0}F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in and near the Phoenix metropolitan area where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing, trade and service sectors of the regional economy provides opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. A regional energy use analysis is included containing energy use and price projections. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support this growth, though agricultural water use is expected to diminish. The study also contains a detailed section matching geothermal resources to potential users. Two comparative analyses providing economic details for space heating projects are incorporated.

  4. State policies for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarto, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The most prominent geothermal resources in the USA occur in fifteen Gulf and Western states including Alaska and Hawaii. In each state, authority and guidelines have been established for administration of geothermal leasing and for regulation of development. Important matters addressed by these policies include resource definition, leasing provisions, development regulations, water appropriation, and environmental standards. Some other policies that need attention include taxation, securities regulations, and utility regulations. It is concluded that conditions needed for the geothermal industry to pursue large-scale development are consumer (utility) confidence in the resource; equitable tax treatment; prompt exploration of extensive land areas; long and secure tenure for productive properties; prompt facility siting and development; and competitive access to various consumers. With these conditions, the industry should be competitive with other energy sectors and win its share of investment capital. This publication reviews for the states various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development. The report summarizes research results from numerous specialists and outlines present state and Federal policies. The report concludes generally that if public policies are made favorable to their development, geothermal resources offer an important energy resource that could supply all new electric capacity for the fifteen states for the next two decades. This energy--100,000 MW--could be generated at prices competitive with electricity from fossil and nuclear power plants. An extensive bibliography is included. (MCW)

  5. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-6. Mt. Tsujinodake area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey B 'Mt. Tsujinodake area' which was carried out at Yamagawa town, Ibusuki county, Kagoshima prefecture, from FY 1997 to FY 1999. In the survey, the following were conducted: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, gravity exploration and electromagnetic exploration, and geothermal fluid survey by drilling 4 structural testing boreholes. In the Mt. Tsujinodake area, active fumarolic activities are still now continuing around the Unagi hot spring in the north, and the acidic alteration zone is distributed in the peripheral surface area. In Borehole N11-TD-2 in the north, it is assumed that there exists the hydrothermal bed of a temperature of approximately 230 degrees C in the depth of 400-800m, which is comparatively shallow, and that the stored geothermal water flows laterally. In the central area, a hydrothermal bed of a temperature of approximately 130 degrees C was confirmed in N11-TD-1, but it is judged that chances of the existence of high temperature hydrothermal bed are not very good. In N11-TD-3 in the south, the existence of promising heat sources is expected in the deeper part since the remarkable alteration was seen in the depth of 1,435m or deeper, and the sharp rise in temperature was recognized. (NEDO)

  6. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.C-3. Akinomiya area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.C-3 Akinomiya chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of the geothermal development promotion survey - Akinomiya area which was carried out in Yuzawa City and Ogachi Town, Akita Prefecture, from FY 1996 to FY 1999. In the survey, the following were conducted: surface survey such as the geological alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, gravity survey and electromagnetic exploration, logging by drilling 8 boreholes, jetting test, etc. Further, using the data obtained from these, analysis was made of geology/reservoir structure, thermal structure, hydraulic structure, etc. As a result, grasped were the distribution of the main underground fracture structure and the distribution of promising high-temperature zones. In the short-term/long-term jetting test, a total steam amount of 124 t/h was confirmed. Moreover, there was the pressure interference between the geothermal reservoir in the Akinomiya area and the geothermal reservoir in the Wasabizawa area, and it was confirmed that there was the hydraulic relation between those reservoirs. Further, it was assumed that there was not so much effect on hot spring reservoirs in the Akinomiya area. In the simulation of production prediction, the result was obtained that there was a possibility of power generation of 30MW only in the Akinomiya area and of 60MW both in the Akinomiya area and the Wasabizawa area. (NEDO)

  7. Investigation report on promotion of geothermal development. No. A-4, Mt. Kunbetsu area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of investigations in the Mt. Kunbetsu area out of the investigations on promotion of geothermal development having been performed during the period from 1998 to 1999. The investigated area is an area located in the eastern Hokkaido with an area of about 300 km{sup 2}. The wide area investigation has discussed possibilities of existence of geothermal resources mainly from existence of high-temperature anomalies. The investigation has performed the following activities: fluid geochemical investigations on ten spring water sources, three spring gas sources, and five surface water points; gravity exploration at 153 measuring points; electromagnetic exploration at 52 measuring points; excavation of two heat flow rate wells (to depths of 997m and 995m), temperature logging, core cuttings tests, thermal hot water survey; other fluid inclusions tests, rock alteration age measurement; and temperature logging at Ryuun Shiretoko Spa. As a result of the investigations, it was estimated that, as the geothermal system model, the heat source is assumed to exist at a great depth below Mt. Kaibetsu; the spring water and the mineral spring water show diverse spring qualities because of mixing of meteoric water with fossil sea water; the fossil sea water and the meteoric water have been heated by thermal conduction; and the high-temperature zone is not spread to the positions of the investigation wells. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1993 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Jetting/reduction test (No.36 - Amemasu-dake area); 1993 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Funshutsu kangen shiken hokokusho (No.36 Amemasu dake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion, the jetting/reduction test using a structure drilling well N4-AM-4 was made in the Amemasu-dake area, Hokkaido, survey was conducted of the state of jetting of geothermal fluid, the state of borehole, analysis of geothermal fluid, etc. The induced jetting was carried out by the Swabbing method in the total number of times of 97 in 10 days. As to the jetting of geothermal fluid, jetting was recognized in a short time from 2 hours 49 minutes to 3 hours 51 minutes, but did not result in the continuous jetting. The mean jetting amount of geothermal fluid was totally 4.03 t/h (0.69 t/h in steam flow and 3.34 t/h in water flow). The temperature of geothermal water while jetting was 90 degrees C, pH was 8.6-8.9, chlorine ion concentration was 520-960 ppm, and electric conductivity was 2.41-3.57 ms/cm. The pressure at the feed point while stopping jetting was 5,800 MPa, and the pressure just before stopping jetting was 1,191 MPa. Chemical components in geothermal water belonged to the alkali C1 type. The geochemical temperature of geothermal water by Na-K temperature was 229 degrees C at maximum and 202 degrees C at minimum. (NEDO)

  9. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  10. Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, John [UNR; Pullammanappallil, Satish [Optim; Honjas, Bill [Optim

    2016-08-01

    J. N. Louie, Pullammanappallil, S., and Honjas, W., 2011, Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development: Proceedings of the New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 2011, Nov. 21-23, Auckland, paper 32, 7 pp. Preprint available at http://crack.seismo.unr.edu/geothermal/Louie-NZGW11.pdf

  11. FY 1999 report on the geothermal development promotion survey data processing. No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area (secondary); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki (dai niji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    As a part of the FY 1999 geothermal development promotion survey - Kuwanosawa area, the following were conducted and the results were arranged: ground surface survey (electromagnetic survey, analysis of numerical map), N11-KN-1 structure test boring survey, geothermal water survey, environmental effect survey, supplementary survey related to data processing, and comprehensive analysis. As to the reservoir structure, it seems that the area is low in water permeability from the results that there was seen little lost circulation at the time of drilling N11-KN-1 and that transmission coefficients in the water poring test indicated smaller values than those of the production well. In the underground temperature distribution, the temperature at a depth of 1,800m was 164.5 degrees C, which is lower than that in the neighboring Wasabizawa area. The geothermal water of N11-KN-1 does not have many dissolved constituents, showing alkalescence, which belongs to the Na-HCO{sub 3} type. As to the geothermal water of N11-KN-1, it seems that the meteoric water went down along faults and fractures, was stored in basement rocks and heated by heat conduction to form the geothermal water. In the Kuwanosawa area, there are seen very few geothermal signs on the ground surface, and a possibility seems to be small that high temperature and dominated geothermal fluids are active on a large scale. (NEDO)

  12. FY 1997 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. Primary. No.B-5 Mt. Musadake area; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-5 Musadake chiiki (Dai 1 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    As part of the geothermal development promotion survey, the comprehensive analysis was made on the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Mt. Musadake area, Shibetsu county, Hokkaido, which was conducted in FY 1997. In the surface survey, the following were carried out: survey of geology/alteration zone, age determination of rocks, alteration age determination by thermoluminescence method, geochemical survey (hot spring gas, hot spring water), gravity exploration and electromagnetic exploration. In the survey of environmental effects, survey of flora/fauna and survey of hot spring variations were made. The results of the analysis were outlined as follows. The geothermal system in this area seems to be controlled by the Mt. Musadake - Mt. Shitabanupuri fault, folding zone along the fault and Graben-state structure extending southeast of the zone. At deep underground, the existence of the deep geothermal water forming geothermal reservoirs is presumed, and the deep geothermal water seems to be helped by the thermal conduction and volcanic effluences from the magma reservoir related to a series of volcanoes, centered on Mt. Musadake that is regarded as heat source. The geothermal water has a temperature of over 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1998 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. Secondary. No.B-5 Mt. Musadake area; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-5 Musadake chiiki (Dai 2 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    As part of the geothermal development promotion survey, the comprehensive analysis was made on the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Mt. Musadake area, Shibetsu county, Hokkaido, which was conducted in FY 1997 and FY 1998. In the surface survey, the following were carried out: survey of geology/alteration zone, geochemical survey, gravity exploration, wide-area gravity/magnetic structure analysis, seismic exploration, etc. In the well exploration, structural boreholes N10-MD-1 and N10-MD-2 were drilled, and the following were conducted: temperature logging/temperature recovery test, electric logging, water injection test and survey of core cuttings. For borehole N10-MD-2, the survey of geothermal water was made. In the survey of environmental effects, survey of flora/fauna and survey of hot spring variations were conducted. The results of the analysis were outlined as follows. At deep underground, the existence of the deep geothermal water forming geothermal reservoirs is presumed, and the deep geothermal water seems to be helped by the thermal conduction from the magma reservoir related to a series of volcanoes, centered on Mt. Musadake that is regarded as heat source. The geothermal water has a temperature of over 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. (NEDO)

  14. FY 1998 annual report on the geothermal development promotion survey. Report on landscape survey; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Shizen kankyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are results of the natural environment surveys, carried out in the Shitanotai Region in Yuzawa City, Akita Pref., where Geothermal Development Promotion Survey C is scheduled. On-the-spot surveys, conducted from June to November, covered 3 items of landscape, vegetation and animals. The Shimonotai Region has a number of ponds and swamps, some of which are used as fields for Brasenia shreberi, and wet shield plant communities in places reflecting these environments. The zoological survey results show that moderate to dry deciduous forests of Japanese beeches (Fagus crenata) and Mongolian oaks (Quercus mongolica var. grossesserrata) in this region provide sound habitats for large mammalian wild animals, e.g., moon bears (Selenarctos thibetanus). For birds, there are some areas extracted indicating high possibility of being inhabited by honey buzzards (Pernis ptilorhyncus), which are listed as a near threatened species by the Environment Agency. Geologically, traces of landslide occurrence in the past have been detected widely, indicating need for more detailed investigation for land stability. These surveys have extracted several areas whose natural environments and landscapes are damaged relatively little by geothermal development. (NEDO)

  15. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.38. Mt. Aso West area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 38 Asozan seibu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Aso West area' which was carried out at Choyo village and Kugino village, Aso county, and at Otsu town, Kikuchi county, Kumamoto prefecture, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and high precision MT method survey, and temperature log, electrical log, water injection test, core test and hydrothermal survey by drilling 7 structural boreholes. In the numerical analysis of thermal structure models, the present geothermal manifestation was obtained, assuming that the past magma reservoir in a state of agglomeration/semi-agglomeration exists in the depths of caldera and that the depth is set at 4km. It is assumed that the deep hydrothermal reservoir around Yunoya/Tarutama exists around the depth of 500-600m below sea level and that the temperature is 230-300 degrees C. The meteoric water permeating into the depths forms high-temperature reservoirs around Yunoya/Tarutama. The reservoir rises up to about 400m below sea level to become a vapor-dominated phase. It forms an acidic SO{sub 4} type reservoir phase around the earth surface. (NEDO)

  16. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.38. Mt. Aso West area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 38 Asozan seibu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Aso West area' which was carried out at Choyo village and Kugino village, Aso county, and at Otsu town, Kikuchi county, Kumamoto prefecture, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and high precision MT method survey, and temperature log, electrical log, water injection test, core test and hydrothermal survey by drilling 7 structural boreholes. In the numerical analysis of thermal structure models, the present geothermal manifestation was obtained, assuming that the past magma reservoir in a state of agglomeration/semi-agglomeration exists in the depths of caldera and that the depth is set at 4km. It is assumed that the deep hydrothermal reservoir around Yunoya/Tarutama exists around the depth of 500-600m below sea level and that the temperature is 230-300 degrees C. The meteoric water permeating into the depths forms high-temperature reservoirs around Yunoya/Tarutama. The reservoir rises up to about 400m below sea level to become a vapor-dominated phase. It forms an acidic SO{sub 4} type reservoir phase around the earth surface. (NEDO)

  17. Mexican geothermal development and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, J.M.E.V.

    1998-01-01

    Geothermics in Mexico started in 1954, by drilling the first geothermal well in Pathe, State of Hidalgo, which reached a depth of 237 meters. In 1959 electrical generation from geothermal origin began, with an installed capacity of 3.5 MW. From 1959 to 1994 Mexico increased its installed capacity to 753 MW, by developing three geothermal fields: Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, and Los Humeros. Currently, 177 wells produce steam at a rate of 36 tons per hour (t/h) each. Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE, Federal Commission of Electricity) has planned to increase the geothermal-electric installed capacity through construction and installation of several projects. Repowering of operating units and development of new geothermal zones will also allow Mexican geothermal growth

  18. Geothermal development promotion survey. No. B-3 Kumaishi area; Chinethu kaihatsu sokushin chosa seika hokokusho. No. B-3. Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper summarizes the result of a geothermal resource survey carried out from fiscal 1995 through fiscal 1997 in the Kumaishi Area located in the western center of Oshima Peninsula in the south western part of Hokkaido. The survey for this area was performed with an objective to search the spread of high temperature area continuing from the adjoining Yakumo area where the highest temperature of 233 degrees C has been confirmed in a structural test well (N63-YK-6), to identify high water permeating areas in great depth points underground, and to find possibility of existence of geothermal resources. The survey included geological and alteration zone survey, geochemical survey, gravitation exploration, electromagnetic exploration, drilling and temperature logging of five structural test wells, water injection test, temperature restoration test, core survey and hot water survey. Also performed were environmental effect survey, rock age measurement, alteration age measurement, and fluid inclusion test. As a result of the survey, it was identified that the verified geothermal hot water has been stored in granites with poor water permeability, whose low temperature has not formed convection systems spreading in wide areas despite having been heated, making each system exist in small scale independently. It was estimated that the possibility is low to expect geothermal power generation. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1999 research on geothermal energy development promotion. Research report on development feasibility (Strategic survey - nationwide survey); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Kaihatsu kanosei chosa (senryakuteki chosa zenkoku chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Analysis and assessment were conducted for each of promising geothermal regions over large areas so as to contribute to the drafting of survey implementation plans and estimation of the amounts of recoverable geothermal reserves under the geothermal energy development promotion project. In this fiscal year, based on the manual compiled in the preceding fiscal year, studies were made on the six areas, which were the eastern part of Hokkaido, Toyoha-Niseko area, Iburi area, Bandai-Azuma area, Minamiaizu-Nasu area, and the island area. In region 1 in the eastern part of Hokkaido, a 48km{sup 2} was extracted in the vicinity of Mount Musa, with the amount of resources per 1km{sup 2} estimated at 12.34-56.02MWe. In region 2 in the eastern part of Hokkaido, promising geothermal regions I, II, III, and IV were extracted, with the amounts of resources per 1km{sup 2} estimated at 50MWe or more at III and part of IV. In the Toyoha-Niseko area, promising regions I and II were extracted, the amounts of resources estimated at 50MWe or more in both regions. For the Iburi area, it was concluded that there was a probability of not less than 90% that the amount of resources was 50MWe or more and it was proposed that an additional survey be conducted. As for the Bandai-Azuma, Minamiaizu-Nasu, and island areas, need of further surveys was pointed out. (NEDO)

  20. Status of geothermal development in Hawaii - 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, G.O.

    1992-01-01

    Hawaii plans that geothermal will be a significant part of its energy mix to reduce its 90% dependency on imported oil for its electricity. The resource on the Big Island of Hawaii appears promising. However, the geothermal program in Hawaii continues to face stiff opposition from a few people who are determined to stop development at any cost. The efforts of geothermal developers, together with the State and County regulatory framework have inadvertently created situations that have impeded progress. However, after a 20-year effort the first increment of commercial geothermal energy is expected on line in 1992

  1. Novel approaches for an enhanced geothermal development of residential sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelenz, Sophie; Firmbach, Linda; Shao, Haibing; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    An ongoing technological enhancement drives an increasing use of shallow geothermal systems for heating and cooling applications. However, even in areas with intensive shallow geothermal use, planning of geothermal systems is in many cases solely based on geological maps, drilling databases, and literature references. Thus, relevant heat transport parameters are rather approximated than measured for the specific site. To increase the planning safety and promote the use of renewable energies in the domestic sector, this study investigates a novel concept for an enhanced geothermal development of residential neighbourhoods. This concept is based on a site-specific characterization of subsurface conditions and the implementation of demand-oriented geothermal usage options. Therefore, an investigation approach has been tested that combines non-invasive with minimum-invasive exploration methods. While electrical resistivity tomography has been applied to characterize the geological subsurface structure, Direct Push soundings enable a detailed, vertical high-resolution characterization of the subsurface surrounding the borehole heat exchangers. The benefit of this site-specific subsurface investigation is highlighted for 1) a more precise design of shallow geothermal systems and 2) a reliable prediction of induced long-term changes in groundwater temperatures. To guarantee the financial feasibility and practicability of the novel geothermal development, three different options for its implementation in residential neighbourhoods were consequently deduced.

  2. Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program and its impact on geothermal exploration and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, L.H.

    1978-05-01

    The study showed that the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program has had only a negligible effect on geothermal development and the response to the program was far less than expected. The streamlining of environmental regulations and leasing policies, and the granting of intangible drilling cost write-offs and depletion allowances to operators would have had a greater impact on geothermal energy development. The loan guaranty program did not promote the undertaking of any new projects that would not have been undertaken without it. The program only accelerated the pace for some development which might have commenced in the future. Included in the study are recommendations for improving the operation of the program thereby increasing its attractiveness to potential applicants.

  3. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  4. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Supplementary survey on data processing (No.38 - West area of Mt. Aso); 1991 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Data shori ni kakawaru hosoku chosa hokokusho (No.38 Asosan seibu chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion in FY 1992, chemical/isotopic analysis of fumarolic gas in the Yoshioka district was made to elucidate the underground geothermal structure in the west area of Mt. Aso in Kumamoto Prefecture. Items for analysis of fumarolic gas were 16 items including the temperature, concentration of non-condensable gas, CO2, H2O, CH{sub 4}, {delta}D(CH{sub 4}) and {delta}{sup 13}C(CO2). Items for analysis of condensed water were 9 items including pH, Na, NH{sub 4}, {delta}D(H2O) and {delta}{sup 18}O. As a result of the analysis, the main component of non-condensable gas of fumarolic gas was CO2, and the composition was similar to that of the fumarolic gas in the Yunoya/Tarutama district in the periphery. It was presumed that the origin and formation mechanism of fumarolic gas were also similar to those in the Yunoya/Tarutama district. It was presumed that the deep geothermal reservoir which is the source of vapor/gas generation was composed of the neutral or alkalescent geothermal water, and a possibility that the reservoir is connected with the deep geothermal reservoir in the Yunoya district was presumed from a viewpoint of geographical location. (NEDO)

  5. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A. (eds.)

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  6. Update of geothermal energy development in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutroupis, N.

    1992-01-01

    Following the completion of the Geothermal Reconnaissance Study in Greece and the successful drilling of seven deep geothermal wells in the Aegean islands of Milos and Nisyros, PPC started the first step towards geothermal development for electricity production as follows: A geothermal electric pilot plant of 2 MW e nominal capacity was installed on the Zephyria plain in Milos island (1985). During a nine month operation of the plant, problems connected with its long term operation were solved (hot reinjection of the high salinity brine, turbine washing etc). A feasibility study regarding exploitation of the Nisyros geothermal resources was completed and PPC connected Nisyros island electrically to Kos island via submarine cables. As consequence of the reaction against geothermal development by the people of Milos in early 1989, the power plant is still out of operation and the feasibility study planned for Milos has been postponed. For similar reasons the Nisyros drilling contract for five new geothermal deep wells has not come into force as yet. This paper summarizes the main PPC geothermal activities to date, the problems caused by the reactions of the Milos and Nisyros population and the relevant PPC countermeasures, as well as outlining the PPC development program for the near future

  7. Fiscal 1999 geothermal development promotion survey. Development potentiality survey - Strategic survey/nation-wide survey (Report on districts in Fukushima Prefecture); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kaihatsu kanosei chosa - senryakuteki chosa zenkoku chosa (Fukushimaken chiiki hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    For the effective implementation of the survey, data in existence were reanalyzed for the Bandai-Azuma district and Minami-Aizu/Nasu district, and a wide area geothermal model was built. Using the model, exploitable resources were assessed and a prioritized survey introduction program was worked out for the promotion of geothermal development. In compliance with the strategic survey implementation manual, the Bandai-Azuma district was assessed, and the northeastern-eastern foot area of Azuma Volcano and the northern foot area of Adatara Volcano were extracted as areas promising geothermal energy development. The Monte Carlo method was applied to the prioritized survey area at the northeastern foot of Azuma Volcano, and then it was estimated that, with a probability of not less than 90%, the exploitable resources would be 6.4MWe in the case of data accuracy of 0.5 or more and 12.0MWe in the case of data accuracy of 0.4 or more. Selected as promising areas in the Minami-Aizu/Nasu district were the Yanaizu-Nishiyama area, the neighborhood of Nasudake-Chausudake, and the neighborhood of Shiobara-Fuji. (NEDO)

  8. Alaska: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  9. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  10. Geothermal development promotion survey report. No. 29. Upper reach region of Oita river; 1988-1990 chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 29 Oitagawa joryu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    The results of surveys conducted in the Oita river region, Oita Prefecture, in fiscal 1988-1989 are compiled in this report. Conducted were a geological/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey, electric prospecting (Schlumberger method), electromagnetic surveillance (simplified magnetotelluric method), electromagnetic surveillance (EMAP - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program method), heat flow rate survey, test boring, environmental impact survey, and so forth. Conclusions are mentioned below. It is inferred that the geothermal fluid results from groundwater originating in meteoric water, that the meteoric water takes many years to flow from the mountainous region into the ground where it is stored mainly in the Shonai stratum, that the stored water is warmed by heat from rocks in the neighborhood for development into a geothermal fluid, and that the geothermal fluid finally forms a hot spring water reservoir. Hot spring water reservoirs are found widely distributed in the basin of the Oita river. In view of the ground temperature distribution and the hot spring water geochemical temperature determined by structure boring, it is concluded that possibilities are quite low that there exists a high-temperature geothermal fluid usable for power generation. (NEDO)

  11. FY 1999 report on the comprehensive analysis of the geothermal development promotion survey. Forth. No.C-3 Akinomiya area; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho. No. C-3 Akinomiya chiiki (Dai 4 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    As part of the geothermal development promotion survey, the comprehensive analysis was made on the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Akinomiya area, Ogachi town, Akita prefecture, which was conducted in FY 1999. In the evaluation of reservoirs, the following were carried out: comprehensive analysis of various data on the surface survey, well exploration, etc., which were stored in surveys from the primary to the forth, modification/construction of geothermal system models, numerical simulation using 3D models, etc. In the long-term jetting test, production/reduction tests were conducted using N9-AY-3 and N10-AY-8 as production wells and N8-AY-1 and N10-AY-6 as reduction wells. The results of the comprehensive analysis were outlined as follows. The distribution of high temperature zones promising as areas for geothermal development was grasped. The distribution of the main fracture structure underground was grasped. A total amount of 124t/h steam was confirmed by short/long term jetting tests. In the simulation of prediction of production, the result was obtained that there was potential power generation of 30MW in the Akinomiya area alone and 60MW both in the Akinomiya area and the Wasabizawa area. (NEDO)

  12. Geothermal development promotion survey report. No. 25. Hishikari region; 1987-1989 chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 22 Hishikari chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    The results of surveys conducted in the Hishikari region, Kagoshima Prefecture, in fiscal 1987-1989 are compiled in this report. Conducted were a geological/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey, electric prospecting, electromagnetic surveillance, gravity prospecting, heat flow rate survey, test boring, environmental impact survey, and so forth. The surveys resulted in conclusions mentioned below. According to the underground temperature distribution based on the results of the heat flow rate survey, test boring, and so forth, temperature is low at the western part of the Hishikari region where there is a low gravity anomaly and high in the zone in the ENE-WSW direction where there is a high gravity anomaly. The present ground temperature is lower than the fluid inclusion homogenization temperature by approximately 120-140 degrees C. It is deduced that the geothermal water reservoir lies in the Quatenary volcanic rocks or in a fracture zone that develops in the Shimanto supergroup. It is inferred that the geothermal water producing the hot spring water all originates in meteoric water staying long in the ground. It is also inferred that volcanic gas or the like contributes but a little to the formation of the geothermal system but that the contribution is great of the heat supplied from the magma pool. (NEDO)

  13. Minutes of the conference 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98'. Symposium on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-22

    This paper summarizes the proceedings presented at the 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98' held on October 22, 1998 in the Philippines. The Philippines, Japan, Indonesia, China, Malaysia, and Vietnam presented proceedings on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in each country. Technical theses presented relate to the following matters: a geothermal development model in the Khoy geothermal area in Iran, the result of surveys on promotion of geothermal development in Japan, the thermal fluid sources in the geothermal fluid systems in the Hachijo volcanic island in Japan, strategies for heat reservoir management by using numerical simulation in the Hacchobari geothermal area in Japan, a geological model for the north Negros geothermal area in the center of the Philippines, application of the NEDO rock core analyzing method in the Wasabizawa geothermal development area in Japan, measurements of geomagnetism, geocurrent, and gravity in the north Negros in the center of the Philippines, geophysical studies in geothermal exploration in the Mataloko area in the Nustenggara island in the eastern Indonesia, and the background of magma/crust structure in the geothermal systems. (NEDO)

  14. Minutes of the conference 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98'. Symposium on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-22

    This paper summarizes the proceedings presented at the 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98' held on October 22, 1998 in the Philippines. The Philippines, Japan, Indonesia, China, Malaysia, and Vietnam presented proceedings on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in each country. Technical theses presented relate to the following matters: a geothermal development model in the Khoy geothermal area in Iran, the result of surveys on promotion of geothermal development in Japan, the thermal fluid sources in the geothermal fluid systems in the Hachijo volcanic island in Japan, strategies for heat reservoir management by using numerical simulation in the Hacchobari geothermal area in Japan, a geological model for the north Negros geothermal area in the center of the Philippines, application of the NEDO rock core analyzing method in the Wasabizawa geothermal development area in Japan, measurements of geomagnetism, geocurrent, and gravity in the north Negros in the center of the Philippines, geophysical studies in geothermal exploration in the Mataloko area in the Nustenggara island in the eastern Indonesia, and the background of magma/crust structure in the geothermal systems. (NEDO)

  15. NEDO Forum 2001. Session on development of geothermal energy (Prospect of geothermal energy); NEDO Forum 2001. Chinetsu kaihatsu session (chinetsu energy no tenbo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-20

    The presentations made at the above-named session of the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) forum held in Tokyo on September 20, 2001, are collected in this report. Director Noda of Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, delivered a lecture entitled 'Future course of geothermal technology development,' and Executive Director Iikura of Tokyo Toshi Kaihatsu, Inc., a lecture entitled 'Thinking of geothermal energy.' Described in an achievement report entitled 'Present state and future trend of geothermal development' were the present state of geothermal power generation and characteristics of geothermal energy, signification of the introduction of binary cycle power generation, and the promotion of the introduction of ground heat utilizing heat pump systems. Stated in a lecture entitled 'Geothermal development promotion survey' were the geothermal development promotion survey and its result and how to implement such surveys in the future. Reported in a lecture entitled 'Verification survey of geothermal energy probing technology and the like and the development of geothermal water utilizing power plant and the like' were reservoir fluctuation probing, deep-seated thermal resource probing and collecting, 10-MW class demonstration plant, Measurement While Drilling System, and a hot rock power generation system. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of environmental effect pertaining to survey for geothermal development and promotion (Hakusuigoe area); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa no uchi kankyo eikyo chosa (Hakusuigoe chiiki) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This survey of environmental effect was intended to grasp actual state concerning some environmental factors that should agree with survey/development and also to assess its effect on the surrounding environment, particularly as a part of the 'stage C' in the 'survey for geothermal development and promotion', which was implemented by the Government for the purpose of guiding geothermal development by enterprises. This report compiles the plan details of the environmental effect survey to be conducted in the Hakusuigoe district, and presents proposals. The survey area is in the north of Makizono-cho, Aira-gun, in Kagoshima prefecture and situated about 3 km west of Onaminoike in Karakunidake, one of the peaks in the Kirishima mountain range. The Ogiri geothermal power plant is in the west of the site, a tourist spot Ebino Heights about 4 km northeast, and the Kirishima hot-spring about 4 km southeast. The location is in the national park, with a part designated as No. 2 and 3 class special areas. The environmental effect survey was divided broadly into such categories as fauna/flora, hot-spring water alteration and inland water, landscape, noise/vibration/subsoil, and air/water, and was further subdivided in accordance with the actual operations. (NEDO)

  17. Report on geothermal development promotion survey data processing in fiscal 1997. Tsujinodake Area No. B-6 (first report); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 1. Tsujinodake chiiki No.B-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This paper reports the achievements in the geothermal development promotion survey data processing in fiscal 1997 for Tsujinodake Area. Geological, alteration band and fluid geochemical surveys, gravity and electromagnetic exploration, and environment influence survey were generalized to summarize the state of existence of geothermal resources. Sea water permeated into deep underground portion was mixed with meteoric water from Ikeda Lake and Unagi Pond; heated by deep hot water originated from magma pools as the source of volcanic activities after formation of the Ata caldera; the resultant neutral high salt concentration hot water has risen on the Takeyama-Tsujinodake structural line; and was reserved in deep portion of Mr. Tsujinodake. The sea water permeated into deep underground portion was heated by the same deep hot water originated from magma pools as described above, has risen along the Ata caldera wall, and been reserved in the deep portion of Kaimon Dake Spa. Around the Yamakawa geothermal power plant, the permeated sea water was heated by the same magma pools as described above and by the intrusive rocks originated therefrom as the heat source. The water has risen along the shattered belt developing around the intrusive rocks or the Takeyama-Tsujinodake structure line, and been reserved. Around the Unagi pond, mixed sea and meteoric water has risen along the Yamakawa-Matsugakubo structure line, and been reserved. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1990 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Survey of geothermal water (No.34 - Kaminoyu/Santai area); 1990 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Nessui no chosa hokokusho (No.34 Kaminoyu Santai chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    For the contribution to elucidation of the structure of geothermal reservoir in the Kaminoyu/Santai area in the southwest part of Hokkaido, jetting test/sampling of geothermal fluid/analysis of properties were carried out in Structural Drilling Well N2-KS-2. The induced jetting of N2-KS-2 was conducted by the air lift method in consideration of the well temperature, state of lost circulation while drilling and results of the water pouring test. As a result, the mean jetting amount of geothermal water was 202.4L/min. The total pumping amount was 559kL, which is equal to approximately 119 times as much as the volume of well. The maximum temperature was 95.9 degrees C, resulting in no steam jetting. The pH of geothermal water was 7.41-8.44, electric conductivity was 9,620-10,450 {mu}s/cm, and the Cl ion concentration was 2,204-2,545 mg/L, which are almost stable. Properties of geothermal water is classified into an alkalescent CL-SO{sub 4} type. As a result of the study, the geothermal reservoir of N2-KS-2 is basically formed by a mechanism of a mixture of the surface water and the deep geothermal water that is similar in isotope to the geothermal water of Nigorikawa production well, which indicated a tight relation in the origin with the group of Kaminoyu hot spring. (NEDO)

  19. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume I. Review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    The history of geothermal exploration in Hawaii is reviewed briefly. The nature and occurrences of geothermal resources are presented island by island. An overview of geothermal markets is presented. Other topies covered are: potential markets of the identified geothermal areas, well drilling technology, hydrothermal fluid transport, overland and submarine electrical transmission, community aspects of geothermal development, legal and policy issues associated with mineral and land ownership, logistics and infrastructure, legislation and permitting, land use controls, Regulation 8, Public Utilities Commission, political climate and environment, state plans, county plans, geothermal development risks, and business planning guidelines.

  20. Fiscal 1999 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on resource assessment for Shiramizugoe area; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Shiramizugoe chiiki shigen hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Under an assumed plan of building a geothermal power station in the Shiramizugoe area of Makizono-cho, Aira-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture, investigations will be conducted under a 4-year program into the amount of geothermal resources, the dimensions and cost performance of a geothermal power station under consideration, and the environmental impact that the locating of such will incur, through for example identifying areas containing geothermal reservoirs suitable for geothermal power generation. In fiscal 1999, activities were conducted in the three fields of (1) survey plan preparation, (2) comprehensive analysis, and (3) environmental assessment. Under item (1), a survey and coordination implementation plan was prepared, existing data were analyzed for the construction of geothermal models out of which a suitable geothermal structure was specified for digging, and a list was drafted of locations for borehole digging for fiscal 2000. Under item (2), it was found that most of the past surveys covered the Ogiri area and that the Shiramizugoe area was but poorly covered. Discussion was made on the geological structure, geothermal structure, geothermal water hydraulic structure, and the geothermal water system. Under item (3), the plan was summarily explained to the local administration, associations of hot spring hotels, and inhabitants in the vicinity, and their consent was obtained. (NEDO)

  1. FY 1998 report on the comprehensive analysis in the geothermal development promotion survey. Tertiary. No.C-3 Akinomiya area; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho. No.C-3 Akinomiya chiiki (Dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The geothermal development promotion survey was conducted in the Akinomiya area, Ogachi county, Akita prefecture, and the FY 1998 results were summed up. In the surface survey, geology/electromagnetism/precision gravity survey was made as supplementary survey, and re-analysis of 3D models was made. In the well survey, three wells of N10-AY-6 to N10-AY-8 were drilled to conduct the core examination, temperature/pressure logging, sampler logging, short-term jetting test, etc. Also conducted were the reservoir evaluation, environmental effect survey, etc. by pressure monitoring and water level observation. The results of the comprehensive analysis predict the following. In the Akinomiya area, there exists heat source in deep parts around Mt. Yamabushi-dake and Mt. Takamatsu-dake; Being given heat from this heat source, rocks, ground water and volcanic gas react on each other to form geothermal fluids. It is presumed that high temperature geothermal reservoirs exist in the east of the area. Moreover, the pressure distribution indicates that the Akinomiya reservoir and Wasabizawa reservoir can be a chain hydraulically. On the other hand, the west of the area is the low temperature and heat conductive area, and therefore, there seem to be no high temperature fluids there. (NEDO)

  2. FY 1996 Report on the data processing for the geothermal development promotion investigation. No.B-3 Kumaishi Area (Phase 2); 1996 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin data shori hokokusho. 2 . No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Described herein are the FY 1996 results of the No.B-3 Kumaishi Area investigation, conducted as part of the geothermal development promotion investigation project. The ground investigation project covers geological and altered band, geochemical, gravitational and electromagnetic investigations. The drilling investigation project covers the test drilling for the structural investigation, temperature logging, water injection and temperature recovery tests at the N7-KI-1, N7-KI-2, N8-KI-3 and N8-KI-4; core cutting investigation; hot water investigation at the N8-KI-1 and N8-KI-2; and environmental impact investigation. The following conclusions are derived from the findings. The geothermal hot water in the test area came from seawater (fossil seawater) locally captured by the highly water-permeable strata (e.g., interfaces in the strata, and fractured strata) and underground water from rain water, heated by the conducted heat to around 200 degrees C at the highest. It is estimated that the center of the conducted heat is located in the eastern part of the Yagumo Area. The geothermal hot water was not heated to an extent to form the widely distributed convection systems, but arise in the form of separate, small-scale systems. (NEDO)

  3. Development of drilling foams for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, W.J.; Remont, L.J.; Rehm, W.A.; Chenevert, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of foam drilling fluids in geothermal applications is addressed. A description of foams - what they are, how they are used, their properties, equipment required to use them, the advantages and disadvantages of foams, etc. - is presented. Geothermal applications are discussed. Results of industry interviews presented indicate significant potential for foams, but also indicate significant technical problems to be solved to achieve this potential. Testing procedures and results of tests on representative foams provide a basis for work to develop high-temperature foams.

  4. Financing geothermal resource development in the Pacific Region states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-15

    State and federal tax treatment as an incentive to development and non-tax financial incentives such as: the federal geothermal loan guarantee program, the federal geothermal reservoir insurance, and state financial incentives are discussed. (MHR)

  5. Research on geochemical exploration in geotherm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirowatari, Kazuo; Imaizumi, Yukio; Koga, Akito; Iwanaga, Tatsuto.

    1987-01-01

    The decisive factor of geotherm development is to improve the exploration techniques. By effectively carrying out the selection of promising development spots and the decision of well drilling positions, the geotherm development exceeding existing energy sources becomes feasible. There have been many problems in conventional geotherm exploration such as the high cost and long work period, therefore, it was decided to advance the research on geochemical exploration techniques which are relatively simple and can be carried out with low cost. When the techniques of geochemistry are used, for example, in the case that there are hot springs or fumaroles, the temperature, origin, properties and so on of underground hot water reservoirs can be estimated from their chemical composition. The method of examining the mercury concentration in soil and soil air has been in practical use in the geothermal districts where the ground surface symptom lacks. This time, the method of investigation using radon, thoron and gamma ray as the exploration indices was newly studied. The index compositions for geochemical exploration, new exploration index compositions, the method of measurement, the basic investigation and on-the-spot investigation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  6. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Geochemical survey (Survey of geothermal water) (No.36 - Hongu area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chikagaku chosa (Nessui no chosa) hokokusho (No.36 Hongu chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    The test on jetting of geothermal water by the induced jetting, sampling of geothermal water and analysis/survey were carried out in the structure drilling well of N4-HG-2 in the Hongu area, Wakayama Prefecture. The induced jetting of the well was conducted by the Swabbing method up to the total pumping amount of 459.9m{sup 3} that is equal to about 24 times as much as the inner quantity of the well, but it did not result in jetting. The maximum temperature of geothermal water was 65.6 degrees C, pH was 6.6-7.5, electric conductivity was 2,800-2,900 {mu}S/cm, and Cl concentration was 500-700ppm. The geothermal water was classified into the HCO{sub 3} type that is neutral, and the spring quality and liquidity were the same as those of existing hot springs in this area. In the Hongu area, the distribution of new volcanic rocks has not known. The K-Ar age of quartz porphyry intrusive rocks was made about 13Ma, and it was considered that a possibility was low of the rocks being heat sources of geothermal activities. It was also considered that the geothermal water/hot spring water in this area, which originate in the surface water, were heated in heat transfer by magma activities in the deep underground and were flowing forming a small scale of hydrothermal convection system. (NEDO)

  7. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesser, Jonathan A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  8. Report on a survey for promotion of geothermal development and an overall analysis of areas in fiscal 1996. Report No.C-3 for the Akinomiya area (First analysis); 1996 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho. No.C-3 (Akinomiya chiiki dai 1 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This paper summarizes the result of a survey for promotion of geothermal development and an overall analysis of the Akinomiya area in fiscal 1996. The subject area is located in Katsuo Town in south of Akita Prefecture. The geothermal reservoirs are regulated by the irregular construction created by upheaval and subsidence of the pre-Tertiary basement rocks. The underground temperature construction shows the temperatures rising toward Mt. Yamabushi. The latest geothermal activities should have taken place after the eruption of Mt. Takamatsu. The geothermal activities near the Arayu area have been most active until recently, and is still predominant. Transformation activities were active in the former period of the Pleistocene era. The acidic transformation band has been active after sedimentation of andesites in Mt. Takamatsu thereafter, which should have been active not only in areas where it is now active on the ground surface, but also in greatly wider areas. Geothermal fluid flows being regulated by faults, whereas fractures with high permeability existing along the faults are suitable for developing steam collection. Hot spring waters were produced by the geothermal fluid having risen along the faults and been mixed with and diluted by ground surface water near the ground surface. Areas promising for geothermal development would spread over the areas with high permeability along structural lines such as faults which show the convection type temperature pattern and temperatures higher than 250 degrees C. (NEDO)

  9. Sustainable Development of Geothermal Industry in China: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With a wide distribution, large reserves, low cost, sustainable energy use and environmental protection and other unparalleled advantages, geothermal energy resources is important for China’s energy structure adjustment, energy conservation and environment improvement. Currently, geothermal utilization in China is still in its infancy, and Sustainable Development of the geothermal industry is also having a lot of problems. In this paper, the current research on sustainable development of geothermal industry focuses on two aspects: 1. the current situation of geothermal industry development and existing problems, 2. the current situation of sustainable development of the geothermal industry. On the basis of the review, some suggestions for further study on the sustainable development of geothermal industry are put forward.

  10. Development of technologies for utilizing geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    In verifying the effectiveness of the deep geothermal resource exploration technology, development is being carried out on a fracture-type reservoir exploration method. The seismic exploration method investigates detailed structures of underground fracture systems by using seismic waves generated on the ground surface. Verification experiments for fiscal 1994 were carried out by selecting the Kakkonda area in which small fracture networks form reservoir beds. Geothermal resources in deep sections (deeper than 2000 m with temperatures higher than 350{degree}C) are promising in terms of amount of the resources, but anticipated with difficulty in exploration and impediments in drilling. To avoid these risks, studies are being progressed on the availability of resources in deep sections, their utilization possibility, and technologies of effective exploration and drilling. This paper summarizes the results of deep resource investigations during fiscal 1994. It also describes such technological development as hot water utilizing power generation. Development is performed on a binary cycle power generation plant which pumps and utilizes hot water of 150 to 200{degree}C by using a downhole pump. The paper also reports development on element technologies for hot rock power generation systems. It also dwells on development of safe and effective drilling and production technologies for deep geothermal resources.

  11. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Geochemical survey (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. Chikagaku chosa hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    For the purpose of studying an expanse and characteristics of the geothermal system and a possibility of geothermal development in the Haneyama area, Oita Prefecture, geochemical survey was conducted. In the survey, various kinds of analyses were made for 13 specimens of hot spring water and 5 specimens of surface water in the area of about 280km{sup 2} at 402 measuring points of the concentration of Hg in soil gas. The results of the survey were as follows: In this survey area, it was thought that the HCO{sub 3} type geothermal water of a comparatively low temperature which was heated by the wide-spread conduction heat from the depths was widely distributed deeper than the depth of 500-700m, and it was presumed that a possibility was low of existence of a high geothermal potential which can be used for the geothermal power generation in the part deeper than the drilling depth of 700m. In the Noya area in the southwest part of the survey area, the high temperature deep geothermal reservoir was confirmed. In this area, the high temperature neutral-alkalescent Cl-SO{sub 4} type geothermal water was distributed in the depth of several 100 meters or deeper. The geothermal water seemed to flow from NE to SW along the structure in the NE-SW direction, and it was concluded that the area was the most promising one. (NEDO)

  12. Geothermal development promotion survey report. No. 26. Akan region; 1988-1991 chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 26 Akan chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    The results of surveys conducted in the Akan region, Hokkaido, in fiscal 1988-1990 are compiled in this report. Conducted were a geological/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey, gravity prospecting, electromagnetic surveillance (simplified magnetotelluric method), electric prospecting (Schlumberger method), electric prospecting (mise-a-la-masse method), heat flow rate survey, test boring, geothermal water survey, environmental impact survey, and so forth. The surveys resulted in conclusions mentioned below. Fractures running NE-SW are dominant, and those closely related to prominent geothermal signs are found in the Akan Seibu fault group in the western part of the Akan region. The test boring results show that there are high-temperature zones of 292.1 degrees C, 194.9 degrees C, and 245.9 degrees C. Geothermal fluids were discharged by well N2-AK-7 at a rate of 4.7-4.8 t/h in steam and 0.3-0.4 t/h in neutral SO{sub 4}-HCO{sub 3} type geothermal water. High-temperature steam-dominated geothermal resources are expected to exist deep in the ground in this region, and the area where the Akan Seibu fault group is distributed may be named as a location containing promising geothermal resources. (NEDO)

  13. Geothermal development promotion survey report. No. 22. Noboribetsu region; 1987-1990 chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 22 Noboribetsu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    The results of surveys conducted in the Noboribetsu region, Hokkaido, in fiscal 1987-1989 are compiled in this report. Conducted in the surveys were a geological/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey, electromagnetic surveillance (simplified magnetotelluric method), electric prospecting (Schlumberger method), electric prospecting (mise-a-la-masse method), heat flow rate survey, structural boring, precision structural boring, environmental exploration well, geothermal water survey, environmental impact survey, and so forth. Conclusions reached on the basis of the survey results are described below. It is supposed that a horizon, positioned in the Osarugawa stratum in the Karls Noboribetsu zone or in a fissure system in the Omagarisawa stratum below the Osarugawa stratum, contains a geothermal reservoir. The hot water at the Noboribetsu hot spring originates in gas or geothermal water separated from the deep-seated geothermal water while that at the Karls hot spring or the like originates in meteoric water built up in higher places. Although an area abundant in geothermal fluids is supposed to exist in the Karls-Noboribetsu zone, yet a section located between the Karls-Noboribetsu zone and the Noboribetsu hot spring area also draws attention as a zone having a potential to store geothermal fluids. (NEDO)

  14. FY 1996 geothermal development/promotion survey. Report of hot water survey results (No. B-3 Kumaishi area); 1996 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Nessui no chosa hokokusho (No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Reported herein are the survey results of hot water in the Kumaishi area, Hokkaido, as part of the FY 1996 geothermal development/promotion survey project. A total of 277 spouting guidance tests were conducted by the swabbing method for 10 days at the N7-KI-1 well, which, however, failed to achieve continuous spouting of geothermal fluid. A total of 144 swabbing tests were conducted for 8 days at the N7-KI-2 well. The geothermal fluid is spontaneously spouted out, although intermittently, after the main valve was opened, because it had a pressure of 4.1 kg/cm{sup 2} G at the mouth of the well from the first. However, the final self-spouting quantity remained unchanged in spite of the guidance works. The hot water had a pH 6.4, and contained Na as a cation at 8,940 mg/L and Cl as an anion at 14,500 mg/L as the major impurities. The associated gas was mainly composed of carbon dioxide, containing little hydrogen sulfide. The hot water spouted out through the wells contained Na and a high concentration of Cl as the major impurities, suggesting possibility of mixing hot water containing a high concentration of salt with surface water. It is considered that neither hot water nor its impurity concentrations are evenly distributed in the deep underground of the Kumaishi area. It is therefore considered that the deep underground hot water sources for hot spring slightly vary in composition and impurity concentrations. (NEDO)

  15. Geothermal development promotion survey report. No. 28. Eastern part of Obanazawa region; 1988-1990 chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 28 Obanazawa tobu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    The results of surveys conducted in the eastern part of Obanazawa region, Yamagata Prefecture, in fiscal 1988-1989 are compiled in this report. Conducted were a geological/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey, electromagnetic surveillance (TDEM - time domain electromagnetic method), gravity prospecting (review of gravity data), electric prospecting (Schlumberger method), heat flow rate survey, test boring, environmental impact survey, and so forth. Conclusions are mentioned below. It is inferred that the water of the Ginzan hot spring of the neutral Cl-SO{sub 4} type originates in meteoric water in mountains high above the mean sea level in the western side and that the hot spring water is produced when water heated to approximately 170 degrees C at a depth (1,500-2,000 meters below mean sea level) in the Ginzan hot spring district, where the ground temperature is the highest in this region, is diluted by groundwater near the surface at its ultimate stage of ascent. The survey results disclose that possibilities are quite low that a high-temperature sector of 200 degrees C or higher is found at a level not deeper than 2,000 meters from the ground surface. Accordingly, no geothermal development by flash steam power generation is feasible at the present stage at any economically acceptable depth. (NEDO)

  16. Geothermal materials development at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    As part of the DOE/OGT response to recommendations and priorities established by industrial review of their overall R&D program, the Geothermal Materials Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is focusing on topics that can reduce O&M costs and increase competitiveness in foreign and domestic markets. Corrosion and scale control, well completion materials, and lost circulation control have high priorities. The first two topics are included in FY 1997 BNL activities, but work on lost circulation materials is constrained by budgetary limitations. The R&D, most of which is performed as cost-shared efforts with U.S. geothermal firms, is rapidly moving into field testing phases. FY 1996 and 1997 accomplishments in the development of lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant cements for well completions; corrosion resistant, thermally conductive polymer matrix composites for heat exchange applications; and metallic, polymer and ceramic-based corrosion protective coatings are given in this paper. In addition, plans for work that commenced in March 1997 on thermally conductive cementitious grouting materials for use with geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are discussed.

