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Sample records for geothermal area north

  1. New Geothermal Prospect in North-Eastern Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Rimi, Abdelkrim; Correia, António; Carneiro, Júlio; Verdoya, Massimo; Zarhloule, Yassine; Lucazeau, Francis; Boughriba, Mimoun; Barkaoui, Alae Eddine

    2010-01-01

    Geothermal data has been indicating promising potentialities in the north-eastern Morocco. This paperpresents new temperature data, recently recorded in water borehole located in the Berkane and Oujda areas. Generally, the observed temperature gradients are rather high. One hole near Berkane, revealed an average geothermal gradient of more than 110 ºC/km at depths greater than 300 m. This result confirms the geothermal gradient estimated in a mining borehole located about 30 km west ...

  2. Life cycle of a geyser discharge apron: Evidence from Waikite Geyser, Whakarewarewa geothermal area, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Renaut, Robin W.; Owen, R. Bernhart

    2011-05-01

    Waikite, a geyser located in the Whakarewarewa geothermal area on the North Island, New Zealand, has a history of eruptive-dormancy cycles that have been attributed to natural and anthropogenic causes. The last cycle involved an active period from ~ 1932 to 1968/69 that was followed by a period of dormancy that continues today. Such cycles are important because they control the temporal development of the discharge apron. When the geyser is active, growth of the discharge apron is dictated by the precipitation of opal-A, which is controlled by factors such as discharge patterns, water chemistry, pH, temperature, rate of cooling, and the resident microbiota. With dormancy, conditions change radically because water no longer flows down the discharge apron. Instead, the discharge apron lapses into a phase of degradation that, on Waikite, is evident from (1) deflation of the apron surface, (2) blocks splaying off the apron margins along margin-parallel fractures, (3) tension fractures, (4) saucer-shaped collapse zones, (5) increasingly unstable surfaces resulting from subsurface opal-A dissolution, (6) fractures, from which steam and other gases emanate, and (7) incursion of native vegetation around the edge of the apron and on the distal parts of the discharge apron. When the geyser becomes active again, silica precipitation will resume and the discharge apron will once again accrete vertically and expand laterally. Analysis of the Waikite system shows that successions that develop on geyser discharge aprons are formed of unconformity-bounded packages of sinter that reflect the eruptive-dormancy history of the parent geyser.

  3. Subsurface temperatures and geothermal gradients on the North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    1989-01-01

    Geothermal gradients as interpreted from a series of high-resolution stabilized well-bore-temperature surveys from 46 North Slope, Alaska, wells vary laterally and vertically throughout the near-surface sediment (0-2,000 m). The data from these surveys have been used in conjunction with depths of ice-bearing permafrost, as interpreted from 102 well logs, to project geothermal gradients within and below the ice-bearing permafrost sequence. The geothermal gradients calculated from the projected temperature profiles are similar to the geothermal gradients measured in the temperature surveys. Measured and projected geothermal gradients in the ice-bearing permafrost sequence range from 1.5??C/100m in the Prudhoe Bay area to 5.1??C/100m in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA).

  4. Towards a de-carbonized energy system in North-Eastern Morocco: Prospective Geothermal Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Rimi, Abdelkrim; Zarhloule, Yassine; Barkaoui, Alae Eddine; Correia, António; Carneiro, Júlio; Verdoya, Massimo; Lucazeau, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal data has been indicating promising potentialities in the north-eastern Morocco. This paper presents new temperature data, recently recorded in water boreholes located in the Berkane and Oujda areas. Generally, the observed temperature gradients are rather high. One hole near Berkane, revealed an average geothermal gradient of more than 110 °C/km at depths greater than 300 m. This result confirms the geothermal gradient estimated in a mining borehole located about 30 km west of the ...

  5. Report for fiscal 1982 on comprehensive survey for nationwide geothermal resources. Preparation of basic map from among maps of nationwide geothermally promising areas (south Kyushu and north Kyushu); 1982 nendo zenkoku chinetsu shigen sogo chosa hokokusho. Zenkoku chinetsu yubo chiikizu no uchi motozu sakusei (Minaikyushu oyobi Kitakyushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    With an objective to prepare the basic map from among maps of geothermally promising areas in the south Kyushu and north Kyushu, comprehensive analysis has been performed from the standpoint of geothermal analysis by combining the data derived from remote sensing with the data obtained by different physical exploration processes. The analysis has used mainly the gravity data, magnetism data, radar lineament, and Landsat lineament, as well as the latest data processing technology and analytical methods. As a result of the analysis, the area around Kirishima in south Kyushu was indicated as the most promising area for the future geothermal development. This area contains a series of new volcanoes, has the fault systems grown widely, and is expected of existence of water permeable reservoirs in deep underground. The Kagoshima bay area and the Sakurajima Island area were also regarded promising. In the north Kyushu area, such promising areas were indicated as the Futagoyama area in which highly magnetized and high-density volcanic rocks are recognized, and moreover, penetration rocks with magnetic anomaly are recognized in wide area, the area with volcanic actions from the Pliocene period to the Quarternary period, and the area at the north latitude of 33 degrees 38 minutes, and the east longitude of 131 degrees 02 minute. (NEDO)

  6. Report for fiscal 1982 on comprehensive survey for nationwide geothermal resources. Preparation of lineament density maps - radar image analyses - in north-eastern area; 1982 nendo zenkoku chinetsu shigen sogo chosa hokokusho. Lineament mitsudozu sakusei (radar gazo kaiseki (Tohoku chiiki))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    Geological structure analysis maps and lineament maps were prepared on the north-eastern area and parts of the ancillary areas thereof by analyzing radar images of a 1 to 200,000 scale. With regard to the geological structures, analyses were performed by using as the original data the north look radar images for the three special geothermal areas to have prepared the geological structure analysis maps. The analysis of the radar images identified ground bed boundary lines in more detail than in the existing geological maps, and new discoveries were made available on faults. The lineament maps were compiled by implanting into respectively corresponding topographic maps the 24 N-S lineament maps made by the west look radar images for the whole surveyed areas, and the 16 E-W lineament maps made by the north look radar images for the special geothermal areas. Based on the clarity and characteristics deciphered on the images, the lineaments were classified into the major, minor, and subtle lineaments, which were indicated on the lineament maps. The lineaments were digitized by positions of the edge points, and the histograms and statistical tables were prepared by computer processing. (NEDO)

  7. Subsurface temperatures and geothermal gradients on the north slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Magoon, L.B.

    1993-01-01

    On the North Slope of Alaska, geothermal gradient data are available from high-resolution, equilibrated well-bore surveys and from estimates based on well-log identification of the base of ice-bearing permafrost. A total of 46 North Slope wells, considered to be in or near thermal equilibrium, have been surveyed with high-resolution temperatures devices and geothermal gradients can be interpreted directly from these recorded temperature profiles. To augment the limited North Slope temperature data base, a new method of evaluating local geothermal gradients has been developed. In this method, a series of well-log picks for the base of the ice-bearing permafrost from 102 wells have been used, along with regional temperature constants derived from the high-resolution stabilized well-bore temperature surveys, to project geothermal gradients. Geothermal gradients calculated from the high-resolution temperature surveys generally agree with those projected from known ice-bearing permafrost depths over most of the North Slope. Values in the ice-bearing permafrost range from ??? 1.5??C 100 m in the Prudhoe Bay area to ??? 4.5??C 100 m in the east-central portion of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Geothermal gradients below the ice-bearing permafrost sequence range from ??? 1.6??C 100 m to ??? 5.2??C 100 m. ?? 1993.

  8. Crane Creek known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Crane Creek known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in Washington County, in southwestern Idaho. Estimated hydrothermal resource temperatures for the region are 166/sup 0/C (Na-K-Ca) and 176/sup 0/C (quartz). The KGRA is situated along the west side of the north-south trending western Idaho Fault Zone. Historic seismicity data for the region identify earthquake activity within 50 km. The hot springs surface along the margin of a siliceous sinter terrace or in adjacent sediments. Approximately 75% of the KGRA is underlain by shallow, stony soils on steep slopes indicating topographic and drainage limitations to geothermal development. Species of concern include sage grouse, antelope, and mule deer. There is a high probability of finding significant prehistoric cultural resources within the proposed area of development.

  9. Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is one of the more remote KGRAs in Idaho. The chemistry of Vulcan Hot Springs indicates a subsurface resource temperature of 147/sup 0/C, which may be high enough for power generation. An analysis of the limited data available on climate, meteorology, and air quality indicates few geothermal development concerns in these areas. The KGRA is located on the edge of the Idaho Batholith on a north-trending lineament which may be a factor in the presence of the hot springs. An occasional earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater may be expected in the region. Subsidence or elevation as a result of geothermal development in the KGRA do not appear to be of concern. Fragile granitic soils on steep slopes in the KGRA are unstable and may restrict development. The South fork of the Salmon River, the primary stream in the region, is an important salmon spawning grounds. Stolle Meadows, on the edge of the KGRA, is used as a wintering and calving area for elk, and access to the area is limited during this period. Socioeconomic and demographic surveys indicate that facilities and services will probably not be significantly impacted by development. Known heritage resources in the KGRA include two sites and the potential for additional cultural sites is significant.

  10. Low Entalpy Geothermal suitability of north Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccuru, Stefano; Oggiano, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    This note focus on geothermal potentialities of north Sardinia, where several positive thermal anomalies occur along with geolithological and climatic conditions, which make the area specifically suitable for geoexchange. Sardinia consists of a Variscan basement metamorphosed at different grade and further intruded by a late orogenic batholith. Above this basement, since Mesozoic time, a composite sedimentary and volcanic succession occurs, with maximum thickness of 2-3 Km in correspondence of some extensional and strike-slip Cenozoic basins. The volcanic activity consists of a calcalkaline cycle with crustal component, which started in the late Eocene and ended in the Serravallian; another, mantle derived, alkaline-transitional cycle took place during Pliocene and ended in the middle Pleistocene. Several evidences of geothermal circuits occur in northwestern Sardinia, where some springs characterized by anomalous water temperatures and/or chemical-physical features (e.g., high salinity and carbon dioxide content) were known. In addiction those already exploited (e.g., S. Lucia, S. Martino), new springs and boreholes characterized by positive anomalous water temperatures (in the range of 24 and 35 °C) have been highlighted during our recent surveys. These waters are warmer than the homoeothermic level temperature (where no seasonal variations are recorded), which in the area is 15-16 °C. Considering the absence of active volcanism, the anomalous temperatures must be generated by the uprising of deep meteoric water along a plumbing network of crustal faults that bound the extensional as well as the strike slip basins. Rainwater heated for geothermal gradient can upwell rapidly interacting with surface aquifers that, hence, experience heating at different degree. The physical characteristics (i.e., thermal conductivity, open porosity, permeability etc) of the rocks cropping in north Sardinia, regardless the positive thermal anomalies, are profitably suitable for

  11. The Preston Geothermal Resources; Renewed Interest in a Known Geothermal Resource Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas R. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Worthing, Wade [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cannon, Cody [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmer, Carl [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis L [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Mattson, Earl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Dobson, Patric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Conrad, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

    2015-01-01

    The Preston Geothermal prospect is located in northern Cache Valley approximately 8 kilometers north of the city of Preston, in southeast Idaho. The Cache Valley is a structural graben of the northern portion of the Basin and Range Province, just south of the border with the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). This is a known geothermal resource area (KGRA) that was evaluated in the 1970's by the State of Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR) and by exploratory wells drilled by Sunedco Energy Development. The resource is poorly defined but current interpretations suggest that it is associated with the Cache Valley structural graben. Thermal waters moving upward along steeply dipping northwest trending basin and range faults emanate in numerous hot springs in the area. Springs reach temperatures as hot as 84° C. Traditional geothermometry models estimated reservoir temperatures of approximately 125° C in the 1970’s study. In January of 2014, interest was renewed in the areas when a water well drilled to 79 m (260 ft) yielded a bottom hole temperature of 104° C (217° F). The well was sampled in June of 2014 to investigate the chemical composition of the water for modeling geothermometry reservoir temperature. Traditional magnesium corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometry estimates this new well to be tapping water from a thermal reservoir of 227° C (440° F). Even without the application of improved predictive methods, the results indicate much higher temperatures present at much shallower depths than previously thought. This new data provides strong support for further investigation and sampling of wells and springs in the Northern Cache Valley, proposed for the summer of 2015. The results of the water will be analyzed utilizing a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry (MEG) tool called Reservoir Temperature Estimate (RTEst) to obtain an improved estimate of the reservoir temperature. The new data suggest that other KGRAs and overlooked areas may need

  12. Geothermal studies in oil field districts of North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-An; Wang, Ji-Yang; Yan, Shu-Zhen; Lu, Xiu-Wen

    In North China, Tertiary sediments give the main oil-genetic series. The mean value of terrestrial heat flow density has been considered to be 60 - 65 mW/m2, and the geothermal gradient in Tertiary sediments usually ranges from 30 to 40° C/km in the region studied. Supposing that the onset of oil generation lies at about 90° C, the upper limit of the depth of oil-generation is at about 2000 to 2500 m depth. Recent paleogeothermal studies using vitrinite reflectance, clay and authigenic minerals, as well as other methods showed that in Eocene the geothermal gradient has been higher than at present. Some results were obtained and discussed.

  13. Analysis of Geothermal Pathway in the Metamorphic Area, Northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Wu, M. Y.; Song, S. R.; Lo, W.

    2016-12-01

    A quantitative measure by play fairway analysis in geothermal energy development is an important tool that can present the probability map of potential resources through the uncertainty studies in geology for early phase decision making purpose in the related industries. While source, pathway, and fluid are the three main geologic factors in traditional geothermal systems, identifying the heat paths is critical to reduce drilling cost. Taiwan is in East Asia and the western edge of Pacific Ocean, locating on the convergent boundary of Eurasian Plate and Philippine Sea Plate with many earthquake activities. This study chooses a metamorphic area in the western corner of Yi-Lan plain in northeastern Taiwan with high geothermal potential and several existing exploration sites. Having high subsurface temperature gradient from the mountain belts, and plenty hydrologic systems through thousands of millimeters annual precipitation that would bring up heats closer to the surface, current geothermal conceptual model indicates the importance of pathway distribution which affects the possible concentration of extractable heat location. The study conducts surface lineation analysis using analytic hierarchy process to determine weights among various fracture types for their roles in geothermal pathways, based on the information of remote sensing data, published geologic maps and field work measurements, to produce regional fracture distribution probability map. The results display how the spatial distribution of pathways through various fractures could affect geothermal systems, identify the geothermal plays using statistical data analysis, and compare against the existing drilling data.

  14. Detectability of geothermal areas using Skylab X-5 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, B. S.; Kahle, A. B.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Gillespie, A. R.; Abrams, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of a study which was undertaken to determine if data from a single near-noon pass of Skylab could be used to detect geothermal areas. The size and temperature requirements for a geothermally heated area to be seen by Skylab S-192 MSS X-5 thermal sensor were calculated. This sensor obtained thermal data with the highest spatial resolution of any nonmilitary satellite system. Only very large hot areas could be expected to be unambiguously recognized with a single data set from this instrument. The study area chosen was The Geysers geothermal field in Sonoma County, California, the only geothermal area of significant size scanned by Skylab. Unfortunately, 95% of the Skylab thermal channel data was acquired within 3 hours of local noon. For The Geysers area only daytime X-5 data were available. An analysis of the thermal channel data (10.2 to 12.5 um) revealed that ground temperatures determined by Skylab were normally distributed. No anomalous hot spots were apparent. Computer enhancement techniques were used to delineate the hottest 100 and 300 ground areas (pixel, 75 m by 75 m) within the study region. It was found that the Skylab MSS with the X-5 thermal detector does not have sufficient spatial resolution to locate unambiguously from daytime data any but the largest and hottest convectively created geothermal features, which in general are prominent enough to have been previously recognized.

  15. EVALUATION OF PROSPECTS OF INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Alkhasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to assess the prospects for the integrated development of geothermal resources in the North Caucasus region.Methods. Technological solutions are proposed for integrated development of hightemperature hydrogeothermal resources of the North Caucasus region. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technologies was carried out with the use of physico-mathematical, thermodynamic and optimization methods of calculation and physico-chemical experimental studies.Findings. Were estimated the prospects of complex processing of highly parametrical geothermal resources of the Eastern Ciscaucasian artesian basin (ECAB with conversion of thermal energy into electric power in a binary GeoPP and subsequent extraction of dissolved chemical compounds. The most promising areas for the development of such resources were indicated. In connection with the exacerbated environmental problems, it was shown the need for the firstpriority integrated development of associated high-mineralized brines of the South Sukhokum group of gas-oil wells in North Dagestan. At present, associated brines with a radioactive background exceeding permissible standards are discharged to surface filtration fields; technological solutions for their decontamination and integrated development were proposed.Conclusions. The comprehensive development of high-temperature hydrogeothermal brines is a new direction in geothermal energy, which will significantly increase the production of hydrogeothermal resources and develop the geothermal industry at a higher level with the implementation of energy-efficient advanced technologies. Large-scale development of brines will solve significant problems of energy supply in the region and import substitution, fully meeting Russia's needs for food and technical salt and other rare elements. 

  16. Rock geochemistry related to mineralization processes in geothermal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, A. Al; Indarto, S.; Setiawan, I.

    2018-02-01

    Abundant geothermal systems in Indonesia suggest high heat and mass transfer associated with recent or paleovolcanic arcs. In the active geothermal system, the upflow of mixed fluid between late stage hydrothermal and meteoric water might contain mass of minerals associated with epithermal mineralisation process as exemplified at Lihir gold mine in Papua New Guinea. In Indonesia, there is a lack of study related to the precious metals occurrence within active geothermal area. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the possibility of mineralization process in active geothermal area of Guci, Central Java by using geochemical analysis. There are a lot of conducted geochemical analysis of water, soil and gas by mapping the temperature, pH, Hg and CO2 distribution, and estimating subsurface temperature based on geothermometry approach. Then we also apply rock geochemistry to find minerals that indicate the presence of mineralization. The result from selected geothermal area shows the presence of pyrite and chalcopyrite minerals on the laharic breccias at Kali Putih, Sudikampir. Mineralization is formed within host rock and the veins are associated with gold polymetallic mineralization.

  17. Bruneau Known Geothermal Resource Area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Bruneau Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) is part of the Bruneau-Grandview thermal anomaly, the largest geothermal area in the western US. This part of Owyhee County is the driest part of Idaho. The KGRA is associated with the southern boundary fault zone of the Snake River Plain. Thermal water, produced from numerous artesian wells in the region, is supplied from two major aquifers. Ecological concerns include the threatened Astragalus mulfordiae and the numerous birds of prey nesting in the Snake River canyon northwest of the KGRA. Extensive geothermal development may strain the limited health care facilities in the county. Ethnographic information suggests that there is a high probability of prehistoric cultural materials being remnant in the Hot Spring locality.

  18. On the evolution of the geothermal regime of the North China Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-yang; Chen, Mo-xiang; Wang, Ji-an; Deng, Xiao

    1985-12-01

    Recent heat flow and regional geothermal studies indicate that the North China Basin is characterized by relatively high heat flow compared with most stable areas in other parts of the world, but lower heat flow than most active tectonic areas. Measured heat flow values range from 61 to 74 mW m -2. The temperature at a depth of 2000 m is generally in the range 75 to 85°C, but sometimes is 90°C or higher. The geothermal gradient in Cenozoic sediments is in the range 30 to 40°C/km for most of the area. The calculated temperature at the Moho is 560 and 640°C for surface heat flow values of 63 and 71 mW m -2, respectively. These thermal data are consistent with other geophysical observations for the North China Basin. Relatively high heat flow in this area is related to Late Cretaceous-Paleogene rifting as described in this paper.

  19. Deformation at Krafla and Bjarnarflag geothermal areas, Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland, 1993-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Vincent; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Verhagen, Sandra; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Spaans, Karsten; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún

    2017-09-01

    The Krafla volcanic system has geothermal areas within the Krafla caldera and at Bjarnarflag in the Krafla fissure swarm, 9-km south of the Krafla caldera. Arrays of boreholes extract geothermal fluids for power plants in both areas. We collected and analyzed InSAR, GPS, and leveling data spanning 1993-2015 in order to investigate crustal deformation in these areas. The volcanic zone hosting the geothermal areas is also subject to large scale regional deformation processes, including plate spreading and deflation of the Krafla volcanic system. These deformation processes have to be taken into account in order to isolate the geothermal deformation signal. Plate spreading produces the largest horizontal displacements, but the regional deformation pattern also suggests readjustment of the Krafla system at depth after the 1975-1984 Krafla rifting episode. Observed deformation can be fit by an inflation source at about 20 km depth north of Krafla and a deflation source at similar depth directly below the Krafla caldera. Deflation signal along the fissure swarm can be reproduced by a 1-km wide sill at 4 km depth closing by 2-4 cm per year. These sources are considered to approximate the combined effects of vertical deformation associated with plate spreading and post-rifting response. Local deformation at the geothermal areas is well resolved in addition to these signals. InSAR shows that deformation at Bjarnarflag is elongated along the direction of the Krafla fissure swarm (∼ 4 km by ∼ 2 km) while it is circular at Krafla (∼ 5 km diameter). Rates of deflation at Krafla and Bjarnarflag geothermal areas have been relatively steady. Average volume decrease of about 6.6 × 105 m3/yr for Krafla and 3.9 × 105 m3/yr for Bjanarflag are found at sources located at ∼ 1.5 km depth, when interpreted by a spherical point source of pressure. This volume change represents about 8 × 10-3 m3/ton of the mass of geothermal fluid extracted per year, indicating important renewal

  20. Castle Creek known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Castle Creek known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is part of the large Bruneau-Grand View thermal anomaly in southwestern Idaho. The KGRA is located in the driest area of Idaho and annual precipitation averages 230 mm. The potential of subsidence and slope failure is high in sediments of the Glenns Ferry Formation and Idaho Group found in the KGRA. A major concern is the potential impact of geothermal development on the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area which overlaps the KGRA. Any significant economic growth in Owyhee County may strain the ability of the limited health facilities in the county. The Idaho Archaeological survey has located 46 archaeological sites within the KGRA.

  1. Geophysical investigations of the Seferihisar geothermal area, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drahor, Mahmut G.; Berge, Meric A. [Dokuz Eyluel University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geophysics, Tinaztepe Campus, 35160 Buca-Izmir (Turkey)

    2006-06-15

    Self-potential (SP), magnetic and very low frequency electromagnetic (EM-VLF) surveys were carried out in the Seferihisar geothermal area to identify major and minor fault zones and characterize the geothermal system. The SP study provided useful information on the local faults and subsurface fluid flow. The main SP anomalies appear mostly along and near active fault zones in the area of the Cumali, Tuzla and Doganbey hot springs. Two of these anomalies near the Tuzla hot springs were further evaluated by SP modelling. Total magnetic field values increase from the Doganbey to the Cumali hot springs. Modelling performed on the magnetic data indicates that between these two spring areas are four different regions or units that can be distinguished on the basis of their magnetic susceptibility values. Fraser filtering of EM-VLF data also indicates that there are three significant conductive zones in the regions around the Cumali, Tuzla and Doganbey hot springs, and that they lie between important fault systems. The EM-VLF and total (stacked) SP data show that the conductive tilt anomalies obtained by Fraser filtering generally coincide with negative SP areas. According to our geophysical investigations, new exploratory wells should be drilled into the conductive zones located between the Cumali and Tuzla hot springs. We further recommend that resistivity and magnetotelluric methods be carried out in the area to obtain additional information on the Seferihisar geothermal system. (author)

  2. Rock alteration in some geothermal areas of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Y

    1966-01-01

    Petrological studies were made of stable metamorphic mineral assemblages found in drill cores taken in Japan and New Zealand. These studies showed that the temperature and depth of the point at which zeolite assemblages are transformed into feldspar bearing assemblages can be used as indicators of water pressure or of the ratio of water pressure to total pressure in the deeper part of geothermal areas.

  3. kaduna area, north ce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Similarly, the relative variation of depth to the water table inferred from the spectral analysis was used to deduce .... All the image processing and map preparations were done on a .... investigations in shallow basement areas of. Zaria, Kaduna ...

  4. Mountain home known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Mountain Home KGRA encompasses an area of 3853 hectares (ha) at the foot of the Mount Bennett Hills in Elmore County, Idaho. The site is associated with an arid climate and high winds that generate an acute dust problem. The KGRA lies adjacent to the northwest-southeast trending fault zone that reflects the northern boundary of the western Snake River Plain graben. Data indicate that a careful analysis of the subsidence potential is needed prior to extensive geothermal development. Surface water resources are confined to several small creeks. Lands are utilized for irrigated farmlands and rangeland for livestock. There are no apparent soil limitations to geothermal development. Sage grouse and mule deer are the major species of concern. The potential of locating significant heritage resources other than the Oregon Trail or the bathhouse debris appears to be relatively slight.

  5. NORTH END ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Harald; Bigsby, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies conducted in the North End Roadless Area, Arizona indicate probable or substantiated metallic mineral-resource potential in about one-fifth of the area. The area has potential for disseminated or stockwork-type molybdenum mineralization, copper-lead-zinc-silver veins, lead-zinc-silver limestone replacement deposits, and tungsten-bearing contact metamorphic skarn deposits. The area also contains cement rock and marble dimension stone, but has only slight promise for the occurrence of petroleum and natural gas.

  6. Geophysical exploration of the Boku geothermal area, Central Ethiopian Rift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abiye, Tamiru A. [School of Geosciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag X3, P.O. Box Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa); Tigistu Haile [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2008-12-15

    The Boku central volcano is located within the axial zone of the Central Ethiopian Rift near the town of Nazareth, Ethiopia. An integrated geophysical survey involving thermal, magnetic, electrical and gravimetric methods has been carried out over the Boku geothermal area in order to understand the circulation of fluids in the subsurface, and to localize the 'hot spot' providing heat to the downward migrating groundwaters before they return to the surface. The aim of the investigations was to reconstruct the geometry of the aquifers and the fluid flow paths in the Boku geothermal system, the country's least studied. Geological studies show that it taps heat from the shallow acidic Quaternary volcanic rocks of the Rift floor. The aquifer system is hosted in Quaternary Rift floor ignimbrites that are intensively fractured and receive regional meteoric water recharge from the adjacent escarpment and locally from precipitation and the Awash River. Geophysical surveys have mapped Quaternary faults that are the major geologic structures that allow the ascent of the hotter fluids towards the surface, as well as the cold-water recharge of the geothermal system. The shallow aquifers are mapped, preferred borehole sites for the extraction of thermal fluids are delineated and the depths to deeper thermal aquifers are estimated. (author)

  7. Geotemperature pattern and geothermal resources in North China Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Xiao; Chen Moxing; Xiong Liangping; Zhang Juming [Inst. of Geology. Academis Sinica, Beijing (China)

    1995-12-31

    Geotemperature pattern of the North China Basin has been studied. Results indicate that the geotemperature pattern of the Basin is in close correlation with its geological structure, mainly controlled by the structural form or the relief of the basement rock. Generally, high heat flow and high geotemperature zone correspond to basement uplifts whereas low heat flow and low geotemperature zone, to basement depressions. As a consequence, a `high-low-high` geotemperature pattern with NE and EW trending was thus formed and is observed in the North China Basin. This pattern has been validated and revealed by mathematical simulation. In the North China Basin, two main thermal water reservoirs are identified: porous type water in the Neogene system and fissure type water in Lower Paleozoic to Mid-Upper Proterozoic limestone bedrocks. The reserve of thermal water and recoverable resource are estimated. Results show that the North China Basin is an area with abundant low-medium temperature thermal water resources. 9 figs., 5 tabs., 10 refs.

  8. Preliminary study of Songa-Wayaua geothermal prospect area using volcanostratigraphy and remote sensing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokawaty, Ribka; Nugroho, Indra; Satriana, Joshua; Hafidz, Muhamad; Suryantini

    2017-12-01

    Songa-Wayaua geothermal prospect area is located on Bacan Island, Northern Molluca Province. Geothermal systems in this area associated with three Quartenary volcanoes, such as Mt. Pele-pele, Mt. Lansa, and Mt. Bibinoi. Based on literature study, five surface manifestations such as hot springs and alteration occurred within this area. The active manifestations indicate that Songa-Wayaua area has potential geothermal resource. This study objective is to evaluate Songa-Wayaua geothermal system on preliminary study stage by using volcanostratigraphy and remote sensing analysis to delineate the boundary of geothermal system area. The result of this study showed that Songa-Wayaua prospect area has four heat sources potential (e.g. Pele-pele Hummock, Lansa Hummock, Songa Hummock, and Bibinoi Hummock), controlled by geological structure presented by Pele-pele Normal Fault, and had three places as the recharge and discharge area which are very fulfilling as a geothermal system.

  9. An Investigation of the 3D Electrical Resistivity Structure in the Chingshui Geothermal Area, NE Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chingshui geothermal area southwest of the Ilan plain is identified as a western extension of the Okinawa Trough in the northern Taiwan subduction system. Numerous geophysical, geological and geochemical investigations have been conducted since the 1970s by the Industrial Technology Research Institute, the Chinese Petroleum Corporation of Taiwan and the National Science Council of Taiwan. These studies indicated that the Chingshui stream is one of the largest geothermal areas for electricity generation in Taiwan. However, the power generation efficiency has not met initial expectations. Magnetotelluric (MT data analyses show that the Chingshui geothermal region is a geologically complex area. A full three-dimensional (3D inversion was therefore applied to reprocess the MT data and provide the detailed electrical structure beneath the Chingshui geothermal region. The 3D geoelectrical model displays an improved image that clearly delineates the Chingshui geothermal system geometry. Two conductive anomalies are imaged that possibly indicate high potential areas for geothermal energy in the Chingshui geothermal system. One of the potential areas is located in the eastern part of the Chingshui Fault at shallow depths. A significant conductive anomaly is associated with high heat flow and fluid content situations southwest of the geothermal manifest area at depth. A higher interconnected fluid indicates that this area contains the highest potential for geothermal energy in the Chingshui geothermal system.

  10. Tables of co-located geothermal-resource sites and BLM Wilderness Study Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.

    1982-11-01

    Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.

  11. Geophysical investigations of the geologic and hydrothermal framework of the Pilgrim Springs Geothermal Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Jonathan; McPhee, Darcy K.; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Pilgrim Hot Springs, located on the Seward Peninsula in west-central Alaska, is characterized by hot springs, surrounding thawed regions, and elevated lake temperatures. The area is of interest because of its potential for providing renewable energy for Nome and nearby rural communities. We performed ground and airborne geophysical investigations of the Pilgrim Springs geothermal area to identify areas indicative of high heat flow and saline geothermal fluids, and to map key structures controlling hydrothermal fluid flow. Studies included ground gravity and magnetic measurements, as well as an airborne magnetic and frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) survey. The structural and conceptual framework developed from this study provides critical information for future development of this resource and is relevant more generally to our understanding of geothermal systems in active extensional basins. Potential field data reveal the Pilgrim area displays a complex geophysical fabric reflecting a network of intersecting fault and fracture sets ranging from inherited basement structures to Tertiary faults. Resistivity models derived from the airborne EM data reveal resistivity anomalies in the upper 100 m of the subsurface that suggest elevated temperatures and the presence of saline fluids. A northwest trending fabric across the northeastern portion of the survey area parallels structures to the east that may be related to accommodation between the two major mountain ranges south (Kigluaik) and east (Bendeleben) of Pilgrim Springs. The area from the springs southward to the range front, however, is characterized by east-west trending, range-front-parallel anomalies likely caused by late Cenozoic structures associated with north-south extension that formed the basin. The area around the springs (~10 km2 ) is coincident with a circular magnetic high punctuated by several east-west trending magnetic lows, the most prominent occurring directly over the springs. These features

  12. Geothermal heat pumps, a booming technology in North America; Geothermal Heat Pumps - der Boom der oberflaechennahen Geothermie in Nordamerika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanner, B [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    1997-12-01

    Over the last years, the interest in and the use of ground-source heat pumps has substantially increased in North America. In a market dominated by space cooling heat pumps can show clearly their advantages. This paper describes the development in Canada and USA, gives examples of the technologies used and presents some large plants. The differences to the Central European situation are discussed. Also mentioned are the various activities in market penetration, which peaked in the foundation of the `Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium` in Washington in 1994. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den letzten Jahren hat das Interesse an und der Einsatz von erdgekoppelten Waermepumpen in Nordamerika stark zugenommen. In einem von der Raumkuehlung dominierten Markt koennen Waermepumpen ihre Vorteile voll ausspielen. Der Beitrag beschreibt die Entwicklung in Kanada und den USA, stellt Beispiele der eingesetzten Technik vor und geht auf einige Grossanlagen ein. Ausserdem werden die Unterschiede zu der Situation in Mitteleuropa herausgearbeitet und die verschiedenen Aktivitaeten zu `Markt Penetration` behandelt, die 1994 in die Gruendung des `Geothermal Heat Pump Consortiums` in Washington muendeten. (orig.)

  13. Geothermal Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluska, Oscar P.; Tangir, Daniel; Perri, Matias S.

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of geothermal energy is given that includes a short description of the active and stable areas in the world. The possibilities of geothermal development in Argentina are analyzed taking into account the geothermal fields of the country. The environmental benefits of geothermal energy are outlined

  14. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in

  15. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.36. Mt. Amemasudake area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 36 Amemasudake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Amemasudake area' which was carried out at Akaigawa village, Yoichi county, Hokkaido, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey, gravity exploration, electromagnetic exploration and electric exploration, core test by drilling 5 boreholes, test to induce jetting of geothermal fluids, measurement of in-borehole temperature/pressure, survey of geochemical properties of geothermal water. As to the fracture system in this area, the Amemasudake fault and the Amemasuzawa fault are especially important, and it was assumed that these faults had relation to the present geothermal distribution. It is thought that structural conditions of geothermal reservoirs are fractures in basement rocks. As a result of the borehole survey, it was indicated that the center of the high-temperature part with a temperature of 250 degrees C or more was in the boundary zone southeast of this area at a level of 500m below sea level. The scale, which reached about 3km both in east/west and north/south, is almost the same scale as that of the neighboring Toyoha area where great potentiality of the geothermal development is expected. (NEDO)

  16. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.36. Mt. Amemasudake area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 36 Amemasudake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Amemasudake area' which was carried out at Akaigawa village, Yoichi county, Hokkaido, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey, gravity exploration, electromagnetic exploration and electric exploration, core test by drilling 5 boreholes, test to induce jetting of geothermal fluids, measurement of in-borehole temperature/pressure, survey of geochemical properties of geothermal water. As to the fracture system in this area, the Amemasudake fault and the Amemasuzawa fault are especially important, and it was assumed that these faults had relation to the present geothermal distribution. It is thought that structural conditions of geothermal reservoirs are fractures in basement rocks. As a result of the borehole survey, it was indicated that the center of the high-temperature part with a temperature of 250 degrees C or more was in the boundary zone southeast of this area at a level of 500m below sea level. The scale, which reached about 3km both in east/west and north/south, is almost the same scale as that of the neighboring Toyoha area where great potentiality of the geothermal development is expected. (NEDO)

  17. Geochemical studies of the geothermal area East of the Jombo Hill intrusion Coast Province. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tole, M.P.

    1985-09-01

    Geothermal resources in Kenya can be classified into two types; (i) High temperature geothermal resources, found within the Kenyan section of Rift Valley System, and (ii) Low temperature geothermal resources found outside the main Rift Valley System (figure 1). The high temperature geothermal resources have received first priority in research and development, and this has culminated in their exploitation at the Olkaria Geothermal Field which currently generates 45 MW of electricity, representing approximately 18% of Kenya's electricity requirements. Further research is directed at opening up electricity generating plants within the Rift Valley Geothermal Systems occuring between Lake Bogoria and Lake Magadi. The low temperature geothermal resources have received less attention in Kenya. In some countries, low temperature geothermal resources have been utilised for a number of domestic and commercial undertakings (table 1), among them (a) space heating (b) recreational baths (c) sugar refining. In china, low temperature (less than 90 o C) geothermal reservoirs have been used to provide energy for electrical generating plants (Reed and Bliss, 1983). An examination of the distribution of the low temperature geothermal sites in Kenya (figure 1) indicates that most of them could be easily utilised for one or more of the domestic and commercial activities mentioned above, by virtue of their location. In order that recommendations regarding the type of use that each of these hotsprings can be put to can be made, proper evaluation of each site must be made: in particular the underground hotwater temperatures as well as the extent of the geothermal field at each site must be evaluated. Geochemical studies provide the cheapest (most cost-effective) method of geothermal energy exploration. The purpose of this project was to determine the extent of the hot zone, as well as the underground reservoir temperatures in the geothermal field North East of the Jomo Hill intrusion

  18. Cerrejon North Area, Environmental Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preteft Emiliani, Antonio

    1993-01-01

    The carboniferous complex of The Cerrejon North Area, it is located to the north of Colombia in the Atlantic coast, in the Guajira Department. The complex carboniferous has with three units: the mine, the railway and the shipment port. The associate companies, they have developed a series of plans to achieve that the ecosystem of the region like the life of the residents of the near towns to the carboniferous complex, don't be affected by the operation activities. From the beginning of the operations and according to the environmental impact study, was designed and it implanted a program of ecological protection with control actions and of monitory for the soil resources, water and air, of equal form, programs of social action were designed that allow that the realization of a work like this contributes benefits and non sacrifices to the human population, vegetable and animal of the region. The associates commit to make permanent efforts to improve the environmental acting in all the activities of their business, it will stimulate the respect and the concern for the environment, natural and social, and it will emphasize each employee's individual responsibility in the environmental acting

  19. A Rock Physics Feasibility Study of the Geothermal Gassum Reservoir, Copenhagen Area, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredesen, Kenneth; Dalgaard, Esben Borch; Mathiesen, Anders

    The subsurface of Denmark stores significant amounts of renewable geothermal energy which may contribute to domestic heating for centuries. However, establishing a successful geothermal plant with robust production capacity require reservoirs with sufficient high porosity and permeability. Modern...... quantitative seismic interpretation is a good approach to de-risk prospects and gain reservoir insight, but is so far not widely used for geothermal applications. In this study we perform a rock physics feasibility study as a pre-step towards quantitative seismic interpretation of geothermal reservoirs......, primarily in areas around Copenhagen. The results argue that it may be possible to use AVO and seismic inversion data to distinguish geothermal sandstone reservoirs from surrounding shales and to estimate porosity and permeability. Moreover, this study may represent new possibilities for future rock physics...

  20. Geophysical survey, Paso Robles geothermal area, California, part of the resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Youngs, L.G.

    1980-11-10

    Some general background information concerning the geology and geothermal occurrences in the Southern Coast Ranges is included, as well as the more detailed information dealing with the Paso Robles area proper. Results for two geophysical methods that have been used in the area: the ground magnetic and gravity surveys, are discussed and interpreted.

  1. Geophysics of Geothermal Areas: State of the Art and Future Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabey, Don R.

    In May 1980 a workshop organized by the Advanced School of Geophysics of the Ettore Majorana Center for Scientific Culture was held in Erice, Italy. The purpose was to present the state of the art and future development of geophysics as related to exploration for geothermal resources and the environmental impact of the development of geothermal systems. The workshop was addressed to “younger researchers working in scientific institutions and in public or private agencies and who are particularly interested in these aspects of the energy problem.” Fourteen formal lectures were presented to the workshop. This volume contains papers based on 10 of these lectures with a preface, forward, and introduction by the editors. The ten papers are “Heat Transfer in Geothermal Areas,” “Interpretation of Conductive Heat Flow Anomalies,” “Deep Electromagnetic Soundings in Geothermal Exploration,” “A Computation Method for dc Geoelectric Fields,” “Measurement of Ground Deformation in Geothermal Areas,” “Active Seismic Methods in Geothermal Exploration,” “The Role of Geophysical Investigations in the Discovery of the Latera Geothermal Field,” “Geothermal Resources Exploration in the European Community: The Geophysical Case,” “Activity Performed by AGIP (ENI Group) in the Field of Geothermal Energy,” and “Geothermal Exploration in the Western United States.” Six of the authors are from Italy, and one each is from Iceland, the Netherlands, West Germany, and the United States. All of the papers are in English.

  2. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  3. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D.

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste

  4. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area.

  5. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  6. Natural resource economic implications of geothermal area use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, d' E Charles

    1993-01-28

    Large-scale use of geothermal energy is likely to result in depletion of natural resources that support both biodiversity and other human uses. Most of the problems could be averted with competent planning and adherence to agreed conditions, but they commonly develop because they are not perceived to be directly geothermal in origin and hence are not taken into account adequately. Some of the implications of such issues are discussed below, with particular reference to countries where all or most resources are held under traditional principals of custom ownership.

  7. Geothermal assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada. Final report, April 1, 1981-April 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Bruce, J.L.; Cates, D.; Dolan, H.H.; Covington, C.H.

    1982-06-01

    A preliminary geothermal resource assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada focused on Coyote Spring Valley in southeastern Nevada. Initially, an extensive literature search was conducted and a bibliography consisting of 750 entries was compiled covering all aspects of geology pertaining to the study area. A structural study indicates that Coyote Spring Valley lies in a tectonically active area which is favorable for the discovery of geothermal resources. Hot water may be funneled to the near-surface along an extensive fracture and fault system which appears to underlie the valley, according to information gathered during the literature search and aerial photo survey. A total of 101 shallow temperature probes were emplanted in Coyote Spring Valley. Three anomalous temperature points all lying within the same vicinity were identified in the north-central portion of the valley near a fault. A soil-mercury study also identified one zone of anomalous mercury concentrations around the north end of the Arrow Canyon Range. A literature search covering regional fluid geochemistry indicated that the three fluid samples taken from Coyote Spring Valley have a higher concentration of Na + K. During field work, seven fluid samples were collected in Coyote Spring Valley which also appear to be derived from volcanic units due to the presence of Ca-Mg or Na-K carbonate-bicarbonate. A temperature gradient study of six test water wells indicates that only one geothermal well with a temperature of 35.5/sup 0/C (96/sup 0/F) exists in the central portion of the valley at the north end of Arrow Canyon Range near the zone of anomalous soil-mercury points. A cultural assessment of Coyote Spring Valley was performed prior to field work.

  8. Deep geothermal resources in Quebec and in Colombia: an area that may develop based on French experience on geothermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blessent, D.; Raymond, J.; Dezayes, C.

    2016-01-01

    Because of an increasing demand in electricity and a necessity of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, several countries envisage the development of the renewable energies. The geothermal energy is a particularly interesting alternative because it allows a production of electricity which is not influenced by weather conditions and it requires relatively restricted surface areas compared, for example, to the area required by a hydroelectric power plant. The literature review presented here summarizes the main characteristics of the geothermal potential in Quebec, in sedimentary basins, and in Colombia, in the area of the Nevado del Ruiz volcanic complex. Currently, in these two regions, the hydro-electric power dominates the electricity production, but there is a similar interest to the development of geothermal power plants. The French sites of Soultz-sous-Forets in Alsace and Boiling in Guadeloupe are respectively presented as an example of exploitation of geothermal improved systems (Enhanced Geothermal System; EGS) and geothermal resources in volcanic regions. The first site constitutes a model for the future development of the deep geothermal exploitation in Quebec, whereas the second is an example for Colombia. A description of environmental impacts related to the exploitation of deep geothermal resources is presented at the end of this paper. (authors)

  9. Geothermal studies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji-Yang; Chen Mo-Xiang; Wang Ji-An; Deng Xiao; Wang Jun; Shen Hsien-Chieh; Hsiung Liang-Ping; Yan Shu-Zhen; Fan Zhi-Cheng; Liu Xiu-Wen

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuosly since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research of geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; (3) geothermal studies in mines. (orig./ME)

  10. User's guide to the Geothermal Resource Areas Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Leung, K.; Yen, W.

    1981-10-01

    The National Geothermal Information Resource project at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is developing a Geothermal Resource Areas Database, called GRAD, designed to answer questions about the progress of geothermal energy development. This database will contain extensive information on geothermal energy resources for selected areas, covering development from initial exploratory surveys to plant construction and operation. The database is available for on-lie interactive query by anyone with an account number on the computer, a computer terminal with an acoustic coupler, and a telephone. This report will help in making use of the database. Some information is provided on obtaining access to the computer system being used, instructions on obtaining standard reports, and some aids to using the query language.

  11. Design A Prototype of Temperature Logging Tools for Geothermal Prospecting Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyanto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The costs of geothermal exploration are very high because technology is still imported from other countries. The local business players in the geothermal sector do not have the ability to compete with global companies. To reduce costs, we need to develop our own equipment with competitive prices. Here in Indonesia, we have started to design a prototype of temperature logging tools for geothermal prospecting areas. This equipment can be used to detect temperature versus depth variations. To measure the thermal gradient, the platinum resistor temperature sensor is moved slowly down along the borehole. The displacement along the borehole is measured by a rotary encoder. This system is controlled by a 16-bit H8/3069F microcontroller. The acquired temperature data is displayed on a PC monitor using a Python Graphical User Interface. The system has been already tested in the Gunung Pancar geothermal prospect area in Bogor.

  12. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of geothermal waters in the southern hachimantai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubaya, Osamu; Etchu, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Teruo; Yoshida, Yutaka.

    1985-01-01

    Geothermal waters from the Matsukawa and Kakkonda Geothermal Plants, wells at Amihari-Motoyu, and Nyuto and Tazawako areas were isotopically studied. The geothermal waters from Mutsukawa, Kakkonda and Amihari-Motoyu have hydrogen isotope ratios similar to the local meteoric waters, while have higher oxygen isotope ratios than the local meteoric waters. This relationship of hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, that is called ''oxygen shift'', means that these geothermal waters are meteoric waters undergone the oxygen isotope exchange with rocks at high temperature of underground. The exygen shifts are 2 -- 3 per mil in Matsukawa and Kakkonda, and 7 per mil in Amihari-Motoyu. This difference may be important to understand the processe of water-rock interaction in this area. The geothermal waters at Nyuto and Tazawako areas also show 2 -- 3 per mil oxygen shift. The steam from the Tazawako-cho well and the hot spring water form the Tsurunoyu are estimated to be vapor and liquid phases separated form a single geothermal water of NaCl type, though the hot water from the Tsurunoyu is diluted with shallow meteoric water. (author)

  13. Heat flow, heat transfer and lithosphere rheology in geothermal areas: Features and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, G.; Rybach, L.

    2005-10-01

    Surface heat flow measurements over active geothermal systems indicate strongly positive thermal anomalies. Whereas in "normal" geothermal settings, the surface heat flow is usually below 100-120 mW m - 2 , in active geothermal areas heat flow values as high as several watts per meter squared can be found. Systematic interpretation of heat flow patterns sheds light on heat transfer mechanisms at depth on different lateral, depth and time scales. Borehole temperature profiles in active geothermal areas show various signs of subsurface fluid movement, depending on position in the active system. The heat transfer regime is dominated by heat advection (mainly free convection). The onset of free convection depends on various factors, such as permeability, temperature gradient and fluid properties. The features of heat transfer are different for single or two-phase flow. Characteristic heat flow and heat transfer features in active geothermal systems are demonstrated by examples from Iceland, Italy, New Zealand and the USA. Two main factors affect the rheology of the lithosphere in active geothermal areas: steep temperature gradients and high pore fluid pressures. Combined with lithology and structure, these factors result in a rheological zonation with important consequences both for geodynamic processes and for the exploitation of geothermal energy. As a consequence of anomalously high temperature, the mechanical lithosphere is thin and its total strength can be reduced by almost one order of magnitude with respect to the average strength of continental lithosphere of comparable age and thickness. The top of the brittle/ductile transition is located within the upper crust at depths less than 10 km, acts as the root zone of listric normal faults in extensional environments and, at least in some cases, is visible on seismic reflection lines. These structural and rheological features are well illustrated in the Larderello geothermal field in Tuscany.

  14. Shallow geothermal investigations into the existence of the Valles Caldera outflow plume near Ponderosa and Jemez Pueblo, north-central, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaz, Robert Ezekiel

    Geothermal research within the Jemez Mountains spans several decades and is documented in many papers. This study serves to extend the research boundary to the south and east outside of Valles caldera and Canon de San Diego, where the main occurrences of geothermal activity are located. The focus of this investigation is to test for a deep ~900 m, stratigraphically-bound thermal aquifer within the Madera Limestone along the western margin of the Santo Domingo basin transition zone near Ponderosa and Jemez Pueblo, in north-central New Mexico. Numerous springs were sampled for aqueous geochemistry to identify leakage of a deeper geothermal aquifer into shallow aquifers. Wells were sampled for temperature anomalies. In addition, two travertine deposits were analyzed for stable isotope composition and one deposit was dated using U-Series techniques to assess the timing and origin of deposition. This study is important because researchers in other extensional basins have identified reasonably good geothermal reservoirs in deep carbonate aquifers that are similar in geologic setting to the Madera Limestone aquifer of this study. The existence of a deep geothermal aquifer near Ponderosa and Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico could prove to be another prospect for geothermal exploration in the Jemez Mountains. Aqueous geochemistry of springs are plotted on ternary Piper diagrams to help classify similar geochemical trends and group these trends into recognizable patterns. These data indicate calcium carbonate rich waters in the north that may gradationally change to alkaline type waters as they flow south through the study area. Contrasting this data, SiO2 and TDS concentrations show two separate systems that may indicate separate confined aquifers. Two distinct TDS regions are observed, one with higher concentrations (>1000 ppm) shows a decrease from N-S and one with lower concentrations (<600 ppm) shows an increase from N-S. The data indicate that the waters can be classified as

  15. The Hengill geothermal area, Iceland: Variation of temperature gradients deduced from the maximum depth of seismogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G. R.

    1995-04-01

    Given a uniform lithology and strain rate and a full seismic data set, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be viewed to a first order as an isotherm. These conditions are approached at the Hengill geothermal area S. Iceland, a dominantly basaltic area. The likely strain rate calculated from thermal and tectonic considerations is 10 -15 s -1, and temperature measurements from four drill sites within the area indicate average, near-surface geothermal gradients of up to 150 °C km -1 throughout the upper 2 km. The temperature at which seismic failure ceases for the strain rates likely at the Hengill geothermal area is determined by analogy with oceanic crust, and is about 650 ± 50 °C. The topographies of the top and bottom of the seismogenic layer were mapped using 617 earthquakes located highly accurately by performing a simultaneous inversion for three-dimensional structure and hypocentral parameters. The thickness of the seismogenic layer is roughly constant and about 3 km. A shallow, aseismic, low-velocity volume within the spreading plate boundary that crosses the area occurs above the top of the seismogenic layer and is interpreted as an isolated body of partial melt. The base of the seismogenic layer has a maximum depth of about 6.5 km beneath the spreading axis and deepens to about 7 km beneath a transform zone in the south of the area. Beneath the high-temperature part of the geothermal area, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be as shallow as 4 km. The geothermal gradient below drilling depths in various parts of the area ranges from 84 ± 9 °Ckm -1 within the low-temperature geothermal area of the transform zone to 138 ± 15 °Ckm -1 below the centre of the high-temperature geothermal area. Shallow maximum depths of earthquakes and therefore high average geothermal gradients tend to correlate with the intensity of the geothermal area and not with the location of the currently active spreading axis.

  16. Applicability of `GREATEM' system in mapping geothermal regions in volcanic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S. K.; Mogi, T.; Abd Allah, S.

    2010-12-01

    The ‘GREATEM’ helicopter borne TEM system employs a long grounded cable as transmitter while a light weight receiver coil is flown below a helicopter. This arrangement greatly simplifies the flying logistics and speed of the survey. Also there is very little reduction in the anomaly amplitude when the survey altitude is increased. This is a great advantage particularly in volcanic regions usually having rough topography, as the ‘GREATEM’ survey can be done with helicopter flying at a safe height. Many volcanic areas have anomalous geothermal regions containing hydrothermal fluids. Eruption of volcanoes may cause changes in the thermal character and spatial distribution of these regions. Mapping of these regions is important as they may be associated with hazards. Sometimes, if the temperature is high and volume of the geothermal region is large, they can provide a good source of geothermal energy. Applicability of ‘GREATEM’ system in mapping geothermal regions in volcanic areas is studied by numerical modeling. We have considered a 3D conductor at a shallow depth (50 t0 100m), representing the anomalous geothermal region with dimensions of 500m X 500m X 500m. Different types of geological host environment are considered by varying their resistivities from 10 Ohm.m to 2000 Ohm.m. The ‘GREATEM’ response is analyzed as ‘Percentage Difference (PD)’ over the response produced by the host environment. It is found that the “GREATEM’ system can delineate the geothermal region well. Many geothermal regions are associated with a deeper (> 1 km) reservoir of much larger dimensions. In this situation also it is found that the ‘GREATEM’ system can pick up the response of the shallower geothermal region against the background response of different types of geological host environment containing the deeper reservoir (Figure 1).

  17. Fault and joint geometry at Raft River Geothermal Area, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, L. R.; Bruhn, R. L.; Beck, S. L.

    1981-07-01

    Raft River geothermal reservoir is formed by fractures in sedimentary strata of the Miocene and Pliocene salt lake formation. The fracturing is most intense at the base of the salt lake formation, along a decollement that dips eastward at less than 50 on top of metamorphosed precambrian and lower paleozoic rocks. Core taken from less than 200 m above the decollement contains two sets of normal faults. The major set of faults dips between 500 and 700. These faults occur as conjugate pairs that are bisected by vertical extension fractures. The second set of faults dips 100 to 200 and may parallel part of the basal decollement or reflect the presence of listric normal faults in the upper plate. Surface joints form two suborthogonal sets that dip vertically. East-northeast-striking joints are most frequent on the limbs of the Jim Sage anticline, a large fold that is associated with the geothermal field.

  18. A Monte Carlo-tuned model of the flow in the NorthGRIP area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Aslak; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2002-01-01

    The North Greenland Icecore Project (NorthGRIP) drill site was chosen in order to obtain a good Eemian record. At the present depth, 3001m, the Eemian interstadial has yet to be seen. Clearly the flow in this area is poorly understood and needs further investigation. After a review of specific...... no Eemian is observed is a high basal melt rate (2.7mm/a). The melting is a consequence of a higher geothermal heat flux than the expected 51mW/m^2 of the Precambrian shield. From our analyses it is concluded that the geothermal heat flux at NorthGRIP is 98mW/m^2.The high basalmelt rate also gives rise...

  19. Geology and Conceptual Model of the Domuyo Geothermal Area, Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, A. S.; Ferrari, L.; Norini, G.

    2017-12-01

    Cerro Domuyo is the highest mountain in Patagonia and its western slope is characterized by thermal springs with boiling fluids as well as silicic domes and pyroclastic deposits that suggest the existence of a geothermal reservoir. Early studies proposed that the thermal springs were fault-controlled and the reservoir was located in a graben bounded by E-W normal faults. A recent geochemical study estimated a temperature of 220ºC for the fluid reservoir and a thermal energy release of 1.1 GW, one of the world largest advective heat flux from a continental volcanic center. We carried out a geologic survey and U-Pb and U-Th geochronologic study to elaborate an updated conceptual model for the Domuyo geothermal area. Our study indicates that the Domuyo Volcanic Complex (DVC) is a dome complex overlying an older, Middle Miocene to Pliocene volcanic sequence widely exposed to the southwest and to the north, which in turn covers: 1) the Jurassice-Early Creteacoeus Neuquen marine sedimentary succession, 2) silicic ignimbrites dated at 186.7 Ma and, 3) the Paleozoic metamorphic basement intruded by 288 Ma granite bodies. These pre-Cenozoic successions are involved in dominantly N-S trending folds and thrust faults later displaced by E-W striking normal faults with a right lateral component of motion that underlie the DVC. The volcanic cycle forming the DVC is distinctly bimodal with the emplacement of massive silicic domes but also less voluminous olivine basalts on its southern slope. The central dome underwent a major collapse that produced 0.35 km3 of ash and block flow and associated pyroclastic flows that filled the valley to the southwest up to 30 km from the source. This was followed by a voluminous effusive activity that formed silicic domes dated between 254-322 Ky, which is inferred to overlain a partially molten silicic magma chamber. Integrating the geologic model with magnetotelluric and gravity surveys we developed a conceptual model of the geothermal system

  20. Geothermal studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji-Yang, Wang; Mo-Xiang, Chen; Ji-An, Wang; Xiao, Deng; Jun, Wang; Hsien-Chieh, Shen; Liang-Ping, Hsiung; Shu-Zhen, Yan; Zhi-Cheng, Fan; Xiu-Wen, Liu; Ge-Shan, Huang; Wen-Ren, Zhang; Hai-Hui, Shao; Rong-Yan, Zhang

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuously since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research on geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; and (3) geothermal studies in mines. Regional geothermal studies have been conducted recently in North China and more than 2000 values of subsurface temperature have been obtained. Temperatures at a depth of 300 m generally range from 20 to 25°C with geothermal gradients from 20 to 40°C/km. These values are regarded as an average for the region with anomalies related to geological factors. To date, 22 reliable heat flow data from 17 sites have been obtained in North China and the data have been categorized according to fault block tectonics. The average heat flow value at 16 sites in the north is 1.3 HFU, varying from 0.7 to 1.8 HFU. It is apparent that the North China fault block is characterized by a relatively high heat flow with wide variations in magnitude compared to the mean value for similar tectonic units in other parts of the world. It is suggested that although the North China fault block can be traced back to the Archaean, the tectonic activity has been strengthening since the Mesozoic resulting in so-called "reactivation of platform" with large-scale faulting and magmatism. Geothermal resources in China are extensive; more than 2000 hot springs have been found and there are other manifestations including geysers, hydrothermal explosions, hydrothermal steam, fumaroles, high-temperature fountains, boiling springs, pools of boiling mud, etc. In addition, there are many Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basins with widespread aquifers containing geothermal water resources in abundance. The extensive exploration and exploitation of these geothermal resources began early in the 1970's. Since then

  1. Western Sicily (Italy), a key area for understanding geothermal system within carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, D.; Bertini, G.; Botteghi, S.; Catalano, R.; Contino, A.; Doveri, M.; Gennaro, C.; Gianelli, G.; Gola, G.; Manzella, A.; Minissale, A.; Montegrossi, G.; Monteleone, S.; Trumpy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Oil exploration in western Sicily started in the late 1950s when several exploration wells were drilled, and continued with the acquisition of many seismic reflection profiles and the drilling of new wells in the1980s. The geological interpretation of these data mainly provided new insights for the definition of geometric relationships between tectonic units and structural reconstruction at depth. Although it has not produced completely satisfactory results for oil industry, this hydrocarbon exploration provided a great amount of data, resulting very suitable for geothermal resource assessment. From a geothermal point of view western Sicily is, indeed, a very promising area, with the manifestation at surface of several thermal springs, localized areas of high heat flux and thick carbonates units uninterruptedly developing from surface up top great depths. These available data were often collected with the modalities and purposes typical of oil exploration, not always the finest for geothermal exploration as in the case of temperature measurements. The multidisciplinary and integrated review of these data, specifically corrected for geothermal purposes, and the integration with new data acquired in particular key areas such as the Mazara Del Vallo site in the southern part of western Sicily, allowed us to better understand this medium-enthalpy geothermal system, to reconstruct the modalities and peculiarities of fluids circulation, and to evaluate the geothermal potentialities of western Sicily. We suggest that western Sicily can be taken as a reference for the understanding of geothermal systems developed at a regional scale within carbonate rocks. This study was performed within the framework of the VIGOR project (http://www.vigor-geotermia.it).

  2. Geologic study for evaluation of geothermal resources in northern Tohoku area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, Hirofumi

    1986-10-01

    Similar geothermal signs are widely distributed not only in the neighborhood of the Hakkoda volcano but all over the Hakkoda area. In this report, the area is defined as the Hakkoda regional volcanic field. Part of the geothermal signs are closely related with the Hakkoda volcano. But for the many others, relations with specific volcanos remained unknown. Surveys and investigations carried out in the present work clarified that there exists a group of volcanos that correspond well to these geothermal signs. They are referred to as the Yunosawa caldera, Ikarigaseki caldera and Okiura caldera. Thus, with the Hakkoda caldera and Towada caldera, which have already been known, there are five calderas in the Hakkoda area. The basic structure is characterized by a combination of horst/graben structures bounded by reversed faults, and depressed zones resulting from the formation of calderas. The volcanos were generated in the Pliocene or succeeding epochs. Observations have shown that the geothermal sources, reservoir layer structures and geothermal flows are basically governed by these calderas. (10 figs, 3 tabs, 14 refs)

  3. Geothermal area detection using Landsat ETM+ thermal infrared data and its mechanistic analysis—A case study in Tengchong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qiming; Zhang, Ning; Nan, Peng; Chai, Leilei

    2011-08-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is an important technique in the exploration of geothermal resources. In this study, a geothermal survey is conducted in Tengchong area of Yunnan province in China using TIR data from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. Based on radiometric calibration, atmospheric correction and emissivity calculation, a simple but efficient single channel algorithm with acceptable precision is applied to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST) of study area. The LST anomalous areas with temperature about 4-10 K higher than background area are discovered. Four geothermal areas are identified with the discussion of geothermal mechanism and the further analysis of regional geologic structure. The research reveals that the distribution of geothermal areas is consistent with the fault development in study area. Magmatism contributes abundant thermal source to study area and the faults provide thermal channels for heat transfer from interior earth to land surface and facilitate the present of geothermal anomalies. Finally, we conclude that TIR remote sensing is a cost-effective technique to detect LST anomalies. Combining TIR remote sensing with geological analysis and the understanding of geothermal mechanism is an accurate and efficient approach to geothermal area detection.

  4. Studies on wide area deep geothermal resources reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    In order to establish techniques for the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs of large extent and deep location, the Hachimandaira field was chosen as a model. Studies were carried out using the AFMT system, thermographic, remote sensing and geothermometric methods. In the AFMT study the equipment was custom manufactured. It included a five component receiver and a transmitter with an output current of 10 A. Calculations were made for the electromagnetic fields of each transmitting source using both electric and magnetic dipoles. In the thermographic study a thermo-camera was employed to survey springs in Fukushima prefecture as well as the Ofuka springs in Akita prefecture. These studies were made with the intention of deriving correlations between surface heat flow and subterranean structure.

  5. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-6. Mt. Tsujinodake area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey B 'Mt. Tsujinodake area' which was carried out at Yamagawa town, Ibusuki county, Kagoshima prefecture, from FY 1997 to FY 1999. In the survey, the following were conducted: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, gravity exploration and electromagnetic exploration, and geothermal fluid survey by drilling 4 structural testing boreholes. In the Mt. Tsujinodake area, active fumarolic activities are still now continuing around the Unagi hot spring in the north, and the acidic alteration zone is distributed in the peripheral surface area. In Borehole N11-TD-2 in the north, it is assumed that there exists the hydrothermal bed of a temperature of approximately 230 degrees C in the depth of 400-800m, which is comparatively shallow, and that the stored geothermal water flows laterally. In the central area, a hydrothermal bed of a temperature of approximately 130 degrees C was confirmed in N11-TD-1, but it is judged that chances of the existence of high temperature hydrothermal bed are not very good. In N11-TD-3 in the south, the existence of promising heat sources is expected in the deeper part since the remarkable alteration was seen in the depth of 1,435m or deeper, and the sharp rise in temperature was recognized. (NEDO)

  6. INTERPRETATION OF BOUGUER ANOMALY TO DETERMINE FAULT AND SUBSURFACE STRUCTURE AT BLAWAN-IJEN GEOTHERMAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjar Pranggawan Azhari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gravity survey has been acquired by Gravimeter Lacoste & Romberg G-1035 at Blawan-Ijen geothermal area. It was a focusing study from previous research. The residual Bouguer anomaly data was obtain after applying gravity data reduction, reduction to horizontal plane, and upward continuation. Result of Bouguer anomaly interpretation shows occurrence of new faults and their relative movement. Blawan fault (F1, F2, F3, and F6 are normal fault. Blawan fault is main fault controlling hot springs at Blawan-Ijen geothermal area. F4 and F5 are oblique fault and forming a graben at Banyupahit River. F7 is reverse fault. Subsurface model shows that Blawan-Ijen geothermal area was dominated by the Ijen caldera forming ignimbrite (ρ1=2.670 g/cm3, embedded shale and sand (ρ2=2.644 g/cm3 as Blawan lake sediments, magma intrusion (ρ3=2.814 g/cm3 & ρ7=2.821 g/cm3, andesite rock (ρ4=2.448 g/cm3 as geothermal reservoir, pyroclastic air fall deposits (ρ5=2.613 g/cm3 from Mt. Blau, and lava flow (ρ6=2.890 g/cm3.

  7. Geothermal spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, J.L.; Takahashi, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    The spa business, part of the health and fitness industry that has sprung up in recent years, is highly successful world-wide. The most traditional type of spa is the geothermal spa, found in geothermal areas around the world. In Japan, for example, some 2,000 geothermal spas and resorts generate $6 billion annually. Hawaii has an ideal environment for geothermal spas, and several locations in the islands could supply warm mineral water for spa development. Hawaii receives about 6 million visitors annually, a high percentage of whom are familiar with the relaxing and therapeutic value of geothermal spas, virtually guaranteeing the success of this industry in Hawaii. Presently, Hawaii does not have a single geothermal spa. This paper reports that the geothermal spa business is an industry whose time has come, an industry that offers very promising investment opportunities, and one that would improve the economy while expanding the diversity of pleasurable vacation options in Hawaii

  8. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.; Camacho, M.E.; Chavez, A.; Perez, H.; Gomez, J.

    1999-01-01

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m -3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies

  9. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Tavera, L; Camacho, M E; Chavez, A; Pérez, H; Gómez, J

    1999-01-01

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m sup - sup 3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies.

  10. Geochemical Study of Ampallas Geothermal Area, Mamuju District, West Sulawesi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziyyah, F.; Prabowo, T. R.; Shalihin, M. G. J.; Setiawan, D. I.; Yushantarti, A.

    2016-09-01

    Ampallas is one of the areas with geothermal potential which located in Mamuju district, near from the capital city of West Sulawesi. This research was carried out to understand the characteristic of this geothermal field based on chemistry of the surface manifestation, including fluid characteristic and soil anomaly. Geothermal research in Ampallas area focused on 4 hot springs; Ampallas, Batupane, Karema, and Gantungan. With average temperature around 34 - 67°C. Ampallas 1,2,3,4,7,8 hot springs water type is chloride - bicarbonate, which means it came from the reservoir while Batupane, Gantungan, Karema and Ampallas 5 are all bicarbonate type. Ampallas 1,2,3,4,7,8, Karema and Gantungan hot springs fluid plotted in partial equilibrium zone while Batupane and Ampallas 5 plotted in immature water zone. It means the Ampallas hot springs (except Ampallas-5) mixed with meteoric water right after reached the equilibrium state. It is also concluded that Ampallas 5 hot springs came from the same reservoir with Batupane, but not Gantungan and Karema hot springs. The speculative resource potential of Ampallas geothermal system is estimated around 30 MWe. But if detailed geophysical method was applied the result could be more accurate.

  11. The Tianjin geothermal field (north-eastern China): Water chemistry and possible reservoir permeability reduction phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, Angelo; Montegrossi, Giordano; Orlando, Andrea [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Borrini, Daniele; Tassi, Franco [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Vaselli, Orlando [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Huertas, Antonio Delgado [Estacion Experimental de Zaidin (CSIC), Prof. Albareda 1, 18008 Granada (Spain); Yang, Jincheng; Cheng, Wanquing [Aode Renewable Energy Research Institute, 90 Weijin South Road, Nankai District, 300381 Tianjin (China); Tedesco, Dario [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); Institute of Environmental Geology and Geo Engineering (CNR), Piazzale A. Moro 5, Roma 00100 (Italy); Poreda, Robert [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Rochester, 227 Hutchison Hall, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Injection of spent (cooled) thermal fluids began in the Tianjin geothermal district, north-eastern China, at the end of the 1990s. Well injectivities declined after 3-4 years because of self-sealing processes that reduced reservoir permeability. The study focuses on the factors that may have caused the observed decrease in permeability, using chemical and isotopic data on fluids (water and gas) and mineral phases collected from production and injection wells. The results of data processing and interpretation indicate that (1) it is very unlikely that calcite and silica precipitation is taking place in the reservoir; (2) the Fe- and Zn-rich mineral phases (e.g. sulfides, hydroxides and silicates) show positive saturation indexes; (3) SEM and XRD analyses of filtered material reveal that the latter mineral phases are common; (4) visual observation of casings and surface installations, and of corrosion products, suggests that a poor quality steel was used in their manufacture; (5) significant quantities of solids (e.g. quartz and feldspar crystals) are carried by the geothermal fluid; (6) seasonal changes in fluid composition lead to a reduction in casing corrosion during the summer. It was concluded that the decrease in injectivity in the Tianjin wells is caused only in part by the oxidation of casings, downhole pumps, and surface installations, triggered by free oxygen in the injected fluids; the utilization of better quality steels should drastically reduce this type of corrosion. Self-sealing of pores and fractures by reservoir formation solids and by the Fe-corrosion products suspended in the injected fluids seems to be a more important phenomenon, whose effect could be greatly reduced by installing filtering devices at all sites. (author)

  12. Effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory was initiated in 1988 to determine the effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA), Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. The study addressed three principal issues: (1) the sources of thermal water in the hot springs at Mammoth, La Duke, and Bear Creek; (2) the degree of subsurface connection between these areas; and (3) the effects of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA on the Park's thermal features. The authors investigations included, but were not limited to, geologic mapping, electrical geophysical surveys, chemical sampling and analyses of waters and rocks, determinations of the rates of discharge of various thermal springs, and hydrologic tracer tests

  13. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  14. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  15. How to boost shallow geothermal energy exploitation in the adriatic area: the LEGEND project experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francesco, Tinti; Annamaria, Pangallo; Martina, Berneschi; Dario, Tosoni; Dušan, Rajver; Simona, Pestotnik; Dalibor, Jovanović; Tomislav, Rudinica; Slavisa, Jelisić; Branko, Zlokapa; Attilio, Raimondi

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation, monitoring and reduction of the heating and cooling consumptions are topics of increasing importance. One promising technology is the geothermal heat pump. Despite its undoubted advantages compared to fossil fuels in terms of RES production, CO_2 reduction and primary energy savings, there are still significant barriers for the creation of sustainable local markets. Many regions present similar conditions in terms of climate, geology, hydrogeology, infrastructure and political conditions. Because of the context-driven nature of shallow geothermal systems, similarities should be taken into account and strategies shared across borders to foster the introduction and exploitation of shallow geothermal energy. Focusing on the results of the LEGEND Project, this paper presents an attempt at creating an interregional strategy for the widespread introduction of geothermal heat pumps in the Adriatic area, which includes EU and non-EU countries. The multi-level approach adopted (a combination of desk studies on the transferability potential, pilot plants across the regions and programs to involve, educate and train stakeholders) allowed to set up the strategy. Therefore, different actions are proposed to stimulate the development of the market, whose interconnection across the Adriatic can accelerate the achievement of the main energy and climate targets for all the countries involved. - Highlights: •The Interregional Adriatic strategy for shallow geothermal energy is presented. •The strategy speeds up renewable energy introduction in border countries. •Geological, climate, market and political similarities must be taken into account. •The preparatory action is the creation of trained market and supply chain.

  16. The underground geothermal resource about Bure is not exceptional. Answers by the ANDRA to critics made by associations on the geothermal resource in the Cigeo study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Marc-Antoine

    2013-01-01

    As some documents published by associations stated that the site chosen for Cigeo (Industrial centre for geological storage of nuclear materials and wastes) could be a geothermal resource of interest, the ANDRA herein states again that this resource is neither exceptional nor attractive in the present technological and economical conditions. In order to precisely answer to the arguments stated by the associations, it notably refers to some drillings performed in this area. It discusses drilling conditions and tests, test result interpretation, measurements, the process transparency, and the actual assessment of geothermal resources

  17. Determination of the Geothermal Potential by Geophysical Investigations in the Karbinci-Tarinci Area, in the Vicinity of Shtip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Goshe; Panovska, Sanja; Delipetrov, Marjan; Dimov, Gjorgji; Jovanovski, Vlatko

    2005-01-01

    Geophysical methods used in the determination of geothermal potential by geophysical investigations in the Karbinci-Tarinci area included as follows: detailed reflective seismic scanning, geomagnetic profiling, geo electric probe and electromagnetic VLF prospecting. The site investigated consists of rocks of Precambrian, Mesozoic (Jurassic), Tertiary (Paleogene Neogene) and Quaternary age. From earlier investigations carried out in the wider vicinity and from investigations carried out by the present authors, one can expect occurrence geothermal water in the area. (Author)

  18. Crustal structure in Tengchong Volcano-Geothermal Area, western Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yong; Huangfu, Gang

    2004-02-01

    Based upon the deep seismic sounding profiles carried out in the Tengchong Volcano-Geothermal Area (TVGA), western Yunnan Province of China, a 2-D crustal P velocity structure is obtained by use of finite-difference inversion and forward travel-time fitting method. The crustal model shows that a low-velocity anomaly zone exists in the upper crust, which is related to geothermal activity. Two faults, the Longling-Ruili Fault and Tengchong Fault, on the profile extend from surface to the lower crust and the Tengchong Fault likely penetrates the Moho. Moreover, based on teleseismic receiver functions on a temporary seismic network, S-wave velocity structures beneath the geothermal field show low S-wave velocity in the upper crust. From results of geophysical survey, the crust of TVGA is characterized by low P-wave and S-wave velocities, low resistivity, high heat-flow value and low Q. The upper mantle P-wave velocity is also low. This suggests presence of magma in the crust derived from the upper mantle. The low-velocity anomaly in upper crust may be related to the magma differentiation. The Tengchong volcanic area is located on the northeast edge of the Indian-Eurasian plate collision zone, away from the eastern boundary of the Indian plate by about 450 km. Based on the results of this paper and related studies, the Tengchong volcanoes can be classified as plate boundary volcanoes.

  19. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappelmeyer, O.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth. It represents an inexhaustible source of energy. In many countries, which are mostly located within the geothermal belts of the world, geothermal energy is being used since many decades for electricity generation and direct heating applications comprising municipal, industrial and agricultural heating. Outside the geothermal anomalous volcanic regions, hot ground water from deep rock formations at temperatures above 70 o C is used for process heat and space heating. Low prices for gas and oil hinder the development of geothermal plants in areas outside positive geothermal anomalies; the cost of drilling to reach depths, where temperatures are above 50 o C to 70 o C, is high. The necessary total investment per MW th installed capacity is in the order of 5 Mio- DM/MW th (3 Mio $/MW th ). Experience shows, that an economic break even with oil is reached at an oil price of 30$ per barrel or if an adequate bonus for the clean, environmentally compatible production of geothermal heat is granted. Worldwide the installed electric capacity of geothermal power plants is approximately 6 000 MW e . About 15 000 MW th of thermal capacity is being extracted for process heat and space heat. The importance of the terrestrial heat as an energy resource would be substantially increased, if the heat, stored in the hot crystalline basement could be extracted at economical production costs. Geothermal energy is a competitive energy source in areas with high geothermal gradients (relative low cost for drilling) and would be competitive in areas with normal geothermal gradients, if a fair compensation for environmental implications from fossil and nuclear power production would be granted. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  20. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Du, H.; Bouchot, V.; Lopez, S.; Bialkowski, A.; Colnot, A.; Rigollet, C.; Sanjuan, B.; Millot, R.; Brach, M.; Asmundsson, R.; Giroud, N.

    2010-01-01

    Geothermal energy has shown a revival for several years and should strongly develop in a near future. Its potentiality is virtually unexhaustible. Its uses are multiple and various: individual and collective space heating, heat networks, power generation, heat storage, heat exchanges etc.. Re-launched by the demand of renewable energy sources, geothermal energy has become credible thanks to the scientific works published recently which have demonstrated its economical and technical relevance. Its image to the public is changing as well. However, lot of work remains to do to make geothermal energy a real industry in France. Several brakes have to be removed rapidly which concern the noise pollution of geothermal facilities, the risk of bad results of drillings, the electricity costs etc. This dossier gives an overview of today's main research paths in the domain of geothermal energy: 1 - geothermal energy in France: historical development, surface and deep resources, ambitions of the French national energy plan (pluri-annual investment plan for heat generation, incentives, regional 'climate-air-energy' schemes), specific regulations; 2 - geothermal energy at the city scale - sedimentary basins: Ile-de-France 40 years of Dogger reservoir exploitation, potentialities of clastic reservoirs - the Chaunoy sandstones example; 3 - geothermal power generation: conventional reservoirs - the Bouillante model (Guadeloupe, French Indies); the Soultz-sous-Forets pilot plant (Bas-Rhin, France); the supercritical reservoirs - the Krafla geothermal area (Iceland). (J.S.)

  1. Geothermal in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the current market for geothermal projects in the US and overseas. The topics of the article include future capacity needs, upgrading the Coso Geothermal project, the productivity of the Geysers area of Northern California, the future of geothermal, and new projects at Soda Lake, Carson Basin, Unalaska Island, and the Puna Geothermal Venture in Hilo, Hawaii

  2. FY 1993 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Survey of geothermal water (No.36 - Amemasu-dake area); 1993 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Nessui no chosa hokokusho (No.36 Amemasu dake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion in FY 1993, survey of geothermal fluid was made using a precise structure drilling well N5-AM-5 as exploration well in the Amemasu-dake area, Hokkaido. The induced jetting of geothermal fluid was carried out by the Swabbing method in the total number of times of 185 in 11 days at 10-20 times/day, but did not result in the jetting of geothermal water. The sampling of geothermal water was conducted by guiding the geothermal water that overflowed the guide pipe to the tank. The temperature of geothermal water indicated approximately 20 degrees C in the 1st time and 40-60 degrees C in and after the 2nd time every day. The electric conductivity of geothermal water was 2.033 mS/cm, chlorine ion concentration was 420-500 ppm, and pH value was 7.17-7.72. As a result of the survey, it was presumed that the geothermal water of this well originated in the meteoric water around the area and formed slightly supported by emitted volcanic matters. As to the geochemical temperature, the silica temperature indicated about 120 degrees C and the alkali ratio temperature did about 180 degrees C. It was considered that there possibly existed geothermal reservoirs of approximately 180 degrees C in alkali ratio temperature around the well. (NEDO)

  3. Assessment of Geothermal Resource Potential at a High-Priority Area on the Utah Testing and Training Range–South (UTTR–S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard P. Smith, PhD., PG; Robert P. Breckenridge, PhD.; Thomas R. Wood, PhD.

    2012-04-01

    Field investigations conducted during 2011 support and expand the conclusion of the original Preliminary Report that discovery of a viable geothermal system is possible in the northwestern part of the Utah Testing and Training Range-South (UTTR-S), referred to henceforth as Focus Area 1. The investigations defined the southward extent of the Wendover graben into and near Focus Area 1, enhanced the understanding of subsurface conditions, and focused further geothermal exploration efforts towards the northwestern-most part of Focus Area 1. Specifically, the detailed gravity survey shows that the Wendover graben, first defined by Cook et al. (1964) for areas north of Interstate Highway 80, extends and deepens southwest-ward to the northwest corner of Focus Area 1. At its deepest point, the intersection with a northwest-trending graben there is favorable for enhanced permeability associated with intersecting faults. Processing and modeling of the gravity data collected during 2011 provide a good understanding of graben depth and distribution of faults bounding the graben and has focused the interest area of the study. Down-hole logging of temperatures in wells made available near the Intrepid, Inc., evaporation ponds, just north of Focus Area 1, provide a good understanding of the variability of thermal gradients in that area and corroborate the more extensive temperature data reported by Turk (1973) for the depth range of 300-500 m. Moderate temperature gradients in the northern part of the Intrepid area increase to much higher gradients and bottom-hole temperatures southeastward, towards graben-bounding faults, suggesting upwelling geothermal waters along those faults. Water sampling, analysis, and temperature measurements of Blue Lakes and Mosquito Willey's springs, on the western boundary of Focus Area 1, also show elevated temperatures along the graben-bounding fault system. In addition, water chemistry suggests origin of those waters in limestone rocks

  4. Insight into the Geothermal Structure in Chingshui, Ilan, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Tao Tong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chingshui geothermal field is the largest known productive geothermal area in Taiwan. The purpose of this paper is to delineate this geothermal structure by integrating geophysical data and borehole information. The existence of a magma chamber in the shallow crust and shallow intrusive igneous rock results in a high heat flow and geothermal gradient; furthermore, the NE deep fault system within the meta-sandstones provides meteoric recharge from a higher elevation to artesianally drive the geothermal system. There is evidence that geothermal fluid deeply circulated within the fracture zone and was heated by a deeply located body of hot rock. The geothermal reservoir of the Chingshui geothermal field might be related to the fracture zone of the Chingshuihsi fault. It is bounded by the C-fault in the north and Xiaonanao fault in the south. Based on information obtained from geophysical interpretations and well logs, a 3-D geothermal conceptual model is constructed in this study. Further, the geothermal reservoir is confined to an area that is 260 m in width, N21°W, 1.5 km in length, and has an 80° dip toward the NE. Ahigh-temperature zone is found in the SE region of the reservoir, which is about 500 m in length; this zone is located near the intersection of the Chingshuihsi and Xiaonanao faults. An area on the NE side of the high-temperature zone has been recommended for the drilling of production wells for future geothermal development.

  5. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough - the Chociwel area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznik, Maciej; Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Pająk, Leszek

    2015-09-01

    The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method). An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years' time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  6. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough – the Chociwel area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miecznik Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method. An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years’ time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  7. Minutes of the conference 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98'. Symposium on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-22

    This paper summarizes the proceedings presented at the 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98' held on October 22, 1998 in the Philippines. The Philippines, Japan, Indonesia, China, Malaysia, and Vietnam presented proceedings on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in each country. Technical theses presented relate to the following matters: a geothermal development model in the Khoy geothermal area in Iran, the result of surveys on promotion of geothermal development in Japan, the thermal fluid sources in the geothermal fluid systems in the Hachijo volcanic island in Japan, strategies for heat reservoir management by using numerical simulation in the Hacchobari geothermal area in Japan, a geological model for the north Negros geothermal area in the center of the Philippines, application of the NEDO rock core analyzing method in the Wasabizawa geothermal development area in Japan, measurements of geomagnetism, geocurrent, and gravity in the north Negros in the center of the Philippines, geophysical studies in geothermal exploration in the Mataloko area in the Nustenggara island in the eastern Indonesia, and the background of magma/crust structure in the geothermal systems. (NEDO)

  8. Minutes of the conference 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98'. Symposium on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-22

    This paper summarizes the proceedings presented at the 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98' held on October 22, 1998 in the Philippines. The Philippines, Japan, Indonesia, China, Malaysia, and Vietnam presented proceedings on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in each country. Technical theses presented relate to the following matters: a geothermal development model in the Khoy geothermal area in Iran, the result of surveys on promotion of geothermal development in Japan, the thermal fluid sources in the geothermal fluid systems in the Hachijo volcanic island in Japan, strategies for heat reservoir management by using numerical simulation in the Hacchobari geothermal area in Japan, a geological model for the north Negros geothermal area in the center of the Philippines, application of the NEDO rock core analyzing method in the Wasabizawa geothermal development area in Japan, measurements of geomagnetism, geocurrent, and gravity in the north Negros in the center of the Philippines, geophysical studies in geothermal exploration in the Mataloko area in the Nustenggara island in the eastern Indonesia, and the background of magma/crust structure in the geothermal systems. (NEDO)

  9. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR and Kinematic Structural Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplow, William J. [US Geothermal, Inc., Boise, ID (United States); Warren, Ian [US Geothermal, Inc., Boise, ID (United States)

    2015-08-12

    The DOE cost-share program applied innovative and cutting edge seismic surveying and processing, permanent scatter interferometry-synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR) and structural kinematics to the exploration problem of locating and mapping largeaperture fractures (LAFs) for the purpose of targeting geothermal production wells. The San Emidio geothermal resource area, which is under lease to USG, contains production wells that have encountered and currently produce from LAFs in the southern half of the resource area (Figure 2). The USG lease block, incorporating the northern extension of the San Emidio geothermal resource, extends 3 miles north of the operating wellfield. The northern lease block was known to contain shallow thermal waters but was previously unexplored by deep drilling. Results of the Phase 1 exploration program are described in detail in the Phase 1 Final Report (Teplow et al., 2011). The DOE cost shared program was completed as planned on September 30, 2014. This report summarizes results from all of Phase 1 and 2 activities.