  17. Investigations in fiscal 1986 on promotion of geothermal development. Part 2. Report on precision structural test well drilling and investigation works in Otaki area; 1986 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. 2. Otaki chiiki seimitsu kozo shisui oyobi chosa koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-09-01

    With an objective of promotion of geothermal development in the Otaki area in Nagano Prefecture, precision structural test well drilling and investigation works have been carried out, and the result thereof reported. The investigated area is an inclined land with an area of 70 km{sup 2} at altitudes of 1,000 to 2,000 m in the southern foot of the Mitake volcano having Otaki River as the southern border. The investigation has performed during the period from March 2 to September 30, 1987 the drilling of the N61-OT-5 test well hole (depth of 502.0 m), temperature logging, temperature restoration test, water injection test, and core test. The result of the investigation may be summarized as follows: existence of the stratigraphic succession as predicted by ground surface investigation, and existence of the Mesozoic and Palaeozoic strata of the Mino belt were verified; the Mesozoic and Palaeozoic strata of the Mino belt being the base bed have only small cracks, and very little alteration can be identified; X-ray diffraction of powder from test drilled cores recognized very little minerals altered by hot water; and the temperature logging and temperature restoration test identified no temperature indication that clearly indicates existence of heat sources. As a conclusion, there is no alteration due to hot water down to 500 m below the surface in the vicinity of the investigation well, and the possibility of a geothermal reservoir to exist is extremely low. (NEDO)

  18. Investigations in fiscal 1983 on promotion of geothermal development. Part 1. Report on investigation of fumarolic environmental effects in Oku-Aizu area; 1983 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. 1. Okuaizu chiiki funkichu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    As part of the investigations on promotion of geothermal development, surveys have been carried out in the Oku-Aizu area to identify the existence and/or extent of effects of collecting geothermal fluids above the ground imposed on the environment, such as the natural ecological system. The investigated area is an area of 60 km{sup 2} covering Kawanuma County and Onuma County in Fukushima Prefecture, a mountainous area with undulations. The investigation result may be summarized as follows: the area shows the inland climate and has snow fall as much as 2 m in winter; according to the H2S diffusion prediction, the concentration thereof on the land in seasonal average is 0.7 ppm at maximum, which is a value presenting no problems. No fumarolic effects of SO2 were identified, and floating dust and Hg showed values that present no problems. With regard to water quality during and after the blowout test, no effects of blowout return were identified. The noise level was 41 to 45 phones at a place 100 m distant, and the vibration level has become the lower detection limit at a place 50 m distant. Leveling has discovered no ground movement. No variation in major constituents in thermal spring water was verified before and after the blowout test. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1997 Report on the data processing for the geothermal development promotion investigation. No.B-3 Kumaishi Area (Phase 3); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 3. No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Described herein are the results of the comprehensive analysis of the No.B-3 Kumaishi Area, investigated in the FY 1995 to 1997 period as part of the geothermal development promotion investigation project. The ground investigation project covers geological and altered band, geochemical, gravitational and electromagnetic investigations. The drilling investigation project covers the test drilling for the structural investigation, temperature logging, water injection and temperature recovery tests at the N7-KI-1, N7-KI-2, N8-KI-3, N8-KI-4 and N9-KI-5; core cutting investigation; hot water investigation at the 4 wells; environmental impact investigation; and supplementary investigations for determination of ages of rocks and alteration, and analysis of the substances contained in the fluid. The following conclusions are derived from the findings by the comprehensive analysis. The geothermal hot water in the test area came from seawater (fossil seawater) locally captured by the highly water-permeable strata (e.g., interfaces in the strata, and fractured strata) and underground water from rain water, heated by the conducted heat to around 200 degrees C at the highest. It is estimated that the center of the conducted heat is located in the eastern part of the Yagumo Area. (NEDO)

  20. New Mexico low-temperature geothermal resources and economic development programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittier, J.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on New Mexico's low-temperature geothermal resources which have been utilized to promote economic development initiatives within the state. Public funds have been leveraged to foster exploration activities which have led to the establishment of several direct-use projects at various sites within New Mexico. State policies have focused on attracting one business sector, the commercial greenhouse industry, to expand and/or relocate in New Mexico. Geothermal-related promotional activities have begun to show success in achieving economic growth. New Mexico now has almost half of the geothermally-heated greenhouse space in the nation. It is anticipated that the greenhouse sector will continue to grow within the state. Future economic development activities, also relying upon the geothermal resource base, will include vegetable dehydration and aquaculture with a focus on the microalgae sector

  1. Fiscal 1999 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on survey of introduction of techniques for predicting impact on hot springs; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Onsen eikyo yosoku shuho donyu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    In an effort to find guidelines on how to proceed with geothermal energy development so that it may coexist with hot springs, investigations are conducted into cases of impacts on hot springs imposed by geothermal energy development activities. An impact is judged to exist when geothermal development results in a decrease or depletion of pumped or spontaneously welling hot spring water, change in the concentration of dissolved chemical ingredients, fall in water temperature, or in an increase in the amount of discharged steam. Keyword-aided retrieval of data from databases is performed, and geothermal magazines are referred to for information. There are articles reporting impacts imposed by geothermal development on hot springs in the Palinpinon area (Philippines) and 12 others and in the Corwin Springs area (U.S.) and 13 others. These articles carrying outlines and impacts of geothermal development are collected, put in order, and analyzed. Cases in which such impacts are found to exist are categorized into four groups and, in each group, episodes are differentiated from each other by the type of mechanism linking the aquifer and the reservoir which is the object of development. (NEDO)

  2. Sustainable Development of Geothermal Industry in China: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Bang; Li Menggang; Pi Xiyu

    2016-01-01

    With a wide distribution, large reserves, low cost, sustainable energy use and environmental protection and other unparalleled advantages, geothermal energy resources is important for China’s energy structure adjustment, energy conservation and environment improvement. Currently, geothermal utilization in China is still in its infancy, and Sustainable Development of the geothermal industry is also having a lot of problems. In this paper, the current research on sustainable development of geot...

  3. Geothermal Energy Development annual report 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report is an exerpt from Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1979 (LBL-10686). Progress in thirty-four research projects is reported including the following area: geothermal exploration technology, geothermal energy conversion technology, reservoir engineering, and geothermal environmental research. Separate entries were prepared for each project. (MHR)

  4. Geopressured-geothermal energy development: government incentives and institutional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, D.O.; Prestwood, D.C.L.; Roberts, K.; Vanston, J.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are included: a geothermal resource overview, the evolution of the current Texas geopressured-geothermal institutional structure, project evaluation with uncertainty and the structure of incentives, the natural gas industry, the electric utility industry, potential governmental participants in resource development, industrial users of thermal energy, current government incentives bearing on geopressured-geothermal development, six profiles for utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resources in the mid-term, and probable impacts of new government incentives on mid-term resource utilization profiles. (MHR)

  5. Geothermal energy in Alaska: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markle, D.

    1979-04-01

    The following are presented: the history of geothermal energy in Alaska; a history of Alaska land ownership; legal and institutional barriers; and economics. Development, the socio-economic and physical data concerning geothermal energy are documented by regions. The six regions presented are those of the present Alaska State Planning Activities and those of the Federal Land Use Commission. Site data summaries of the one hundred and four separate geothermal spring locations are presented by these regions. (MHR)

  6. Geothermal energy in Montana: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    A short description of the state's geothermal characteristics, economy, and climate is presented. More specific information is included under the planning regions and site specific data summaries. A brief discussion of the geothermal characteristics and a listing of a majority of the known hot springs is included. The factors which influence geothermal development were researched and presented, including: economics, financing, state leasing, federal leasing, direct-use technology, water quality laws, water rights, and the Major Facility Siting Act. (MHR)

  7. Geothermal energy in Montana: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    A short description of the state's geothermal characteristics, economy, and climate is presented. A listing of the majority of the known hot springs is included. A discussion of present and projected demand is included. The results of the site specific studies are addressed within the state energy picture. Possible uses and process requirements of geothermal resources are discussed. The factors which influence geothermal development were researched and presented according to relative importance. (MHR)

  8. California Geothermal Forum: A Path to Increasing Geothermal Development in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Katherine R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The genesis of this report was a 2016 forum in Sacramento, California, titled 'California Geothermal Forum: A Path to Increasing Geothermal Development in California.' The forum was held at the California Energy Commission's (CEC) headquarters in Sacramento, California with the primary goal being to advance the dialogues for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) and CEC technical research and development (R&D) focuses for future consideration. The forum convened a diverse group of stakeholders from government, industry, and research to lay out pathways for new geothermal development in California while remaining consistent with critical Federal and State conservation planning efforts, particularly at the Salton Sea.

  9. Development of a code of practice for deep geothermal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaver, J.D.; Bolton, R.S.; Dench, N.D.; Fooks, L.

    1990-01-01

    Recent and on-going changes to the structure of the New Zealand geothermal industry has shifted responsibility for the development of geothermal resources from central government to private enterprise. The need for a code of practice for deep geothermal wells was identified by the Geothermal Inspectorate of the Ministry of Commerce to maintain adequate standards of health and safety and to assist with industry deregulation. This paper reports that the Code contains details of methods, procedures, formulae and design data necessary to attain those standards, and includes information which drilling engineers having experience only in the oil industry could not be expected to be familiar with

  10. FY 1991 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Attached data. Electromagnetic exploration (High accuracy MT method) (No.38 - West area of Mt. Aso); Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. 1991 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa - Denji tansa (Koseido MT ho) hokokusho (No.38 Asosan seibu chiiki - Tenpu shiryo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion in FY 1991, electromagnetic exploration by the high accuracy MT method was conducted to acquire the information on the geothermal structure in the west area of Mt. Aso, Kumamoto Prefecture. The detailed data were arranged as the data attached to the report on the electromagnetic exploration. As the attached data, included were the results of the 1D analysis (measuring/analysis {rho}a-F chart, analytic structure drawing), results of the 1D analysis (numerical list of the apparent resistivity analytic value and inverse analytic value) and numerical list of the apparent resistivity measured value. (NEDO)

  11. Geothermal development and policy in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datuin, R.; Roxas, F.

    1990-01-01

    The Philippines is the second largest geothermal energy producer in the world although its geothermal energy potential has barely been utilized. Out of an estimated total reserves of 8,000 MW, only about 11 percent or 894 MW are currently on stream for power generation. The electricity production from geothermal steam registered a growth of 8.9 percent from 1988 to 1989, one of the highest among local energy sources. During that same period, geothermal energy rated the highest capacity utilization of 67 percent compared to the average system capacity utilization of 43 percent. This paper describes both the use of geothermal energy and government policies concerning geothermal energy in the Philippines

  12. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    Washington's geothermal potential is discussed. The following topics are covered: exploration, drilling, utilization, legal and institutional setting, and economic factors of direct use projects. (MHR)

  13. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  14. Geothermal Program Review VII: proceedings. DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an indepth review of its entire geothermal R and D program. The 2--3 day conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R and D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. This year's conference, Program Review 7, was held in San Francisco on March 21--23, 1989. As indicated by its title, ''DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace'', Program Review 7 emphasized developing technologies, concepts, and innovations having potential for commercial application in the foreseeable future. Program Review 7 was comprised of eight sessions including an opening session and a special presentation on the ''Role of Geothermal Energy in Minimizing Global Environmental Problems.'' The five technical sessions covered GTD-sponsored R and D in the areas of hydrothermal (two sessions), hot dry rock, geopressured, and magma. Presentations were made by the relevant field researchers, and sessions were chaired by the appropriate DOE Operations Office Geothermal Program Manager. The technical papers and commentary of invited speakers contained in these Proceedings have been compiled in the order in which they were presented at Program Review 7.

  15. Development of an Enhanced Two-Phase Production System at the Geysers Geothermal Field; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Enedy

    2001-01-01

    A method was developed to enhance geothermal steam production from two-phase wells at THE Geysers Geothermal Field. The beneficial result was increased geothermal production that was easily and economically delivered to the power plant

  16. Geothermal energy in Alaska: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markle, D.R.

    1979-04-01

    The various factors affecting geothermal resource development are summarized for Alaska including: resource data base, geological description, reservoir characteristics, environmental character, base and development status, institutional factors, economics, population and market, and development potential. (MHR)

  17. Geothermal energy in Idaho: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The various factors affecting geothermal resource development are summarized for Idaho, including: resource data base, geological description, reservoir characteristics, environmental character, lease and development status, institutional factors, legal aspects, population and market, and development. (MHR)

  18. A Technology Roadmap for Strategic Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziagos, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Phillips, Benjamin R. [SRA International, Inc. and Geothermal Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Boyd, Lauren [Geothermal Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Jelacic, Allan [SRA International, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Stillman, Greg [Geothermal Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Hass, Eric [U.S. DOE, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-02-13

    Realization of EGS development would make geothermal a significant contender in the renewable energy portfolio, on the order of 100+ GWe in the United States alone. While up to 90% of the geothermal power resource in the United States is thought to reside in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), hurdles to commercial development still remain. The Geothermal Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), began in 2011 to outline opportunities for advancing EGS technologies on five- to 20-year timescales, with community input on the underlying technology needs that will guide research and ultimately determine commercial success for EGS. This report traces DOE's research investments, past and present, and ties them to these technology needs, forming the basis for an EGS Technology Roadmap to help guide future DOE research. This roadmap is currently open for public comment. Send your comments to geothermal@ee.doe.gov.

  19. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-01-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development

  20. Development of Genetic Occurrence Models for Geothermal Prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. D.; Sabin, A.; Unruh, J.; Monastero, F. C.; Combs, J.

    2007-12-01

    Exploration for utility-grade geothermal resources has mostly relied on identifying obvious surface manifestations of possible geothermal activity, e.g., locating and working near steaming ground or hot springs. This approach has lead to the development of over 130 resources worldwide, but geothermal exploration done in this manner is akin to locating hydrocarbon plays by searching for oil seeps. Confining exploration to areas with such features will clearly not discover a blind resource, that is, one that does not have surface expression. Blind resources, however, constitute the vast majority of hydrocarbon plays; this may be the case for geothermal resources as well. We propose a geothermal exploration strategy for finding blind systems that is based on an understanding of the geologic processes that transfer heat from the mantle to the upper crust and foster the conditions for hydrothermal circulation or enhanced geothermal exploration. The strategy employs a genetically based screening protocol to assess potential geothermal sites. The approach starts at the plate boundary scale and progressively focuses in on the scale of a producing electrical-grade field. Any active margin or hot spot is a potential location for geothermal resources. Although Quaternary igneous activity provides a clear indication of active advection of hot material into the upper crust, it is not sufficient to guarantee a potential utility-grade resource. Active faulting and/or evidence of high strain rates appear to be the critical features associated with areas of utility-grade geothermal potential. This is because deformation on its own can advect sufficient heat into the upper crust to create conditions favorable for geothermal exploitation. In addition, active deformation is required to demonstrate that open pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids are present and/or can be maintained. The last step in the screening protocol is to identify any evidence of geothermal activity

  1. Fiscal 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Annex to on-the-ground survey report, geothermal development promotion survey (Part 2. Electromagnetic surveillance using simplified MT method - No. 30: Western part of Hakkoda area); 1989 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo (Denji tansa (MT kan'i ho) hokokusho - No.30 Hakkoda seibu chiiki - 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-01-01

    An electromagnetic surveillance using the simplified MT (magnetotelluric) method was conducted to help clarify the geothermal structure in the western part of the Hakkoda area, Aomori Prefecture. The survey covered approximately 60 km{sup 2,} and involved 38 survey points, 3 magnetic field components, 2 electric field components, not less than 10 measuring frequencies in the range of 0.01-125 Hz, and a measuring time of not less than 2 hours. An analysis was performed, with data previously collected at 60 points added to the data collected at the said 38 points. As the result, the resistivity structure in this area was divided into 3 layers of high-low-high as described from the surface to the depth, and the middle layer was further divided into 3 layers of high-middle-low and the bottom layer into 2 layers of high-low. The result conformed though roughly to the result obtained by the electrical logging carried out in the structure boring. In the geothermal zone including the Sukayu hot spa in the southeastern part of this area and along the Jogakura valley, there exist a complicated resistivity structure attributable to geothermal activities and a number of discontinuous lines of resistivity running in the directions of WNW-ESE and N-S. This enabled an inference that there is a deep-seated geothermal source between Odake and Akamizusawa extending eastward from the said geothermal zone. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Annex to on-the-ground survey report, geothermal development promotion survey (Part 2. Electromagnetic surveillance using simplified MT method - No. 30: Western part of Hakkoda area); 1989 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo (Denji tansa (MT kan'i ho) hokokusho - No.30 Hakkoda seibu chiiki - 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-01-01

    An electromagnetic surveillance using the simplified MT (magnetotelluric) method was conducted to help clarify the geothermal structure in the western part of the Hakkoda area, Aomori Prefecture. The survey covered approximately 60 km{sup 2,} and involved 38 survey points, 3 magnetic field components, 2 electric field components, not less than 10 measuring frequencies in the range of 0.01-125 Hz, and a measuring time of not less than 2 hours. An analysis was performed, with data previously collected at 60 points added to the data collected at the said 38 points. As the result, the resistivity structure in this area was divided into 3 layers of high-low-high as described from the surface to the depth, and the middle layer was further divided into 3 layers of high-middle-low and the bottom layer into 2 layers of high-low. The result conformed though roughly to the result obtained by the electrical logging carried out in the structure boring. In the geothermal zone including the Sukayu hot spa in the southeastern part of this area and along the Jogakura valley, there exist a complicated resistivity structure attributable to geothermal activities and a number of discontinuous lines of resistivity running in the directions of WNW-ESE and N-S. This enabled an inference that there is a deep-seated geothermal source between Odake and Akamizusawa extending eastward from the said geothermal zone. (NEDO)

  3. Geothermal energy in Idaho: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.W.

    1979-07-01

    Detailed site specific data regarding the commercialization potential of the proven, potential, and inferred geothermal resource areas in Idaho are presented. To assess the potential for geothermal resource development in Idaho, several kinds of data were obtained. These include information regarding institutional procedures for geothermal development, logistical procedures for utilization, energy needs and forecasted demands, and resource data. Area reports, data sheets, and scenarios were prepared that described possible geothermal development at individual sites. In preparing development projections, the objective was to base them on actual market potential, forecasted growth, and known or inferred resource conditions. To the extent possible, power-on-line dates and energy utilization estimates are realistic projections of the first events. Commercialization projections were based on the assumption that an aggressive development program will prove sufficient known and inferred resources to accomplish the projected event. This report is an estimate of probable energy developable under an aggressive exploration program and is considered extremely conservative. (MHR)

  4. Institutional and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, O. R.

    1977-01-01

    Until recently, the majority of work in geothermal energy development has been devoted to technical considerations of resource identification and extraction technologies. The increasing interest in exploiting the variety of geothermal resources has prompted an examination of the institutional barriers to their introduction for commercial use. A significant effort was undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a part of a national study to identify existing constraints to geothermal development and possible remedial actions. These aspects included legislative and legal parameters plus environmental, social, and economic considerations.

  5. Geothermal energy in Idaho: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.V.

    1979-07-01

    A summary of known information about the nature of the resource, its potential for development, and the infrastructure of government which will guide future development is presented. Detailed site specific data regarding the commercialization potential of the proven, potential, and inferred geothermal resource areas in Idaho are included. Leasing and development status, institutional parameters, and a legal overview of geothermal resources in Idaho are given. (MHR)

  6. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume II. Infrastructure and community-services requirements, Island of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, G.A.; Buevens, W.R.

    1982-06-01

    The requirements of infrastructure and community services necessary to accommodate the development of geothermal energy on the Island of Hawaii for electricity production are identified. The following aspects are covered: Puna District-1981, labor resources, geothermal development scenarios, geothermal land use, the impact of geothermal development on Puna, labor resource requirments, and the requirements for government activity.

  7. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (No. A-4 Kunbetsu-dake area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-30

    Of the FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey, the primary environmental effect survey in the Kunbetsu-dake area was conducted, and the results were arranged. In the well drilling survey, etc., the survey was made aiming at extracting areas to be preserved from an environmental aspect. The results of the survey were summarized as follows: As to the mammalia, 12 families 46 species were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery by literature survey. Out of them, the noticeable species which are considered important from an academic viewpoint are 10 families 19 species. As to the aves, 55 families 340 species were confirmed, of which 29 families 79 species are noticeable species. About the amphibia/reptilia, 3 families 3 species in the amphibia and 4 families 6 species in the reptilia were confirmed by literature and hearing survey. The noticeable species is 1 family 1 species in the amphilia. Concerning the terrestrial insecta, 135 families 873 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 11 families 20 species. As to the flora, 115 families 1055 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 46 families 126 species. Relating to the living vegetation, the one higher than 9 in nature reserves shows a substantial rate, and the periphery of Kaibetsu-dake is designated as the specified flora colony. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1999 report on the geothermal development promotion survey - Akinomiya area survey. Temperature/pressure logging before the long-term jetting test; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa Akinomiya chiiki chosa hokokusho. Choki funshutsu shikenmae no ondo atsuryoku kenso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    As a part of the FY 1999 geothermal development promotion survey - Akinomiya area survey, the rising speed/vertical permeability of the fluid associated with the natural flow were calculated by grasping the temperature of geologic layers/reservoir pressure in the survey area and the temperature distribution for vertical depth. In the survey of boreholes in the Akinomiya area: N9-AY-3, N10-AY-6, N10-AY-7, N10-AY-8, temperature/pressure logging was conducted in the stationary state at the time when a lot of time passed after drilling, water-filling test and jetting test having been finished. In the temperature/pressure logging, the continued measurement was made using PTS logging device to simultaneously measure temperature/pressure/impeller revolution number and lowering measuring device. As a result of the survey, it was assumed that there is a possibility of occurrence of the borehole fluid flow around the depth of 980-1290m and 1320-1540m of N9-AY-3 and around the depth of 880-1090m of N10-AY-8. The rising speed and permeability of fluid from each well indicated the same order at three wells. (NEDO)

  9. FY 2000 report on the geothermal development promotion survey - No.C-4 Shiro-mizukoshi area. Resource survey (Primary); 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. No. C-4 Shiromizukoshi chiiki shigen chosa hokokusho (Dai 1 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    As a part of the FY 2000 geothermal development promotion survey, survey was conducted in the Shiro-mizukoshi area (about 10km{sup 2}), Kagoshima prefecture, the gradually-inclined area located at the southwest foot of Volcano Kirishima, and the results were summed up. In the survey, the following were carried out: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone/fracture system, high-density gravity exploration, electromagnetic exploration, geochemical fluid survey, core test by drilling three exploration boreholes, temperature log, temperature recovery test, water injection test, short-term jetting test, etc. N12-SZ-1 came across the reservoir associated with the ENE-WSW system fault at a depth of 1,085m. The result of the temperature log and the geochemical temperature indicated that the temperature of the reservoir was between 230 and 240 degrees C. However, the reservoir was regarded as the vapor heating reservoir heated by the high-temperature vapor which is thought to be the shallow ground water separated from the deep reservoir. N12-SZ-2 was a large lost circulation zone at a depth between 1,325 and 1,486m, which indicated that N12-SZ-2 came across the ENE-WSW system Shiro-mizukoshi fault. N12-SZ-3 seems to be the area into which ground water flows. (NEDO)

  10. FY 1995 Report on the data processing for the geothermal development promotion investigation. No.B-3 Kumaishi Area (Phase 1); 1995 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 1. No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Described herein are the FY 1995 results of the No.B-3 Kumaishi Area investigation, conducted as part of the geothermal development promotion investigation project. The project covers the geological structure, geochemical, gravitational, electromagnetic, environmental impact and supplementary investigations. The following findings are obtained by the comprehensive analysis of the data. The Kumaishi Area is based on the sedimentary rocks and granite formed in the Pre-Ternary, which are unconformably covered by the strata belonging to Upper Oligocene of Ternary to Lower Pleistocene of Quaternary. The presence of NW-SE to E-W to NE-SW systems is suggested as the main fracture systems. It is estimated by the K-Ar method that the intrusion was formed in the 2.06 to 2.28Ma. The geochemical temperature suggests the presence of the fluid of 200 degrees C or higher as the deep hot water temperature. The resistivity structure generally indicates the NW-SE direction. Each stratum is confirmed by the test drilling for the structural investigation. The fluid motion model suggests possibility of hot water of high salt content, similar to that confirmed deep in the Yagumo Area, distributed deep in the Kumaishi Area. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 1998 geothermal development promotion research. Survey in Akinomiya area (N9-AY-3 short-term blowout test report); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Akinomiya chiiki chosa (N9-AY-3 tanki funshutsu shiken hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As a part of the fiscal 1998 geothermal development promotion survey in Akinomiya area, this test was carried out to obtain the fumarolic gas characteristics and fluid properties of N9-AY-3 test well by air reaction method. Blowout hot water was reinjected to N8-AY-1 test well drilled in fiscal 1996 to confirm its reinjection capacity. The fumarolic gas test result showed a steam volume of 35.0t/h and hot water volume of 160.8t/h (wellhead pressure equivalent) at a wellhead secondary valve opening of 33.7% and wellhead pressure of 15.3kg/cm{sup 2}G. The whole hot water volume of 30,214m{sup 3} is equivalent to nearly 320 times more than a well volume. Hot water showed pH7.7-8.6, an electric conductivity of 3,960-7,070{mu}S/cm, and chlorine ion concentration of 1,050 mg/l. Alkalescent Na-Cl system hot water showed a geochemical temperature of 283 degreesC. A steam gas concentration including CO{sub 2} as main component was 0.12-0.19vol%. Blowout hot water was continuously reinjected into N8-AY-1 well from a pit by pump to confirm its reinjection capacity. The reinjection capacity of hot water in fumarolic gas was 110t/h without any problem. (NEDO)

  12. Vegetation and geothermal development in the vicinity of the Takinogami geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, T

    1973-07-01

    After site studies for a new geothermal power plant at the Takinogami geothermal field, the Japan Natural Conservation Association recommended against locating the plant near the office and dormitory complexes at Matsukurasawa junction. An alternate site located about 1 km upstream on the Takinogami River was proposed. It was recommended that a buffer zone be established between the construction road and the local forest. This zone would be planted with Uwamizu cherry, Azuki pear, Tani deutia, Tamu brushwood, Clathracea, Rowan, Kobano ash and Yama (Japanese lacquer tree). A road embankment would be constructed of terraced masonry which would be landscaped with Tani deutia, Kuma raspberry, giant knotweed and mugwort. Previous development of geothermal wells in the area resulted in severe effects on the local flora. Consequently, further development was not recommended.

  13. On geothermal resources of India. Geotectonic aspects and recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, M L [National Geophysical Research Inst., Hyderabad (India)

    1988-11-10

    Research programs launched for exploration and development of the geothermal energy in India, since the 1973-1974 oil embargo, have led to the identification of many potential areas for geothermal resources. Resources comprise high/intermediate/low temperature hydrothermal convection and hot water aquifer systems, geopressured geothermal system and conduction-dominated regimes. Location and properties of these geothermal systems are controlled by the geodynamic and tectonic characteristics of the Indian continental lithosphere Main sectors for the utilization of India's proved and identified geothermal resources are the power generation, space heating, green house cultivation, aquaculture, poultry, sheep breeding, mineral processing, mushroom raising, processing of farm and forest produce, refrigeration, tourism, health-resorts and mineral water bottling. The R and D efforts have given some encouraging results. Geothermal resources of India, although primarily are of medium to low grade, could supplement, to a great extent, direct heat energy needs and may also provide electricity to some of the remote hilly areas. Development of geothermal energy sources in India is likely to get some more attention, with the setting up of separate departments and agencies, by various Provincial Governments, for R and D backing toward the alternate sources of energy.

  14. 1990 update of the United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Paola, G.M.; Stefansson, V.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Technical Co-operation for Development (UN/DTCD), is the United Nations executing agency for technical co-operation projects in developing countries. This paper reports that the UN/DTCD, inter alia, has played an important role for 30 years to promote geothermal resources exploration and development in many developing countries worldwide. During the period 1985-1990 some major geothermal projects have been executed and very successfully completed by the UN/DTCD, thanks to the availability of sufficient funds provided by the international community. New geothermal project proposals in 20 developing countries totaling an estimated financial requirement of $60 million have also been formulated by the UN/DTCD during the last 5 years

  15. Recovery Act:Rural Cooperative Geothermal development Electric & Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Elzie Lynn [Surprise Valley Electrification Corp., Alturas, CA (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Surprise Valley Electric, a small rural electric cooperative serving northeast California and southern Oregon, developed a 3mw binary geothermal electric generating plant on a cooperative member's ranch. The geothermal resource had been discovered in 1980 when the ranch was developing supplemental irrigation water wells. The 240°F resource was used for irrigation until developed through this project for generation of electricity. A portion of the spent geothermal fluid is now used for irrigation in season and is available for other purposes, such as greenhouse agriculture, aquaculture and direct heating of community buildings. Surprise Valley Electric describes many of the challenges a small rural electric cooperative encountered and managed to develop a geothermal generating plant.

  16. Overall analysis report on the fiscal 1994 geothermal development promotion survey. No.C-2. Wasabizawa area (secondary); 1994 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho. No.C-2. Wasabizawa chiiki (dainiji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Wasabizawa area is located near the boundary between Yuzawa city south of Akita pref. and Ogachi-machi, Ogachi-gun, Akita pref, having a range of 3.0km northeast-southwest and 2.5km northwest-southeast of Wasabizawa almost as a center. The area for survey and its circumference are national forests, and the east and a part of the south of the area are designated as the Kurikoma quasi-national park third type special region. From the geochemical temperature distribution, it can be assumed that geothermal fluids of around 300{degree}C exist in the deep underground of the Kaminotai-Wasabizawa-Akinomiya area. From the distribution of density basements, the block structure of the basement can be estimated. Around the boundary of the ridge/sedimentation region of this density basement, fractures develop and the formation of reservoir structure is expected from the comparison with the result of the well survey. In the blowout test, obtained were 284.3{degree}C and 83.05 kgf/cm{sup 2} at a depth of 1,300m. In the geothermal system, it is assumed that reservoir structures of geothermal fluids develop in the deep underground of the central part of the area. The heat source to the geothermal system is supposed to be the magma reservoir remaining in Takamatsudake volcanic rocks. 110 refs., 177 figs., 105 tabs.

  17. Fiscal 1999 geothermal development promotion survey. Development potentiality survey - Strategic survey/nation-wide survey (Report on Hokkaido region); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kaihatsu kanosei chosa - senryakuteki chosa zenkoku chosa (Hokkaido chiiki hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    For the effective implementation of the survey, an analysis was conducted into areas expected to be successfully developed for geothermal energy, and promising areas and prioritized survey areas were selected. Data then in existence were collected at the Doto district 1, Doto district 2, Toyoha-Niseko district, and the Iburi district and subjected to reanalysis, and a wide area geothermal system conceptual model was built. Using the model, development-promising areas were extracted, the amount of resources was assessed, and an optimum survey program was prepared. One promising area was selected in the Doto district 1, four in the Doto district 2, two in the Toyoha-Niseko district, and one in the Iburi district. As prioritized survey areas, Musadake was selected in the Doto district 1; Yoichidake, Yunosawa, and Takinosawa in the Toyoha-Niseko district; and Raibadake in the Iburi district. A Monte Carlo analysis was conducted, and the result indicated that Musakake had 93-121MWe in resources of which 55MWe would be exploitable with a probability of not less than 90%. (NEDO)

  18. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Geothermal energy in Washington: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.

    1979-04-01

    This is an attempt to identify the factors which have affected and will continue to affect geothermal assessment and development in the state. The eight potential sites chosen for detailed analysis include: Indian Heaven KGRA, Mount St. Helens KGRA, Kennedy Hot Springs KGRA, Mount Adams PGRA (Potential Geothermal Resource Area), Mount Rainier PGRA, Mount Baker PGRA, Olympic-Sol Duc Hot Springs, and Yakima. The following information is included for each site: site data, site location and physical description, geological/geophysical description, reservoir characteristics, land ownership and leasing, geothermal development status, institutional characteristics, environmental factors, transportation and utilities, and population. A number of serious impediments to geothermal development were identified which can be solved only by legislative action at the state or federal level and/or changes in attitudes by regulatory agencies. (MHR)

  20. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifford, A.; Beale, K.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

  1. Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region of reference

  2. Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region of reference.

  3. Geothermal energy in Wyoming: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    An overview of geothermal energy and its current and potential uses in Wyoming is presented. Chapters on each region are concluded with a summary of thermal springs in the region. The uniqueness of Yellowstone is discussed from both an institutional point of view and a natural one. The institutional situation at the federal and state level is discussed as it applies to geothermal development in Wyoming. (MHR)

  4. Legal and institutional problems facing geothermal development in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The problems discussed confronting future geothermal development in Hawaii include: a seemingly insoluble mismatch of resource and market; the burgeoning land claims of the Native Hawaiian community; a potential legal challenge to the State's claim to hegemony over all of Hawaii's geothermal resources, regardless of surface ownership; resistance to any sudden, large scale influx of Mainland industry, and questionable economics for the largest potential industrial users. (MHR)

  5. Population analysis relative to geothermal energy development, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pick, J.B.; Jung, T.H.; Butler, E.

    1977-01-01

    The historical and current population characteristics of Imperial County, California, are examined. These include vital rates, urbanization, town sizes, labor force composition, income, utility usage, and ethnic composition. Inferences are drawn on some of the important social and economic processes. Multivariate statistical analysis is used to study present relationships between variables. Population projections for the County were performed under historical, standard, and geothermal projection assumptions. The transferability of methods and results to other geothermal regions anticipating energy development is shown. (MHR)

  6. The development of geothermal energy constraints and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronicki, L.Y.; Doron, B.

    1990-01-01

    No single resource can meet the world energy demand. What is under consideration is the possible contribution of geothermal energy in the future. According to World Energy Council (WEC) perspectives, by 2020 the new energy resources will contribute 170 to 365 MTOE, of which the share of hydropower will be very significant. This is a realistic view based on the actual state of the market. This paper reports on the competitive advantages and economics of geothermal energy development

  7. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, F.; Kappelmeyer, O.; Herde, O.A.

    1992-01-01

    Objective of this brochure is to present the subject Geothermics and the possible use of geothermal energy to the public. The following aspects will be refered to: -present energy situation -geothermal potential -use of geothermal energy -environemental aspects -economics. In addition, it presents an up-dated overview of geothermal projects funded by the German government, and a list of institutions and companies active in geothermal research and developments. (orig./HP) [de

  8. National Geothermal Data System: A Geothermal Data System for Exploration and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Lee [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Richard, Stephen [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Patten, Kim [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Love, Diane [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Coleman, Celia [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Chen, Genhan [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey)

    2012-09-30

    Geothermal-relevant geosciences data from all 50 states (www.stategeothermaldata.org), federal agencies, national labs, and academic centers are being digitized and linked in a distributed online network funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Data System (GDS) to foster geothermal energy exploration and development through use of interactive online ‘mashups,’data integration, and applications. Emphasis is first to make as much information as possible accessible online, with a long range goal to make data interoperable through standardized services and interchange formats. A growing set of more than thirty geoscience data content models is in use or under development to define standardized interchange formats for: aqueous chemistry, borehole temperature data, direct use feature, drill stem test, seismic event hypocenter, fault feature, geologic contact feature, geologic unit feature, thermal/hot spring description, metadata, quaternary fault, volcanic vent description, well header feature, borehole lithology log, crustal stress, gravity, heat flow/temperature gradient, permeability, and feature description data like developed geothermal systems, geologic unit geothermal characterization, permeability, production data, rock alteration description, rock chemistry, and thermal conductivity. Map services are also being developed for isopach maps, aquifer temperature maps, and several states are working on geothermal resource overview maps. Content models are developed based on existing community datasets to encourage widespread adoption and promulgate content quality standards. Geoscience data and maps from other GDS participating institutions, or “nodes” (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey, Southern Methodist University, Oregon Institute of Technology, Stanford University, the University of Utah) are being supplemented with extensive land management and land use resources from the Western Regional Partnership (15 federal agencies and 5 Western states) to

  9. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Harney County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifford, A.; Beale, K.

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  10. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Deschutes County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifford, A.; Beale, K.

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  11. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Deschutes County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  12. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  13. Messing with paradise: Air quality and geothermal development in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade, scientists and the media have publicized several significant air-quality-related issues facing our nation and threatening the Earth. Our need for energy is at the heart of many environmental problems. Most of us would not dispute that global issues are vitally important. However, to many of us, who have live one day at a time, global issues are often overshadowed by those at the microcosmic (i.e., regional or local) level. This paper focuses on a continuing problem citizens experienced by the resident of Hawaii: controversial air quality and health issues linked to geothermal resource development. In Hawaii, air quality degradation and related health issues have been associated with geothermal development on the Kilauea volcano on the Big Island. This paper begins with an overview of Hawaii's ambient air quality based on data collected by the State Department of Health (DOH). A chronology of geothermal resource development in Hawaii follows. The potential atmospheric contaminants from development of the Hawaiian resource are listed, and health effects of acute and chronic exposures are identified. Public controversy about geothermal development and the efforts of local and state agencies and officials to effectively control geothermal development in concert with protection of public health and safety use discussed, in particular the recent development and promulgation of a State of Hawaii H 2 S standard. This paper concludes with some suggestions for integrating the diverse interests of government, regulators, citizens, and geothermal developers in seeking to meet the energy and economic needs of Hawaii while carefully planning geothermal development in a safe and environmentally responsible manner

  14. Fiscal 1989 geothermal development promotion survey. Annex to on-the-ground survey report, geothermal development promotion survey (Geochemical survey report - No. 32: Hachijojima district); 1989 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo (Chikagaku chosa hokokusho - No.32 Hachijojima chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    A geochemical survey was conducted by examining soil gas and hot spa water temperature for contributing to the clarification of the subsurface geothermal structure in the Hachijojima district, Tokyo. Mercury concentration, carbon dioxide gas concentration, and 1 m-deep temperature were measured at 155 sites; and chemical and isotope analyses were conducted for 10 specimens of hot spa water and 6 specimens of surface water. After examination, 5 significant locations were isolated at the regions of Yaene-Ogago, Taredo, the northern foot of Mt. Nishi to Weather Station, the southern foot of Mt. Higashi, and the region to the south of Mt. Higashi with hot spa distributed therein. The significant locations are situated in the vicinity of a mar that produced deposit by magma-steam eruption, an alteration zone, and the parasitic volcano in Mt. Higashi, and in an area with hot spa distributed therein. It is therefore concluded that they are closely related with volcanic activities. It is inferred that geothermal signs in the Mt. Nishi area reflect a relatively deep-seated structure. As for the mercury and carbon dioxide gas concentration levels in the Mt. Higashi area, it is inferred that they again represent geothermal signs reflecting a relatively deep-seated structure. (NEDO)

  15. Potential for offshore geothermal developments using deep gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodoriu, C.; Falcone, G. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    The development of geothermal resources is steadily increasing as operators meet the challenge of maximising the temperature difference between production and injection wells, while minimising the wellhead temperature of the latter. At present, the minimum working wellhead temperature reported for the heat-to-electricity conversion cycles is limited to about 80 C. The cycle efficiency can be improved by reducing the injection temperature, which is the temperature at which the fluid exits the process. This paper evaluates the potential for generating electricity with a subsea geothermal plant using the difference between downhole reservoir temperature and that of the cold seawater at the mud line. The temperature in the world's oceans is relatively constant, ranging from 0 to 4 C at around 400 meters water depth. The use of these lower offshore water temperatures may help boost geothermal energy development. Deep gas resources are considered to be held within reservoirs below 4600 meters (15000 feet) and are relatively undeveloped as the risks and costs involved in drilling and producing such resources are extremely high. These deep resources have high reservoir temperatures, which offer an opportunity for geothermal exploitation if a new development concept can be formulated. In particular, the well design and reservoir development plan should consider reutilising existing well stock, including dry and plugged and abandoned wells for geothermal application once the gas field has been depleted. The major risks considered in this study include alternative uses of wells in no flow or rapid depletion situations. Reutilisation of the wells of depleted gas reservoirs will invariably lead to lower geothermal development costs compared with starting a geothermal campaign by drilling new wells. In particular, the well design and reservoir development plan should consider reutilising existing well stock, including dry and plugged and abandoned wells for geothermal

  16. Report on the supplementary survey on the data processing in the FY 1997 survey of the promotion of geothermal development. Gravity filter analysis (No. B-6 Tsujino-dake area); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori ni kakawaru hosoku chosa (juryoku filter kaiseki) hokokusno. No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    As a part of the FY 1997 survey of the promotion of geothermal development, the gravity filter analysis was made of the data processing in the Tsujino-dake area of Kagoshima prefecture, and the results were summarized. The geothermal fluid used in the Yamagawa geothermal power plant has the residual magma brought by activities of volcanic rocks of the Ata central shield volcano as heat source, and the fracture system and deep intrusive rocks are reservoirs. A small scale of gravity anomaly area is located, and it reflects high-density volcanic rock masses which are distributed on the earth surface or shallowly under the ground. The ridge stretching from Kiyomi-dake to the Narukawa tunnel and the ridge connecting Kuze-dake and Tsujino-dake are in the high-gravity area and reflect high-density rocks in the shallow part and deep part. There is a possibility of the existence of the fracture system in the high-density deep basement. Calderas continue close to the south of the high-gravity ridge stretching from the Kiyomi-dake to the Narukawa tunnel, and the fracture system which brings the eruption of volcanic rocks of the Ata central shield volcano and the fracture system forming caldera exist in parallel. From the aspect of the geothermal structure, a consideration was made of rock layers which possibly compose the rise of high-density basement in the deep part near the Tsujino-dake. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1999 geothermal development promotion survey report. Structural boring survey work and analysis (No. B-5 - Musadake region); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kozo shisui chosa koji oyobi kaiseki hokokusho - No. B-5 Musadake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    For geothermal development in the Musadake region, Shibetsu-gun, Hokkaido, structural boring was carried out and boreholes were inspected. In the structural boring survey, borehole N11-MD-3 was drilled as deep as 2,001.18 m, and borehole N11-MD-4 2001.44 m. Performed or tested for each of the two boreholes were temperature logging, electrical logging, temperature recovery, reinjection, core cutting examination, and so forth. The result of the temperature logging shows that temperature rise is slower at levels deeper than 1280 m in borehole N11-MD-3, with the maximum temperature marking 274 degrees C, and, in borehole N11-MD-4, the maximum temperature is 198 degrees C. No reinjection test is carried out because the ground pressure is too high to allow the replacement of the borehole content with fresh water. Analysis results lead to a conclusion that the hot fluid in this region originates in fossil seawater and in meteoric water, the latter arriving after a long-term permeation process, heated by thermal conduction to 270 degrees C or higher. It is inferred that the geothermal fluid flows in a fissure in the vicinity of the Musadake/Mt. Shitabanupuri fault and a fault orthogonally crossing the said fault for the formation of a high-temperature geothermal storage. (NEDO)

  18. Geothermal Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluska, Oscar P.; Tangir, Daniel; Perri, Matias S.

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of geothermal energy is given that includes a short description of the active and stable areas in the world. The possibilities of geothermal development in Argentina are analyzed taking into account the geothermal fields of the country. The environmental benefits of geothermal energy are outlined

  19. PROSPECTS OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT FOR EAST CISCAUCASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Alkhasov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Work subject. Aim. The Northern Caucasus is one of the prospective regions for development of geothermal energy.The hydrogeothermal resources of the only East Ciscaucasian Artesian basin are estimated up to 10000 MW of heat and 1000 MW of electric power. For their large-scale development it is necessary to built wells of big diameter and high flow rate involving huge capital investments. Reconstruction of idle wells for production of thermal water will allow to reduce capital investments for building of geothermal power installations. In the East Ciscaucasian Artesian basin there are a lot of promising areas with idle wells which can be converted for production of thermal water. The purpose of work is substantiation possibility of efficient development of geothermal resources of the Northern Caucasus region using idle oil and gas wells.Methods. The schematic diagram is submitted for binary geothermal power plant (GPP with use of idle gas-oil wells where the primary heat carrier in a loop of geothermal circulation system is used for heating and evaporation of the low-boiling working agent circulating in a secondary contour of steam-power unit. Calculations are carried out for selection of the optimum parameters of geothermal circulation system for obtaining the maximum useful power of GPP. The thermodynamic analysis of low-boiling working agents is made. Development of medial enthalpy thermal waters in the combined geothermal-steam-gas power installations is offered where exhaust gases of gas-turbine installation are used for evaporation and overheat of the working agent circulating in a contour of GPP. Heating of the working agent in GPP up to the temperature of evaporation is carried out by thermal water.Results. The possibility of efficient development of geothermal resources of the Northern Caucasus region by construction of binary geothermal power plants using idle oil and gas wells is substantiated. The capacities and the basic

  20. Balancing energy and the environment: the case of geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellickson, P.L.; Brewer, S.

    1978-06-01

    The results of part of a Rand study on the federal role in resolving environmental issues arising out of the implementation of energy projects are reported. The projects discussed are two geothermal programs in California: the steam resource development at The Geysers (Lake and Sonoma counties) in northern California, and the wet brine development in the Imperial Valley in southern California.

  1. Sectoral programming mission isotope techniques for geothermal development. Philippines. UNDP sectoral support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, K.; Sun, Y.

    1995-10-01

    This report discusses the accomplishments of IAEA Technical Cooperation project PHI/8/016 ''Isotope Techniques in Geothermal Hydrology''. It is intended to help Philippine National Oil Company's Energy Development Corporation (PNOC-EDC) in use of isotope techniques for geothermal development. This report discusses outcomes of the mission, conclusions and recommendations on applications of isotopes techniques in geothermal agro-industrial plants and geothermal hydrology

  2. FY 1999 report on the comprehensive analysis of the geothermal development promotion survey. Forth. No.C-3 Akinomiya area (Separate volume 1: Forth survey); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho. No. C-3 Akinomiya chiiki (Dai 4 ji) - Bessatsu 1 (Dai 4 ji chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The paper reported the results of the long-term jetting test, etc. which were carried out as the forth survey of the geothermal development promotion survey in the Akinomiya area, Ogachi town, Akita prefecture. The jetting induction and the situation of production/reduction were described as follows. N9-AY-3 began to well spontaneously after being induced by sending air up to wellhead pressure of 4.8 MpaG. Damping was recognized for a month or so after the start of jetting. After that, however, no damping was recognized, nor was recognized the deterioration of the fluid enthalpy with age. The pH of geothermal water was definite, approximately 8, and the electric conductivity and Cl concentration were 8,500 {mu}S/cm and 2,600 mg/L, respectively. The maximum jetting capacity of N10-AY-8 was 10.4t/h in steam and 8.9t/h in geothermal water at wellhead pressure of 0.24 MPaG, and after that, it showed a tendency to lower. The flow rate of reduction of N8-AY-1 changed from 80-90t/h at the beginning to 60-70t/h. With the continued reduction, the lowering of reduction capacity was recognized. In the test, the following were carried out: temperature/pressure/spinner logging, test on pressure transition, survey of fluid properties, survey of jetting microseisms, etc. (NEDO)

  3. Report on survey in fiscal 1999 for promotion of geothermal development. Supplementary survey on data processing (fluid inclusion test) for Tsujinodake Area No. B-6; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Data shori ni kakawaru hosoku chosa (ryutai gan'yubutsu shiken nado) No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This paper reports the fluid inclusion test in the Tsujinodake area in fiscal 1998 for the survey on promotion of geothermal development. The fluid inclusions were classified into three types: those with the maximum value or the average value of the homogenizing temperature agreeing nearly with the saturated boiling curve, those with the homogenizing temperature showing the interim temperature between the present well temperature and the saturated boiling curve, and those agreeing nearly with the present well temperature. It is presumed that the bed temperatures in depths of 1,125.30 m and 1,427.50 m have changed very little since after formation of the present circulating and flowing systems of geothermal waters until now. In contrast at the depth of 1,691.75 m, the bed temperature was estimated to have fallen slightly from that in the most active period of the geothermal water activities. As a result of the rock age measurement, it is estimated that, in the Nansatsu bed groups distributing around the N10-TD-1 well, the temperature has fallen gradually after having been subjected to hot water alteration actions at higher than 200 degrees C, and cooling has taken place down to 200 to 250 degrees C as the fission track date temperature of zircon in the relatively late period (about several hundred thousand years before). There should have been no thermal change that affects the age measurement up to now since then. (NEDO)

  4. FY 1991 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Electromagnetic exploration (High accuracy MT method) (No.38 - West area of Mt. Aso); Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. 1991 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa - Denji tansa (Koseido MT ho) hokokusho (No.38 Asosan seibu chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion in FY 1991, electromagnetic exploration by the high accuracy MT method was conducted to acquire the information on the geothermal structure in the west area of Mt. Aso, Kumamoto Prefecture. The electromagnetic exploration was made in the area of about 65km{sup 2} at 52 measuring points for 3 measuring components in the magnetic field/2 measuring components in the electric field at 20 measuring frequencies or more in the range of 0.01Hz-20kHz for 4 hours or more. As a result of the survey, the resistivity structure indicated a 3-layer structure inside the Aso caldera. It was thought that the lowest layer was correspondent to the geological basement (Pre-tertiary system). As to the resistivity discontinuous lines extracted from sudden changes in depth distribution and resistivity distribution of the resistivity basement, those in NS direction are conspicuous and those in EW direction also exist inside the caldera. Around the part where these resistivity discontinuous lines of both NS and EW systems cross each other inside the caldera, the Yunoya hot spring and Tarutama hot spring which indicate the geothermal manifestation are located, and acid alteration zones were seen on the earth's surface in the periphery. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1998 annual report on the survey on development, introduction and promotion of urban type multipurpose geothermal utilization techniques; 1998 nendo toshigata tamokuteki chinetsu riyo gijutsu no kaihatsu, donyu, sokushin ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Introduction of geothermal heat pump systems, which depend on temperature differential, is investigated for urban areas, which have large energy demands. Results of the surveys on the current situations of geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems indicate that they have already numbered 300,000 units in USA and totaled more than 50,000 units in Switzerland and Northern European countries, and that they are increasing at an annual rate of higher than 10%. The results also indicate that introduction of these systems are well feasible in Japan, which generally has better topographical conditions than American and European countries, and the GHP system with vertical ground heat exchanger is investigated for its topographical and environmental considerations. These systems could annually abate approximately 52 million tons of CO2 (4.3% decrease), if disseminated to all households. They are also expected to help control the heat island phenomenon, and reduce peak power consumption. The technological problems to be solved before these systems are massively disseminated including development of small scale drilling rigs and preparation of drilling manuals. System standardization and introduction of subsidy systems are also needed to massively disseminate these systems. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (animals/plants, No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (doshokubutsu, No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey was conducted to estimate effects of drilling of geothermal exploration well on the environment, aiming at grasping the present state of environmental elements before the survey/development. As a result of the literature survey, the following distribution were confirmed in the fauna: 5 orders 10 families 19 species in the mammalia, 10 orders 25 families 73 species in the aves, 1 order 3 families 6 species in the reptilia, 2 orders 6 families 9 species in the amphibia, and 17 orders 179 families 719 species in the insecta. In the flora, a distribution of 132 families 670 species was confirmed. The results of studying the above indicated that in the fauna, there were 10 species such as antelope as valuable animal in the area surveyed and that it is necessary to pay much attention to the environmental preservation of the habitat for those animals in the well drilling associated with geothermal survey. In the flora, the 13 valuable animals selected as animal having a fear of extinction in the 'plant-version red list' were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery. Further, as to the plant colony, there are no important colonies in terms of preservation. In well drilling, important things are efforts exerted to restore to the original state of the area altered, prevention of the washed-away of mud water, etc., and efforts exerted to preserve the environment of vegetation. (NEDO)

  7. Geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-4 'Kuenohira-yama area'; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.B-4 Kuenohira-yama chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The above-named survey had been scheduled to be conducted in fiscal years 1996-1998 for an approximately 10km{sup 2}-large area of Kokonoe-cho, Kusu-gun, Oita Prefecture. In fiscal 1996, surface surveys were conducted, such as geological and alteration zone surveys, gravity prospecting, and electromagnetic survey. In fiscal 1997, an exploration well (N9-KH-1: depth 2,222.0m) was drilled. Since the maximum temperature in the well was found to be so low as 78.5 degrees C, the survey was given up in the second year. The survey conducted at N9-KH-1 showed that deep-seated and shallow-seated ruptures developed there in the absence of aquicludes, and so it was inferred that it was a recharge area, as predicted by the temperature logging profile, with surface water flowing into the depth. The above showed that there was no deep-seated blind geothermal system which the survey was after. Since it was not likely that the shallow-seated geothermal system located in the southern part of the Mizuwake pass would be found expanding into the area of the current survey, it was decided that the survey not be carried forward to the following fiscal year. (NEDO)

  8. Geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-4 'Kuenohira-yama area'; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.B-4 Kuenohira-yama chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The above-named survey had been scheduled to be conducted in fiscal years 1996-1998 for an approximately 10km{sup 2}-large area of Kokonoe-cho, Kusu-gun, Oita Prefecture. In fiscal 1996, surface surveys were conducted, such as geological and alteration zone surveys, gravity prospecting, and electromagnetic survey. In fiscal 1997, an exploration well (N9-KH-1: depth 2,222.0m) was drilled. Since the maximum temperature in the well was found to be so low as 78.5 degrees C, the survey was given up in the second year. The survey conducted at N9-KH-1 showed that deep-seated and shallow-seated ruptures developed there in the absence of aquicludes, and so it was inferred that it was a recharge area, as predicted by the temperature logging profile, with surface water flowing into the depth. The above showed that there was no deep-seated blind geothermal system which the survey was after. Since it was not likely that the shallow-seated geothermal system located in the southern part of the Mizuwake pass would be found expanding into the area of the current survey, it was decided that the survey not be carried forward to the following fiscal year. (NEDO)

  9. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Gravity prospecting (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. Juryoku tansa hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    For the contribution to elucidation of the geothermal structure in the Haneyama area in Oita Prefecture, gravity prospecting was conducted. Survey was carried out in the area of about 280km{sup 2} at 205 measuring points, and analysis was made altogether with the existing 3,273 gravity measuring points. As a result, the following were made clear. The gravity basement forms the fault-state structure that sinks several 100 meters to the south side on the line from the south edge of the Higashi-shiiya ridge to Mt. Kurotake - Mt. Daigansen - Amagase hot spring in the SW direction. This fault was made correspondent to the Beppu north fault on the east side of Mt. Kurodake. Each of the following regions is the region where the fault-state structure that predicts the development of fracture and the area of distribution of alteration zone that can be cap rock overlap each other: NW edge of Shishimuta sedimentation zone - Machida alteration zone distribution area; N edge of the Shishimuta sedimentation zone - Ibushi alteration zone/Noya alteration zone distribution area; Vicinity of Mt. Kurodake - Hijiu alteration zone distribution area. It seems that the above-mentioned regions have high potentiality of geothermal exploration. The region where new igneous activities are seen, which is near the heat source, is important for exploration. The distribution area is seen near the west of the Mizuwake Pass ridge. (NEDO)

  10. FY 1994 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Complementary survey on the fracture system, etc. (Wasabizawa area); 1994 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho futai shiryo. Wasabizawa chiiki danretsu kei tou hokan chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    For the contribution to elucidation of the geothermal structure in the Wasabizawa area, Akita Prefecture, survey by the paleomagnetic measurement and fracture system measurement was conducted of the borehole cores and specimens of outcrop granite obtained from boreholes of N6-WZ-3 and N6-WZ-4. In the survey, the following were carried out: measurement of the core fracture system of N6-WZ-3 (102-1,505m) and N6-WZ-4 (507-1,556m), paleomagnetic measurement of 9 outcrop granite specimens and 16 core specimens, and k/Ar age determination of 3 outcrop granite specimens. As a result of the paleomagnetic measurement of outcrop granite, the magnetization azimuth of the schistose granodiorite distributed in Kuwanosawa was regarded as almost NS. The measured magnetization azimuth of the core specimen obtained from the same rock mass was also made NS-based, and measurement of the fracture in the neighborhood was made. As a result, it was found out that the NNW system was dominant in dikes and that there was the NE system in most of the small geothermal channels. The fracture system of well tended to develop around the boundary between granite and metamorphic rock, and it was thought that this part could be a reservoir if temperature conditions are prepared. (NEDO)

  11. The Main Problems in the Development of Geothermal Energy Industry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiahong; Wang, Shejiao; Li, Feng

    2017-04-01

    As early as 1980-1985, the geothermal energy research group of the Institute of Geology and Geophisics (Chinese Academy of Sciences) has proposed to pay attention to geothermal energy resources in oil fields. PetroChina began to study the geothermal energy resources in the region of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei from 1995. Subsequently, the geothermal resources in the Huabei, Daqing and Liaohe oil regions were evaluated. The total recoverable hot water of the three oilfields reached 19.3 × 1011m3. PetroChina and Kenya have carried out geothermal energy development and utilization projects, with some relevant technical achievements.On the basis of many years' research on geothermal energy, we summarized the main problems in the formation and development of geothermal energy in China. First of all, China's geothermal resources research is still unable to meet the needs of the geothermal energy industry. Secondly, the development and utilization of geothermal energy requires multi-disciplinary cooperation. Thirdly, the development and utilization of geothermal energy needs consideration of local conditions. Finally, the development and utilization of geothermal energy resources requires the effective management of local government.

  12. Development of an Improved Cement for Geothermal Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabits, George [Trabits Group, LLC, Wasilla, AK (United States)

    2015-04-20

    After an oil, gas, or geothermal production well has been drilled, the well must be stabilized with a casing (sections of steel pipe that are joined together) in order to prevent the walls of the well from collapsing. The gap between the casing and the walls of the well is filled with cement, which locks the casing into place. The casing and cementing of geothermal wells is complicated by the harsh conditions of high temperature, high pressure, and a chemical environment (brines with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid) that degrades conventional Portland cement. During the 1990s and early 2000s, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) provided support for the development of fly-ash-modified calcium aluminate phosphate (CaP) cement, which offers improved resistance to degradation compared with conventional cement. However, the use of CaP cements involves some operational constraints that can increase the cost and complexity of well cementing. In some cases, CaP cements are incompatible with chemical additives that are commonly used to adjust cement setting time. Care must also be taken to ensure that CaP cements do not become contaminated with leftover conventional cement in pumping equipment used in conventional well cementing. With assistance from GTO, Trabits Group, LLC has developed a zeolite-containing cement that performs well in harsh geothermal conditions (thermal stability at temperatures of up to 300°C and resistance to carbonation) and is easy to use (can be easily adjusted with additives and eliminates the need to “sterilize” pumping equipment as with CaP cements). This combination of properties reduces the complexity/cost of well cementing, which will help enable the widespread development of geothermal energy in the United States.

  13. Development case histories: Tongonan and Palinpinon geothermal fields, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogena, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The background on the general scenario of energy resource development in the country is described. Highlights of the exploration history of the Tongonan and Palinpinon geothermal fields in the Philippines are then presented. This is discussed in conjunction with the strategies and policies taken in the development of each field. Finally, the common policies and contrasting development strategies are compared and evaluated. The conclusion derived is that the development strategy decisions at Tongonan are influenced by the regional power demand, topography, and the large extent of the resource. In contrast, the development at Palinpinon is less constrained by the external influence of regional power needs, but, instead, is significantly dominated by the limitations imposed by the rugged terrain and the physical characteristics of the resource area. Such comparison demonstrates the site-specific nature of geothermal development. (auth.). 8 figs.; 2 refs

  14. Investigating ultra high-enthalpy geothermal systems: a collaborative initiative to promote scientific opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Nielson, D.; Schiffman, P.; Schriener, A., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists, engineers, and policy makers gathered at a workshop in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California in October 2013 to discuss the science and technology involved in developing high-enthalpy geothermal fields. A typical high-enthalpy geothermal well between 2000 and 3000 m deep produces a mixture of hot water and steam at 200-300 °C that can be used to generate about 5-10 MWe of electric power. The theme of the workshop was to explore the feasibility and economic potential of increasing the power output of geothermal wells by an order of magnitude by drilling deeper to reach much higher pressures and temperatures. Development of higher enthalpy geothermal systems for power production has obvious advantages; specifically higher temperatures yield higher power outputs per well so that fewer wells are needed, leading to smaller environmental footprints for a given size of power plant. Plans for resource assessment and drilling in such higher enthalpy areas are already underway in Iceland, New Zealand, and Japan. There is considerable potential for similar developments in other countries that already have a large production of electricity from geothermal steam, such as Mexico, the Philippines, Indonesia, Italy, and the USA. However drilling deeper involves technical and economic challenges. One approach to mitigating the cost issue is to form a consortium of industry, government and academia to share the costs and broaden the scope of investigation. An excellent example of such collaboration is the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP), which is investigating the economic feasibility of producing electricity from supercritical geothermal reservoirs, and this approach could serve as model for future developments elsewhere. A planning committee was formed to explore creating a similar initiative in the USA.

  15. Recent developments in the hot dry rock geothermal energy program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, P.R.; Nunz, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, most of the Hot Dry Rock Programs effort has been focused on the extraction technology development effort at the Fenton Hill test site. The pair of approximately 4000 m wells for the Phase II Engineering System of the Fenton Hill Project have been completed. During the past two years, hydraulic fracture operations have been carried out to develop the geothermal reservoir. Impressive advances have been made in fracture identification techniques and instrumentation. To develop a satisfactory interwellbore flow connection the next step is to redrill the lower section of one of the wells into the fractured region. Chemically reactive tracer techniques are being developed to determine the effective size of the reservoir area. A new estimate has been made of the US hot dry rock resource, based upon the latest geothermal gradiant data. 3 figs.

  16. Value distribution assessment of geothermal development in Lake County, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchman, C.W.; Nelson, H.G.; Eacret, K.

    1977-10-01

    A value distribution assessment is defined as the determination of the distribution of benefits and costs of a proposed or actual development, with the intent of comparing such a development with alternative plans. Included are not only the social and economic effects, but also people's perceptions of their roles and how they are affected by the proposed or actual development. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: on morality and ethics; the vanishing community; case study of pre-development planning--Lake County; methodology for research; Lake County geothermal energy resource; decision making; Planning Commission hearing; communication examples; benefit tracing; response to issues raised by the report of the State Geothermal Task Force; and, conclusions and recommendations. (JGB)

  17. PROSPECTS OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT FOR EAST CISCAUCASIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. Alkhasov; D. A. Alkhasova

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Work subject. Aim. The Northern Caucasus is one of the prospective regions for development of geothermal energy.The hydrogeothermal resources of the only East Ciscaucasian Artesian basin are estimated up to 10000 MW of heat and 1000 MW of electric power. For their large-scale development it is necessary to built wells of big diameter and high flow rate involving huge capital investments. Reconstruction of idle wells for production of thermal water will allow to reduce capital invest...

  18. A Thermoelastic Hydraulic Fracture Design Tool for Geothermal Reservoir Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2003-06-30

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Thus, knowledge of conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fracture are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. At times, the practice aims to create a number of parallel fractures connecting a pair of wells. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have set out to develop advanced thermo-mechanical models for design of artificial fractures and rock fracture research in geothermal reservoirs. These models consider the significant hydraulic and thermo-mechanical processes and their interaction with the in-situ stress state. Wellbore failure and fracture initiation is studied using a model that fully couples poro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects. The fracture propagation model is based on a complex variable and regular displacement discontinuity formulations. In the complex variable approach the displacement discontinuities are

  19. Case studies of geothermal leasing and development on federal lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trummel, Marc

    1978-09-29

    In response to a widely expressed need to examine the impact of the federal regulatory system on the rate of geothermal power development, the Department of Energy-Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) has established a Streamlining Task Force in cooperation with appropriate federal agencies. The intent is to find a way of speeding development by modification of existing laws or regulations or by better understanding and mechanization of the existing ones. The initial focus was on the leasing and development of federal lands. How do the existing processes work? Would changes produce positive results in a variety of cases? These are questions which must be considered in a national streamlining process. This report presents case studies of federal leasing actions on seven diverse locations in the western region. Characteristics of existing high geothermal potential areas are quite diverse; geography, environment, industry interest and the attitudes and activities of the responsible federal land management agencies and the interested public vary widely. Included are descriptions of post and current activities in leasing exploration and development and discussions of the probable future direction of activities based on current plans. Implications of these plans are presented. The case studies were based on field interviews with the appropriate State and District BLM officer and with the regional forester's office and the particular forest office. Documentation was utilized to the extent possible and has been included in whole or in part in appendices as appropriate.

  20. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    This document represents the final report from the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of The Johns Hopkins University on its efforts on behalf of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Department of Energy (DOE). For the past four years, the Laboratory has been fostering development of geothermal energy in the Eastern United States. While the definition of ''Eastern'' has changed somewhat from time to time, basically it means the area of the continental United States east of the Rocky Mountains, plus Puerto Rico but excluding the geopressured regions of Texas and Louisiana. During these years, the Laboratory developed a background in geology, hydrology, and reservoir analysis to aid it in establishing the marketability of geothermal energy in the east. Contrary to the situation in the western states, the geothermal resource in the east was clearly understood to be inferior in accessible temperature. On the other hand, there were known to be copious quantities of water in various aquifers to carry the heat energy to the surface. More important still, the east possesses a relatively dense population and numerous commercial and industrial enterprises, so that thermal energy, almost wherever found, would have a market. Thus, very early on it was clear that the primary use for geothermal energy in the east would be for process heat and space conditioning--heating and cool electrical production was out of the question. The task then shifted to finding users colocated with resources. This task met with modest success on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A great deal of economic and demographic analysis pinpointed the prospective beneficiaries, and an intensive ''outreach'' campaign was mounted to persuade the potential users to invest in geothermal energy. The major handicaps were: (1) The lack of demonstrated hydrothermal resources with known temperatures and expected longevity; and (2) The lack of a &apos

  1. Geothermal development in southwest Idaho: the socioeconomic data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.

    1979-09-01

    This report inventories, analyzes, and appraises the exiting socioeconomic data base for the ten counties in southwest Idaho that would be impacted by any significant geothermal development. The inventory describes key sociological demographic, and economic characteristics, and presents spatial boundaries, housing data, and projections of population and economic activity for the counties. The inventory identifies the significant gaps in the existing data base and makes recommendations for future research.

  2. Geothermal energy developments in the district heating of Szeged

    OpenAIRE

    Osvald, Máté; Szanyi, János; Medgyes, Tamás; Kóbor, Balázs; Csanádi, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The District Heating Company of Szeged supplies heat and domestic hot water to 27,000 households and 500 public buildings in Szeged. In 2015, the company decided to introduce geothermal sources into 4 of its 23 heating circuits and started the preparation activities of the development. Preliminary investigations revealed that injection into the sandstone reservoir and the hydraulic connection with already existing wells pose the greatest hydrogeological risks, while placement and operation of...

  3. Geothermal development in southwest Idaho: the socioeconomic data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer,S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    This report inventories, analyzes, and appraises the existing socioeconomic data base for the ten counties in southwest Idaho that would be impacted by any significant geothermal development. The inventory describes key sociological demographic, and economic characteristics, and presents spatial boundaries, housing data, and projections of population and economic activity for the counties. The inventory identifies the significant gaps in the existing data base and makes recommendations for future research.

  4. Development of geothermal-well-completion systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.B.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a three year study concerning the completion of geothermal wells, specifically cementing, are reported. The research involved some specific tasks: (1) determination of properties an adequate geothermal well cement must possess; (2) thorough evaluation of current high temperature oilwell cementing technology in a geothermal context; (3) basic research concerning the chemical and physical behavior of cements in a geothermal environment; (4) recommendation of specific cement systems suitable for use in a geothermal well.

  5. Developing a framework for assessing the impact of geothermal development phases on ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedi, Jarot M.; Willemen, Louise; Nurlambang, Triarko; van der Meer, Freek; Koestoer, Raldi H.

    2017-12-01

    The 2014 Indonesian National Energy Policy has set a target to provide national primary energy usage reached 2.500 kWh per capita in the year 2025 and reached 7.000 kWh in the year 2050. The National Energy Policy state that the development of energy should consider the balance of energy economic values, energy supply security, and the conservation of the environment. This has led to the prioritization of renewable energy sources. Geothermal energy a renewable energy source that produces low carbon emissions and is widely available in Indonesia due to the country’s location in the “volcanic arc”. The development of geothermal energy faces several problems related to its potential locations in Indonesia. The potential sites for geothermal energy are mostly located in the volcanic landscapes that have a high hazard risk and are often designated protected areas. Local community low knowledge of geothermal use also a challenge for geothermal development where sometimes strong local culture stand in the way. Each phase of geothermal energy development (exploration, construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning) will have an impact on the landscape and everyone living in it. Meanwhile, natural and other human-induced drivers will keep landscapes and environments changing. This conference paper addresses the development of an integrated assessment to spatially measure the impact of geothermal energy development phases on ecosystem services. Listing the effects on the ecosystem services induced by each geothermal development phases and estimating the spatial impact using Geographic Information System (GIS) will result in an overview on where and how much each geothermal development phase affects the ecosystem and how this information could be included to improve national spatial planning.

  6. Exploitation of geothermal energy as a priority of sustainable energetic development in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golusin, Mirjana; Bagaric, Ivan; Ivanovic, Olja Munitlak; Vranjes, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    The actual global economic crisis, including all other well-known problems of sustainable development, reflects the direction of development of all countries in the world. Serbia, as a European country in its early stage of development, is trying to synchronize its progress with experience of other countries from the field of sustainable development and in accordance with rules in the field of energetic and energetic efficiency, and, as well as to promote and develop the sector of use of renewable sources of energy. On the other hand, Serbia is a country which largely depends on import of all forms of energy, which to a great extent affects its economic stability. Therefore, in Serbia the strategy for development of energetic was imposed and it considers all the aspects of development of energetic until 2015 and it also defines the priorities which can be mostly seen in the choice of forms of alternative sources of energy. These sources, based on some criteria, can be considered the most convenient for a gradual substitution of energy which is gotten from the conventional sources. Taking into account strategically defined goals and domestic potentials which are at disposal, as well as economic parameters, an alternative source of energy of basic importance for the future exploitation on the territory of Serbia geothermal energy, was chosen. The research points to the fact that Serbia will be capable to respond adequately to Kyoto protocol demands and to the European rules regarding the substitution of a certain amounts of fossil fuels by the fuel origin from the raw biological materials. The research defines the existent and non-existent capacities and the assessment of positive effects of usage of geothermal energy. At the moment, 160 long holes are being exploited whose water temperature is around 60 C (140 F) and their heat power reach 160 MJ/s. It was stated that adequate exploitation of existing and new geothermal sources a yearly would save about 500,000 tons

  7. Geothermal direct use developments in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1988-08-01

    Direct heat use of geothermal energy in the United States is recognized as one of the alternative energy resources that has proven itself technically and economically, and is commercially available. Developments include space conditioning of buildings, district heating, groundwater heat pumps, greenhouse heating, industrial processing, aquaculture, and swimming pool heating. Forty-four states have experienced significant geothermal direct use development in the last ten years. The total installed capacity is 5.7 billion Btu/hr (1700 MW/sub t/), with an annual energy use of nearly 17,000 billion Btu/yr (4.5 million barrels of oil energy equivalent). In this report we provide an overview of how and where geothermal energy is used, the extent of that use, the economics and growth trends. The data is based on an extensive site data gathering effort by the Geo-Heat Center in the spring of 1988, under contract to the US Department of Energy. 100 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Building a regulatory framework for geothermal energy development in the NWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holroyd, Peggy; Dagg, Jennifer [Pembina Institute (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    There is a high potential in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT) for using geothermal energy, the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth, and this could help the NWT meet their greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets. The Pembina Institute was engaged by the government of the NWT to perform a jurisdictional analysis of geothermal energy legislation and policy around the world; this report presents its findings. The jurisdictional review was carried out in 9 countries and interviews were conducted with various geothermal energy experts. Following this research, the Pembina Institute made recommendations to the NWT government on the development of a geothermal energy regulatory framework which would cover the need to define geothermal energy legislation and resource ownership as well as a plan and vision for geothermal energy use. This report highlighted that with an effective government policy in place, the use of geothermal energy in the NWT could provide the territories with a stable and secure energy supply.

  9. Building a regulatory framework for geothermal energy development in the NWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holroyd, Peggy; Dagg, Jennifer [Pembina Institute (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    There is a high potential in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT) for using geothermal energy, the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth, and this could help the NWT meet their greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets. The Pembina Institute was engaged by the government of the NWT to perform a jurisdictional analysis of geothermal energy legislation and policy around the world; this report presents its findings. The jurisdictional review was carried out in 9 countries and interviews were conducted with various geothermal energy experts. Following this research, the Pembina Institute made recommendations to the NWT government on the development of a geothermal energy regulatory framework which would cover the need to define geothermal energy legislation and resource ownership as well as a plan and vision for geothermal energy use. This report highlighted that with an effective government policy in place, the use of geothermal energy in the NWT could provide the territories with a stable and secure energy supply.

  10. Mt. Apo geothermal project : a learning experience in sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ote, Leonardo M.; De Jesus, Agnes C.

    1997-01-01

    The Mt. Apo geothermal project, a critical component of the Philippine energy program met stiff opposition from 1988-1991. Seemingly unresolvable legal, environmental and cultural issues between the government developer, the Philippine National Oil Company-Energy Development Corporation (PNOC-EDC) and various affected sectors delayed the project for two years. The paper discusses the efforts undertaken by the developer to resolve these conflicts through a series of initiatives that transformed the project into a legally, environmentally and socially acceptable project. Lastly, the PNOC-EDC experience has evolved a new set of procedures for the environmental evaluation of development project in the Philippines. (author)

  11. Present status of geothermal power development in Kyushu; Kyushu ni okeru chinetsu hatsuden no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyoshi, M. [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-20

    The present situation was introduced of the geothermal power generation in Kyushu. In Kyushu, where there are lots of volcanos and abundant geothermal resources, the geothermal exploration has been made since long ago. Three non-utility use units at three geothermal power generation points and six commercial use units at five points are now in operation in Kyushu. The total output is approximately 210 MW, about 40% of the domestic geothermal power generation. At Otake and Hacchobaru geothermal power plants, the Kyushu Electric Power Company made the geothermal resource exploration through the installation/operation of power generation facilities. At the Otake power plant, a geothermal water type single flashing system was adopted first in the country because of its steam mixed with geothermal water. At the Hacchobaru power plant, adopted were a two-phase flow transportation system and a double flashing system in which the geothermal water separated from primary steam by separator is more reduced in pressure to take out secondary steam. Yamakawa, Ogiri and Takigami power plants are all for the joint exploration. Geothermal developers drill steam wells and generate steam, and the Kyushu Electric Power Company buys the steam and uses it for power generation. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The state of exploitation of geothermal energy and some interesting achievements in geothermal research and development in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Rajver

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the latest status of geothermal energy use worldwide and the comparison with the previous period, both in electricity generation as well as in the various categories of direct use. Electricity production takes place in 26 countries and has at the end of 2014 reached 73,700 GWh from geothermal power plants with nearly 12.8 GW of installed power. This is still only 0.31 % of the total electricity produced in the world and it will be interesting to monitor the future share of geothermal energy in doing so. In the last 5-year period the development was particularly rapid in countries where it was slower in the past and, however, with favorable geological (tectonic conditions (Iceland, Kenya, New Zealand, Turkey, etc.. Direct use of geothermal energy covers a signifiant number of countries, today there are 82, although some of them are such where it takes place almost solely by geothermal (ground-source heat pumps (GHP on shallow subsurface energy (Finland. Installed capacity in the direct use is 70,885 MWt and geothermal energy used, including the GHP, is 592,638 TJ/year (end of 2014. Within the used energy the share of GHP dominates with 55.2 %, followed by the bathing and swimming pools complexes incl. balneology by 20.2 %, space heating by 15.0 % (the majority of it is district heating, heating of greenhouses and soil with 4.9 %, etc. The second part presents some interesting technological and scientifi innovations in exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy.

  13. Program planner's guide to geothermal development in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, W.W.S.; Chambers, D.M.; Elliott, J.F.; Whittier, J.P.; Schnoor, J.J.; Blachman, S.

    1980-09-30

    The resource base, status of geothermal development activities, and the state's energy flow are summarized. The present and projected geothermal share of the energy market is discussed. The public and private sector initiatives supporting geothermal development in California are described. These include legislation to provide economic incentives, streamline regulation, and provide planning assistance to local communities. Private sector investment, research, and development activities are also described. The appendices provide a ready reference of financial incentives. (MHR)

  14. Report on geothermal development promotion survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on hot water (collection and analysis of hot water) in Tsujinodake Area No. B-6; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Nessui no chosa (nessui no saishu oyobi bunseki) No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    This paper reports the survey on hot water in the geothermal development promotion survey in fiscal 1999 in the Tsujinodake area. The hot water pumped up at the N11-TD-2 well is considered to have been originated from sea water mixed with the same amount of meteoric water including waters from Ikeda Lake and Unagi Pond, and been heated mainly by heat conduction. The hot water temperature near the well is 120 to 130 degrees C, but the upper stream of hot water flow is estimated to be 160 to 230 degrees C. The test samples collected and analyzed are those pumped up from depths greater than 1,500 m, having the same origin as the high temperature hot water of higher than 200 degrees C flowing sideways at the relatively shallow portions (depths of 400 to 800 m). The hot water is estimated to be rising from deep portions of mainly the north-east shore of Unagi Pond in which exhalation bands are located, and its temperature is considered to be 260 to 270 degrees C at deep sections. The high temperature geothermal reservoir spreading in relatively shallow sections of the N11-TD-2 well mainly around the vicinity of the north-east shore of Unagi Pond has a high possibility of being continued even to the vicinity of the west Ibusuki area in the north-east direction. However, the spread of the geothermal reservoir with high temperatures (200 degrees C or higher) is considered not too large in the direction of the Matsugakubo in the north-west and the Narikawa area direction in the south-east. (NEDO)

  15. Analysis of ecological effects of geopressured-geothermal resource development. Geopressured-geothermal technical paper No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The activities involved in geopressured-geothermal resource production are identified and their ecological impacts are discussed. The analysis separates those activites that are unique to geopressured-geothermal development from those that also occur in oil and gas and other resource developments. Of the unique activities, those with the greatest potential for serious ecological effect are: (1) accidental brine discharge as a result of a blowout during well drilling; (2) subsidence; (3) fault activation and enhanced seismicity; and (4) subsurface contamination of water, hydrocarbon, and mineral reservoirs. Available methods to predict and control these effects are discussed.

  16. NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM (NGDS) GEOTHERMAL DATA DOMAIN: ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY DATA NEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [United States Department of Energy; Blackwell, David [Southern Methodist University; Chickering, Cathy [Southern Methodist University; Boyd, Toni [Oregon Institute of Technology; Horne, Roland [Stanford University; MacKenzie, Matthew [Uberity Technology Corporation; Moore, Joseph [University of Utah; Nickull, Duane [Uberity Technology Corporation; Richard, Stephen [Arizona Geological survey; Shevenell, Lisa A. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-01-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to ad- vance geothermal energy as a viable renewable ener- gy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is in- vesting in the development of the National Geother- mal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to sup- ply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are dis- cussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geother- mal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS in- cludes a work plan that addresses data assets and re- sources of interest to users, a survey of data provid- ers, data content models, and how data will be ex- changed and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  17. Geothermal Program Review XII: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the President's Climate Change Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    Geothermal Program Review XII, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of US Department of Energy, was held April 25--28, 1994, in San Francisco, California. This annual conference is designed to promote effective technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal energy developers; suppliers of geothermal goods and services; representatives from federal, state, and local agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. In-depth reviews of the latest technological advancements and research results are presented during the conference with emphasis on those topics considered to have the greatest potential to impact the near-term commercial development of geothermal energy.

  18. FY 1990 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Survey of environmental effects before jetting (No.34 - Kaminoyu/Santai area); 1990 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. No.34 Kaminoyu Santai chiiki - Funki zen kankyo eikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    For the evaluation of effects of geothermal development on the peripheral environment in the Kaminoyu/Santai area in the southwest part of Hokkaido, survey of the present situation of the environment was made. As a result of the survey, as to the climate of this area, the mean temperature, precipitation, etc. were almost the same as those of the nearest meteorological office of Hakodate, and the wind velocity was lower. Concerning the air, the mean concentration of H{sub 2}S was 0.8-3.6 ppb, SO2 was less than the detectable limiting value, Hg was 0.018-0.12 {mu}g/m{sup 3}N in average, and suspended particulate was 0.014-0.028 mg/m{sup 3}. Each of them satisfied the environmental criteria and the control level. The water quality satisfied the AA type criteria at every point of the river surveyed. The noise/vibration at the time of well drilling were 47-50dB at 10m measuring point and less than the lower limit of measuring at measuring points farther than 50m measuring point/100m measuring point. Every hot spring was drilled and spontaneously welling, and variations in spring temperature/welling amount were comparatively small. Micro earthquakes of 495 were observed in 47 days in total. Besides, survey was made of animals, plants, soils, scenery, etc. (NEDO)

  19. The analysis of subsidence associated with geothermal development. Volume 1. Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, R.W.; Finnemore, E.J.; Gillam, M.L.

    1976-09-01

    This study evaluates the state of knowledge of subsidence associated with geothermal development, and provides preliminary methods to assess the potential of land subsidence for any specific geothermal site. The results of this study are presented in three volumes. Volume 1 is designed to serve as a concise reference, a handbook, for the evaluation of the potential for land subsidence from the development of geothermal resources.

  20. Significant Problems in Geothermal Development in California, Final Report on Four Workshops, December 1978 - March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-15

    From November 1978 through March 1979 the California Geothermal Resources Board held four workshops on the following aspects of geothermal development in California: County Planning for Geothermal Development; Federal Leasing and Environmental Review Procedures; Transmission Corridor Planning; and Direct Heat Utilization. One of the objectives of the workshops was to increase the number of people aware of geothermal resources and their uses. This report is divided into two parts. Part 1 provides summaries of all the key information discussed in the workshops. For those people who were not able to attend, this part of the report provides you with a capsule version of the workshop sessions. Part 2 focuses on the key issues raised at the workshops which need to be acted upon to expedite geothermal resource development that is acceptable to local government and environmentally prudent. For the purpose of continuity, similar Geothermal Resources Task Force recommendations are identified.

  1. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) Geothermal Data: Community Requirements and Information Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [United States Department of Energy; Blackwell, David [Southern Methodist University; Chickering, Cathy [Southern Methodist University; Boyd, Toni [Oregon Institute of Technology; Horne, Roland [Stanford University; MacKenzie, Matthew [Uberity Technology Corporation; Moore, Joseph [University of Utah; Nickull, Duane [Uberity Technology Corporation; Richard, Stephen [Arizona Geological survey; Shevenell, Lisa A. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-10-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to advance geothermal energy as a viable renewable energy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is investing in the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to supply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are discussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geothermal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS includes a work plan that addresses data assets and resources of interest to users, a survey of data providers, data content models, and how data will be exchanged and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  2. Probes for the development of medium deep geothermal energy; Sonden zur Erschliessung der mitteltiefen Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuckmann, Uwe; Gottschalk, Daniel [REHAU AG und Co., Rehau (Germany)

    2011-10-24

    Compared to the near-surface geothermal energy, higher temperatures can be developed in the medium-depth geothermal energy (400 to 1,000 meters). Thus, the efficiency of geothermal power plants can be increased. The significantly higher yield performance and extraction performance are opposite to the higher costs of installation. At high thermal gradients of the surface one may completely dispense with the heat pump and directly heat. Geothermal probes at the current state of the art are reaching the limits of its applicability. Only newly developed geothermal probes offer a pressure resistance and temperature resistance in order to exploit these deeper regions. Such projects will be accompanied by the mining authority according to the power of approval. Extensive financial supports are available with the market incentive program of the Federal Government. Thus, the use of geothermal probes is possible in deeper regions. The feasibility and cost of future projects will be affected positively.

  3. Cumulative biological impacts of The Geysers geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    The cumulative nature of current and potential future biological impacts from full geothermal development in the steam-dominated portion of The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA are identified by the California Energy Commission staff. Vegetation, wildlife, and aquatic resources information have been reviewed and evaluated. Impacts and their significance are discussed and staff recommendations presented. Development of 3000 MW of electrical energy will result in direct vegetation losses of 2790 acres, based on an estimate of 11.5% loss per lease-hold of 0.93 acres/MW. If unmitigated, losses will be greater. Indirect vegetation losses and damage occur from steam emissions which contain elements (particularly boron) toxic to vegetation. Other potential impacts include chronic low-level boron exposure, acid rain, local climate modification, and mechanical damage. A potential exists for significant reduction and changes in wildlife from direct habitat loss and development influences. Highly erosive soils create the potential for significant reduction of aquatic resources, particularly game fish. Toxic spills have caused some temporary losses of aquatic species. Staff recommends monitoring and implementation of mitigation measures at all geothermal development stages.

  4. Survey on geothermal development promotion in fiscal 1998. Electromagnetic exploration (simplified MT method) (Separate data (No. A-4 for the Mt. Kunbetsu area)); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Denji tansa (MT kan'iho) bessatsu shiryo (No.A-4 Kunbetsu chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper summarizes the result of electromagnetic exploration in the No. A-4 Mt. Kunbetsu area as a separate data for the geothermal development promotion survey. The orders are as follows: in the apparent specific resistance and phase curves, TE mode, TM mode, invariant mode; in the MT parameters, tipper magnitude, tipper strike, impedance rotation, skewness, impedance polar diagram; in the one-dimensional analysis result (TE mode), specific resistance model, measurement/analysis {rho}a-F diagram; in the one-dimensional analysis result (TM mode), specific resistance model, measurement/analysis {rho}a-F diagram; inthe one-dimensional analysis result (invariant mode), specific resistance model, measurement/analysis {rho}a-F diagram; in the measurement value list, tipper magnitude, tipper phase, tipper strike, skewness; and in the value list for the one-dimensional analysis result, TE mode, TM mode, invariant mode and the value list for the two-dimensional analysis result. (NEDO)

  5. The GEOFAR Project - Geothermal Finance and Awareness in Europeans Regions - Development of new schemes to overcome non-technical barriers, focusing particularly on financial barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, Adeline; Wendel, Marco; Jaudin, Florence; Hiegl, Mathias

    2010-05-01

    Numerous advantages of geothermal energy like its widespread distribution, a base-load power and availability higher than 90%, a small footprint and low carbon emissions, and the growing concerns about climate changes strongly promote the development of geothermal projects. Geothermal energy as a local energy source implies needs on surface to be located close to the geothermal resource. Many European regions dispose of a good geothermal potential but it is mostly not sufficiently developed due to non-technical barriers occurring at the very early stages of the project. The GEOFAR Project carried out within the framework of EU's "Intelligent Energy Europe" (IEE) program, gathers a consortium of European partners from Germany, France, Greece, Spain and Portugal. Launched in September 2008, the aim of this research project is to analyze the mentioned non-technical barriers, focusing most particularly on economic and financial aspects. Based on this analysis GEOFAR aims at developing new financial and administrative schemes to overcome the main financial barriers for deep geothermal projects (for electricity and direct use, without heat pumps). The analysis of the current situation and the future development of geothermal energy in GEOFAR target countries (Germany, France, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Hungary) was necessary to understand and expose the diverging status of the geothermal sector and the more and less complicated situation for geothermal projects in different Europeans Regions. A deeper analysis of 40 cases studies (operating, planned and failed projects) of deep geothermal projects also contributed to this detailed view. An exhaustive analysis and description of financial mechanisms already existing in different European countries and at European level to support investors completed the research on non-technical barriers. Based on this profound analysis, the GEOFAR project has made an overview of the difficulties met by project

  6. Geothermal spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, J.L.; Takahashi, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    The spa business, part of the health and fitness industry that has sprung up in recent years, is highly successful world-wide. The most traditional type of spa is the geothermal spa, found in geothermal areas around the world. In Japan, for example, some 2,000 geothermal spas and resorts generate $6 billion annually. Hawaii has an ideal environment for geothermal spas, and several locations in the islands could supply warm mineral water for spa development. Hawaii receives about 6 million visitors annually, a high percentage of whom are familiar with the relaxing and therapeutic value of geothermal spas, virtually guaranteeing the success of this industry in Hawaii. Presently, Hawaii does not have a single geothermal spa. This paper reports that the geothermal spa business is an industry whose time has come, an industry that offers very promising investment opportunities, and one that would improve the economy while expanding the diversity of pleasurable vacation options in Hawaii

  7. Investigation of geothermal development and promotion for fiscal 1997. Investigation report on geological/alteration zone (No. B-5 Musadake area); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chishitsu henshitsutai chosa hokokusho (No.B-5 Musadake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This investigation was intended to clarify the possibility of existence of geothermal reservoir layer by elucidating the underground structure and thermal source forming the geothermal system around Musadake, in the area extending over Nakashibetu-cho and Shibetu-cho, Shibetu district, Hokkaido, and further by grasping the distribution and properties of the geothermal alteration zone. The geothermal system of the subject area seems to be governed by Musadake - Mt. Shitabanupuri fault, its incidental bent zone, and the graben extending to the southeast side. The thermal source is presumably a magma reservoir that evolved Musa volcano. The depth hot water is presumed to exist in the underground depth around Mt. Imora; and it seems that the thermal conduction and volcanic ejecta are caused by a chain of volcano-related magma reservoirs around Musadake, the thermal source presumably. The depth hot water is estimated to be not less than 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. Within the graben, mudstones are distributed such as Kawakita layer and Yokoushigawa geological layer. Moreover, it is possible that an impermeable layer due to alteration is spread. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1999 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. No. B-6 Tsujinodake area (Tertiary); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki (dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of confirming the existence of geothermal reservoirs, this survey was conducted as Survey B in the range of 30km{sup 2} east of Lake Ikeda at the south east end of Satsuma Peninsula, Kagoshima pref. from FY 1997 to FY 1999. By the geology/alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, electromagnetic survey and gravity survey which were conducted in FY 1997 as surface survey, the following three were extracted as the areas which have great potentiality of geothermal resource existence: 1) area along the Yamakawa-Matsugakubo structure line on which calderas and explosion craters lie (north part); 2) area along the Takeyama-Tsujinodake structure line on which Ata central dome volcanic rocks lie (central part); 3) area around Kozukahama where the south wall of the Ata caldera extends in east-west direction (south part). In the survey after that, in north part, it was considered that aquicludes in clayey alteration zone were widely distributed around levels of 100m above - 200m below sea level and there existed geothermal reservoirs under the aquicludes. It was presumed that the mixed water of sea water and surface water was thermally conducted by heat sources of 300-490 degrees C and geothermal reservoirs of 260-270 degrees C were formed. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 1999 geothermal development promotion survey report. Data processing (No. B-5 - Musadake region - Phase 3); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-5 Musadake chiiki (Dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis was conducted into the results of a survey on the state of existence of geothermal energy resources in the Musadake region, Shibetsu-gun, Hokkaido. The region was volcanically active in the period from the Neogene period into the quaternary, with some volcanos still active even today. The geological structure on the whole is characterized by the Musadake/Mt. Shitabanupuri fault which is the major structure running NNE-SSW and having a folding structure. It is inferred that Musadake is the heat source responsible for the underground temperature distribution in this region. The maximum temperature of 274 degrees C is recorded at borehole N11-MD-3 in the northeastern part of Musadake, and the temperature falls rapidly as the distance from the borehole increases. Ejection of geothermal fluids is observed at boreholes N11-MD-3 and N11-MD-4. It is inferred that the deep-seated geothermal water is of the neutral Cl type with Cl concentration estimated at approximately 12,000 mg/liter. Steam composition is characterized by a gas concentration level that is as high as 3-4 vol.%. The gas is composedly mainly of CO2 and contains some hydrocarbons. Fluids in this region are classified into water mixing into deep-seated geothermal water and groundwater originating in meteoric water. (NEDO)

  10. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Skamania County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

  11. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  12. Advanced Percussive Drilling Technology for Geothermal Exploration and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Raymond, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Prasad, Somuri [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolfer, Dale [Atlas-Copco Secoroc LLC, Fagersta (Sweden)

    2017-06-12

    Percussive hammers are a promising advance in drilling technology for geothermal since they rely upon rock reduction mechanisms that are well-suited for use in the hard, brittle rock characteristic of geothermal formations. The project research approach and work plan includes a critical path to development of a high-temperature (HT) percussive hammer using a two phase approach. The work completed in Phase I of the project demonstrated the viability of percussive hammers and that solutions to technical challenges in design, material technology, and performance are likely to be resolved. Work completed in Phase II focused on testing the findings from Phase I and evaluating performance of the materials and designs at high operating temperatures. A high-operating temperature (HOT) drilling facility was designed, built, and used to test the performance of the DTH under extreme conditions. Results from the testing indicate that a high-temperature capable hammer can be developed and is a viable alternative for use in the driller’s toolbox.

  13. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Survey for development feasibility in fiscal 1999 investigation of geothermal development and promotion. Evaluation report on practicability technology survey SWD method (Evaluation report concerning verification test); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa no uchi kaihatsu kanosei chosa. Jitsuyoka gijutsu chosa SWD ho hyoka hokokusho (jissho shiken ni kakawaru hyoka hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    An evaluation test was conducted on SWD (Seismic While Drilling) method as a part of the investigation of geothermal development and promotion. The test was implemented at the time of drilling of N11-MD-3 well in the northeast base area of Busadake, Hokkaido. The test items were such as verification of direct waves propagating from a bit to the surface, identification of signals passing through a fault zone using direct waves and reflected waves, estimation of distance between a fault and a bent zone, and grasping the direction of signal propagation at the time of inclined drilling. As a result of the experiments and studies, following conclusions were obtained. Reflected waves extracted are not necessarily limited to those from a reflection area from which the shape of a fault can be grasped; unless there is a clear reflection area that can be picked up on the surface near a fault, the application of this method is not effective. In an analysis using direct waves, it was possible to obtain an inclined angle of a fault plane from the estimation of velocity structure, propagation route, and assumption of the shape of the fault plane and, therefore, to grasp the shape of the fault. Obtaining reference data is essential for identifying bit signals. (NEDO)

  15. Geopressured-geothermal resource development on public free school lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The study's findings and recommendations are based upon analysis of the following: financial and economic feasibility of geopressured-geothermal resource development; possible ecological, social, and economic impacts of resource development on PFSL; and legal issues associated with resource development. The results of the analysis are summarized and are discussed in detail in a series of four technical papers which accompany this volume. Existing rules of the General Land Office (GLO), the School Land Board (SLB), and the Railroad Commission of Texas (RRC) were reviewed in light of the above analysis and were discussed with the agencies. The study's recommendations resulted from this analytical and review process; they are discussed. The preliminary draft rules and regulations to govern resource development on PFSL are presented in Appendix A; the accompanying forms and model lease are found in Appendix B.