  10. The Hengill geothermal area, Iceland: variation of temperature gradients deduced from the maximum depth of seismogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Given a uniform lithology and strain rate and a full seismic data set, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be viewed to a first order as an isotherm. These conditions are approached at the Hengill geothermal area, S. Iceland, a dominantly basaltic area. The temperature at which seismic failure ceases for the strain rates likely at the Hengill geothermal area is determined by analogy with oceanic crust, and is about 650 ?? 50??C. The topographies of the top and bottom of the seismogenic layer were mapped using 617 earthquakes. The thickness of the seismogenic layer is roughly constant and about 3 km. A shallow, aseismic, low-velocity volume within the spreading plate boundary that crosses the area occurs above the top of the seismogenic layer and is interpreted as an isolated body of partial melt. The base of the seismogenic layer has a maximum depth of about 6.5 km beneath the spreading axis and deepens to about 7 km beneath a transform zone in the south of the area. -from Author

  11. FY 1999 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. No. B-6 Tsujinodake area (Tertiary); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki (dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of confirming the existence of geothermal reservoirs, this survey was conducted as Survey B in the range of 30km{sup 2} east of Lake Ikeda at the south east end of Satsuma Peninsula, Kagoshima pref. from FY 1997 to FY 1999. By the geology/alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, electromagnetic survey and gravity survey which were conducted in FY 1997 as surface survey, the following three were extracted as the areas which have great potentiality of geothermal resource existence: 1) area along the Yamakawa-Matsugakubo structure line on which calderas and explosion craters lie (north part); 2) area along the Takeyama-Tsujinodake structure line on which Ata central dome volcanic rocks lie (central part); 3) area around Kozukahama where the south wall of the Ata caldera extends in east-west direction (south part). In the survey after that, in north part, it was considered that aquicludes in clayey alteration zone were widely distributed around levels of 100m above - 200m below sea level and there existed geothermal reservoirs under the aquicludes. It was presumed that the mixed water of sea water and surface water was thermally conducted by heat sources of 300-490 degrees C and geothermal reservoirs of 260-270 degrees C were formed. (NEDO)

  12. The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal area, California - an updated geophysical perspective of heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, W.D.; Blakely, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal area encompasses a large dry-steam production area in The Geysers field and a documented high-temperature, high-pressure, water-dominated system in the area largely south of Clear Lake, which has not been developed. An updated view is presented of the geological/geophysical complexities of the crust in this region in order to address key unanswered questions about the heat source and tectonics. Forward modeling, multidimensional inversions, and ideal body analysis of the gravity data, new electromagnetic sounding models, and arguments made from other geophysical data sets suggest that many of the geophysical anomalies have significant contributions from rock property and physical state variations in the upper 7 km and not from "magma' at greater depths. Regional tectonic and magmatic processes are analyzed to develop an updated scenario for pluton emplacement that differs substantially from earlier interpretations. In addition, a rationale is outlined for future exploration for geothermal resources in The Geysers-Clear Lake area. -from Authors

  13. Subsurface structure identification uses derivative analyses of the magnetic data in Candi Umbul-Telomoyo geothermal prospect area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septyasari, U.; Niasari, S. W.; Maghfira, P. D.

    2018-04-01

    Telomoyo geothermal prospect area is located in Central Java, Indonesia. One of the manifestations around Telomoyo is a warm spring, called Candi Umbul. The hydrothermal fluids from the manifestation could be from the subsurface flowing up through geological structures. The previous research about 2D magnetic modeling in Candi Umbul showed that there was a normal fault with strike/dip N60°E/45° respectively. This research aims to know the distance boundary and the kind of the geological structure in the study area. We also compared the geological structure direction based on the geologic map and the derivative maps. We used derivative analyses of the magnetic data, i.e. First Horizontal Derivative (FHD) which is the rate of change of the horizontal gradient in the horizontal direction. FHD indicates the boundaries of the geological structure. We also used Second Vertical Derivative (SVD) which is the rate of change of the vertical gradient in the vertical direction. SVD can reveal normal fault or thrust fault. The FHD and SVD maps show that the geological structure boundary has the same direction with the north west-south east geological structure. The geological structure boundary is in 486 m of the local distance. Our result confirms that there is a normal fault in the study area.

  14. Geothermal Energy Potential in Low Enthalpy Areas as a Future Energy Resource: Identifying Feasible Targets, Quebec, Canada, Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Majorowicz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow of the sedimentary succession of the Eastern Canada Sedimentary Basins varies from 40 mW/m2 close to the exposed shield in the north to high 60–70 mW/m2 in the southwest–northeast St. Lawrence corridor. As high fluid flow rates are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important targets are deep existing permeable aquifers rather than hard rock, which would need to be fracked. Unfortunately, the ten most populated Québec urban centers are in the areas where the Grenville (Canadian Shield is exposed or at shallow depths with sedimentary cover where temperatures are 30 °C or less. The city of Drummondville will be the exception, as the basement deepens sharply southwest, and higher temperatures reaching >120 °C are expected in the deep Cambrian sedimentary aquifers near a 4–5-km depth. Deep under the area where such sediments could be occurring under Appalachian nappes, temperatures significantly higher than 140 °C are predicted. In parts of the deep basin, temperatures as high as 80 °C–120 °C exist at depths of 3–4 km, mainly southeast of the major geological boundary: the Logan line. There is a large amount of heat resource at such depths to be considered in this area for district heating.

  15. Geothermal characteristics of deep wells using geophysical logs in Pohang area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIM, W.; Hamm, S. Y.; Lee, C.; Song, Y.; Kim, H.

    2016-12-01

    Pohang area displays a larger potential of geothermal energy with the highest heat flow of 83 mWm-2 in South Korea. A geothermal binary power plant with a generation capacity of 1.5MW using enhanced geothermal system (EGS) is under construction in Pohang area and will be completed until 2017. This study aims to reveal geothermal characteristics of four wells (BH-1 to BH-4 wells) of 2,383 m in depth in Pohang area, using geophysical logs. The geology of the study area is composed of tertiary mudstone of 200 - 359.1 m, tuff of 73 - 240 m, sandstone/mudstone of 46 - 907 m, rhyolite of 259 - 375 m, and andesitic volcanic breccia of 834 m in thicknesses from the surface, with granodiorite at bottom. By the result of the study, temperature and maximum electrical conductivity (EC) are 69.5°C at 1,502.6 m and 1,162 μS/cm at BH-2 well, 44.4°C at 912.3 m and 1,105 μS/cm at BH-3 well, and 82.5°C at 1,981.3 m and 3,412 μS/cm at BH-4 well. Thermal conductivity values at saturated state are 2.14 - 3.95 W/m-K (average 3.47 W/m-K) at BH-1 well and 2.36 - 3.61 W/m-K (average 2.85 W/m-K) at BH-4 well. ß (determining heat flow rate and up/down direction) values were estimated by using 1-D steady-state heat transfer equation and were determined as -0.77 - 0.99 with the geothermal gradients (Ks) of 42.5 - 46.3°C/km at BH-1 well, -3.15 - 3.05 with the Ks of 25.0 - 29.1°C/km at BH-2, -1.80 - 2.09 with the Ks of 20.0 - 23.0°C/km at BH-3 well, and -4.10 - 5.18 with the Ks of 30.2 - 39.0°C/km at BH-4 well. Most depths of all the wells showed upward heat transfer. Based on the geophysical logs, the main aquifer is located between 200 and 300 meters. KEY WORDS: Geothermal gradient, thermal conductivity, geophysical logs, ß value, heat transfer equation, Pohang area Acknowledgement This work was supported by grants from the Principal Research Fund of Korea Institute of the Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM 16-3411).

  16. Trampling Impacts on Thermotolerant Vegetation of Geothermal Areas in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Bruce R.; Ward, Jonet; Downs, Theresa M.

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal features such as geysers, mud pools, sinter terraces, fumaroles, hot springs, and steaming ground are natural attractions often visited by tourists. Visitation rates for such areas in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand are in the order of hundreds of thousands annually. These areas are also habitat for rare and specialized plant and microbial communities that live in the steam-heated soils of unusual chemical composition. We evaluated historical and current trampling impacts of tourists on the thermotolerant vegetation of the Waimangu and Waiotapu geothermal areas near Rotorua, and compared the results to experimental trampling at a third site (Taheke) not used by tourists. Historical tourism has removed vegetation and soil from around key features, and remaining subsoil is compacted into an impervious pavement on which vegetation recolonization is unlikely in the short term. Social tracks made by tourists were present at both tourist sites often leading them onto hotter soils than constructed tracks. Vegetation height and cover were lower on and adjacent to social tracks than further from them. Thermotolerant vegetation showed extremely low resistance to experimental trampling. This confirms and extends previous research that also shows that thallophytes and woody shrubs, life forms that dominate in thermotolerant vegetation, are vulnerable to trampling damage. Preservation of these vulnerable ecosystems must ensure that tourist traffic is confined to existing tracks or boardwalks, and active restoration of impacted sites may be warranted.

  17. Geology of the Pavana geothermal area, Departamento de Choluteca, Honduras, Central America: Field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppler, D.B.; Heiken, G.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Duffield, W.A.

    1987-09-01

    The Pavana geothermal area is located in southern Honduras near the Gulf of Fonseca. This region is underlain by late Tertiary volcanic rocks. Within ranges near the geothermal manifestations, the rock sequences is characterized by intermediate to mafic laharic breccias and lavas overlain by silicic tuffs and lavas, which are in turn overlain by intermediate to mafic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. The nearest Quaternary volcanoes are about 40 km to the southwest, where the chain of active Central American volcanoes crosses the mouth of the Gulf of Fonseca. Structure of the Pavana area is dominated by generally northwest-trending, southwest-dipping normal faults. This structure is topographically expressed as northwest-trending escarpments that bound blocks of bedrock separated by asymmetric valleys that contain thin alluvial deposits. Thermal waters apparently issue from normal faults and are interpreted as having been heated during deep circulation along fault zones within a regional environment of elevated heat flow. Natural outflow from the main thermal area is about 3000 l/min of 60/sup 0/C water. Geothermometry of the thermal waters suggests a reservoir base temperature of about 150/sup 0/C.

  18. Trampling impacts on thermotolerant vegetation of geothermal areas in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Bruce R; Ward, Jonet; Downs, Theresa M

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal features such as geysers, mud pools, sinter terraces, fumaroles, hot springs, and steaming ground are natural attractions often visited by tourists. Visitation rates for such areas in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand are in the order of hundreds of thousands annually. These areas are also habitat for rare and specialized plant and microbial communities that live in the steam-heated soils of unusual chemical composition. We evaluated historical and current trampling impacts of tourists on the thermotolerant vegetation of the Waimangu and Waiotapu geothermal areas near Rotorua, and compared the results to experimental trampling at a third site (Taheke) not used by tourists. Historical tourism has removed vegetation and soil from around key features, and remaining subsoil is compacted into an impervious pavement on which vegetation recolonization is unlikely in the short term. Social tracks made by tourists were present at both tourist sites often leading them onto hotter soils than constructed tracks. Vegetation height and cover were lower on and adjacent to social tracks than further from them. Thermotolerant vegetation showed extremely low resistance to experimental trampling. This confirms and extends previous research that also shows that thallophytes and woody shrubs, life forms that dominate in thermotolerant vegetation, are vulnerable to trampling damage. Preservation of these vulnerable ecosystems must ensure that tourist traffic is confined to existing tracks or boardwalks, and active restoration of impacted sites may be warranted.

  19. Design of a geothermal monitoring network in a coastal area and the evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan Shim, Byoung; Lee, Chulwoo; Park, Chanhee

    2016-04-01

    In Seockmodo Island (area of 48.2 km2) located at the northwest of South Korea, a renewable energy development project to install photovoltaic 136 kW and geothermal 516.3 kW is initiated. Since the 1990s, more than 20 deep geothermal wells for hot springs, greenhouse and aquaculture have been developed along coastal areas. The outflow water of each site has the pumping capacity between 300 and 4,800 m3/day with the salinity higher than 20,000 mg/l, and the maximum temperature shows 70 ?C. Because of the required additional well drillings, the increased discharge rate can cause serious seawater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, which supply groundwater for drinking and living purposes from 210 wells. In order to manage the situation, advanced management skills are required to maintain the balance between geothermal energy development and water resources protection. We designed real-time monitoring networks with monitoring stations for the sustainable monitoring of the temperature and salinity. Construction of borehole temperature monitoring for deep and shallow aquifer consists with the installation of automated temperature logging system and cellular telemetry for real-time data acquisition. The DTS (distributed temperature sensing) system and fiber optic cables will be installed for the logging system, which has enough temperature resolution and accuracy. The spatial distribution and the monitoring points can be determined by geological and hydrological situations associated with the locations of current use and planned facilities. The evaluation of the temperature and salinity variation will be conducted by the web-based monitoring system. The evaluation system will be helpful to manage the balance between the hot water development and the fresh water resources conservation.

  20. Association of Cancer Incidence and Duration of Residence in Geothermal Heating Area in Iceland: An Extended Follow-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalbjorg Kristbjornsdottir

    Full Text Available Residents of geothermal areas have higher incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancers than others. These populations are exposed to chronic low-level ground gas emissions and various pollutants from geothermal water. The aim was to assess whether habitation in geothermal areas and utilisation of geothermal water is associated with risk of cancer according to duration of residence.The cohort obtained from the census 1981 was followed to the end of 2013. Personal identifier was used in record linkage with nation-wide emigration, death, and cancer registries. The exposed population, defined by community codes, was located on young bedrock and had utilised geothermal water supply systems since 1972. Two reference populations were located by community codes on older bedrock or had not utilised geothermal water supply systems for as long a period as had the exposed population. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR, 95% confidence intervals (CI non-stratified and stratified on cumulative years of residence were estimated in Cox-model.The HR for all cancer was 1.21 (95% CI 1.12-1.30 as compared with the first reference area. The HR for pancreatic cancer was 1.93 (1.22-3.06, breast cancer, 1.48 (1.23-1.80, prostate cancer 1.47 (1.22-1.77, kidney cancer 1.46 (1.03-2.05, lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue 1.54 (1.21-1.97, non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma 2.08 (1.38-3.15 and basal cell carcinoma of the skin 1.62 (1.35-1.94. Positive dose-response relationship was observed between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, and between incidence of cancer and degree of geothermal/volcanic activity in the comparison areas.The higher cancer incidence in geothermal areas than in reference areas is consistent with previous findings. As the dose-response relationships were positive between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, it is now more urgent than before to investigate the chemical and physical content of the geothermal

  1. Association of Cancer Incidence and Duration of Residence in Geothermal Heating Area in Iceland: An Extended Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristbjornsdottir, Adalbjorg; Aspelund, Thor; Rafnsson, Vilhjalmur

    2016-01-01

    Residents of geothermal areas have higher incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancers than others. These populations are exposed to chronic low-level ground gas emissions and various pollutants from geothermal water. The aim was to assess whether habitation in geothermal areas and utilisation of geothermal water is associated with risk of cancer according to duration of residence. The cohort obtained from the census 1981 was followed to the end of 2013. Personal identifier was used in record linkage with nation-wide emigration, death, and cancer registries. The exposed population, defined by community codes, was located on young bedrock and had utilised geothermal water supply systems since 1972. Two reference populations were located by community codes on older bedrock or had not utilised geothermal water supply systems for as long a period as had the exposed population. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) non-stratified and stratified on cumulative years of residence were estimated in Cox-model. The HR for all cancer was 1.21 (95% CI 1.12-1.30) as compared with the first reference area. The HR for pancreatic cancer was 1.93 (1.22-3.06), breast cancer, 1.48 (1.23-1.80), prostate cancer 1.47 (1.22-1.77), kidney cancer 1.46 (1.03-2.05), lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue 1.54 (1.21-1.97), non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma 2.08 (1.38-3.15) and basal cell carcinoma of the skin 1.62 (1.35-1.94). Positive dose-response relationship was observed between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, and between incidence of cancer and degree of geothermal/volcanic activity in the comparison areas. The higher cancer incidence in geothermal areas than in reference areas is consistent with previous findings. As the dose-response relationships were positive between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, it is now more urgent than before to investigate the chemical and physical content of the geothermal water

  2. Fiscal 1999 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on resource assessment for Shiramizugoe area; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Shiramizugoe chiiki shigen hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Under an assumed plan of building a geothermal power station in the Shiramizugoe area of Makizono-cho, Aira-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture, investigations will be conducted under a 4-year program into the amount of geothermal resources, the dimensions and cost performance of a geothermal power station under consideration, and the environmental impact that the locating of such will incur, through for example identifying areas containing geothermal reservoirs suitable for geothermal power generation. In fiscal 1999, activities were conducted in the three fields of (1) survey plan preparation, (2) comprehensive analysis, and (3) environmental assessment. Under item (1), a survey and coordination implementation plan was prepared, existing data were analyzed for the construction of geothermal models out of which a suitable geothermal structure was specified for digging, and a list was drafted of locations for borehole digging for fiscal 2000. Under item (2), it was found that most of the past surveys covered the Ogiri area and that the Shiramizugoe area was but poorly covered. Discussion was made on the geological structure, geothermal structure, geothermal water hydraulic structure, and the geothermal water system. Under item (3), the plan was summarily explained to the local administration, associations of hot spring hotels, and inhabitants in the vicinity, and their consent was obtained. (NEDO)

  3. Using PS-InSAR to detect surface deformation in geothermal areas of West Java in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Yasser; van der Meer, Freek; Hecker, Christoph; Perissin, Daniele; Saepuloh, Asep

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR) technique is applied in order to investigate the ground deformation in and around two geothermal areas in West Java, Indonesia. Two time-series of ALOS PALSAR and Sentinel-1A acquisitions, covering the period from 2007 to 2009 and 2015-2016, are analysed. The first case study examines the Wayang Windu geothermal zone where the PS-InSAR analysis provides an overview of the surface deformation around a geothermal reservoir. Uplift is observed around the injection wells in the area. The second example involves the use of the PS-InSAR technique over a more recent geothermal system in Patuha field. Again, a pattern of uplift was observed around the only available injection well in the area. Due to the dense vegetation coverage of the geothermal areas in West Java, the longer wavelength ALOS PALSAR data is provides better results by identifying a larger number of PS points. Additionally, experiments have been carried out to compare the resulting deformation with another example of the fluid migration process i.e. water extraction in Bandung basin. The potential of sentinel-1A and ALOS PALSR data are compared in all the experiments.

  4. Exploration and comparison of geothermal areas in Indonesia by fluid-rock geochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deon, F.; Barnhoorn, A.; Lievens, C.; Saptadij, N.; Sutopo, S.; van der Meer, F; den Hartog, T.; Brehmer, M; Bruhn, D.F.; de Jong, M; Ryannugroho, R.; Hutami, R.; Sule, R.; Hecker, C.; Bonté, D

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia with its large, but partially unexplored geothermal potential is one of the most interesting and suitable places in the world to conduct geothermal exploration research.
    This study focuses on geothermal exploration based on fluid-rock geochemistry/geomechanics and aims to compile an

  5. Analysis of heterogeneous characteristics in a geothermal area with low permeability and high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Aragón-Aguilar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical methodology for reservoir characterization was applied in the central and southwestern zones of Los Humeros geothermal field (LHGF. This study involves analysis of temperature, pressure, enthalpy and permeability in wells and their distribution along the area. The wells located in the central western side of the geothermal field are productive, whereas those located at the central-eastern side are non-productive. Through temperature profiles, determined at steady state in the analyzed wells, it was observed that at bottom conditions (approximately 2300 m depth, temperatures vary between 280 and 360 °C. The temperatures are higher at the eastern side of central zone of LHGF. A review of transient pressure tests, laboratory measurements of core samples, and correlation of circulation losses during drilling suggest that permeability of the formation is low. The enthalpy behavior in productive wells shows a tendency of increase in the steam fraction. It was found that productivity behavior has inverse relation with permeability of rock formation. Further, it is observed that an imbalance exists between exploitation and recharge. It is concluded from the results that the wells located at central-eastern area have low permeability and high temperature, which indicates possibility of heat storage.

  6. Geothermic analysis of high temperature hydrothermal activities area in Western plateau of Sichuan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is a high temperature hydrothermal activity area in the western plateau of Sichuan. More than 200 hot springs points have been found in the region, including 11 hot spring water temperature above local boiling point. Most of these distribute along Jinshajjiang fracture, Dege-Xiangcheng fracture, Ganzi-Litang fracture as well as Xianshuihe fracture, and form three high-temperature hydrothermal activity strips in the NW-SE direction. Using gravity, magnetic, seismic and helium isotope data, this paper analyzed the crust-mantle heat flow structure, crustal heat source distribution and water heating system. The results show that the geothermal activity mainly controlled by the "hot" crust. The ratio of crustal heat flow and surface heat flow is higher than 60%. In the high temperature hydrothermal activities area, there is lower S wave velocity zone with VsGeothermal water mainly reserve in the Triassic strata of the containing water good carbonate rocks, and in the intrusive granite which is along the fault zone. The thermal energy of Surface heat thermal activities mainly comes from the high-temperature hot source which is located in the middle and lower crust. Being in the deep crustal fracture, the groundwater infiltrated to the deep crust and absorbed heat, then, quickly got back to the surface and formed high hot springs.

  7. Study of structural change in volcanic and geothermal areas using seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhana, Najwa; Foulger, Gillian; Julian, Bruce; peirce, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Long Valley caldera is a large silicic volcano. It has been in a state of volcanic and seismic unrest since 1978. Farther escalation of this unrest could pose a threat to the 5,000 residents and the tens of thousands of tourists who visit the area. We have studied the crustal structure beneath 28 km X 16 km area using seismic tomography. We performed tomographic inversions for the years 2009 and 2010 with a view to differencing it with the 1997 result to look for structural changes with time and whether repeat tomography is a capable of determining the changes in structure in volcanic and geothermal reservoirs. Thus, it might provide a useful tool to monitoring physical changes in volcanoes and exploited geothermal reservoirs. Up to 600 earthquakes, selected from the best-quality events, were used for the inversion. The inversions were performed using program simulps12 [Thurber, 1983]. Our initial results show that changes in both V p and V s were consistent with the migration of CO2 into the upper 2 km or so. Our ongoing work will also invert pairs of years simultaneously using a new program, tomo4d [Julian and Foulger, 2010]. This program inverts for the differences in structure between two epochs so it can provide a more reliable measure of structural change than simply differencing the results of individual years.

  8. Selected cost considerations for geothermal district heating in existing single-family residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin

    1996-06-01

    In the past, district heating (geothermal or conventionally fueled) has not been widely applied to the single-family residential sector. Low-heat load density is the commonly cited reason for this. Although it's true that load density in these areas is much lower than for downtown business districts, other frequently overlooked factors may compensate for load density. In particular, costs for distribution system installation can be substantially lower in some residential areas due to a variety of factors. This reduced development cost may partially compensate for the reduced revenue resulting from low-load density. This report examines cost associated with the overall design of the system (direct or indirect system design), distribution piping installation, and customer branch lines. It concludes with a comparison of the costs for system development and the revenue from an example residential area.

  9. Technologies for the Comprehensive Exploitation of the Geothermal Resources of the North Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.

    2018-03-01

    Technology for the integrated development of low-temperature geothermal resources using the thermal and water potentials for various purposes is proposed. The heat of the thermal waters is utilized in a low-temperature district heating system and for heating the water in a hot water supply system. The water cooled in heat exchangers enters a chemical treatment system where it is conditioned into potable water quality and then forwarded to the household and potable water supply system. Efficient technologies for removal of arsenic and organic contaminants from the water have been developed. For the uninterrupted supply of the consumers with power, the technologies that use two and more types of renewable energy sources (RESs) have the best prospects. Technology for processing organic waste using the geothermal energy has been proposed. According to this technology, the geothermal water is divided into two flows, one of which is delivered to a biomass conversion system and the other is directed to a geothermal steam-gas power plant (GSGP). The wastewater arrives at the pump station from which it is pumped back into the bed. Upon drying, the biogas from the conversion system is delivered into the combustion chamber of a gas-turbine plant (GTP). The heat of the turbine exhaust gases is used in the GSGP to evaporate and reheat the low-boiling working medium. The working medium is heated in the GSGP to the evaporation temperature using the heat of the thermal water. High-temperature geothermal brines are the most promising for the comprehensive processing. According to the proposed technology, the heat energy of the brines is utilized to generate the electric power at a binary geothermal power station; the electric power is then used to extract the dissolved chemical components from the rest of the brine. The comprehensive utilization of high-temperature brines of the East-Precaucasian Artesian Basin will allow to completely satisfy the demand of Russia for lithium

  10. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  11. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  12. Preliminary determination of geothermal working area based on Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoes Nugroho, Indra; Kurniawahidayati, Beta; Syahputra Mulyana, Reza; Saepuloh, Asep

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing is one of the methods for geothermal exploration. This method can be used to map the geological structures, manifestations, and predict the geothermal potential area. The results from remote sensing were used as guidance for the next step exploration. Analysis of target in remote sensing is an efficient method to delineate geothermal surface manifestation without direct contact to the object. The study took a place in District Merangin, Jambi Province, Indonesia. The area was selected due to existing of Merangin volcanic complex composed by Mounts Sumbing and Hulunilo with surface geothermal manifestations presented by hot springs and hot pools. The location of surface manifestations could be related with local and regional structures of Great Sumatra Fault. The methods used in this study were included identification of volcanic products, lineament extraction, and lineament density quantification. The objective of this study is to delineate the potential zones for sitting the geothermal working site based on Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors. The lineament-related to geological structures, was aimed for high lineament density, is using ALOS - PALSAR (Advanced Land Observing Satellite - The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) level 1.1. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis was used to predict the vegetation condition using Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS (The Operational Land Imager - Thermal Infrared Sensor). The brightness temperature was extracted from TIR band to estimate the surface temperature. Geothermal working area identified based on index overlay method from extracted parameter of remote sensing data was located at the western part of study area (Graho Nyabu area). This location was identified because of the existence of high surface temperature about 30°C, high lineament density about 4 - 4.5 km/km2 and low NDVI values less than 0.3.

  13. Geothermal concept for energy efficient improvement of space heating and cooling in highly urbanized area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranjes Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New Belgrade is a highly urbanized commercial and residential district of Belgrade lying on the alluvial plane of the Sava and the Danube rivers. The groundwater of the area is a geothermal resource that is usable through geothermal heat pumps (GHP. The research has shown that the “heat island effect” affects part of the alluvial groundwater with the average groundwater temperature of about 15.5°C, i.e. 2°C higher than the one in less urbanized surroundings. Based on the measured groundwater temperatures as well as the appraisal of the sustainable aquifer yield, the available thermal power of the resource is estimated to about 29MWt. The increasing urbanization trend of the New Belgrade district implies the growing energy demands that may partly be met by the available groundwater thermal power. Taking into consideration the average apartment consumption of 80 Wm-2, it is possible to heat about 360,000 m2 and with the consumption efficiency of 50 Wm-2, it would be possible to heat over 570,000 m2. Environmental and financial aspects were considered through the substitution of conventional fuels and the reduction of greenhouse gas emission as well as through the optimization of the resource use.

  14. An evaluation of the geothermal potential of the Tecuamburro Volcano area of Guatemala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Duffield, W. (eds.)

    1990-09-01

    Radiometric ages indicate that the Tecuamburro Volcano and three adjacent lava domes grew during the last 38,300 years, and that a 360-m-wide phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco, was formed near the base of these domes about 2900 years ago. Laguna Ixpaco is located within the Chupadero crater, from which pyroxene pumice deposits were erupted 38,300 years ago. Thus, the likelihood is great for a partly molten or solid-but-still-hot near-surface intrusion beneath the area. Fumaroles and hot springs issue locally from the Tecuamburro volcanic complex and near Laguna Ixpaco. Analyses of gas and fluid samples from these and other nearby thermal manifestations yield chemical-geothermometer temperatures of about 150{degree} to 300{degree}C, with the highest temperatures at Ixpaco. The existence of a commercial-grade geothermal reservoir beneath the Ixpaco area seems likely. 84 refs., 70 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Flora of the Mayacmas Mountains. [Listing of 679 species in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    This flora describes the plants that occur within the Mayacmas Mountain Range of northern California. It is the result of ten years of environmental assessment by the author in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area, located in the center of the Mayacmas Range. The flora includes notes on plant communities and ecology of the area, as well as habitat and collection data for most of the 679 species covered. Altogether 74 families, 299 genera and 679 species are included in the flora. The work is divided into eight subdivisions: trees; shrubs; ferns and fern allies; aquatic plants; tules, sedges, and rushes; lilies and related plants; dicot herbs; and grasses. Within each subdivision, family, genera and species are listed alphabetically. Keys are provided at the beginning of each subdivision. A unique combination of physical, environmental and geologic factors have resulted in a rich and diverse flora in the Mayacmas. Maps have been provided indicating known locations for species of rare or limited occurrence.

  16. Geothermal fields of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearey, P.; HongBing, Wei

    1993-08-01

    There are over 2500 known occurrences of geothermal phenomena in China. These lie mainly in four major geothermal zones: Xizang (Tibet)-Yunnan, Taiwan, East Coast and North-South. Hot water has also been found in boreholes in major Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basins. This paper presents a summary of present knowledge of these geothermal zones. The geological settings of geothermal occurrences are associated mainly with magmatic activity, fault uplift and depressional basins and these are described by examples of each type. Increased multipurpose utilisation of geothermal resources is planned and examples are given of current usages.

  17. Geothermal development promotion survey. No. B-3 Kumaishi area; Chinethu kaihatsu sokushin chosa seika hokokusho. No. B-3. Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper summarizes the result of a geothermal resource survey carried out from fiscal 1995 through fiscal 1997 in the Kumaishi Area located in the western center of Oshima Peninsula in the south western part of Hokkaido. The survey for this area was performed with an objective to search the spread of high temperature area continuing from the adjoining Yakumo area where the highest temperature of 233 degrees C has been confirmed in a structural test well (N63-YK-6), to identify high water permeating areas in great depth points underground, and to find possibility of existence of geothermal resources. The survey included geological and alteration zone survey, geochemical survey, gravitation exploration, electromagnetic exploration, drilling and temperature logging of five structural test wells, water injection test, temperature restoration test, core survey and hot water survey. Also performed were environmental effect survey, rock age measurement, alteration age measurement, and fluid inclusion test. As a result of the survey, it was identified that the verified geothermal hot water has been stored in granites with poor water permeability, whose low temperature has not formed convection systems spreading in wide areas despite having been heated, making each system exist in small scale independently. It was estimated that the possibility is low to expect geothermal power generation. (NEDO)

  18. Microbial life in volcanic/geothermal areas: how soil geochemistry shapes microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Antonina Lisa; D'Alessandro, Walter; Franzetti, Andrea; Parello, Francesco; Tagliavia, Marcello; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-04-01

    Extreme environments, such as volcanic/geothermal areas, are sites of complex interactions between geosphere and biosphere. Although biotic and abiotic components are strictly related, they were separately studied for long time. Nowadays, innovative and interdisciplinary approaches are available to explore microbial life thriving in these environments. Pantelleria island (Italy) hosts a high enthalpy geothermal system characterized by high CH4 and low H2S fluxes. Two selected sites, FAV1 and FAV2, located at Favara Grande, the main exhalative area of the island, show similar physical conditions with a surface temperature close to 60° C and a soil gas composition enriched in CH4, H2 and CO2. FAV1 soil is characterized by harsher conditions (pH 3.4 and 12% of H2O content); conversely, milder conditions were recorded at site FAV2 (pH 5.8 and 4% of H2O content). High methanotrophic activity (59.2 nmol g-1 h-1) and wide diversity of methanotrophic bacteria were preliminary detected at FAV2, while no activity was detected at FAV1(1). Our aim was to investigate how the soil microbial communities of these two close geothermal sites at Pantelleria island respond to different geochemical conditions. Bacterial and Archaeal communities of the sites were investigated by MiSeq Illumina sequencing of hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. More than 33,000 reads were obtained for Bacteria and Archaea from soil samples of the two sites. At FAV1 99% of the bacterial sequences were assigned to four main phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi). FAV2 sequences were distributed in the same phyla with the exception of Chloroflexi that was represented below 1%. Results indicate a high abundance of thermo-acidophilic chemolithotrophs in site FAV1 dominated by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (25%), Nitrosococcus halophilus (10%), Alicyclobacillus spp. (7%) and the rare species Ktedonobacter racemifer (11%). The bacterial community at FAV2 soil is dominated by

  19. Geothermal pilot study final report: creating an international geothermal energy community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresee, J.C.; Yen, W.W.S.; Metzler, J.E. (eds.)

    1978-06-01

    The Geothermal Pilot Study under the auspices of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) was established in 1973 to apply an action-oriented approach to international geothermal research and development, taking advantage of the established channels of governmental communication provided by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Pilot Study was composed of five substudies. They included: computer-based information systems; direct application of geothermal energy; reservoir assessment; small geothermal power plants; and hot dry rock concepts. The most significant overall result of the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study, which is now complete, is the establishment of an identifiable community of geothermal experts in a dozen or more countries active in development programs. Specific accomplishments include the creation of an international computer file of technical information on geothermal wells and fields, the development of studies and reports on direct applications, geothermal fluid injection and small power plants, and the operation of the visiting scientist program. In the United States, the computer file has aready proven useful in the development of reservoir models and of chemical geothermometers. The state-of-the-art report on direct uses of geothermal energy is proving to be a valuable resource document for laypersons and experts in an area of increasing interest to many countries. Geothermal fluid injection studies in El Salvador, New Zealand, and the United States have been assisted by the Reservoir Assessment Substudy and have led to long-range reservoir engineering studies in Mexico. At least seven small geothermal power plants are in use or have been planned for construction around the world since the Small Power Plant Substudy was instituted--at least partial credit for this increased application can be assigned to the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study. (JGB)

  20. FY 1990 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Survey of geothermal water (No.34 - Kaminoyu/Santai area); 1990 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Nessui no chosa hokokusho (No.34 Kaminoyu Santai chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    For the contribution to elucidation of the structure of geothermal reservoir in the Kaminoyu/Santai area in the southwest part of Hokkaido, jetting test/sampling of geothermal fluid/analysis of properties were carried out in Structural Drilling Well N2-KS-2. The induced jetting of N2-KS-2 was conducted by the air lift method in consideration of the well temperature, state of lost circulation while drilling and results of the water pouring test. As a result, the mean jetting amount of geothermal water was 202.4L/min. The total pumping amount was 559kL, which is equal to approximately 119 times as much as the volume of well. The maximum temperature was 95.9 degrees C, resulting in no steam jetting. The pH of geothermal water was 7.41-8.44, electric conductivity was 9,620-10,450 {mu}s/cm, and the Cl ion concentration was 2,204-2,545 mg/L, which are almost stable. Properties of geothermal water is classified into an alkalescent CL-SO{sub 4} type. As a result of the study, the geothermal reservoir of N2-KS-2 is basically formed by a mechanism of a mixture of the surface water and the deep geothermal water that is similar in isotope to the geothermal water of Nigorikawa production well, which indicated a tight relation in the origin with the group of Kaminoyu hot spring. (NEDO)

  1. Data integration and conceptual modelling of the Larderello geothermal area, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, Adele; Gola, Gianluca; Bertini, Giovanni; Bonini, Marco; Botteghi, Serena; Brogi, Andrea; De Franco, Roberto; Dini, Andrea; Donato, Assunta; Gianelli, Giovanni; Liotta, Domenico; Montanari, Domenico; Montegrossi, Giordano; Petracchini, Lorenzo; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Santilano, Alessandro; Scrocca, Davide; Trumpy, Eugenio

    2017-04-01

    The Larderello geothermal field, located in southern Tuscany (Italy), is one of the most important long-living hydrothermal system in the world. The inner zone of the Northern Apennines is characterized by high heat flow, well constrained by several hundred measurements deriving from both shallow boreholes and deep exploration wells. It is widely accepted that the interplay among extensional tectonics, thinning of the previously overthickened crust and lithosphere, and magmatism related to crustal melting and hybridism, controlled the NW-SE trending geothermal anomaly occurring in southern Tuscany. At Larderello, the geothermal exploitation started at the beginning of the last century from the shallow evaporite-carbonate reservoir (about 700 - 1000 m b.g.l. on average) hosting a super-heated steam with temperature ranging from 150°C to 260°C. A deep exploration program was carried out in the early 1980s. Deep boreholes found a super-heated steam-dominated system hosted in the metamorphic basement (about 2500 - 4000 m b.g.l), characterized by temperatures ranging from 300°C to 350°C. In the SW part of the Larderello area (Lago locality), a temperature exceeding 400°C was measured down to 3000 m b.s.l. The 2D and 3D seismic exploration activities provided evidences of a seismic marker, locally showing bright spot features, defining the top of a deeper reflective crustal interval, named as "K-horizon". The K-horizon has not yet been drilled, but some boreholes approached it. This seismic reflector exhibits interesting positive correlation with the maximum peak of the hypocentre distribution of low-magnitude earthquakes and, at the same time, its shape coincides with the thermal anomaly distribution, in plain view. The review and updating of the velocity and resistivity models suggest the existence of over-pressurized fluids, likely of magmatic and/or thermo-metamorphic origin, which originate the seismic velocity anomalies. The upward migration and storage of the

  2. Past, present and future improvements of the efficiency of the local seismic network of the geothermal reservoir of Casaglia, Ferrara (North Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Zeid, Nasser; Dall'olio, Lorella; Bignardi, Samuel; Santarato, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The microseismic network of Ferrara was established, in the beginning of 1990 and started its monitoring activity few months before the start of reservoir exploitation, for residential and industrial heating purposes, of the Casaglia geothermal site characterised by fluids of 100 °C: February 1990. The purpose was to monitor the natural seismicity so as to be able to discriminate it from possible induced ones due to exploitation activities which consists of a closed loop system composed of three boreholes: one for re-injection "Casaglia001" and two for pumping hot fluids. The microseismic network started, and still today, its monitoring activities with five vertical 2 Hz and one 3D seismometers model Mark products L4A/C distributed at reciprocal distances of about 5 to 7 km around the reservoir covering an area of 100 km^2. Since its beginning the monitoring activities proceeded almost continuously. However, due to technological limitations of the network HW, although sufficient to capture small magnitude earthquakes (near zero), the exponential increase of anthropogenic and electromagnetic noise degraded the monitoring capability of the network especially for small ones. To this end and as of 2007, the network control passed to the University of Ferrara, Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, the network HD for digitalisation and continuous data transmission was replaced with GURALP equipment's.. Since its establishment, few earthquakes occurred in the geothermal area with Ml 5 km. However, following the Emilia sequence of 2012, and as an example we present and discuss the local earthquake (Ml 2.5) occurred in Casaglia (Ferrara, Italy) on September 3, 2015, in the vicinity of the borehole Casaglia1 used for fluid re-injection. In this case, both INGV national network and OGS NE-Italy regional networks provided similar information, with hypocenter at about 5-6 km North of the reservoir edge and about 16 km of depth. However, the same event, relocated by using

  3. Isotopic and chemical studies of geothermal waters of Northern Areas in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dildar Hussain, S; Ahmad, M; Akram, W; Sajjad, M I [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Gonfiantini, R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Isotope Hydrology Section; Tasneem, M A

    1995-02-01

    Northern Areas is one of the major thermal fields of Pakistan with more than two dozen known hot springs having discharge temperature ranging from 35 deg. C to 94 deg. C. Isotopic and chemical techniques applied to study the geothermal fields show that thermal waters are of meteoric origin and can be classified as Na-HCO{sub 3}, Na-SO{sub 4} and mixed type on the basis of their chemical contents. At some places cooling of thermal waters seems to be due to steam separation whereas mixing with fresh cold water is prominent at the remaining sites. The temperatures estimated by isotopic and chemical geothermometers for the two major fields i.e. Tatta Pani and Murtazabad are 83-257 deg. C and 65-296 deg. C respectively. (author). 24 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs.

  4. Microbial composition in a deep saline aquifer in the North German Basin -microbiologically induced corrosion and mineral precipitation affecting geothermal plant operation and the effects of plant downtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerm, Stephanie; Westphal, Anke; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Alawi, Mashal; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2013-04-01

    The microbial composition in fluids of a deep saline geothermal used aquifer in the North German Basin was characterized over a period of five years. The genetic fingerprinting techniques PCR-SSCP and PCR-DGGE revealed distinct microbial communities in fluids produced from the cold and warm side of the aquifer. Direct cell counting and quantification of 16S rRNA genes and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes by real-time PCR proved different population sizes in fluids, showing higher abundance of Bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in cold fluids compared to warm fluids. Predominating SRB in the cold well probably accounted for corrosion damage to the submersible well pump, and iron sulfide precipitates in the near wellbore area and topside facility filters. This corresponded to a lower sulfate content in fluids produced from the cold well as well as higher content of hydrogen gas that was probably released from corrosion, and maybe favoured growth of hydrogenotrophic SRB. Plant downtime significantly influenced the microbial biocenosis in fluids. Samples taken after plant restart gave indications about the processes occurring downhole during those phases. High DNA concentrations in fluids at the beginning of the restart process with a decreasing trend over time indicated a higher abundance of microbes during plant downtime compared to regular plant operation. It is likely that a gradual drop in temperature as well as stagnant conditions favoured the growth of microbes and maturation of biofilms at the casing and in pores of the reservoir rock in the near wellbore area. Furthermore, it became obvious that the microorganisms were more associated to particles then free-living. This study reflects the high influence of microbial populations for geothermal plant operation, because microbiologically induced precipitative and corrosive processes adversely affect plant reliability. Those processes may favourably occur during plant downtime due to enhanced

  5. FY1997 geothermal development promotion survey. Development feasibility study 'Ashiro area'; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kaihatsu kanosei chosa (Ashiro chiiki) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    With regard to the Ashiro Town area in Iwate Prefecture, this paper reports the result of evaluations based on temperature and pressure logging after a lapse of an extended period of time (well No.2) and a steam jet test (well No.1). These activities were performed as the survey on promotion of geothermal development and survey on development feasibility in fiscal 1997. As a result of the overall analysis based on the present survey and ones in the past, the geothermal system model in the surveyed area may be conceived as follows: in both of the N7-AR-1 and N7-AR-2 wells drilled in the southern part of the surveyed area, temperature as high as 250 degrees C or higher was confirmed; the underground temperature is 200 degrees C or higher at an altitude level of zero meter and 250 degrees C at around -500 m, leading to a belief that the high temperature area spreads to south; as a fracture system holding geothermal fluid, a fault was identified at the N7-AR-1 well drilling depth of 1710 m; in the steam jet test, a geothermal reservoir (a shallow geothermal reservoir) was confirmed to exist; the geothermal fluid that has jetted out shows alkaline Na-SO{sub 4} type; and the deep geothermal reservoir has high temperature and is presumed to be in the two-phase condition, presenting promising factors as the geothermal resources. (NEDO)

  6. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-7. Kuwanosawa area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey B 'Kuwanosawa area' which was carried out in Yuzawa city, Akita prefecture, from FY 1998 to FY 1999. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: geology/alteration zone survey, gravity exploration, electromagnetic exploration, environmental effect survey, well geology survey by drilling structural boreholes of N11-KN-1 and N12-KN-2, cuttings test, temperature log, temperature recovery test, electrical log, water injection test, etc. The geology in the Kuwanosawa area is composed of Pre-neogene period basement rocks, Neogene system and Quaternary system. In this area, there were recognized no gush of geothermal fluids such as hot spring and fumarolic gas and no obvious geothermal manifestation such as high-temperature places and new geothermal alteration zones. Around N12-KN-2, there exists the geothermal water with comparatively high-temperature/high-Cl concentration which is similar to that in the Wasabizawa area, but how it flows is unknown because there was no lost circulation in the depths of the borehole. Around N11-KN-1, there exists the low-temperature/low-Cl concentration geothermal water originating in meteoric water, and therefore, the area can be a rechargeable area. The Kuwanosawa area is regarded as the periphery of the Wasabizawa-Akinomiya geothermal area. (NEDO)

  7. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-7. Kuwanosawa area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey B 'Kuwanosawa area' which was carried out in Yuzawa city, Akita prefecture, from FY 1998 to FY 1999. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: geology/alteration zone survey, gravity exploration, electromagnetic exploration, environmental effect survey, well geology survey by drilling structural boreholes of N11-KN-1 and N12-KN-2, cuttings test, temperature log, temperature recovery test, electrical log, water injection test, etc. The geology in the Kuwanosawa area is composed of Pre-neogene period basement rocks, Neogene system and Quaternary system. In this area, there were recognized no gush of geothermal fluids such as hot spring and fumarolic gas and no obvious geothermal manifestation such as high-temperature places and new geothermal alteration zones. Around N12-KN-2, there exists the geothermal water with comparatively high-temperature/high-Cl concentration which is similar to that in the Wasabizawa area, but how it flows is unknown because there was no lost circulation in the depths of the borehole. Around N11-KN-1, there exists the low-temperature/low-Cl concentration geothermal water originating in meteoric water, and therefore, the area can be a rechargeable area. The Kuwanosawa area is regarded as the periphery of the Wasabizawa-Akinomiya geothermal area. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Geochemical survey (Survey of geothermal water) (No.36 - Hongu area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chikagaku chosa (Nessui no chosa) hokokusho (No.36 Hongu chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    The test on jetting of geothermal water by the induced jetting, sampling of geothermal water and analysis/survey were carried out in the structure drilling well of N4-HG-2 in the Hongu area, Wakayama Prefecture. The induced jetting of the well was conducted by the Swabbing method up to the total pumping amount of 459.9m{sup 3} that is equal to about 24 times as much as the inner quantity of the well, but it did not result in jetting. The maximum temperature of geothermal water was 65.6 degrees C, pH was 6.6-7.5, electric conductivity was 2,800-2,900 {mu}S/cm, and Cl concentration was 500-700ppm. The geothermal water was classified into the HCO{sub 3} type that is neutral, and the spring quality and liquidity were the same as those of existing hot springs in this area. In the Hongu area, the distribution of new volcanic rocks has not known. The K-Ar age of quartz porphyry intrusive rocks was made about 13Ma, and it was considered that a possibility was low of the rocks being heat sources of geothermal activities. It was also considered that the geothermal water/hot spring water in this area, which originate in the surface water, were heated in heat transfer by magma activities in the deep underground and were flowing forming a small scale of hydrothermal convection system. (NEDO)

  9. An example of synergy between hydrocarbon and geothermal energy production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Gessel, S.F. van; Jedari Eyvazi, F.