  16. Measurement of attitudes toward commercial development of geothermal energy in Federal Region IX. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    A survey was conducted of ten target study groups and subgroups for Klamath Falls, Oregon, and Susanville, California: local government, current and potential industry at the site, relocators to the site, current and potential financial community, regulators, and current and potential promoters and developers. The results of benchmark attitudinal measurement is presented separately for each target group. A literature review was conducted and Macro-environmental attitudes of a sample of local government and industry personnel at the sites were assessed. An assessment of capabilities was made which involved two measurements. The first was a measurement of a sample of promoters, developers, and industrial service companies active at the site to determine infrastructure capabilities required by industry for geothermal plants. The second measurement involved analyzing a sample of industry management in the area and defining their requirements for plant retrofit and expansion. Finally, the processes used by the study group to analyze information to reach commitment and regulatory decisions that significantly impact on geothermal energy projects at the site were identified and defined.

  17. Report on fiscal 2000 geothermal development promotion survey. No. C-5 Appi district environmental impact survey (1st phase); 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho - No.C-5. 1. Appi chiiki kankyo eikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-01

    For the survey of weather in the Appi district, Iwate Prefecture, observation data covering the last decade were collected at weather stations and the like, and characteristics of weather, climate, and natural earthquakes were learned. In the survey of fluctuation in the spa water level, studies were made about fluctuation in water temperature, spring water, and river water, and basic data were collected for the examination of the impact to be generated by geothermal exploration well boring and short-term discharge tests. In the survey of animal and vegetables, the habitation and distribution of animals and vegetables at sites planned for geothermal well boring were investigated, and data were collected for the evaluation of the impact to be imposed on them by well boring or the like. In the survey dealing with nature conservation and landscape, laws and regulations governing nature conservation were collected and put in an easy-to-use order, and seasonal changes in the natural landscape were photographed and recorded. In the survey of noise/vibration and ground fluctuation, the background values were measured prior to the implementation of geothermal well boring, discharge tests, and so forth. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1999 geothermal development promotion study. Report on results of the elastic wave exploitation (reflection method) in No.B-5, Busadake area; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Danseiha tansa (hanshaho) hokokusho No.B-5 Busadake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are results of the elastic wave exploitation (reflection method) conducted in the Busadake area in Hokkaido to elucidate the geological and geothermal structures. The elastic wave exploitation used large-size vibrators, an explosive and 4 courses of traverse (total length: 25.675 km, number of vibration-receiving points: 1,031, and number of vibration source points: 342). The data were processed by the standard procedure of the common reflection synthesis method. The acoustic velocity logging data, collected at the structural drillings N10-MD-1 and N10-MD-2, were synthesized to have the reflection seismic records. The existing surface geology, drilling geology and gravity data were compared with the recorded deep sections for the comprehensive discussion, to extract the reflection horizon corresponding to the geological boundary, and investigate the relationships of the discrete lines of deposit structures, unconformity relations and reflection with geological and default structures determined by the data analysis. The study results of the geothermal structures suggest possible formation of the geothermal reservoir deep in the west of the default found by Line-1, based on the observed temperature structures at the drilling N7-SB-1. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1999 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on survey of structural boring (No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kozo shisui chosa koji oyobi kaiseki hokokusho (No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    Borehole N11-KN-1 was digged and investigated for clarifying the geothermal structure of the Kuwanosawa area, with attention fully paid to the existing survey results. The hole is inclined, 1,802.30m deep in total, with a casing pipe installed down to the 1,101.76m level. Temperature was measured and electrical logging was performed at levels 410m, 1,110m, and 1,802.23m while the hole walls were still exposed bear. The maximum temperature of 161 degrees C was observed at the hole bottom, and the product of permeability - layer thickness transmission coefficient was described by 3.72 to 4.75 times 10{sup -1} darcy.m. The geothermal structures in presence in the south-western part of the survey area and along the Wasabizawa fault were made clear, and it was found that there exists no high-temperature water system in the vicinity of borehole N11-NK-1. As tasks for the future, it was proposed that a geothermal survey of the south-eastern part which includes borehole N57-YO-2 and a geochemical survey of fluids including hot spring water and surface be conducted. (NEDO)

  20. FY 1994 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Investigative construction and analysis for structural boring (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1994 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kozo shitsui chosakoji oyobi kaiseki hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    For the contribution to elucidation of the geothermal structure in the Haneyama area, Oita Prefecture, the paper carried out the drilling of structural boring exploration wells, N6-HN-1 (1,605m) and N6-HN-2 (1,402m), and the well exploration. In the well exploration, the following were conducted: measurement of earth temperature, temperature recovery test, electrical log, simple water injection test, core/cutting observation, core test, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, physical property test, measurement of homogenization temperature of fluid inclusion, etc. In the temperature log and temperature recovery test, the terminal temperature at a 1,600m depth of N6-HN-1 well and at a 1,400m depth of N6-HN-2 well was 139.6 degrees C and 26.2 degrees C, respectively. The homogenization temperature of fluid inclusion was relatively higher, +70 degrees C to +100 degrees C, than that in the results of the temperature log, but was on the side of lower temperature, -30 degrees C to -100 degrees C, in a comparison with the saturated boiling curve of the earth surface and ground water level. Namely, it was thought that around the N6-HN-1 well, there used to exist the high temperature fluid of 250 degrees C or higher at the peak period of geothermal activities, but there only existed the geothermal water of approximately 140 degrees C at the present time. (NEDO)

  1. Crossing the Barriers: An Analysis of Land Access Barriers to Geothermal Development and Potential Improvement Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Developers have identified many non-technical barriers to geothermal power development, including access to land. Activities required for accessing land, such as environmental review and private and public leasing can take a considerable amount of time and can delay or prevent project development. This paper discusses the impacts to available geothermal resources and deployment caused by land access challenges, including tribal and cultural resources, environmentally sensitive areas, biological resources, land ownership, federal and state lease queues, and proximity to military installations. In this analysis, we identified challenges that have the potential to prevent development of identified and undiscovered hydrothermal geothermal resources. We found that an estimated 400 MW of identified geothermal resource potential and 4,000 MW of undiscovered geothermal resource potential were either unallowed for development or contained one or more significant barriers that could prevent development at the site. Potential improvement scenarios that could be employed to overcome these barriers include (1) providing continuous funding to the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) for processing geothermal leases and permit applications and (2) the creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures. The model results forecast that continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 80 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 124 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures coupled with continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 97 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 152 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The small impact on potential deployment in these improvement scenarios suggests that these 4,400 MW have other barriers to development in addition to land access. In other words, simply

  2. Geothermal development of the Salton Trough, California and Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, T.D.; Howard, J.H.; Lande, D.P. (eds.)

    1975-04-01

    A geological description is given of the Salton Trought followed by a chronological history of attempts to exploit the area's geothermal resources. In addition, detailed descriptions are given of all ongoing geothermal projects in the area and the organizations conducting them.

  3. Deep geothermal resources in Quebec and in Colombia: an area that may develop based on French experience on geothermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blessent, D.; Raymond, J.; Dezayes, C.

    2016-01-01

    Because of an increasing demand in electricity and a necessity of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, several countries envisage the development of the renewable energies. The geothermal energy is a particularly interesting alternative because it allows a production of electricity which is not influenced by weather conditions and it requires relatively restricted surface areas compared, for example, to the area required by a hydroelectric power plant. The literature review presented here summarizes the main characteristics of the geothermal potential in Quebec, in sedimentary basins, and in Colombia, in the area of the Nevado del Ruiz volcanic complex. Currently, in these two regions, the hydro-electric power dominates the electricity production, but there is a similar interest to the development of geothermal power plants. The French sites of Soultz-sous-Forets in Alsace and Boiling in Guadeloupe are respectively presented as an example of exploitation of geothermal improved systems (Enhanced Geothermal System; EGS) and geothermal resources in volcanic regions. The first site constitutes a model for the future development of the deep geothermal exploitation in Quebec, whereas the second is an example for Colombia. A description of environmental impacts related to the exploitation of deep geothermal resources is presented at the end of this paper. (authors)

  4. Geothermal research and development program of the US Atomic Energy Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Within the overall federal geothermal program, the Atomic Energy Commission has chosen to concentrate on development of resource utilization and advanced research and technology as the areas most suitable to the expertise of its staff and that of the National Laboratories. The Commission's work in geothermal energy is coordinated with that of other agencies by the National Science Foundation, which has been assigned lead agency by the Office of Management and Budget. The objective of the Commission's program, consistent with the goals of the total federal program is to facilitate, through technological advancement and pilot plant operations, achievement of substantial commercial production of electrical power and utilization of geothermal heat by the year 1985. This will hopefully be accomplished by providing, in conjunction with industry, credible information on the economic operation and technological reliability of geothermal power and use of geothermal heat.

  5. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Du, H.; Bouchot, V.; Lopez, S.; Bialkowski, A.; Colnot, A.; Rigollet, C.; Sanjuan, B.; Millot, R.; Brach, M.; Asmundsson, R.; Giroud, N.

    2010-01-01

    Geothermal energy has shown a revival for several years and should strongly develop in a near future. Its potentiality is virtually unexhaustible. Its uses are multiple and various: individual and collective space heating, heat networks, power generation, heat storage, heat exchanges etc.. Re-launched by the demand of renewable energy sources, geothermal energy has become credible thanks to the scientific works published recently which have demonstrated its economical and technical relevance. Its image to the public is changing as well. However, lot of work remains to do to make geothermal energy a real industry in France. Several brakes have to be removed rapidly which concern the noise pollution of geothermal facilities, the risk of bad results of drillings, the electricity costs etc. This dossier gives an overview of today's main research paths in the domain of geothermal energy: 1 - geothermal energy in France: historical development, surface and deep resources, ambitions of the French national energy plan (pluri-annual investment plan for heat generation, incentives, regional 'climate-air-energy' schemes), specific regulations; 2 - geothermal energy at the city scale - sedimentary basins: Ile-de-France 40 years of Dogger reservoir exploitation, potentialities of clastic reservoirs - the Chaunoy sandstones example; 3 - geothermal power generation: conventional reservoirs - the Bouillante model (Guadeloupe, French Indies); the Soultz-sous-Forets pilot plant (Bas-Rhin, France); the supercritical reservoirs - the Krafla geothermal area (Iceland). (J.S.)

  6. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-04-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  7. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-11-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  8. Fiscal 1999 geothermal development promotion survey. Structural boring survey work and analysis report (No.B-6 - Tsujinodake area); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kozo shisui chosa koji oyobi kaiseki hokokusho (No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Cuttings from bores N11-TD-2 and N11-TD-3 drilled for the purpose of confirming the existence of geothermal resources in the Tsujinodake area were examined and tested, and the results of temperature logging, electrical logging, and water injection tests carried out during the structural boring work were analyzed. Activities were conducted in the four fields of (1) test boring work, (2) survey and measurement, (3) core cutting examination, and (4) comprehensive analysis. In bore N11-TD-2 positioned in the northern part of Tsujinodake, a sharp temperature rise was detected in the clay converted alteration zone between 200m above sea level and 200m below sea level. A high temperature of 215 degrees C was recorded at 200m below sea level, and it was found that high temperature geothermal water was in reserve at the bottom of the clay converted alteration zone between 100m above sea level and 200m below sea level. In bore N11-TD-3 in the southern wall of the Ata caldera, a convection type low temperature profile was observed at a shallow level and low temperature convection of underground water was detected there. (NEDO)

  9. FY 2000 report on the investigation of environmental effects in the geothermal development promotion survey. Tertiary. No.B-7 Kuwanosawa area; 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho - No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki (Dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    In the Kuwanosawa area, Yuzawa city, Akita prefecture, survey was conducted to grasp effects of drilling for structural boring in the geothermal survey on the peripheral environment. In the survey of animals, there were 5 orders/10 families/19 species of mammals and 10 orders/25 families/73 species of birds. Three kinds of precious animals were confirmed. There were 132 families/6,670 species in the flora. Three kinds of precious plants and three kinds of precious floras were confirmed. During the survey, drilling for structural boring was conducted. At three spas for survey, there were recognized some survey items of which there were great fluctuations. However, those are seasonal valuations or valuations related to the situation of the inside of hot springs. It is not recognized that the fluctuations were caused by the drilling work and pumping-up of geothermal water. The noise made during the well drilling was reduced around the well as theoretical values indicated. At a spot 200m away from the well, the noise was reduced from the environmental standard, and accordingly, it seems that there are few effects on the peripheral environment. The vibration was reduced around the well more than theoretical values indicated. That was below the control level at a spot 25m away from the well, and it seems that there are few effects on the peripheral environment. (NEDO)

  10. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Electromagnetic exploration (TDEM method) (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. Denji tansa (TDEM ho) hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    For the purpose of elucidating a possibility of existence of geothermal reservoirs in the Haneyama area, Oita Prefecture, Electromagnetic survey by the TDEM method was conducted. The survey was made for the area of 80km{sup 2} at 105 measuring points in the south of the Haneyama area, and the resistivity structure reaching the depth of 4,000m from the earth surface was made clear. The resistivity structure in this area is composed of 4 layers: upper medium resistivity layer, central medium resistivity layer, central low resistivity layer and lower high resistivity layer. The resistivity structure discontinuous line ranges between the uplift zone of basement and the sedimentation zone, and the greater part of the alteration zone is distributed and arranged concomitant with the position and direction of the line. As the region with high potential of geothermal existence, cited were the low resistivity zone distributed in the west of the resistivity structure discontinuous line that continues from Mt. Fukuman to the south, the low resistivity zone distributed in the north of the resistivity structure discontinuous line from Noya to the west, and the low resistivity zone distributed in the north of Hosenji and lying between resistivity structure discontinuous lines. (NEDO)

  11. FY 1999 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. No. A-4 Kunbetsudake area (Secondary); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki (dai 2 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    This survey studies possibilities of geothermal resource existence by checking the presence of high temperature anomaly by a wide-area survey with the aim of extracting the area for Survey B and Survey C to be conducted. The area for survey is an area of approximately 300km{sup 2} including Shibetsu town, Shibetsu county, and Rausu town, Menashi county, which are located east of Hokkaido. Conceptual models of the geothermal system in this area which are thought of from the results of the survey are as follows. It is assumed that heat source exists deeply in Unabetsudake (Mt. Unabetsu). From the fact that the K-Ar method age of the ejecta is 0.5Ma and the TL method age of the rate. (NEDO)ch the position of drilling of the well for survey of heeffective as heat source. It is thought that the water of hot spring/mineral spring came to indicate various spring qualities by mixture of meteoric water and fossil seawater at various ratios. The fossil seawater and old meteoric water are being heated by thermal conduction. The mixture with the original water of Kawakita hot spa is recognized in Shibetsu Kanayama hot spa. It is assumed that the high temperature area exists mostly in Unabetsudake, but the spread does not reach the position of drilling of the well for survey of heat flow rate. (NEDO)

  12. FY 1998 Geothermal development promotion study. Report on results of the elastic wave exploitation (reflection method) in No.B-6, Tsujinodake area; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Danseiha tansa (hanshaho) hokokusho (No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The elastic wave exploitation (reflection method) was conducted to elucidate the geothermal reservoirs, estimated to exist on the Ata caldera walls in the Tsujino area, Kagoshima Pref. The elastic wave exploitation used large-size vibrators as the vibration sources and 4 courses of traverse (total length: 6.56 km, number of vibration-receiving points: 332, and number of vibration source points: 102). The data were processed by the standard procedure of the common reflection synthesis method. The geological structures were analyzed by comparing the existing geological data with the data obtained at the drilling. The analysis results suggest that the Ata caldera walls considered to exist in the surveyed area possibly correspond to the vicinity of the default existing at the south-east boundary of the collapse structure. The analysis of the geothermal structures suggest that the sheet-shaped intruding rocks, considered to exist at a depth of around 1,000 m in the vicinity of the Kaimon hot spring resort, was possibly formed by the magma ascending along the default. The presence of the magma reservoirs deep below the area is strongly suggested to work as the heat source for the area. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1998 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on data processing (No. B-6 - Tsujinodake area - Phase 2); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 2. No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The result of the data processing (Phase 1) and the result of the 1998 survey carried out for the Tsujinodake area, Kagoshima Prefecture, were subjected to a comprehensive analysis, and the state of existence of geothermal resources in this area was compiled into a report. In fiscal 1998, structural boring (N10-TD-1), thermal water examination, seismic exploration, environmental impact assessment, fluid inclusion examination, and rock dating were conducted. Some findings obtained from the comprehensive analysis are mentioned below. In the vicinity of structural borehole N10-TD-1, fluids move along geological boundaries and in permeable layers in the horizontal direction, with an aquiclude serving as a border. At levels deeper than 980m, there flows a mixture of seawater heated to approximately 135 degrees C by thermal conduction and water originating in Lake Ikeda. Still deeper, water from Ikeda Lake flows in and lowers the temperature. It is suggested that there may be a sharp and abrupt rise in temperature at levels deeper than the cooling region near the bottom of structural borehole N10-TD-1. It is inferred that the magma reservoir that produced the Tsujinodake lava is small as a heat source or that it has not yet formed a high temperature geothermal system shallow in the ground. (NEDO)

  14. Development of the Geothermal Heat Pump Market in China; Renewable Energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-03-01

    This case study is one in a series of Success Stories on developing renewable energy technologies in China for a business audience. It focuses on the development of the geothermal heat pump market in China.

  15. Geothermal technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, J.R. (ed.)

    1982-09-01

    The status of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Technology Development Program is described. The program emphasizes research in rock penetration mechanics, fluid technology, borehole mechanics, and diagnostics technology.

  16. Geophysics of Geothermal Areas: State of the Art and Future Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabey, Don R.

    In May 1980 a workshop organized by the Advanced School of Geophysics of the Ettore Majorana Center for Scientific Culture was held in Erice, Italy. The purpose was to present the state of the art and future development of geophysics as related to exploration for geothermal resources and the environmental impact of the development of geothermal systems. The workshop was addressed to “younger researchers working in scientific institutions and in public or private agencies and who are particularly interested in these aspects of the energy problem.” Fourteen formal lectures were presented to the workshop. This volume contains papers based on 10 of these lectures with a preface, forward, and introduction by the editors. The ten papers are “Heat Transfer in Geothermal Areas,” “Interpretation of Conductive Heat Flow Anomalies,” “Deep Electromagnetic Soundings in Geothermal Exploration,” “A Computation Method for dc Geoelectric Fields,” “Measurement of Ground Deformation in Geothermal Areas,” “Active Seismic Methods in Geothermal Exploration,” “The Role of Geophysical Investigations in the Discovery of the Latera Geothermal Field,” “Geothermal Resources Exploration in the European Community: The Geophysical Case,” “Activity Performed by AGIP (ENI Group) in the Field of Geothermal Energy,” and “Geothermal Exploration in the Western United States.” Six of the authors are from Italy, and one each is from Iceland, the Netherlands, West Germany, and the United States. All of the papers are in English.

  17. Proposal for an initial development strategy for the Borinquen geothermal zone (Cañas Dulces, Costa Rica)

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, F.; Martí Molist, Joan

    2017-01-01

    The uncertainty regarding the dimensions and exact location of the geothermal resource, along with the cost of drilling process of geothermal wells, are usually two factors that hinder the wider use of high enthalpy geothermal energy to generate electricity. In the first half of 2018, the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE) will begin to develop the Borinquen geothermal zone (drilling). In order to increase the probability of success in this phase, based on the experience acquired duri...

  18. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  19. Report on strategic survey on promising areas for geothermal development in fiscal 1999. Hohi Area (second report); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu yubo chiiki wo taisho to shita senryakuteki chosa hokokusho. 2. Hohi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes a strategic consideration on promising areas for geothermal development in fiscal 1999. Areas of importance to be given surveys corresponding to the geothermal development promotion survey range C were extracted from the promising areas extracted in the previous year, based on further objective analysis and evaluation criteria. Geothermal structure models were prepared on each promising area from geological and geothermal structural elements according to the standard method for the geothermal structure model structuring technology. Amount of geothermal resources in the promising areas was evaluated by using the evaluation supporting tools. In order to extract the areas of importance to be given the surveys, the extraction criteria were discussed based on the resource density, the Natural Park Law, and the data accuracy. Furthermore, comprehensive evaluation was given on geothermal structure properties, location and environmental conditions based on the geothermal structure models. Areas expected of effective achievements in the development promotion survey were selected, and a reservoir conception model was prepared. Assuming the single flash power generation, the resource amount was evaluated by using the Monte Carlo analysis of the Stored Heat Law. Social and environmental issues were also considered. A draft of the optimum survey program corresponding to each survey stage was prepared, with the areas of importance to be given the survey as the object. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1995 verification survey of geothermal exploration technology. Report on a deep geothermal resource survey; 1995 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk of deep geothermal resource development, the paper investigated three factors for the formation of geothermal resource in the deep underground, that is, heat supply from heat source, supply of geothermal fluids, and the developmental status of fracture systems forming reservoir structures. The survey further clarified the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system including shallow geothermal energy in order to research/study usability of deep geothermal resource. In the deep geothermal resource survey, drilling/examination were made of a deep geothermal exploration well (`WD-1,` target depth: approximately 3,000-4,000m) in the already developed area, with the aim of making rationalized promotion of the geothermal development. And the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system were clarified to investigate/study usability of the geothermal system. In fiscal 1995, `WD-1` in the Kakkonda area reached a depth of 3,729m. By this, surveys were made to grasp the whole image of the shallow-deep geothermal system and to obtain basic data for researching usability of deep geothermal resource. 22 refs., 531 figs., 136 tabs.

  1. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  2. Outline of geothermal energy research and development in fiscal 1999; Heisei 11 nendo chinetsu enerugi kenkyu kaihatsu no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, T. [Agency of Industrial Science and Tehcnology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-18

    In this paper, the outline of the budget of geothermal energy relation in fiscal 1999, the system of research and development and the outline of research and development are described. Budgets in fiscal 1999 are the general account 17 million yen, the power development special account 3,222 million yen, sum total 323,900 million yen and it is a 33 million yen decrease compared with the preceding year. Within research and development, the following are included as a survey investigation research; a geothermal energy survey and picking technology, a verification investigation of a geothermal energy exploration technique, a deep geothermal resource investigation and an analysis and evaluation therefor. As a development of geothermal energy power plants using hot water, the following are included; development of the 10 MW binary cycle power generation plant, development of the bottom hole information system (MWD) in geothermal well drilling, technology development of the geothermal hot dry rock source system. As an analysis and evaluation of the bottom hole information detection system in geothermal well drilling, the following are included; an analysis and evaluation of the hot dry rock thermal extraction system, an analysis and evaluation of the deep geothermal resources picking technology, an analysis and evaluation of metallic materials for the geothermal deep direction and an analysis and evaluation of high polymer materials for the geothermal deep direction. (NEDO)

  3. Environmental overview for the development of geothermal resources in the State of New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, M.; Starkey, A.H.; Dick-Peddie, W.A.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview of the present day geothermal applications for hydrothermal electrical generation and direct heat use and their environmental implications is provided. Technologies and environmental impacts are considered at all points on the pathway of development resource exploration; well field, plant and transmission line construction; and plant operation. The technologies for electrical generation-direct, dry steam conversion; separated steam conversion; single-flash conversion, separated-steam/single-flash conversion and binary cycle conversion and the technologies for direct heat use - direct use of geothermal waters, surface heat exhanger, down-the hole heat exchanger and heat pump are described. A summary of the geothermal technologies planned or in operation within New Mexico geothermal areas is provided. A review of regulations that affect geothermal development and its related environmental impact in New Mexico is presented. The regulatory pathway, both state and federal, of geothermal exploration after the securing of appropriate leases, development, and construction and implementation of a geothermal facility are described. Six categories (Geophysical, Water, Air, Noise, Biota and Socioeconomics) were selected for environmental assessment. The data available is described.

  4. Geothermal development in the U.S.A. and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The geothermal industry presently has an operating generation capacity of about 2,300 megawatts and generates about 17 billion kilowatt-hours per year in the United States. Although the domestic market is stagnant due to restructuring of the electricity industry and to the very low competing price of natural gas, the industry is doing well by developing geothermal fields and power plants in the Philippines and Indonesia. The industry strongly supports the Department of Energy research program to develop new and improved technology and help lower the costs of geothermal power generation

  5. Industrial uses of geothermal energy: A framework for application in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, N.C.; Bernardo, R.O.; Cornelio, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a model of approach for agroindustrial development utilizing geothermal energy in an agriculturally based tropical developing country. Presented is the complexity of patterns in raw materials productivity, demand and the present problems of preserving their quality from biological deterioration thru drying. Utilization of a geothermal agroindustrial estate have to be carefully studied and programmed in reply to an almost constant heat demand profile consistent with seasonal available raw materials. This study uses the Tongonan Geothermal Field in Leyte Island as the model for presentation

  6. Geothermal energy utilisation in Slowakia and its future development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorová Marína

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Owing to favourable geological conditions Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The government of the state sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas, agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing and heating of houses. Effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and hot water supply from geothermal sources are supported. Recently company Slovgeoterm has initiated heating of greenhouses in Podhajska and heating of hospital and 1231 flats in town Galanta. Nowadays, research for the biggest geothermal project in the Middle Europe – construction in Košice basin has started.

  7. Geothermal Energy Research and Development Program; Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-03-01

    This is an internal DOE Geothermal Program document. This document contains summaries of projects related to exploration technology, reservoir technology, drilling technology, conversion technology, materials, biochemical processes, and direct heat applications. [DJE-2005

  8. Public service impacts of geothermal development: cumulative impacts study of the Geysers KGRA. Final staff report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, K.M.

    1983-07-01

    The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in the Geysers are identified. Using two different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in the Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdications are examined, and these costs are compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed and a framework presented for calculating mitigation costs for school and road impacts.

  9. Geothermal energy utilisation in Slowakia and its future development

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorová Marína; Pinka Ján; Wittenberger Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    Owing to favourable geological conditions Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The government of the state sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas), agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing) and heating of houses. Effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and hot water supply from ge...

  10. The geothermal potentials for electric development in Maluku Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Isnaniawardhani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of small to medium size islands is the limited amount of natural resources for electric generation. Presently the needs of energy in Maluku Province are supplied by the diesel generation units. The electricity distributes through an isolated grid system of each island. There are 10 separate systems in Maluku Province, namely Ambon, Namlea, Tual, Saumlaki, Mako, Piru, Bula, Masohi, Dobo and Langgur. From the geothermal point of view, this condition is suitable because the nature of the generation is small to medium and the locations are dispersed. The geological condition of Maluku Province is conducive for the formation of geothermal resources. The advanced utilization of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is in Tulehu located about 8 kilometers NE of Ambon. It is expected that 60 MW electric will be produced at the first stage in 2019. A total of 100 MW resources were estimated. Other places of geothermal potentials are Lauke and Tawen both located in Ambon Island with the potentials of 25 MW respectively. In Oma Haruku, Saparua and Nusa Laut the geothermal potentials were estimated to be 25 MW each. The total amount of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is thus, 225 MW which will contribute significantly to the needs of projected 184 MW in the year 2025.

  11. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Whatcom County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

  12. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappelmeyer, O.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth. It represents an inexhaustible source of energy. In many countries, which are mostly located within the geothermal belts of the world, geothermal energy is being used since many decades for electricity generation and direct heating applications comprising municipal, industrial and agricultural heating. Outside the geothermal anomalous volcanic regions, hot ground water from deep rock formations at temperatures above 70 o C is used for process heat and space heating. Low prices for gas and oil hinder the development of geothermal plants in areas outside positive geothermal anomalies; the cost of drilling to reach depths, where temperatures are above 50 o C to 70 o C, is high. The necessary total investment per MW th installed capacity is in the order of 5 Mio- DM/MW th (3 Mio $/MW th ). Experience shows, that an economic break even with oil is reached at an oil price of 30$ per barrel or if an adequate bonus for the clean, environmentally compatible production of geothermal heat is granted. Worldwide the installed electric capacity of geothermal power plants is approximately 6 000 MW e . About 15 000 MW th of thermal capacity is being extracted for process heat and space heat. The importance of the terrestrial heat as an energy resource would be substantially increased, if the heat, stored in the hot crystalline basement could be extracted at economical production costs. Geothermal energy is a competitive energy source in areas with high geothermal gradients (relative low cost for drilling) and would be competitive in areas with normal geothermal gradients, if a fair compensation for environmental implications from fossil and nuclear power production would be granted. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  13. Enhanced Geothermal System Development of the AmeriCulture Leasehold in the Animas Valley; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchane, David V; Seawright, Gary L; Sewright, Damon E; Brown, Don; Witcher, James c.; Nichols, Kenneth E.

    2001-01-01

    Working under the grant with AmeriCulture, Inc., and its team of geothermal experts, assembled a plan to apply enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) techniques to increase both the temperature and flow rate of the geothermal waters on its leasehold. AmeriCulture operates a commercial aquaculture facility that will benefit from the larger quantities of thermal energy and low cost electric power that EGS technology can provide. The project brought together a team of specialists that, as a group, provided the full range of expertise required to successfully develop and implement the project

  14. Assessment of geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California. Volume 1. Environment, health, and socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D. (ed.)

    1980-07-01

    Utilization of the Imperial Valley's geothermal resources to support energy production could be hindered if environmental impacts prove to be unacceptable or if geothermal operations are incompatible with agriculture. To address these concerns, an integrated environmental and socioeconomic assessment of energy production in the valley was prepared. The most important impacts examined in the assessment involved air quality changes resulting from emissions of hydrogen sulfide, and increases in the salinity of the Salton Sea resulting from the use of agricultural waste waters for power plant cooling. The socioeconomics consequences of future geothermal development will generally be beneficial. (MHR)

  15. Detection and Characterization of Natural and Induced Fractures for the Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toksoz, M. Nafi [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences

    2013-04-06

    The objective of this 3-year project is to use various geophysical methods for reservoir and fracture characterization. The targeted field is the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale Geothermal Field in Utah operated by ENEL North America (ENA). Our effort has been focused on 1) understanding the regional and local geological settings around the geothermal field; 2) collecting and assembling various geophysical data sets including heat flow, gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) and seismic surface and body wave data; 3) installing the local temporary seismic network around the geothermal site; 4) imaging the regional and local seismic velocity structure around the geothermal field using seismic travel time tomography; and (5) determining the fracture direction using the shear-wave splitting analysis and focal mechanism analysis. Various geophysical data sets indicate that beneath the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale Geothermal Field, there is a strong anomaly of low seismic velocity, low gravity, high heat flow and high electrical conductivity. These suggest that there is a heat source in the crust beneath the geothermal field. The high-temperature body is on average 150 °C – 200 °C hotter than the surrounding rock. The local seismic velocity and attenuation tomography gives a detailed velocity and attenuation model around the geothermal site, which shows that the major geothermal development target is a high velocity body near surface, composed mainly of monzonite. The major fracture direction points to NNE. The detailed velocity model along with the fracture direction will be helpful for guiding the geothermal development in the Cove Fort area.

  16. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  17. Environmental overview of geothermal development: the Mono-Long Valley KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strojan, C.L.; Romney, E.M. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    Major issues and concerns relating to geothermal development were identified and assessed in seven broad areas: (1) air quality, (2) archaeology and cultural resources, (3) geology, (4) natural ecosystems, (5) noise, (6) socioeconomics, and (7) water quality. Existing data for each of these areas was identified and evaluated to determine if the data can be used to help resolve major issues. Finally, specific areas where additional data are needed to ensure that geothermal development is environmentally acceptable were recommended.

  18. Reservoir Maintenance and Development Task Report for the DOE Geothermal Technologies Office GeoVision Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Finger, John T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carrigan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foris, Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennedy, Mack B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Corbet, Thomas F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doughty, Christine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pye, Steven [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report documents the key findings from the Reservoir Maintenance and Development (RM&D) Task of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE), Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) Geothermal Vision Study (GeoVision Study). The GeoVision Study had the objective of conducting analyses of future geothermal growth based on sets of current and future geothermal technology developments. The RM&D Task is one of seven tasks within the GeoVision Study with the others being, Exploration and Confirmation, Potential to Penetration, Institutional Market Barriers, Environmental and Social Impacts, Thermal Applications, and Hybrid Systems. The full set of findings and the details of the GeoVision Study can be found in the final GeoVision Study report on the DOE-GTO website. As applied here, RM&D refers to the activities associated with developing, exploiting, and maintaining a known geothermal resource. It assumes that the site has already been vetted and that the resource has been evaluated to be of sufficient quality to move towards full-scale development. It also assumes that the resource is to be developed for power generation, as opposed to low-temperature or direct use applications. This document presents the key factors influencing RM&D from both a technological and operational standpoint and provides a baseline of its current state. It also looks forward to describe areas of research and development that must be pursued if the development geothermal energy is to reach its full potential.

  19. General evaluation survey report on fiscal 1998 investigation of geothermal development and promotion. No.C-3 Akinomiya area (Third); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo hyoka chosa hokokusho. No.C-3. Akinomiya chiiki (dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    With Akinomiya area (11.4 km{sup 2}) selected in Akita prefecture as the survey C area in fiscal 1996, the first survey was conducted. This paper is a summary of memorandum from an advisory standpoint on the evaluation survey concerning the fiscal 1998 investigation results. The contents of the survey are geological investigation, precision gravity exploration, soil gas investigation, electromagnetic exploration, fluid chemical investigation, well drilling and short-term eruption test. An alteration zone was recognized around the place where clay minerals used to be mined, with the center of the zone situated 500-600 m east of a fault. The alteration condition of Akinomiya area seems to be different from that of Doroyu Wasabisawa area. The supplementary gravity survey was carried out at total 58 points in fiscal 1998. It is desirable to set supplementary measuring points over a wide surrounding area for a depth structure analysis. Also performed was a study of mercury concentration in the soil gas. While CSAMT and TDEM methods were employed for the electromagnetic exploration, a suitable method should be carefully selected for a wide area high-density exploration. Consistency with adjacent areas is essential in preparing investigation items particularly for a geothermal model. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1999 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Survey of Akinomiya area (Long-term spurt test report - 1/2); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa Akinomiya chiiki chosa hokokusho. 1/2. Choki funshutsu shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    A long-term survey was conducted on the spurting properties and fluid properties of geothermal fluids, when boreholes N9-AY-3 and N10-AY-8 were used as spurting wells and N8-AY-1, N10-AY-6, and N10-AY-7 as reinjection wells. Conducted or investigated were pH, electric conductivity, chlorine concentration determination, static temperature/pressure logging, PTS (pressure, temperature, spinner flowmeter) logging with wells spurting, buildup test, sampler logging with wells spurting, fluid property survey, tracer test, and borehole N10-AY-8 pulsation with fume spurting. It was then found that the maximum spurting capacity of borehole N9-AY-3 was 65.7t/h in steam and 90.8t/h in thermal water at a pit mouth pressure of 1.30MPaG. Some decrease was detected for approximately one month after the start of spurting, but it was concluded that there would be no further decrease thereafter. The maximum spurting capacity of borehole N10-AY-8 was 10.4t/h in steam and 8.9t/h in thermal water at a pit mouth pressure of 0.24MPaG. Some reduction was detected in the flow of steam and in fluid enthalpy after the start of spurting, and it was inferred that there would be still further reduction after continual spurting. (NEDO)

  1. Investigation of geothermal development and promotion for fiscal 1997. Fluid geochemical investigation (hot-spring gas) report (No. B-5 Musadake area); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatus sokushin chosa. Ryutai chikagaku chosa (onsen gas) hokokusho (No.B-5 Musadake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This investigation elucidated the possible existence of geothermal reservoir layer in the subject area by studying and analyzing the hot-spring gasses of Musadake. The Musadake area is the one extending over Shibetu-cho and Nakashibetu-cho, Shibetu district, Hokkaido. The sampling of the hot-spring gasses was carried out at three natural gusher sites and one hot spring well site. The gasses in the Kawakita hot spring is most affected by volcanic gasses. The origin of the volcanic gasses is a magmatic gas of andesite nature the {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratio of which is 8X10{sup -6} or about. As a result of the analysis, the hot-spring water is Na-Cl type, high salt concentrated, and 200 degrees C in temperature; from the result of a gas geochemical thermometer, it is estimated to be not less than 250 degrees C. In the tectonic viewpoint, the depth hot water is derived from the meteorite water that flows in through a bent zone incident to the Musadake-Shitabanupuri mountain fault and from the fossil sea water that exists in the underground depth; the depth hot water is formed by conduction heat from a magma reservoir that formed Musadake and by volcanic ejecta. This depth hot water rises along Kawakita south, Urappu River fault, etc., mixing with the meteorite water and forming the shallow reservoir layer. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1998 research report on promotion of geothermal development. Environment impact research report (No. A-4 Kunbetsu-Dake area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.A-4 Kunbetsu chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    For extracting the areas to be conserved from the viewpoint of environment for the research on geothermal well drilling, the environment impact research was made on the protection and regulation states of animals and plants in Kunbetsu-Dake area. 46 species in 12 families of mammals were confirmed in/around the area by document survey, and among them 19 species in 10 families of mammals were important academically. 340 species in 55 families of birds were confirmed, and among them 79 species in 29 families of birds were important academically. 3 species in 3 families of amphibians, and 6 species in 4 families of reptiles were confirmed, and among them 1 species of amphibian was important. 873 species in 135 families of land insects were confirmed, and among them 20 species in 11 families were important. 1055 species in 115 families of plants were confirmed, and among them 126 species in 46 families were important. Most of vegetation was 9 or more in degree of naturalness. The peripheral area of Kaibetsu-Dake is the plant colony area specified by the 2nd basic survey on natural environmental conservation (Environment Agency). (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1998 survey for geothermal energy development promotion. Environmental impact survey report (No. B-7 Kuwanosawa region); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This survey aims to learn the current states of environmental factors required for the comprehension of the impacts on surroundings of a structural boring for geothermal energy exploration. The target site is an approximately 10km{sup 2}-large area located among the mountains 20km south-south-east of Yuzawa City, Akita Prefecture. It is found that numerous animals and vegetables inhabit the Kuwanosawa region and its vicinity. They are 19 species of mammals in 10 families under 5 orders; 73 species of birds in 25 families under 10 orders; 6 species of reptiles in 13 families; 9 species of amphibians in 6 families under 2 orders; and 719 species of insects in 179 families under 17 orders. Valuable animals include flying squirrels, mandarin ducks, black salamanders, and small Gifu butterflies. There are 670 species of vegetables in 132 families. Valuable vegetables are Iinuma bulblets, wild rhubarb roots, and Amur adonises. Floras found in existence are a natural flora in the beech class area, compensatory flora in the beech class area, afforested area, and a flora in the crop land. No remarkable fluctuation was observed in the Takamatsu spa throughout the survey period. Fluctuations were observed in all the survey items at the Doroyu-Okuyama inn. (NEDO)

  4. DEVELOPING DIRECT USE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN ORADEA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASIU I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal energy demand for district heating in the city of Oradea is supplied at present, almost at whole, by the Cogeneration Thermal Power Plant, based on classical fuels, mainly consisting of low grade coal and natural gas, with a small contribution of the geothermal energy. Geothermal resource at low enthalpy, located within the city area of Oradea, available at an estimated level of 250 GWh/year, exploited at present by 12 production wells, can provide a share of 55 GWh/year for district heating, representing at present about 7 % from the overall thermal demand at the end users inlet. Geothermal energy is delivered by means of 3 main thermal stations, in order to prepare, especially household warm water, but sometimes also secondary agent for space heating, using additionally heat, based on natural gas. At present, in the city area of Oradea, more than 7,000 dwellings are supplied by geothermal stations with warm water and in addition for about 3,400 dwellings is assured simultaneously warm water and space heating. Even if the geothermal energy provides at present only a small part of the overall heating requirement at the city level, nevertheless by increased financial support, in the near future is expected its much more contribution, as an alternative to polluting energy of coal and natural gas.

  5. Proceedings of the Conference on Research for the Development of Geothermal Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the development of geothermal energy resources are presented. The purpose of the conference was to acquaint potential user groups with the Federal and National Science Foundation geothermal programs and the method by which the users and other interested members can participate in the program. Among the subjects discussed are: (1) resources exploration and assessment, (2) environmental, legal, and institutional research, (3) resource utilization projects, and (4) advanced research and technology.

  6. FY1997 report on test well drilling and well investigation for the Akinomiya area survey in the geothermal development promotion survey; 1997 nendo chinetsu sokushin chosa. Akinomiya chiiki chosa shisui kussaku koji oyobi kosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to extract promising areas with high geothermal feasibility, the Akinomiya area was surveyed by drilling test wells. In the N9-AY-3 excavating work, the first stage (depth from 15 to 33 m) used the water-free excavation to prevent adverse effects on the water sources. The second stage (depth from 33 to 409 m) reached the targeted depth with slanted excavation. The third stage drilled into depths from 409 to 1,006 m. The fourth stage was targeted to drill down to 1,802 m, but an entire lost returns have occurred at the depth of 1,598 m, whereas lost water drilling was performed by using fresh water, and the drilling was terminated at the targeted depth. The AY-4 excavation was also advanced with the first, second, third and fourth stage method, and when the entire lost returns have occurred at 1,196 m, the lost water drilling was carried out by using fresh water, and the drilling was terminated at the scheduled 1,505 m. The AY-5 excavation was also advanced with the first, second, third and fourth stage method. The first and second stages used water-free excavation (using air hammers) to avoid influence on the nearby spa areas. The third stage went down to 405 m performing coring, but the entire lost returns occurred at 298 m. The excavation rate was very high, and the core recovery rate reached 100%. The fourth stage presented the same coring condition as that for the third stage down to 1,002 m. (NEDO)

  7. Developing advocacy for geothermal energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    There is little public advocacy for geothermal energy in the United States outside of the geothermal community itself. Yet, broad-based advocacy is needed to provide impetus for a nourishing economic, regulatory and R and D environment. If such an environment could be created, the prosperity of the geothermal industry would improve and positive environmental effects compared to most other energy sources would be realized. We need an organized sustained effort to provide information and education to all segments of our society, including market-makers and end users, administrators, legislators, regulators, educators, special-interest groups and the public. This effort could be provided by an organization of three main components, a network to gather and disseminate pertinent information on marketing, educational and lobbying opportunities to action committees, a repository of current information on geothermal energy, and action committees each responsible for certain parts of the total marketing, education and lobbying task. In this paper, the author suggests a mechanism for forming such an organization and making it work. The author proposes an informal organization staffed largely by volunteered labor in which no one person would have to devote more than a few percent of his or her work time

  8. Development of thermal fractures in two Dutch geothermal doublets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, D.; Veldkamp, J.G.; Peters, E.; Wees, J.D.A.M. van

    2015-01-01

    In the production well of a low-enthalpy geothermal doublet hot water is pumped from reservoirs at about 50-1007deg;C. After passing through a heat exchanger, the cold water is re-injected at about 20-357deg;C in the injection well into the reservoir, which initially has the same temperature as the

  9. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuataz, F.-D.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives a general overview of the past and present development of geothermal energy worldwide and a more detailed one in Switzerland. Worldwide installed electrical power using geothermal energy sources amounts to 8900 MW el . Worldwide utilization of geothermal energy for thermal applications amounts to 28,000 MW th . The main application (56.5%) is ground-coupled heat pumps, others are thermal spas and swimming pools (17.7%), space heating (14.9%), heating of greenhouses (4.8%), fish farming (2.2%), industrial uses (1,8%), cooling and melting of snow (1.2%), drying of agricultural products (0.6 %). Switzerland has become an important user of geothermal energy only in the past 25 years. Earlier, only the exploitation of geothermal springs (deep aquifers) in Swiss thermal baths had a long tradition, since the time of the Romans. Today, the main use of geothermal energy is as a heat source for heat pumps utilizing vertical borehole heat exchangers of 50 to 350 meters length. 35,000 installations of this type with heating powers ranging from a few kW to 1000 kW already exist, representing the highest density of such installations worldwide. Other developments are geostructures and energy piles, the use of groundwater for heating and cooling, geothermal district heating, the utilization of draining water from tunnels and the project 'Deep Heat Mining' allowing the combined production of heat and electric power

  10. National Geothermal Academy. Geo-Heat Center Quarterly Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 2 (Complete Bulletin). A Quarterly Progress and Development Report on the Direct Utilization of Geothermal Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [ed.; Maddi, Phillip [ed.

    2012-08-01

    The National Geothermal Academy (NGA) is an intensive 8-week overview of the different aspects involved in developing a geothermal project, hosted at University of Nevada, Reno. The class of 2012 was the second graduating class from the academy and included 21 students from nine states, as well as Saudi Arabia, Dominica, India, Trinidad, Mexico. The class consisted of people from a wide range of scholastic abilities from students pursuing a Bachelor’s or Master’s degrees, to entrepreneurs and professionals looking to improve their knowledge in the geothermal field. Students earned 6 credits, either undergraduate or graduate, in engineering or geology. Overall, the students of the NGA, although having diverse backgrounds in engineering, geology, finance, and other sciences, came together with a common passion to learn more about geothermal.

  11. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and

  12. The current status of geothermal direct use development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, J.W.; Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper information is provided on the status of geothermal direct heat utilization in the United States, with emphasis on developments from 1985 to 1990. A total of 452 sites, which include approximately 130,000 individual installations, have been identified with an annual energy use of 19.7 x 10 12 kJ. Approximately 44% of this use is due to enhanced oil recovery in four midwestern states, and 30% is due to geothermal heat pumps. Since 1985, 25 new projects, which include approximately 200 individual installations, and representing a thermal capacity of 106.7 MWt and annual energy utilization of 1.1 x 10 12 kJ, have become operational or are under construction. Earth-coupled and groundwater heat pumps, representing the largest growth sector during this period, add an additional 400 MWt and 1.2 x 10 12 kJ to these figures. Geothermal heat pumps have extended geothermal direct heat use into almost every state in the nation. Slightly over 200 direct heat geothermal wells, averaging 150 m in depth, along with approximately 30,000 heat pump wells, have been drilled for these projects. Between 20 and 25 professional man-years of effort are estimated to have been allocated to geothermal direct heat projects during each of the five years

  13. Geothermal energy development - a boon to Philippine energy self-reliance efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, A.P.; Ogena, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The Philippine success story in geothermal energy development is the first of the nation's intensified search for locally available alternative energy sources to oil. Due to its favorable location in the Pacific belt of fire, together with the presence of the right geologic conditions for the formation of geothermal (earth heat) reservoirs, the country has been able to develop commercially six geothermal fields. These are the Makiling-Banahaw area, just south of Manila, Tiwi in Albay, Bacon-Manito in Sorsogon, Tongonan in Leyte, Palinpinon in Southern Negros, and the Mt. Apo region of Mindanao. Together these six geothermal fields have a combined installed generation capacity of 1,448 Mwe, which the Philippines second largest user geothermal energy in the world today. Since 1977 to mid-1997, a total of 88,475 gigawatt-hours have been generated equivalent to 152.54 million barrels of oil. Based on the average yearly price of oil for the period, this translates into a savings of $3,122 billion for the country that otherwise would have gone for oil importations. It is planned that by the year 2000, geothermal shall be accounting for 28.4% of the 42,000 gigawatt-hours of the energy needed for that year, coal-based plants will contribute 24.6% and hydropower 18.6%. This will reduce oil-based contribution to just 28.4%. Geothermal energy as an indigenous energy resource provides the country a sustainable option to other conventional energy sources such as coal, oil and even hydro. Technologies have long been developed to maintain the environmental quality of the geothermal site. It serves to minimize changes in the support systems found on the land, water and air environments. The country has hopped, skipped and jumped towards energy self-reliance anchored on development of its large geothermal resources. And as the Philippines pole-vaults into the 21st century, the nation can look forward to geothermal energy to remain as one of the pillars of its energy self

  14. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  15. Geothermal Technologies Program: Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-02-01

    This fact sheets provides a summary of geothermal potential, issues, and current development in Alaska. This fact sheet was developed as part of DOE's GeoPowering the West initiative, part of the Geothermal Technologies Program.

  16. National forecast for geothermal resource exploration and development with techniques for policy analysis and resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Shimamoto, G.T.; Amundsen, C.B.; Blair, P.D.; Finan, W.F.; Smith, M.R.; Edeistein, R.H.

    1982-03-31

    The backgrund, structure and use of modern forecasting methods for estimating the future development of geothermal energy in the United States are documented. The forecasting instrument may be divided into two sequential submodels. The first predicts the timing and quality of future geothermal resource discoveries from an underlying resource base. This resource base represents an expansion of the widely-publicized USGS Circular 790. The second submodel forecasts the rate and extent of utilization of geothermal resource discoveries. It is based on the joint investment behavior of resource developers and potential users as statistically determined from extensive industry interviews. It is concluded that geothermal resource development, especially for electric power development, will play an increasingly significant role in meeting US energy demands over the next 2 decades. Depending on the extent of R and D achievements in related areas of geosciences and technology, expected geothermal power development will reach between 7700 and 17300 Mwe by the year 2000. This represents between 8 and 18% of the expected electric energy demand (GWh) in western and northwestern states.

  17. Geothermal probes for the development of medium-deep geothermal heating; Erdwaermesonden zur Erschliessung der mitteltiefen Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuckmann, Uwe [REHAU AG + Co, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Compared to the near-surface geothermal energy, in the medium-deep geothermal between between 400 and 1,000 meters higher temperature levels may opened up. Thus the efficiency of geothermal power plants can be increased. The possibly higher installation costs are significantly higher yield compared to the yields and withdrawal benefits. At higher thermal gradient of the underground it even is possible to dispense entirely on the heat pump and to heat directly.

  18. Mechanism of Fiscal and Taxation Policies in the Geothermal Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is one of the cleanest sources of energy which is gaining importance as an alternative to hydrocarbons. Geothermal energy reserves in China are enormous and it has a huge potential for exploitation and utilization. However, the development of the geothermal industry in China lags far behind other renewable energy sources because of the lack of fiscal and taxation policy support. In this paper, we adopt the system dynamics method and use the causal loop diagram to explore the development mechanism of fiscal and taxation policies in the geothermal industry. The effect of the fiscal and taxation policy on the development of the geothermal industry is analyzed. In order to promote sustainable development of the geothermal industry in China, the government should pay more attention to subsidies for the geothermal industry in the life-cycle stage of the geothermal industry. Furthermore, a plan is necessary to provide a reasonable system of fiscal and taxation policies.

  19. The The geothermal potentials for electric development in Maluku Province

    OpenAIRE

    Isnaniawardhani, Vijaya; Sukiyah, Emi; Sudradjat, Adjat; Nanlohy, Martha Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The characteristic of small to medium size islands is the limited amount of natural resources for electric generation. Presently the needs of energy in Maluku Province are supplied by the diesel generation units. The electricity distributes through an isolated grid system of each island. There are 10 separate systems in Maluku Province, namely Ambon, Namlea, Tual, Saumlaki, Mako, Piru, Bula, Masohi, Dobo and Langgur. From the geothermal point of view, this condition is suitable because the na...

  20. Development of an active solar humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination system integrated with geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elminshawy, Nabil A.S.; Siddiqui, Farooq R.; Addas, Mohammad F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Productivity increases with increasing geothermal water flow rate up to 0.15 kg/s. • Geothermal energy increases productivity by 187–465% when used with solar energy. • Daytime experimental productivity (8AM-5PM) up to 104 L/m"2 was achieved. • Daily experimental productivity (24 h) up to 192 L/m"2 was achieved. • Fresh potable water can be produced at 0.003 USD/L using this desalination setup. - Abstract: This paper investigates the technical and economic feasibility of using a hybrid solar-geothermal energy source in a humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination system. The newly developed HDH system is a modified solar still with air blower and condenser used at its inlet and outlet respectively. A geothermal water tank in a temperature range 60–80 °C which imitates a low-grade geothermal energy source was used to supply heat to water inside the humidification chamber. The experiments were conducted in January 2015 under the climatological conditions of Madinah (latitude: 24°33′N, longitude: 39°36′0″E), Saudi Arabia to study the effect of geothermal water temperature and flow rate on the performance and productivity of proposed desalination system. Analytical model was also developed to compare the effect of solar energy and combined solar-geothermal energy on accumulated productivity. Daytime experimental accumulated productivity up to 104 L/m"2 and daily average gained output ratio (GOR) in the range 1.2–1.58 was achieved using the proposed desalination system. Cost of fresh water produced using the presented desalination system is 0.003 USD/L.

  1. Is development of geothermal energy resource in Macedonia justified or not?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril; Popovska Vasilevska, Sanja

    2007-01-01

    During the 80-ies of last century, Macedonia has been one of the world leaders in development of direct application of geothermal energy. During a period of only 6-7 years a participation of 0,7% in the State energy balance has been reached. However, situation has been changed during the last 20 years and the development of this energy resource has been not only stopped but some of the existing projects have been abandoned leading to regression. This situation is illogical, due the fact that it practically proved of being technically feasible and absolutely economically justified. A summary of the present situation with geothermal projects in Macedonia is made in the paper, and possibilities for their improvement and possibilities and justifications for development of new resources foreseen. Final conclusion is that the development of direct application of geothermal energy in Macedonia offer (in comparison with other renewable energy resources) the best energy and economic effects. (Author)

  2. Development of geothermal field following the 2000 eruption of Usu volcano as revealed by ground temperature, resistivity and self-potential variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mogi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2000 eruption of Usu volcano, NE Japan, took place on the foot of the somma, and formed a cryptodome of 65 m high accompanying numerous faults. We made repeated measurements of ground temperature, Self-Potential (SP and electrical resistivity, in order to clarify the mechanism of development of the newly formed geothermal field on the fault zone. Prior to the expansion of the geothermal field, we detected a resistive zone at the center of the geothermal zone and it supposed to evidence that the zone involving dry steam phase had been formed beneath the fault zone. A rapid expansion of the geothermal field followed along the fault zone away from the craters. The place of maximum amplitude of the SP field also migrated following the expansion of the high ground temperature zone. The high resistive part has shrunk as a consequence of the progress of condensation to warm the surroundings. Based on the observations, we delineated the process of the hydrothermal circulation. Considering the topographic effect of the SP field observed on the highly permeable zone in the Usu somma, the potential flow along the slope of the soma was expected to play an important role to promote the rapid expansion of the geothermal field and the migration of the most active part.

  3. 17th Symposium of NEDO projects. Geothermal subcommittee; Chinetsu bunkakai. Dai 17 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Described herein are the reports presented to the geothermal subcommittee. The NEDO's Geothermal Research Department is developing the technologies for accurately predicting the reservoir changes in the future by the geothermal development promotion investigations for distributed conditions of geothermal resources and related environmental impacts, and also by clarifying the hydrogic characteristics of the fracture systems which form the reservoirs. The department is also implementing the projects for investigating/ researching possibilities of resources distribution conditions and utilization for eventual commercialization of the deep underground geothermal resources, and also investigating utilization of small- to medium-sized geothermal binary power generation systems for effective utilization of unutilized geothermal energy. The geothermal technology development group is developing the technologies for the binary cycle power generation plants which effectively utilize unutilized medium- to high-temperature geothermal water for power generation, and also the technologies for collecting conditions at the bottom of a geothermal well being excavated in real time to improve efficiency and precision of the excavation. The other technologies being developed include those for excavation and production essential for development of power generation systems using high-temperature rocks and deep underground geothermal resources, the former being expected to contribute to expanded utilization of geothermal resources and the latter to increased geothermal power generation capacity. (NEDO)

  4. 17th Symposium of NEDO projects. Geothermal subcommittee; Chinetsu bunkakai. Dai 17 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Described herein are the reports presented to the geothermal subcommittee. The NEDO's Geothermal Research Department is developing the technologies for accurately predicting the reservoir changes in the future by the geothermal development promotion investigations for distributed conditions of geothermal resources and related environmental impacts, and also by clarifying the hydrogic characteristics of the fracture systems which form the reservoirs. The department is also implementing the projects for investigating/ researching possibilities of resources distribution conditions and utilization for eventual commercialization of the deep underground geothermal resources, and also investigating utilization of small- to medium-sized geothermal binary power generation systems for effective utilization of unutilized geothermal energy. The geothermal technology development group is developing the technologies for the binary cycle power generation plants which effectively utilize unutilized medium- to high-temperature geothermal water for power generation, and also the technologies for collecting conditions at the bottom of a geothermal well being excavated in real time to improve efficiency and precision of the excavation. The other technologies being developed include those for excavation and production essential for development of power generation systems using high-temperature rocks and deep underground geothermal resources, the former being expected to contribute to expanded utilization of geothermal resources and the latter to increased geothermal power generation capacity. (NEDO)

  5. Present Status and Future Prospects of Geothermal Development in Italy with an Appendix on Reservoir Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, R.; Calamai, A.; Neri, G.; Manetti, G.

    1983-12-15

    This paper consists of two parts and an appendix. In the first part a review is made of the geothermal activity in Italy from 1975 to 1982, including electrical and non-electrical applications. Remarks then follow on the trends that occurred and the operational criteria that were applied in the same period, which can be considered a transitional period of geothermal development in Italy. Information on recent trends and development objectives up to 1990 are given in the second part of the paper, together with a summary on program activities in the various geothermal areas of Italy. The appendix specifically reviews the main reseroir engineering activities carried out in the past years and the problems likely to be faced in the coming years in developing Itallian fields.

  6. Fiscal 1998 investigation of geothermal development and promotion in Akinomiya area survey. Report on exploratory drilling/well survey and incidental work (1/2); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa Akinomiya chiiki chosa hokokusho. 1/2. Shisui kussaku koji kosei chosa oyobi futai koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    Exploratory drilling and well survey were conducted, for the purpose of grasping underground geological structure, temperature and physical properties of Akinomiya area, Akita prefecture, as a part of fiscal 1998 investigation of geothermal development and promotion. The exploratory drilling well N10-AY-6 was excavated to the depth of 1,701 m. This well had a small lost circulation of about 4.2 kL/h at the end of drilling; hence, pressurized water injection was carried out for the purpose of enhancing the performance as a reducing well, resulting in an improvement to 21.6 kL/h. The well N10-AY-7 was in the bedrocks of the Old Tertiary system at the depth of 492 m or deeper, which revealed that the Old Tertiary bedrocks lay more shallowly than expected. At the depth of 1,900 m, the maximum temperature showed 223.3 degree C. In a temperature recovery test, it climbed to 277.2 degree C at the depth of 1,400 m. In the well N10-AY-8, the Old Tertiary bedrocks were found drilled at the depth of 87 m or deeper. Inside well temperatures at the time of temperature recovery test showed nearly the same degrees from the depth of 880 m to 1,090 m or about, thereafter rising until the depth of 1,330 m, further rising from 1,370 m until the bottom of the well, and showing the maximum temperature of 277.0 degree C at the depth of 1,450 m. (NEDO)

  7. Present status of exploration and development of the geothermal resources of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caicedo, A.; Palma, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the study of geothermal exploration and geothermal development in the nation of Guatemala that is being led by the Instituto Nacionai de electrificacion (INDE) through the Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico (UDG), for the purpose of developing the geothermal resources in order to generate electricity. Since 1972, it has accomplished geoscientific studies with regional surveys in 13 areas located in the volcanic region in the southern part of the country. Also, prefeasibility studies have been carried out in geothermal areas such as Moyuta and Tecuamburro in the southeast of the country; Amatitlan in the central region and San Marcos in the west. Moreover, in the geothermal field of Zunil I, which is located in the western Department of Quetzaltenango, the feasibility study has been completed, and the first geothermo-electric plant of 15 MW is being schedule for June of 1993. By then, the feasibility study for the second power plant in the more promising area of Zunil II located on the outskirts of Zunil I or Amatitlan. Also, in the area of Zunil I a farm-produce dehydration plant has been built through a technical cooperation agreement between INDE and Los Alamos National Laboratory, LANL. It has the purpose of showing the use of direct-heat through produced steam from the slim hole Z-11

  8. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  9. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  10. South Dakota geothermal handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

  11. Local population impacts of geothermal energy development in the Geysers: Calistoga region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haven, K.F.; Berg, V.; Ladson, Y.W.

    1980-09-01

    The country-level population increase implications of two long-term geothermal development scenarios for the Geysers region in California are addressed. This region is defined to include the counties of Lake, Sonoma, Mendocino and Napa, all four in northern California. The development scenarios include two components: development for electrical energy production and direct use applications. Electrical production scenarios are derived by incorporating current development patterns into previous development scenarios by both industry and research organizations. The scenarios are made county-specific, specific to the type of geothermal system constructed, and are projected through the year 2000. Separate high growth rate and low growth rate scenarios are developed, based on a set of specified assumptions. Direct use scenarios are estimated from the nature of the available resource, existing local economic and demographic patterns, and available experience with various separate direct use options. From the composite development scenarios, required numbers of direct and indirect employees and the resultant in-migration patterns are estimated. In-migration patterns are compared to current county level population and ongoing trends in the county population change for each of the four counties. From this comparison, conclusions are drawn concerning the contributions of geothermal resource development to future population levels and the significance of geothermally induced population increase from a county planning perspective.

  12. The Momotombo Geothermal Field, Nicaragua: Exploration and development case history study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-07-01

    This case history discusses the exploration methods used at the Momotombo Geothermal Field in western Nicaragua, and evaluates their contributions to the development of the geothermal field models. Subsequent reservoir engineering has not been synthesized or evaluated. A geothermal exploration program was started in Nicaragua in 1966 to discover and delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in western Nicaragua. Exploration began at the Momotombo field in 1970 using geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods. A regional study of thermal manifestations was undertaken and the area on the southern flank of Volcan Momotombo was chosen for more detailed investigation. Subsequent exploration by various consultants produced a number of geotechnical reports on the geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the field as well as describing production well drilling. Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. This report presents the description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development. Our principal finding is that data developed at each stage were not sufficiently integrated to guide further work at the field, causing inefficient use of

  13. Geothermal industry position paper: EPA regulatory options and research and development information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessio, G.

    1977-08-01

    The environmental impact of geothermal energy development may be less intense or widespread than that of some other energy sources; however, it is the first example of a number of emerging energy technologies that must be dealt with by EPA. EPA may consider a spectrum of options ranging from a posutre of business as usual to one of immediate setting of standards, as favored by ERDA. The paper discusses the regulatory approaches and the potential problems that geothermal energy may present in the areas of air quality, water quality, and other impacts. It is recommended that a coordinated program of research be drawn up, comprised of specific research projects, the types of geothermal resource to which they apply, and the date by which the information is required.

  14. Geothermal Industry Position Paper: EPA Regulatory Options and Research and Development Information Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swetnam, G.F.

    1976-11-01

    The environmental impact of geothermal energy development may be less intense or widespread than that of some other energy sources; however, it is the first example of a number of emerging energy technologies that must be dealt with by EPA. EPA may consider a spectrum of options ranging from a posture of business as usual to one of immediate setting of standards, as favored by ERDA. The paper discusses the regulatory approaches and the potential problems that geothermal energy may present in the areas of air quality, water quality, and other impacts. It is recommended that a coordinated program of research be drawn up, comprised of specific research projects, the types of geothermal resource to which they apply, and the date by which the information is required.

  15. Further Development and Application of GEOFRAC-FLOW to a Geothermal Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einstein, Herbert [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Vecchiarelli, Alessandra [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    GEOFRAC is a three-dimensional, geology-based, geometric-mechanical, hierarchical, stochastic model of natural rock fracture systems. The main characteristics of GEOFRAC are its use of statistical input representing fracture patterns in the field in form of the fracture intensity P32 (fracture area per volume) and the best estimate fracture size E(A). This information can be obtained from boreholes or scanlines on the surface, on the one hand, and from window sampling of fracture traces on the other hand. In the context of this project, “Recovery Act - Decision Aids for Geothermal Systems”, GEOFRAC was further developed into GEOFRAC-FLOW as has been reported in the reports, “Decision Aids for Geothermal Systems - Fracture Pattern Modelling” and “Decision Aids for Geothermal Systems - Fracture Flow Modeling”. GEOFRAC-FLOW allows one to determine preferred, interconnected fracture paths and the flow through them.

  16. Effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory was initiated in 1988 to determine the effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA), Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. The study addressed three principal issues: (1) the sources of thermal water in the hot springs at Mammoth, La Duke, and Bear Creek; (2) the degree of subsurface connection between these areas; and (3) the effects of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA on the Park's thermal features. The authors investigations included, but were not limited to, geologic mapping, electrical geophysical surveys, chemical sampling and analyses of waters and rocks, determinations of the rates of discharge of various thermal springs, and hydrologic tracer tests

  17. Problem definition study of subsidence caused by geopressured geothermal resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The environmental and socio-economic settings of four environmentally representative Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal fairways were inventoried. Subsidence predictions were prepared using feasible development scenarios for the four representative subsidence sites. Based on the results of the subsidence estimates, an assessment of the associated potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts was prepared. An inventory of mitigation measures was also compiled. Results of the subsidence estimates and impact assessments are presented, as well as conclusions as to what are the major uncertainties, problems, and issues concerning the future study of geopressured geothermal subsidence.

  18. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of US organizations sponsored by the US Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: (1) surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; (2) the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; (3) geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and (4) reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  19. Promoting teachers' professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Pietsje Roelofje

    2008-01-01

    Because teacher quality has a great influence on pupil attainment, teachers’ professional development receives a lot of attention in educational policy. This dissertation contains five studies on how teachers’ professional development, in terms of learning at the workplace, can be explained and

  20. Prospects of development of highly mineralized high-temperature resources of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The promising nature of integrated processing of high-temperature geothermal brines of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field is shown. Thermal energy of a geothermal brine can be converted to the electric power at a binary geothermal power plant (GPP) based on low-boiling working substance. The thermodynamic Rankine cycles are considered which are implemented in the GPP secondary loop at different evaporation temperatures of the working substance―isobutane. Among them, the most efficient cycle from the standpoint of attaining a maximum power is the supercritical one which is close to the so-called triangular cycle with an evaporation pressure of p e = 5.0 MPa. The used low-temperature brine is supplied from the GPP to a chemical plant, where main chemical components (lithium carbonate, burnt magnesia, calcium carbonate, and sodium chloride) are extracted from it according to the developed technology of comprehensive utilization of geothermal brines of chloride-sodium type. The waste water is delivered to the geotechnological complex and other consumers. For producing valuable inorganic materials, the electric power generated at the GPP is used. Owing to this, the total self-sufficiency of production and independence from external conditions is achieved. The advantages of the proposed geotechnological complex are the full utilization of the heat potential and the extraction of main chemical components of multiparameter geothermal resources. In this case, there is no need for reverse pumping, which eliminates the significant capital costs for building injection wells and a pumping station and the operating costs for their service. A characteristic of the modern state of the field and estimated figures of the integrated processing of high-temperature brines of well no. 6 are given, from which it follows that the proposed technology has a high efficiency. The comprehensive development of the field resources will make it possible to improve the economic structure of the

  1. Geothermal handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management offered over 400,000 hectares (one million acres) for geothermal exploration and development in 1975, and figure is expected to double this year. The Energy Research and Development Administration hopes for 10-15,000 megawatts of geothermal energy by 1985, which would require, leasing over 16.3 million hectares (37 million acres) of land, at least half of which is federal land. Since there is an 8 to 8-1/2 year time laf between initial exploration and full field development, there would have to be a ten-fold increase in the amount of federal land leased within the next three years. Seventy percent of geothermal potential, 22.3 million hectares (55 million acres), is on federal lands in the west. The implication for the Service are enormous and the problems immediate. Geothermal resource are so widespread they are found to some extent in most biomes and ecosystems in the western United States. In most cases exploitation and production of geothermal resources can be made compatible with fish and wildlife management without damage, if probable impacts are clearly understood and provided for before damage has unwittingly been allowed to occur. Planning for site suitability and concern with specific operating techniques are crucial factors. There will be opportunities for enhancement: during exploration and testing many shallow groundwater bodies may be penetrated which might be developed for wildlife use. Construction equipment and materials needed for enhancement projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote by land managers. A comprehensive knowledge of geothermal development is necessary to avoid dangers and seize opportunities. This handbook is intended to serve as a working tool in the field. It anticipated where geothermal resource development will occur in the western United States in the near future. A set of environmental assessment procedures are

  2. Determining barriers to developing geothermal power generation in Japan: Societal acceptance by stakeholders involved in hot springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Hiromi; Hondo, Hiroki; Hienuki, Shunichi; Kaieda, Hideshi

    2013-01-01

    After many years of stagnant growth in geothermal power generation, development plans for new geothermal plants have recently emerged throughout Japan. Through a literature review, we investigated the relationships between the principal barriers to geothermal development and we thereby analyzed the deciding factors in the future success of such enterprises. The results show that the societal acceptance of geothermal power by local stakeholders is the fundamental barrier as it affects almost all other barriers, such as financial, technical, and political risks. Thus, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 26 stakeholders including developers, hot spring inn managers, and local government officials. Some hot spring inn managers and local government officials noted that they have always been strongly concerned about the adverse effects of geothermal power generation on hot springs; their opposition has delayed decision-making by local governments regarding drilling permits, prolonged lead times, and caused other difficulties. A key reason for opposition was identified as uncertainty about the reversibility and predictability of the adverse effects on hot springs and other underground structures by geothermal power production and reinjection of hot water from reservoirs. Therefore, we discuss and recommend options for improving the risk management of hot springs near geothermal power plants. - Highlights: • We clarify relationships between barriers to geothermal power development in Japan. • Local acceptance by hot spring managers is the most prominent barrier. • Uncertainty of reversibility and predictability induces low acceptance. • Risk transfer system and dialogue are needed to alleviate concerns

  3. Geothermal Money Book [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2004-02-01

    Small business lending is big business and growing. Loans under $1 million totaled $460 billion in June 2001, up $23 billion from 2000. The number of loans under $100,000 continued to grow at a rapid rate, growing by 10.1%. The dollar value of loans under $100,000 increased 4.4%; those of $100,000-$250,000 by 4.1%; and those between $250,000 and $1 million by 6.4%. But getting a loan can be difficult if a business owner does not know how to find small business-friendly lenders, how to best approach them, and the specific criteria they use to evaluate a loan application. This is where the Geothermal Money Book comes in. Once a business and financing plan and financial proposal are written, the Geothermal Money Book takes the next step, helping small geothermal businesses locate and obtain financing. The Geothermal Money Book will: Explain the specific criteria potential financing sources use to evaluate a proposal for debt financing; Describe the Small Business Administration's (SBA) programs to promote lending to small businesses; List specific small-business friendly lenders for small geothermal businesses, including those which participate in SBA programs; Identify federal and state incentives which are relevant to direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; and Provide an extensive state directory of financing sources and state financial incentives for the 19 states involved in the GeoPowering the West (GPW). GPW is a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored activity to dramatically increase the use of geothermal energy in the western United States by promoting environmentally compatible heat and power, along with industrial growth and economic development. The Geothermal Money Book will not: Substitute for financial advice; Overcome the high exploration, development, and financing costs associated with smaller geothermal projects; Remedy the lack of financing for the exploration stage of a geothermal project; or Solve

  4. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Tests for Characterization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Reimus, Paul; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Rose, Peter; Dean, Cynthia A.; Watson, Tom B.; Newell, D.; Leecaster, Kevin; Brauser, Eric

    2013-05-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the U.S energy production capability while having a minimal impact on the environment. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distribution, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for the design and commercial development of the geothermal energy of a potential EGS site. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. This project was initially focused on tracer development with the application of perfluorinated tracer (PFT) compounds, non-reactive tracers used in numerous applications from atmospheric transport to underground leak detection, to geothermal systems, and evaluation of encapsulated PFTs that would release tracers at targeted reservoir temperatures. After the 2011 midyear review and subsequent discussions with the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technology Program (GTP), emphasis was shifted to interpretive tool development, testing, and validation. Subsurface modeling capabilities are an important component of this project for both the design of suitable tracers and the interpretation of data from in situ tracer tests, be they single- or multi-well tests. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of the tracer and model development for simulating and conducting tracer tests for characterizing EGS parameters.

  5. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 5. Social and economic impacts of geothermal development in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canon, P.

    1980-06-01

    The overview statement of the socio-economic effects of developing geothermal energy in the State of Hawaii is presented. The following functions are presented: (1) identification of key social and economic issues, (2) inventory of all available pertinent data, (3) analysis and assessment of available data, and (4) identification of what additional information is required for adequate assessment.

  6. Governmental costs and revenues associated with geothermal energy development in Imperial County. Special Publication 3241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, G.; Strong, D.

    1977-10-01

    This study estimates the cost and revenue impacts to local governments of three geothermal energy growth scenarios in Imperial County. The level of geothermal energy potential for the three development scenarios tested is 2,000, 4,000 and 8,000 MW--enough power to serve 270,000 to 1,000,000 people. The government agencies involved do not expect any substantial additional capital costs due to geothermal energy development; therefore, average costing techniques have been used for projecting public service costs and government revenues. The analysis of the three growth scenarios tested indicates that county population would increase by 3, 7 and 19 percent and assessed values would increase by 20, 60, and 165 percent for Alternatives No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 respectively. Direct and indirect effects would increase new jobs in the county by 1,000, 3,000 and 8,000. Government revenues would tend to exceed public service costs for county and school districts, while city costs would tend to exceed revenues. In each of the alternatives, if county, cities and school districts are grouped together, the revenues exceed costs by an estimated $1,600 per additional person either directly or indirectly related to geothermal energy development in the operational stages. In the tenth year of development, while facilities are still being explored, developed and constructed, the revenues would exceed costs by an approximate $1,000 per additional person for each alternative. School districts with geothermal plants in their boundaries would be required by legislation SB 90 to reduce their tax rates by 15 to 87 percent, depending on the level of energy development. Revenue limits and school taxing methods will be affected by the Serrano-Priest decision and by new school legislation in process.

  7. Development of geothermal energy in the Gulf Coast: socio-economic, demographic, and political considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Williamson, J.K.; Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The institutional aspect of the study attempts to identify possible effects of geothermal research, development, and utilization on the area and its inhabitants in three chapters. Chapters I and II address key socio-economic and demographic variables. The initial chapter provides an overview of the area where the resource is located. Major data are presented that can be used to establish a baseline description of the region for comparison over time and to delineate crucial area for future study with regard to geothermal development. The chapter highlights some of the variables that reflect the cultural nature of the Gulf Coast, its social characteristics, labor force, and service in an attempt to delineate possible problems with and barriers to the development of geothermal energy in the region. The following chapter focuses on the local impacts of geothermal wells and power-generating facilities using data on such variables as size and nature of construction and operating crews. Data are summarized for the areas studied. A flow chart is utilized to describe research that is needed in order to exploit the resource as quickly and effectively as possible. Areas of interface among various parts of the research that will include exchange of data between the social-cultural group and the institutional, legal, environmental, and resource utilization groups are identified. (MCW)

  8. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  9. World geothermal congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povarov, O.A.; Tomarov, G.V.

    2001-01-01

    The World geothermal congress took place in the period from 28 May up to 10 June 2000 in Japan. About 2000 men from 43 countries, including specialists in the area of developing geothermal fields, creating and operating geothermal electrical and thermal plants and various systems for the earth heat application, participated in the work of the Congress. It was noted at the Congress, that development of the geothermal power engineering in the world is characterized by the large-scale application of geothermal resources for the electrical energy generation [ru

  10. Hawaii geothermal project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamins, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii's Geothermal Project is investigating the occurrence of geothermal resources in the archipelago, initially on the Island of Hawaii. The state's interest in geothermal development is keen, since it is almost totally dependent on imported oil for energy. Geothermal development in Hawaii may require greater participation by the public sector than has been true in California. The initial exploration has been financed by the national, state, and county governments. Maximization of net benefits may call for multiple use of geothermal resources; the extraction of by-products and the application of treated effluents to agricultural and aquacultural uses.

  11. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  12. Recent trends in the development of heat exchangers for geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Vaccaro, M.

    2017-11-01

    The potential use of geothermal resources has been a remarkable driver for market players and companies operating in the field of geothermal energy conversion. For this reason, medium to low temperature geothermal resources have been the object of recent rise in consideration, with strong reference to the perspectives of development of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology. The main components of geothermal plants based on ORC cycle are surely the heat exchangers. A lot of different heat exchangers are required for the operation of ORC plants. Among those it is surely of major importance the Recovery Heat Exchanger (RHE, typically an evaporator), in which the operating fluid is evaporated. Also the Recuperator, in regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle, is of major interest in technology. Another important application of the heat exchangers is connected to the condensation, according to the possibility of liquid or air cooling media availability. The paper analyzes the importance of heat exchangers sizing and the connection with the operation of ORC power plants putting in evidence the real element of innovation: the consideration of the heat exchangers as central element for the optimum design of ORC systems.

  13. Multi-purpose utilization and development of geothermal water: European overseas investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochiai, T [Natl. Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Japan

    1978-01-01

    In order to investigate the agricultural utilization of geothermal waters, a fact-finding team visited France, Italy, Iceland, and Turkey. In France, it was seen that the development and utilization of geothermal waters is in accord with Japanese practices. The production and reinjection wells are drilled to a depth of 1800 m. They are spaced about 10 m apart at the surface and about 800 m apart at the bottom. This is accomplished by drilling at an angle. The hot water is produced at a rate of about 90 t/h. It is passed through a heat exchanger where it warms surface water to about 70/sup 0/C. The warmed water is then supplied for purposes of district heating, greenhouse culture, and fish farming. The used hot water is then returned to the producing stratum via the reinjection well. Iceland began the production of hot geothermal water in 1925, and, at present, 99% of the city of Reykjavik is heated geothermally. The deepest production wells at Reykjavik reach 2000 m. The water produced has a temperature of 90-103/sup 0/C, and is also used for agricultural purposes.

  14. FY 2000 report on the survey of extraction of areas promising in strategic geothermal development. Kurikoma peripheral region; 2000 nendo senryakuteki chinetsu kaihatsu yubo chiiki chushutsu chosa hokokusho. Kurikoma shuhen chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the Kurikoma peripheral region with the aim of contributing to the selection of important areas for survey, plans to be worked out for introduction of medium-term/long-term and effective geothermal development promotion survey, estimation of the developmental resource amount in the areas, etc. In the study, based on the geological survey, geochemical survey, physical survey and well survey which were conducted directly for the Kurikoma peripheral region, the data needed to elucidate geothermal structure elements were extracted and re-analyzed to make geothermal models. Based on the geothermal system conceptual model made, the data on the areas already developed, etc. were arranged to make criteria for extraction of promising areas. By the criteria, the following three areas were selected, and geothermal structure models were made for the areas: promising area 1 in geothermal development (Sanzugawa-Oyu spa, 66km{sup 2}), promising area 2 (Wasabizawa-Akinomiya area, 37km{sup 2}), promising area 3 (Onikobe-Kamitaki spa, 21km{sup 2}). These promising areas were evaluated by the resource amount density, data likelihood, regulation by the natural park law, etc. Important areas for survey were selected and the resource amount was calculated. (NEDO)

  15. Promotion of development and introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    In order to promote effectively and smoothly development and introduction of oil substituting energies, comprehensive investigations for improving the energy demand and supply structures and investigations on development infrastructures will be conducted. Investigations will also be given on promoting improvements in overseas coal import base infrastructures, and demand/supply improvement, development and utilization of overseas energies. Investigations and guidance will be given on forming visions to improve demand/supply structures and to introduce and promote technologies thereof. In order to deepen further the understanding and recognition by the nation on oil substituting energies, such publicity activities will be carried out as provision of information, and promotion on popularization and education of energy demand/supply improving systems. For the purpose of promoting international exchanges, information exchange will be promoted on improving the energy demand/supply structures, so is on international information exchange. International cooperative operations on coal utilization, international cooperation on alcohol utilization technologies, and assistance to holding the world energy conferences will be carried out, and an Asia-Pacific Coal Demand and Supply Seminar will be held. In addition, training operations for coal engineers will be performed.

  16. Development of an Advanced Stimulation / Production Predictive Simulator for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, John W. [Leidos, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-04-15

    There are several well-known obstacles to the successful deployment of EGS projects on a commercial scale, of course. EGS projects are expected to be deeper, on the average, than conventional “natural” geothermal reservoirs, and drilling costs are already a formidable barrier to conventional geothermal projects. Unlike conventional resources (which frequently announce their presence with natural manifestations such as geysers, hot springs and fumaroles), EGS prospects are likely to appear fairly undistinguished from the earth surface. And, of course, the probable necessity of fabricating a subterranean fluid circulation network to mine the heat from the rock (instead of simply relying on natural, pre-existing permeable fractures) adds a significant degree of uncertainty to the prospects for success. Accordingly, the basic motivation for the work presented herein was to try to develop a new set of tools that would be more suitable for this purpose. Several years ago, the Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office recognized this need and funded a cost-shared grant to our company (then SAIC, now Leidos) to partner with Geowatt AG of Zurich, Switzerland and undertake the development of a new reservoir simulator that would be more suitable for EGS forecasting than the existing tools. That project has now been completed and a new numerical geothermal reservoir simulator has been developed. It is named “HeatEx” (for “Heat Extraction”) and is almost completely new, although its methodology owes a great deal to other previous geothermal software development efforts, including Geowatt’s “HEX-S” code, the STAR and SPFRAC simulators developed here at SAIC/Leidos, the MINC approach originally developed at LBNL, and tracer analysis software originally formulated at INEL. Furthermore, the development effort was led by engineers with many years of experience in using reservoir simulation software to make meaningful forecasts for real geothermal

  17. Japanese geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, P.

    1995-01-01

    At the end of the seventies, the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry have started two independent projects of deep geothermics research in Honshu island (Japan). The two sites are 50 km apart of each other and the boreholes have been drilled up to 2300 and 1100 m of depth, respectively, in hot-dry moderately fractured volcanic rocks. These sites are characterized by high geothermal gradients with a rock temperature reaching 250 C at the bottom of the wells. Hydraulic circulation tests are still in progress to evaluate the profitability of these sites. (J.S.). 1 fig., 1 photo

  18. An economic prefeasibility study of geothermal energy development at Platonares, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.K.

    1989-01-01

    The expected economic benefits from development of a geothermal power plant at Plantanares in the Department of Copan, Honduras are evaluated in this report. The economic benefits of geothermal plants ranging in size from a 10-MW plant in the shallow reservoir to a 20-, 30-, 55-, or 110-MW plant in the assumed deeper reservoir were measured by computing optimal expansion plans for each size of geothermal computing optimal expansion plans for each size of geothermal plant. Savings are computed as the difference in present value cost between a plan that contains no geothermal plant and one that does. Present value savings in millions of 1987 dollars range from $25 million for the 10-MW plant to $110 million for the 110-MW plant -- savings of 6% to 25% over the time period 1988 through 2008. The existence of the shallow reservoir is relatively well-characterized, and much indirect scientific evidence indicate the existence of the deeper reservoir. Based on probability distributions estimated by geologists of temperature, areal extent, depth, and porosity, the expected size of power plant that the deep reservoir can support was estimated with the following results: O-MW -- 16% (i.e., there is a 16% chance that the deep reservoir will not support a power plant); 20-MW -- 38%; 30-MW -- 25%; 55-MW -- 19%; and 110-MW -- 2%. When the cost savings from each size of plant are weighted by the probability that the reservoir will support a plant of that size, the expected monetary value of the deep reservoir can be computed. It is $42 million in present value 1987 dollars -- a cost savings of 10%. The expected savings from the 10-MW plant in the shallow reservoir are expected to be close to the computed value of $25 million, i.e., the probability that the shallow reservoir can support the plant is high. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Niland development project geothermal loan guaranty: 49-MW (net) power plant and geothermal well field development, Imperial County, California: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The proposed federal action addressed by this environmental assessment is the authorization of disbursements under a loan guaranteed by the US Department of Energy for the Niland Geothermal Energy Program. The disbursements will partially finance the development of a geothermal well field in the Imperial Valley of California to supply a 25-MW(e) (net) power plant. Phase I of the project is the production of 25 MW(e) (net) of power; the full rate of 49 MW (net) would be achieved during Phase II. The project is located on approximately 1600 acres (648 ha) near the city of Niland in Imperial County, California. Well field development includes the initial drilling of 8 production wells for Phase I, 8 production wells for Phase II, and the possible need for as many as 16 replacement wells over the anticipated 30-year life of the facility. Activities associated with the power plant in addition to operation are excavation and construction of the facility and associated systems (such as cooling towers). Significant environmental impacts, as defined in Council on Environmental Quality regulation 40 CFR Part 1508.27, are not expected to occur as a result of this project. Minor impacts could include the following: local degradation of ambient air quality due to particulate and/or hydrogen sulfide emissions, temporarily increased ambient noise levels due to drilling and construction activities, and increased traffic. Impacts could be significant in the event of a major spill of geothermal fluid, which could contaminate groundwater and surface waters and alter or eliminate nearby habitat. Careful land use planning and engineering design, implementation of mitigation measures for pollution control, and design and implementation of an environmental monitoring program that can provide an early indication of potential problems should ensure that impacts, except for certain accidents, will be minimized.

  20. EVALUATION OF PROSPECTS OF INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Alkhasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to assess the prospects for the integrated development of geothermal resources in the North Caucasus region.Methods. Technological solutions are proposed for integrated development of hightemperature hydrogeothermal resources of the North Caucasus region. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technologies was carried out with the use of physico-mathematical, thermodynamic and optimization methods of calculation and physico-chemical experimental studies.Findings. Were estimated the prospects of complex processing of highly parametrical geothermal resources of the Eastern Ciscaucasian artesian basin (ECAB with conversion of thermal energy into electric power in a binary GeoPP and subsequent extraction of dissolved chemical compounds. The most promising areas for the development of such resources were indicated. In connection with the exacerbated environmental problems, it was shown the need for the firstpriority integrated development of associated high-mineralized brines of the South Sukhokum group of gas-oil wells in North Dagestan. At present, associated brines with a radioactive background exceeding permissible standards are discharged to surface filtration fields; technological solutions for their decontamination and integrated development were proposed.Conclusions. The comprehensive development of high-temperature hydrogeothermal brines is a new direction in geothermal energy, which will significantly increase the production of hydrogeothermal resources and develop the geothermal industry at a higher level with the implementation of energy-efficient advanced technologies. Large-scale development of brines will solve significant problems of energy supply in the region and import substitution, fully meeting Russia's needs for food and technical salt and other rare elements. 

  1. Impact of geothermal development on the state of Hawaii. Executive summary. Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    Questions regarding the sociological, legal, environmental, and geological concerns associated with the development of geothermal resources in the Hawaiian Islands are addressed in this summary report. Major social changes, environmental degradation, legal and economic constraints, seismicity, subsidence, changes in volcanic activity, accidents, and ground water contamination are not major problems with the present state of development, however, the present single well does not provide sufficient data for extrapolation. (ACR)

  2. Design, Development and Testing of a Drillable Straddle Packer for Lost Circulation Control in Geothermal Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon, J.; Glowka, D.A.; Gronewald, P.; Knudsen, S.D.; Raymond, D.W.; Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wise, J.L.; Wright, E.K.

    1999-04-01

    Lost Circulation is a widespread problem encountered when drilling geothermal wells, and often represents a substantial portion of the cost of drilling a well. The U.S. Department of Energy sponsors research and development work at Sandia National Laboratories in an effort to reduce these lost circulation expenditures. Sandia has developed a down hole tool that improves the effectiveness and reduces th cost of lost circulation cement treatment while drilling geothermal wells. This tool, the Drillable Straddle Packer, is a low-cost disposable device that is used to isolate the loss zone and emplace the cement treatment directly into the region of concern. This report documents the design and development of the Drillabe Straddle Packer, the laboratory and field test results, and the design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

  3. Proposal for the further development of the 'Ribeira Grande' agricultural geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril; De Medeiros, Jorge Rosa; Rodrigues, Ana Catarina Tavares

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal project Ribeira Grande has been the first trial to introduce the possibilities of direct application of geothermal energy at Azores. As all the first experiences, it's development has been escorted with a list of difficulties and problems, resulting with non proper completion of some systems and installations. However, even not complete, the reached results justified both technically and economically the indigenous resource door for further activities and development. Presented proposal for the second phase of project development consists two very important advantages: 1) Enables development of new demonstration and productive projects, without engaging new import of fuels or other energents; 2) Enables development based on the already existing economy sectors at the islands and makes them more profitable and accommodated to the requests of the national and international market. However, influencing national and international preconditions for the realization of the proposed activities are not very convenient and are requesting a concentrate engagement of the Institute for Innovative Technologies of Azores INOVA during the period of next 5 years. The final success of this engagement shall open very wide possibilities for direct application of geothermal energy development in this isolated EC community, presently mainly orientated towards import both of energy and food. (Authors)

  4. Evaluating the level and nature of sustainable development for a geothermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides for an evaluation of the potential level and nature of sustainable development of the Sabalan geothermal power plant in NW Iran, to be operational in 2011. The paper achieves this by applying a mathematical model of sustainable development developed by the author (re: Phillips), in respect to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) conducted by Yousefi et al. using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) methodology (re: Pastakia; Pastakia and Jensen). Using a model application methodology developed for the RIAM, the results indicated that the nature of sustainable development for Sabalan was considered to be very weak (S = 0.063). This was due to the imbalance between negative environmental impacts and positive socio-economic impacts deriving from the project. Further, when placed into context with a similar set of results obtained from the EIA of the Tuzla geothermal power plant by Baba also using the RIAM methodology, then the similarities between the results obtained raises some legimate questions as to the sustainable development credentials of geothermal power production. (author)

  5. High-temperature explosive development for geothermal well stimulation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E.W.; Mars, J.E.; Wang, C.

    1978-03-31

    A two-component, temperature-resistant liquid explosive called HITEX has been developed which is capable of withstanding 561/sup 0/K (550/sup 0/F) for 24 hours in a geothermal environment. The explosive is intended for the stimulation of nonproducing or marginally producing geothermal (hot dry rock, vapor-dominated or hydrothermal) reservoirs by fracturing the strata in the vicinity of a borehole. The explosive is inherently safe because it is mixed below ground downhole from two nondetonable liquid components. Development and safety tests included differential scanning calorimetry, thermal stability, minerals compatibility, drop-weight sensitivity, adiabatic compression, electrostatic discharge sensitivity, friction sensitivity, detonation arrest capability, cook-off tests, detonability at ambient and elevated pressure, detonation velocity and thin film propagation in a wedge.

  6. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Project. Annual report, fiscal year 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    The feasibility of extracting geothermal energy from hot dry rock in the earth's crust was investigated. The concept being investigated involves drilling a deep hole, creating an artificial geothermal reservoir at the bottom of the hole by hydraulic fracturing, and then intersecting the fracture with a second borehole. At the beginning of FY77, the downhole system was complete, but the impedance to the flow of fluid was too high to proceed confidently with the planned energy extraction demonstration. Therefore, in FY77 work focused on an intensive investigation of the characteristics of the downhole system and on the development of the necessary tools and techniques for understanding and improving it. Research results are presented under the following section headings: introduction and history; hot dry rock resource assessment and site selection; instrumentation and equipment development; drilling and fracturing; reservoir engineering; energy extraction system; environmental studies; project management and liaison; and, looking back and ahead. (JGB)

  7. Evaluation of state taxes and tax incentives and their impact on the development of geothermal energy in western states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, L.D.; Meyer, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    The economic impact of existing and prospective state taxes and tax incentives on direct thermal applications of geothermal energy are evaluated. Study area is twelve western states which have existing and potential geothermal activities. Economic models representing the geothermal producer and business enterprise phases of four industrial/commercial uses of geothermal energy are synthesized and then placed in the existing tax structures of each state for evaluation. The four enterprises are a commercial greenhouse (low temperature process heat), apartment complex (low temperature space heat), food processor (moderate temperature process heat), and small scale energy system (electrical and direct thermal energy for a small industrial park). The effects of the state taxations on net profits and tax revenues are determined. Tax incentives to accelerate geothermal development are also examined. The magnitudes of total state and local tax collections vary considerably from state to state, which implies that geothermal producers and energy-using businesses may be selective in expanding or locating their geothermal operations.

  8. Legal and institutional impediments to geothermal energy resource development: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography contains 485 references to literature on the subject of legal and institutional constraints to the development and use of geothermal resources. In addition to government-sponsored reports, journal articles, and books, the bibliography includes specific state and Federal laws and regulations, court cases of interest, and conference proceedings. For each reference, abstract or a listing of subject descriptors is given along with the complete bibliographic citation. Corporate, author, subject, and report number indexes are included. (LS)

  9. World status of geothermal energy use: past and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, John

    2000-01-01

    The past and potential development of geothermal energy is reviewed, and the use of geothermal energy for power generation and direct heat utilisation is examined. The energy savings that geothermal energy provides in terms of fuel oil and carbon savings are discussed. Worldwide development of geothermal electric power (1940-2000) and direct heat utilisation (1960 to 2000), regional geothermal use in 2000, the national geothermal contributions of geothermal energy, and the installed geothermal electric generating capacities in 2000 are tabulated

  10. Effective use of environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for geothermal development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Both the developed and developing nations of the world would like to move toward a position of sustainable development while paying attention to the restoration of natural resources, improving the environment, and improving the quality of life. The impacts of geothermal development projects are generally positive. It is important, however, that the environmental issues associated with development be addressed in a systematic fashion. Drafted early in the project planning stage, a well-prepared Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can significantly add to the quality of the overall project. An EIA customarily ends with the decision to proceed with the project. The environmental analysis process could be more effective if regular monitoring, detailed in the EIA, continues during project implementation. Geothermal development EIAs should be analytic rather than encyclopedic, emphasizing the impacts most closely associated with energy sector development. Air quality, water resources and quality, geologic factors, and socioeconomic issues will invariably be the most important factors. The purpose of an EIA should not be to generate paperwork, but to enable superb response. The EIA should be intended to help public officials make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences and take proper actions. The EIA process has been defined in different ways throughout the world. In fact, it appears that no two countries have defined it in exactly the same way. Going hand in hand with the different approaches to the process is the wide variety of formats available. It is recommended that the world geothermal community work towards the adoption of a standard. The Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)(OLADE, 1993) prepared a guide that presents a comprehensive discussion of the environmental impacts and suggested mitigation alternatives associated with geothermal development projects. The OLADE guide

  11. MeProRisk - a Joint Venture for Minimizing Risk in Geothermal Reservoir Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, C.; Marquart, G.

    2009-12-01

    Exploration and development of geothermal reservoirs for the generation of electric energy involves high engineering and economic risks due to the need for 3-D geophysical surface surveys and deep boreholes. The MeProRisk project provides a strategy guideline for reducing these risks by combining cross-disciplinary information from different specialists: Scientists from three German universities and two private companies contribute with new methods in seismic modeling and interpretation, numerical reservoir simulation, estimation of petrophysical parameters, and 3-D visualization. The approach chosen in MeProRisk consists in considering prospecting and developing of geothermal reservoirs as an iterative process. A first conceptual model for fluid flow and heat transport simulation can be developed based on limited available initial information on geology and rock properties. In the next step, additional data is incorporated which is based on (a) new seismic interpretation methods designed for delineating fracture systems, (b) statistical studies on large numbers of rock samples for estimating reliable rock parameters, (c) in situ estimates of the hydraulic conductivity tensor. This results in a continuous refinement of the reservoir model where inverse modelling of fluid flow and heat transport allows infering the uncertainty and resolution of the model at each iteration step. This finally yields a calibrated reservoir model which may be used to direct further exploration by optimizing additional borehole locations, estimate the uncertainty of key operational and economic parameters, and optimize the long-term operation of a geothermal resrvoir.

  12. Water use in the development and operation of geothermal power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E.; Harto, C. B.; Sullivan, J. L.; Wang, M. Q. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2010-09-17

    Geothermal energy is increasingly recognized for its potential to reduce carbon emissions and U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Energy and environmental analyses are critical to developing a robust set of geothermal energy technologies. This report summarizes what is currently known about the life cycle water requirements of geothermal electric power-generating systems and the water quality of geothermal waters. It is part of a larger effort to compare the life cycle impacts of large-scale geothermal electricity generation with other power generation technologies. The results of the life cycle analysis are summarized in a companion report, Life Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems. This report is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to inform power plant design and operations. Chapter 2 summarizes the geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study, which include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists but water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 3 describes the methods and approach to this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS plant, a 50-MW EGS plant, a 10-MW binary plant, and a 50-MW flash plant. The two EGS scenarios include hydraulic stimulation activities within the construction stage of the life cycle and assume binary power generation during operations. The EGS and binary scenarios are assumed to be air-cooled power plants, whereas the flash plant is assumed to rely on evaporative cooling. The well field and power plant design for the scenario were based on simulations using DOE's Geothermal Economic Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM). Chapter 4 presents the water requirements for the power plant life cycle for the scenarios evaluated. Geology

  13. Southwest regional geothermal operations research program. Summary report. First project year, June 1977--August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.T.; Davidson, R.