    2014-01-01

    After the successful development of a geothermal site in 2007 in the Netherlands, interest in geothermal development has increased. The large amount of data gathered for the hydrocarbon industry shows good potential in the north of the Netherlands often in the same areas in which hydrocarbon

  10. Geo-electrical and geological strikes of the Mount Lamongan geothermal area, East Java, Indonesia – preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraheni, L. R.; Niasari, S. W.; Nukman, M.

    2018-04-01

    Geothermal manifestations located in the Tiris, Mount Lamongan, Probolinggo, consist of warm springs. These warm springs have temperature from 35° until 45°C. Tiris fault has NW-SE dominant orientation, similar to some lineaments of maars and cinder cones around Mount Lamongan. The Mount Lamongan geothermal area is situated between Bromo and Argapura volcanoes. This study aims to map the geo-electrical and geological strikes in the study area. Phase tensor analysis has been performed in this study to determine geo-electrical strike of study area. Geological field campaign has been conducted to measure geological strikes. Then, orientation of geo-electrical strike was compared to geological strike. The result presents that the regional geological strike of study area is NW-SE while the orientation of geo-electrical strike is N-S.

  11. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  12. Mixing effects on geothermometric calculations of the Newdale geothermal area in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanashayam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; Cody J. Cannon; Thomas R. Wood; Trevor A. Atkinson; Patrick F. Dobson; Mark E. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    The Newdale geothermal area in Madison and Fremont Counties in Idaho is a known geothermal resource area whose thermal anomaly is expressed by high thermal gradients and numerous wells producing warm water (up to 51 °C). Geologically, the Newdale geothermal area is located within the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) that has a time-transgressive history of sustained volcanic activities associated with the passage of Yellowstone Hotspot from the southwestern part of Idaho to its current position underneath Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Locally, the Newdale geothermal area is located within an area that was subjected to several overlapping and nested caldera complexes. The Tertiary caldera forming volcanic activities and associated rocks have been buried underneath Quaternary flood basalts and felsic volcanic rocks. Two southeast dipping young faults (Teton dam fault and an unnamed fault) in the area provide the structural control for this localized thermal anomaly zone. Geochemically, water samples from numerous wells in the area can be divided into two broad groups – Na-HCO3 and Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type waters and are considered to be the product of water-rhyolite and water-basalt interactions, respectively. Each type of water can further be subdivided into two groups depending on their degree of mixing with other water types or interaction with other rocks. For example, some bivariate plots indicate that some Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 water samples have interacted only with basalts whereas some samples of this water type also show limited interaction with rhyolite or mixing with Na-HCO3 type water. Traditional geothermometers [e.g., silica variants, Na-K-Ca (Mg-corrected)] indicate lower temperatures for this area; however, a traditional silica-enthalpy mixing model results in higher reservoir temperatures. We applied a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry tool (e.g., Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that is based on inverse geochemical modeling which

  13. The missing link between submarine volcano and promising geothermal potential in Jinshan, Northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. C.; Hutchings, L.; Chang, C. C.; Lee, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic group (TVG) and the Keelung submarine volcano (KSV) are active volcanoes and surrounding three nuclear plant sites in north Taiwan. The famous Jinshan-Wanli hot springs locates between TVG and KSV, moreover, the geochemical anomalies of acidic boiling springs on the seacoast infer that the origin is from magmatic fluids, sea water and meteoric water mixture, strongly implying that mantle fluids ascends into the shallow crust. The evidence for a magma chamber, submarine volcano, and boiling springs have a close spatial relationship. Based on UNECE specifications to Geothermal Energy Resources (2016), the Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area could be classified as Known Geothermal Energy Source for geothermal direct use and Potential Geothermal Energy Source for conventional geothermal system. High resolution reservoir exploration and modeling in Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area is developing for drilling risk mitigation. The geothermal team of National Taiwan Ocean University and local experts are cooperating for further exploration drilling and geothermal source evaluation. Keywords: geothermal resource evaluation, Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area, submarine volcano

  14. Geophysical studies of the Crump Geyser known geothermal resource area, Oregon, in 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouff, Donald

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical studies in support of the resource appraisal of the Crump Geyser Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). This area was designated as a KGRA by the USGS, and this designation became effective on December 24, 1970. The land classification standards for a KGRA were established by the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-581). Federal lands so classified required competitive leasing for the development of geothermal resources. The author presented an administrative report of USGS geophysical studies entitled 'Geophysical background of the Crump Geyser area, Oregon, KGRA' to a USGS resource committee on June 17, 1975. This report, which essentially was a description of geophysical data and a preliminary interpretation without discussion of resource appraisal, is in Appendix 1. Reduction of sheets or plates in the original administrative report to page-size figures, which are listed and appended to the back of the text in Appendix 1, did not seem to significantly degrade legibility. Bold print in the text indicates where minor changes were made. A colored page-size index and tectonic map, which also show regional geology not shown in figure 2, was substituted for original figure 1. Detailed descriptions for the geologic units referenced in the text and shown on figures 1 and 2 were separately defined by Walker and Repenning (1965) and presumably were discussed in other reports to the committee. Heavy dashed lines on figures 1 and 2 indicate the approximate KGRA boundary. One of the principal results of the geophysical studies was to obtain a gravity map (Appendix 1, fig. 10; Plouff, and Conradi, 1975, pl. 9), which reflects the fault-bounded steepness of the west edge of sediments and locates the maximum thickness of valley sediments at about 10 kilometers south of Crump Geyser. Based on the indicated regional-gravity profile and density-contrast assumptions for the two-dimensional profile, the maximum

  15. Environmental analysis of geopressured-geothermal prospect areas, Brazoria and Kenedy Counties, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W.A.; McGraw, M.; Gustavson, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary environmental data, including current land use, substrate lithology, soils, natural hazards, water resources, biological assemblages, meteorological data, and regulatory considerations have been collected and analyzed for approximately 150 km/sup 2/ of land: (1) near Chocolate Bayou, Brazoria County, Texas, where a geopressured-geothermal test well was drilled in 1978, and (2) near the rural community of Armstrong, Kenedy County, Texas, where future geopressured-geothermal test well development may occur. The study was designed to establish an environmental data base and to determine, within spatial constraints set by subsurface reservoir conditions, environmentally suitable sites for geopressured-geothermal wells.

  16. Report on strategic survey on promising areas for geothermal development in fiscal 1999. Hohi Area (second report); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu yubo chiiki wo taisho to shita senryakuteki chosa hokokusho. 2. Hohi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes a strategic consideration on promising areas for geothermal development in fiscal 1999. Areas of importance to be given surveys corresponding to the geothermal development promotion survey range C were extracted from the promising areas extracted in the previous year, based on further objective analysis and evaluation criteria. Geothermal structure models were prepared on each promising area from geological and geothermal structural elements according to the standard method for the geothermal structure model structuring technology. Amount of geothermal resources in the promising areas was evaluated by using the evaluation supporting tools. In order to extract the areas of importance to be given the surveys, the extraction criteria were discussed based on the resource density, the Natural Park Law, and the data accuracy. Furthermore, comprehensive evaluation was given on geothermal structure properties, location and environmental conditions based on the geothermal structure models. Areas expected of effective achievements in the development promotion survey were selected, and a reservoir conception model was prepared. Assuming the single flash power generation, the resource amount was evaluated by using the Monte Carlo analysis of the Stored Heat Law. Social and environmental issues were also considered. A draft of the optimum survey program corresponding to each survey stage was prepared, with the areas of importance to be given the survey as the object. (NEDO)

  17. Structural controls on fluid circulation at the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex (CCVC) geothermal area (Chile-Argentina), revealed by soil CO2 and temperature, self-potential, and helium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulleau, Emilie; Bravo, Francisco; Pinti, Daniele L.; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Pizarro, Marcela; Tardani, Daniele; Muñoz, Carlos; Sanchez, Juan; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; de la Cal, Federico; Esteban, Carlos; Morata, Diego

    2017-07-01

    Natural geothermal systems are limited areas characterized by anomalously high heat flow caused by recent tectonic or magmatic activity. The heat source at depth is the result of the emplacement of magma bodies, controlled by the regional volcano-tectonic setting. In contrast, at a local scale a well-developed fault-fracture network favors the development of hydrothermal cells, and promotes the vertical advection of fluids and heat. The Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), straddling Chile and Argentina, has an important, yet unexplored and undeveloped geothermal potential. Studies on the lithological and tectonic controls of the hydrothermal circulation are therefore important for a correct assessment of the geothermal potential of the region. Here, new and dense self-potential (SP), soil CO2 and temperature (T) measurements, and helium isotope data measured in fumaroles and thermal springs from the geothermal area located in the north-eastern flank of the Copahue volcanic edifice, within the Caviahue Caldera (the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex - CCVC) are presented. Our results allowed to the constraint of the structural origin of the active thermal areas and the understanding of the evolution of the geothermal system. NE-striking faults in the area, characterized by a combination of SP, CO2, and T maxima and high 3He/4He ratios (up to 8.16 ± 0.21Ra, whereas atmospheric Ra is 1.382 × 10- 6), promote the formation of vertical permeability preferential pathways for fluid circulation. WNW-striking faults represent low-permeability pathways for hydrothermal fluid ascent, but promote infiltration of meteoric water at shallow depths, which dilute the hydrothermal input. The region is scattered with SP, CO2, and T minima, representing self-sealed zones characterized by impermeable altered rocks at depth, which create local barriers for fluid ascent. The NE-striking faults seem to be associated with the upflowing zones of the geothermal system, where the boiling process

  18. Present-day geothermal characteristics of the Ordos Basin, western North China Craton: new findings from deep borehole steady-state temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Qiu, Qianfeng; Jiang, Guangzheng; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Shengbiao; Lei, Yuhong; Wang, Xiangzeng

    2018-07-01

    Heat flow and associated thermal regimes are related to the tectonic evolution and geophysical properties of the lithosphere. The Ordos Basin is located in a tectonic transitional zone: areas to the east of the basin are characterized as tectonically active, while regions to the west of the basin are characterized as tectonically stable. It is of general interest to learn the geothermal characteristics of the basin in such tectonic conditions. To clarify the spatial variability of the present-day geothermal field across the basin and its implications, we report 13 terrestrial heat flow points based on the first systematic steady-state deep borehole temperature measurements in the basin. The new data together with existing data show that the geothermal gradients in the basin range from 12.6 to 42.3 °C km-1 with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.3 °C km-1; the terrestrial heat flow values range from 43.3 to 88.7 mW m-2 with a mean of 64.7 ± 8.9 mW m-2. Such values are higher than those of typical cratonic basins and lower than those of tectonically active areas. By using all these data in the basin and adjacent areas, we plot geothermal gradient and heat flow distribution maps. The maps reveal that the basin is cooling westwards and northwards. The distribution pattern of the geothermal field is consistent with the lithospheric thickness variation in the basin. This similarity suggests that the geothermal spatial variability of the Ordos Basin is mainly influenced by heat from the deep mantle. In the southeastern basin, we locate a positive geothermal anomaly caused by the convergence of heat flow in basement highs and the high radiogenic heat production. In addition, the high heat flow in the eastern basin is related to the intense uplift during the Cenozoic Era.

  19. Present-day geothermal characteristics of the Ordos Basin, western North China Craton: new findings from deep borehole steady-state temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Qiu, Qianfeng; Jiang, Guangzheng; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Shengbiao; Lei, Yuhong; Wang, Xiangzeng

    2018-03-01

    Heat flow and associated thermal regimes are related to the tectonic evolution and geophysical properties of the lithosphere. The Ordos Basin is located in a tectonic transitional zone: areas to the east of the basin are characterized as tectonically active, while regions to the west of the basin are characterized as tectonically stable. It is of general interest to learn the geothermal characteristics of the basin in such tectonic conditions. To clarify the spatial variability of the present-day geothermal field across the basin and its implications, we report 13 terrestrial heat flow points based on the first systematic steady-state deep borehole temperature measurements in the basin. The new data together with existing data show that the geothermal gradients in the basin range from 12.6 to 42.3° C km-1 with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.3° C km-1; the terrestrial heat flow values range from 43.3 to 88.7 mW/m2 with a mean of 64.7 ± 8.9 mW/m2. Such values are higher than those of typical cratonic basins and lower than those of tectonically active areas. By using all these data in the basin and adjacent areas, we plot geothermal gradient and heat flow distribution maps. The maps reveal that the basin is cooling westward and northward. The distribution pattern of the geothermal field is consistent with the lithospheric thickness variation in the basin. This similarity suggests that the geothermal spatial variability of the Ordos Basin is mainly influenced by heat from the deep mantle. In the southeastern basin, we locate a positive geothermal anomaly caused by the convergence of heat flow in basement highs and the high radiogenic heat production. In addition, the high heat flow in the eastern basin is related to the intense uplift during the Cenozoic Era.

  20. Geothermal handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management offered over 400,000 hectares (one million acres) for geothermal exploration and development in 1975, and figure is expected to double this year. The Energy Research and Development Administration hopes for 10-15,000 megawatts of geothermal energy by 1985, which would require, leasing over 16.3 million hectares (37 million acres) of land, at least half of which is federal land. Since there is an 8 to 8-1/2 year time laf between initial exploration and full field development, there would have to be a ten-fold increase in the amount of federal land leased within the next three years. Seventy percent of geothermal potential, 22.3 million hectares (55 million acres), is on federal lands in the west. The implication for the Service are enormous and the problems immediate. Geothermal resource are so widespread they are found to some extent in most biomes and ecosystems in the western United States. In most cases exploitation and production of geothermal resources can be made compatible with fish and wildlife management without damage, if probable impacts are clearly understood and provided for before damage has unwittingly been allowed to occur. Planning for site suitability and concern with specific operating techniques are crucial factors. There will be opportunities for enhancement: during exploration and testing many shallow groundwater bodies may be penetrated which might be developed for wildlife use. Construction equipment and materials needed for enhancement projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote by land managers. A comprehensive knowledge of geothermal development is necessary to avoid dangers and seize opportunities. This handbook is intended to serve as a working tool in the field. It anticipated where geothermal resource development will occur in the western United States in the near future. A set of environmental assessment procedures are

  1. Porous media of the Red River Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota: a possible Sedimentary Enhanced Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Caitlin M.

    2018-01-01

    Fracture-stimulated enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) can be developed in both crystalline rocks and sedimentary basins. The Red River Formation (Ordovician) is a viable site for development of a sedimentary EGS (SEGS) because the formation temperatures exceed 140 °C and the permeability is 0.1-38 mD; fracture stimulation can be utilized to improve permeability. The spatial variations of the properties of the Red River Formation were analyzed across the study area in order to understand the distribution of subsurface formation temperatures. Maps of the properties of the Red River Formation-including depth to the top of the formation, depth to the bottom of the formation, porosity, geothermal gradient, heat flow, and temperature-were produced by the Kriging interpolation method in ArcGIS. In the future, these results may be utilized to create a reservoir simulation model of an SEGS in the Red River Formation; the purpose of this model would be to ascertain the thermal response of the reservoir to fracture stimulation.

  2. Spatial Characteristics of Geothermal Spring Temperatures and Discharge Rates in the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, C. S.; Liu, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic area is the only potential volcanic geothermal region in the Taiwan island, and abundant in hot spring resources owing to stream water mixing with fumarolic gases. According to the Meinzer's classification, spring temperatures and discharge rates are the most important properties for characterizing spring classifications. This study attempted to spatially characterize spring temperatures and discharge rates in the Tatun volcanic area, Taiwanusing indicator kriging (IK). First, data on spring temperatures and discharge rates, which were collected from surveyed data of the Taipei City Government, were divided into high, moderate and low categories according to spring classification criteria, and the various categories were regarded as estimation thresholds. Then, IK was adopted to model occurrence probabilities of specified temperatures and discharge rates in springs, and to determine their classifications based on estimated probabilities. Finally, nine combinations were obtained from the classifications of temperatures and discharge rates in springs. Moreover, the combinations and features of spring water were spatially quantified according to seven sub-zones of spring utilization. A suitable and sustainable development strategy of the spring area was proposed in each sub-zone based on probability-based combinations and features of spring water.The research results reveal that the probability-based classifications using IK provide an excellent insight in exploring the uncertainty of spatial features in springs, and can provide Taiwanese government administrators with detailed information on sustainable spring utilization and conservation in the overexploited spring tourism areas. The sub-zones BT (Beitou), RXY (Rd. Xingyi), ZSL (Zhongshanlou) and LSK (Lengshuikeng) with high or moderate discharge rates are suitable to supply spring water for tourism hotels.Local natural hot springs should be planned in the sub-zones DBT (Dingbeitou), ZSL, XYK

  3. World geothermal congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povarov, O.A.; Tomarov, G.V.

    2001-01-01

    The World geothermal congress took place in the period from 28 May up to 10 June 2000 in Japan. About 2000 men from 43 countries, including specialists in the area of developing geothermal fields, creating and operating geothermal electrical and thermal plants and various systems for the earth heat application, participated in the work of the Congress. It was noted at the Congress, that development of the geothermal power engineering in the world is characterized by the large-scale application of geothermal resources for the electrical energy generation [ru

  4. Low temperature geothermal energy applications in the Albuquerque area. Final report, July 1, 1978-August 18, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, D.; Houghton, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of the engineering and economic feasibility of hot water geothermal energy applications in the Albuquerque area. A generalized system design was developed and used as the basis for a series of economic case studies. Reservoir and user siting considerations were studied in light of the economic findings. Several specific potential applications were identified, including university campuses, industrial and commercial facilities, and residential buildings. Specific key technical problems relating to Albuquerque area applications were studied. These included environmental impacts, corrosion, scaling, heat losses in wells and transmission lines, heat exchangers, control systems, and system utilization and reliability. It is concluded that geothermal energy could be competitive with other energy sources for space heating and limited industrial use for moderate to large (10 million Btu/hr or more) energy using systems.

  5. Thermus arciformis sp. nov., a thermophilic species from a geothermal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Qi; Ying, Yi; Ye, Ying; Xu, Xue-Wei; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2010-04-01

    Two aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-sporulating, yellow-pigmented bacteria, strains TH92(T) and TH91, were isolated from a hot spring located in Laibin, Guangxi, in the south-eastern geothermal area of China. The isolates grew at 40-77 degrees C (optimally at 70 degrees C) and at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimally at pH 7.5-8.0). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness together indicated that the new isolates represented a novel species of the genus Thermus with closest affinity to Thermus aquaticus, Thermus igniterrae and Thermus thermophilus. Compared with their closest relatives, strains TH92( T) and TH91 were able to assimilate a wider range of carbohydrates, amino acids and organic acids as sole carbon sources for growth, such as lactose and melibiose. The new isolates had lower combined levels of C(16 : 0 ) and iso-C(16 : 0) compared with their closest relatives. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic characterization, strains TH92(T) and TH91 are considered to represent a single novel species of the genus Thermus, for which the name Thermus arciformis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TH92(T) (=CGMCC 1.6992(T) =JCM 15153(T)).

  6. Magnetotelluric (MT) surveying in the Kakkonda geothermal area; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki deno MT ho tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Y; Takakura, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Uchida, T [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper describes the MT surveying conducted at the vicinity of a deep well (WD-1) in the Kakkonda geothermal area. For the MT surveying, the interval between measuring points was 300 m. Electric field dipole with a length of 300 m was given in the direction of traverse line, and that with a length of 50 m was given in the direction perpendicular to the line. Three components of magnetic field were measured using induction coil. Frequency band of the data was between 0.0005 Hz and 300 Hz. Characteristics of specific resistance model obtained from the MT surveying were illustrated. Low specific resistance zone less than 30 ohm-m was observed in the shallow zone below the altitude 0 m. This zone was comparable to the distribution of montmorillonite. High specific resistance anomaly was analyzed at the western half of the traverse line in the altitude between 0 m and -2000 m, which corresponded to the collective part of focuses. The bottom surface of the anomaly agreed well with the upper surface of neo-granite, i.e., the lower limits of earthquakes. Low specific resistance was observed in the altitude below -2000 m. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in Paso Robles, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campion, L.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Youngs, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    Ninety-eight geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted, and a geologic map and cross sections were compiled. Detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The geological and geophysical work delineated the basement highs and trough-like depressions that can exercise control on the occurrence of the thermal waters. The Rinconada fault was also evident. Cross sections drawn from oil well logs show the sediments conforming against these basement highs and filling the depressions. It is along the locations where the sediments meet the basement highs that three natural warm springs in the area occur. Deep circulation of meteoric waters along faults seems to be a reasonable source for the warm water. The Santa Margarita, Pancho Rico, and Paso Robles Formations would be the first permeable zones that abut the faults through which water would enter. Temperatures and interpretation of well logs indicate the warmest aquifer at the base of the Paso Robles Formation. Warm water may be entering higher up in the section, but mixing with water from cooler zones seems to be evident. Geothermometry indicates reservoir temperatures could be as high as 91/sup 0/C (196/sup 0/F).

  8. Geothermal investigation in Idaho. Part 14. Geochemical and isotopic investigations of thermal water occurrences of the Boise Front Area, Ada County, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, A.L.; Muller, A.B.; Mitchell, J.C.

    1984-12-01

    A limited chemical and isotopic investigation was undertaken and geological, geophysical, and hydrological data in the literature were reviewed to evaluate the geothermal potential of the Boise area. 68 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs. (ACR)

  9. Preliminary investigation of two areas in New York State in terms of possible potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy. [Adirondack Mountains and Catskill Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isachsen, Y.W.

    1978-09-27

    Two areas in New York State were studied in terms of possible long range potential for geothermal energy: the Adirondack Mountains which are undergoing contemporary doming, and an anomalous circular feature centered on Panther Mountain in the Catskill Mountains. The Adirondack Mountains constitute an anomalously large, domical uplift on the Appalachian foreland. The domical configuration of the area undergoing uplift, combined with subsidence at the northeastern perimeter of the dome, argues for a geothermal rather than glacioisostatic origin. A contemporary hot spot near the crust-mantle boundary is proposed as the mechanism of doming, based on analogy with uplifts of similar dimensions elsewhere in the world, some of which have associated Tertiary volcanics. The lack of thermal springs in the area, or high heat flow in drill holes up to 370 m deep, indicates that the front of the inferred thermal pulse must be at some depth greater than 1 km. From isopach maps by Rickard (1969, 1973), it is clear that the present Adirondack dome did not come into existence until sometime after Late Devonian time. Strata younger than this are not present to provide further time stratigraphic refinement of this lower limit. However, the consequent radial drainage pattern in the Adirondacks suggests that the dome is a relatively young tectonic feature. Using arguments based on fixed hot spots in central Africa, and the movement of North American plate, Kevin Burke (Appendix I) suggests that the uplift may be less than 4 m.y. old.The other area of interest, the Panther Mountain circular feature in the Catskill Mountains, was studied using photogeology, gravity and magnetic profiling, gravity modeling, conventional field methods, and local shallow seismic refraction profiling.

  10. Sign of Radon for locate geothermic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Teran, D.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of a geothermic field is based upon geological, geophysical and geochemical studies that enable the evaluation of the deposit potential, that is to say, the amount of energy per unit mass, the volume of the trapped fluid, vapor fraction and fluid chemistry. This thesis has as its objective the evaluation of radon gas emanation in high potential geothermic zones in order to utilize the results as a low cost and easy to manage complimentary tool in geothermic source prospection. In chapter I the importance and evaluation of a geothermic deposit is discussed. In chapter II the general characteristics of radon are discussed: its radioactivity and behavior upon diffusion over the earth's surface> Chapter III establishes the approach used in the geothermic field of Los Azufres, Michoacan, to carry out samplings of radon and the laboratory techniques that were used to evaluate the concentration of radon in the subsoil. Finally in chapter IV measurements of radon in the field are compared to geological faults in the area under study. The sampling zones were: low geothermic potential zone of the northern and the southern zone having a greater geothermic potential than that in the north. The study was carried out at different sampling times using plastics detectors of from 30 to 46 days from February to July. From the results obtained we concluded that the emission of radon was greater in the zones of greatest geothermic potential than in the low geothermic potential zones it was also affected by the fault structure and the time of year in which sampling was done. (Author)

  11. Carbon and Noble Gas Isotopes in the Tengchong Volcanic Geothermal Area, Yunnan, Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Sheng; Shun'ich NAKAI; Hiroshi WAKITA; WANG Xianbin

    2004-01-01

    Carbon and noble gas isotope analyses are reported for bubbling gas samples from the Tengchong volcanic geothermal area near the Indo-Eurasian suture zone. All samples contain a resolvable component of mantle-derived 3He.Occurrence of mantle-derived 3He coincides with surface volcanism. However, 3He occurs over a larger geographic area than do surface volcanics. δ13C values for CO2 and CH4 vary from -33.4 ‰ to 1.6 ‰ and from -52.8 ‰ to -2.8 ‰,respectively. He and C isotope systematics indicate that CO2 and CH4 in the CO2-rich gases originated predominantly from magmatic component mixed with crustal CO2 produced from carbonate. However, breakdown of organic matter and nearsurface processes accounts for the CH4 and CO2 in N2-rich gases. 3He/4He ratio distribution pattern suggests that mantlederived He and heat sources of high-temperature system in central Tengchong originate from a hidden magma reservoir at subsurface. CO2-rich gases with the highest 3He/4He ratio (5.2 Ra) may be representative of the Tengchong magmatic component. Compared with MORB, this relative low 3He/4He ratio could be fully attributed to either deep crustal contamination, or radioactive aging, or past contamination of the local mantle by U- and Th-rich subducted crustal material.However, a combination of low 3He/4He, high radiogenic 4He/40Ar ratio and identical CO2/3He and δ13Cco2 relative to MORB may suggest addition of prior subductedd crsustal material (ca 1%-2%) to the MORB reservoir around 1.3 Ga ago,which is essentially compatible with the LIL-elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of volcanic rocks.

  12. Hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters in Chaves geothermal area (northern Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires-Barros, Luis; Marques, Jose Manuel; Graca, Rui Cores; Matias, Maria Jose [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lab. de Mineralogia e Petrologia (LAMPIST), Lisboa (Portugal); Weijden, Cornelis H. van der; Kreulen, Rob [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Geochemistry, Utrecht (Netherlands); Eggenkamp, Hermanus Gerardus M. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Geochemistry, Utrecht (Netherlands); Reading Univ., Postgraduate Research Inst. for Sedimentology, Reading (United Kingdom)

    1998-02-01

    In order to update the geohydrologic characterisation of Chaves geothermal area, coupled isotopic and chemical studies have been carried out on hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters discharging, in northern Portugal, along one of the major regional NNE-trending faults (the so-called Verin-Chaves-Penacova Depression). Based upon their location, and chemical and isotopic composition, the analysed waters can be divided into two groups. The northern group belongs to the HCO{sub 3}/Na/CO{sub 2}-rich type, and consists of the hot spring waters of Chaves and the cold spring waters of Vilarelho da Raia. The {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values show that these waters are of meteoric origin. The lack of an {sup 18}O shift indicates that there is no evidence of water/rock interaction at high temperatures. The southern group includes the cold spring waters of Campilho/Vidago and Sabroso/Pedras Salgadas. Their chemistry is similar to that of the northern group but their heavier {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values could be attributed to different recharge altitudes. Mixing between deep mineralised waters and dilute superficial waters of meteoric origin might explain the higher {sup 3}H activity found in the Vidago and Pedras Salgadas mineral waters. Alternatively, they could be mainly related to shallow underground flowpaths. The {delta}{sup 13}C values support a deep-seated origin for the CO{sub 2}. The {delta}{sup 37}Cl is comparable in all the mineral waters of the study areas, indicating a common origin of Cl. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in waters seem to be dominated by the dissolution of plagioclases or granitic rocks. (Author)

  13. Geothermal energy in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1993-11-01

    The potential of geothermal energy utilization in Jordan was discussed. The report gave a summary of the location of geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and of ongoing projects that utilize geothermal energy for greenhouse heating, fish farming, refrigeration by absorption, and water desalination of deep aquifers. The problems facing the utilization of geothermal energy in Jordan were identified to be financial (i.e. insufficient allocation of local funding, and difficulty in getting foreign financing), and inadequate expertise in the field of geothermal energy applications. The report gave a historical account of geothermal energy utilization activities in Jordan, including cooperation activities with international organizations and foreign countries. A total of 19 reports already prepared in the areas of geochemical and hydrological studies were identified. The report concluded that the utilization of geothermal energy offers some interesting economic possibilities. (A.M.H.). 4 refs. 1 map

  14. Isotope and chemical investigation of geothermal springs and thermal water produced by oil wells in potwat area, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Rafique, M.; Tariq, J.A; Choudhry, M.A.; Hussain, Q.M.

    2008-10-01

    Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal springs in Potwar. Two sets of water samples were collected. Surface temperatures of geothermal springs ranges from 52 to 68.3 C. Waters produced by oil wells in Potwar area were also investigated. Geothermal springs of Potwar area are Na-HCO/sub 3/ type, while the waters produced by oil wells are Na-Cl and Ca-Cl types. Source of both the categories of water is meteoric water recharged from the outcrops of the formations in the Himalayan foothills. These waters undergo very high /sup 18/O-shift (up to 18%) due to rock-water interaction at higher temperatures. High salinity of the oil field waters is due to dissolution of marine evaporites. Reservoir temperatures of thermal springs determined by the Na-K geo thermometers are in the range of 56-91 deg. C, while Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Mg, Na-K-Ca-Mg and quartz geo thermometers give higher temperatures up to 177 C. Reservoir temperature determined by /sup 18/O(SO/Sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geo thermometer ranges from 112 to 138 deg. C. There is wide variation in reservoir temperatures (54-297 deg. C) of oil fields estimated by different chemical geo thermometers. Na-K geo thermometer seems more reliable which gives close estimates to real temperature (about 100 deg. C) determined during drilling of oil wells. (author)

  15. Potential of geothermal systems in Picardy

    OpenAIRE

    Dourlat, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal systems are not only about electrical plants or urban heating networks, but also concerned with geothermal energy assisted with a heat pump. In the former region of Picardy (North of France), 97% of the territory is suitable for very low temperature geothermal power. The French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management and the Picardy Region decided in 2016 to finance a facilitator to encourage geothermal use. To carry out this aim, it is important to consider the geothermal...

  16. Analysis of changes in the utilization of thermal water and geothermal energy in the north great plain region (Northeastern Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulcsár Balázs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Probably, the most urgent problem of mankind in the 21st century to find a way to satisfy the energy demand of the world’s population - having reached seven billion people in 2011 - preferably from renewable sources, by endeavoring to apply environmentally sparing methods. From Hungary’s perspective, it is a goal of priority significance, as it is an area that is not abound in fossil energy resources, and thus becoming increasingly exposed to the energy policies of the producer countries. If Hungary, which has favorable endowments in the field of renewable energy resources, lays larger emphasis on the application and processing of environmental industry technologies, the economic vulnerability of the country can be mitigated. This study discusses the distribution of the utilization of geothermal energy and its carrying medium, thermal water among the sectors of the economy, as well as its changes over time, the utilization potentials of alternative energies in the northeastern region of Hungary. This region has outstanding facilities in the field of thermal water and geothermal energy resources, yet their utilization rate - with respect to the available thermal water capacities - is rather low. It is a consequence of the regulatory requirements posed on operators, high investment and maintenance costs, the general shortage of resources, the difficult situation of the industries and municipalities, as well as the fact that the solid and liquid media of energy storage lying at depths of thousands of meters, the methods and potentials of exploitations, their sustainability are not or are just partly known.

  17. Geothermal energy abstract sets. Special report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C. (comp.)

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography contains annotated citations in the following areas: (1) case histories; (2) drilling; (3) reservoir engineering; (4) injection; (5) geothermal well logging; (6) environmental considerations in geothermal development; (7) geothermal well production; (8) geothermal materials; (9) electric power production; (10) direct utilization of geothermal energy; (11) economics of geothermal energy; and (12) legal, regulatory and institutional aspects. (ACR)

  18. Quantifying the undiscovered geothermal resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter

    2009-01-01

    National Park, are unique in North America and highly unlikely to have counterparts with equivalent characteristics among the systems comprising the undiscovered resources. (2) Historical geothermal exploration has been limited in both the effectiveness of techniques employed and spatial coverage, since most exploration has targeted areas associated with surface thermal manifestations in the most easily accessible lands. (3) As noted by other investigators, in general, the hottest and largest geothermal systems are those with heat sources arising from recent magmatic activity. Consequently, a larger fraction of the undiscovered resource is associated with those areas favorable to the formation of this type of geothermal system, including some relatively remote areas, such as the Aleutian volcanic arc in Alaska.

  19. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of environmental effect pertaining to survey for geothermal development and promotion (Hakusuigoe area); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa no uchi kankyo eikyo chosa (Hakusuigoe chiiki) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This survey of environmental effect was intended to grasp actual state concerning some environmental factors that should agree with survey/development and also to assess its effect on the surrounding environment, particularly as a part of the 'stage C' in the 'survey for geothermal development and promotion', which was implemented by the Government for the purpose of guiding geothermal development by enterprises. This report compiles the plan details of the environmental effect survey to be conducted in the Hakusuigoe district, and presents proposals. The survey area is in the north of Makizono-cho, Aira-gun, in Kagoshima prefecture and situated about 3 km west of Onaminoike in Karakunidake, one of the peaks in the Kirishima mountain range. The Ogiri geothermal power plant is in the west of the site, a tourist spot Ebino Heights about 4 km northeast, and the Kirishima hot-spring about 4 km southeast. The location is in the national park, with a part designated as No. 2 and 3 class special areas. The environmental effect survey was divided broadly into such categories as fauna/flora, hot-spring water alteration and inland water, landscape, noise/vibration/subsoil, and air/water, and was further subdivided in accordance with the actual operations. (NEDO)

  20. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Electromagnetic exploration (TDEM method) (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. Denji tansa (TDEM ho) hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    For the purpose of elucidating a possibility of existence of geothermal reservoirs in the Haneyama area, Oita Prefecture, Electromagnetic survey by the TDEM method was conducted. The survey was made for the area of 80km{sup 2} at 105 measuring points in the south of the Haneyama area, and the resistivity structure reaching the depth of 4,000m from the earth surface was made clear. The resistivity structure in this area is composed of 4 layers: upper medium resistivity layer, central medium resistivity layer, central low resistivity layer and lower high resistivity layer. The resistivity structure discontinuous line ranges between the uplift zone of basement and the sedimentation zone, and the greater part of the alteration zone is distributed and arranged concomitant with the position and direction of the line. As the region with high potential of geothermal existence, cited were the low resistivity zone distributed in the west of the resistivity structure discontinuous line that continues from Mt. Fukuman to the south, the low resistivity zone distributed in the north of the resistivity structure discontinuous line from Noya to the west, and the low resistivity zone distributed in the north of Hosenji and lying between resistivity structure discontinuous lines. (NEDO)

  1. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, F.; Kappelmeyer, O.; Herde, O.A.

    1992-01-01

    Objective of this brochure is to present the subject Geothermics and the possible use of geothermal energy to the public. The following aspects will be refered to: -present energy situation -geothermal potential -use of geothermal energy -environemental aspects -economics. In addition, it presents an up-dated overview of geothermal projects funded by the German government, and a list of institutions and companies active in geothermal research and developments. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.34. Kaminoyu/Santai area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 34 Kaminoyu Santai chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Kaminoyu/Santai area' which was carried out at Yakumo town, Yamakoshi county, and Mori town, Kayabe county, Hokkaido, from FY 1990 to FY 1992. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and gravity exploration, test to induce jetting of geothermal fluids by drilling 7 boreholes, temperature/pressure log, etc. The geological structure of this area is featured by the uplift structure/caldera structure and the anticline structure. In the wide-area geothermal system, it is thought that the low-temperature seawater permeates underground by mixture with meteoric water, is heated, and forms the deep geothermal water. It is thought that the hot spring water in this area is stored in the hot spring reservoir by mixture with the surface water, and it is gushing. In the area, the region which is regarded as favorable as passage/storage place of geothermal fluid is a region of 1.5km width extending linearly in the E-W direction from the Nigorikawa basin to Kaminoyu. Further, it is thought that fractures were unfavorably developed in the Santai/Kaminoyu area. (NEDO)

  3. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.34. Kaminoyu/Santai area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 34 Kaminoyu Santai chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Kaminoyu/Santai area' which was carried out at Yakumo town, Yamakoshi county, and Mori town, Kayabe county, Hokkaido, from FY 1990 to FY 1992. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and gravity exploration, test to induce jetting of geothermal fluids by drilling 7 boreholes, temperature/pressure log, etc. The geological structure of this area is featured by the uplift structure/caldera structure and the anticline structure. In the wide-area geothermal system, it is thought that the low-temperature seawater permeates underground by mixture with meteoric water, is heated, and forms the deep geothermal water. It is thought that the hot spring water in this area is stored in the hot spring reservoir by mixture with the surface water, and it is gushing. In the area, the region which is regarded as favorable as passage/storage place of geothermal fluid is a region of 1.5km width extending linearly in the E-W direction from the Nigorikawa basin to Kaminoyu. Further, it is thought that fractures were unfavorably developed in the Santai/Kaminoyu area. (NEDO)

  4. Closure plan for the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.J.; Van Brunt, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the proposed plan for closure of the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act interim status closure requirements. The location, size, capacity, and history of the units are described, and their current status is discussed. The units will be closed by treating remaining waste in storage, followed by thorough decontamination of the systems. Sufficient sampling and analysis, and documentation of all activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure

  5. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Gravity prospecting (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. Juryoku tansa hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    For the contribution to elucidation of the geothermal structure in the Haneyama area in Oita Prefecture, gravity prospecting was conducted. Survey was carried out in the area of about 280km{sup 2} at 205 measuring points, and analysis was made altogether with the existing 3,273 gravity measuring points. As a result, the following were made clear. The gravity basement forms the fault-state structure that sinks several 100 meters to the south side on the line from the south edge of the Higashi-shiiya ridge to Mt. Kurotake - Mt. Daigansen - Amagase hot spring in the SW direction. This fault was made correspondent to the Beppu north fault on the east side of Mt. Kurodake. Each of the following regions is the region where the fault-state structure that predicts the development of fracture and the area of distribution of alteration zone that can be cap rock overlap each other: NW edge of Shishimuta sedimentation zone - Machida alteration zone distribution area; N edge of the Shishimuta sedimentation zone - Ibushi alteration zone/Noya alteration zone distribution area; Vicinity of Mt. Kurodake - Hijiu alteration zone distribution area. It seems that the above-mentioned regions have high potentiality of geothermal exploration. The region where new igneous activities are seen, which is near the heat source, is important for exploration. The distribution area is seen near the west of the Mizuwake Pass ridge. (NEDO)

  6. Heat‐tolerant Flowering Plants of Active Geothermal Areas in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    STOUT, RICHARD G.; AL‐NIEMI, THAMIR S.

    2002-01-01

    A broad survey of most of the major geyser basins within Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, USA) was conducted to identify the flowering plants which tolerate high rhizosphere temperatures (≥40 °C) in geothermally heated environments. Under such conditions, five species of monocots and four species of dicots were repeatedly found. The predominant flowering plants in hot soils (>40 °C at 2–5 cm depth) were grasses, primarily Dichanthelium lanuginosum. Long‐term (weeks to months) rhizosphere temperatures of individual D. lanuginosum above 40 °C were recorded at several different locations, both in the summer and winter. The potential role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the apparent adaptation of these plants to chronically high rhizosphere temperatures was examined. Antibodies to cytoplasmic class I small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) and to HSP101 were used in Western immunoblot analyses of protein extracts from plants collected from geothermally heated soils. Relatively high levels of proteins reacting with anti‐sHSP antibodies were consistently detected in root extracts from plants experiencing rhizosphere temperatures above 40 °C, though these proteins were usually not highly expressed in leaf extracts from the same plants. Proteins reacting with antibodies to HSP101 were also present both in leaf and root extracts from plants collected from geothermal soils, but their levels of expression were not as closely related to the degree of heat exposure as those of sHSPs. PMID:12197524

  7. Isotopic geothermometers in geothermal areas. A comparative experimental study in Larderella, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuti, S.; Panichi, C.