    1978-12-01

    A summary report is given of the information, data, and results presented by New Mexico Energy Institute and the five State Teams in their separate draft reports. The objective is to develop scenarios for the development of each identified geothermal resource area in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah. Included are an overview; an economic analysis; institutitional procedures, contraints, and incentives; location of geothermal resources in the southwest; geothermal development postulations, state by state; and recommended actions for promoting and accelerating geothermal development. (MHR)

  14. Rotation-Enabled 7-Degree of Freedom Seismometer for Geothermal Resource Development. Phase 1 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Bob [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-29

    Under this Department of Energy (DOE) grant, A-Tech Corporation d.b.a. Applied Technology Associates (ATA), seeks to develop a seven-degree-of-freedom (7-DOF) seismic measurement tool for high-temperature geothermal applications. The Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer includes a conventional tri-axial accelerometer, a conventional pressure sensor or hydrophone, and a tri-axial rotational sensor. The rotational sensing capability is novel, based upon ATA's innovative research in rotational sensing technologies. The geothermal industry requires tools for high-precision seismic monitoring of crack formation associated with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) stimulation activity. Currently, microseismic monitoring is conducted by deploying many seismic tools at different depth levels along a 'string' within drilled observation wells. Costs per string can be hundreds of thousands of dollars. Processing data from the spatial arrays of linear seismometers allows back-projection of seismic wave states. In contrast, a Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer would simultaneously measure p-wave velocity, s-wave velocity, and incident seismic wave direction all from a single point measurement. In addition, the Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer will, by its nature, separate p- and s-waves into different data streams, simplifying signal processing and facilitating analysis of seismic source signatures and geological characterization. By adding measurements of three additional degrees-of-freedom at each level and leveraging the information from this new seismic observable, it is likely that an equally accurate picture of subsurface seismic activity could be garnered with fewer levels per hole. The key cost savings would come from better siting of the well due to increased information content and a decrease in the number of confirmation wells drilled, also due to the increase in information per well. Improved seismic tools may also increase knowledge, understanding

  15. The geothermal power organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, K.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  16. Deep geothermics in Germany. An energy-economic analysis of the status and possible developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczik, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    With the aim to supply the energy-intense and highly industrialized economy of the Federal Republic of Germany more climate-friendly and crisis-safely with a larger contribution of homelike energy in the past years by the federal government a manifold of obligatory aims were composed. So for instance the greenhouse-gas emissions of 1990 shall be reduced against 2020 by 40 %. This shall be reached among others by an increased use of the renewable energies. But a transformation of these ambitionized aims seems from the present view only realistic, if in future all in Germany available options for the supply of current and heat from renewable energies are distinctly more intensively used. In front of the background of the geothermic potentials available in Germany the current and heat supply from deep geothermics is a very much promising option. But in 2012 only one facility and in 2013 three facilities have gone to the net. But against this a far-reaching usage of the geothermics in the context of the energy transition and the large heat and current production potentials in Germany is worth to be aspired. In front of the described problematics the aim of this work is to show how the system technics of the facilities for the usage of the deep underground for a current respectively heat production present themselves and how such complete facilities can be evaluated by means of technical, economical, and ecological characteristics. Base on the shown political aim settings it then shall be analyzed, how the calculated characteristics could change in future and whether the deep geothermics can provide an increasing contribution in the energy system of the future. The corresponding potential further developments are thereby analyzed regarding a short-termed (i. e. 2020) and an intermediate-termed (i. e. 2030) time horizon.

  17. Outdoor recreational use of the Salton Sea with reference to potential impacts of geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twiss, R.; Sidener, J.; Bingham, G.; Burke, J.E.

    1978-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the types, levels, and locations of outdoor recreation uses in the Salton Sea area, the number and principal activities of visitors, and to estimate the consequences upon outdoor recreation of geothermal development and other activities that might affect the Salton Sea. It is concluded that since the Salton Sea is considered legally to be a sump for agricultural, municipal, and presumably geothermal waste waters, recreational use of the Sea for fishing and boating (from present marinas) will undoubtedly continue to decline, unless there is a major policy change. Use of the shoreline for camping, the surrounding roads and lands for scenic viewing, ORV events, and retirement or recreation communities will not decline, and will probably increase, assuming control of hydrogen sulfide odors. Two ways in which the fishing and present boating facilities could be returned to a wholly usable steady state are discussed. One is by construction of a diked evaporation pond system at the south end of the Sea. This would allow a means of control over both water level and salinity. Another means, less costly but more difficult to effectively control, would be to budget geothermal plant use of, and disposal of wastes in, Salton Sea water. (JGB)

  18. Geothermal energy abstract sets. Special report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C. (comp.)

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography contains annotated citations in the following areas: (1) case histories; (2) drilling; (3) reservoir engineering; (4) injection; (5) geothermal well logging; (6) environmental considerations in geothermal development; (7) geothermal well production; (8) geothermal materials; (9) electric power production; (10) direct utilization of geothermal energy; (11) economics of geothermal energy; and (12) legal, regulatory and institutional aspects. (ACR)

  19. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes a study initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  20. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This study was initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  1. Coordination of geothermal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessop, A.M.; Drury, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Visits were made in 1983 to various investigators and institutions in Canada to examine developments in geothermal research. Proposals for drilling geothermal wells to provide hot water for heating at a college in Prince Edward Island were made. In Alberta, the first phase of a program examining the feasibility of mapping sedimentary geothermal reservoirs was discussed. Some sites for possible geothermal demonstration projects were identified. In British Columbia, discussions were held between BC Hydro and Energy, Mines and Resources Canada on the drilling of a research hole into the peak of a temperature anomaly in the Meager Creek Valley. The British Columbia government has offered blocks of land in the Mount Cayley volcanic complex for lease to develop geothermal resources. A list of papers of interest to the Canadian geothermal energy program is appended.

  2. Development of production technology for deep-seated geothermal resources; Shinbu chinetsu shigen seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, T.; Akazawa, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    In order to increase the geothermal power generation volume in Japan furthermore after now, it is necessary to develop the deep-seated geothermal fluid collecting technique at 3,000 to 4,000m in depth and about 350degC. In order to collect the deep-seated geothermal resources economically and effectively, there are some principally important problems on production techniques such as P (pressure)-T(temperature)-S (flow rate)-D (fluid density) logging technique, P (pressure)-T (temperature)-C (chemical composition) monitoring technique, high temperature tracer monitoring technique, scale monitoring technique, scale protection and removal technique and so on. The PTSD logging technique is a measuring technique for collecting some data necessary to conduct production management effectively. The PTC monitoring technique is a technique for collecting data on the geothermal resources essential for the resources evaluation and presumption, and tracer monitoring technique is a technique for collecting actual measurement data of fluid flow analysis in the deep-seated geothermal resources. And the sale monitoring is a technique for collecting data on various kinds of scale components of the deep-seated geothermal water and in the steam. In this paper, these techniques are summarized. 8 figs.

  3. Geothermal energy - Overview of research in 2002; Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohran, H. L.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy reviews activities in the area of geothermal energy usage in Switzerland in 2002. Several main points of interest are discussed, including Deep Heat Mining, the thermal use of drainage water from alpine railway tunnels, the quality assurance aspects of geothermal installations and pilot and demonstration (P+D) activities designed to promote the use of geothermal energy. Also, the use of constructional elements such as energy piles and novel applications such as geothermally heated greenhouses and fish farms are discussed. Examples of various P+D projects that utilise bore-hole heat exchangers and piles are given. Also, examples of the thermal use of deep aquifers are quoted and projects involving the mapping of geothermal resources and the creation of quality labels are described. Prospects for future work are discussed. The report is rounded off with lists of research and development projects and P+D projects.

  4. Geothermal energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Enriko

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal energy, as a natural steam and hot water, has been exploited for decades in order to generate electricity as well as district heating and industrial processes. The present geothermal electrical installed capacity in the world is about 10.000 MWe and the thermal capacity in non-electrical uses is about 8.200 MWt. Electricity is produced with an efficiency of 10-17%, and the cost of the kWh is competitive with conventional energy sources. In the developing countries, where a total installed electrical power is still low, geothermal energy can play a significant role: in El Salvador, for example, 25% of electricity comes from geothermal spring, 20% in the Philippines and 8% in Kenya. Present technology makes it possible to control the environmental impact of geothermal exploitation. Geothermal energy could also be extracted from deep geopressured reservoirs in large sedimentary basins, hot dry rock systems and magma bodies. (author)

  5. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program. Annual report, fiscal year 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, G.M.; Duffield, R.B.; Smith, M.C.; Wilson, M.G. (comps.)

    1980-08-01

    The Fenton Hill Project is still the principal center for developing methods, equipment, and instrumentation for creating and utilizing HDR geothermal reservoirs. The search for a second site for a similar experimental system in a different geological environment has been intensified, as have the identification and characterization of other HDR areas that may prove suitable for either experimental or commercial development. The Phase I fracture system was enlarged during FY79. Drilling of the injection well of the Phase II system began at Fenton Hill in April 1979. Environmental monitoring of the Fenton Hill area continued through FY79. The environmental studies indicate that the hot dry rock operations have caused no significant environmental impact. Other supporting activities included rock physics, rock mechanics, fracture mapping, and instrumentation development. Two closely related activities - evaluation of the potential HDR energy resource of the US and the selection of a site for development of a second experimental heat-extraction system generally similar to that at Fenton Hill - have resulted in the collection of geology, hydrology, and heat-flow data on some level of field activity in 30 states. The resource-evaluation activity included reconnaissance field studies and a listing and preliminary characterization of US geothermal areas in which HDR energy extraction methods may be applicable. The selection of Site 2 has taken into account such legal, institutional, and economic factors as land ownership and use, proximity to possible users, permitting and licensing requirements and procedures, environmental issues, areal extent of the geothermal area, and visibility to and apparent interest by potential industrial developers.

  6. FY 2000 report on the survey of extraction of areas promising in strategic geothermal development. Hachimantai south region; 2000 nendo senryakuteki chinetsu kaihatsu yubo chiiki chushutsu chosa hokokusho. Hachimantai nanbu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the Hachimantai south region with the aim of contributing to plans to be worked out for introduction of medium-term/long-term and important geothermal development promotion surveys, estimation of the developmental resource amount, etc. In the survey, the data were widely collected/arranged on the geothermal development surveys so far made in the Hachimantai south region, and wide-area geothermal system conceptual models in this region were constructed. Based on the wide-area geothermal system conceptual models and the manual for strategic survey, the following were extracted as areas for which the existence of geothermal reservoir structures is expected: Toshichi spa and the southeast area, Kakkonda-Matsukawa-Iwateyama area, Nyuto spa and the southwest area. Further, from the criteria for extraction such as the resource amount density, the natural park law and data likelihood, extracted were the Moroedake area (9km{sup 2}), Matsukawa east area (10km{sup 2}), Omatsukurayama south area (9km{sup 2}) and Kakkonda east area (14km{sup 2}). In the Monte Carlo analysis by the stored heat method, the resource amount was estimated as 5MWe, 14MWe, 4MWe and 48MWe, respectively. (NEDO)

  7. Coordinating Permit Offices and the Development of Utility-Scale Geothermal Energy (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, A.; Young, K.; Witherbee, K.

    2013-10-01

    Permitting is a major component of the geothermal development process. Better coordination across government agencies could reduce uncertainty of the process and the actual time of permitting. This presentation highlights various forms of coordinating permit offices at the state and federal level in the western United States, discusses inefficiencies and mitigation techniques for permitting natural resource projects, analyzes whether various approaches are easily adaptable to utility-scale geothermal development, and addresses advantages and challenges for coordinating permit offices. Key successful strategies identified include: 1. Flexibility in implementing the approach (i.e. less statutory requirements for the approach); 2. Less dependence on a final environmental review for information sharing and permit coordination; 3. State and federal partnerships developed through memorandum of understanding to define roles and share data and/or developer information. A few of the most helpful techniques include: 1. A central point of contact for the developer to ask questions surrounding the project; 2. Pre-application meetings to assist the developer in identifying all of the permits, regulatory approvals, and associated information or data required; 3. A permit schedule or timeline to set expectations for the developer and agencies; 4. Consolidating the public notice, comment, and hearing period into fewer hearings held concurrently.

  8. Geothermal Power Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Chamorro, C.R.

    2017-01-01

    Although geothermal energy has been widely deployed for direct use in locations with especial geologic manifestations, its potential for power generation has been traditionally underestimated. Recent technology developments in drilling techniques and power conversion technologies from low......-temperature heat resources are bringing geothermal energy to the spotlight as a renewable baseload energy option for a sustainable energy mix. Although the environmental impact and economic viability of geothermal exploitation must be carefully evaluated for each case, the use of deep low-temperature geothermal...... reservoirs could soon become an important contributor to the energy generation around the world....

  9. Geothermal resources in Oregon: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justus, D.L.

    1979-04-01

    An inventory of resources based on available information is presented. Potential for utilization and the legal and institutional environment in which development is likely to occur were also considered. Sites selected for this investigation include the 13 identified KGRA's, one PGRA which was chosen because of substantial local interest expressed in favor of development, and one major geologic fault zone which shows indications of high potential. Each chapter represents a planning region and is introduced by a regional overview of the physical setting followed by a narrative summary statement of the specific resource location and characteristics, existing utilization and potential end-uses for future development. Detailed site information in the form of data sheets follows each narrative. (MHR)

  10. Geothermal Energy Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained with the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost- effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy -- the heat of the Earth -- is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40% of the total US energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma ( the four types of geothermal energy) still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program

  11. GeoBest - A contribution to the long term development of deep geothermal energy in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, T.; Wiemer, S.; Husen, S.

    2012-04-01

    The processes and conditions underpinning induced seismicity associated with deep geothermal operations are still not sufficiently well understood to make useful predictions as to the likely seismic response to reservoir development and exploitation. The empirical data include only a handful of well-monitored EGS experiments; models are consequently poorly constrained. Unfortunately, data sets of well-monitored deep hydrothermal experiments are missing and empirical constraints of induced seismicity models for these cases do not exist. Given that the majority of the projects underway or planned in Europe are of the hydrothermal type, there is hope that this deficit can be remedied in the near future through a close cooperation of geothermal industry, science and public authorities. The GeoBest project was initiated in Switzerland to facilitate the dialog between geothermal industry, science and public authorities. The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) is implementing the GeoBest project on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office for Energy (SFOE) to provide cantonal and federal authorities with guidelines on how to handle seismic monitoring and hazard in the framework of the environmental risk assessment. Within GeoBest, selected pilot projects in Switzerland will be supported during the necessary seismic monitoring of natural and induced seismicity. GeoBest supports the pilot project in the first two years, that are most critical with respect to the financial risk, by providing seismological instrumentation from the GeoBest instrument pool and partial financial support for the operation of the seismic monitoring network. In return the pilot projects grant SED access to project data needed for seismic hazard assessment and the development of best practice guidelines. These types of collaboration offer the unique opportunity to collect high-quality seismological data and, by combining them with relevant project data, to gain first hand practical experience for the

  12. Optimization of Wellhead Piping Design for Production Wells at Development of Steam-Water Geothermal Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Shulyupin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the exploitation of geothermal resources develops in a fair competition with other types of energy resources. This leads to actuality of questions which associated with the more efficient use of existing wells, because cost of their drilling is a significant share of geothermal projects. In domestic practice of development of geothermal resources the steam-water wells have greatest energy potential. One way to improve the performance of these wells is a providing of smooth change of direction of motion of steam-water mixture from the vertical, in the well, to the horizontal, in steam gathering system. Typical wellhead piping of domestic steam-water wells involves the removal of the mixture through a cross bar at a right angle. Cross bar can generate considerable pressure loss that increases the operating pressure at the mouth of the well and reduces flow rate. It seems reasonable to substitute the typical cross bar by smooth pipe bend. This reduces wellhead resistance coefficient by more than on 2. Increase of curvature radius of pipe bend reduces the pressure loss to a local resistance but increases the friction pressure loss. There is an optimal curvature radius of pipe bend for minimum pressure loss in view of a local resistance and friction in the pipe bend. Calculations have shown that the optimum value for the radius of curvature is found in the range from 1.4 to 4.5 tube internal diameters. However, for technological reasons it is recommended to choose the radius of curvature from 1.4 to 2.4 diameters. Mounting of smooth pipe bend on the wellhead can provide significant economic benefits. For Mutnovka field (Kamchatka, this effect is estimated at 17.5 million rubles in year.

  13. FY 1999 geothermal development promotion, development feasibility and commercialization technology studies. Report on the SWD method in No.B-5, Musadake area; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa / kaihatsu kanosei chosa / jitsuyoka gijutsu chosa. SWD ho hokokusho (No.B-5 Busadake chiiki (N11-MD-3))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Commercialization feasibility of the SWD method has been tested and studied. This method uses a bit as the vibration source while a drilling is excavated, to collect information of geological structures and the like in front of the bit. In this study, the reflected and direct waves propagating from the drill bit while the N11-MD-3 drilling was excavated at the Busadake area were extracted and analyzed by the receivers installed on the surface of the earth, to estimate the default shapes which determine the geothermal structures. Analysis of the direct waves has statistically determined that the defaults are inclined at 81.5 degrees, based on the reasonable assumption. No reflection of the waves by the default plane was observed. However, it was observed that the waves were reflected by the stratum planes, when drilling was excavated to 1,006 and 1,008 m, and the results were used to map the reflecting planes. No reflecting planes with a default in-between was obtained, because of, e.g., limited depth sections and large stratum inclination. As a result, no default shape could be estimated. It is however confirmed that the SWD method produces reflected waves by bit signals even in a geothermal area, suggesting applicability of the method to default detection. (NEDO)

  14. Some issues regarding regulatory policy, political participation, and social implications of geothermal resource development in the Imperial Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.S.; Steinberger, M.F.

    1976-02-01

    The early stages of geothermal resource development in the Imperial Valley have been characterized by an emphasis on the technological expertise of private developers and government officials. Government officials have created a complex array of Federal, state and county regulations to monitor the development. Local control is under the jurisdiction of the Imperial County government. The County has as its responsibility the protection of the general welfare of its residents, including any potentially adverse social, economic, or environmental impacts caused by geothermal resource development. Private developers and government officials are interested in the resources as a source of water desalination and electric power generation. An assessment of the interests and concerns of the public was made early in the development stage. In view of all these interests, it is essential in a democratic society that the various interests be identified so government can be representative of, and responsive to, those interests. Therefore, the four issues discussed in the paper are: (1) regulatory problems faced by local government officials in determining the course of development; (2) the social and political context in which the development is taking place; (3) the potential of geothermal development as perceived by community leaders and local government officials; and (4) the desirability of expanding citizen participation in geothermal decision-makingduring a period in which, as public opinion polls indicated, many citizens feel separated from government actions which may significantly affect their lives. Recommendations for regulations of geothermal resources and recommendations for improving public input into geothermal regulation are summarized in depth. (MCW)

  15. Geothermal reservoir assessment manual; 1984-1992 nendo chinetsu choryusou hyoka shuhou manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    A geothermal reservoir assessment manual was prepared for the promotion of the development of geothermal power generation, based on the results of the 'geothermal reservoir assessment technique development project' implemented during the fiscal 1984-1992 period and on the results of surveys conducted in Japan and abroad. Of the geothermal systems generally classified into the steam dominant type and the hot water dominant type, encounters with the steam dominant type are but seldom reported. This manual therefore covers the hot water dominant type only. In addition to the explanation of the basic concept and the outline of geothermal reservoirs, the manual carries data necessary for reservoir assessment; geological and geophysical data analyses; geochemistry in reservoir assessment; data of underground logging and of fuming; conceptual models; simulators and models for reservoir simulation; natural-state simulation, history-matching simulation, and reservoir behavior predicting simulation; case history (modeling of a geothermal reservoir prior to exploitation), references, and so forth. (NEDO)

  16. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  17. Phytoextraction to promote sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.W.N. Anderson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining makes a positive contribution to the economy of Indonesia. Significant earnings accrue through the export of tin, coal, copper, nickel and gold. Of these commodities, gold carries the highest unit value. But not all gold mining is regulated. Indonesia has a significant Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining (ASGM industry, defined as any informal and unregulated system of gold mining. These operations are often illegal, unsafe and are environmentally and socially destructive. New technology is needed to support the sustainable exploitation of gold and other precious metal resources in locations where ASGM is currently practised. This technology must be simple, cheap, easy to operate and financially rewarding. A proven option that needs to be promoted is phytoextraction. This is technology where plants are used to extract metals from waste rock, soil or water. These metals can subsequently be recovered from the plant in pure form, and sold or recycled. Gold phytoextraction is a commercially available technology, while international research has shown that phytoextraction will also work for mercury. In the context of ASGM operations, tailings could be contained in specific ‘farming areas’ and cropped using phytoextraction technology. The banning of ASGM operations is not practicable or viable. Poverty would likely become more extreme if a ban were enforced. Instead, new technology options are essential to promote the sustainable development of this industry. Phytoextraction would involve community and worker engagement, education and employment. New skills in agriculture created through application of the technology would be transferrable to the production of food, fibre and timber crops on land adjacent to the mining operations. Phytoextraction could therefore catalyse sustainable development in artisanal gold mining areas throughout Indonesia.

  18. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Geological structure (geology/alteration zone) survey (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. Chishitsu kozo (chishitsu henshitsutai) chosa hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    For the purpose of elucidating a possibility of existence of geothermal reservoirs in the Haneyama area, Oita Prefecture, survey of the geological structure (geology/alteration zone) was conducted. The survey was made for the area of 280km{sup 2} lying from Kusu Town to Kokonoe Town, Oita Prefecture in terms of the route survey of 174km, fabrication/judgement of 52 rock slices, whole rock chemical analysis of 21 rocks, age determination, analysis of rock mineral, X-ray diffraction, literature collection, etc. As a result of the survey, the following conclusion was obtained. When considering a possibility of existence of heat source near this area, the area near the present volcanic front was regarded as promising. The fracture structure in the depths seen in the gravity structure (part of sharp dip of gravity) is more closely related to activity of geothermal water than the active structure of E-W system near the earth surface newly formed and is important when considering the existence of geothermal resource. The periphery of the Shishimuta sedimentation zone where Takigami, Oodake, Hacchobaru and Oguni are located was especially regarded as an area propmising of geothermal energy. In the survey area, the geothermal potential was the highest near Noya - Mizuwake Pass. (NEDO)

  19. Survey of selecting the promising drilling points out of the ground survey of the FY 1992 geothermal development promotion survey. Soil gas survey (No.C-1 - Shirotori area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chijo chosa no uchi yubo kussaku chiten sentei chosa (Dojo gas chosa) hokokusho (No. C-1 Shirotori chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    As a part of the survey of selecting promising drilling points, survey was made using soil gas to grasp the area of existence of geothermal fluid in the area for careful examination and the locational distribution of fractures controlling the behavior of fluid. In the survey, the concentration of Hg in soil gas/carbon isotopic ratio of CO2 were measured at 247 measuring points. Generally speaking, there existed the hydrothermal fluid along the structure controlling geothermal activities in the area where the concentration of Hg in soil gas is high, and the volcanic gas as a heating source of geothermal fluid was rising in the area where the carbon isotopic ratio is high. In the survey, areas where both the Hg concentration and the carbon isotopic ratio were high were extracted as promising areas where the high temperature geothermal fluid possibly exists. The promising areas extracted were the periphery of the Daiichi (No.1) Shirotori Hot Spring, periphery of KT-4, southern periphery of N4-ST-2, periphery of 54E-OBN-1 - 54E-OBN-2, and periphery of N4-ST-2. Besides, a possibility of existence of geothermal fluid was indicated in the northeast of N4-ST-1 and in the northeast of KT-9. (NEDO)

  20. Final Report to DOE EERE – Geothermal Technologies Program Project Title: Monitoring and modeling of fluid flow in a developing enhanced geothermal system (EGS) reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehler, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-04-19

    The primary objective of this project was to improve our ability to predict performance of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) reservoir over time by relating, in a quantitative manner, microseismic imaging with fluid and temperature changes within the reservoir. Historically, microseismic data have been used qualitatively to place bounds on the growth of EGS reservoirs created by large hydraulic fracturing experiments. Previous investigators used an experimentally based fracture opening relationship (fracture aperture as a function of pressure), the spatial extent of microseismic events, and some assumptions about fracture frequency to determine the size of an EGS reservoir created during large pumping tests. We addressed a number of issues (1) locating microearthquakes that occur during hydraulic fracturing, (2) obtaining more information about a reservoir than the microearthquake locations from the microearthquake data, for example, information about the seismic velocity structure of the reservoir or the scattering of seismic waves within the reservoir, (3) developing an improved methodology for estimating properties of fractures that intersect wellbores in a reservoir, and (4) developing a conceptual model for explaining the downward growth of observed seismicity that accompanies some hydraulic injections into geothermal reservoirs. We used two primary microseismic datasets for our work. The work was motivated by a dataset from the Salak Geothermal Field in Indonesia where seismicity accompanying a hydraulic injection was observed to migrate downward. We also used data from the Soultz EGS site in France. We also used Vertical Seismic Profiling data from a well in the United States. The work conducted is of benefit for characterizing reservoirs that are created by hydraulic fracturing for both EGS and for petroleum recovery.

  1. Novel Geothermal Development of Deep Sedimentary Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Joseph [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Allis, Rick [Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2017-10-11

    Economic and reservoir engineering models show that stratigraphic reservoirs have the potential to contribute significant geothermal power in the U.S. If the reservoir temperature exceeds about 150 – 200 °C at 2 – 4 km depth, respectively, and there is good permeability, then these resources can generate power with a levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of close to 10 ¢/kWh (without subsidies) on a 100 MW power plant scale. There is considerable evidence from both groundwater geology and petroleum reservoir geology that relatively clean carbonates and sandstones have, and can sustain, the required high permeability to depths of at least 5 km. This paper identifies four attractive stratigraphic reservoir prospects which are all located in the eastern Great Basin, and have temperatures of 160 – 230 °C at 3 – 3.5 km depth. They are the Elko basins (Nevada), North Steptoe Valley (Nevada), Pavant Butte (Utah), and the Idaho Thrust Belt. The reservoir lithologies are Paleozoic carbonates in the first three, and Jurassic sandstone and carbonate in the Idaho Thrust Belt. All reservoir lithologies are known to have high permeability characteristics. At North Steptoe Valley and Pavant Butte, nearby transmission line options allow interconnection to the California power market. Modern techniques for drilling and developing tight oil and gas reservoirs are expected to have application to geothermal development of these reservoirs.

  2. Geothermal Program Review XIV: proceedings. Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XIV in Berkeley, April 8-10, 1996. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focused on ``Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets.`` This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Program Review XIV consisted of eight sessions chaired by industry representatives. Introductory and overview remarks were presented during every session followed by detailed reports on specific DOE-funded research projects. The progress of R&D projects over the past year and plans for future activities were discussed. The government-industry partnership continues to strengthen -- its success, achievements over the past twenty years, and its future direction were highlighted throughout the conference. The comments received from the conference evaluation forms are published in this year`s proceedings. Individual papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Geothermal Energy in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Eduardo; Villalba, Fabio

    1999-11-01

    Energy represents an essential element for economy, and for any sustainable development strategy, assuming it is a basic input for all production activities. It is a fundamental contra int for country's competitivity and also a main component of population's standard of life. The Agenda 21 and the General Agreement on Climatic Changes emphasize that the development and sustainable use of energy should promote economy, but taking care of the environment. Under these basic concepts, for the particular case of energy, the sustain ability of development requires the adoption of a strategy which guarantee an energy supply in terms of quality, opportunity, continuity and afford ability and, in addition, without production of negative environmental impacts. Geothermal energy is a serious energetic option for sustainable development, since presents technical and economic advantages for production of electricity at medium and large scale. Furthermore, geothermal energy allows a wide spectrum of direct applications of heat in profitable projects of high social impact as green houses, drying of seeds and wood products, fish farming, recreation and others. All of them can help the increase of communal production activities in rural areas affected by poverty

  4. GEO-TEP. Development of thermoelectric materials for geothermal energy conversion systems. Final report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocher, L.; Weidenkaff, A.

    2008-07-01

    Geothermal heat can be directly converted into electricity by using thermoelectric converters. Thermoelectric conversion relies on intrinsic materials properties which have to be optimised. In this work novel environmentally friendly and stable oxide ceramics were developed to fulfil this task. Thus, manganate phases were studied regarding their potential thermoelectric properties for converting geothermal heat into electricity. Perovskite-type phases were synthesized by applying different methods: the ceramic route, and innovative synthesis routes such as the 'chimie douce' method by bulk thermal decomposition of the citrate precursor or using an USC process, and also the polyol-mediated synthesis route. The crystal structures of the manganate phases are evaluated by XRPD, NPD, and ED techniques while specific microstructures such as twinned domains are highlighted by HRTEM imaging. Besides, the thermal stability of the Mn-oxide phases in air atmosphere are controlled over a wide temperature range (T < 1300 K). The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT was enhanced from 0.021 to 0.3 in a broad temperature range for the studied phases which makes these phases the best perovskitic candidates as n-type polycrystalline thermoelectric materials operating in air at high temperatures. (author)

  5. Geothermal Resource Exploration by Stream pH Mapping in Mutsu Hiuchi Dake Volcano, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yota Suzuki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although pH measurements of hot spring water are taken in conventional geothermal resource research, previous studies have seldom created pH distribution maps of stream and spring waters for an entire geothermal field as a technique for geothermal exploration. In this study, a pH distribution map was created by measuring stream and spring water pH at 75 sites in the Mutsu Hiuchi Dake geothermal field, Japan. Areas of abnormally high pH were detected in midstream sections of the Ohaka and Koaka rivers; these matched the location of the Mutsu Hiuchi Dake East Slope Fault, which is believed to have formed a geothermal reservoir. The abnormally high pH zone is attributed to the trapping of rising volcanic gases in a mature geothermal reservoir with neutral geothermal water. This causes the gas to dissolve and prevents it from reaching the surface. Thus, the mapping of stream water pH distribution in a geothermal field could provide a new and effective method for estimating the locations of geothermal reservoirs. As the proposed method does not require laboratory analysis, and is more temporally and economically efficient than conventional methods, it might help to promote geothermal development in inaccessible and remote regions.

  6. Three-Dimensional Geothermal Fairway Mapping: Examples From the Western Great Basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, Drew L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology; Faulds, James E. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    2013-09-29

    Elevated permeability along fault systems provides pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids. Accurate location of such fluid flow pathways in the subsurface is crucial to future geothermal development in order to both accurately assess resource potential and mitigate drilling costs by increasing drilling success rates. Employing a variety of surface and subsurface data sets, we present detailed 3D geologic analyses of two Great Basin geothermal systems, the actively producing Brady’s geothermal system and a ‘greenfield’ geothermal prospect at Astor Pass, Nevada. 3D modeling provides the framework for quantitative structural analyses. We combine 3D slip and dilation tendency analysis along fault zones and calculations of fault intersection density in the two geothermal systems with the locations of lithologies capable of supporting dense, interconnected fracture networks. The collocation of these permeability promoting characteristics with elevated heat represent geothermal ‘fairways’, areas with ideal conditions for geothermal fluid flow. Location of geothermal fairways at high resolution in 3D space can help to mitigate the costs of geothermal exploration by providing discrete drilling targets and data-based evaluations of reservoir potential.

  7. Outline of geothermal activity in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franko, O.; Bodis, D.; Dendek, M.; Remsik, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that in respect of different geothermal conditions in the Bohemian Massif (unfavorable) and in the West Carpathians (favorable), the development and utilization of geothermal energy are concentrated in Slovakia. THe utilization of geothermal energy for the heating of buildings in spas commenced in 1958. Thermal energy of geothermal waters was used for direct heating through heat exchangers, and in one case by a heat pump. Concentrated continuous development and utilization of geothermal energy started in 1971

  8. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of geothermal energy may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of geothermal energy, the geothermal resource, hydrothermal fluids, electricity production, district heating, process heating, geopressured brines, technology and costs, hot dry rock, magma, and environmental and siting issues

  9. Development of a Deep-Penetrating, Compact Geothermal Heat Flow System for Robotic Lunar Geophysical Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, Seiichi; Zacny, Kris; Hedlund, Magnus; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow measurements are a high priority for the future lunar geophysical network missions recommended by the latest Decadal Survey of the National Academy. Geothermal heat flow is obtained as a product of two separate measurements of geothermal gradient and thermal conductivity of the regolith/soil interval penetrated by the instrument. The Apollo 15 and 17 astronauts deployed their heat flow probes down to 1.4-m and 2.3-m depths, respectively, using a rotary-percussive drill. However, recent studies show that the heat flow instrument for a lunar mission should be capable of excavating a 3-m deep hole to avoid the effect of potential long-term changes of the surface thermal environment. For a future robotic geophysical mission, a system that utilizes a rotary/percussive drill would far exceed the limited payload and power capacities of the lander/rover. Therefore, we are currently developing a more compact heat flow system that is capable of 3-m penetration. Because the grains of lunar regolith are cohesive and densely packed, the previously proposed lightweight, internal hammering systems (the so-called moles ) are not likely to achieve the desired deep penetration. The excavation system for our new heat flow instrumentation utilizes a stem which winds out of a pneumatically driven reel and pushes its conical tip into the regolith. Simultaneously, gas jets, emitted from the cone tip, loosen and blow away the soil. Lab tests have demonstrated that this proboscis system has much greater excavation capability than a mole-based heat flow system, while it weighs about the same. Thermal sensors are attached along the stem and at the tip of the penetrating cone. Thermal conductivity is measured at the cone tip with a short (1- to 1.5-cm long) needle sensor containing a resistance temperature detector (RTD) and a heater wire. When it is inserted into the soil, the heater is activated. Thermal conductivity of the soil is obtained from the rate of temperature

  10. The National Energy Strategy - The role of geothermal technology development: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. Topics in this year's conference included Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology, Hydrothermal Reservoir Technology, Hydrothermal Hard Rock Penetration Technology, Hot Dry Rock Technology, Geopressured-Geothermal Technology and Magma Energy Technology. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.

  11. NEDO geothermal energy subcommittee. 18th project report meeting; NEDO chinetsu bunkakai. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Reporting on geothermal energy-related efforts, Taro Yamayasu, a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) director, explains the promotion of researches on geothermal energy exploitation, researches on small and medium scale geothermal binary power system utilization, researches on geothermal exploration technology verification, and joint researches on small scale geothermal exploration on remote islands. Achievement reports are delivered concerning geothermal survey technology verification involving the development of reservoir fluctuation probing technology, deep-seated geothermal resources survey, and international joint projects. Concerning the research cooperation promotion project, a joint research program is reported involving a comprehensive geothermal resources analysis system for a remote island in the eastern part of Indonesia. In relation with the development of thermal water power plants, reports are delivered on the development of a 10MW class demonstration plant, development of technologies (study of elements) for a hot dry rock power system, development of a hole bottom data detection system for drilling in thermal water, and the development of deep-seated geothermal resources sampling technologies. (NEDO)

  12. Using GeoRePORT to report socio-economic potential for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Katherine R.; Levine, Aaron

    2018-07-01

    The Geothermal Resource Portfolio Optimization and Reporting Tool (GeoRePORT, http://en.openei.org/wiki/GeoRePORT) was developed for reporting resource grades and project readiness levels, providing the U.S. Department of Energy a consistent and comprehensible means of evaluating projects. The tool helps funding organizations (1) quantitatively identify barriers, (2) develop measureable goals, (3) objectively evaluate proposals, including contribution to goals, (4) monitor progress, and (5) report portfolio performance. GeoRePORT assesses three categories: geological, technical, and socio-economic. Here, we describe GeoRePORT, then focus on the socio-economic assessment and its applications for assessing deployment potential in the U.S. Socio-economic attributes include land access, permitting, transmission, and market.

  13. Review of the status of geothermal development and operation in Indonesia 1985 to 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radja, V.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the electric power sector in Indonesia will be expanded by an additional generating capacity of about 1,225 MW at the end of the fifth 5-year development plan (1989/1990 to 1993/1994) from the existing 8,529 MW. At present a 140 MW geothermal condensing plant (one unit of 230 MW and 2 units of 55 MW, all in Kamojang) and two noncondensing nonobloks (2 MW in Dieng and 25 kW in Kamojang) have been operating successfully since 1979. Based on the fifth 5-year development plan the government of Indonesia has decided to install an additional 235 MW on the island of Java and 15 MW on North Sulawesi, for a total installed capacity of 377.25 MW

  14. Geothermal Modesty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the uses for radioactivity, the future of the green electricity, the energy policy of Rhone-alps region, the end of the nuclear in Belgium, the nuclear propulsion to explore the solar system, the involvement of the Unites States in the hydrogen development, the gas exportation of China. A special part is devoted to the possibility of the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)

  15. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  16. Regulatory aspects, an important factor for geothermal energy application for district heating development. European insurance scheme to cover geological risk related to geothermal operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril

    2000-01-01

    District heating is one of the most interesting fields of geothermal energy application development in Europe. However, besides the technical/technological/economical and organizational aspects of the problem in question, the related legal and regulatory aspects influence very much the real possibilities for wider introduction of this energy source in the state energy balances in most of the countries. Based on the official EU report for the State-of-the-art of the problem of the insurance to cover geological risks and necessary aspects to be developed and resolved in a better and 'common' way in order to enable higher investments in bigger projects (district heating) development, the paper presents the situation in different European countries in relation to the Macedonian one. Conclusions extracted should give a positive contribution to the process of the Macedonian laws accommodation to the common EU practice. (Author)

  17. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  18. Hot dry rock geothermal energy development program. Annual report, fiscal year 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, G.M. (comp.)

    1981-07-01

    Investigation and flow testing of the enlarged Phase I heat-extraction system at Fenton Hill continued throughout FY80. Temperature drawdown observed at that time indicated an effective fracture of approximately 40,000 to 60,000 m/sup 2/. In May 1980, hot dry rock (HDR) technology was used to produce electricity in an interface demonstration experiment at Fenton Hill. A 60-kVA binary-cycle electrical generator was installed in the Phase I surface system and heat from about 3 kg/s of geothermal fluid at 132/sup 0/C was used to boil Freon R-114, whose vapor drove a turboalternator. A Phase II system was designed and is now being constructed at Fenton Hill that should approach commercial requirements. Borehole EE-2, the injection well, was completed on May 12, 1980. It was drilled to a vertical depth of about 4500 m, where the rock temperature is approximately 320/sup 0/C. The production well, EE-3 had been drilled to a depth of 3044 m and drilling was continuing. Environmental monitoring of Fenton Hill site continued. Development of equipment, instruments, and materials for technical support at Fenton Hill continued during FY80. Several kinds of models were also developed to understand the behavior of the Phase I system and to develop a predictive capability for future systems. Data from extensive resource investigations were collected, analyzed, and assembled into a geothermal gradient map of the US, and studies were completed on five specific areas as possible locations for HDR Experimental Site 2.

  19. Geothermal development on federal lands: the impediments and potential solutions. Final report, September 6, 1977--January 13, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeland, G.V.; Sebian, D.J.; Whitenight, D.K.

    1978-01-01

    It is concluded that the regulatory program devised by the Bureau of Land Management and the US Geological Survey to implement the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 has been ineffective thus far in encouraging private enterprise to invest in and develop this resource. After seven years, there is still no commercial production or utilization of the geothermal resource underlying federal lands. There are a number of factors--such as the unknown character of the resource and the less-than-perfect technologies for utilizing it and disposing of the resulting wastes--which are retarding the growth of a geothermal industry. However, would-be developers point to the complexity of the federal geothermal leasing and post-leasing requirements as the major impediment, and, specifically, the repetitive environmental review procedures involved. A fundamental fault in the regulatory process is that there is no provision for identification of the resource before a lease is issued. Identification of its characteristics is mandatory before the use to be made of it can be determined, if indeed it is found to be adequate and economic for any use. A very large percentage of the exploratory holes drilled will be abandoned as non-productive of a usable resource, in which case there is no need for the long term commitment of a lease. A streamlined regulatory process was designed to overcome these and other problems. If adopted, it would provide for orderly development of the resource and adequately protect the public interest and the environment.

  20. Regional Systems Development for Geothermal Energy Resources Pacific Region (California and Hawaii). Task 3: water resources evaluation. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, J.L.

    1979-03-19

    The fundamental objective of the water resources analysis was to assess the availability of surface and ground water for potential use as power plant make-up water in the major geothermal areas of California. The analysis was concentrated on identifying the major sources of surface and ground water, potential limitations on the usage of this water, and the resulting constraints on potentially developable electrical power in each geothermal resource area. Analyses were completed for 11 major geothermal areas in California: four in the Imperial Valley, Coso, Mono-Long Valley, Geysers-Calistoga, Surprise Valley, Glass Mountain, Wendel Amedee, and Lassen. One area in Hawaii, the Puna district, was also included in the analysis. The water requirements for representative types of energy conversion processes were developed using a case study approach. Cooling water requirements for each type of energy conversion process were estimated based upon a specific existing or proposed type of geothermal power plant. The make-up water requirements for each type of conversion process at each resource location were then estimated as a basis for analyzing any constraints on the megawatts which potentially could be developed.

  1. Development of an Internet based geothermal information system for Germany; Aufbau eines geothermischen Informationssystems fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, R.; Agemar, T.; Alten, J.A.; Kuehne, K.; Maul, A.A.; Pester, S.; Wirth, W. [Inst. fuer Geowissenschaftliche Gemeinschaftsaufgaben (GGA), Hannover (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (GGA-Institut) is setting up an internet based information system on geothermal resources in close collaboration with partners. For a start, the geothermal information system will contain data about hydrogeothermal resources only. The project aims at an improvement of quality in the planning of geothermal plants and at a minimization of exploration risks. The key parameters for this purpose are production rate (Q) and temperature (T). The basis for the estimation of subsurface hydraulic properties comes from the information system on hydrocarbons. This information system provides permeability and porosity values derived from the analyses of drilling cores. The IT targets will be realised by a relational database providing all data relevant to the project. A 3D model of the ground provides the basis for visualisation and calculation of geothermal resources. As a prototype, a data-recall facility of geothermal sites in Germany is available online. (orig.)

  2. FY 2000 report on the survey for extraction of areas promising in strategic exploration geothermal development. Kirishima region; 2000 nendo senryakuteki chosa chinetsu kaihatsu yubo chiiki chushutsu chosa hokokusho. Kirishima chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the Kirishima region with the aim of contributing to working out future medium- and long-term plans of geothermal development promotion survey, estimation of the developmental resource amount, extraction of technology development subjects effectively connecting to the increase in kW, etc. In the study, literature is collected such as reports of the surveys already made in the Kirishima region and the periphery, the data were re-analyzed and divided into geological structure elements and geological structure elements, and a conceptual model of the geothermal system in the whole Kirishima region was made. As a result, two areas were extracted for which the existence of high temperature geothermal reservoirs is expected. The total resource amount was estimated at 2,785MWe at promising area 1 and at 3,237MWe at promising area 2. With the resource amount density, data likelihood and distribution status of national/quasi-national parks as extraction criteria, 6 out of these promising areas were focused on important areas for survey. Geothermal structure models were made for each of the 6 areas, and the evaluation of the resource amount using evaluation assist tools was carried out. (NEDO)

  3. Geothermal energy development in Colorado. Appendix 7 of regional operations research program for development of geothermal energy in the Southwest United States. Final technical report, June 1977--August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, Richard A.; Coe, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    The term ''geothermal energy'' is a term that means different things to different people. To an increasing number, it means a practical, environmentally compatible energy resource that can, right now, help to relieve an overdependency upon fossil fuels. The potential for use of geothermal energy in Colorado seems to be substantial. As described by Barrett and Pearl (1978), at least 56 separate areas have surface manifestations of hydrothermal (hot water) resources. These areas are estimated to contain 5.914 quads (5.914 x 10{sup 15} Btu) of energy, with extractable energy of 1.48 quads. Geothermal resources already contribute to Colorado's energy supply. In fact, since the early 1900's, practical uses of geothermal resources have been common in Pagosa Springs, in Southwest Colorado. Residents there have used hot-water wells to heat numerous buildings, including the County Court House, schools, churches, the newspaper office, a liquor store, 2 hotels, 2 service stations, a drugstore, and a bank, as well as for the swimming pool and spa. Where resources are in use in other parts of the State, most are used for swimming pools or baths. A few wells or springs serve other purposes, among them space heating and agriculture, including greenhouses, a fish farm and algae-growing. Seemingly, interest in and awareness of the resources is growing. If leases and permits are made available, along with some economic incentives, some or all of the three potential power-generation sites may be developed by private industry. Perhaps with the assistance of federal programs, initially, lower temperature resources, too, will be developed by private industry. While government can provide opportunities, the outcome depends upon the decisions of numerous individuals throughout the system. Colorado does have geothermal resources that can contribute to the energy supply. It remains to be seen whether these resources will fulfill their promise.

  4. FY 2001 report on the results of the development of the hydrothermal utilization power plant, etc. Development of collecting technology for deep geothermal resources (Development of production technology for deep geothermal resources); 1992 - 2001 nessui riyo hatsuden plant tou kaihatsu sokatsu seika hokokusho. Shinbu chinetsu shigen saishu gijutsu no kaihatsu - Shinbu chinetsu shigen seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu (2001 nendo seika hokokusho bessatsu shiryo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For making effective/economical collection of deep geothermal resources, development was made from FY 1991 to FY 2001 of the 'drilling technology for deep geothermal resources' and 'production technology for deep geothermal resources,' and the results were summarized. As to the development of logging technology, the PTSD logging system was developed which can measure temperature/pressure/flow velocity/fluid density in geothermal well under the environment of temperature of 400 degrees C. Concerning the development of monitoring technology, development was made of the PT monitoring system that can make the long-term continuous measuring of temperature/pressure in deep geothermal observation well under the environment of temperature of 400 degrees C and of the C monitoring system that samples geothermal fluids at regular intervals to grasp changes in chemical component. Relating to the development of high temperature tracer monitoring technology, the following were conducted: extraction of high temperature tracer agent that can be used in geothermal reservoirs under the environment of temperature of 300 degrees C, development of simulator, and establishment of how to put tracer agent into the reservoir and how to analyze tracer agent. Further, the R and D were made of scale monitoring technology and scale prevention/removal technology. (NEDO)

  5. Navy Geothermal Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    Domestic geothermal resources with the potential for decreasing fossil fuel use and energy cost exist at a significant number of Navy facilities. The Geothermal Plan is part of the Navy Energy R and D Program that will evaluate Navy sites and provide a technical, economic, and environmental base for subsequent resource use. One purpose of the program will be to provide for the transition of R and D funded exploratory efforts into the resource development phase. Individual Navy geothermal site projects are described as well as the organizational structure and Navy decision network. 2 figs.

  6. Smart geo-energy village development by using cascade direct use of geothermal energy in Bonjol, West Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, Novrisal; Erwinsyah Umra Lubis, Defry; Raharjo, Dharmawan; Miryani Saptadji, Nenny; Pratama, Heru Berian

    2017-12-01

    West Sumatera is a province which has a huge geothermal potential - approximately 6% of Indonesia’s total geothermal potential which equals to 1,656 MWe. One of the significant reserves located in Bonjol subdistrict which accounts for more than 50 MWe. The energy from geothermal manifestation in Bonjol can be utilized prior to indirect development. Manifestation at the rate 3 kg/s and 87 °C will flow to cascading system consisting several applications, arranged in order from high to low temperature to efficiently use the excessive energy. The direct use application selected is based on the best potential commodities as well as temperature constraint of heat source. The objective of this paper is to perform a conceptual design for the first cascade direct use of geothermal energy in Indonesia to establish Bonjol Smart Geo-Energy Village which will be transformed as the center of agricultural, stockbreeding, tourism as well as cultural site. A comprehenssive research was performed through remote survey area, evaluation featured product, analysis of heat loss and heat exchange in cascade system. From potential commodities, the three applications selected are cocoa drying and egg hatching incubation machine as well as new tourism site called Terapi Panas Bumi. The optimum temperature for cocoa drying is 62°C with the moisture content 7% which consumes 78 kW for one tones cocoa dried. Whereas, egg incubation system consists of two chamber with the same temperature 40°C for each room and relative humidity 55% and 70%. For the last stage, Terapi Panas Bumi works in temperature 40°C. Based on the result technical and economical aspect, it exhibits cascade direct use of geothermal energy is very recommended to develop.

  7. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, Ph.; Lemale, J.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source which consists in exploiting the heat coming from the Earth. It covers a wide range of techniques and applications which are presented in this article: 1 - the Earth, source of heat: structure of the Earth, geodynamic model and plate tectonics, origin of heat, geothermal gradient and terrestrial heat flux; 2 - geothermal fields and resources; 3 - implementation of geothermal resources: exploration, main characteristic parameters, resource exploitation; 4 - uses of geothermal resources: power generation, thermal uses, space heating and air conditioning heat pumps, district heating, addition of heat pumps; 5 - economical aspects: power generation, heat generation for district heating; 6 - environmental aspects: conditions of implementation, impacts as substitute to fossil fuels; 7 - geothermal energy in France: resources, organisation; 8 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  8. Geothermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. Fo...

  9. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  10. Water-related constraints to the development of geothermal electric generating stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, R.C.; Shepherd, A.D.; Rosemarin, C.S.; Mayfield, M.W.

    1981-06-01

    The water-related constraints, which may be among the most complex and variable of the issues facing commercialization of geothermal energy, are discussed under three headings: (1) water requirements of geothermal power stations, (2) resource characteristics of the most promising hydrothermal areas and regional and local water supply situations, and (3) legal issues confronting potential users of water at geothermal power plants in the states in which the resource areas are located. A total of 25 geothermal resource areas in California, New Mexico, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Hawaii, and Alaska were studied. Each had a hydrothermal resource temperature in excess of 150/sup 0/C (300/sup 0/F) and an estimated 30-year potential of greater than 100-MW(e) capacity.

  11. Geothermal Program Review XV: proceedings. Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XV in Berkeley, March 24-26, 1997. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focussed on {open_quotes}The Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply.{close_quotes} This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this conference.

  12. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal resources are used to produce electrical energy and to supply heat for non-electric applications like residential heating and crop drying. The utilization of geothermal energy consists of the extraction of hot water or steam from an underground reservoir followed by different methods of surface processing along with the disposal of liquid, gaseous, and even solid wastes. The focus of this paper is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 150 0 C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of non-condensing gases such as hydrogen sulphide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. In this paper it is shown that hydrogen sulphide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odour annoyances among members of the exposed public -some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 ppmv. A risk-assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukaemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. Also assessed is the risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry is briefly summarized. (author)

  13. Fiscal 2000 report on geothermal energy development promotion survey. Phase 1. Report on environmental impact survey in No. C-5 Appi district (Hot spa fluctuation); 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. C-5. Appi chiiki kankyo chosa (onsen hendo) dai 1 ji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    For the assessment of the environmental impact to be produced by geothermal exploration well boring and short-term outburst tests, water in hot spas, fountains, and rivers in and around the Appi survey district was inspected for fluctuation. A survey was conducted of multiple components to help analysis of the geothermal reservoir structure. Distributed in the alteration zone in this district are the hot spas of Kusanoyu, Shin-Kusanoyu, Appi, and so forth, and, in the vicinity, numerous hot spas including Iwahatanoyu belonging to the Appi hot spa. In the multiple component survey, 12 hot spas, 1 fountain, 8 rivers, and 2 gas wells were subjected to measurement. In the fluctuation survey, 5 hot spas, 1 fountain, 5 rivers, and the amount of precipitation were subjected to measurement. In the survey of river bottom quality and river bed rocks, river bottom quality was checked at 18 spots and river bed rocks at 12 spots. It was found that fluctuation was great in the amount of welling water at Kusanoyu, Shin-kusanoyu, and Appi, with the coefficient of fluctuation recording 10 or more. A negative correlation was detected between the welling amount and water temperature. It is deemed that the hot water spurts out of natural fountains or shallow wells and that its temperature tends to grow lower with an increase in meteoric water by which it is diluted. (NEDO)

  14. Report on fiscal 1998 investigation of geothermal development and promotion and on supplementary investigation concerning data processing (geology/decomposed zone investigation and gravitational probing). No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Data shori ni kakawaru hosoku chosa (chishitsu henshitsutai chosa oyobi juryoku tansa) hokokusho (No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-30

    A geology/alteration zone investigation and gravitational probing were carried out, with the results summarized, for the purpose of elucidating the structure of geothermal reservoir structure in the Kuwanosawa area. The investigation was implemented in the southeast part of Akita prefecture including Yuzawa city and Ogachimachi during the period between June 9 and August 31, 1999. The results were as follows. The geology of the investigation area consists of granite, as the base rock, and the covering Doroyu layer, Minasegawa layer, Sanzugawa layer and intrusive rocks in the Neo Tertiary system as well as Kabutosan layer and volcanic rocks in the Quaternary system. No wide area alteration zone existed, while vein-like alterations and hydrothermal veins along cracks were recognized, with the fluid inclusion homogenizing temperature showing 240-260 degrees C, which presumably indicates the existence of local hydrothermal activity until comparatively recently. The geothermal structure of the subject area is very likely dependent on thermal conduction from a deep thermal source existing in the Wasabizawa district. In the underground depth, it is inferred that a hydrothermal system is formed in the NW fault structure, lower part of cracks accompanying NS hydrothermal vein, and in the NNW/NE structures inferable from the gravitational probing. (NEDO)

  15. Utilization of geothermal energy for agribusiness development in southwestern New Mexico. Technical completion report, July 19, 1978-May 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsford, R.R.; Abernathy, G.H.; Gollehon, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the direct heat utilization from geothermal resources for agribusiness uses in the Animas Valley, Southwestern New Mexico. The analysis includes an evaluation of the groundwater and geothermal resources in the Animas Valley, monitoring of an existing geothermal greenhouse, and evaluation of two potential agribusiness applications of geothermal waters (greenhouses and meat precooking).

  16. Recovery act. Characterizing structural controls of EGS-candidate and conventional geothermal reservoirs in the Great Basin. Developing successful exploration strategies in extended terranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-25

    We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the structural controls of geothermal systems within the Great Basin and adjacent regions. Our main objectives were to: 1) Produce a catalogue of favorable structural environments and models for geothermal systems. 2) Improve site-specific targeting of geothermal resources through detailed studies of representative sites, which included innovative techniques of slip tendency analysis of faults and 3D modeling. 3) Compare and contrast the structural controls and models in different tectonic settings. 4) Synthesize data and develop methodologies for enhancement of exploration strategies for conventional and EGS systems, reduction in the risk of drilling non-productive wells, and selecting the best EGS sites.

  17. Promoting Sustainable Development Through Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-30

    address development problems. In June 1992, the United Nations convened an international conference in Rio de Janeiro , commonly called the Earth... River or polluted air and water in the Central and Eastern European countries, nations are failing to provide their population potable water...situation in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) provide us some examples. First, there is the health impact. Air pollution appears to be the cause of

  18. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  19. National Geothermal Data System: Transforming the Discovery, Access, and Analytics of Data for Geothermal Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, Kim [Arizona Geological Survey

    2013-05-01

    Compendium of Papers from the 38th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California February 11-13, 2013 The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) is a distributed, interoperable network of data collected from state geological surveys across all fifty states and the nation’s leading academic geothermal centers. The system serves as a platform for sharing consistent, reliable, geothermal-relevant technical data with users of all types, while supplying tools relevant for their work. As aggregated data supports new scientific findings, this content-rich linked data ultimately broadens the pool of knowledge available to promote discovery and development of commercial-scale geothermal energy production. Most of the up-front risks associated with geothermal development stem from exploration and characterization of subsurface resources. Wider access to distributed data will, therefore, result in lower costs for geothermal development. NGDS is on track to become fully operational by 2014 and will provide a platform for custom applications for accessing geothermal relevant data in the U.S. and abroad. It is being built on the U.S. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) data integration framework to promote interoperability across the Earth sciences community. The basic structure of the NGDS employs state-of-the art informatics to advance geothermal knowledge. The following four papers comprising this Open-File Report are a compendium of presentations, from the 38th Annual Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, taking place February 11-13, 2013 at Stanford University, Stanford, California. “NGDS Geothermal Data Domain: Assessment of Geothermal Community Data Needs,” outlines the efforts of a set of nationwide data providers to supply data for the NGDS. In particular, data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are discussed. The paper addresses the various types of data and metadata required and why simple links to existing

  20. Geothermal energy utilization in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svalova, V. [Institute of Environmental Geoscience, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Geothermal energy use is the way to clean, sustainable energy development for the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and is making progress using them - mostly with low-temperature geothermal resources and heat pumps This is optimal for many regions of Russia -in the European part, in the Urals and others. Electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands There are two possible ways of using geothermal resources, depending on the properties of thermal waters heat/power and mineral extraction. The mineral-extraction direction is basic for geothermal waters, which contain valuable components in industrial quantities The most significant deposits of thermal waters represent the brines containing from 35 up to 400 and more g/l of salts. These are the minerals of many chemical dements. (author)

  1. Development of a downhole tool measuring real-time concentration of ionic tracers and pH in geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ryan F.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Limmer, Steven; Yelton, William G.; Bingham, Samuel; Stillman, Greg; Lindblom, Scott; Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    For enhanced or Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) geothermal brine is pumped to the surface via the production wells, the heat extracted to turn a turbine to generate electricity, and the spent brine re-injected via injection wells back underground. If designed properly, the subsurface rock formations will lead this water back to the extraction well as heated brine. Proper monitoring of these geothermal reservoirs is essential for developing and maintaining the necessary level of productivity of the field. Chemical tracers are commonly used to characterize the fracture network and determine the connectivity between the injection and production wells. Currently, most tracer experiments involve injecting the tracer at the injection well, manually collecting liquid samples at the wellhead of the production well, and sending the samples off for laboratory analysis. While this method provides accurate tracer concentration data at very low levels of detection, it does not provide information regarding the location of the fractures which were conducting the tracer between wellbores. Sandia is developing a high-temperature electrochemical sensor capable of measuring tracer concentrations and pH downhole on a wireline tool. The goal of this effort is to collect real-time pH and ionic tracer concentration data at temperatures up to 225 °C and pressures up to 3000 psi. In this paper, a prototype electrochemical sensor and the initial data obtained will be presented detailing the measurement of iodide tracer concentrations at high temperature and pressure in a newly developed laboratory scale autoclave.

  2. Environmental studies conducted at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock geothermal development site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miera, F.R. Jr.; Langhorst, G.; McEllin, S.; Montoya, C.

    1984-05-01

    An environmental investigation of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal development was conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, during 1976-1979. Activities at the Fenton Hill Site included an evaluation of baseline data for biotic and abiotic ecosystem components. Identification of contaminants produced by HDR processes that had the potential for reaching the surrounding environment is also discussed. Three dominant vegetative communities were identified in the vicinity of the site. These included grass-forb, aspen, and mixed conifer communities. The grass-forb area was identified as having the highest number of species encountered, with Phleum pratense and Dactylis glomerata being the dominant grass species. Frequency of occurrence and mean coverage values are also given for other species in the three main vegetative complexes. Live trapping of small mammals was conducted to determine species composition, densities, population, and diversity estimates for this component of the ecosystem. The data indicate that Peromyscus maniculatus was the dominant species across all trapping sites during the study. Comparisons of relative density of small mammals among the various trapping sites show the grass-forb vegetative community to have had the highest overall density. Comparisons of small mammal diversity for the three main vegetative complexes indicate that the aspen habitat had the highest diversity and the grass-forb habitat had the lowest. Analyses of waste waters from the closed circulation loop indicate that several trace contaminants (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, fluoride, boron, and lithium) were present at concentrations greater than those reported for surface waters of the region.

  3. Thermal modeling of the Clear Lake magmatic system, California: Implications for conventional and hot dry rock geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimac, J.; Goff, F.; Wohletz, K.

    1997-06-01

    The combination of recent volcanism, high heat flow ({ge} HFU or 167 mW/m{sup 2}), and high conductive geothermal gradient (up to 120{degree} C/km) makes the Clear Lake region of northern California one of the best prospects for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development in the US. The lack of permeability in exploration wells and lack of evidence for widespread geothermal reservoirs north of the Collayomi fault zone are not reassuring indications for conventional geothermal development. This report summarizes results of thermal modeling of the Clear Lake magmatic system, and discusses implications for HDR site selection in the region. The thermal models incorporate a wide range of constraints including the distribution and nature of volcanism in time and space, water and gas geochemistry, well data, and geophysical surveys. The nature of upper crustal magma bodies at Clear Lake is inferred from studying sequences of related silicic lavas, which tell a story of multistage mixing of silicic and mafic magma in clusters of small upper crustal chambers. Thermobarometry on metamorphic xenoliths yield temperature and pressure estimates of {approximately}780--900 C and 4--6 kb respectively, indicating that at least a portion of the deep magma system resided at depths from 14 to 21 km (9 to 12 mi). The results of thermal modeling support previous assessments of the high HDR potential of the area, and suggest the possibility that granitic bodies similar to The Geysers felsite may underlie much of the Clear Lake region at depths as little as 3--6 km. This is significant because future HDR reservoirs could potentially be sited in relatively shallow granitoid plutons rather than in structurally complex Franciscan basement rocks.

  4. A new assessment of combined geothermal electric generation and desalination in western Saudi Arabia: targeted hot spot development

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-17

    High heat flow associated with the tectonic spreading of the Red Sea make western Saudi Arabia a region with high potential for geothermal energy development. The hydraulic properties of the Precambrian-age rocks occurring in this region are not conducive to direct production of hot water for heat exchange, which will necessitate use of the hot dry rock (HDR) heat harvesting method. This would require the construction of coupled deep wells; one for water injection and the other for steam recovery. There are some technological challenges in the design, construction, and operation of HDR geothermal energy systems. Careful geotechnical evaluation of the heat reservoir must be conducted to ascertain the geothermal gradient at the chosen site to allow pre-design modeling of the system for assessment of operational heat flow maintenance. Also, naturally occurring fractures or faults must be carefully evaluated to make an assessment of the potential for induced seismicity. It is anticipated that the flow heat exchange capacity of the system will require enhancement by the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the injection well with the production well drilled into the fracture zone to maximum water recovery efficiency and reduce operating pressure. The heated water must be maintained under pressure and flashed to steam at surface to produce to the most effective energy recovery. Most past evaluations of geothermal energy development in this region have been focused on the potential for solely electricity generation, but direct use of produced steam could be coupled with thermally driven desalination technologies such as multi-effect distillation, adsorption desalination, and/or membrane distillation to provide a continuous source of heat to allow very efficient operation of the plants. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  5. A new assessment of combined geothermal electric generation and desalination in western Saudi Arabia: targeted hot spot development

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.; Mai, Martin; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2014-01-01

    High heat flow associated with the tectonic spreading of the Red Sea make western Saudi Arabia a region with high potential for geothermal energy development. The hydraulic properties of the Precambrian-age rocks occurring in this region are not conducive to direct production of hot water for heat exchange, which will necessitate use of the hot dry rock (HDR) heat harvesting method. This would require the construction of coupled deep wells; one for water injection and the other for steam recovery. There are some technological challenges in the design, construction, and operation of HDR geothermal energy systems. Careful geotechnical evaluation of the heat reservoir must be conducted to ascertain the geothermal gradient at the chosen site to allow pre-design modeling of the system for assessment of operational heat flow maintenance. Also, naturally occurring fractures or faults must be carefully evaluated to make an assessment of the potential for induced seismicity. It is anticipated that the flow heat exchange capacity of the system will require enhancement by the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the injection well with the production well drilled into the fracture zone to maximum water recovery efficiency and reduce operating pressure. The heated water must be maintained under pressure and flashed to steam at surface to produce to the most effective energy recovery. Most past evaluations of geothermal energy development in this region have been focused on the potential for solely electricity generation, but direct use of produced steam could be coupled with thermally driven desalination technologies such as multi-effect distillation, adsorption desalination, and/or membrane distillation to provide a continuous source of heat to allow very efficient operation of the plants. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  6. Geochemical and isotopic evidence on the recharge and circulation of geothermal water in the Tangshan Geothermal System near Nanjing, China: implications for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lianghua; Pang, Zhonghe; Kong, Yanlong; Guo, Qi; Wang, Yingchun; Xu, Chenghua; Gu, Wen; Zhou, Lingling; Yu, Dandan

    2018-01-01

    Geothermal resources are practical and competitive clean-energy alternatives to fossil fuels, and study on the recharge sources of geothermal water supports its sustainable exploitation. In order to provide evidence on the recharge source of water and circulation dynamics of the Tangshan Geothermal System (TGS) near Nanjing (China), a comprehensive investigation was carried out using multiple chemical and isotopic tracers (δ2H, δ18O, δ34S, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13C, 14C and 3H). The results confirm that a local (rather than regional) recharge source feeds the system from the exposed Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks area on the upper part of Tangshan Mountain. The reservoir temperature up to 87 °C, obtained using empirical as well as theoretical chemical geothermometers, requires a groundwater circulation depth of around 2.5 km. The temperature of the geothermal water is lowered during upwelling as a consequence of mixing with shallow cold water up to a 63% dilution. The corrected 14C age shows that the geothermal water travels at a very slow pace (millennial scale) and has a low circulation rate, allowing sufficient time for the water to become heated in the system. This study has provided key information on the genesis of TGS and the results are instructive to the effective management of the geothermal resources. Further confirmation and even prediction associated with the sustainability of the system could be achieved through continuous monitoring and modeling of the responses of the karstic geothermal reservoir to hot-water mining.

  7. The Role of Cost Shared R&D in the Development of Geothermal Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-03-16

    This U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Program Review starts with two interesting pieces on industries outlook about market conditions. Dr. Allan Jelacics introductory talk includes the statistics on the impacts of the Industry Coupled Drilling Program (late-1970's) on geothermal power projects in Nevada and Utah (about 140 MWe of power stimulated). Most of the papers in these Proceedings are in a technical report format, with results. Sessions included: Exploration, The Geysers, Reservoir Engineering, Drilling, Energy Conversion (including demonstration of a BiPhase Turbine Separator), Energy Partnerships (including the Lake County effluent pipeline to The Geysers), and Technology Transfer (Biochemical processing of brines, modeling of chemistry, HDR, the OIT low-temperature assessment of collocation of resources with population, and geothermal heat pumps). There were no industry reviews at this meeting.

  8. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemale, J.

    2009-01-01

    The geothermal energy, listed among the new and renewable energy sources, is characterized by a huge variety of techniques and applications. This book deals with the access to underground geothermal resources and with their energy valorization as well. After a presentation of the main geological, hydrogeological and thermal exploitation aspects of this resource, the book presents the different geothermal-related industries in detail, in particular the district heating systems, the aquifer-based heat pumps, the utilizations in the agriculture, fishery and balneology sectors, and the power generation. (J.S.)

  9. Base-line data analysis of a developing geothermal system, Boise, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waag, C.J.; Wood, S.H.

    1985-09-01

    The report covers a geothermal system and calculated aquifer transmissivities in the Boise Warm Springs Water District portion of the geothermal system range from 3500-25,000 gals/day/ft. Withdrawals during the 1984-1985 heating season stabilized drawdown at the pumpbowls, and water levels approached stability in observation wells as distant as 1675 ft (507.6m). In the near steady-state condition, recharge, and water from storage beyond the observation wells provided a maximum Q of 840 gpm.

  10. An economic prefeasibility study of geothermal energy development at Platanares, Honduras. Estudio economico de prefactibilidad del desarrollo de energia geotermica en Platanares, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.K.

    1989-09-01

    The expected economic benefits from development of a geothermal power plant at Platanares in the Department of Copan, Honduras are evaluated in this report. The economic benefits of geothermal plants ranging in size from a 10-MW plant in the shallow reservoir to a 20-, 30-, 55-, or 110-MW plant in the assumed deeper reservoir were measured by computing optimal expansion plans for each size of geothermal plant. Savings are computed as the difference in present value cost between a plan that contains no geothermal plant and one that does. Present value savings in millions of 1987 dollars range from $25 million for the 10-MW plant to $110 million for the 110-MW plant -- savings of 6% to 25% over the time period 1988 through 2008. 8 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. DEVELOPING THE NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM ADOPTION OF CKAN FOR DOMESTIC & INTERNATIONAL DATA DEPLOYMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Ryan J. [Arizona Geological Survey; Kuhmuench, Christoph [Siemens Corporation; Richard, Stephen M. [Arizona Geological Survey

    2013-03-01

    The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) De- sign and Testing Team is developing NGDS software currently referred to as the “NGDS Node-In-A-Box”. The software targets organizations or individuals who wish to host at least one of the following: • an online repository containing resources for the NGDS; • an online site for creating metadata to register re- sources with the NGDS • NDGS-conformant Web APIs that enable access to NGDS data (e.g., WMS, WFS, WCS); • NDGS-conformant Web APIs that support dis- covery of NGDS resources via catalog service (e.g. CSW) • a web site that supports discovery and under- standing of NGDS resources A number of different frameworks for development of this online application were reviewed. The NGDS Design and Testing Team determined to use CKAN (http://ckan.org/), because it provides the closest match between out of the box functionality and NGDS node-in-a-box requirements. To achieve the NGDS vision and goals, this software development project has been inititated to provide NGDS data consumers with a highly functional inter- face to access the system, and to ease the burden on data providers who wish to publish data in the sys- tem. It is important to note that this software package constitutes a reference implementation. The NGDS software is based on open standards, which means other server software can make resources available, and other client applications can utilize NGDS data. A number of international organizations have ex- pressed interest in the NGDS approach to data access. The CKAN node implementation can provide a sim- ple path for deploying this technology in other set- tings.

  12. Geothermal systems: Principles and case histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybach, L.; Muffler, L. J. P.

    The classification of geothermal systems is considered along with the geophysical and geochemical signatures of geothermal systems, aspects of conductive heat transfer and regional heat flow, and geothermal anomalies and their plate tectonic framework. An investigation of convective heat and mass transfer in hydrothermal systems is conducted, taking into account the mathematical modelling of hydrothermal systems, aspects of idealized convective heat and mass transport, plausible models of geothermal reservoirs, and preproduction models of hydrothermal systems. Attention is given to the prospecting for geothermal resources, the application of water geochemistry to geothermal exploration and reservoir engineering, heat extraction from geothermal reservoirs, questions of geothermal resource assessment, and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development. A description is presented of a number of case histories, taking into account the low enthalpy geothermal resource of the Pannonian Basin in Hungary, the Krafla geothermal field in Northeast Iceland, the geothermal system of the Jemez Mountains in New Mexico, and extraction-reinjection at the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador.

  13. Geothermal energy. A national proposal for geothermal resources research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J.C. (ed.)

    1972-01-01

    Discussions are given for each of the following topics: (1) importance to the Nation of geothermal resources, (2) budget recommendations, (3) overview of geothermal resources, (4) resource exploration, (5) resource assessment, (6) resource development and production, (7) utilization technology and economics, (8) environmental effects, (9) institutional considerations, and (10) summary of research needs.

  14. Development of hot water utilizing power plants in fiscal 1999. Development of technology to collect geothermal resources in great depths/Development of technology to excavate geothermal resources in great depths (Designing whole development); 1999 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shinbu chinetsu shigen saishu gijutsu no kaihatsu / shinbu chinetsu shigen kussaku gijutsu no kaihatsu (zentai kaihatsu sekkei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Technological development has been made on excavation of geothermal wells, which are dense, hard, and high in temperature and pressure, in developing geothermal resources in great depths. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. This fiscal year has performed the excavation test using an actual well to verify the reliability in practical use of the developed heat-resistant and durable bit. The test was executed by using a bit with a diameter of 8-1/2 inches in a ground bet having a maximum temperature of 300 degrees C in the Yamakawa geothermal field. As a result, good site evaluation was obtained that the wear and tear after lift-up showed no problems, and sufficient performance was verified in the drilling rate and durability. In addition, the low specific gravity cement for high temperature use that has been newly developed was given a cement mixing test to identify its workability at site and hardening properties, at a test well with a temperature of about 40 degrees C in the Okiri geothermal field. The actual well test was performed in a large-scale lost water occurred in a return well during an excavation by Nittestu-Kagoshima Geothermal Company. Effects were recognized in measures to prevent water loss. (NEDO)

  15. Correlation of Aerogravity and BHT Data to Develop a Geothermal Gradient Map of the Northern Western Desert of Egypt using an Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Haby S.; Abdel Zaher, Mohamed; Senosy, Mahmoud M.; Saibi, Hakim; El Nouby, Mohamed; Fairhead, J. Derek

    2015-06-01

    The northern part of the Western Desert of Egypt represents the second most promising area of hydrocarbon potential after the Gulf of Suez province. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used to develop a new predictive model for calculation of the geothermal gradients in this region based on gravity and corrected bottom-hole temperature (BHT) data. The best training data set was obtained with an ANN architecture composed of seven neurons in the hidden layer, which made it possible to predict the geothermal gradient with satisfactory efficiency. The BHT records of 116 deep oil wells (2,000-4,500 m) were used to evaluate the geothermal resources in the northern Western Desert. Corrections were applied to the BHT data to obtain the true formation equilibrium temperatures, which can provide useful constraints on the subsurface thermal regime. On the basis of these corrected data, the thermal gradient was computed for the linear sections of the temperature-versus-depth data at each well. The calculated geothermal gradient using temperature log data was generally 30 °C/km, with a few local high geothermal gradients in the northwestern parts of the study area explained by potential local geothermal fields. The Bouguer gravity values from the study area ranged from -60 mGal in the southern parts to 120 mGal in the northern areas, and exhibited NE-SW and E-W trends associated with geological structures. Although the northern Western Desert of Egypt has low regional temperature gradients (30 °C/km), several potential local geothermal fields were found (>40 °C/km). The heat flow at each well was also computed by combining sets of temperature gradients and thermal conductivity data. Aerogravity data were used to delineate the subsurface structures and tectonic framework of the region. The result of this study is a new geothermal gradient map of the northern Western Desert developed from gravity and BHT log data.

  16. Mutnovo geothermal power complex at Kamchatka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britvin, O.V.; Povarov, O.A.; Klochkov, E.F.; Tomarov, G.V.; Koshkin, N.L.; Luzin, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The data on geothermal resources at Kamchatka and experience in their application are presented. The description of the geothermal power complex objects at the Mutnovo deposit is given. The basic trends and stages of the prospective geothermal power development in this region are indicated. It is specified for unique huge geothermal heat reserves, which by different estimates may provide for the total electrical and thermal capacity, exceeding 2000 MW [ru

  17. Fiscal 2000 report on geothermal energy development promotion survey. Phase 1. Report on environmental impact survey in No. C-5 Appi district (Weather); 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.C-5. Appi chiiki - kankyo eikyo chosa (kisho) dai 1 ji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    For grasping the characteristics of weather, climate, and natural earthquakes in and around the geothermal survey area in the Appi district, Iwate Prefecture, observation data of weather stations or the like in the neighborhood were collected and put in an easy-to-use order. Weather and earthquake data of the 1990-1999 decade were collected and subjected to statistical processing. Weather in the Appi District Survey C area is characterized in that it assumes the Japan Sea side pattern with much snow in winter and much rain in the rainy season. In the other seasons, however, it assumes the Pacific side inland pattern. Weather data in the Appi district and its vicinity are deemed to be similar to the values observed at the Hachimantai weather station. The area covered by the survey, however, is higher than the Hachimantai weather station by 400-900m, and therefore is that much colder and has more rain and snow. As for earthquakes, a total of 647 were recorded in the decade 1990-1999. In the Appi District Survey C area, which is approximately 20km times 20km large, suffered 31.1 events/month in 1998, which indicated a great rise in seismic occurrence. The rise is now attributed to the volcanic activity of Mt. Iwate which is deemed to be waning. (NEDO)

  18. Report on survey on geothermal development promotion in fiscal 1999. Report on survey on environmental effects - noise and vibration (No. B-5, Busadake Area); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa (soon shindo) hokokusho (No.B-5 Busadake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Identification of noise and vibration levels and evaluation on environmental effects were performed in association with the excavation in the geothermal investigation well drilling point (well N11-MD-3) and the vicinity thereof in the Busadake area in Hokkaido. In the survey, noise and vibration were measured before and during the well excavation at the well drilling point and nearby four points (boundary of the drilling premises, 500-m point, Kawakita Spa and the entrance to the mountain stream of petroleum). In addition, a distance decay survey was carried out at five points in one direction from the well drilling point. The result of the noise measurement showed the value of about 30 to 50 dB before the well excavation at the drilling point and its vicinity, and about 40 to 60 dB during the excavation. The vibration was about 40 dB at the boundary of the premises during the excavation, whereas the places other than them showed the lower limit of measurement. In the distance decay of the noise, 75 dB at the 10-m point decayed to 50 dB or lower in the 200-m point, while the vibration level of 75 dB decayed to 30 dB or lower in the 100-m point. These facts lead to a conception that the noise and vibration in association with the well drilling would not give great influence on the neighboring environment. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1999 report on the comprehensive analysis of the geothermal development promotion survey. Forth. No.C-3 Akinomiya area (Separate volume 2: Collected data); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho. No. C-3 Akinomiya chiiki (Dai 4 ji) - Bessatsu 2 (shiryoshu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    As to the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Akinomiya area, Ogachi town, Akita prefecture, which was made in FY 1999, the comprehensive analysis was conducted, and the data were arranged. In relation to the surface survey, data on the following were described: geological survey, supplementary surface geological survey, soil gas survey, precision gravity survey, supplementary gravity survey and 3D model re-analysis, electromagnetic survey, etc. With relation to the well survey, data on the following: wells of N8-AY-1, N8-AY-2, N9-AY-3, N9-AY-4, N9-AY-5, N10-AY-6, N10-AY-7 and N10-AY-8, survey of cores of existing wells, temperature/pressure logging of wells remaining stationary after having been left long, sampler logging, etc. In relation to the jetting test, data on the short-term jetting test on wells of N8-AY-1, N8-AY-2, N9-AY-3, N9-AY-4, etc. With relation to the evaluation of reservoirs, data on the pressure monitoring, results of the reservoir simulation, etc. (NEDO)

  20. Feasibility study of Copahue geothermal development project, Argentina; Aruzenchin kyowakoku Copahue chiiki no chinetsu kaihatsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, M.; Yamada, M.; Nakanishi, S.; Todaka, N. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, T.

    1996-03-15

    Geothermal resources have been evaluated in the Copahue district. For this survey administrated by JICA, drilling of a deep test well with a small bore (COP-3) and blowout tests were conducted. This district is located at the east side of the Andes elongated in the N-S direction. Volcanoes with similar active periods and active states are distributed in the N-S direction, which forms a divide with the Pacific Ocean side. The Copahue-Caviahue composite volcano in the surveyed area is located nearly in the central part of the volcanic zone, which forms a special ring topography. Geology of the Copahue district consists of volcanic effusive rocks during the Tertiary and Quaternary periods. There are five prospecting fields with geothermal indications in the surveyed area. From the survey, an area of about 13 km{sup 2} was evaluated as a geothermal resource field. Especially, in the area of about 4 km{sup 2} including COP-1, 2 and 3 wells, the steam predominant type reservoirs were found out. As a result of estimation of the geothermal resource potential by the volumetric method, a highly prospective power generation potential of 30 MW was evaluated in the field where the steam predominant type reservoirs were confirmed by the boring wells. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Drilling 1976-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    This report, the second in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in drilling and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  2. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Exploration 1976-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    This report, the first in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in exploration and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  3. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  4. Geothermal studies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji-Yang; Chen Mo-Xiang; Wang Ji-An; Deng Xiao; Wang Jun; Shen Hsien-Chieh; Hsiung Liang-Ping; Yan Shu-Zhen; Fan Zhi-Cheng; Liu Xiu-Wen

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuosly since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research of geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; (3) geothermal studies in mines. (orig./ME)

  5. Research status of geothermal resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincheng; Li, Guang

    2017-08-01

    As the representative of the new green energy, geothermal resources are characterized by large reserve, wide distribution, cleanness and environmental protection, good stability, high utilization factor and other advantages. According to the characteristics of exploitation and utilization, they can be divided into high-temperature, medium-temperature and low-temperature geothermal resources. The abundant and widely distributed geothermal resources in China have a broad prospect for development. The medium and low temperature geothermal resources are broadly distributed in the continental crustal uplift and subsidence areas inside the plate, represented by the geothermal belt on the southeast coast, while the high temperature geothermal resources concentrate on Southern Tibet-Western Sichuan-Western Yunnan Geothermal Belt and Taiwan Geothermal Belt. Currently, the geothermal resources in China are mainly used for bathing, recuperation, heating and power generation. It is a country that directly makes maximum use of geothermal energy in the world. However, China’s geothermal power generation, including installed generating capacity and power generation capacity, are far behind those of Western European countries and the USA. Studies on exploitation and development of geothermal resources are still weak.

  6. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Cross

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the GTP’s involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including GHPs.† The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  7. New Mexico geothermal commercialization planning. Semi-annual progress report, January 1, 1979-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, P.; Scudella, G.; Fedor, D.

    1979-06-01

    The market potential for geothermal energy development in New Mexico is estimated. Barriers to market penetration and geothermal development initiatives were identified. Statutes and regulations affecting geothermal development are appended.

  8. Geothermal low-temperature reservoir assessment program: A new DOE geothermal initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.M.; Lienau, P.J.; Mink, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    In Fiscal Year 1991, Congress appropriated money for the Department of Energy to begin a new program in the evaluation and use of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources. The objective of this program is to promote accelerated development of these resources to offset fossil-fuel use and help improve the environment. The program will consist of several components, including: (1) compilation of all available information on resource location and characteristics, with emphasis on resources located within 5 miles of population centers; (2) development and testing of techniques to discover and evaluate low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources; (3) technical assistance to potential developers of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources; and (4) evaluation of the use of geothermal heat pumps in domestic and commercial applications. Program participants will include the Geo-Heat Center at the Oregon Institute of Technology, the University of Utah Research Institute, the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute and agencies of state governments in most of the western states

  9. Developing Partnerships to Promote Local Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters-Bayer, Ann; van Veldhuizen, Laurens; Wettasinha, Chesha; Wongtschowski, Mariana

    2004-01-01

    Local innovation in agriculture and natural resource management is the process through which individuals or groups discover or develop new and better ways of managing resources, building on and expanding the boundaries of their existing knowledge. Prolinnova (Promoting Local Innovation) is a NGO-led global partnership programme that is being built…

  10. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  11. Duality of Health Promotion and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit; Kjærgård, Bente

    2015-01-01

    reduction and how these strategies affect the prospects for promoting health and sustainable food production and consumption. Danish food waste reduction strategies are used as examples with references to selected policy documents on food waste reduction strategies launched by international organisations...... sustainability and, vice versa, sustainability conditions health. Thus, to avoid unintended, negative effects the strategies directed towards sustainable development must be correlated with strategies for health promotion. The conceptual model is used to take a closer look at the complexities of food waste...... of food as food waste is reduced. The lack of attention given to reducing the oversupply of food calls for governance initiatives directed towards reducing the overproduction of primary food produce in order to reap the environmental benefits and the health promotion benefits of reducing food waste...

  12. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    Small businesses are the cornerstone of the American economy. Over 22 million small businesses account for approximately 99% of employers, employ about half of the private sector workforce, and are responsible for about two-thirds of net new jobs. Many small businesses fared better than the Fortune 500 in 2001. Non-farm proprietors income rose 2.4% in 2001 while corporate profits declined 7.2%. Yet not all is rosy for small businesses, particularly new ones. One-third close within two years of opening. From 1989 to 1992, almost half closed within four years; only 39.5% were still open after six years. Why do some new businesses thrive and some fail? What helps a new business succeed? Industry knowledge, business and financial planning, and good management. Small geothermal businesses are no different. Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A recent survey of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop many of these sites into thriving small businesses. The ''Geothermal Small Business Workbook'' (''Workbook'') was written to give geothermal entrepreneurs, small businesses, and developers the tools they need to understand geothermal applications--both direct use and small-scale power generation--and to write a business and financing plan. The Workbook will: Provide background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; Refer you to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations; Break down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps; Lead you

  13. A Proposal for Research and Development of an Explosive Drilling Technique for Geothermal Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1975-10-01

    In order to make large scale use of the geothermal energy available it will be necessary to drill many thousands of holes deep into the earth. The objective of the proposed research is to greatly decrease drilling time and cost. Studies made of a new explosive drilling technique indicate that savings in time of from 70 to 80 percent. The research plan is to utilize explosive in the form of multiple-faced shaped charge capsules. [DJE-2005

  14. Geothermal energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Geothermal energy research and development by the Sunshine Project is subdivided into five major categories: exploration and exploitation technology, hot-water power generation technology, volcanic power generation technology, environmental conservation and multi-use technology, and equipment materials research. The programs are being carried out by various National Research Institutes, universities, and private industry. During 1976 and 1977, studies were made of the extent of resources, reservoir structure, ground water movement, and neotectonics at the Onikobe and Hachimantai geothermal fields. Studies to be performed in the near future include the use of new prospecting methods, including artificial magnetotellurics, heat balance calculation, brightspot techniques, and remote sensing, as well as laboratory studies of the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of rock. Studies are continuing in the areas of ore formation in geothermal environments, hot-dry-rock drilling and fracturing, large scale prospecting technology, high temperature-pressure drilling muds and well cements, and arsenic removal techniques.

  15. Geothermal progress monitor report No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor Report No. 6 presents a state-by-state summary of the status of geothermal leasing, exploration, and development in major physiographic regions where geothermal resource potential has been identified. Recent state-specific activities are reported at the end of each state status report, while recent activities of a more general nature are summarized briefly in Part II of the report. A list of recent publications of potential interest to the geothermal community and a directory of contributors to the geothermal progress monitoring system are also included.

  16. INTEGRATED EXPLORATION OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Alkhasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim. The aim is to develop the energy efficient technologies to explore hydro geothermal resources of different energy potential.Methods. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technologies has been carried out with the use of physical and mathematical, thermodynamic and optimization methods of calculation and the physical and chemical experimental research.Results. We propose the technology of integrated exploration of low-grade geothermal resources with the application of heat and water resource potential on various purposes. We also argue for the possibility of effective exploration of geothermal resources by building a binary geothermal power plant using idle oil and gas wells. We prove the prospect of geothermal steam and gas technologies enabling highly efficient use of thermal water of low energy potential (80 - 100 ° C degrees to generate electricity; the prospects of complex processing of high-temperature geothermal brine of Tarumovsky field. Thermal energy is utilized in a binary geothermal power plant in the supercritical Rankine cycle operating with a low-boiling agent. The low temperature spent brine from the geothermal power plant with is supplied to the chemical plant, where the main chemical components are extracted - lithium carbonate, magnesium burning, calcium carbonate and sodium chloride. Next, the waste water is used for various water management objectives. Electricity generated in the binary geothermal power plant is used for the extraction of chemical components.Conclusions. Implementation of the proposed technologies will facilitate the most efficient development of hydro geothermal resources of the North Caucasus region. Integrated exploration of the Tarumovsky field resources will fully meet Russian demand for lithium carbonate and sodium chloride.

  17. Geophysical considerations of geothermics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, M

    1967-01-01

    The development and utilization of geothermal energy is described from the standpoint of geophysics. The internal temperature of the Earth and the history and composition of magmas are described. Methods of exploration such as gravity, magnetic, thermal and electrical surveys are discussed, as are geochemical and infrared photogrammetric techniques. Examples are provided of how these techniques have been used in Italy and at the Matsukawa geothermal field in Japan. Drilling considerations such as muds, casings and cementing materials are discussed. Solutions are proposed for problems of environmental pollution and plant expansion.

  18. Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; DeAngelo, Michael V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Ermolaeva, Elena [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Remington, Randy [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Sava, Diana [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wagner, Donald [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wei, Shuijion [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology

    2013-02-01

    The objective of our research was to develop and demonstrate seismic data-acquisition and data-processing technologies that allow geothermal prospects below high-velocity rock outcrops to be evaluated. To do this, we acquired a 3-component seismic test line across an area of exposed high-velocity rocks in Brewster County, Texas, where there is high heat flow and surface conditions mimic those found at numerous geothermal prospects. Seismic contractors have not succeeded in creating good-quality seismic data in this area for companies who have acquired data for oil and gas exploitation purposes. Our test profile traversed an area where high-velocity rocks and low-velocity sediment were exposed on the surface in alternating patterns that repeated along the test line. We verified that these surface conditions cause non-ending reverberations of Love waves, Rayleigh waves, and shallow critical refractions to travel across the earth surface between the boundaries of the fast-velocity and slow-velocity material exposed on the surface. These reverberating surface waves form the high level of noise in this area that does not allow reflections from deep interfaces to be seen and utilized. Our data-acquisition method of deploying a box array of closely spaced geophones allowed us to recognize and evaluate these surface-wave noise modes regardless of the azimuth direction to the surface anomaly that backscattered the waves and caused them to return to the test-line profile. With this knowledge of the surface-wave noise, we were able to process these test-line data to create P-P and SH-SH images that were superior to those produced by a skilled seismic data-processing contractor. Compared to the P-P data acquired along the test line, the SH-SH data provided a better detection of faults and could be used to trace these faults upward to the boundaries of exposed surface rocks. We expanded our comparison of the relative value of S-wave and P-wave seismic data for geothermal

  19. Geothermal projects funded under the NER 300 programme - current state of development and knowledge gained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Introduction The NER 300 programme, managed by the European Commission is one of the largest funding programmes for innovative low-carbon energy demonstration projects. NER 300 is so called because it is funded from the sale of 300 million emission allowances from the new entrants' reserve (NER) set up for the third phase of the EU emissions trading system (ETS). The programme aims to successfully demonstrate environmentally safe carbon capture and storage (CCS) and innovative renewable energy (RES) technologies on a commercial scale with a view to scaling up production of low-carbon technologies in the EU. Consequently, it supports a wide range of CCS and RES technologies (bioenergy, concentrated solar power, photovoltaics, geothermal, wind, ocean, hydropower, and smart grids). Funded projects and the role of geothermal projects for the programme In total, about EUR 2.1 billion have been awarded through the programme's 2 calls for proposals (the first awarded in December 2012, the second in July 2014). The programme has awarded around EUR 70 million funding to 3 geothermal projects in Hungary, Croatia and France. The Croatian geothermal project will enter into operation during 2017 the Hungarian in 2018, and the French in 2020. Knowledge Sharing Knowledge sharing requirements are built into the legal basis of the programme as a critical tool to lower risks in bridging the transition to large-scale production of innovative renewable energy and CCS deployment. Projects have to submit annually to the European Commission relevant knowledge gained during that year in the implementation of their project. The relevant knowledge is aggregated and disseminated by the European Commission to industry, research, government, NGO and other interest groups and associations in order to provide a better understanding of the practical challenges that arise in the important step of scaling up technologies and operating them at commercial scale. The knowledge sharing of the NER 300

  20. Assessment of the Appalachian Basin Geothermal Field: Combining Risk Factors to Inform Development of Low Temperature Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. D.; Whealton, C.; Camp, E. R.; Horowitz, F.; Frone, Z. S.; Jordan, T. E.; Stedinger, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Exploration methods for deep geothermal energy projects must primarily consider whether or not a location has favorable thermal resources. Even where the thermal field is favorable, other factors may impede project development and success. A combined analysis of these factors and their uncertainty is a strategy for moving geothermal energy proposals forward from the exploration phase at the scale of a basin to the scale of a project, and further to design of geothermal systems. For a Department of Energy Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis we assessed quality metrics, which we call risk factors, in the Appalachian Basin of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. These included 1) thermal field variability, 2) productivity of natural reservoirs from which to extract heat, 3) potential for induced seismicity, and 4) presence of thermal utilization centers. The thermal field was determined using a 1D heat flow model for 13,400 bottomhole temperatures (BHT) from oil and gas wells. Steps included the development of i) a set of corrections to BHT data and ii) depth models of conductivity stratigraphy at each borehole based on generalized stratigraphy that was verified for a select set of wells. Wells are control points in a spatial statistical analysis that resulted in maps of the predicted mean thermal field properties and of the standard error of the predicted mean. Seismic risk was analyzed by comparing earthquakes and stress orientations in the basin to gravity and magnetic potential field edges at depth. Major edges in the potential fields served as interpolation boundaries for the thermal maps (Figure 1). Natural reservoirs were identified from published studies, and productivity was determined based on the expected permeability and dimensions of each reservoir. Visualizing the natural reservoirs and population centers on a map of the thermal field communicates options for viable pilot sites and project designs (Figure 1). Furthermore, combining the four risk

  1. "Assistance to States on Geothermal Energy"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda Sikkema; Jennifer DeCesaro

    2006-07-10

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, related to geothermal energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on geothermal energy—Contract Number DE-FG03-01SF22367—with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of geothermal energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of responses to information requests on geothermal energy and publications. The publications addressed: geothermal leasing, geothermal policy, constitutional and statutory authority for the development of geothermal district energy systems, and state regulation of geothermal district energy systems. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about geothermal energy for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to geothermal energy in the states. Coordination with the National Geothermal Collaborative: NCSL worked and coordinated with the National Geothermal Collaborative (NGC) to ensure that state legislatures were represented in all aspects of the NGC's efforts. NCSL participated in NGC steering committee conference calls, attended and participated in NGC business meetings and reviewed publications for the NGC. Additionally, NCSL and WSUEP staff drafted a series of eight issue briefs published by the

  2. Industry participation in DOE-sponsored geopressured geothermal resource development. Final report, 1 September 1977-30 April 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffer, H.F.

    1979-01-01

    A series of DOE/Industry forums were carried out to keep industry advised of the DOE program to develop the geopressured geothermal resources of the Gulf Coast. A total of eighteen meetings were held with registered attendance of 621 representing a good cross section of industry, state, and federal agencies. An Overview Group and four working subgroups - site selection, drilling and testing, environmental/laboratory research, and legal institutional were established to subdivide the DOE programs into areas of interest and expertise. During the contract period three overview, four site selection, three drilling and testing, five environmental/laboratory research and three legal/institutional meetings have been conducted. Interest in and attendance at the meetings continue to grow reflecting increased industry contact with the DOE Geopressured Geothermal Resource Development Program. Two other studies were carried out for DOE under this contract; a Salt Water Disposal Study and an Industry Survey to evaluate the DOE Resource Development Program. The Salt Water Disposal Study reviewed subsurface salt water disposal experience on the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast. This preliminary study concluded that subsurface brine disposal should be possible in the areas of interest with adequate evaluation of the geology of each area and a well designed and constructed surface and subsurface facility. The industry survey indicated general satisfaction with the technical design of the resource evaluation program but felt the program should be moving faster.