    1979-06-01

    The stable isotope composition of some geothermal fluid components has been determined in view of evaluating the temperature at depth in Italian geothermal fields (Larderello, Mt. Amiata, Travale). The isotopic systems used are: 13 C(CO 2 -CH 4 ), 18 O(CO 2 -H 2 O), D(H 2 -CH 4 ) and D(H 2 O-H 2 ), for which the isotopic equilibrium variation with temperature are known either experimentally or theoretically. The 18 O(CO 2 -H 2 O) geothermometer gives temperatures similar to those observed at the well-head, and provides therefore useful information on the physical state of water (steam or evaporating liquid water) at the well bottom. On the contrary, all other geothermometers produce too high temperatures which can be explained by incomplete equilibration or lack of equilibrium between components and, perhaps in some cases, by the insufficient knowledge of the fractionation factors. The comparison between the different isotopic geothermometers, along with some chemical and physico-chemical evidence, suggests that the reaction already proposed, i.e. CO 2 +4H 2 =CH 4 +2H 2 O, is unable to explain the isotopic composition observed. On the contrary, the water dissociation reaction (H 2 O=H 2 +1/2O 2 ) and the synthesis reaction of methane (C+2H 2 =CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (C+O 2 =CO 2 ) seem able to provide an appropriate explanation of the isotopic behaviour of the geothermal field fluid components

  8. Review of historiographic aspects of geothermal energy in the Mediterranean and Mesoamerican areas prior to the Modern Age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, R. (ENEL International, Pisa (Italy))

    1993-08-01

    This investigation aims not only to gain greater insight into the ancient uses of natural heat and its by-products, but also to gather elements for comprehending what kind of impact the presence of geothermal manifestations and the occurrence of volcanic eruptions may have produced on the ancient inhabitants of the Mediterranean and Mesoamerican regions. The first part of the paper discusses what may have occurred in the time period from the Lower Paleolithic (10[sup 5]--10[sup 6] years ago) until the end of the Neolithic. Throughout this period, the relationship of man with the various manifestations of terrestrial heat and its associated products was quite close and intense. In addition to the initial development of direct uses, this relationship with geothermal energy also involved man's cultural sphere. The second part of the paper discusses the development of direct uses and the importance that thermal balneology attained in some regions of the Mediterranean area in historical times. The exploitation and processing of hydrothermal products by the Etruscans, the blossoming of balneotherapy and the multiple functions of the spas in Roman times, the decline of all direct uses between the 5th and 6th centuries A.D. following the collapse of the Roman Empire, and the intensive exploitation of the manifestations of Larderello between the 11th and 16th centuries are discussed. The third part of the work refers to the Mesoamerican area (Mexico and neighboring regions) and covers the period extending from several millennia before the Christian era until the time of the voyages of Columbus. The last part of the paper attempts to reconstruct the birth and initial development of scientific thought regarding the various types of geothermal phenomena, starting from the oldest known illustration of a volcanic eruption until the end of the Middle Ages. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Geochemistry of thermal fluids in NW Honduras: New perspectives for exploitation of geothermal areas in the southern Sula graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccioni, Bruno; Franco, Tassi; Alberto, Renzulli; Orlando, Vaselli; Marco, Menichetti; Salvatore, Inguaggiato

    2014-06-01

    The results of a geochemical survey on thermal waters and, for the first time for this site, gas discharges in five geothermal sites (Azacualpa "La Cueva", Río Ulua, Río Gualcarque, El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente) in NW Honduras are here presented and discussed. El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente, in the southern part of the Sula graben are very close to a Quaternary basaltic field, whereas Azacualpa "La Cueva", Río Ulua and Río Gualcarque, located to the southwest of the Yojoa Lake, direcly emerge from the Cretaceous limestone deposits. The measured temperatures range between 37.5 and 104.8 °C. "Mature", alkaline, Na-SO4 thermal waters discharge from Azacualpa "La Cueva", while those from El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente are "immature" and show a Na-HCO3 composition. Chemical equilibria of waters and gases from the Azacualpa "La Cueva" thermal springs indicate temperatures ranging from 150 to 200 °C. Conversely, gas discharges from El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente have attained a partial chemical equilibrium in the liquid phase at slightly higher temperatures (200-250 °C), although gas-gas faster reactions involving CO seem to be adjusted in an isothermally separated vapor phase. Unlike Azacualpa, SiO2 geothermometer at El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente indicates equilibrium temperatures for the liquid phase much lower than those calculated for the gas phase (≤ 120 °C). We conclude that thermal waters from the Azacualpa area likely represent the direct emergence of a water dominated reservoir having temperatures ≤ 150-200 °C. By contrast, at El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente hot springs are supplied by a boiling shallow aquifer fed by a vapor phase rising from a steam-dominated zone. The above geochemical model is consistent with a geothermal reservoir hosted within the Cretaceous carbonate sequences of the Yojoa Group in the whole investigated sites. The reservoir extensively crops out in the Azacualpa area whereas the

  10. Survey of some natural decay-series isotopes in the Wairakei geothermal area and possible residence-time applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.; Burnett, W.C.; Whitehead, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of selected isotopes in the uranium decay series were determined for samples collected from the Wairakei, Broadlands/Ohaaki and Waiotapu areas. /sup 226/Ra concentrations were found to be low (0.05-0.22 dpm/l), similar to values reported in neutral hot springs at Tatun geothermal area, Taiwan, but lower than other geothermal systems (Yellowstone, USA, and Latera, Central Italy) (up to 25 dpm/l). The potential of /sup 226/Ra//sup 228/Ra ratios for indicating water residence times could not be explored because /sup 228/Ra data was not available. /sup 222/Rn concentrations are higher and related to steam fractions and CO/sub 2/ concentrations. The short half-life (3.8 days) makes /sup 222/Rn suitable for estimating residence times of radon in steam, and therefore the distance of travel of steam from its source (e.g., wells WK9 and 52). /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po concentrations were very low and less than detection limits in many of the Wairakei waters; no residence time applications are apparent for these isotopes. (author). 11 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Diversity and abundance of the arsenite oxidase gene aioA in geothermal areas of Tengchong, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Wu, Geng; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanhong; Li, Bing; Wang, Yanxin; Guo, Qinghai

    2014-01-01

    A total of 12 samples were collected from the Tengchong geothermal areas of Yunnan, China, with the goal to assess the arsenite (AsIII) oxidation potential of the extant microbial communities as inferred by the abundance and diversity of the AsIII oxidase large subunit gene aioA relative to geochemical context. Arsenic concentrations were higher (on average 251.68 μg/L) in neutral or alkaline springs than in acidic springs (on average 30.88 μg/L). aioA abundance ranged from 1.63 × 10(1) to 7.08 × 10(3) per ng of DNA and positively correlated with sulfide and the ratios of arsenate (AsV):total dissolved arsenic (AsTot). Based on qPCR estimates of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene abundance, aioA-harboring organisms comprised as much as ~15% of the total community. Phylogenetically, the major aioA sequences (270 total) in the acidic hot springs (pH 3.3-4.4) were affiliated with Aquificales and Rhizobiales, while those in neutral or alkaline springs (pH 6.6-9.1) were inferred to be primarily bacteria related to Thermales and Burkholderiales. Interestingly, aioA abundance at one site greatly exceeded bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance, suggesting these aioA genes were archaeal even though phylogenetically these aioA sequences were most similar to the Aquificales. In summary, this study described novel aioA sequences in geothermal features geographically far removed from those in the heavily studied Yellowstone geothermal complex.

  12. K-Ar ages of the Nyuto-Takakura volcanic products, southern part of the Sengan geothermal area, northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Shigeru; Uto, Kozo; Uchiumi, Shigeru

    1990-01-01

    The K-Ar age determination of the volcanic rocks from the Nyuto-Takakura volcano group, northeast Japan, was carried out. Nyuto-Takakura volcanoes are situated in the southern part of the Sengan geothermal area. And the Young Volcanic Rocks in the area were already divided into the Early stage volcanics (erupted in Matsuyama reversed epoch or more older epoch) and the Later stage volcanics (erupted in Brunhes normal epoch) by accumulated paleomagnetic and K-Ar age data. The results in this study are as follows; Nyuto Volcano: 0.63±0.06, 0.36±0.07 Ma, Sasamoriyama Volcano: 0.09±0.07, 0.3±0.3 Ma, Marumori Lava Dome: 0.4±0.3, 0.31±0.12 Ma, Mikadoyama Lava Dome: <1 Ma, Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano: 1.4±0.5, 1.0±0.4, <0.4 Ma. The determinated ages are concordant with the volcanic stratigraphy and the paleomagnetic data. Nyuto Volcano, Sasamoriyama Volcano, Marumori Lava Dome, Mikadoyama Lava Dome and upper part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama Volcano are interpreted to be erupted in Brunhes normal epoch. The volcanic rocks from the lower part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano show normal magnetic polarity, so they are interpreted to be erupted in Jaramillo normal polarity event. The Early stage volcanics and the Later stage volcanics in the studied area are tend to be distributed in the central part and the outer part of the area, respectively. But the determinated ages in this study show that there is no simple migration of the eruption center of the volcanic rocks from the central part to the peripheral part. There is no geothermal manifestation or alteration area around the Sasamoriyama Volcano and the Marumori Lava Dome, which are the youngest volcanoes in the studied area. So it is concluded that there is no direct correlation between the eruption age of the nearest volcano and the geothermal activity. (author)

  13. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.C-2. Wasabizawa area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.C-2 Wasabizawa chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of the geothermal development promotion survey - Wasabizawa area which was carried out in Yuzawa City and Ogachi Town, Akita Prefecture, from FY 1993 to FY 1996. In the survey, the following were conducted: surface survey such as geological alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, gravity survey and electromagnetic exploration, temperature log by drilling 9 exploration wells, short-term/long-term jetting test, etc. Further, using the data obtained from these, analysis was made of geology/reservoir structure, thermal structure, geothermal water/hydraulic structure, geothermal system models, etc. As a result, a high-temperature (about 300 degrees C) zone promising as the geothermal development area was picked out, and the existence was confirmed of a dominant geothermal reservoir around the fault. In the jetting test, a total steam amount of 111.6 t/h was confirmed, and from the reservoir simulation, the result was obtained that there was a high possibility of 30-year power generation of 30MW/y. As a result of studying 'a power generation system by small-scale unit serial development' considering regional characteristics in the Wasabizawa area, the power generation cost (sending end, 15-year average) was estimated at approximately 9-10 yen/kWh. (NEDO)

  14. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.C-2. Wasabizawa area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.C-2 Wasabizawa chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of the geothermal development promotion survey - Wasabizawa area which was carried out in Yuzawa City and Ogachi Town, Akita Prefecture, from FY 1993 to FY 1996. In the survey, the following were conducted: surface survey such as geological alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, gravity survey and electromagnetic exploration, temperature log by drilling 9 exploration wells, short-term/long-term jetting test, etc. Further, using the data obtained from these, analysis was made of geology/reservoir structure, thermal structure, geothermal water/hydraulic structure, geothermal system models, etc. As a result, a high-temperature (about 300 degrees C) zone promising as the geothermal development area was picked out, and the existence was confirmed of a dominant geothermal reservoir around the fault. In the jetting test, a total steam amount of 111.6 t/h was confirmed, and from the reservoir simulation, the result was obtained that there was a high possibility of 30-year power generation of 30MW/y. As a result of studying 'a power generation system by small-scale unit serial development' considering regional characteristics in the Wasabizawa area, the power generation cost (sending end, 15-year average) was estimated at approximately 9-10 yen/kWh. (NEDO)

  15. Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endeshaw, A.; Belaineh, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

  16. Comparison of estimated and background subsidence rates in Texas-Louisiana geopressured geothermal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, L.M.; Clayton, M.; Everingham, J.; Harding, R.C.; Massa, A.

    1982-06-01

    A comparison of background and potential geopressured geothermal development-related subsidence rates is given. Estimated potential geopressured-related rates at six prospects are presented. The effect of subsidence on the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast is examined including the various associated ground movements and the possible effects of these ground movements on surficial processes. The relationships between ecosystems and subsidence, including the capability of geologic and biologic systems to adapt to subsidence, are analyzed. The actual potential for environmental impact caused by potential geopressured-related subsidence at each of four prospects is addressed. (MHR)

  17. China starts tapping rich geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, D.

    1980-09-01

    Attention is given to the electric and power installation running on geothermal energy at Yangbajain, Tibet. Other geothermal projects in Tibet, the Yunnan Province and the North China Plain are also outlined. Applications of geothermal energy are described, including the heating of homes and factories, spinning, weaving, paper-making and the making of wine.

  18. Helix probe areas for the utilization of geothermal power. A practical example; Helix-Sondenfelder zur Nutzung von Erdwaerme. Ein Praxisbeispiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebert, Markus; Walker-Hertkorn, Simone [tewag Technologie - Erdwaermeanlagen - Umweltschutz GmbH, Starzach (Germany); Tietz, Jan [REHAU AG und Co., Erlangen-Eltersdorf (Germany); Riepold, Markus; Gloeckl, Andreas [MR Tiefbau GmbH, Brunnen (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    Thanks to their spiral shape so-called helix probes with a tube length of 40 meter have a height of only three meter: A lot of heat exchange area in a small space. Thus, helix probes are an ideal solution for the utilization of geothermal energy at places at which one cannot drill deeply due to geothermal reasons. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on the planning of a helix probe area being sustainably adapted to the user requirements for the new construction of a production facility.

  19. Environmental analysis of geopressured-geothermal prospect areas, De Witt and Colorado counties, Texas. Final report, March 1 - August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, T.C.; Reeder, F.S.; Badger, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Information collected and analyzed for a preliminary environmental analysis of geopressured geothermal prospect areas in Colorado and DeWitt Counties, Texas is presented. Specific environmental concerns for each geopressured geothermal prospect area are identified and discussed. Approximately 218 km/sup 2/(85 mi/sup 2/) were studied in the vicinity of each prospect area to: (1) conduct an environmental analysis to identify more and less suited areas for geopressured test wells; and (2) provide an environmental data base for future development of geopressured geothermal energy resources. A series of maps and tables are included to illustrate environmental characteristics including: geology, water resources, soils, current land use, vegetation, wildlife, and meteorological characteristics, and additional relevant information on cultural resources, power- and pipelines, and regulatory agencies. A series of transparent overlays at the scale of the original mapping has also been produced for the purposes of identifying and ranking areas of potential conflict between geopressured geothermal development and environmental characteristics. The methodology for ranking suitability of areas within the two prospect areas is discussed in the appendix. (MHR)

  20. FY 2000 report on the results of the data processing in the geothermal development promotion survey. Tertiary. No.B-7 Kuwanosawa area; 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki (Dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    The comprehensive analysis was conducted of various data obtained in the geothermal development promotion survey conducted in the Kuwanosawa area, Yuzawa city, Akita prefecture, from FY 1998 to FY 2000. The geology of the Kuwanosawa area consists of the Pretertiary system and Quarternary system, through which intrusive rocks are recognized. Basement rocks are composed of the Paleozoic-origin crystalline schist and the Cretaceous-period granites which intruded into the schist. In the Kuwanosawa area, there were recognized no clear geothermal signs such as the discharge of geothermal fluids like hot spring, fumarolic gas, etc., places of high temperature and new geothermal alteration zones. The geothermal water of borehole N11-KN-1 is a low temperature/low CL concentration geothermal water which was stored in basement rocks, which is supposed to be the one conductively heated in the process of the meteoric water penetrating deep-underground. The geothermal system heat source in the Kuwanosawa area and the periphery is regarded as the relic magma which spewed out the volcanic rocks of Mt. Takamatsu-dake in the Quaternary period. However, the geothermal fluid included no components originating in high temperature volcanic emissions, and therefore, it is considered that the geothermal fluid was formed by the meteoric water conductively heated by volcanic heat source. (NEDO)

  1. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Geochemical survey (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. Chikagaku chosa hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    For the purpose of studying an expanse and characteristics of the geothermal system and a possibility of geothermal development in the Haneyama area, Oita Prefecture, geochemical survey was conducted. In the survey, various kinds of analyses were made for 13 specimens of hot spring water and 5 specimens of surface water in the area of about 280km{sup 2} at 402 measuring points of the concentration of Hg in soil gas. The results of the survey were as follows: In this survey area, it was thought that the HCO{sub 3} type geothermal water of a comparatively low temperature which was heated by the wide-spread conduction heat from the depths was widely distributed deeper than the depth of 500-700m, and it was presumed that a possibility was low of existence of a high geothermal potential which can be used for the geothermal power generation in the part deeper than the drilling depth of 700m. In the Noya area in the southwest part of the survey area, the high temperature deep geothermal reservoir was confirmed. In this area, the high temperature neutral-alkalescent Cl-SO{sub 4} type geothermal water was distributed in the depth of several 100 meters or deeper. The geothermal water seemed to flow from NE to SW along the structure in the NE-SW direction, and it was concluded that the area was the most promising one. (NEDO)

  2. Broadband Magnetotelluric Investigations of Crustal Resistivity Structure in North-Eastern Alberta: Implications for Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, M. V.; Unsworth, M. J.; Nieuwenhuis, G.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from hydrocarbon consumption produce profound changes in the global climate, and the implementation of alternative energy sources is needed. The oilsands industry in Alberta (Canada) is a major producer of greenhouse gases as natural gas is burnt to produce the heat required to extract and process bitumen. Geothermal energy could be utilized to provide this necessary heat and has the potential to reduce both financial costs and environmental impacts of the oilsands industry. In order to determine the geothermal potential the details of the reservoir must be understood. Conventional hydrothermal reservoirs have been detected using geophysical techniques such as magnetotellurics (MT) which measures the electrical conductivity of the Earth. However, in Northern Alberta the geothermal gradient is relatively low, and heat must be extracted from deep inside the basement rocks using Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) and therefore an alternative exploration technique is required. MT can be useful in this context as it can detect fracture zones and regions of elevated porosity. MT data were recorded near Fort McMurray with the goal of determining the geothermal potential by understanding the crustal resistivity structure beneath the Athabasca Oilsands. The MT data are being used to locate targets of significance for geothermal exploration such as regions of low resistivity in the basement rocks which can relate to in situ fluids or fracture zones which can facilitate efficient heat extraction or het transport. A total of 93 stations were collected ~500m apart on two profiles stretching 30 and 20km respectively. Signals were recorded using Phoenix Geophysics V5-2000 systems over frequency bands from 1000 to 0.001 Hz, corresponding to depths of penetration approximately 50m to 50km. Groom-Bailey tensor decomposition and phase tensor analysis shows a well defined geoelectric strike direction that varied along the profile from N60°E to N45

  3. Areas to explore surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Areas para exploracion en los alrededores del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Dumas, Alvaro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: alvaro.aguilar@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Exploration plays an important role in tapping underground natural resources-whether water, oil, natural gas or minerals. Exploratory data allow us to learn reservoir conditions, increasing probable reserves and reservoir life span. Around the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, and in the Mexicali Valley in general, exploration had almost stopped but recently was resumed by the Studies Division of Comision Federal de ELectricidad (CFE)'s Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos. The division sent technical personnel to structurally map the northern and eastern portions of Laguna Salada. The paper offers a general outline of the main zones undergoing exploratory studies-studies perhaps culminating in siting exploratory wells to locate more geothermal resources (and ultimately producing them using binary power plants). CFE also wants to site injection wells west of the current production zone, and this is covered, as well. All activities are meant to increase the productive lifespan of the geothermal reservoir. [Spanish] Cuando se trata de la explotacion de recursos naturales del subsuelo, sea agua, gas, petroleo o minerales, la exploracion juega un papel muy importante, ya que permite conocer las condiciones del yacimiento que pudieran llevar a incrementar las reservas de los recursos explotados y extender su vida util. En las zonas aledanas al campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, y en general en el Valle de Mexicali, la exploracion estaba practicamente detenida habiendose reactivado a raiz de que la Subgerencia de Estudios de la Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) envio personal para realizar mapeos estructurales en las porciones norte y oriente de la Laguna Salada. Este trabajo presenta un panorama general de las areas prioritarias para realizar estudios exploratorios y poder programar, con mas bases, pozos exploratorios enfocados a localizar mas recursos geotermicos, inclusive para generar energia por medio

  4. A new high background radiation area in the Geothermal region of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) of Orissa, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranwal, V.C.; Sharma, S.P.; Sengupta, D.; Sandilya, M.K.; Bhaumik, B.K.; Guin, R.; Saha, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    A high natural radiation zone is investigated for the first time in a geothermal region of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) of Orissa state in India. The surrounding area comprises a geothermal region which has surveyed using a portable pulsed Geiger-Muller counter. On the basis of findings of GM counter, an area was marked as a high radiation zone. Soil and rock samples collected from the high radiation zone were analyzed by γ-ray spectrometry (GRS) using NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity is found to be contributed mainly by thorium. Concentration of thorium is reported to be very high compared to their normal abundance in crustal rocks. Further, concentrations of 238 U and 40 K are also high compared to normal abundance in crustal rocks but their magnitude is comparatively less than that of thorium. The average concentrations of 238 U (i.e. U(β-γ)), 232 Th and 40 K are found to be 33, 459ppm and 3%, respectively, in soils and 312, 1723ppm and 5%, respectively, in the granitic rocks. Maximum concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K are found to be 95, 1194ppm and 4%, respectively, in soils and 1434, 10,590ppm and 8%, respectively, in the granitic rocks. Radioactive element emits various energies in its decay chain. High energies are utilized to estimate the concentration of actual 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K using a NaI(Tl) detector, however, low energies are used for the same in an HPGe detector. Some of the rock samples (eight in number) were also analyzed using HPGe detector for studying the behavior of low energies emitted in the decay series of uranium and thorium. The absorbed gamma dose rate in air and external annual dose rate of the high radiation zone are calculated to be 2431nGy/h and 3.0mSv/y, respectively. It is approximately 10 times greater than the dose rates obtained outside the high radiation zone. The high concentration of uranium and thorium may be one of the possible heat sources together with the normal geothermal gradient for hot springs

  5. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of geothermal energy may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of geothermal energy, the geothermal resource, hydrothermal fluids, electricity production, district heating, process heating, geopressured brines, technology and costs, hot dry rock, magma, and environmental and siting issues

  6. Selecting ground-motion models developed for induced seismicity in geothermal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Benjamin; Douglas, John

    2013-11-01

    We present a case study of the ranking and weighting of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for seismic hazard assessment of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). The study region is Cooper Basin (Australia), where a hot-fractured-rock project was established in 2002. We test the applicability of 36 GMPEs based on stochastic simulations previously proposed for use at EGSs. Each GMPE has a set of corresponding model parameters describing stress drop, regional and local (near-surface) attenuation. To select suitable GMPEs for Cooper Basin from the full set, we applied two methods. In the first, seismograms recorded on the local monitoring network were spectrally analysed to determine characteristic stress and attenuation parameters. In a second approach, residual analysis using the log-likelihood (LLH) method was used to directly compare recorded and predicted short-period response spectral accelerations. The resulting ranking was consistent with the models selected based on spectral analysis, with the advantage that a transparent weighting approach was available using the LLH method. Region-specific estimates of variability were computed, with significantly lower values observed compared to previous studies of small earthquakes. This was consistent with the limited range of stress drops and attenuation observed from the spectral analysis.

  7. Convection of geothermal fluids in the Timanfaya volcanic area, Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana, V.; Diez, J.L.; Ortiz, R.; Yuguero, J.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model has been derived to study the superficial thermal anomalies to be found in Lanzarote (605 C at 13 m depth) in association with the convection of geothermal fluids. The model is valid for a wide range of conditions, in particular for those found beneath the Timanfaya volcano (active between 1730 and 1736). Geological and geophysical data suggest that the heat source is related to a cylindrical magma body with a radius of 200 +/- 100 m and a top temperature of 850 +/- 100 C at a depth of 4 +/- 1 km. Energy is transported through fractures by magmatic volatiles and/or by water vapor coming from a deeply located water table: in such a convection system, a fluid flow of 10 1/m/sup 2/ day, which corresponds to a thermal flux of 130 W/m/sup 2/, is sufficient to explain the temperature anomalies observed at the surface. The relationships between gas flow and the surface temperatures, as well as the thermal gradients in the conducting fracture are also discussed. 27 references.

  8. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ''Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project'' EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN

  9. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ''Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project'' EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN

  10. Geothermal survey handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this handbook is to publicize widely the nature of geothermal surveys. It covers geothermal survey planning and measurement as well as measurement of thermal conductivity. Methods for the detection of eruptive areas, the measurement of radiative heat using snowfall, the measurement of surface temperature using infrared radiation and the measurement of thermal flow are described. The book also contains information on physical detection of geothermal reservoirs, the measurement of spring wells, thermographic measurement of surface heat, irregular layer surveying, air thermographics and aerial photography. Isotope measurement techniques are included.

  11. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.C-3. Akinomiya area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.C-3 Akinomiya chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of the geothermal development promotion survey - Akinomiya area which was carried out in Yuzawa City and Ogachi Town, Akita Prefecture, from FY 1996 to FY 1999. In the survey, the following were conducted: surface survey such as the geological alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, gravity survey and electromagnetic exploration, logging by drilling 8 boreholes, jetting test, etc. Further, using the data obtained from these, analysis was made of geology/reservoir structure, thermal structure, hydraulic structure, etc. As a result, grasped were the distribution of the main underground fracture structure and the distribution of promising high-temperature zones. In the short-term/long-term jetting test, a total steam amount of 124 t/h was confirmed. Moreover, there was the pressure interference between the geothermal reservoir in the Akinomiya area and the geothermal reservoir in the Wasabizawa area, and it was confirmed that there was the hydraulic relation between those reservoirs. Further, it was assumed that there was not so much effect on hot spring reservoirs in the Akinomiya area. In the simulation of production prediction, the result was obtained that there was a possibility of power generation of 30MW only in the Akinomiya area and of 60MW both in the Akinomiya area and the Wasabizawa area. (NEDO)

  12. 78 FR 45152 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas; North Carolina...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... North Carolina SIP meets the requirements of section 182(b)(5) applicable for purposes of redesignation...] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas; North Carolina; Redesignation... supplemented on March 28, 2013, the State of North Carolina, through the North Carolina Department of...

  13. Lens Opacity and Hydrogen Sulfide in a New Zealand Geothermal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Michael N; Bailey, Ian L; DiMartino, Robert B; Pope, Karl; Crane, Julian; Garrett, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic gas with well-established, acute irritation effects on the eye. The population of Rotorua, New Zealand, sited on an active geothermal field, has some of the highest ambient H2S exposures in the world. Evidence from ecological studies in Rotorua has suggested that H2S is associated with cataract. The purpose of the present study was, using more detailed exposure characterization, clinical examinations, and anterior eye photography, to more directly investigate this previously reported association. Enrolled were 1637 adults, ages 18 to 65, from a comprehensive Rotorua primary care medical register. Patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including pupillary dilation and lens photography to capture evidence of any nuclear opacity, nuclear color, and cortical and posterior subcapsular opacity. Photographs were scored for all four outcomes on the LOCS III scale with decimalized interpolation between the exemplars. H2S exposure for up to the last 30 years was estimated based on networks of passive samplers set out across Rotorua and knowledge of residential, workplace, and school locations over the 30 years. Data analysis using linear and logistic regression examined associations between the degree of opacification and nuclear color or cataract (defined as a LOCS III score ≥2.0) in relation to H2S exposure. No associations were found between estimated H2S exposures and any of the four ophthalmic outcome measures. Overall, results were generally reassuring. They provided no evidence that H2S exposure at the levels found in Rotorua is associated with cataract. The previously found association between cataract and H2S exposure in the Rotorua population seems likely to be attributable to the limitations of the ecological study design. These results cannot rule out the possibility of an association with cataract at higher levels of H2S exposure.

  14. FY 2000 report on the survey of extraction of areas promising in strategic geothermal development. Kurikoma peripheral region; 2000 nendo senryakuteki chinetsu kaihatsu yubo chiiki chushutsu chosa hokokusho. Kurikoma shuhen chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the Kurikoma peripheral region with the aim of contributing to the selection of important areas for survey, plans to be worked out for introduction of medium-term/long-term and effective geothermal development promotion survey, estimation of the developmental resource amount in the areas, etc. In the study, based on the geological survey, geochemical survey, physical survey and well survey which were conducted directly for the Kurikoma peripheral region, the data needed to elucidate geothermal structure elements were extracted and re-analyzed to make geothermal models. Based on the geothermal system conceptual model made, the data on the areas already developed, etc. were arranged to make criteria for extraction of promising areas. By the criteria, the following three areas were selected, and geothermal structure models were made for the areas: promising area 1 in geothermal development (Sanzugawa-Oyu spa, 66km{sup 2}), promising area 2 (Wasabizawa-Akinomiya area, 37km{sup 2}), promising area 3 (Onikobe-Kamitaki spa, 21km{sup 2}). These promising areas were evaluated by the resource amount density, data likelihood, regulation by the natural park law, etc. Important areas for survey were selected and the resource amount was calculated. (NEDO)

  15. Geophysical survey, Paso Robles Geothermal area, California: Part of the Resource Assessment of Low- and Moderate-Temperature Geothermal Resource Areas in California; Part of the Second year Report, 1979-80 of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for Reservoir Assessment and Confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Rodger H.; Chase, Gordon W.; Youngs, Les G.

    1980-11-10

    This report presents the details of new geophysical work for the Paso Robles geothermal area, California performed under terms of the second year contract, 1979-80 between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG). The report contains two sections. The first section is to provide background for the reader and consists of a reprint from CDMG's first year report (1979-80) to DOE. It describes only the Paso Robles studies performed by CDMG in its first year effort. The second section provides new information developed by CDMG in its 1979-80 studies concerning the geophysical survey of the Paso Robles geothermal area. Included in the first section is some general background information concerning the geology and geothermal occurrences in the Southern Coast Ranges, as well as the more detailed information dealing with the Paso Robles area proper. The second section is concerned only with discussion and interpretation of results for two geophysical methods that have so far been used by CDMG in the area: the ground magnetic and gravity surveys. The CDMG studies of the Paso Robles area are not yet complete and additional studies using newly acquired resistivity equipment are planned for the near future, as are more complete surveys of existing wells and new studies of the geothermal aquifers present in the area. A final report to DOE on the Paso Robles area is planned following completion of those studies.

  16. Application of subsurface temperature measurements in geothermal prospecting in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flóvenz, Ólafur G.

    1985-12-01

    In geothermal areas in Iceland aquifers are in most cases found to occur in highly permeable near-vertical fractures in the low permeability basaltic crust. Therefore heat transfer in the rocks surrounding the aquifers is mainly conductive. Temperature profiles in shallow non-flowing boreholes are used to construct a two dimensional model of the temperature distribution in the vicinity of near vertical aquifers. This is done by finite element solution of the equation of heat transfer which requires knowledge of the regional temperature gradient outside the area of geothermal activity and some constraints on the temperature within the aquifers. The model is helpful in estimating dip and location of near-vertical water bearing fractures and thus in siting production wells. An example of successful use to the method and of soil temperature measurements from a geothermal field in North-Iceland is demonstrated.

  17. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  18. Deep electrical resistivity tomography and geothermal analysis of Bradano foredeep deposits in Venosa area (Southern Italy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lapenna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical surveys have been carried out to characterize the stratigraphical and structural setting and to better understand the deep water circulation system in the Venosa area (Southern Italy located in the frontal portion of the southern Appenninic Subduction. In this area there are some deep water wells from which a water conductivity of about 3 mS/cm and a temperature of about 35°C was measured. A deep geoelectrical tomography with dipole-dipole array has been carried out along a profile of 10000 m and an investigation depth of about 900 m. Furthermore a broad band magnetotelluric profile consisting of six stations was performed to infer the resistivity distribution up to some kilometres of depth. The MT profile was almost coincident with the geoelectrical outline. The applied methods allow us to obtain a mutual control and integrated interpretation of the data. The high resolution of the data was the key to reconstruct the structural asset of buried carbonatic horst whose top is located at about 600 m depth. The final results coming from data wells, geothermal analysis and geophysical data, highlighted a horst saturated with salted water and an anomalous local gradient of 60°C/km. The proposed mechanism is that of a mixing of fossil and fresh water circulation system.

  19. Change with time in extrusion and chemical composition of volcanic rock in geothermal areas in central Kyushu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    1986-10-01

    Changes with time in extrusion and chemical composition of volcanic rocks in central Kyushu are studied to provide basic data required for evaluation of geothermal resources. Distribution of volcanic rocks in successive 1Ma (10/sup 6/ year) periods and the average thickness of volcanic rock layers in each period are determined, from which the volume of volcanic rocks in each 1Ma period is calculated. Results indicate that volcanos in central Kyushu extruded about 3,000 km/sup 3//Ma of volcanic rocks during the early periods (about 5Ma), followed by a series of declining periods up to the present. Comparison of volcanic extrusive rocks of each 1Ma period shows that lava of hornblende andesite and pyroxenic andesite has been extruded in great quantities in every period. Chemical composition is studied based on diagrams showing changes in SiO/sub 2/ content. The K/sub 2/O content is relatively high in most volcanos younger than 1.6Ma, compared to those older than 1.6Ma. the K/sub 2/O content in extruded rocks has been high during the latest 0.4Ma in the Aso volcanic area, unlike other island arc conjunction areas. (4 figs, 5 tabs, 28 refs)

  20. Investigation report on promotion of geothermal development. No. A-4, Mt. Kunbetsu area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of investigations in the Mt. Kunbetsu area out of the investigations on promotion of geothermal development having been performed during the period from 1998 to 1999. The investigated area is an area located in the eastern Hokkaido with an area of about 300 km{sup 2}. The wide area investigation has discussed possibilities of existence of geothermal resources mainly from existence of high-temperature anomalies. The investigation has performed the following activities: fluid geochemical investigations on ten spring water sources, three spring gas sources, and five surface water points; gravity exploration at 153 measuring points; electromagnetic exploration at 52 measuring points; excavation of two heat flow rate wells (to depths of 997m and 995m), temperature logging, core cuttings tests, thermal hot water survey; other fluid inclusions tests, rock alteration age measurement; and temperature logging at Ryuun Shiretoko Spa. As a result of the investigations, it was estimated that, as the geothermal system model, the heat source is assumed to exist at a great depth below Mt. Kaibetsu; the spring water and the mineral spring water show diverse spring qualities because of mixing of meteoric water with fossil sea water; the fossil sea water and the meteoric water have been heated by thermal conduction; and the high-temperature zone is not spread to the positions of the investigation wells. (NEDO)

  1. Hydrothermal alteration in Dumoga Barat, Bolaang Mongondow area North Sulawesi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Harjanto' Sutanto; Sutarto; Achmad Subandrio; I Made Suasta; Juanito Salamat; Giri Hartono; Putu Suputra; I Gde Basten; Muhammad Fauzi; Rosdiana

    2016-01-01

    Bolaang Mongondow is located in central north Sulawesi arm, which is composed of Neogen magmatic arc and potentially contain economic minerals. This condition is behind the research purpose to study the mineral resources potencies. Research aim is to study alteration caused by hydrothermal process and its relation with gold (Au) deposit based on field study and laboratory analysis. Methodologies used for the research are literature study, geological survey, rocks sampling, laboratory analysis, and data processing. Research area is a multiply diorite intrusion complex. Andesite, volcaniclastic rocks, and dacite, the older rocks, were intruded by this complex. Later, dacitic tuff, volcanic sandstone, and alluvium deposited above them. There are three measured and mapped major faults heading NE-SW crossed by E-W fault and NW-SE fault lately crossed all the older faults. Early stage hydrothermal alteration related to the existence of young quartz diorite, showing alteration stage from the potassic center to distal prophylatic. Final stage hydrothermal alteration consist of argilic, advanced argilic, and silica-clay mineral±magnetite±chlorite alteration overlapping the earlier alteration. Mineralization of Cu-Au±Ag in central part of research area or Tayap-Kinomaligan area is mostly associated with potassic altered young quartz diorite and crossed by parallel and stock worked quartz-magnetite-chalcopyrite±bornite vein. (author)

  2. Geochemical interpretation of Kings Mountain, North Carolina, orientation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, V.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    An orientation study has been made of uranium occurrences in the area of Kings Mountain, North Carolina. This is one of the orientation studies of known uranium occurrences that are being conducted in several geologic provinces and under various climatic (weathering) conditions to provide the technical basis for design and interpretation of NURE geochemical reconnaissance programs. The Kings Mountain area was chosen for study primarily because of the reported presence of high-uranium monazite. This 750-mi 2 area is in the deeply weathered southern Appalachian Piedmont and spans portions of the Inner Piedmont, Kings Mountain, and Charlotte geologic belts. Uranium concentration maps for ground and surface water samples clearly outline the outcrop area of the Cherryville Quartz Monzonite with highs up to 10 ppb uranium near the reported uraninite. Several surface water samples appear to be anomalous because of trace industrial contamination. Uranium concentration maps for -100 to +200 mesh stream sediments indicate the area of monazite abundance. Several samples with >100 ppM uranium content appear to be high in uranium-rich resistate minerals. When the uranium content of sediment samples is ratioed to the sum of Hf, Dy, and Th, the anomaly pattern shifts to coincide with uranium highs in ground and surface water samples. False anomalies from concentrations of monazite (Ce,ThPO 4 ), xenotime (Y,DyPO 4 ), and zircon (Zr,HfSiO 4 ) in stream sediment samples can thus be eliminated. Residual anomalies should be related to unusual uranium enrichment of these common minerals or to the presence of an uncommon uranium-rich mineral. Tantalum, beryllium, and tin in stream sediments correspond to high concentrations of uranium in stream and ground water but not to uranium in sediments. In an initial reconnaissance, several media should be sampled, and it is essential to correct uranium in sediments for the sample mineralogy

  3. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Ackermann, Hans D.; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.

    1976-01-01

    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  4. Marysville, Montana, Geothermal Project: Geological and Geophysical Exploration at Marysville Geothermal Area: 1973 Results (With a Section on ''Contemporary Seismicity in the Helena, Montana Region'')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, D.D.; Brott, C.A.; Goforth, T.T.; Holdaway, M.J.; Morgan, P.; Friedline, R.; Smith, R.L.

    1974-04-01

    This report describes field geological and geophysical investigations of the Marysville geothermal area, including geological mapping, sample collection, a ground total field magnetic survey, gravity survey, seismic ground noise survey, microearthquake survey, and heat flow study. Although sufficient data are not available, it is likely that a magma chamber is the heat source. A second section, ''Contemporary Seismicity in the Helena, Montana, Region'' examines the coincidence of high heat flow and earthquake swarm activity in this region. (GRA)

  5. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, Ph.; Lemale, J.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source which consists in exploiting the heat coming from the Earth. It covers a wide range of techniques and applications which are presented in this article: 1 - the Earth, source of heat: structure of the Earth, geodynamic model and plate tectonics, origin of heat, geothermal gradient and terrestrial heat flux; 2 - geothermal fields and resources; 3 - implementation of geothermal resources: exploration, main characteristic parameters, resource exploitation; 4 - uses of geothermal resources: power generation, thermal uses, space heating and air conditioning heat pumps, district heating, addition of heat pumps; 5 - economical aspects: power generation, heat generation for district heating; 6 - environmental aspects: conditions of implementation, impacts as substitute to fossil fuels; 7 - geothermal energy in France: resources, organisation; 8 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  6. FY 1999 report on the geothermal development promotion survey data processing. No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area (secondary); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki (dai niji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    As a part of the FY 1999 geothermal development promotion survey - Kuwanosawa area, the following were conducted and the results were arranged: ground surface survey (electromagnetic survey, analysis of numerical map), N11-KN-1 structure test boring survey, geothermal water survey, environmental effect survey, supplementary survey related to data processing, and comprehensive analysis. As to the reservoir structure, it seems that the area is low in water permeability from the results that there was seen little lost circulation at the time of drilling N11-KN-1 and that transmission coefficients in the water poring test indicated smaller values than those of the production well. In the underground temperature distribution, the temperature at a depth of 1,800m was 164.5 degrees C, which is lower than that in the neighboring Wasabizawa area. The geothermal water of N11-KN-1 does not have many dissolved constituents, showing alkalescence, which belongs to the Na-HCO{sub 3} type. As to the geothermal water of N11-KN-1, it seems that the meteoric water went down along faults and fractures, was stored in basement rocks and heated by heat conduction to form the geothermal water. In the Kuwanosawa area, there are seen very few geothermal signs on the ground surface, and a possibility seems to be small that high temperature and dominated geothermal fluids are active on a large scale. (NEDO)

  7. Development of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the geothermal development promotion survey project. NEDO is taking the lead in investigation and development to reduce risks for private business entities and promote their development. The program is being moved forward by dividing the surveys into three ranks of A, B and C from prospects of geothermal resource availability and the state of data accumulation. The survey A lacks number of data, but covers areas as wide as 100 to 300 km{sup 2}, and studies possible existence of high-temperature geothermal energy. The survey B covers areas of 50 to 70 km{sup 2}, investigates availability of geothermal resources, and assesses environmental impacts. The survey C covers areas of 5 to 10 km{sup 2}, and includes production well drilling and long-term discharge tests, other than those carried out by the surveys A and B. Results derived in each fiscal year are evaluated and judged to establish development plans for the subsequent fiscal year. This paper summarizes development results on 38 areas from among 45 areas surveyed since fiscal 1980. Development promotion surveys were carried out over seven areas in fiscal 1994. Development is in progress not only on utilization of high-temperature steam, but also on binary cycle geothermal power generation utilizing hot waters of 80 to 150{degree}C. Fiscal 1994 has carried out discussions for spread and practical use of the systems (particularly on economic effects), and development of small-to-medium scale binary systems. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Geothermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. Fo...