  3. Promoting biofuels: Implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Joerg; Thielmann, Sascha

    2008-01-01

    Interest in biofuels is growing worldwide as concerns about the security of energy supply and climate change are moving into the focus of policy makers. With the exception of bioethanol from Brazil, however, production costs of biofuels are typically much higher than those of fossil fuels. As a result, promotion measures such as tax exemptions or blending quotas are indispensable for ascertaining substantial biofuel demand. With particular focus on developing countries, this paper discusses the economic justification of biofuel promotion instruments and investigates their implications. Based on data from India and Tanzania, we find that substantial biofuel usage induces significant financial costs. Furthermore, acreage availability is a binding natural limitation that could also lead to conflicts with food production. Yet, if carefully implemented under the appropriate conditions, biofuel programs might present opportunities for certain developing countries

  4. Geothermal Information Dissemination and Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clutter, Ted J. [Geothermal Resources Council (United States)

    2005-02-18

    Project Purpose. To enhance technological and topical information transfer in support of industry and government efforts to increase geothermal energy use in the United States (power production, direct use, and geothermal groundsource heat pumps). Project Work. GRC 2003 Annual Meeting. The GRC convened the meeting on Oct. 12-15, 2003, at Morelia's Centro de Convenciones y ExpoCentro in Mexico under the theme, International Collaboration for Geothermal Energy in the Americas. The event was also sponsored by the Comision Federal de Electricidad. ~600 participants from more than 20 countries attended the event. The GRC convened a Development of Geothermal Projects Workshop and Geothermal Exploration Techniques Workshop. GRC Field Trips included Los Azufres and Paricutin Volcano on Oct. 11. The Geothermal Energy Association (Washington, DC) staged its Geothermal Energy Trade Show. The Annual Meeting Opening Session was convened on Oct. 13, and included the governor of Michoacan, the Mexico Assistant Secretary of Energy, CFE Geothermal Division Director, DOE Geothermal Program Manager, and private sector representatives. The 2003 Annual Meeting attracted 160 papers for oral and poster presentations. GRC 2004. Under the theme, Geothermal - The Reliable Renewable, the GRC 2004 Annual Meeting convened on Aug. 29-Sept. 1, 2004, at the Hyatt Grand Champions Resort at Indian Wells, CA. Estimated total attendance (including Trade Show personnel, guests and accompanying persons) was ~700. The event included a workshop, Geothermal Production Well Pump Installation, Operation and Maintenance. Field trips went to Coso/Mammoth and Imperial Valley/Salton Sea geothermal fields. The event Opening Session featured speakers from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the private sector. The Geothermal Energy Association staged its Geothermal Energy Trade Show. The Geothermal Education Office staged its Geothermal Energy Workshop. Several local radio and

  5. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, M.V.; Lacy, S.B.; Lowe, G.D.; Nussbaum, A.M.; Walter, K.M.; Willens, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The engineering, economic, and environmental feasibility of the use of low and moderate temperature geothermal heat in the mining and processing of tungsten ore is explored. The following are covered: general engineering evaluation, design of a geothermal energy system, economics, the geothermal resource, the institutional barriers assessment, environmental factors, an alternate geothermal energy source, and alternates to geothermal development. (MHR)

  6. Resources that promote positive youth development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a crucial developmental phase that shapes people´s futures. Positive psychology investigates the variables that promote the optimal development of human beings. It recognizes that all children and adolescents have strengths that will develop once these strengths match the resources needed to achieve this in the various settings in which they live. The aim of this study was to analyze from a multidisciplinary perspective (e.g. psychological, sociological, and economic the effect of resources that promote positive youth development. The sample consisted of 200 middle school students (15 to 19 years. EQS statistical software was used to analyse a structural equation model in which the study variables comprised 4 factors: one for each resource (economic, psychological, sociological, and one for positive youth development. The results showed a direct association between psychological and social resources and positive development, and between social resources and psychological assets. However, no association was found between economic resources and positive youth development. These results suggest that the main influences on positive youth development are psychological and social resources.

  7. DE-FOA-EE0005502 Advanced Percussive Drilling Technology for Geothermal Exploration and Development Phase II Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann-Cherng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Raymond, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Prasad, Somuri V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolfer, Dale R. [Atlas-Copco Secoroc, LLC, Fagersta (Sweden)

    2017-05-01

    Percussive hammers are a promising advance in drilling technology for geothermal since they rely upon rock reduction mechanisms that are well-suited for use in the hard, brittle rock characteristic of geothermal formations. The project research approach and work plan includes a critical path to development of a high-temperature (HT) percussive hammer using a two- phase approach. The work completed in Phase I of the project demonstrated the viability of percussive hammers and that solutions to technical challenges in design, material technology, and performance are likely to be resolved. Work completed in Phase II focused on testing the findings from Phase I and evaluating performance of the materials and designs at high- operating temperatures. A high-operating temperature (HOT) drilling facility was designed, built, and used to test the performance of the DTH under extreme conditions. Results from the testing indicate that a high-temperature capable hammer can be developed and is a viable alternative for user in the driller's toolbox.

  8. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  9. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  10. Proceedings of NEDO International Geothermal Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-11

    This is a proceedings of the NEDO International Geothermal Symposium held in Sendai in 1997. The worldwide geothermal energy power generation capacity exceeds 7000 MW. Geothermal energy is widely used also for heating, snow melting, greenhouse cultivation as well as electric power generation. Geothermal energy generates far less CO2 causing the global warming than fossil fuels. The geothermal energy is clean and renewable. Considering the environmental issue and energy supply/demand of the world, we have to exert further efforts for the geothermal development. In this conference, discussions were made on each country`s experiences of the geothermal development, and future prediction and strategies for geothermal utilization in the Asia/Pacific region, in particular. Further, in the technical session, conducted were the IEA study and technical presentation/discussion for technical cooperation. The proceedings includes research reports of more than 30, which are clarified into three fields: impacts of the geothermal development on the environment, technical development of the hot dry rock power generation system, and development of technology for collecting deep-seated geothermal resource

  11. Regional operation research program for development of geothermal energy in the southwest United States. Final technical report, June 1977--August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlin, J.M; Christ, R.; McDevitt, P.; Nowotny, K.; O' Dea, P.; Rao, C.R.; Swanberg, C.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from June 1977 to August 1978. The efforts by the Core and State Teams in data acquisition, electric and non-electric economic studies, development of computer support functions and operations, and preparation of geothermal development scenarios are described.

  12. Regional operations research program for development of geothermal energy in the southwest United States. Final technical report, June 1977-August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlin, J.M.; Christ, R.; McDevitt, P.; Nowotny, K.; O' Dea, P.; Rao, C.R.; Swanberg, C.

    1979-01-01

    The efforts by the Core and State Teams in data acquisition, electric and non-electric economic studies, development of computer support functions and operations, and preparation of geothermal development scenarios are described. Team reports for the states of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah are included in the appendices along with a summary of the state scenarios. (MHR)

  13. Geothermal Program Review IV: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The research and development program of DOE's Geothermal Technology Division is reviewed in separate presentations according to program area. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  14. Investigation on the development and introduction of new geothermal exploration technology. Part 2; Chinetsu shintansa gijutsu kaihatsu donyu ni kansuru chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    For the purpose of maintaining and increasing the geothermal power generation amount, the development was made of exploration technologies which become necessary in the stage of geothermal reservoir exploration and in the stage of reservoir management and peripheral development. As development technologies, the following were proposed: fracture flow characteristics exploration method (FE), production/circumference areas flow characteristics exploration method (PE), and integrated analyzing method (IA). As to FE, for the survey of geothermal fluid dynamic characteristics in fracture aggregate composing the geothermal reservoir, developments were made of the well hydraulic testing method for examining hydraulic characteristics of fracture system and of the fracture evaluation method composed of the core/logging analysis method, the permeability logging method and electroseismic exploration method. As to PE, for maintaining and managing steam production in the developmental area and developing the area to the circumference area, development was conducted of technology for exploring variations of reservoirs and fluid flow from the data on precision gravity, three-dimensional resistivity, fluid geochemistry, active seismic wave and self potential, precision electromagnetism, passive seismic wave, etc. As to IA, development was made of reservoir simulation technique, etc. 2 refs., 70 figs., 41 tabs.

  15. MeProRisk - a toolbox for evaluating risks in exploration, development, and operation of geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, C.

    2009-04-01

    When developing geothermal resources, the risk of failure is still high when compared to hydrocarbon exploration. The MeProRisk projects aims at the improvement of strategies in all phases of the reservoir life cycle. It is a joint enterprise of five university institutes at RWTH Aachen University, Free University Berlin, and Kiel University. Two partners, namely Geophysica Beratunggesellschaft mbH, (Aachen), and RWE Dea AG (Hamburg) present the industrial side. It is funded by the German Ministry of Education and Science (BMBF). The key idea followed in this project is that the development of the understanding of a given reservoir is an iterative process. Starting from geological base knowledge and geophysical exploration one or more conceptual models will emerge, which will be incorporated in first numerical models. The use of inverse techniques in a broad sense will not only lead to an optimal model, but will produce uncertainty and resolution estimates for this model. This information may be used for further setup of optimal experiments, including the choice of exploration well locations. In later stages of reservoir development, the numerical models will be continuously updated based on the most recent models. Once wells have been drilled, the character of experiments shifts from static methods to dynamic interaction with the reservoir, e.g. by injection experiments and their monitoring. The use of all the methods with one simulation tool poses large challenges. Inverse problems require orders of magnitude larger computer resources, and the development of appropriate theoretical and numerical methods for this is on of the primary aims of this project. Due to the less obvious signatures of geothermally relevant targets, it is also necessary to improve the experimental base for model setup and update by developing new and better methods for some of the key problems in the case of geothermal targets. Among these are the development of methods to estimate

  16. Developing a framework for assessing the impact of geothermal development phases on ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semedi, Jarot M.; Willemen, L.; Nurlambang, Triarko; Van Der Meer, F.D.; Koestoer, Raldi H.

    2018-01-01

    The 2014 Indonesian National Energy Policy has set a target to provide national primary energy usage reached 2.500 kWh per capita in the year 2025 and reached 7.000 kWh in the year 2050. The National Energy Policy state that the development of energy should consider the balance of energy economic

  17. Very low energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Very low energy geothermics correspond to temperatures below 30 C and has been developed to cover heating and cooling needs of recent individual houses or tertiary industries using heat pumps and low depth aquifers (<100 m). Geothermal heat pumps industry has made great strides in European Northern countries, China, Japan and the United States of America. Geothermal heat pumps are less energy consuming than air heat pumps and require less cooling fluid and maintenance. The Aquapac procedure has been developed in France in 1983 by the AFME (French Energy Control Agency), EdF and the BRGM (Geologic and Mining Research Office) to encourage the use of geothermal heat pump for domestic and sanitary water heating and to make a survey of low-depth aquifers in the whole french territory. The decay of energy costs that started in 1986 has led to a loss of interest for the Aquapac procedure, even in the tertiary industries for which the air-conditioning demand is growing up. (J.S.). 1 tab

  18. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... development, and marketing promotion, including paid advertising, designed to assist, improve, or promote the... direct expenditures for such marketing promotion including paid advertising as may be authorized. The... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their uses...

  19. PROGEOTHERM - National program for the development of geothermal energy in Switzerland - Final report; PROGEOTHERM - Programme national de developpement de la geothermie en Suisse - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuataz, F.-D.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the current situation with respect to the use of geothermal energy in Switzerland and the problems faced. Action to be taken is examined. The report proposes that specialised further education, including the setting up of a Master of Advanced Studies course at the University of Neuchatel and support for courses at Universities of Applied Sciences. Research and development in the geothermal area and support for pilot and demonstration installations, new machinery and exploration methods are proposed. Also, political, organisational and financial aspects of the support programme are discussed.

  20. Proceedings of the second United Nations symposium on the development and use of geothermal resources held at San Francisco, California, May 20--29, 1975. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The 299 papers in the Proceedings are presented in three volumes and are divided into twelve sections, each section dealing with a different aspect of geothermal energy. Rapporturs' summaries of the contents of each section are grouped together in Vol. 1 of the Proceedings; a separate abstract was prepared for each summary. Volume 1 also contains ninety-eight papers under the following section headings: present status of resources development; geology, hydrology, and geothermal systems; and geochemical techniques in exploration. Separate abstracts were prepared for ninety-seven papers. One paper was previously abstracted for ERA and appeared as CONF-750525--17. (LBS)

  1. Promotion and Development of Tourism in Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Yömaa, Manga

    2014-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis will review the current state of tourism in Namibia, what needs to be done to improve it and how promotional activities can, at the same time, help develop tourism. There is no doubt that the country has enormous potential to attract tourist but to achieve this requires a strategy that includes significant government and private investment. This paper will also consider what type of tourism could be attracting visitors to Namibia and whether the focus should be on Safar...

  2. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  3. WP/072 Is the Clean Development Mechanism Promoting Sustainable Development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yongfu; He, Jingjing; Tarp, Finn

    One of the dual objectives of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol is to promote sustainable development in the host countries. With different CDM indicators for 58 CDM host countries over 2005-10, this paper empirically assesses whether CDM project development fulfils...... this objective of sustainable development. Using a unique dynamic panel data method based on long-differences of the model, this research provides evidence in support of significant contribution to sustainable development of CDM projects in the host countries. It sheds light on the role of CDM projects...... in the process of sustainable development with clear policy implications for developing countries and the wider world....

  4. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. To develop the technology needed to harness the Nation's vast geothermal resources, DOE's Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies oversees a network of national laboratories, industrial contractors, universities, and their subcontractors. The following mission and goal statements guide the overall activities of the Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies. This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy.

  5. Development of hot water utilizing power plants in fiscal 1999. Development of technology to collect geothermal resources in great depths (Development of technology to produce geothermal resources in great depths); 1999 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shinbu chinetsu shigen saishu gijutsu no kaihatsu / shinbu chinetsu shigen seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to develop geothermal resources, research and development has been performed on the production technologies for the deep-seated geothermal resources, such as pressure, temperature, flow speed and density (PTSD) logging technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In the actual well test on the developed D-probe, it was verified that the probe operates normally under high temperature environment (342 degrees C) which exceeds the measurement limit of conductive cables (315 degrees C). In developing the PTC monitoring technology, the downhole sampler was improved, and a test was performed in the actual hole in the Hijiori area in Yamagata Prefecture. As a result, collection of hot water of about 900 mL has become possible. In developing the high-temperature tracer monitoring technology, simulation was performed keeping in mind charging the tracer into the Hijiori geothermal area, whereas specifications for charging and collecting the tracer were determined. In developing the scale monitoring technology, experiments were carried out on the fluid systems under deep geothermal conditions by using scale forming devices, by which it was indicated that silica is the important scale constituent. (NEDO)

  6. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently

  7. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Laney

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently possible or

  8. Volcanic spreading forcing and feedback in geothermal reservoir development, Amiata Volcano, Italia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, Andrea; Mazzoldi, Alberto; Brunori, Carlo Alberto; Allocca, Carmine; Delcroix, Carlo; Micheli, Luigi; Vercellino, Alberto; Grieco, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    We made a stratigraphic, structural and morphologic study of the Amiata Volcano in Italy. We find that the edifice is dissected by intersecting grabens that accommodate the collapse of the higher sectors of the volcano. In turn, a number of compressive structures and diapirs exist around the margin of the volcano. These structures create an angular drainage pattern, with stream damming and captures, and a set of lakes within and around the volcano. We interpret these structures as the result of volcanic spreading of Amiata on its weak substratum, formed by the late Triassic evaporites (Burano Anhydrites) and the Middle-Jurassic to Early-Cretaceous clayey chaotic complexes (Ligurian Complex). Regional doming created a slope in the basement facilitating the outward flow and spreading of the ductile layers forced by the volcanic load. We model the dynamics of spreading with a scaled lubrication approximation of the Navier Stokes equations, and numerically study a set of solutions. In the model we include simple functions for volcanic deposition and surface erosion that change the topography over time. Scaling indicates that spreading at Amiata could still be active. The numerical solution shows that, as the central part of the edifice sinks into the weak basement, diapiric structures of the underlying formations form around the base of the volcano. Deposition of volcanic rocks within the volcano and surface erosion away from it both enhance spreading. In addition, a sloping basement may constitute a trigger for spreading and formation of trains of adjacent diapirs. As a feedback, the hot hydrothermal fluids decrease the shear strength of the anhydrites facilitating the spreading process. Finally, we observe that volcanic spreading has created ideal heat traps that constitute todays' exploited geothermal fields at Amiata. Normal faults generated by volcanic spreading, volcanic conduits, and direct contact between volcanic rocks (which host an extensive fresh

  9. Geothermal energy for Hawaii: a prospectus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, W.W.S.; Iacofano, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of geothermal development is provided for contributors and participants in the process: developers, the financial community, consultants, government officials, and the people of Hawaii. Geothermal energy is described along with the issues, programs, and initiatives examined to date. Hawaii's future options are explored. Included in appendices are: a technical glossary, legislation and regulations, a geothermal directory, and an annotated bibliography. (MHR)

  10. 1978 annual report, INEL geothermal environmental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Sullivan, J.F.; Stanley, N.E.

    1979-04-01

    The objective of the Raft River Geothermal Environmental Program, in its fifth year, is to characterize the beneficial and detrimental impacts resulting from the development of moderate-temperature geothermal resources in the valley. This report summarizes the monitoring and research efforts conducted as part of this program in 1978. The results of these monitoring programs will be used to determine the mitigation efforts required to reduce long-term impacts resulting from geothermal development.

  11. Geothermal Permeability Enhancement - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Beall; Mark Walters

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective is to apply known permeability enhancement techniques to reduce the number of wells needed and demonstrate the applicability of the techniques to other undeveloped or under-developed fields. The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) concept presented in this project enhances energy extraction from reduced permeability zones in the super-heated, vapor-dominated Aidlin Field of the The Geysers geothermal reservoir. Numerous geothermal reservoirs worldwide, over a wide temperature range, contain zones of low permeability which limit the development potential and the efficient recovery of heat from these reservoirs. Low permeability results from poorly connected fractures or the lack of fractures. The Enhanced Geothermal System concept presented here expands these technologies by applying and evaluating them in a systematic, integrated program.

  12. The Oregon Geothermal Planning Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-02

    Oregon's geothermal resources represent a large portion of the nation's total geothermal potential. The State's resources are substantial in size, widespread in location, and presently in various stages of discovery and utilization. The exploration for, and development of, geothermal is presently dependent upon a mixture of engineering, economic, environmental, and legal factors. In response to the State's significant geothermal energy potential, and the emerging impediments and incentives for its development, the State of Oregon has begun a planning program intended to accelerate the environmentally prudent utilization of geothermal, while conserving the resource's long-term productivity. The program, which is based upon preliminary work performed by the Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, will be managed by the Oregon Department of Energy, with the assistance of the Departments of Economic Development, Geology and Mineral Industries, and Water Resources. Funding support for the program is being provided by the US Department of Energy. The first six-month phase of the program, beginning in July 1980, will include the following five primary tasks: (1) coordination of state and local agency projects and information, in order to keep geothermal personnel abreast of the rapidly expanding resource literature, resource discoveries, technological advances, and each agency's projects. (2) Analysis of resource commercialization impediments and recommendations of incentives for accelerating resource utilization. (3) Compilation and dissemination of Oregon geothermal information, in order to create public and potential user awareness, and to publicize technical assistance programs and financial incentives. (4) Resource planning assistance for local governments in order to create local expertise and action; including a statewide workshop for local officials, and the formulation of two specific community resource development

  13. Geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparovic, N

    1962-07-01

    Live steam, transformed steam, and steam produced by expansion flashing are outlined with respect to their use in the production of electricity. The capacity, pressure, and temperature of a steam must be determined empirically by exploratory drilling. These factors are dependent on time and on the extent of nearby drilling-activity. Particulars of geothermal-steam power-plants such as steam dryness, hot-water flashing, condensation, gas extraction, and corrosion are discussed in detail. All available data (as per 1962) concerning the costs of operation and construction of geothermal power plants are tabulated. For space-heating purposes, two basic systems are utilized. When little corrosion or precipitation is expected, an open system is used, otherwise, closed systems are necessary. The space-heating system of Reykjavik, Iceland is cited as an example. A brief description of industrial applications of geothermal energy, such as the extraction of NaCl, D/sub 2/O, or boric acid, is provided. Thirty-two references are given.

  14. Non-electric applications of geothermal energy in six Alaskan towns. Final report, October 1976--November 1977. [Barrow, Huslia, Kiana, Nikolski, Nome, and Wrangell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquhar, J.; Grijalva, R.; Kirkwood, P.

    1977-11-01

    The potential for direct (non-electric) utilization of local-gradient geothermal energy in six Alaskan towns is summarized. A major objective of this study was to stimulate development and use of the geothermal resource provided by the earth's average thermal gradient, as opposed to the few anomalies that are typically chosen for geothermal development. Hence, six towns for study were selected as being representative of remote Alaskan conditions, rather than for their proximity to known geothermal resources. The moderate-temperature heat available almost everywhere at depths of two to four kilometers into the earth's mantle could satisfy a major portion of the nation's heating requirements--but the cost must be reduced. It is concluded that a geothermal demonstration in Nome would probably be successful and would promote this objective.

  15. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report (Final EIS/EIR) has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). The Proposed Action includes the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a 48 megawatt (gross) geothermal power plant with ancillary facilities (10-12 production well pads and 3-5 injection well pads, production and injection pipelines), access roads, and a 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Modoc National Forest in Siskiyou County, California. Alternative locations for the power plant site within a reasonable distance of the middle of the wellfield were determined to be technically feasible. Three power plant site alternatives are evaluated in the Final EIS/EIR.

  16. Development And Application Of A Hydrothermal Model For The Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasameyer, P.; Younker, L.; Hanson, J.

    1984-01-01

    A simple lateral flow model adequately explains many of the features associated with the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Earthquake swarms, a magnetic anomaly, and aspects of the gravity anomaly are all indirect evidence for the igneous activity which is the ultimate source of heat for the system. Heat is transferred from this area of intrusion by lateral spreading of hot water in a reservoir beneath an impermeable cap rock. A two dimensional analytic model encompassing this transport mechanism matches general features of the thermal anomaly and has been used to estimate the age of the presently observed thermal system. The age is calculated by minimizing the variance between the observed surface heat-flow data and the model. Estimates of the system age for this model range from 3,000 to 20,000 years.

  17. INTEGRATED EXPLORATION OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. Alkhasov; D. A. Аlkhasova; R. M. Aliyev; A. Sh. Ramazanov

    2016-01-01

    The aim. The aim is to develop the energy efficient technologies to explore hydro geothermal resources of different energy potential.Methods. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technologies has been carried out with the use of physical and mathematical, thermodynamic and optimization methods of calculation and the physical and chemical experimental research.Results. We propose the technology of integrated exploration of low-grade geothermal resources with the application of heat ...

  18. Results of the supplementary work to the fiscal 1994 New Sunshine Project. Development of geothermal power plants, etc. (development of production, technology for deep-seated geothermal resources); 1994 nendo new sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo seika hokokusho. Nessui riyo hatsuden plant to kaihatsu (shinbu chinetsu shigen saishu gijutsu no kaihatsu shinbu chinetsu shigen seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper reports on the fiscal 1994 results of the study of the development of a technology for collecting deep-seated geothermal resources, which has been made for increasing the capacity of the geothermal power generation as a part of the New Sunshine Project. As a plan for the development, a development is made of logging equipment and its auxiliary system and then characteristics of the deep-seated geothermal well are clarified. The logging equipment is a PTSD (pressure/temperature/spinner flow-meter/fluid density) logger which stands the use at deep-seated geothermal wells of 400{degree}C and 490 kgf/cm{sup 2} and measures pressure, temperature, flow rate and fluid density under static and dynamic conditions. In this fiscal year, metal seals were developed for preventing geothermal fluids from penetrating into the PT probe. Qualities and inner/outer diameters of various kinds of structural materials used in the S probe were determined, and output necessary enough to detect the rotation number is obtained. Measuring precision of D logging by {gamma} rays was evaluated. The study was made of the monitoring technology including the borehole and ground measuring system, the borehole fluid sampling and the scale formation. Relating to the tracer widely used in monitoring of hydrothermal reservoirs, investigated was the trend of the technology from abroad. 8 refs., 60 figs., 26 tabs.

  19. Development and promotion of Malaysian Dietary Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, E-Siong

    2011-01-01

    Development and promotion of dietary guidelines is one of the key activities outlined in the National Plan of Action for Nutrition of Malaysia for the prevention of nutrition-related disorders. The first official Malaysian Dietary Guidelines (MDG) was published in 1999 and was thoroughly reviewed and launched on 25 March 2010. The new MDG 2010 is a compilation of science-based nutrition and physical activity recommendations. These guidelines form the basis of consistent and scientifically sound nutrition messages for the public. There are 14 key messages and 55 recommendations, covering the whole range of food and nutrition issues, from importance of consuming a variety of foods to guidance on specific food groups, messages to encourage physical activities, consuming safe food and beverages and making effective use of nutrition information on food labels. The MDG also has an updated food pyramid. Various efforts have been made to ensure that the revised MDG is disseminated to all stakeholders. The Ministry of Health has organised a series of workshops for nutritionists and other health care professionals, and the food industry. In collaboration with other professional bodies and the private sector, the Nutrition Society of Malaysia has been promoting the dissemination and usage of the MDG to the public through a variety of formats and channels. These include the publication of a series of leaflets, educational press articles, educational booklets, as well as through educational activities for children. It is imperative to monitor the usage and evaluation of these dietary messages.

  20. The decree of the 8 January 2015 related to geothermal industry: a determining step for the development of this sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lormeteau, Blanche

    2015-01-01

    In order to favour the use of small-scale geothermal energy, this decree has simplified the regulatory framework by substituting an on-line work declaration to the previous authorization-based regime. This article analyses and discusses the content of this decree which makes the distinction between small-scale geothermal energy, low temperature geothermal energy, and high temperature geothermal energy. The decree modifies the mining title regime, simplifies procedures of exploitation of small scale geothermal sites. The author outlines that this new regime will be more precisely defined by other decrees which are to be published during the summer 2015, and will be completed by arrangements which are part of the bill on energy transition

  1. GEODAT. Development of thermodynamic data for the thermodynamic equilibrium modeling of processes in deep geothermal formations. Combined report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moog, Helge C.; Regenspurg, Simona; Voigt, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    The concept for geothermal energy application for electricity generation can be differentiated into three compartments: In the geologic compartment cooled fluid is pressed into a porous or fractured rock formation, in the borehole compartment a hot fluid is pumped to the surface and back into the geothermal reservoir, in the aboveground facility the energy is extracted from the geothermal fluid by heat exchangers. Pressure and temperature changes influence the thermodynamic equilibrium of a system. The modeling of a geothermal system has therefore to consider besides the mass transport the heat transport and consequently changing solution compositions and the pressure/temperature effected chemical equilibrium. The GEODAT project is aimed to simulate the reactive mass transport in a geothermal reservoir in the North German basin (Gross Schoenebeck). The project was performed by the cooperation of three partners: Geoforschungsinstitut Potsdam, Bergakademie Freiberg and GRS.

  2. Report on fiscal 2000 survey for geothermal exploration technology verification. Survey of deep-seated geothermal resources; 2000 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    To promote the development of deep-seated geothermal resources in a rationalized way, studies are conducted about deep-seated geothermal resource assessment techniques, development guidelines, and the like. Data were collected at the Sumikawa-Onuma district, Ogiri district, Mori district, Yanaizu-Nishiyama district, and the Onikobe district, and compiled into a database to be open to the public. Studies were made about methods for estimating parameters for deep-seated geothermal reservoirs. The resultant findings indicate that, in the Uenotai and Sumikawa-Onuma districts where geothermal reservoirs are governed mainly by a fracture network, the relaxation method and extrapolation will be effective for deep-seated reservoir temperature estimation, and the ascending current analysis method and extrapolation for permeability estimation. The findings also indicate that the expanse of deep-seated reservoirs will be suitably estimated using a method similar to that applied to shallow-seated reservoirs. In the study of the estimation of the amount of deep-seated geothermal resources, it is concluded that the simplified model A will be effective in dealing with a geothermal district where there is a well-developed fracture network and the simplified model B in dealing with a geothermal district where supply of deep-seated fluid governed by an extensive fault prevails. (NEDO)

  3. 2012 geothermal energy congress. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    ); (15) GEOGRUND*: Transfer of the TCS process into the borehole (David Sauer); (16) 'Heat-in-place-density' - An example for the evaluation of the geothermal potential in Saarland (Hagen Deckert); (17) Experiences of the acidity stimulation of geothermal aquifers and plants (Markus Wolfgramm); (18) Geothermal Atlas for the depiction of possible utilization competitions between CCS and deep geothermy - Methodology and results (E. Suchi); (19) Development of a cooling system for geothermal bore hole probes (Benedict Holbein); (20) Geothermal energy in the context of international radiation protection recommendations (Sebastian Feige); (21) Innovative treatment of groundwater as a condition of an efficient air conditioning in buildings by utilization of near-surface geothermal energy (C. Meyer); (22) Preparation of planning maps for the utilization of near-surface geothermal energy with geo-physical methods (Reinhard Kirsch); (23) Deep geothermal probe Heubach - Progress of the project and facility planning by using an application example (David Kuntz); (24) Realistic numeric models for the simulation of potential geothermal reservoirs in the north-west German basin (Dorothea Reyer); (25) Monobore tracer test sensitivity compared with crack parameters and rock parameter: Lection Horstberg (Iulia Ghergut); (26) Infrastructure of fault zones in red sandstone of the Upper Rhine basin - Digestion analogue studies (Johanna F. Bauer); (27) Characterization of fault zones in shell limestone of the Upper Rhine basin - Digestion analogue studies (Silke Meier).

  4. Geothermal energy - availability - economy - prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappelmeyer, O.

    1992-01-01

    The heat contained in the earth's crust represents an inexhaustible reservoir of energy on the technical scale, which is available at all times of day and at all seasons. In the volcanically active zones, the earth's heat is used industrially: Worldwide, the electrical power of geothermal powerstations is about 5000 MW; in addition, about 10,000 MW are used for direct thermal applications (heating) in regions with normal geothermal conditions. The geothermal power plants have been expanded at an annual rate of 12.2% since 1970. In many developing countries, the geothermal energy is the most important home source of energy for electricity generation. In Europe, in the Paris Basin, hot groundwater is pumped from a depth of about 2 km and is used for heating blocks of flats. In France as a whole, about 170,000 flats have been supplied with heat and hot water from underground for more than a decade. (orig./DG) [de

  5. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  6. Engineered Geothermal System Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, Susan

    2014-06-19

    In June 2009, AltaRock Energy began field work on a project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “Use of Multiple Stimulations to Improve Economics of Engineered Geothermal Systems in Shallow High Temperature Intrusives.” The goal of the project was to develop an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) in the portion of The Geysers geothermal field operated by the Northern California Power Agency (NCPA). The project encountered several problems while deepening Well E-7 which culminated in the suspension of field activities in September 2009. Some of the problems encountered are particular to The Geysers area, while others might be encountered in any geothermal field, and they might be avoided in future operations.

  7. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-07

    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Survey of subjects on the geothermal technology development aiming at marked improvement of economical efficiency; Keizaisei no hiyakuteki kojo to mezashita chinetsu gijutsu kaihatsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the geothermal development cost and increasing the amount of developable resource, the paper reviewed the geothermal developmental technology. Approximately 30 MW as a scale per unit is economical. The development cost is lowered by 2% if the period for development is shortened by two years, by 11% if the utilization rate is increased by 10%, and by 3% if the success rate is increased by 10%. The cost is reduced by 10% if the steam amount per 1 pit is increased to 1.5 times, and by 4% if the reduction amount is increased to 1.5 times. Improvement of survey/exploration/evaluation technology and improvement of power generation/management technology contribute largely to making the above possible. The drilling depth also corresponds with increases in the amount of steam obtained and the cost. The construction cost including the drilling cost is also an important factor, indicating a cost reduction of 15% if the unit price is reduced by 20%. If a 30% reduction of the power generation cost at a 30MW plant can be made, a 10 yen/kWh is realized, which shows that a geothermal power plant can be competitive with a thermal power plant. When thinking of it without subsidies, the geothermal power generation is most economical of all the renewable energy. In the light of the environment, the CO2 issue, etc., the geothermal power generation is much more advantageous than the thermal power generation. 7 refs., 28 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Geothermal well log interpretation midterm report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1979-02-01

    Reservoir types are defined according to fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, and salinity and fluid chemistry. Improvements are needed in lithology and porosity definition, fracture detection, and thermal evaluation for more accurate interpretation. Further efforts are directed toward improving diagnostic techniques for relating rock characteristics and log response, developing petrophysical models for geothermal systems, and developing thermal evaluation techniques. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated only on hydrothermal geothermal reservoirs. Other geothermal reservoirs (hot dry rock, geopressured, etc.) are not considered.

  10. Geothermal heat; Energie aus der Tiefe. Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Karl

    2012-09-15

    The temperature in the interior of the earth increases with the depth. But for a long time, the geothermal energy only could be used at selected locations. Therefore, almost all major geothermal power plants are located at volcanic regions. The potential of the geothermal energy is not exhausted. Currently, many new power plants are developed. Although there is no volcanic activity in Germany, also some pilot plants develop the hot surface. The deep geothermal energy sometimes is difficult to be controlled. Before drilling experts rarely know how productive the subsoil is. Also, the drillings may trigger small earthquakes.

  11. Geothermal Progress Monitor. Report No. 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Two themes dominate this issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor, the 15th since its inception in 1980. The first of these is the significance of the government/industry partnership role in geothermal development. This joint effort is reflected in the continued, measured growth in the use of geothermal energy, for both power generation and direct use applications, in this country and abroad, as well as in the development of new, innovative technologies to ensure a bright future for the resource. The second theme is the growing popularity of geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) among utilities, their customers, and federal agencies, all with disparate interests in the technology.

  12. Geothermal progress monitor: Report Number 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    Short articles are presented related to activities in the federal government and the geothermal industry, international developments, state and local government activities, technology development, and technology transfer. Power plant tables and a directory of organizations involved in geothermal resource development are included

  13. Geothermal progress monitor: Report Number 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Short articles are presented related to activities in the federal government and the geothermal industry, international developments, state and local government activities, technology development, and technology transfer. Power plant tables and a directory of organizations involved in geothermal resource development are included.

  14. Where is Argentina going in geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mange, J

    1977-01-01

    A brief review is given of geothermal exploration and development in Argentina. Methodical efforts to inventory the geothermal resources of the country were begun in 1974. The Commission set itself the task of locating the geothermal anomalies and then selecting particular anomalies for intensive exploration in order to confirm or discard the possibilities of exploiting the resource. The known principal anomalies are listed and the two selected for intensive exploration are indicated. (JSR)

  15. Inflammatory Macrophages Promotes Development of Diabetic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beiyun; Miao, Ya; Zhao, Zhe; Zhong, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and Alzheimer's disease are often associated with each other, whereas the relationship between two diseases is ill-defined. Although hyperglycemia during diabetes is a major cause of encephalopathy, diabetes may also cause chronic inflammatory complications including peripheral neuropathy. Hence the role and the characteristics of inflammatory macrophages in the development of diabetic encephalopathy need to be clarified. Diabetes were induced in mice by i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Two weeks after STZ injection and confirmation of development of diabetes, inflammatory macrophages were eliminated by i.p. injection of 20µg saporin-conjugated antibody against a macrophage surface marker CD11b (saporin-CD11b) twice per week, while a STZ-treated group received injection of rat IgG of same frequency as a control. The effects of macrophage depletion on brain degradation markers, brain malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase, superoxidase anion-positive cells and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. Saporin-CD11b significantly reduced inflammatory macrophages in brain, without affecting mouse blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose responses and beta cell mass. However, reduced brain macrophages significantly inhibited the STZ-induced decreases in brain MDA, catalase and superoxidase anion-positive cells, and the STZ-induced decreases in brain NO. Inflammatory macrophages may promote development of diabetic encephalopathy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Geothermal in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the current market for geothermal projects in the US and overseas. The topics of the article include future capacity needs, upgrading the Coso Geothermal project, the productivity of the Geysers area of Northern California, the future of geothermal, and new projects at Soda Lake, Carson Basin, Unalaska Island, and the Puna Geothermal Venture in Hilo, Hawaii

  17. Direct utilization of geothermal energy: a technical handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N; Lund, J.W. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    This technical handbook includes comprehensive discussions on nature and occurrence of the geothermal resource, its development, utilization, economics, financing, and regulation. Information on pricing parameters for the direct use of geothermal energy is included as an appendix. (MRH)

  18. 2014 Low-Temperature and Coproduced Geothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Reinhardt, Program Manager

    2014-09-01

    As a growing sector of geothermal energy development, the Low-Temperature Program supports innovative technologies that enable electricity production and cascaded uses from geothermal resources below 300° Fahrenheit.

  19. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research, market development and promotion. The Board, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or provide for the...

  20. Geothermal reservoir assessment manual; 1984-1992 nendo chinetsu choryusou hyoka shuhou manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    A geothermal reservoir assessment manual was prepared for the promotion of the development of geothermal power generation, based on the results of the 'geothermal reservoir assessment technique development project' implemented during the fiscal 1984-1992 period and on the results of surveys conducted in Japan and abroad. Of the geothermal systems generally classified into the steam dominant type and the hot water dominant type, encounters with the steam dominant type are but seldom reported. This manual therefore covers the hot water dominant type only. In addition to the explanation of the basic concept and the outline of geothermal reservoirs, the manual carries data necessary for reservoir assessment; geological and geophysical data analyses; geochemistry in reservoir assessment; data of underground logging and of fuming; conceptual models; simulators and models for reservoir simulation; natural-state simulation, history-matching simulation, and reservoir behavior predicting simulation; case history (modeling of a geothermal reservoir prior to exploitation), references, and so forth. (NEDO)

  1. The National Geothermal Energy Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The continuous demand for energy and the concern for shortages of conventional energy resources have spurred the nation to consider alternate energy resources, such as geothermal. Although significant growth in the one natural steam field located in the United States has occurred, a major effort is now needed if geothermal energy, in its several forms, is to contribute to the nation's energy supplies. From the early informal efforts of an Interagency Panel for Geothermal Energy Research, a 5-year Federal program has evolved whose objective is the rapid development of a commercial industry for the utilization of geothermal resources for electric power production and other products. The Federal program seeks to evaluate the realistic potential of geothermal energy, to support the necessary research and technology needed to demonstrate the economic and environmental feasibility of the several types of geothermal resources, and to address the legal and institutional problems concerned in the stimulation and regulation of this new industry.

  2. Development of an internet based geothermal information system for Germany - region Baden-Wuerttemberg; Aufbau eines geothermischen Informationssystems fuer Deutschland - Landesteil Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodocy, M.; Stober, I. [Regierungspraesidium Freiburg (RPF), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Renewable energies as a part of the total energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany are to be extended in the next years. In terms of geothermal resources the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) supports the project ''Development of an Internet Based Geothermal System for Germany'' (GeotIS). The total duration of the project is three years. Lead-managed by the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (GGA-Institute) it is realized in a country wide joint venture project with different partners. Initially the geothermal information system will contain data only about hydrogeothermal resources. The object of the project is to improve quality in the planning stage of geothermal plants and to minimize explorations risks. Key parameters are production rate and temperature. The District Authority (Regierungspraesidium) Freiburg has been assigned to attend to the areas of the Upper Rhine Graben and the North Alpine Foreland Basin (Molasse Basin) both situated in Baden-Wuerttemberg. First intermediate results are presented. (orig.)

  3. Expanding Geothermal Resource Utilization through Directed Research, Education, and Public Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Wendy [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-29

    The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy (GBCGE or the Center) was established at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) in May 2000 to promote research and utilization of geothermal resources. The Center received funding through this grant to promote increased geothermal development in the Great Basin, with most of the funding used for peerreviewed research. Funding to the Center and work under the contract were initiated in March 2002, with supplemental funding in subsequent years. The Center monitored the research projects that were competitively awarded in a series of proposal calls between 2002 and 2007. Peer-reviewed research promoted identification and utilization of geothermal resources in Nevada. Projects used geology, geochemistry, geophysics, remote sensing, and the synthesis of multi-disciplinary information to produce new models of geothermal systems in the Western U.S. and worldwide. Funds were also used to support graduate student research and training. Part of the grant was used to support public outreach activities, including webpages, online maps and data resources, and informational workshops for stakeholders.

  4. Department of Energy--Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Geothermal Program: Geothermal Risk Mitigation Strategies Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-02-15

    An overview of general financial issues for renewable energy investments; geothermal energy investment barriers and risks; and recommendations for incentives and instruments to be considered to stimulate investment in geothermal energy development.

  5. Federal Interagency Geothermal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Prencipe, Loretta [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Todaro, Richard M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Cuyler, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eide, Elizabeth [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This collaborative document describes the roles and responsibilities of key Federal agencies in the development of geothermal technologies including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), including the U.S. Forest Service; the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI), including the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and the Department of Defense (DOD).

  6. Geothermal training at Auckland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochstein, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 297 candidates from developing countries have attended the annual Geothermal Diploma Course at the University of Auckland between 1979 and 1989. Additional training in the form of post-graduate studies and short-term specialized courses has been given to 69 candidates from these countries between 1989 and 1989. In this paper performance indicators for the training are discussed, namely: demand, job retention rate, regional intake in relation to demand, and publication record of fellows

  7. Recovery act. Development of design and simulation tool for hybrid geothermal heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaojie [ClimateMaster, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Ellis, Dan [ClimateMaster, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2014-05-29

    The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is one of the most energy efficient HVAC technologies in the current market. However, the heat imbalance may degrade the ability of the ground loop heat exchanger (GLHX) to absorb or reject heat. The hybrid GSHP system, which combines a geothermal well field with a supplemental boiler or cooling tower, can balance the loads imposed on the ground loop heat exchangers to minimize its size while retaining superior energy efficiency. This paper presents a recent simulation-based study with an intention to compare multiple common control strategies used in hybrid GSHP systems, including fixed setpoint, outside air reset, load reset, and wetbulb reset. A small office in Oklahoma City conditioned by a hybrid GSHP system was simulated with the latest version of eQUEST 3.7[1]. The simulation results reveal that the hybrid GSHP system has the excellent capability to meet the cooling and heating setpoints during the occupied hours, balance thermal loads on the ground loop, as well as improve the thermal comfort of the occupants with the undersized well field.

  8. Selecting ground-motion models developed for induced seismicity in geothermal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Benjamin; Douglas, John

    2013-11-01

    We present a case study of the ranking and weighting of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for seismic hazard assessment of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). The study region is Cooper Basin (Australia), where a hot-fractured-rock project was established in 2002. We test the applicability of 36 GMPEs based on stochastic simulations previously proposed for use at EGSs. Each GMPE has a set of corresponding model parameters describing stress drop, regional and local (near-surface) attenuation. To select suitable GMPEs for Cooper Basin from the full set, we applied two methods. In the first, seismograms recorded on the local monitoring network were spectrally analysed to determine characteristic stress and attenuation parameters. In a second approach, residual analysis using the log-likelihood (LLH) method was used to directly compare recorded and predicted short-period response spectral accelerations. The resulting ranking was consistent with the models selected based on spectral analysis, with the advantage that a transparent weighting approach was available using the LLH method. Region-specific estimates of variability were computed, with significantly lower values observed compared to previous studies of small earthquakes. This was consistent with the limited range of stress drops and attenuation observed from the spectral analysis.

  9. Developing a promotional strategy: important questions for social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Hanson, Carl L

    2007-10-01

    Health practitioners often use the terms marketing and promotion interchangeably. Yet, promotion is just one element of an overall marketing strategy. To realize the greatest impact there must be a combination of all the marketing components, including product, price, place, and promotion. The purpose of this article is to clarify the role of promotion and describe key elements of developing a promotional strategy within the broader context of a social marketing initiative.

  10. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  11. Research on isotope geology. Assessment of heat production potential of granitic rocks and development of geothermal exploration techniques using radioactive/stable isotopes and fission track 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Cheon; Chi, Se Jung [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Radioelements and heat production rates of granitic rocks and stable isotopes of groundwaters were analyzed to investigate the geothermal potential of Wolchulsan granite complex in the southern Yeongam area. Wolchulsan granite complex is composed mainly by Cretaceous pink alkali-feldspar granite and partly Jurassic biotite granite. The main target for the geothermal exploration is the alkali-feldspar granite that is known in general to be favorable geothermal reservoir(e.g., Shap granite in UK). To develop exploration techniques for geothermal anomalies, all geochemical data were compared to those from the Jeonju granite complex. Heat production rates(HPR) of the alkali-feldspar granite is 1.8 - 10.6 {mu}Wm{sup -3}. High radio-thermal anomalies were revealed from the central western and northern parts of the granite body. These are relatively higher than the Caledonian hot dry granites in the UK. The integrated assessment of Wolchulsan granite complex suggests potential of the Cretaceous alkali-feldspar granite as a geothermal targets. Groundwater geochemistry of the Yeongam area reflects simple evaporation process and higher oxidation environment. Stable isotope data of groundwaters are plotted on or close to the Meteoric Water Line(MWL). These isotopic data indicate a significant meteoric water dominance and do not show oxygen isotope fractionation between groundwater and wall rocks. In despite of high HPR values of the Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite, groundwater samples do not show the same geochemical properties as a thermal water in the Jeonju area. This reason can be well explained by the comparison with geological settings of the Jeonju area. The Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite does not possess any adjacent heat source rocks despite its high radio-thermal HPR. While the Jeonju granite batholith has later heat source intrusive and suitable deep fracture system for water circulation with sedimentary cap rocks. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. A landscape ecology approach to assessing development impacts in the tropics: A geothermal energy example in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.; Trettin, C.C.; O'Neill, R. V.

    2002-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly being used in environmental impact assessments (EIA) because GIS is useful for analysing spatial impacts of various development scenarios. Spatially representing these impacts provides another tool for landscape ecology in environmental and geographical investigations by facilitating analysis of the effects of landscape patterns on ecological processes and examining change over time. Landscape ecological principles are applied in this study to a hypothetical geothermal development project on the Island of Hawaii. Some common landscape pattern metrics were used to analyse dispersed versus condensed development scenarios and their effect on landscape pattern. Indices of fragmentation and patch shape did not appreciably change with additional development. The amount of forest to open edge, however, greatly increased with the dispersed development scenario. In addition, landscape metrics showed that a human disturbance had a greater simplifying effect on patch shape and also increased fragmentation than a natural disturbance. The use of these landscape pattern metrics can advance the methodology of applying GIS to EIA.

  13. Geothermal development and land use/energy planning by the State of California and its political subdivisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-30

    California law contains several vehicles for the implementation of geothermal planning. These mechanisms and their impact are examined. First, at the State level upon the California Energy Commission and the Division of Oil and Gas in the Department of Conservation. After some background on county planning in California, the unique situation in the counties of greatest geothermal potential is presented: Imperial County and the four Geysers counties as well as their joint powers agency. Conclusions and recommendations are included. (MHR)

  14. Application of environmental isotope tracing technology to geothermal geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yingnan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent application and development of environmental isotope tracing technology to geothermal geochemistry in the following aspects: gas isotopes (He, C) tracing of warm springs; H, O isotope tracing on the origin and cause of geothermal water, environmental isotope dating of geothermal water, and the advantage of excess parameter of deuterium (d) in geothermal research. The author also suggests that isotope method should combine with other geological methods to expand its advantage. (authors)

  15. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    This issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor (GPM) is the 11th since the inception of the publication in 1980. It continues to synthesize information on all aspects of geothermal development in this country and abroad to permit identification and quantification of trends in the use of this energy technology. In addition, the GPM is a mechanism for transferring current information on geothermal technology development to the private sector, and, over time, provides a historical record for those interested in the development pathway of the resource. In sum, the Department of Energy makes the GPM available to the many diverse interests that make up the geothermal community for the multiple uses it may serve. This issue of the GPM points up very clearly how closely knit many of those diverse interests have become. It might well be called an international issue'' since many of its pages are devoted to news of geothermal development abroad, to the efforts of the US industry to participate in overseas development, to the support given those efforts by federal and state agencies, and to the formation of the International Geothermal Association (IGA). All of these events indicate that the geothermal community has become truly international in character, an occurrence that can only enhance the future of geothermal energy as a major source of energy supply worldwide. 15 figs.

  16. Geothermal country report of Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottlik, P.

    1990-01-01

    There is a slow but steady increase in the number of geothermal wells in Hungary. The rate of increase is 3-5 new wells/year. In the last years technical development and the raising of efficiency came to the front in utilization of geothermal energy. Technical development is supported by the state. This paper reports that the main directions were: developing a pump suitable for Hungarian conditions, working out the model of sandy and karstic aquifers for simulation and prediction, and developing new chemicals and methods for treating thermal water

  17. Innovation versus monopoly: geothermal energy in the West. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, S.L.; Stover, D.F.; Nelson, P.A.; Lamont, W.J.

    1977-07-01

    The following subjects are covered: geothermal energy and its use, electric utilities and the climate for geothermal development, the raw fuels industry and geothermal energy, and government and energy. The role of large petroleum companies and large public utilities is emphasized. (MHR)

  18. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented including the following: Raft River Valley, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake, Hatchobaru, and Ahuachapan geothermal fields.

  19. Market Analysis of Geothermal Energy for California and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-10-01

    This is one of the earlier market analyses for geothermal electric power and direct heat. The market for geothermal power was found to be large enough to absorb anticipated developments in California. For direct use, geothermal resources and urban markets in CA and HI are not well collocated.

  20. Optimization of the exploitation system of a low enthalpy geothermal aquifer with zones of different transmissivities and temperatures