  9. Report on geothermal development promotion survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on hot water (collection and analysis of hot water) in Tsujinodake Area No. B-6; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Nessui no chosa (nessui no saishu oyobi bunseki) No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    This paper reports the survey on hot water in the geothermal development promotion survey in fiscal 1999 in the Tsujinodake area. The hot water pumped up at the N11-TD-2 well is considered to have been originated from sea water mixed with the same amount of meteoric water including waters from Ikeda Lake and Unagi Pond, and been heated mainly by heat conduction. The hot water temperature near the well is 120 to 130 degrees C, but the upper stream of hot water flow is estimated to be 160 to 230 degrees C. The test samples collected and analyzed are those pumped up from depths greater than 1,500 m, having the same origin as the high temperature hot water of higher than 200 degrees C flowing sideways at the relatively shallow portions (depths of 400 to 800 m). The hot water is estimated to be rising from deep portions of mainly the north-east shore of Unagi Pond in which exhalation bands are located, and its temperature is considered to be 260 to 270 degrees C at deep sections. The high temperature geothermal reservoir spreading in relatively shallow sections of the N11-TD-2 well mainly around the vicinity of the north-east shore of Unagi Pond has a high possibility of being continued even to the vicinity of the west Ibusuki area in the north-east direction. However, the spread of the geothermal reservoir with high temperatures (200 degrees C or higher) is considered not too large in the direction of the Matsugakubo in the north-west and the Narikawa area direction in the south-east. (NEDO)

  10. FY 1993 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Jetting/reduction test (No.36 - Amemasu-dake area); 1993 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Funshutsu kangen shiken hokokusho (No.36 Amemasu dake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion, the jetting/reduction test using a structure drilling well N4-AM-4 was made in the Amemasu-dake area, Hokkaido, survey was conducted of the state of jetting of geothermal fluid, the state of borehole, analysis of geothermal fluid, etc. The induced jetting was carried out by the Swabbing method in the total number of times of 97 in 10 days. As to the jetting of geothermal fluid, jetting was recognized in a short time from 2 hours 49 minutes to 3 hours 51 minutes, but did not result in the continuous jetting. The mean jetting amount of geothermal fluid was totally 4.03 t/h (0.69 t/h in steam flow and 3.34 t/h in water flow). The temperature of geothermal water while jetting was 90 degrees C, pH was 8.6-8.9, chlorine ion concentration was 520-960 ppm, and electric conductivity was 2.41-3.57 ms/cm. The pressure at the feed point while stopping jetting was 5,800 MPa, and the pressure just before stopping jetting was 1,191 MPa. Chemical components in geothermal water belonged to the alkali C1 type. The geochemical temperature of geothermal water by Na-K temperature was 229 degrees C at maximum and 202 degrees C at minimum. (NEDO)

  11. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  12. Using Facilities And Potential Of Geothermal Resources In The Canakkale Province - NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Acar Deniz, Zahide

    2016-04-01

    Turkey, due to its geological location, has a rich potential in point of geothermal resources. Çanakkale province is located northwestern (NW) part of Turkey and it has important geothermal fields in terms of geothermal energy potential. Geothermal resources reach to the surface both effects of past volcanic activity and extensions of fault zones associated with complex tectonic systems in the region. The aim of this study is to summarize hydrogeochemical characteristics, using facilities and potential of hot springs and spas located in the Çanakkale province. There are 13 geothermal fields in the region and the surface temperatures of hot springs are ranging between 28 centigrade degree and 175 centigrade degree. Hydrogeochemical compositions of thermal water display variable chemical compositions. Na, Ca, SO4, HCO3 and Cl are the dominant ions in these waters. Thermal waters of Tuzla and Kestanbol geothermal fields which is located the near coastal area can be noted NaCl type. Because these two geothermal waters have high TDS values, scaling problems are seen around the hot springs and pipelines. Geothermal waters in the province are meteoric origin according to oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium isotopes data. Long underground residence times of these waters and its temperatures have caused both more water - rock interaction and low tritium values. Geothermal energy is utilized in many areas in Turkey today. It is generally used for space heating, balneotherapy and electricity generation. Explorations of geothermal resources and investments in geothermal energy sector have risen rapidly in the recent years particularly in western Turkey. High-temperature geothermal fields are generally located in this region related to the Aegean Graben System and the North Anotalian Fault Zone. All geothermal power plants in Turkey are located in this region. Considering the Çanakkale province, most geothermal fields are suitable for multipurpose usage but many of them have

  13. Preliminary geothermal investigations at Manley Hot Springs, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.

    1982-04-01

    Manley Hot Springs is one of several hot springs which form a belt extending from the Seward Peninsula to east-central Alaska. All of the hot springs are low-temperature, water-dominated geothermal systems, having formed as the result of circulation of meteoric water along deepseated fractures near or within granitic intrusives. Shallow, thermally disturbed ground at Manley Hot Springs constitutes an area of 1.2 km by 0.6 km along the lower slopes of Bean Ridge on the north side of the Tanana Valley. This area includes 32 springs and seeps and one warm (29.1/sup 0/C) well. The hottest springs range in temperature from 61/sup 0/ to 47/sup 0/C and are presently utilized for space heating and irrigation. This study was designed to characterize the geothermal system present at Manley Hot Springs and delineate likely sites for geothermal drilling. Several surveys were conducted over a grid system which included shallow ground temperature, helium soil gas, mercury soil and resistivity surveys. In addition, a reconnaissance ground temperature survey and water chemistry sampling program was undertaken. The preliminary results, including some preliminary water chemistry, show that shallow hydrothermal activity can be delineated by many of the surveys. Three localities are targeted as likely geothermal well sites, and a model is proposed for the geothermal system at Manley Hot Springs.

  14. Geothermal Energy Development annual report 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report is an exerpt from Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1979 (LBL-10686). Progress in thirty-four research projects is reported including the following area: geothermal exploration technology, geothermal energy conversion technology, reservoir engineering, and geothermal environmental research. Separate entries were prepared for each project. (MHR)

  15. Andisols from Tondano Area, North Sulawesi: Properties and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmatullah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three pedons of Andisol (TN-1, TN-2 and TN-3 developed from young volcanic materials of the Lokon, Soputan, and Lengkoan volcanoes respectively in the Tondano area, North Sulawesi, were studied in the field, and 18 soil samples were analysed in the laboratory for physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties, and they were classified according to Keys to Soil Taxonomy 2003. The results indicated that all the pedons meet the requirements of the andic soil properties, and thus classified into Andisol order. Pedon TN-1 meets bulk density 85%, and (Alo + 0.5Feo content extracted by ammonium oxalate > 2.0%, while pedons TN-2 and TN-3 meet the requirements of P retention > 25%, (Alo + 0.5Feo content > 0.4%, volcanic glass content > 5%, and value of [%(Alo+0.5Feo x 15.625 + (% volcanic glass] is > 36.25. Composition of sand mineral fraction indicate that pedon TN-1 and TN-3 show andesitic to basaltic volcanic materials, whereas pedon TN-2 with high olivin content belongs to basaltic volcanic materials. Clay minerals of all the pedons was dominated by hydrated-halloysite with few of disordered-kaolinite, which indicated a little weathering of the pedons. The pedons were classified at family level as Typic Hapludand, medial, amorphic, isothermic (TN-1, Humic Udivitrand, ashy, amorphic, isothermic (TN-2, and Alfic Hapludand, medial, glassy, isothermic (TN-3.

  16. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as open-quotes commercial fuelsclose quotes except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative

  17. FY 1997 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. Primary. No.B-5 Mt. Musadake area; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-5 Musadake chiiki (Dai 1 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    As part of the geothermal development promotion survey, the comprehensive analysis was made on the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Mt. Musadake area, Shibetsu county, Hokkaido, which was conducted in FY 1997. In the surface survey, the following were carried out: survey of geology/alteration zone, age determination of rocks, alteration age determination by thermoluminescence method, geochemical survey (hot spring gas, hot spring water), gravity exploration and electromagnetic exploration. In the survey of environmental effects, survey of flora/fauna and survey of hot spring variations were made. The results of the analysis were outlined as follows. The geothermal system in this area seems to be controlled by the Mt. Musadake - Mt. Shitabanupuri fault, folding zone along the fault and Graben-state structure extending southeast of the zone. At deep underground, the existence of the deep geothermal water forming geothermal reservoirs is presumed, and the deep geothermal water seems to be helped by the thermal conduction and volcanic effluences from the magma reservoir related to a series of volcanoes, centered on Mt. Musadake that is regarded as heat source. The geothermal water has a temperature of over 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1998 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. Secondary. No.B-5 Mt. Musadake area; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-5 Musadake chiiki (Dai 2 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    As part of the geothermal development promotion survey, the comprehensive analysis was made on the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Mt. Musadake area, Shibetsu county, Hokkaido, which was conducted in FY 1997 and FY 1998. In the surface survey, the following were carried out: survey of geology/alteration zone, geochemical survey, gravity exploration, wide-area gravity/magnetic structure analysis, seismic exploration, etc. In the well exploration, structural boreholes N10-MD-1 and N10-MD-2 were drilled, and the following were conducted: temperature logging/temperature recovery test, electric logging, water injection test and survey of core cuttings. For borehole N10-MD-2, the survey of geothermal water was made. In the survey of environmental effects, survey of flora/fauna and survey of hot spring variations were conducted. The results of the analysis were outlined as follows. At deep underground, the existence of the deep geothermal water forming geothermal reservoirs is presumed, and the deep geothermal water seems to be helped by the thermal conduction from the magma reservoir related to a series of volcanoes, centered on Mt. Musadake that is regarded as heat source. The geothermal water has a temperature of over 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. (NEDO)

  19. Goechemical and Hydrogeochemical Properties of Cappadocia Geothermal Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furkan Sener, Mehmet; Sener, Mehmet; Uysal, Tonguc

    2016-04-01

    In order to determine the geothermal resource potential of Niǧde, Nevşehir and Aksaray provinces in Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP), geothermal fluids, surface water, and alteration rock samples from the Cappadocia volcanic zone in Turkey were investigated for their geochemical and stable isotopic characteristics in light of published geological and tectonic studies. Accordingly, the Cappadocia Geothermal Province (CGP) has two different geothermal systems located along tectonic zones including five active and two potential geothermal fields, which are located between Tuzgölü Fault Zone and Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault and north of Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault. Based on water chemistry and isotope compositions, samples from the first area are characterized by Ca-Mg-HCO3 ve Ca-HCO3 type mineral poor waters and Ca-Na-SO4 and Ca-Mg-SO4 type for the cold waters and the hot waters, respectively, whereas hot waters from the second area are Na-Cl-HCO3 and Ca-Na-HCO3 type mineral poor waters. According to δ18O and δ2H isotope studies, the geothermal waters are fed from meteoric waters. Results of silica geothermometer indicate that the reservoir temperature of Dertalan, Melendiz Mount, Keçiboyduran Mount, Hasan Mount (Keçikalesi), Ziga, Acıgöl, and Derinkuyu geothermal waters are 150-173 oC, 88-117 oC, 91-120 oC, 94-122 oC, 131-156 oC, 157-179 oC; 152-174 oC and 102-130 oC, respectively. The REE composition of geothermal fluids, surface water, and mineral precipitates indicate that temperature has a strong effect on REE fractionation of the sampled fluids. Eu- and Ce- anomalies (Eu/Eu*, Ce/Ce*) are visible in several samples, which are related to the inheritance from the host reservoir rocks and redox-controlled fractionation of these elements during water-rock interactions. REE and Yttrium geochemistry results of altered rock samples and water samples, which were taken from same locations exhibited quite similar features in each system. Hence, it was

  20. Geothermal energy--managing the resource in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    Prerequisites for geothermal potential are meteoric waters, underground fractures or faults. Areas of plate tectonic activity, which make up the earth's crust, are the prime areas of geothermal exploration. Along these edges, it has been found that the weakness of the crust has allowed magmatic intrusions into the crust, and extrusions (volcanos) that have provided the sources of heat at a depth shallow enough to be developed economically. British Columbia sits right above the line where the Pacific and North American plates come together, and as a result is ideally located. Altogether, four volcanic belts lie within the province, including Garibaldi, and extension of the American Cascade belt in which Mount St. Helen's is situated. It is this same belt that the most promising potential for electrical production from geothermally-heated steam has been found in British Columbia, Canada./sub 9/ Meager Creek, about 150 kilometres north of Vancouver, has been the site of considerable geothermal exploration activity over the past ten years. In recent years, crews funded by the provincial utilities corporation, B.C. Hydro, have completed drilling a series of shallow test holes plus three deep wells to depths of more than 3 000 metres. These latter holes have been cased awaiting a decision on possible development for future power generation.

  1. FY 2000 report on the survey of extraction of areas promising in strategic geothermal development. Hachimantai south region; 2000 nendo senryakuteki chinetsu kaihatsu yubo chiiki chushutsu chosa hokokusho. Hachimantai nanbu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the Hachimantai south region with the aim of contributing to plans to be worked out for introduction of medium-term/long-term and important geothermal development promotion surveys, estimation of the developmental resource amount, etc. In the survey, the data were widely collected/arranged on the geothermal development surveys so far made in the Hachimantai south region, and wide-area geothermal system conceptual models in this region were constructed. Based on the wide-area geothermal system conceptual models and the manual for strategic survey, the following were extracted as areas for which the existence of geothermal reservoir structures is expected: Toshichi spa and the southeast area, Kakkonda-Matsukawa-Iwateyama area, Nyuto spa and the southwest area. Further, from the criteria for extraction such as the resource amount density, the natural park law and data likelihood, extracted were the Moroedake area (9km{sup 2}), Matsukawa east area (10km{sup 2}), Omatsukurayama south area (9km{sup 2}) and Kakkonda east area (14km{sup 2}). In the Monte Carlo analysis by the stored heat method, the resource amount was estimated as 5MWe, 14MWe, 4MWe and 48MWe, respectively. (NEDO)

  2. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiang

    Full Text Available Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86. Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation, Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation, Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation. Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  3. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yanhong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86). Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation), Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation), Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation). Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  4. Intrinsic versus extrinsic controls on the development of calcite dendrite bushes, Shuzhishi Spring, Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2012-04-01

    In the Rehai geothermal area, located near Tengchong, there is an old succession of crystalline calcite that formed from a spring that is no longer active. The thin-bedded succession, exposed on the south bank of Zaotang River, is formed of three-dimensional dendrite bushes that are up to 6 cm high and 3 cm in diameter with multiple levels of branching. Bedding is defined by color, which ranges from white to gray to almost black and locally accentuated by differential weathering that highlights the branching motif of the dendrites. The succession developed through repeated tripartite growth cycles that involved: Phase I that was characterized by rapid vertical growth of the dendrite bushes with ever-increasing branching; Phase II that developed once growth of the dendrites had almost or totally ceased, and involved an initial phase of etching that was followed by the precipitation of various secondary minerals (sheet calcite, trigonal calcite crystals, hexagonal calcite crystals, hexagonal plates formed of Ca and P, Mn precipitates, Si-Mg reticulate coatings, opal-CT lepispheres) on the branches of the calcite dendrites, and Phase III that involved deposition of detrital quartz, feldspar, clay, and calcite on top of the dendrite bushes. The tripartite growth cycle is attributed primarily to aperiodic cycles in the CO2 content of the spring water that was controlled by subsurface igneous activity rather than climatic controls. High CO2 coupled with rapid CO2 degassing triggered growth of the dendrite bushes. As CO2 levels waned, saturation levels in the spring water decreased and calcite dendrite growth ceased and precipitation of the secondary minerals took place, possibly in the microcosms of microbial mats. Deposition of the detrital sediment was probably related to surface runoff that was triggered by periods of high rainfall. Critically, this study shows that intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic factors (e.g., climate) were the prime control on the

  5. Behavior of Rare Earth Element In Geothermal Systems; A New Exploration/Exploitation Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott A. Wood

    2002-01-28

    The goal of this four-year project was to provide a database by which to judge the utility of the rare earth elements (REE) in the exploration for and exploitation of geothermal fields in the United States. Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: (1) the North Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); (2) the Cascades of Oregon; (3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; (4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; (5) Palinpion, the Philippines: (6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and (7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two.

  6. Behavior of Rare Earth Element In Geothermal Systems; A New Exploration/Exploitation Tool; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott A. Wood

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this four-year project was to provide a database by which to judge the utility of the rare earth elements (REE) in the exploration for and exploitation of geothermal fields in the United States. Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: (1) the North Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); (2) the Cascades of Oregon; (3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; (4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; (5) Palinpion, the Philippines: (6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and (7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two

  7. INTEGRATED EXPLORATION OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Alkhasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim. The aim is to develop the energy efficient technologies to explore hydro geothermal resources of different energy potential.Methods. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technologies has been carried out with the use of physical and mathematical, thermodynamic and optimization methods of calculation and the physical and chemical experimental research.Results. We propose the technology of integrated exploration of low-grade geothermal resources with the application of heat and water resource potential on various purposes. We also argue for the possibility of effective exploration of geothermal resources by building a binary geothermal power plant using idle oil and gas wells. We prove the prospect of geothermal steam and gas technologies enabling highly efficient use of thermal water of low energy potential (80 - 100 ° C degrees to generate electricity; the prospects of complex processing of high-temperature geothermal brine of Tarumovsky field. Thermal energy is utilized in a binary geothermal power plant in the supercritical Rankine cycle operating with a low-boiling agent. The low temperature spent brine from the geothermal power plant with is supplied to the chemical plant, where the main chemical components are extracted - lithium carbonate, magnesium burning, calcium carbonate and sodium chloride. Next, the waste water is used for various water management objectives. Electricity generated in the binary geothermal power plant is used for the extraction of chemical components.Conclusions. Implementation of the proposed technologies will facilitate the most efficient development of hydro geothermal resources of the North Caucasus region. Integrated exploration of the Tarumovsky field resources will fully meet Russian demand for lithium carbonate and sodium chloride.

  8. Outline of tectonic geology of the cenozoic Pacific volcanic zone concerned with geothermal areas in the central America; Chubei ni okeru chinetsutai wo tomonau shinseidai Taiheiyo kazantai no chishitsu gaisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, T [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Matsumoto, Y [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    1994-09-16

    For the purpose of technological cooperation on geothermal development, investigations and discussions have been given on the geological background in the geothermal areas in Central America where the Pacific volcanic zone stretches. The geology in Central America is divided largely into three geological structures distributed in a band form in the east-west direction. Among these structure, the Pacific Volcanic Province is a Caenozoic volcanic area ranging along the Pacific Ocean coast in the south-east direction, where young and active Quarternary volcanoes are lined straight over a distance of 1,400 km. The geological structure is such that continuously traceable rift valley or pit structure agrees with the array of volcanoes. The long and wide rift valley that governs this volcanic activity forms the base of the geothermal areas dotted in the above structure. Guatemala had been proceeding with a 24-MW power plant plan in Zunil, the most important point, but the construction has been delayed because of a landslide that caused impediment to the productive wells. The plant completion is now scheduled for 1995. El Salvador is the most advanced country in geothermal power generation, which operates three plants in the Ahuachapa geothermal area, with the output reaching 95 MW. The geothermal condition per production well is 110 tons per hour at 250{degree}C. Nicaragua had been successful in generating power of 70 KW with two plants in Momtombo by 1989. 22 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuataz, F.-D.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives a general overview of the past and present development of geothermal energy worldwide and a more detailed one in Switzerland. Worldwide installed electrical power using geothermal energy sources amounts to 8900 MW el . Worldwide utilization of geothermal energy for thermal applications amounts to 28,000 MW th . The main application (56.5%) is ground-coupled heat pumps, others are thermal spas and swimming pools (17.7%), space heating (14.9%), heating of greenhouses (4.8%), fish farming (2.2%), industrial uses (1,8%), cooling and melting of snow (1.2%), drying of agricultural products (0.6 %). Switzerland has become an important user of geothermal energy only in the past 25 years. Earlier, only the exploitation of geothermal springs (deep aquifers) in Swiss thermal baths had a long tradition, since the time of the Romans. Today, the main use of geothermal energy is as a heat source for heat pumps utilizing vertical borehole heat exchangers of 50 to 350 meters length. 35,000 installations of this type with heating powers ranging from a few kW to 1000 kW already exist, representing the highest density of such installations worldwide. Other developments are geostructures and energy piles, the use of groundwater for heating and cooling, geothermal district heating, the utilization of draining water from tunnels and the project 'Deep Heat Mining' allowing the combined production of heat and electric power

  10. Fiscal 1998 report on data processing for geothermal energy development enhancement. No. A-4 Mount Kumbetsu area (primary data processing); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.A-4. Kunbetsu chiiki (dai 1 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This is part of the state-operated 'geothermal energy development enhancement' project, under which a comprehensive analysis is conducted into the results of a survey of geothermal resources in existence in the Mount Kumbetsu area. The local geothermal structure is examined, and the Kumbetsu hot spring area, the Uebetsu river middle reach area, and the Unabetsu hot spring area are extracted as promising high-temperature supply areas. The Kumbetsu hot spring area and the Uebetsu river middle reach area lie on a heave positioned west of the Mount Musa/Mount Shitabanupuri fault. There is a distinguished bending in the zone of discontinuous resistivity, and, when geology is considered, it is inferred that there exists a geothermal fluid field formed by the Mount Musa/Mount Shitabanupuri fault running NNW-SSW and a fracture zone that runs across the fault. The two areas are located at spots where gravity gradient is sharp. It is concluded that, with the alteration zone, temperature distribution, etc., also taken into account, the Kumbetsu hot spring area is the more promising as a source of geothermal energy. The water of the Kumbetsu hot spring is of the Cl-SO{sub 4} type, 64.5 degrees C hot and neutral, and arises from the depth where water of meteoric origin is heated by heat conduction. The heat source is supposedly the magma reservoir whose eruption once formed Mount Unabetsu etc. (NEDO)

  11. Thermus caliditerrae sp. nov., a novel thermophilic species isolated from a geothermal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Li, Shuai; Nie, Guo-Xing; Yu, Tian-Tian; Zhou, En-Min; Liu, Lan; Dong, Lei; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-02-01

    Two thermophilic bacterial strains, designated YIM 77925(T) and YIM 77777, were isolated from two hot springs, one in the Hydrothermal Explosion (Shuirebaozhaqu) area and Frog Mouth Spring in Tengchong county, Yunnan province, south-western China. The taxonomic positions of the two isolates were investigated by a polyphasic approach. Cells of the two strains were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and rod-shaped. They were able to grow at 50-70 °C, pH 6.0-8.0 and with a NaCl tolerance up to 0.5% (w/v). Colonies are circular, convex, non-transparent and produce yellow pigment. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences comparison clearly demonstrated that strains YIM 77925(T) and YIM 77777 represent members of the genus Thermus, and they also detected low-level similarities of 16S rRNA gene sequences (below 97%) compared with all other species in this genus. Their predominant menaquinone was MK-8. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 77925(T) and YIM 77777 were 65.6 mol% and 67.2 mol%, respectively. Based on the results of physiological and biochemical tests and phylogenetic analyses, strains YIM 77925(T) and YIM 77777 could not be classified as representing any species of the genus Thermus with a validly published name. Thus the two strains are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Thermus, for which the name Thermus caliditerrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 77925(T) ( = DSM 25901(T) = CCTCC 2012061(T)).

  12. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemale, J.

    2009-01-01

    The geothermal energy, listed among the new and renewable energy sources, is characterized by a huge variety of techniques and applications. This book deals with the access to underground geothermal resources and with their energy valorization as well. After a presentation of the main geological, hydrogeological and thermal exploitation aspects of this resource, the book presents the different geothermal-related industries in detail, in particular the district heating systems, the aquifer-based heat pumps, the utilizations in the agriculture, fishery and balneology sectors, and the power generation. (J.S.)

  13. MOUNT HOOD WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  14. Report on a survey for promotion of geothermal development and an overall analysis of areas in fiscal 1996. Report No.C-3 for the Akinomiya area (First analysis); 1996 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho. No.C-3 (Akinomiya chiiki dai 1 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This paper summarizes the result of a survey for promotion of geothermal development and an overall analysis of the Akinomiya area in fiscal 1996. The subject area is located in Katsuo Town in south of Akita Prefecture. The geothermal reservoirs are regulated by the irregular construction created by upheaval and subsidence of the pre-Tertiary basement rocks. The underground temperature construction shows the temperatures rising toward Mt. Yamabushi. The latest geothermal activities should have taken place after the eruption of Mt. Takamatsu. The geothermal activities near the Arayu area have been most active until recently, and is still predominant. Transformation activities were active in the former period of the Pleistocene era. The acidic transformation band has been active after sedimentation of andesites in Mt. Takamatsu thereafter, which should have been active not only in areas where it is now active on the ground surface, but also in greatly wider areas. Geothermal fluid flows being regulated by faults, whereas fractures with high permeability existing along the faults are suitable for developing steam collection. Hot spring waters were produced by the geothermal fluid having risen along the faults and been mixed with and diluted by ground surface water near the ground surface. Areas promising for geothermal development would spread over the areas with high permeability along structural lines such as faults which show the convection type temperature pattern and temperatures higher than 250 degrees C. (NEDO)

  15. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, J.D.; Rapport, A.

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request. ?? 1983.

  16. Development of concepts for the management of shallow geothermal resources in urban areas - Experience gained from the Basel and Zaragoza case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Mueller, Matthias H.; Huggenberger, Peter; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric

    2015-04-01

    In urban areas the shallow subsurface often is used as a heat resource (shallow geothermal energy), i.e. for the installation and operation of a broad variety of geothermal systems. Increasingly, groundwater is used as a low-cost heat sink, e.g. for building acclimatization. Together with other shallow geothermal exploitation systems significantly increased groundwater temperatures have been observed in many urban areas (urban heat island effect). The experience obtained from two selected case study cities in Basel (CH) and Zaragoza (ES) has allowed developing concepts and methods for the management of thermal resources in urban areas. Both case study cities already have a comprehensive monitoring network operating (hydraulics and temperature) as well as calibrated high-resolution numerical groundwater flow and heat-transport models. The existing datasets and models have allowed to compile and compare the different hydraulic and thermal boundary conditions for both groundwater bodies, including: (1) River boundaries (River Rhine and Ebro), (2) Regional hydraulic and thermal settings, (3) Interaction with the atmosphere under consideration of urbanization and (4) Anthropogenic quantitative and thermal groundwater use. The potential natural states of the considered groundwater bodies also have been investigated for different urban settings and varying processes concerning groundwater flow and thermal regimes. Moreover, concepts for the management of thermal resources in urban areas and the transferability of the applied methods to other urban areas are discussed. The methods used provide an appropriate selection of parameters (spatiotemporal resolution) that have to be measured for representative interpretations of groundwater flow and thermal regimes of specific groundwater bodies. From the experience acquired from the case studies it is shown that understanding the variable influences of the specific geological and hydrogeological as well as hydraulic and thermal

  17. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  18. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  19. Research status of geothermal resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincheng; Li, Guang

    2017-08-01

    As the representative of the new green energy, geothermal resources are characterized by large reserve, wide distribution, cleanness and environmental protection, good stability, high utilization factor and other advantages. According to the characteristics of exploitation and utilization, they can be divided into high-temperature, medium-temperature and low-temperature geothermal resources. The abundant and widely distributed geothermal resources in China have a broad prospect for development. The medium and low temperature geothermal resources are broadly distributed in the continental crustal uplift and subsidence areas inside the plate, represented by the geothermal belt on the southeast coast, while the high temperature geothermal resources concentrate on Southern Tibet-Western Sichuan-Western Yunnan Geothermal Belt and Taiwan Geothermal Belt. Currently, the geothermal resources in China are mainly used for bathing, recuperation, heating and power generation. It is a country that directly makes maximum use of geothermal energy in the world. However, China’s geothermal power generation, including installed generating capacity and power generation capacity, are far behind those of Western European countries and the USA. Studies on exploitation and development of geothermal resources are still weak.

  20. Environmental Assessment Lakeview Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treis, Tania [Southern Oregon Economic Development Department, Medford, OR (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The Town of Lakeview is proposing to construct and operate a geothermal direct use district heating system in Lakeview, Oregon. The proposed project would be in Lake County, Oregon, within the Lakeview Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA). The proposed project includes the following elements: Drilling, testing, and completion of a new production well and geothermal water injection well; construction and operation of a geothermal production fluid pipeline from the well pad to various Town buildings (i.e., local schools, hospital, and Lake County Industrial Park) and back to a geothermal water injection well. This EA describes the proposed project, the alternatives considered, and presents the environmental analysis pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. The project would not result in adverse effects to the environment with the implementation of environmental protection measures.

  1. Geothermal and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The production of geothermal-electric energy, presents relatively few contamination problems. The two bigger problems associated to the geothermal production are the disposition of waste fluids and the discharges to the atmosphere of non-condensable gases as CO 2 , H 2 O and NH 3 . For both problems the procedures and production technologies exist, like it is the integral use of brines and gases cleaning systems. Other problems consist on the local impact to forest areas for the effect of the vapor discharge, the contamination for noise, the contamination of aquifer shallow and the contamination related with the construction and termination of wells

  2. Geothermal energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Geothermal energy research and development by the Sunshine Project is subdivided into five major categories: exploration and exploitation technology, hot-water power generation technology, volcanic power generation technology, environmental conservation and multi-use technology, and equipment materials research. The programs are being carried out by various National Research Institutes, universities, and private industry. During 1976 and 1977, studies were made of the extent of resources, reservoir structure, ground water movement, and neotectonics at the Onikobe and Hachimantai geothermal fields. Studies to be performed in the near future include the use of new prospecting methods, including artificial magnetotellurics, heat balance calculation, brightspot techniques, and remote sensing, as well as laboratory studies of the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of rock. Studies are continuing in the areas of ore formation in geothermal environments, hot-dry-rock drilling and fracturing, large scale prospecting technology, high temperature-pressure drilling muds and well cements, and arsenic removal techniques.

  3. Geothermal Technologies Program: Direct Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-08-01

    This general publication describes geothermal direct use systems, and how they have been effectively used throughout the country. It also describes the DOE program R&D efforts in this area, and summarizes several projects using direct use technology.

  4. Geothermal Program Review IV: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The research and development program of DOE's Geothermal Technology Division is reviewed in separate presentations according to program area. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  5. Microbial diversity of acidic hot spring (kawah hujan B) in geothermal field of kamojang area, west java-indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditiawati, Pingkan; Yohandini, Heni; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

    2009-01-01

    Microbial communities in an acidic hot spring, namely Kawah Hujan B, at Kamojang geothermal field, West Java-Indonesia was examined using culture dependent and culture independent strategies. Chemical analysis of the hot spring water showed a characteristic of acidic-sulfate geothermal activity that contained high sulfate concentrations and low pH values (pH 1.8 to 1.9). Microbial community present in the spring was characterized by 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The majority of the sequences recovered from culture-independent method were closely related to Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla. However, detail comparison among the member of Crenarchaeota showing some sequences variation compared to that the published data especially on the hypervariable and variable regions. In addition, the sequences did not belong to certain genus. Meanwhile, the 16S Rdna sequences from culture-dependent samples revealed mostly close to Firmicute and gamma Proteobacteria.

  6. 3D Groundwater flow model at the Upper Rhine Graben scale to delineate preferential target areas for geothermal projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armandine Les Landes, Antoine; Guillon, Théophile; Peter-Borie, Mariane; Rachez, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Any deep unconventional geothermal project remains risky because of the uncertainty regarding the presence of the geothermal resource at depth and the drilling costs increasing accordingly. That's why this resource must be located as precisely as possible to increase the chances of successful projects and their economic viability. To minimize the risk, as much information as possible should be gathered prior to any drilling. Usually, the position of the exploration wells of geothermal energy systems is chosen based on structural geology observations, geophysics measurements and geochemical analyses. Confronting these observations to results from additional disciplines should bring more objectivity in locating the region to explore and where to implant the geothermal system. The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is a tectonically active rift system that corresponds to one branch of the European Cenozoic Rift System where the basin hosts a significant potential for geothermal energy. The large fault network inherited from a complex tectonic history and settled under the sedimentary deposits hosts fluid circulation patterns. Geothermal anomalies are strongly influenced by fluid circulations within permeable structures such as fault zones. In order to better predict the location of the geothermal resource, it is necessary to understand how it is influenced by heat transport mechanisms such as groundwater flow. The understanding of fluid circulation in hot fractured media at large scale can help in the identification of preferential zones at a finer scale where additional exploration can be carried out. Numerical simulations is a useful tool to deal with the issue of fluid circulations through large fault networks that enable the uplift of deep and hot fluids. Therefore, we build a numerical model to study groundwater flow at the URG scale (150 x 130km), which aims to delineate preferential zones. The numerical model is based on a hybrid method using a Discrete Fracture Network

  7. Fiscal 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Annex to on-the-ground survey report, geothermal development promotion survey (Part 2. Electromagnetic surveillance using simplified MT method - No. 30: Western part of Hakkoda area); 1989 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo (Denji tansa (MT kan'i ho) hokokusho - No.30 Hakkoda seibu chiiki - 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-01-01

    An electromagnetic surveillance using the simplified MT (magnetotelluric) method was conducted to help clarify the geothermal structure in the western part of the Hakkoda area, Aomori Prefecture. The survey covered approximately 60 km{sup 2,} and involved 38 survey points, 3 magnetic field components, 2 electric field components, not less than 10 measuring frequencies in the range of 0.01-125 Hz, and a measuring time of not less than 2 hours. An analysis was performed, with data previously collected at 60 points added to the data collected at the said 38 points. As the result, the resistivity structure in this area was divided into 3 layers of high-low-high as described from the surface to the depth, and the middle layer was further divided into 3 layers of high-middle-low and the bottom layer into 2 layers of high-low. The result conformed though roughly to the result obtained by the electrical logging carried out in the structure boring. In the geothermal zone including the Sukayu hot spa in the southeastern part of this area and along the Jogakura valley, there exist a complicated resistivity structure attributable to geothermal activities and a number of discontinuous lines of resistivity running in the directions of WNW-ESE and N-S. This enabled an inference that there is a deep-seated geothermal source between Odake and Akamizusawa extending eastward from the said geothermal zone. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Annex to on-the-ground survey report, geothermal development promotion survey (Part 2. Electromagnetic surveillance using simplified MT method - No. 30: Western part of Hakkoda area); 1989 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo (Denji tansa (MT kan'i ho) hokokusho - No.30 Hakkoda seibu chiiki - 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-01-01

    An electromagnetic surveillance using the simplified MT (magnetotelluric) method was conducted to help clarify the geothermal structure in the western part of the Hakkoda area, Aomori Prefecture. The survey covered approximately 60 km{sup 2,} and involved 38 survey points, 3 magnetic field components, 2 electric field components, not less than 10 measuring frequencies in the range of 0.01-125 Hz, and a measuring time of not less than 2 hours. An analysis was performed, with data previously collected at 60 points added to the data collected at the said 38 points. As the result, the resistivity structure in this area was divided into 3 layers of high-low-high as described from the surface to the depth, and the middle layer was further divided into 3 layers of high-middle-low and the bottom layer into 2 layers of high-low. The result conformed though roughly to the result obtained by the electrical logging carried out in the structure boring. In the geothermal zone including the Sukayu hot spa in the southeastern part of this area and along the Jogakura valley, there exist a complicated resistivity structure attributable to geothermal activities and a number of discontinuous lines of resistivity running in the directions of WNW-ESE and N-S. This enabled an inference that there is a deep-seated geothermal source between Odake and Akamizusawa extending eastward from the said geothermal zone. (NEDO)

  9. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mahantesh V Parande; Subarna Roy; B G Mantur; Aisha M Parande; Rupali S Shinde

    2017-01-01

    Background: A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur) district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) in North Karnataka since then. Objectives: A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Materials and Methods: Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of dipht...

  10. Detection and Characterization of Natural and Induced Fractures for the Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toksoz, M. Nafi [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences

    2013-04-06

    The objective of this 3-year project is to use various geophysical methods for reservoir and fracture characterization. The targeted field is the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale Geothermal Field in Utah operated by ENEL North America (ENA). Our effort has been focused on 1) understanding the regional and local geological settings around the geothermal field; 2) collecting and assembling various geophysical data sets including heat flow, gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) and seismic surface and body wave data; 3) installing the local temporary seismic network around the geothermal site; 4) imaging the regional and local seismic velocity structure around the geothermal field using seismic travel time tomography; and (5) determining the fracture direction using the shear-wave splitting analysis and focal mechanism analysis. Various geophysical data sets indicate that beneath the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale Geothermal Field, there is a strong anomaly of low seismic velocity, low gravity, high heat flow and high electrical conductivity. These suggest that there is a heat source in the crust beneath the geothermal field. The high-temperature body is on average 150 °C – 200 °C hotter than the surrounding rock. The local seismic velocity and attenuation tomography gives a detailed velocity and attenuation model around the geothermal site, which shows that the major geothermal development target is a high velocity body near surface, composed mainly of monzonite. The major fracture direction points to NNE. The detailed velocity model along with the fracture direction will be helpful for guiding the geothermal development in the Cove Fort area.

  11. Geothermal energy prospecting in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Flores, J.H.; Gonzalez, E.; Ortega, M.

    1993-01-01

    Geochronological and geological studies carried out in El Salvador C. A., located a production geothermal zone to the north of the volcanic belt, in a region named Ahuachapan-Chipilapa. Hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis indicate the existence of active geothermal faults aligned to the directions South-North and Northwest-Southeast. Radon mapping in that region covered a total of 8.7 km 2 where plastic detectors were placed 200 m apart. Results confirmed the existence of active faults and two producing geothermal wells were located. (author)

  12. Recovery Act: Geothermal Data Aggregation: Submission of Information into the National Geothermal Data System, Final Report DOE Project DE-EE0002852 June 24, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, David D. [SMU Geothermal Laboratory; Chickering Pace, Cathy [SMU Geothermal Laboratory; Richards, Maria C. [SMU Geothermal Laboratory

    2014-06-24

    The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) is a Department of Energy funded effort to create a single cataloged source for a variety of geothermal information through a distributed network of databases made available via web services. The NGDS will help identify regions suitable for potential development and further scientific data collection and analysis of geothermal resources as a source for clean, renewable energy. A key NGDS repository or ‘node’ is located at Southern Methodist University developed by a consortium made up of: • SMU Geothermal Laboratory • Siemens Corporate Technology, a division of Siemens Corporation • Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas at Austin • Cornell Energy Institute, Cornell University • Geothermal Resources Council • MLKay Technologies • Texas Tech University • University of North Dakota. The focus of resources and research encompass the United States with particular emphasis on the Gulf Coast (on and off shore), the Great Plains, and the Eastern U.S. The data collection includes the thermal, geological and geophysical characteristics of these area resources. Types of data include, but are not limited to, temperature, heat flow, thermal conductivity, radiogenic heat production, porosity, permeability, geological structure, core geophysical logs, well tests, estimated reservoir volume, in situ stress, oil and gas well fluid chemistry, oil and gas well information, and conventional and enhanced geothermal system related resources. Libraries of publications and reports are combined into a unified, accessible, catalog with links for downloading non-copyrighted items. Field notes, individual temperature logs, site maps and related resources are included to increase data collection knowledge. Additional research based on legacy data to improve quality increases our understanding of the local and regional geology and geothermal characteristics. The software to enable the integration, analysis, and

  13. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  14. Seasonal Management Areas for North Atlantic Right Whales GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent Seasonal Mangagement Area locations where regulations implement speed restrictions in shipping areas at certain times of the year along the...

  15. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parande, Mahantesh V; Roy, Subarna; Mantur, B G; Parande, Aisha M; Shinde, Rupali S

    2017-01-01

    A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur) district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) in North Karnataka since then. A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012-2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxin gene (toxA and toxB) was carried out on the isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed on the isolates with a panel of 14 antibiotics. Thirty-eight (8.79%) out of 432 samples yielded C. diphtheriae on culture. All isolates possessed the diphtheria toxin gene. Out of the 38 confirmed cases, whereas 21 (55.26%) were between 1 and 5 years of age, 14 (36.84%) were aged between 5 and 10 years. Male children were three times more than females in confirmed cases. No information was available on the immunisation status of the cases. Emergence of resistance to penicillin was found with minimum inhibitory concentration reaching up to 6.00 μg/ml. Our study identified an upsurge in cases of diphtheria in North Karnataka, particularly in Vijayapura District, and to the best of our knowledge, reports the emergence of penicillin resistance for the first time in India. The study calls for enhanced surveillance for the disease, making antidiphtheritic serum available in key hospitals in the region and serves to provide a baseline for future assessment of the impact of the recently launched 'Mission Indradhanush' programme in strengthening Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP).

  16. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahantesh V Parande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP in North Karnataka since then. Objectives: A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Materials and Methods: Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012–2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxin gene (toxA and toxB was carried out on the isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed on the isolates with a panel of 14 antibiotics. Results: Thirty-eight (8.79% out of 432 samples yielded C. diphtheriae on culture. All isolates possessed the diphtheria toxin gene. Out of the 38 confirmed cases, whereas 21 (55.26% were between 1 and 5 years of age, 14 (36.84% were aged between 5 and 10 years. Male children were three times more than females in confirmed cases. No information was available on the immunisation status of the cases. Emergence of resistance to penicillin was found with minimum inhibitory concentration reaching up to 6.00 μg/ml. Conclusion and Discussion: Our study identified an upsurge in cases of diphtheria in North Karnataka, particularly in Vijayapura District, and to the best of our knowledge, reports the emergence of penicillin resistance for the first time in India. The study calls for enhanced surveillance for the disease, making antidiphtheritic serum available in key hospitals in the region and serves to provide a baseline for future assessment of the impact of the recently launched 'Mission Indradhanush' programme in strengthening Universal Immunisation Programme

  17. Geothermal resource utilization: paper and cane sugar industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornburg, C.D.; Morin, O.J.

    1975-03-01

    This study was made as a specific contribution to an overall report by the United States in the area of industrial utilization of geothermal resources. This is part of an overall study in non-electrical uses of geothermal resources for a sub-committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This study was restricted to the geopressured zone along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast. Also, it was limited to utilizing the thermal energy of this ''geoenergy'' resource for process use in the Pulp and Paper Industry and Cane Sugar Industry. For the selected industries and resource area, this report sets forth energy requirements; identifies specific plant and sites; includes diagrams of main processes used; describes process and equipment modifications required; describes energy recovery systems; sets forth waste disposal schemes and problems; and establishes the economics involved. The scope of work included considerable data collection, analysis and documentation. Detailed technical work was done concerning existing processes and modifications to effectively utilize geothermal energy. A brief survey was made of other industries to determine which of these has a high potential for utilizing geothermal energy.

  18. Geothermal areas as analogues to chemical processes in the near-field and altered zone of the potential Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Meike, A.

    1995-02-01

    The need to bound system performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository for thousands of years after emplacement of high-level nuclear waste requires the use of computer codes. The use of such codes to produce reliable bounds over such long time periods must be tested using long-lived natural and historical systems as analogues. The geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand were selected as the site most amenable to study. The rocks of the TVZ are silicic volcanics that are similar in composition to Yucca Mountain. The area has been subjected to temperatures of 25 to 300 C which have produced a variety of secondary minerals similar to those anticipated at Yucca Mountain. The availability of rocks, fluids and fabricated materials for sampling is excellent because of widespread exploitation of the systems for geothermal power. Current work has focused on testing the ability of the EQ3/6 code and thermodynamic data base to describe mineral-fluid relations at elevated temperatures. Welfare starting long-term dissolution/corrosion tests of rocks, minerals and manufactured materials in natural thermal features in order to compare laboratory rates with field-derived rates. Available field data on rates of silica precipitation from heated fluids have been analyzed and compared to laboratory rates. New sets of precipitation experiments are being planned. The microbially influenced degradation of concrete in the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal field is being characterized. The authors will continue to work on these projects in FY 1996 and expand to include the study of naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides, as a prelude to studying radionuclide migration in heated silicic volcanic rocks. 32 refs

  19. The Hydrogeochemistry of Qingshui Geothermal Field, Northeastern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Wen, Chen; Cheng-Kuo, Lin; Wayne, Lin; Yu-Te, Chang; Pei-Shan, Hsieh

    2015-04-01

    The Qingshui geothermal field is located at the upstream valley of Lanyang Creek, northeastern Taiwan. It is renowned as a geothermal field. The previous studies demonstrated a higher geothermal gradient, 100oC/km warmer than a normal geotherm. However, Qingshui geothermal field has not been well developed due to the higher mining costs. In the recent years, the Taiwan government has been focusing on developing alternative and renewable energy and initiated a 10 year project, Nation Energy Program. This study is part of this project In general, it is very difficult to collect deep downhole samples without considerable change of hydro- and gas- chemistry of water under high temperature and pressure. A new sampling tool, GTF Sampler, was designed by the research team, Green Energy and Environment Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute. This tool can simultaneously collect high quality geothermal water and gas sample and moreover, the sampling depth can reach up to 800 meters. Accordingly, a more accurate measurements can be conducted in the laboratory. In this study, 10 geothermal samples were collected and measured. The results demonstrate that geothermal water samples are characterized with Na(K)-HCO3 water type and located at the mature water area in Giggenbach Na-K-Mg diagram. Several geothermometers, including silica and cation geothermometry, were used to estimate potential temperature in the geothermal reservoir systems. In general, the geothermoters of Na-K and Na-K-Ca obtain reservoir temperatures between 120-190oC and 130-210oC, respectively, but the silica geothermometer indicates a lower reservoir temperature between 90 and 170oC. There is no big difference among them. It is worth to note that all calculated temperatures are lower than those of in-situ downhole measurements; therefore, more detailed and advanced researches would be needed for the inconsistency. To examine the argument about igneous heat source in the previous studies, rare

  20. Geothermal investigations in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ravnik

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology and the results of geothermal investigations, based on seventy-two boreholes in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia.The data of fundamental geothermal quantities: formation temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production of rocks as well as surface heat flow density are stored in a computerized data base. Their synthesis is given in the map of formation temperatures at 1000 m depth and in the map of surface heat flow density. In both maps the thermal difference between the Pannonian basin in theeastern and the Dinarides in the western part of Slovenia is clearly expressed.However, in the boundary area between these two tectonic units, for a distance of about 100 km in SW-NE direction, elevated horizontal gradients of formation temperature as well as heat flow density are evident. A small positive thermal anomaly in the Ljubljana depression is conspicuous.The low-temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia such as thermalsprings and thermal water from boreholes, are estimated to have a flow rate of 1120 kg/s, corresponding to the ideal total heat production of 144 MWt. In the geothermally promising areas amounting to 3200 km2 the rate of accessible resource base (ARB down to the depth of 3 km has been assessed to about 8.5 x lO 20» J.

  1. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    Small businesses are the cornerstone of the American economy. Over 22 million small businesses account for approximately 99% of employers, employ about half of the private sector workforce, and are responsible for about two-thirds of net new jobs. Many small businesses fared better than the Fortune 500 in 2001. Non-farm proprietors income rose 2.4% in 2001 while corporate profits declined 7.2%. Yet not all is rosy for small businesses, particularly new ones. One-third close within two years of opening. From 1989 to 1992, almost half closed within four years; only 39.5% were still open after six years. Why do some new businesses thrive and some fail? What helps a new business succeed? Industry knowledge, business and financial planning, and good management. Small geothermal businesses are no different. Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A recent survey of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop many of these sites into thriving small businesses. The ''Geothermal Small Business Workbook'' (''Workbook'') was written to give geothermal entrepreneurs, small businesses, and developers the tools they need to understand geothermal applications--both direct use and small-scale power generation--and to write a business and financing plan. The Workbook will: Provide background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; Refer you to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations; Break down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps; Lead you

  2. Japanese geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, P.

    1995-01-01

    At the end of the seventies, the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry have started two independent projects of deep geothermics research in Honshu island (Japan). The two sites are 50 km apart of each other and the boreholes have been drilled up to 2300 and 1100 m of depth, respectively, in hot-dry moderately fractured volcanic rocks. These sites are characterized by high geothermal gradients with a rock temperature reaching 250 C at the bottom of the wells. Hydraulic circulation tests are still in progress to evaluate the profitability of these sites. (J.S.). 1 fig., 1 photo

  3. Geothermal district heating system in Tanggu, Tianjin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinrong, C.

    1992-01-01

    Tanggu is a harbor and industrial area and is the location of Tianjin Harbor, Tianjin Bonded Area and Tianjin Economic Development Area. It covers an area of 859 km 2 and has a population of 430,000. Tanggu Geothermal Field is located at the western coast of Bohai Sea. This area belongs to the depression area of North China geologically. Neogene strata of Guantao Group is distributed widely in this region. Good permeability, large thickness, and high conductivity make it form a regional low-temperature porous reservoir. The reservoir is buried to a depth of 1,600 - 2,100 m. The total thickness of about 500 m can be divided into upper and lower sections including three aquifers. Geothermal space heating tests of Tanggu started in 1980. Up to the present, there are a total of 16 geothermal wells in Tanggu. Thirteen of them were drilled in the shallower aquifer. The total production rate of thermal water is 3.636 x 10 6 m 3 annually. The net production rate used for space heating is 3.10 x 10 6 m 3 from 11 wells. It has heated an area of 620 x 10 3 m 2 and has solved winter heating for 100 thousand people

  4. The Springhill Formation (Jurassic-Cretaceous) as a potential low enthalpy geothermal reservoir in the Cerro Sombrero area, Magallanes Basin, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarrigue, S. C.; Elgueta, S.; Arancibia, G.; Morata, D.; Sanchez, J.; Rojas, L.

    2017-12-01

    Low enthalpy geothermal energy technologies are being developed around the world as part of policies to replace the use of conventional sources of energy by renewable ones. The reuse of abandoned oil and gas wells in sedimentary basins, whose reservoirs are saturated with water at temperatures above 120°C, is of increasing interest due to the low initial cost.In Chile, interest in applying this technology is focused on the Magallanes Basin (Austral Basin in Argentina) in the extreme south of the country, where important hydrocarbon deposits have been exploited for more than six decades with more than 3,500 wells drilled to depths of over 4,000m. Hydrocarbons have been extracted mainly from the Upper Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous Springhill Formation, which includes sandstone lithofacies with porosities of 12% to 19% and permeability of 10mD and 1100mD. This formation has been drilled mainly at depths of 1500m to 3000m, the estimated geothermal gradient in the zone is 4.9 °C/100m with well bottom temperature measurements oscillating between 60° and 170°C, sufficient for district heating, and even, electricity generation by means of ORC technologies.To understand in detail the behavior and distribution of the different lithofacies of the Springhill Formation in the Sombrero Oil and Gas Field, sedimentological and geological 3D models have been generated from existing well logs and seismic data. To comprehend the quality of the reservoirs on the other hand, many petrophysical studies of drill core samples representative of the different lithofacies, complemented by electric well log interpretations, were carried out. Results confirm the existence of at least two quartz-rich sandstone lithofacies as potential geothermal reservoirs. In the principal settlement in this area, Cerro Sombrero township (1,800 population), the annual average temperature is 6.4°C, requiring constant domestic heating which, at present comes exclusively from natural gas. The study shows

  5. Use of high-resolution satellite images for detection of geological structures related to Calerias geothermal field, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Urzua, L.

    2011-12-01

    Chile has enormous potential to use the geothermal resources for electric energy generation. The main geothermal fields are located in the Central Andean Volcanic Chain in the North, between the Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the LANDSAT and ASTER satellites have been used to delineate the geological structures related to the Calerias geothermal field located at the northern end of the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile. It was done by applying the lineament extraction technique developed by authors. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the field. It was found that the lineament density increases in the areas of the major heat flux indicating that the lineament analysis could be a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields.

  6. 2012 geothermal energy congress. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    ); (15) GEOGRUND*: Transfer of the TCS process into the borehole (David Sauer); (16) 'Heat-in-place-density' - An example for the evaluation of the geothermal potential in Saarland (Hagen Deckert); (17) Experiences of the acidity stimulation of geothermal aquifers and plants (Markus Wolfgramm); (18) Geothermal Atlas for the depiction of possible utilization competitions between CCS and deep geothermy - Methodology and results (E. Suchi); (19) Development of a cooling system for geothermal bore hole probes (Benedict Holbein); (20) Geothermal energy in the context of international radiation protection recommendations (Sebastian Feige); (21) Innovative treatment of groundwater as a condition of an efficient air conditioning in buildings by utilization of near-surface geothermal energy (C. Meyer); (22) Preparation of planning maps for the utilization of near-surface geothermal energy with geo-physical methods (Reinhard Kirsch); (23) Deep geothermal probe Heubach - Progress of the project and facility planning by using an application example (David Kuntz); (24) Realistic numeric models for the simulation of potential geothermal reservoirs in the north-west German basin (Dorothea Reyer); (25) Monobore tracer test sensitivity compared with crack parameters and rock parameter: Lection Horstberg (Iulia Ghergut); (26) Infrastructure of fault zones in red sandstone of the Upper Rhine basin - Digestion analogue studies (Johanna F. Bauer); (27) Characterization of fault zones in shell limestone of the Upper Rhine basin - Digestion analogue studies (Silke Meier).

  7. Geothermal properties and groundwater flow estimated with a three-dimensional geological model in a late Pleistocene terrace area, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabiki, A.; Takemura, T.; Hamamoto, S.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-12-01

    1. Introduction The ground source heat pump (GSHP) is a highly efficient and renewable energy technology for space heating and cooling, with benefits that include energy conservation and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. One result of the huge Tohoku-oki earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear disasters is that GSHPs are receiving more attention from the media and they are being introduced by some local governments. Heat generated by underground GSHP installation, however, can pollute the geothermal environment or change groundwater flow patterns . In this study, we estimated possible effects from the use of GSHPs in the Tokyo area with a three-dimensional (3D) geological model. 2. Geological model The Tokyo Metropolitan Area is surrounded by the Late Pleistocene terraces called the Musashino uplands. The terrace surfaces are densely populated residential areas. One of these surfaces, the Shimosueyohi surface, formed along the Tama River during the last deglacial period. The CRE-NUCHS-1 core (Funabiki et al., 2011) was obtained from this surface, and the lithology, heat transfer coefficients, and chemical characteristics of the sediments were analyzed. In this study, we used borehole log data from a 5 km2 area surrounding the CRE-NUCHS-1 core site to create a 3D geological model. In this area, the Pleistocene Kazusa Group is overlain by terrace gravels and a volcanic ash layer called the Kanto Loam. The terrace gravels occur mainly beneath the Kanda, Kitazawa, and Karasuyama rivers , which flow parallel to the Tama River, whereas away from the rivers , the Kanto Loam directly overlies the Kazusa Group sediments. 3. Geothermal disturbance and groundwater flow Using the geological model, we calculated the heat transfer coefficients and groundwater flow velocities in the sediments. Within the thick terrace gravels, which are at relatively shallow depth (8-20 m), heat transfer coefficients were high and groundwater flow was relatively fast. The amount

  8. Microbiological monitoring in geothermal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Vetter, A.; Vieth, A.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2009-12-01

    In times of increasing relevance of alternative energy resources the utilization of geothermal energy and subsurface energy storage gains importance and arouses increasing interest of scientists. The research project “AquiScreen” investigates the operational reliability of geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. Microbiological analyses based on fluid and solid phases of geothermal systems are conducted to evaluate the impact of microbial populations on these systems. The presentation focuses on first results obtained from microbiological monitoring of geothermal plants located in two different regions of Germany: the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin in the southern part characterized by different salinities and temperatures. Fluid and filter samples taken during regular plant operation were investigated using genetic fingerprinting based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes to characterize the microbial biocenosis of the geothermal aquifer. Sequencing of dominant bands of the fingerprints and the subsequent comparison to 16S rRNA genes from public databases enables a correlation to metabolic classes and provides information about the biochemical processes in the deep biosphere. The genetic profiles revealed significant differences in microbiological community structures of geothermal aquifers investigated. Phylogenetic analyses indicate broad metabolical diversity adapted to the specific conditions in the aquifers. Additionally a high amount of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected indicating very specific indigenous biocenosis. However, in all geothermal plants bacteria were detected despite of fluid temperatures from 45° to 120°C. The identified microorganisms are closely related to thermophilic and hyperthermophilic species detectable in hot wells and hot springs, like Thermus scotoductus and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, respectively. Halophilic species were detected in

  9. Policy for geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, S [Public Utilities Bureau, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan

    1973-01-01

    Government actions related to Japanese geothermal energy development in the past include: a mining and industrial research subsidy of 27 million yen granted to Kyushu Electric Power Co. in 1952, a mining and industrial research subsidy of 13 million yen granted to Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. in 1960, a study on steam production technology for geothermal power generation by Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. funded at 3.5 hundred million yen from the Research Development Corporation of Japan, and a study on steam production technology for large scale geothermal power generation by Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. funded at 7.6 hundred million yen by the Research Development Corporation of Japan. The following projects are planned by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry for 1973: a two-year geothermal power promotion including investigations into the utilization of hot water, new methods for geothermal reservoir detection and steam well drilling, and environmental effects, studies on hydrothermal systems, basic investigations for geothermal indicators in 30 areas, and a means to finance the construction of geothermal power plants in Kakkonda (Iwate Prefecture) and Hatchobara (Oita Prefecture).

  10. Modeling of a deep-seated geothermal system near Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Z; Mingyou, C; Weiming, Z; Minglang, L

    2001-01-01

    A geothermal field is located in deep-seated basement aquifers in the northeastern part of the North China Plain near Tianjin, China. Carbonate rocks of Ordovician and Middle and Upper Proterozoic age on the Cangxian Uplift are capable of yielding 960 to 4200 m3/d of 57 degrees C to 96 degrees C water to wells from a depth of more than 1000 m. A three-dimensional nonisothermal numerical model was used to simulate and predict the spatial and temporal evolution of pressure and temperature in the geothermal system. The density of the geothermal water, which appears in the governing equations, can be expressed as a linear function of pressure, temperature, and total dissolved solids. A term describing the exchange of heat between water and rock is incorporated in the governing heat transport equation. Conductive heat flow from surrounding formations can be considered among the boundary conditions. Recent data of geothermal water production from the system were used for a first calibration of the numerical model. The calibrated model was used to predict the future changes in pressure and temperature of the geothermal water caused by two pumping schemes. The modeling results indicate that both pressure and temperature have a tendency to decrease with time and pumping. The current withdrawal rates and a pumping period of five months followed by a shut-off period of seven months are helpful in minimizing the degradation of the geothermal resource potential in the area.

  11. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  12. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.38. Mt. Aso West area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 38 Asozan seibu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Aso West area' which was carried out at Choyo village and Kugino village, Aso county, and at Otsu town, Kikuchi county, Kumamoto prefecture, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and high precision MT method survey, and temperature log, electrical log, water injection test, core test and hydrothermal survey by drilling 7 structural boreholes. In the numerical analysis of thermal structure models, the present geothermal manifestation was obtained, assuming that the past magma reservoir in a state of agglomeration/semi-agglomeration exists in the depths of caldera and that the depth is set at 4km. It is assumed that the deep hydrothermal reservoir around Yunoya/Tarutama exists around the depth of 500-600m below sea level and that the temperature is 230-300 degrees C. The meteoric water permeating into the depths forms high-temperature reservoirs around Yunoya/Tarutama. The reservoir rises up to about 400m below sea level to become a vapor-dominated phase. It forms an acidic SO{sub 4} type reservoir phase around the earth surface. (NEDO)

  13. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.38. Mt. Aso West area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 38 Asozan seibu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Aso West area' which was carried out at Choyo village and Kugino village, Aso county, and at Otsu town, Kikuchi county, Kumamoto prefecture, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and high precision MT method survey, and temperature log, electrical log, water injection test, core test and hydrothermal survey by drilling 7 structural boreholes. In the numerical analysis of thermal structure models, the present geothermal manifestation was obtained, assuming that the past magma reservoir in a state of agglomeration/semi-agglomeration exists in the depths of caldera and that the depth is set at 4km. It is assumed that the deep hydrothermal reservoir around Yunoya/Tarutama exists around the depth of 500-600m below sea level and that the temperature is 230-300 degrees C. The meteoric water permeating into the depths forms high-temperature reservoirs around Yunoya/Tarutama. The reservoir rises up to about 400m below sea level to become a vapor-dominated phase. It forms an acidic SO{sub 4} type reservoir phase around the earth surface. (NEDO)

  14. Overview of Resources for Geothermal Absorption Cooling for Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a literature review in three areas: available low-temperature/coproduced geothermal resources in the United States, energy use for space conditioning in commercial buildings, and state of the art of geothermal absorption cooling.

  15. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Three-Dimensional Geologic Characterization of a Great Basin Geothermal System: Astor Pass, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhew, Brett; Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E

    2013-09-30

    The Great Basin, western USA, exhibits anomalously high heat flow (~75±5 mWm-2) and active faulting and extension, resulting in ~430 known geothermal systems. Recent studies have shown that steeply dipping normal faults in transtensional pull-aparts are a common structural control of these Great Basin geothermal systems. The Astor Pass blind (no surface expression) geothermal system, Nevada, lies along the boundary between the Basin and Range to the east and the Walker Lane to the west. Across this boundary, strain is transferred from dextral shear in the Walker Lane to west-northwest directed extension in the Basin and Range, resulting in a transtensional setting consisting of both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults and northerly striking normal faults. Previous studies indicate that Astor Pass was controlled by the intersection of a northwest-striking dextral normal fault and north-northwest striking normal-dextral fault bounding the western side of the Terraced Hills. Drilling (to ~1200 m) has revealed fluid temperatures of ~94°C, confirming a blind geothermal system. Expanding upon previous work and employing interpretation of 2D seismic reflection data, additional detailed geologic mapping, and well cuttings analysis, a 3-dimensional geologic model of the Astor Pass geothermal system was constructed. The 3D model indicates a complex interaction/intersection area of three discrete fault zones: a northwest-striking dextral-normal fault, a north-northwest-striking normal-dextral fault, and a north-striking west-dipping normal fault. These two discrete, critically-stressed intersection areas plunge moderately to steeply to the NW-NNW and probably act as conduits for upwelling geothermal fluids.

  17. TL studies of calcareous rocks of Danta area, North Gujarat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limaye, M.A.; Desai, S.J.; Murthy, K.V.R.; Joshi, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The lithounits exposed around Danta in Banaskantha district of North Gujarat belong to Ajabgarh Group, the upper division of the Delhi super group. These rocks are intruded by syn to late kinematic basic rocks and by Erinpura granites of post Delhi age. The Ajabgarh group consists of pelitic and calcareous components. Mineralogically the pelitic rocks comprise cordierite, almandine garnet, k-feldspar, sillimanite, quartz and mica in variable proportions. The calcareous rocks are seen to contain dominantly calcite, scapolite, forsterite, sphene, k-feldspar. These mineral assemblages correspond to upper Amphibolite to lower Granulite facies of regional metamorphism. The chemistry of the calcareous rocks show predominance of CaO over MgO. The glow curves obtained from virgin samples (NTL) as well as artificial beta irradiated indicate glow peaks at 140 o C, 290 o C, 310 o C and 390 o C. The TL glow peak temperatures are in general agreement with those reported by Borsi and Rinaldi and Medlin. The pronounced peak at 390 o C and 290 o C are suggestive of their high irradiation sensitivity and also probably reflect variation in the Mn content of the rocks. (author). 9 refs., 16 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  19. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Maricopa County Geothermal Development Plan evaluated the market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified six potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 100{sup 0}C (212{sup 0}F) and in addition, four suspected intermediate temperature areas (90{sup 0} to 150{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0} to 300{sup 0}F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in and near the Phoenix metropolitan area where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing, trade and service sectors of the regional economy provides opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. A regional energy use analysis is included containing energy use and price projections. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support this growth, though agricultural water use is expected to diminish. The study also contains a detailed section matching geothermal resources to potential users. Two comparative analyses providing economic details for space heating projects are incorporated.

  20. FY 2000 report on the survey for extraction of areas promising in strategic exploration geothermal development. Kirishima region; 2000 nendo senryakuteki chosa chinetsu kaihatsu yubo chiiki chushutsu chosa hokokusho. Kirishima chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the Kirishima region with the aim of contributing to working out future medium- and long-term plans of geothermal development promotion survey, estimation of the developmental resource amount, extraction of technology development subjects effectively connecting to the increase in kW, etc. In the study, literature is collected such as reports of the surveys already made in the Kirishima region and the periphery, the data were re-analyzed and divided into geological structure elements and geological structure elements, and a conceptual model of the geothermal system in the whole Kirishima region was made. As a result, two areas were extracted for which the existence of high temperature geothermal reservoirs is expected. The total resource amount was estimated at 2,785MWe at promising area 1 and at 3,237MWe at promising area 2. With the resource amount density, data likelihood and distribution status of national/quasi-national parks as extraction criteria, 6 out of these promising areas were focused on important areas for survey. Geothermal structure models were made for each of the 6 areas, and the evaluation of the resource amount using evaluation assist tools was carried out. (NEDO)

  1. Honey Lake Geothermal Project, Lassen County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    The drilling, completion, and testing of deep well WEN-2 for a hybrid electric power project which will use the area's moderate temperature geothermal fluids and locally procured wood fuel is reported. The project is located within the Wendel-Amedee Known Geothermal Resource Area.

  2. Spatial variation of vulnerability in geographic areas of North Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, I.; Nader, M.R.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the spatial variation in vulnerability between different geographical areas of the northern coastal region of Lebanon within the context of armed conflict. The study is based on the ‘vulnerability of space’ approach and will be positioned in the academic debate on vulnerability

  3. Geothermal characteristics in Korean peninsula for the disposal concept of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Jin Woong; Han, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik

    2001-04-01

    In order to review the state-of-the-art of geothermal conditions and to supply the references for the concept development of high level radioactive waste disposal at deep geological formation in Korea. The existing data for the heat flow and geothermal gradient were evaluated and summarized over 300m in depth, which are mainly of the hot spring area. The heat flow in Korean peninsula is recorded as about 69mW/m 2 and has no significant differences, in general. This value is regarsed as similar as the average value over Korean peninsula, of 71mW/m 2 . This means The high geothermal anomalies are distributed around the south-western part of Korea and mainly covered with volcanic rocks. And, this value is within the range of the heat flow in Korean peninsula, as 50-80mW/m 2 . The geothermal gradient in each rock type are also shown a similar pattern by depth in Korea as belows. The sedimentary rock area: 25.34 deg C/km The plutonic rock area: 25.24 deg C/km (mainly granites) The metamorphic rock area: 23.56 deg C/km And, the geothermal gradient was measured as about 30 deg C/km around north- eastern part of Korea in 1996, where is distributed with granites. These values has been evaluated according to the existing data, which were mainly from the records of hot spring, in general. However, these properties would be abe to a propper references consideration with the low geothermal and areal characteristics of Korean peninsular. In the following stages, it is suggested that geothermal characteristics should be evaluated for the preferred host rocks

  4. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  5. Overall analysis report on the fiscal 1994 geothermal development promotion survey. No.C-2. Wasabizawa area (secondary); 1994 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho. No.C-2. Wasabizawa chiiki (dainiji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Wasabizawa area is located near the boundary between Yuzawa city south of Akita pref. and Ogachi-machi, Ogachi-gun, Akita pref, having a range of 3.0km northeast-southwest and 2.5km northwest-southeast of Wasabizawa almost as a center. The area for survey and its circumference are national forests, and the east and a part of the south of the area are designated as the Kurikoma quasi-national park third type special region. From the geochemical temperature distribution, it can be assumed that geothermal fluids of around 300{degree}C exist in the deep underground of the Kaminotai-Wasabizawa-Akinomiya area. From the distribution of density basements, the block structure of the basement can be estimated. Around the boundary of the ridge/sedimentation region of this density basement, fractures develop and the formation of reservoir structure is expected from the comparison with the result of the well survey. In the blowout test, obtained were 284.3{degree}C and 83.05 kgf/cm{sup 2} at a depth of 1,300m. In the geothermal system, it is assumed that reservoir structures of geothermal fluids develop in the deep underground of the central part of the area. The heat source to the geothermal system is supposed to be the magma reservoir remaining in Takamatsudake volcanic rocks. 110 refs., 177 figs., 105 tabs.

  6. FY 1999 report on the comprehensive analysis of the geothermal development promotion survey. Forth. No.C-3 Akinomiya area; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho. No. C-3 Akinomiya chiiki (Dai 4 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    As part of the geothermal development promotion survey, the comprehensive analysis was made on the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Akinomiya area, Ogachi town, Akita prefecture, which was conducted in FY 1999. In the evaluation of reservoirs, the following were carried out: comprehensive analysis of various data on the surface survey, well exploration, etc., which were stored in surveys from the primary to the forth, modification/construction of geothermal system models, numerical simulation using 3D models, etc. In the long-term jetting test, production/reduction tests were conducted using N9-AY-3 and N10-AY-8 as production wells and N8-AY-1 and N10-AY-6 as reduction wells. The results of the comprehensive analysis were outlined as follows. The distribution of high temperature zones promising as areas for geothermal development was grasped. The distribution of the main fracture structure underground was grasped. A total amount of 124t/h steam was confirmed by short/long term jetting tests. In the simulation of prediction of production, the result was obtained that there was potential power generation of 30MW in the Akinomiya area alone and 60MW both in the Akinomiya area and the Wasabizawa area. (NEDO)

  7. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume I. Review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    The history of geothermal exploration in Hawaii is reviewed briefly. The nature and occurrences of geothermal resources are presented island by island. An overview of geothermal markets is presented. Other topies covered are: potential markets of the identified geothermal areas, well drilling technology, hydrothermal fluid transport, overland and submarine electrical transmission, community aspects of geothermal development, legal and policy issues associated with mineral and land ownership, logistics and infrastructure, legislation and permitting, land use controls, Regulation 8, Public Utilities Commission, political climate and environment, state plans, county plans, geothermal development risks, and business planning guidelines.

  8. Engineered Geothermal System Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, Susan

    2014-06-19

    In June 2009, AltaRock Energy began field work on a project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “Use of Multiple Stimulations to Improve Economics of Engineered Geothermal Systems in Shallow High Temperature Intrusives.” The goal of the project was to develop an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) in the portion of The Geysers geothermal field operated by the Northern California Power Agency (NCPA). The project encountered several problems while deepening Well E-7 which culminated in the suspension of field activities in September 2009. Some of the problems encountered are particular to The Geysers area, while others might be encountered in any geothermal field, and they might be avoided in future operations.

  9. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  10. 3D characterization of a Great Basin geothermal system: Astor Pass, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, D. L.; Mayhew, B.; Faulds, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Great Basin exhibits both anomalously high heat flow (~75±5 mWm-2) and active faulting and extension resulting in robust geothermal activity. There are ~430 known geothermal systems in the Great Basin, with evidence suggesting that undiscovered blind geothermal systems may actually represent the majority of geothermal activity. These systems employ discrete fault intersection/interaction areas as conduits for geothermal circulation. Recent studies show that steeply dipping normal faults with step-overs, fault intersections, accommodation zones, horse-tailing fault terminations and transtensional pull-aparts are the most prominent structural controls of Great Basin geothermal systems. These fault geometries produce sub-vertical zones of high fault and fracture density that act as fluid flow conduits. Structurally controlled fluid flow conduits are further enhanced when critically stressed with respect to the ambient stress conditions. The Astor Pass blind geothermal system, northwestern Nevada, lies along the boundary between the Basin and Range to the east and the Walker Lane to the west. Along this boundary, strain is transferred from dextral shear in the Walker Lane to west-northwest directed extension in the Basin and Range. As such, the Astor Pass area lies in a transtensional setting consisting of both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults and more northerly striking normal faults. The Astor Pass tufa tower implies the presence of a blind geothermal system. Previous studies suggest that deposition of the Astor Pass tufa was controlled by the intersection of a northwest-striking dextral normal fault and north-northwest striking normal fault. Subsequent drilling (to ~1200 m) has revealed fluid temperatures of ~94°C, confirming the presence of a blind geothermal system at Astor Pass. Expanding upon previous work and employing additional detailed geologic mapping, interpretation of 2D seismic reflection data and analysis of well cuttings, a 3

  11. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Supplementary survey on data processing (No.38 - West area of Mt. Aso); 1991 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Data shori ni kakawaru hosoku chosa hokokusho (No.38 Asosan seibu chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion in FY 1992, chemical/isotopic analysis of fumarolic gas in the Yoshioka district was made to elucidate the underground geothermal structure in the west area of Mt. Aso in Kumamoto Prefecture. Items for analysis of fumarolic gas were 16 items including the temperature, concentration of non-condensable gas, CO2, H2O, CH{sub 4}, {delta}D(CH{sub 4}) and {delta}{sup 13}C(CO2). Items for analysis of condensed water were 9 items including pH, Na, NH{sub 4}, {delta}D(H2O) and {delta}{sup 18}O. As a result of the analysis, the main component of non-condensable gas of fumarolic gas was CO2, and the composition was similar to that of the fumarolic gas in the Yunoya/Tarutama district in the periphery. It was presumed that the origin and formation mechanism of fumarolic gas were also similar to those in the Yunoya/Tarutama district. It was presumed that the deep geothermal reservoir which is the source of vapor/gas generation was composed of the neutral or alkalescent geothermal water, and a possibility that the reservoir is connected with the deep geothermal reservoir in the Yunoya district was presumed from a viewpoint of geographical location. (NEDO)

  12. Recent metalliferous sediment in the North Pacific manganese nodule area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Quaternary sediments cored in the northeast Pacific nodule area (DOMES site C, 14??N, 126??W) contain a significant amount of hydrothermal metalliferous mud. Water content, color, mineralogy, and chemical composition are analogous to metalliferous sediments of the subequatorial East Pacific Rise. Correction for contribution of pelagic clay indicates the metalliferous fraction to be about 40% of the sediment. SiO2 and Mg are major components in the corrected composition, as they are for other metalliferous sediments similarly corrected from a variety of East Pacific Rise and DSDP metalliferous sediments. A correlation between Mg and SiO2 for these corrected sediments could indicate a hydrothermal origin for a significant portion of the SiO2. Results from DSDP in the nodule area suggest that metalliferous globules are a ubiquitous minor component of the Clipperton Oceanic Formation, which underlies much of the Pacific ferromanganese nodule belt. This indicates that deposition of hydrothermal precipitates is not confined to spreading centers. ?? 1977.

  13. Timber resource statistics for the North Coast resource area of California 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1996-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties. Data were collected by the Pacific Northwest Research Station as part of a State-wide multi-resource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National...

  14. Timber resource statistics for the north interior resource area of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Interior Resource Area of California, which includes Lassen, Modoc, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided...

  15. NEDO Forum 2000. Geothermal technology development session (new development of geothermal energy); Chinetsu gijutsu kaihatsu session. Chinetsu energy no shintenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The following themes were presented at this session: (1) geothermal development in the future, (2) the current status of geothermal development and utilization, (3) surveys on the promotion of geothermal development, and (4) verification and investigation on geothermal exploration technologies, development of hot water utilizing power generation plants, and international cooperation on geothermal development and utilization. In Item 2, report was made on the current status of geothermal power plants in Japan and their future development targets, long-term overview of geothermal development, measures and budgets to achieve the targets of geothermal development. In Item 3, it is reported that out of 48 areas completed of the survey (including the new promotion surveyed areas), the areas possible of steam power generation and confirmed of temperatures higher than 200 degrees C are 30 areas, and the areas possible of binary power generation (using down hole pumps) and small to medium scale power generation, confirmed of temperatures of 100 to 200 degrees C are 13 areas. In Item 4, reports were made on the reservoir bed variation exploring method, surveys on deep geothermal resources, a 10-MW demonstration plant, a system to detect well bottom information during excavation of geothermal wells, a technology to collect deep geothermal resources, and a hot-rock using power generation system. In Item 5, geothermal exploration in remote islands in the eastern part of Indonesia, and the IEA cooperation projects were reported. (NEDO)

  16. Geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparovic, N

    1962-07-01

    Live steam, transformed steam, and steam produced by expansion flashing are outlined with respect to their use in the production of electricity. The capacity, pressure, and temperature of a steam must be determined empirically by exploratory drilling. These factors are dependent on time and on the extent of nearby drilling-activity. Particulars of geothermal-steam power-plants such as steam dryness, hot-water flashing, condensation, gas extraction, and corrosion are discussed in detail. All available data (as per 1962) concerning the costs of operation and construction of geothermal power plants are tabulated. For space-heating purposes, two basic systems are utilized. When little corrosion or precipitation is expected, an open system is used, otherwise, closed systems are necessary. The space-heating system of Reykjavik, Iceland is cited as an example. A brief description of industrial applications of geothermal energy, such as the extraction of NaCl, D/sub 2/O, or boric acid, is provided. Thirty-two references are given.

  17. Microseismic monitoring during production and reinjection tests in the Chipilapa geothermal field (El Salvador)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabriol, H.; Beauce, A.; Jacobo, R.; Quijano, J.

    1992-01-01

    The microseismic monitoring of the Chipilapa geothermal field has investigated the microseismic activity prior to and during the production and injection tests of three wells drilled between 1989 and 1991. Two surveys were carried out, in 1988 and 1991-1992 respectively, in order to study the reservoir and its recharge and to monitor microseismicity induced by reinjection. Natural microseismicity is distributed around the known geothermal area, and related either to tectonic activity under the volcanic range sited at the south (and which is the upflow zone of the geothermal field) or to the Central Graben at the north. No evidences of induced microseismicity appeared at this stage of interpretation, probably due to the unfavourable conditions prevailing during the tests: Namely reinjection by gravity and low productivity

  18. Proceedings and findings of the geothermal commercialization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.; Dhillon, H.

    1979-04-01

    The proceedings are presented of a Geothermal Commercialization Workshop conducted by the Division of Geothermal Resource Management, Department of Energy. The workshop was held in January-February 1979 at The MITRE Corporation facility in McLean, Virginia. The workshop addressed geothermal hydrothermal commercialization achievements and needs in the areas of Marketing and Outreach, Economics, Scenarios, and Progress Monitoring.

  19. Panel discussion on exploitation of geothermal resources in thermal zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viramonte, J G; Mange, J; Stefani, G

    1978-03-01

    The topics discussed include the major known geothermal resources, varying ways of exploiting geothermal resources, technical and economic difficulties in the exploitation, the place of geothermal energy in the total energy policy of a given country, advanced exploration techniques, and indications of needed areas of study. The panelists represented most of the South American countries, Mexico, and Italy. (JSR)

  20. Isotope study in geothermal fields in Java Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandowo, Z.A.

    1995-01-01

    Study in two geothermal fields, Dieng and Kamojang, in Java island by utilizing isotope technique has been carried out. Isotopic data of wells, springs and other geothermal manifestations providing informations on the recharge area of precipitation contributed to geothermal resources, flow paths and origin of geothermal fluids. The data of oxygen shift has also provided information on the characteristic the fields. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Insight into the Geothermal Structure in Chingshui, Ilan, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lun-Tao Tong; Shoung Ouyang; Tai-Rong Guo; Ching-Ray Lee; Kou-Hsin Hu; Chun-Li Lee; Chun-Jao Wang

    2008-01-01

    The Chingshui geothermal field is the largest known productive geothermal area in Taiwan. The purpose of this paper is to delineate this geothermal structure by integrating geophysical data and borehole information. The existence of a magma chamber in the shallow crust and shallow intrusive igneous rock results in a high heat flow and geothermal gradient; furthermore, the NE deep fault system within the meta-sandstones provides meteoric recharge from a higher elevation to artesianally drive t...

  2. Fluid inclusion from drill hole DW-5, Hohi geothermal area, Japan: Evidence of boiling and procedure for estimating CO2 content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, M.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid inclusion studies have been used to derive a model for fluid evolution in the Hohi geothermal area, Japan. Six types of fluid inclusions are found in quartz obtained from the drill core of DW-5 hole. They are: (I) primary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (II) primary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (III) primary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling); (IV) secondary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (V) secondary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (VI) secondary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling). Homogenization temperatures (Th) range between 196 and 347??C and the final melting point of ice (Tm) between -0.2 and -4.3??C. The CO2 content was estimated semiquantitatively to be between 0 and 0.39 wt. % based on the bubble behavior on crushing. NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of fluid inclusions was determined as being between 0 and 6.8 wt. % after minor correction for CO2 content. Fluid inclusions in quartz provide a record of geothermal activity of early boiling and later cooling. The CO2 contents and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions with evidence of boiling generally increase with depth; these changes, and NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of the fluid can be explained by an adiabatic boiling model for a CO2-bearing low-salinity fluid. Some high-salinity inclusions without CO2 are presumed to have formed by a local boiling process due to a temperature increase or a pressure decrease. The liquid-rich primary and secondary inclusions without evidence of boiling formed during the cooling process. The salinity and CO2 content of these inclusions are lower than those in the boiling fluid at the early stage, probably as a result of admixture with groundwater. ?? 1986.

  3. Seismic characterisation for geothermal energy prospecting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huck, A.; Groot, P. de; Simmelink, E.; Vandeweijer, V.P.; Willemsen, A.

    2009-01-01

    The city of The Hague intends to use geothermal energy to heat approx. 4000 houses in a planned urban development area called The Hague South-West. This paper describes the application of advanced seismic interpretation workflows to help positioning a geothermal doublet consisting of one injector -

  4. Satellite versus ground-based estimates of burned area: A comparison between MODIS based burned area and fire agency reports over North America in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephane Mangeon; Robert Field; Michael Fromm; Charles McHugh; Apostolos Voulgarakis

    2015-01-01

    North American wildfire management teams routinely assess burned area on site during firefighting campaigns; meanwhile, satellite observations provide systematic and global burned-area data. Here we compare satellite and ground-based daily burned area for wildfire events for selected large fires across North America in 2007 on daily timescales. In a sample of 26 fires...

  5. Report on achievements in fiscal 1974 in Sunshine Project. Study on hot water systems in geothermal areas; 1974 nendo chinetsu chiiki no netsusuikei ni kansuru kenkyu seika chukan hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This study has begun in fiscal 1973 under a five year plan with an objective to elucidate origin and maintenance of reservoirs of geothermal fluids. To achieve the objective, estimation was made on the systems of infiltration, storage and gushing of the fluids, particularly on infiltration areas. In the hydraulic flow rate study, observation was carried out in the Onikubi area on amount of rainfall, air pressures, temperatures, electric conductivity, and pH, and in ten fluid sources on flow rates, temperatures and pH. Flow rate observation was started at three rivers. In the Kuju area, flow rate observation was started on four fluid sources. Observations were started on temperatures, electric conductivity, flow rates, amount of rainfall by using the Takenoyu geothermal steal wells, and on amount of rainfall in the Teraono and Hacchobara areas. In the study of isotopic geology, site analyses and water collection were carried out in the Kuju area for underground water in six locations, hot spring water in seven locations, and 17 test samples from two geothermal wells. As a study on reservoirs, observation was started in the southern Hachimantai area on measurement of ground fluctuation in association with steam collection. In parallel, fracture survey and gravity measurement were carried out. In order to investigate transformed geology, analytic samples were collected from 12 survey wells in the Onikubi area. A spinner flow mater was tested in that area. (NEDO)

  6. Investigation of geothermal development and promotion for fiscal 1997. Investigation report on geological/alteration zone (No. B-5 Musadake area); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chishitsu henshitsutai chosa hokokusho (No.B-5 Musadake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This investigation was intended to clarify the possibility of existence of geothermal reservoir layer by elucidating the underground structure and thermal source forming the geothermal system around Musadake, in the area extending over Nakashibetu-cho and Shibetu-cho, Shibetu district, Hokkaido, and further by grasping the distribution and properties of the geothermal alteration zone. The geothermal system of the subject area seems to be governed by Musadake - Mt. Shitabanupuri fault, its incidental bent zone, and the graben extending to the southeast side. The thermal source is presumably a magma reservoir that evolved Musa volcano. The depth hot water is presumed to exist in the underground depth around Mt. Imora; and it seems that the thermal conduction and volcanic ejecta are caused by a chain of volcano-related magma reservoirs around Musadake, the thermal source presumably. The depth hot water is estimated to be not less than 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. Within the graben, mudstones are distributed such as Kawakita layer and Yokoushigawa geological layer. Moreover, it is possible that an impermeable layer due to alteration is spread. (NEDO)

  7. Geothermal Modesty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the uses for radioactivity, the future of the green electricity, the energy policy of Rhone-alps region, the end of the nuclear in Belgium, the nuclear propulsion to explore the solar system, the involvement of the Unites States in the hydrogen development, the gas exportation of China. A special part is devoted to the possibility of the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)

  8. Status on high enthalpy geothermal resources in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutinas, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Greece is privileged to have many high and medium enthalpy geothermal resources. Related activities during the last 5 years were conducted mainly on the previously discovered geothermal fields of Milos, Nisyros and Lesvos islands, without any deep geothermal drilling. Most efforts were focused on the demonstration of a high enthalpy geothermal reservoir on Milos, by generating electricity from high salinity fluid, with a 2 MW pilot plant. Significant experience has been gained there, by solving technical problems, but still site specific constraints have to be overcome in order to arrive at a comprehensive feasibility study, leading to the development phase. A pre-feasibility study has been carried out in the Nisyros geothermal field. Moreover, a detailed geoscientific exploration program has been completed on Lesvos island, where very promising geothermal areas have been identified. In this paper, reference is made to the most important data concerning high enthalpy geothermal resources by emphasizing the Milos geothermal field

  9. 76 FR 60587 - Environmental Impact Statement; North Corridor Transit Project, Seattle (WA) Metropolitan Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Lake Washington to the east, which limits transportation options. This dense urban area comprises one... and activity centers located in the North Corridor and the other urban centers in the Central Puget... elevated or at-grade profiles or station locations and layouts. Potential SR 99 Light Rail Alternatives A...

  10. Eleven bones: More fossil remains of Cave Lions and Cave Hyaenas from the North Sea area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Six fossil Cave Lion bones and five fossil Cave Hyaena bones are described. One lion bone and one hyaena bone were dredged from the Westerschelde ( = Western Scheldt, southwestern part of the Netherlands). The other specimens were recovered from the bottom of the North Sea, in the area West and

  11. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI u...

  12. Bedrock geologic map of the Jay and North Troy area, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG97-04C Stanley, RS, and Roy, D, 1997,�Bedrock geologic map of the Jay and North Troy area, Vermont: VGS Open-File Report VG97-04c, scale 1:24000....

  13. Prospects of geothermal resource exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrelier, P.H.; Cornet, F.; Fouillac, C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of geothermal energy to generate electricity has only occurred during the past 50 years by drilling wells in aquifers close to magmas and producing either dry steam or hot water. The world's production of electricity from geothermal energy is over 6000 MWe and is still growing. The direct use of geothermal energy for major urban communities has been developed recently by exploitation of aquifers in sedimentary basins under large towns. Scaling up the extraction of heat implies the exploitation of larger and better located fields requiring an appropriate method of extraction; the objective of present attempts in USA, Japan and Europe is to create heat exchangers by the circulation of water between several deep wells. Two field categories are considered: the extension of classical geothermal fields beyond the aquifer areas, and areas favoured by both a high geothermal gradient, fractures inducing a natural permeability at large scale, and good commercial prospects (such as in the Rhenan Graben). Hot dry rocks concept has gained a large interest. 1 fig., 5 tabs., 11 refs

  14. Use of high-resolution satellite images for detection of geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Chile has an enormous potential to use the geothermal resources for electric energy generation. The main geothermal fields are located in the Central Andean Volcanic Chain in the North, between the Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the LANDSAT and ASTER satellites have been used to delineate the geological structures related to the Calerias geothermal field located at the northern end of the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile and Puchuldiza geothermal field located in the Region of Tarapaca. It was done by applying the lineament extraction technique developed by author. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the fields. It was found that the lineament density increases in the areas of the major heat flux indicating that the lineament analysis could be a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields.

  15. CO2 emissions and heat flow through soil, fumaroles, and steam heated mud pools at the Reykjanes geothermal area, SW Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridriksson, Thrainn; Kristjansson, Bjarni Reyr; Armannsson, Halldor; Margretardottir, Eygerour; Olafsdottir, Snjolaug; Chiodini, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions and heat flow through soil, steam vents and fractures, and steam heated mud pools were determined in the Reykjanes geothermal area, SW Iceland. Soil diffuse degassing of CO 2 was quantified by soil flux measurements on a 600 m by 375 m rectangular grid using a portable closed chamber soil flux meter and the resulting data were analyzed by both a graphical statistical method and sequential Gaussian simulations. The soil temperature was measured in each node of the grid and used to evaluate the heat flow. The heat flow data were also analyzed by sequential Gaussian simulations. Heat flow from steam vents and fractures was determined by quantifying the amount of steam emitted from the vents by direct measurements of steam flow rate. The heat loss from the steam heated mud pools was determined by quantifying the rate of heat loss from the pools by evaporation, convection, and radiation. The steam flow rate into the pools was calculated from the observed heat loss from the pools, assuming that steam flow was the only mechanism of heat transport into the pool. The CO 2 emissions from the steam vents and mud pools were determined by multiplying the steam flow rate from the respective sources by the representative CO 2 concentration of steam in the Reykjanes area. The observed rates of CO 2 emissions through soil, steam vents, and steam heated mud pools amounted to 13.5 ± 1.7, 0.23 ± 0.05, and 0.13 ± 0.03 tons per day, respectively. The heat flow through soil, steam vents, and mud pools was 16.9 ± 1.4, 2.2 ± 0.4, and 1.2 ± 0.1 MW, respectively. Heat loss from the geothermal reservoir, inferred from the CO 2 emissions through the soil amounts to 130 ± 16 MW of thermal energy. The discrepancy between the observed heat loss and the heat loss inferred from the CO 2 emissions is attributed to steam condensation in the subsurface due to interactions with cold ground water. These results demonstrate that soil diffuse degassing can be a more

  16. Sustainability analysis of the Ahuachapan geothermal field: management and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterrosa, Manuel; Montalvo Lopez, Francisco E. [LaGeo S.A. de C.V., Reservoir Engineering, 15 Av. Sur, Colonia Utila, Santa Tecla, La Libertad (El Salvador)

    2010-12-15

    The Ahuachapan geothermal field (AGF) is located in north western El Salvador. To date, 53 wells (20 producers and 8 injectors) have been drilled in the Ahuachapan geothermal field and the adjacent Chipilapa area. Over the past 33 years, 550 Mtonnes have been extracted from the reservoir, and the reservoir pressure has declined by more than 15 bars. By 1985, the large pressure drawdown due to over-exploitation of the resource reduced the power generation capacity to only 45 MW{sub e}. Several activities were carried out in the period 1997-2005 as part of ''stabilization'' and ''optimization'' projects to increase the electric energy generation to 85 MW{sub e}, with a total mass extraction of 850 kg/s. LaGeo is assessing the sustainability of geothermal reservoir utilization. Preliminary results indicate the planned power production and mass extraction (95 MW, 900 kg/s) cannot be sustained for more than 50 years using current power plant technology. To sustain the exploitation for at least 100 years, the following changes should be implemented: (1) improve the gathering system using large-diameter steam pipelines, (2) expand the exploitation area to the southeast and southwest, and (3) reduce the inlet pressure of the turbines to less than 4 bars. (author)

  17. Geologic and operational summary, COST No. 1 well, Georges Bank area, North Atlantic OCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Roger V.; Bebout, John W.

    1980-01-01

    The first Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) well on the U.S. North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) was drilled by Ocean Production Company between April 6 and July 26, 1976, and designated the COST No. G-l. Geological and engineering data obtained from this deep well in the Georges Bank Basin were used by the 31 participating companies and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluating the petroleum potential and possible drilling problems in the U.S. North Atlantic OCS area in preparation for Lease Sale 42 held on December 18, 1979.

  18. Geothermal and volcanism in west Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, I.; Indarto, S.; Sudarsono; Fauzi I, A.; Yuliyanti, A.; Lintjewas, L.; Alkausar, A.; Jakah

    2018-02-01

    Indonesian active volcanoes extend from Sumatra, Jawa, Bali, Lombok, Flores, North Sulawesi, and Halmahera. The volcanic arc hosts 276 volcanoes with 29 GWe of geothermal resources. Considering a wide distribution of geothermal potency, geothermal research is very important to be carried out especially to tackle high energy demand in Indonesia as an alternative energy sources aside from fossil fuel. Geothermal potency associated with volcanoes-hosted in West Java can be found in the West Java segment of Sunda Arc that is parallel with the subduction. The subduction of Indo-Australian oceanic plate beneath the Eurasian continental plate results in various volcanic products in a wide range of geochemical and mineralogical characteristics. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of volcanic and magmatic rocks associated with geothermal systems are ill-defined. Comprehensive study of geochemical signatures, mineralogical properties, and isotopes analysis might lead to the understanding of how large geothermal fields are found in West Java compared to ones in Central and East Java. The result can also provoke some valuable impacts on Java tectonic evolution and can suggest the key information for geothermal exploration enhancement.

  19. DMRC studies geothermal energy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-01

    The Deep Mining Research Consortium (DMRC) is an industry-led research consortium that includes Vale Inco, Xstrata, Rio Tinto, Goldcorp, Agnico-Eagle, Barrick Gold, CANMET and the City of Sudbury. This article reported on the application of geothermal energy technologies to cool deep mine workings and use the heat from underground to produce energy to heat surface buildings. Researchers at the University of British Columbia's Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials have proposed the use of heat pumps and water-to-air heat exchangers at depth to chill mine workings. The heat pumps would act as refrigerators, taking heat from one area and moving it elsewhere. The purpose would be to extract heat from naturally occurring ground water and pass the chilled water through a heat exchanger to cool the air. The heated water would then be pumped to surface and used to heat surface facilities. The technology is well suited for using geothermal energy from decommissioned mines for district heating. The technology has been successfully used in Spring Hill, Nova Scotia, where geothermal energy from a decommissioned coal mine is used to heat an industrial park. A feasibility study is also underway for the city of Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories to produce up to 10 megawatts of heat from the Con Gold Mine, enough energy to heat half of Yellowknife. Geothermal energy can also be used to generate electricity, particularly in the Pacific Rim where underground temperatures are higher and closer to surface. In Sudbury Ontario, the enhanced geothermal systems technology would require two holes drilled to a depth of four kilometers. The ground between the two holes should be fractured to create an underground geothermal circuit. Geothermal energy does not produce any greenhouse gases or chemical wastes. 1 fig.

  20. FY 1998 report on the comprehensive analysis in the geothermal development promotion survey. Tertiary. No.C-3 Akinomiya area; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho. No.C-3 Akinomiya chiiki (Dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The geothermal development promotion survey was conducted in the Akinomiya area, Ogachi county, Akita prefecture, and the FY 1998 results were summed up. In the surface survey, geology/electromagnetism/precision gravity survey was made as supplementary survey, and re-analysis of 3D models was made. In the well survey, three wells of N10-AY-6 to N10-AY-8 were drilled to conduct the core examination, temperature/pressure logging, sampler logging, short-term jetting test, etc. Also conducted were the reservoir evaluation, environmental effect survey, etc. by pressure monitoring and water level observation. The results of the comprehensive analysis predict the following. In the Akinomiya area, there exists heat source in deep parts around Mt. Yamabushi-dake and Mt. Takamatsu-dake; Being given heat from this heat source, rocks, ground water and volcanic gas react on each other to form geothermal fluids. It is presumed that high temperature geothermal reservoirs exist in the east of the area. Moreover, the pressure distribution indicates that the Akinomiya reservoir and Wasabizawa reservoir can be a chain hydraulically. On the other hand, the west of the area is the low temperature and heat conductive area, and therefore, there seem to be no high temperature fluids there. (NEDO)

  1. Geothermal energy. Pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal energy has certain features that make it highly recommendable as a source of power production. It is noted by its high load factor; it may be used as a basic or peak source; its versatility and high availability among others. In spite of these advantages, geothermal energy has not attained a significant development up to now. There are several reasons for this to happen, while the main one is that it requires an important initial investment. Assessing if an area is potentially profitable for the obtention of a given type of energy implies performing a complex set of analyses and prospective work, but it is not so significant as that associated with petroleum. The strategy for the exploration of geothermal resources is based on the execution of consecutive stages ranging from a surveillance at a regional scale to a project feasibility study, with growing investments and using more and more complex techniques. Many Latin American countries are located in areas considered as promisory concerning the development of this type of exploitation. Another factor supporting this view is a special demographic feature, showing a very irregular distribution of the population, with extense isolated areas with a minimun number of inhabitants that does not justify the extension of the electric power network. There are plants operating in four countries producing, as a whole, 881 MW. In Argentina the activities are aimed to intensifying the knowledge about the availability of this resource within the local territory and to estimating the feasibility of its usage in areas where exploration is more advanced [es

  2. A survey for elevated levels of uranium north of the 300 Area on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.

    1990-04-01

    A comprehensive survey of soil uranium (U) concentrations in a study area due north of the 300 Area on the Hanford site has been conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The objective of the study was to determine the spatial distribution of uranium in the study area and to ascertain if background levels of uranium have been increased by Hanford operations. Based on the spatial distribution of 238 U, the highest concentrations of uranium are located in the southern portion of the study area adjacent to the 300 Area complex and in the most eastern zone of the study site bordering the Columbia River. Uranium-236, an isotopic marker of fuel processing activities in the 300 Area, was detected in all eight samples selected from the study. A significant and positive regression was demonstrated between the ratios of 236 U/ 238 U in these eight samples and proximity to the 300 Area. 9 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  3. Fiscal 1995 verification survey of geothermal exploration technology. Report on a deep geothermal resource survey; 1995 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk of deep geothermal resource development, the paper investigated three factors for the formation of geothermal resource in the deep underground, that is, heat supply from heat source, supply of geothermal fluids, and the developmental status of fracture systems forming reservoir structures. The survey further clarified the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system including shallow geothermal energy in order to research/study usability of deep geothermal resource. In the deep geothermal resource survey, drilling/examination were made of a deep geothermal exploration well (`WD-1,` target depth: approximately 3,000-4,000m) in the already developed area, with the aim of making rationalized promotion of the geothermal development. And the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system were clarified to investigate/study usability of the geothermal system. In fiscal 1995, `WD-1` in the Kakkonda area reached a depth of 3,729m. By this, surveys were made to grasp the whole image of the shallow-deep geothermal system and to obtain basic data for researching usability of deep geothermal resource. 22 refs., 531 figs., 136 tabs.

  4. Diversity and distribution of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera of protected areas in North Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulaaba S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In North Africa seasonal streams called wadi are an unique habitats with serve hydrological and thermal regime. Non-biting midges take an important part of freshwater biodiversity in North Africa. We present new data on the distribution and diversity of Chironomidae in North Tunisia. Larvae, pupal exuviae and adult males of chironomids were collected from a various freshwater ecosystems from May 2005 till April 2006. The aim of this study was to recognize the pattern of midge diversity in North Tunisia to estimate ecological value of running waters in the region. In total, 79 taxa were identified. Nearly all of the taxa were typical representatives of the Palaearctic and Mediterranean complexes. The majority of the investigated sites belonged to the protected areas in North Tunisia, such as the Ichkeul National Park, the Kroumerie Mountains and the El Feija National Park, part of the Intercontinental Reserve of the Mediterranean Biosphere. Altitudinal zonation of the communities composition was found in the lowland (250 m a.s.l. with maximum of 760 m. Whereas among the data 39 species are recorded from Tunisia for the first time, the species richness of Chironomidae is higher than previously estimated.

  5. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  6. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:

  7. Preliminary hydrologic evaluation of the North Horn Mountain coal-resource area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M.J.; Tooley, John E.; Price, Don

    1981-01-01

    North Horn Mountain is part of a deeply dissected plateau in central Utah which is characterized by deep, narrow, steep-walled canyons with local relief of more than 1,000 feet. Geologic units exposed in the North Horn Mountain area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene and contain two mineable seams of Cretaceous coal. The area is in the drainage basin of the San Rafael River, in the Colorado River Basin. Runoff from the mountain is ephemeral. This runoff to the San Rafael River is by way of Cottonwood and Perron Creeks and represents less than 10 percent of their average annual runoff. Probable peak discharges (100-year flood) for the ephemeral streams draining North Horn Mountain are estimated to range from 200 to 380 cubic feet per second.The chemical quality of surface water in the area is good. The water is generally of a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with average dissolved solids less than 500 milligrams per liter. Annual sediment yield in most of the area ranges from 0.1 to 0.2 acre-foot per square mile but locally is as high as 1.0 acre-foot per square mile. Most of the sediment is eroded during cloudbursts.Most of the ground water above the coal on North Horn Mountain probably is in perched aquifers. These aquifers support the flow of small seeps and springs. In some areas, the regional water table appears to extend upward into the coal. The principal source of recharge is precipitation that probably moves to aquifers along faults, joints, or fractures. This movement is apparently quite rapid. The dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the North Horn Mountain area range from less than 500 to about 1,000 milligrams per liter.Coal mining on North Horn Mountain should have minor "effects on the quantity and quality of surface water. The maximum predicted decrease in the annual flow of Ferron and Cottonwood Creeks is less than U percent. The sediment loads of affected streams could be significantly increased if construction were to

  8. State policies for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarto, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The most prominent geothermal resources in the USA occur in fifteen Gulf and Western states including Alaska and Hawaii. In each state, authority and guidelines have been established for administration of geothermal leasing and for regulation of development. Important matters addressed by these policies include resource definition, leasing provisions, development regulations, water appropriation, and environmental standards. Some other policies that need attention include taxation, securities regulations, and utility regulations. It is concluded that conditions needed for the geothermal industry to pursue large-scale development are consumer (utility) confidence in the resource; equitable tax treatment; prompt exploration of extensive land areas; long and secure tenure for productive properties; prompt facility siting and development; and competitive access to various consumers. With these conditions, the industry should be competitive with other energy sectors and win its share of investment capital. This publication reviews for the states various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development. The report summarizes research results from numerous specialists and outlines present state and Federal policies. The report concludes generally that if public policies are made favorable to their development, geothermal resources offer an important energy resource that could supply all new electric capacity for the fifteen states for the next two decades. This energy--100,000 MW--could be generated at prices competitive with electricity from fossil and nuclear power plants. An extensive bibliography is included. (MCW)

  9. Geothermal Technologies Program Geoscience and Supporting Technologies 2001 University Research Summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed, R.J.; Laney, P.T.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Wind and Geothermal Technologies (DOE) is funding advanced geothermal research through University Geothermal Research solicitations. These solicitations are intended to generate research proposals in the areas of fracture permeability location and characterization, reservoir management and geochemistry. The work funded through these solicitations should stimulate the development of new geothermal electrical generating capacity through increasing scientific knowledge of high-temperature geothermal systems. In order to meet this objective researchers are encouraged to collaborate with the geothermal industry. These objectives and strategies are consistent with DOE Geothermal Energy Program strategic objectives

  10. Geothermal Technologies Program Geoscience and Supporting Technologies 2001 University Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed, R.J.; Laney, P.T.

    2002-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Wind and Geothermal Technologies (DOE) is funding advanced geothermal research through University Geothermal Research solicitations. These solicitations are intended to generate research proposals in the areas of fracture permeability location and characterization, reservoir management and geochemistry. The work funded through these solicitations should stimulate the development of new geothermal electrical generating capacity through increasing scientific knowledge of high-temperature geothermal systems. In order to meet this objective researchers are encouraged to collaborate with the geothermal industry. These objectives and strategies are consistent with DOE Geothermal Energy Program strategic objectives.

  11. Geothermal Technologies Program Geoscience and Supporting Technologies 2001 University Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed, Robert John; Laney, Patrick Thomas

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Wind and Geothermal Technologies (DOE) is funding advanced geothermal research through University Geothermal Research solicitations. These solicitations are intended to generate research proposals in the areas of fracture permeability location and characterization, reservoir management and geochemistry. The work funded through these solicitations should stimulate the development of new geothermal electrical generating capacity through increasing scientific knowledge of high-temperature geothermal systems. In order to meet this objective researchers are encouraged to collaborate with the geothermal industry. These objectives and strategies are consistent with DOE Geothermal Energy Program strategic objectives.

  12. Characteristics of geothermal structures of Poprad basin in terms of numerical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagelova, A.; Fendek, M.

    2011-01-01

    Poprad basin is one of the promising areas in terms of geothermal resources. In terms of impact on the environment and the exploitation of geothermal waters it is important to quantify the natural geothermal water quantity. One of the most progressive methods of their evaluation is a method of numerical modelling. Before model creation it is necessary to characterize the geothermal structure. Character of hydro-geothermal structure consists of an analysis of Spatial distribution of collectors, hydraulic properties of collectors of geothermal water, pressure and temperature conditions and boundary conditions. Basic characteristics of geothermal energy transfer in the Poprad basin are described. (authors)

  13. Radionuclides in shallow groundwater at Solid Waste Storage Area 5 North, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a compilation of groundwater monitoring data from Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 North at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) between November 1989 and September 1993. Monitoring data were collected as part of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program that was implemented in 1989 in response to DOE Order 5820.2A. SWSA 5 North was established for the retrievable storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in 1970. Four types of storage have been used within SWSA 5 North: bunkers, vaults, wells, and trenches. The fenced portion of SWSA 5 North covers about 3.7 ha (9 acres) in the White Oak Creek watershed south of ORNL. The area is bounded by White Oak Creek and two ephemeral tributaries of White Oak Creek. Since 1989, groundwater has been monitored in wells around SWSA 5 North. During that time, elevated gross alpha contamination (reaching as high as 210 Bq/L) has consistently been detected in well 516. This well is adjacent to burial trenches in the southwest corner of the area. Water level measurements in wells 516 and 518 suggest that water periodically inundates the bottom of some of those trenches. Virtually all of the gross alpha contamination is generated by Curium 244 and Americium 241. A special geochemical investigation of well 516 suggests that nearly all of the Curium 44 and Americium 241 is dissolved or associated with dissolved organic matter. These are being transported at the rate of about 2 m/year from the burial trenches, through well 516, to White Oak Creek, where Curium 244 has been detected in a few bank seeps. Concentrations at these seeps are near detection levels (<1 Bq/L)

  14. Radionuclides in shallow groundwater at Solid Waste Storage Area 5 North, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a compilation of groundwater monitoring data from Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 North at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) between November 1989 and September 1993. Monitoring data were collected as part of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program that was implemented in 1989 in response to DOE Order 5820.2A. SWSA 5 North was established for the retrievable storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in 1970. Four types of storage have been used within SWSA 5 North: bunkers, vaults, wells, and trenches. The fenced portion of SWSA 5 North covers about 3.7 ha (9 acres) in the White Oak Creek watershed south of ORNL. The area is bounded by White Oak Creek and two ephemeral tributaries of White Oak Creek. Since 1989, groundwater has been monitored in wells around SWSA 5 North. During that time, elevated gross alpha contamination (reaching as high as 210 Bq/L) has consistently been detected in well 516. This well is adjacent to burial trenches in the southwest corner of the area. Water level measurements in wells 516 and 518 suggest that water periodically inundates the bottom of some of those trenches. Virtually all of the gross alpha contamination is generated by Curium 244 and Americium 241. A special geochemical investigation of well 516 suggests that nearly all of the Curium 44 and Americium 241 is dissolved or associated with dissolved organic matter. These are being transported at the rate of about 2 m/year from the burial trenches, through well 516, to White Oak Creek, where Curium 244 has been detected in a few bank seeps. Concentrations at these seeps are near detection levels (<1 Bq/L).

  15. North Putrajaya Catchment Area Putrajaya, Malaysia-Challenges in Water Quality Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zamri Daud; Pereira, J.J.; Mazlin Mokhtar

    2011-01-01

    The Putrajaya Administrative area covers 70 % of the Putrajaya Lake catchment area. Development work carried out within the Putrajaya area abides by the rules and regulations set by the Putrajaya Corporation to ensure that the quality of the lake water and wetland within the Putrajaya area meets the stipulated benchmark standards. However, 30 % of the Putrajaya lake and wetland catchment area is located outside of administration and prerogative of the Putrajaya Corporation. The North Putrajaya catchment area which originates from the Sg. Chuau River contributes the bulk of the water that flows into the lake and wetlands of Putrajaya. Water quality data collected by the Putrajaya Corporation for the period of 2002 to 2005 has been analysed to identify major issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area. Data from 2002 shows average percentage parameter of non-compliance Putrajaya Standard for ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 3 -N) at 43.7 %, E. coli at 31.3 % and TSS at 12.5 % while the DO and COD are both 6.2 %. For 2003, the average percentage parameter of non compliance for NH 3 -N was at 23.7 %, E. coli at 18.4 %, total coliform at 18.4 %, TSS at 2.6 %, DO at 13.2 %, COD at 13.2 % and BOD at 10.5 %. For 2004, the average percentage parameter of non complying for NH 3 -N was at 35.5 %, E. coli at 22.6 %, total coliform at 12.9 %, TSS at 9.7 %, COD at 3.2 % and BOD at 16.1 %. For 2005, the average percentage parameter of non compliance were at is 36.4 % for E. coli, 22.7 % for NH 3 -N, 18.2 % for total coliform, 13.6 % for BOD and 4.5 % for both DO and COD. In conclusion the analysed data within the four year period showed that the NH 3 -N and E. coli discharge from the north catchment area did not comply with the Putrajaya Standard. The main factors of water quality issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area include the failure of integrating the management of the catchment areas and the stake holders attitude of total disregard of the management and

  16. Geothermal heating saves energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romsaas, Tor

    2003-01-01

    The article reviews briefly a pioneer project for a construction area of 200000 m''2 with residences, business complexes, a hotel and conference centre and a commercial college in Oslo. The energy conservation potential is estimated to be about 60-70 % compared to direct heating with oil, gas or electricity as sources. There will also be substantial reduction in environmentally damaging emissions. The proposed energy central combines geothermal energy sources with heat pump technology, utilises water as energy carrier and uses terrestrial wells for energy storage. A cost approximation is presented

  17. Poisson's ratio analysis (Vp/Vs) on volcanoes and geothermal potential areas in Central Java using tomography travel time method of grid search relocation hypocenter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raharjo, W.; Palupi, I. R.; Nurdian, S. W.; Giamboro, W. S.; Soesilo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Poisson's Ratio illustrates the elasticity properties of a rock. The value is affected by the ratio between the value of P and S wave velocity, where the high value ratio associated with partial melting while the low associated with gas saturated rock. Java which has many volcanoes as a result of the collision between the Australian and Eurasian plates also effects of earthquakes that result the P and S wave. By tomography techniques the distribution of the value of Poisson's ratio can be known. Western Java was dominated by high Poisson's Ratio until Mount Slamet and Dieng in Central Java, while the eastern part of Java is dominated by low Poisson's Ratio. The difference of Poisson's Ratio is located in Central Java that is also supported by the difference characteristic of hot water manifestation in geothermal potential area in the west and east of Central Java Province. Poisson's ratio value is also lower with increasing depth proving that the cold oceanic plate entrance under the continental plate. (paper)

  18. Structural control on the deep hydrogeological and geothermal aquifers related to the fractured Campanian-Miocene reservoirs of north-eastern Tunisia foreland constrained by subsurface data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomsi, Sami; Echihi, Oussema; Slimani, Naji

    2012-03-01

    A set of different data including high resolution seismic sections, petroleum wire-logging well data, borehole piezometry, structural cross-sections and outcrop analysis allowed us to characterise the tectonic framework, and its relationships with the deep aquifers seated in Cretaceous-Miocene deep reservoirs. The structural framework, based on major structures, controls the occurrence of deep aquifers and sub-basin aquifer distributions. Five structural domains can be defined, having different morphostructural characteristics. The northernmost domain lying on the north-south axis and Zaghouan thrust system is a domain of recharge by underflow of the different subsurface reservoirs and aquifers from outcrops of highly fractured reservoirs. On the other hand, the morphostructural configuration controls the piezometry of underground flows in the Plio-Quaternary unconfined aquifer. In the subsurface the Late Cretaceous-Miocene reservoirs are widespread with high thicknesses in many places and high porosities and connectivities especially along major fault corridors and on the crestal parts of major anticlines. Among all reservoirs, the Oligo-Miocene, detritic series are widespread and present high cumulative thicknesses. Subsurface and fieldwork outline the occurrence of 10 fractured sandy reservoirs for these series with packages having high hydrodynamic and petrophysical characteristics. These series show low salinities (maximum 5 g/l) in the northern part of the study area and will constitute an important source of drinkable water for the next generations. A regional structural cross-section is presented, compiled from all the different data sets, allowing us to define the major characteristics of the hydrogeological-hydrogeothermal sub-basins. Eight hydrogeological provinces are defined from north-west to south-east. A major thermal anomaly is clearly identified in the south-eastern part of the study area in Sfax-Sidi Il Itayem. This anomaly is possibly related to

  19. Strain rate orientations near the Coso Geothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasa, N. T.; Kaven, J. O.; Barbour, A. J.; von Huene, R.

    2016-12-01

    Many geothermal reservoirs derive their sustained capacity for heat exchange in large part due to continuous deformation of preexisting faults and fractures that permit permeability to be maintained. Similarly, enhanced geothermal systems rely on the creation of suitable permeability from fracture and faults networks to be viable. Stress measurements from boreholes or earthquake source mechanisms are commonly used to infer the tectonic conditions that drive deformation, but here we show that geodetic data can also be used. Specifically, we quantify variations in the horizontal strain rate tensor in the area surrounding the Coso Geothermal Field (CGF) by analyzing more than two decades of high accuracy differential GPS data from a network of 14 stations from the University of Nevada Reno Geodetic Laboratory. To handle offsets in the data, from equipment changes and coseismic deformation, we segment the data, perform a piecewise linear fit and take the average of each segment's strain rate to determine secular velocities at each station. With respect to North America, all stations tend to travel northwest at velocities ranging from 1 to 10 mm/yr. The nearest station to CGF shows anomalous motion compared to regional stations, which otherwise show a coherent increase in network velocity from the northeast to the southwest. We determine strain rates via linear approximation using GPS velocities in Cartesian reference frame due to the small area of our network. Principal strain rate components derived from this inversion show maximum extensional strain rates of 30 nanostrain/a occur at N87W with compressional strain rates of 37nanostrain/a at N3E. These results generally align with previous stress measurements from borehole breakouts, which indicate the least compressive horizontal principal stress is east-west oriented, and indicative of the basin and range tectonic setting. Our results suggest that the CGF represents an anomaly in the crustal deformation field, which

  20. Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2008-12-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free

  1. FY 1996 Report on the data processing for the geothermal development promotion investigation. No.B-3 Kumaishi Area (Phase 2); 1996 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin data shori hokokusho. 2 . No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Described herein are the FY 1996 results of the No.B-3 Kumaishi Area investigation, conducted as part of the geothermal development promotion investigation project. The ground investigation project covers geological and altered band, geochemical, gravitational and electromagnetic investigations. The drilling investigation project covers the test drilling for the structural investigation, temperature logging, water injection and temperature recovery tests at the N7-KI-1, N7-KI-2, N8-KI-3 and N8-KI-4; core cutting investigation; hot water investigation at the N8-KI-1 and N8-KI-2; and environmental impact investigation. The following conclusions are derived from the findings. The geothermal hot water in the test area came from seawater (fossil seawater) locally captured by the highly water-permeable strata (e.g., interfaces in the strata, and fractured strata) and underground water from rain water, heated by the conducted heat to around 200 degrees C at the highest. It is estimated that the center of the conducted heat is located in the eastern part of the Yagumo Area. The geothermal hot water was not heated to an extent to form the widely distributed convection systems, but arise in the form of separate, small-scale systems. (NEDO)

  2. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Presented here are those climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies, including: water-surface temperature, sediment temperature dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short- and long-wave radiation. Data were collected at raft and land stations.

  3. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies that were collected during 1983 include water-surface temperature, sediment temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperature, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short-and long-wave radiation. Data are collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

  4. The Outlier Sectors: Areas of Non-Free Trade in the North American Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Since its entry into force, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been enormously influential as a model for trade liberalization. While trade in goods among Canada, the United States and Mexico has been liberalized to a significant degree, this most famous of agreements nonetheless contains areas of recalcitrant protectionism. The first part of this paper identifies these "outlier sectors" and classifies them by primary source advocating protectionism, i.e., producer interests ...

  5. Geothermal Technologies Program: Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-02-01

    This fact sheets provides a summary of geothermal potential, issues, and current development in Alaska. This fact sheet was developed as part of DOE's GeoPowering the West initiative, part of the Geothermal Technologies Program.

  6. Annotated geothermal bibliography of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budding, K.E.; Bugden, M.H. (comps.)

    1986-01-01

    The bibliography includes all the Utah geothermal references through 1984. Some 1985 citations are listed. Geological, geophysical, and tectonic maps and reports are included if they cover a high-temperature thermal area. The references are indexed geographically either under (1) United States (national studies), (2) regional - western United States or physiographic province, (3) Utah - statewide and regional, or (4) county. Reports concerning a particular hot spring or thermal area are listed under both the thermal area and the county names.

  7. The Use of Geothermal Waters in Podhale in Terms of Tourism and Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Michał Bugajski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been observed an increased interest of various industrial and economy branches in geothermal waters. In Poland, one of the more famous geothermal systems is the Podhale Basin, which forms an important reservoir of geothermal waters with relatively low mineralization and high temperatures. More and more often geothermal water is used not only for balneological or recreational purposes, but also as a heat source for heating. New areas of application of geothermal waters are also appearing, eg. use of cooled geothermal water as a raw material to produce fresh water. Another example of the application of geothermal waters is the cosmetic industry. For instance, a cream based on geothermal water from Podhale was introduced to the cosmetics market in 2013. This paper presents the possibilities of using the geothermal waters of Podhale, with particular emphasis on geothermal waters from Banska PGP-1, Banska IG-1 and Banska PGP-3 boreholes.

  8. Geothermal hydrology of Valles Caldera and the southwestern Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, Frank W.; Rogers, Robert J.; Sorey, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Jemez Mountains in north-central New Mexico are volcanic in origin and have a large central caldera known as Valles Caldera. The mountains contain the Valles geothermal system, which was investigated during 1970-82 as a source of geothermal energy. This report describes the geothermal hydrology of the Jemez Mountains and presents results of an earlier 1972-75 U.S. Geological Survey study of the area in light of more recent information. Several distinct types of thermal and nonthermal ground water are recognized in the Jemez Mountains. Two types of near-surface thermal water are in the caldera: thermal meteoric water and acid sulfate water. The principal reservoir of geothermal fluids is at depth under the central and western parts of the caldera. Nonthermal ground water in Valles Caldera occurs in diverse perched aquifers and deeper valley-fill aquifers. The geothermal reservoir is recharged by meteorically derived water that moves downward from the aquifers in the caldera fill to depths of 6,500 feet or more and at temperatures reaching about 330 degrees Celsius. The heated geothermal water rises convectively to depths of 2,000 feet or less and mixes with other ground water as it flows away from the geothermal reservoir. A vapor zone containing steam, carbon dioxide, and other gases exists above parts of the liquid-dominated geothermal zone. Two subsystems are generally recognized within the larger geothermal system: the Redondo Creek subsystem and the Sulphur Creek subsystem. The permeability in the Redondo Creek subsystem is controlled by stratigraphy and fault-related structures. Most of the permeability is in the high-angle, normal faults and associated fractures that form the Redondo Creek Graben. Faults and related fractures control the flow of thermal fluids in the subsystem, which is bounded by high-angle faults. The Redondo Creek subsystem has been more extensively studied than other parts of the system. The Sulphur Springs subsystem is not as well

  9. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  10. South Dakota geothermal handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

  11. Surface heat flow and lithosphere thermal structure of the larger Luxembourg area as a basis for the evaluation of its geothermal potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schintgen, Tom; Förster, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation of the geothermal potential and the type of geothermal use necessitates knowledge of the subsurface temperature distribution in combination with hydraulic properties (e.g. porosity, permeability and hydraulic conductivity). In the larger Luxembourg area, only a few subsurface temperature data are available restricted to shallow depth. This paucity in data required to assess the thermal regime to drillable depths by modeling. The thermal model was constrained by surface heat flow and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) characterized by the 1300° C isotherm. A surface heat-flow value of 75 ± 7 (2σ) mW m-2 was determined in central Luxembourg, which corroborates most values known from adjacent areas. The conceptual geological model for thermal modeling has a high resolution in the upper 15 km due to a wealth of geological data, while refraction seismic data and xenoliths provide petrological constraints for the lower part of the model down to the crust/mantle boundary. Thermal rock properties assigned to geological units are based on a large set of laboratory data, complemented by some literature data for the lower parts of the crust. The thermal structure is investigated by calculating 2-D steady-state thermal models along three crustal cross sections developed for the study area assuming a purely conductive lithosphere. The location of the LAB at 100 km depth, as typical for the Ardennes, provides the best fit with the measured surface heat flow of about 75 mW m-2. This LAB model provides temperatures at 5 km of 115-118° C on average and of about 600° C at the Moho. The resulting mantle heat flow in this model is 39-40 mW m-2. A reduced lithosphere thickness of 50 km as typical for the Eifel area to the east results in an increase of surface heat flow to 97 mW m-2 and of the mantle heat flow to 65 mW m-2, respectively. If heating from the Eifel plume had reached the surface yet, temperatures at 5 km would be about 20° C higher (and

  12. Floodplain Assessment for the North Ancho Canyon Aggregate Area Cleanup in Technical Area 39 at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathcock, Charles Dean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-26

    This floodplain assessment was prepared in accordance with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1022 Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements, which was promulgated to implement the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements under Executive Order 11988 Floodplain Management and Executive Order 11990 Wetlands Protection. According to 10 CFR 1022, a 100-year floodplain is defined as “the lowlands adjoining inland and coastal waters and relatively flat areas and flood prone areas of offshore islands.” In this action, DOE is proposing to collect soil investigation samples and remove contaminated soil within and around selected solid waste management units (SWMUs) near and within the 100-year floodplain (hereafter “floodplain”) in north Ancho Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The work is being performed to comply with corrective action requirements under the 2016 Compliance Order on Consent.

  13. Comparison of hyperspectral transformation accuracies of multispectral Landsat TM, ETM+, OLI and EO-1 ALI images for detecting minerals in a geothermal prospect area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Nguyen Tien; Koike, Katsuaki

    2018-03-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing generally provides more detailed spectral information and greater accuracy than multispectral remote sensing for identification of surface materials. However, there have been no hyperspectral imagers that cover the entire Earth surface. This lack points to a need for producing pseudo-hyperspectral imagery by hyperspectral transformation from multispectral images. We have recently developed such a method, a Pseudo-Hyperspectral Image Transformation Algorithm (PHITA), which transforms Landsat 7 ETM+ images into pseudo-EO-1 Hyperion images using multiple linear regression models of ETM+ and Hyperion band reflectance data. This study extends the PHITA to transform TM, OLI, and EO-1 ALI sensor images into pseudo-Hyperion images. By choosing a part of the Fish Lake Valley geothermal prospect area in the western United States for study, the pseudo-Hyperion images produced from the TM, ETM+, OLI, and ALI images by PHITA were confirmed to be applicable to mineral mapping. Using a reference map as the truth, three main minerals (muscovite and chlorite mixture, opal, and calcite) were identified with high overall accuracies from the pseudo-images (> 95% and > 42% for excluding and including unclassified pixels, respectively). The highest accuracy was obtained from the ALI image, followed by ETM+, TM, and OLI images in descending order. The TM, OLI, and ALI images can be alternatives to ETM+ imagery for the hyperspectral transformation that aids the production of pseudo-Hyperion images for areas without high-quality ETM+ images because of scan line corrector failure, and for long-term global monitoring of land surfaces.

  14. Seismicity preliminary results in a geothermal and volcano activity area: study case Liquiñe-Ofqui fault system in Southern Andes, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estay, N. P.; Yáñez Morroni, G.; Crempien, J. G. F.; Roquer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid transport through the crust takes place in domains with high permeability. For this reason, fault damage zones are a main feature where fluids may circulate unimpeded, since they have much larger permeability than normal country rocks. With the location of earthquakes, it is possible to infer fault geometry and stress field of the crust, therefore we can determine potential places where fluid circualtion is taking place. With that purpose, we installed a seismic network in an active volcanic-geothermal system, the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS), located in Puyuhuapi, Southern Andes (44°-45°S). This allowed to link epicentral seismicity, focal mechanisms and surface expression of fluid circulation (hot-springs and volcanos). The LOFS is composed by two NS-striking dextral master faults, and several secondary NE-striking dextral and normal faults. Surface manifestation of fluid circulation in Puyuhuapi area are: 1) six hot-springs, most of them spatially associated with different mapped faults; 2) seven minor eruptive centers aligned over a 10-km-along one of the master NS-striking fault, and; 3) the Melimouyu strato-volcano without any spatial relationship with mapped faults. The network consists of 6 short period seismometers (S31f-2.0a sensor of IESE, with natural frequency of 2Hz), that were installed between July 2016 and August 2017; also 4 permanent broad-band seismometers (Guralp 6TD/ CD 24 sensor) which belong to the Volcano Observatory of Southern Andes (OVDAS). Preliminary results show a correlation between seismicity and surface manifestation of fluid circulation. Seismicity has a heterogeneous distribution: most of the earthquake are concentrated is the master NS-striking fault with fluid circulation manifestations; however along the segments without surface manifestation of fluids do not have seismicity. These results suggest that fluid circulation mostly occur in areas with high seismicity, and thus, the increment in fluid pressure enhances

  15. Hydrologic data and description of a hydrologic monitoring plan for the Borax Lake area, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tiffany Rae; McFarland, William D.

    1995-01-01

    Borax Lake is located in southeastern Oregon, within the Alvord Valley Known Geothermal Resource Area. Borax Lake is a large hot spring; there are more than 50 smaller hot springs within about one-half mile to the north of the lake. Several geothermal exploration wells have been drilled near Borax Lake, and there is concern that development of the geothermal resources could affect the lake and nearby hot springs. A factor to consider in developing the resource is that the Borax Lake chub is an endangered species of fish that is found exclusively in Borax Lake.

  16. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf Coast Region. Volume II. Environmental baseline data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    A separate section is presented for each of the six prospect areas studied. Each section includes a compilation and discussion of environmental baseline data derived from existing sources. The data are arranged as follows: geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and flood hazards, ecological systems, and land use. When data specific to the prospect were not available, regional data are reported. (MHR)

  17. Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, D.S. [SUNY, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The potential of geothermal energy for future electric power generation in New York State is evaluated using estimates of temperatures of geothermal reservoir rocks. Bottom hole temperatures from over 2000 oil and gas wells in the region were integrated into subsurface maps of the temperatures for specific geothermal reservoirs. The Theresa/Potsdam formation provides the best potential for extraction of high volumes of geothermal fluids. The evaluation of the Theresa/Potsdam geothermal reservoir in upstate New York suggests that an area 30 miles east of Elmira, New York has the highest temperatures in the reservoir rock. The Theresa/Potsdam reservoir rock should have temperatures about 136 {degrees}C and may have as much as 450 feet of porosity in excess of 8%. Estimates of the volumes of geothermal fluids that can be extracted are provided and environmental considerations for production from a geothermal well is discussed.

  18. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  19. Diffuse CO2 degassing studies to reveal hidden geothermal resources in oceanic volcanic islands: The Canarian archipelago case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, F.; Perez, N. M.; García-Merino, M.; Padron, E.; Melián, G.; Asensio-Ramos, M.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Padilla, G.; Barrancos, J.; Cótchico, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Canary Islands, owing to their recent volcanism, are the only Spanish territory with potential high enthalpy geothermal resources. The final goal of geothermal exploration in a specific area is to locate and define the size, shape, structure of hidden geothermal resources, and determine their characteristics (fluid type, temperature, chemical composition an ability to produce energy). At those areas where there is not any evidence of endogenous fluids manifestations at surface, that traditionally evidence the presence of an active geothermal system) the geochemical methods for geothermal exploration must include soil gas surveys. This is the case of five mining licenses for geothermal exploration in the Canay Islands, four in Tenerife and one in Gran Canaria Island. We report herein the results of diffuse CO2 emission studies in the five mining licenses during 2011-2014. The primary objective of the study was to sort the possible geothermal potential of these five mining licenses, thus reducing the uncertainty inherent to the selection of the areas with highest geothermal potential for future exploration works. The criterion used to sort the different areas was the contribution of volcano-hydrothermal CO2 in the degassing at each study area. Several hundreds of measurements of diffuse CO2 emission, soil CO2 concentration and isotopic composition were performed at each study area. Based in three different endmembers (biogenic, atmospheric and deep-seated CO2) with different CO2 concentrations (100, 0.04 and 100% respectively) and isotopic compositions (-20, -8 and -3 per mil vs. VPDB respectively) a mass balance to distinguish the different contribution of each endmember in the soil CO2 at each sampling site was made. The percentage of the volcano-hydrothermal contribution in the current diffuse CO2 degassing was in the range 2-19%.The Abeque mining license, that comprises part of the north-west volcanic rift of Tenerife, seemed to show the highest geothermal

  20. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  1. Fiscal 1999 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on survey of structural boring (No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kozo shisui chosa koji oyobi kaiseki hokokusho (No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    Borehole N11-KN-1 was digged and investigated for clarifying the geothermal structure of the Kuwanosawa area, with attention fully paid to the existing survey results. The hole is inclined, 1,802.30m deep in total, with a casing pipe installed down to the 1,101.76m level. Temperature was measured and electrical logging was performed at levels 410m, 1,110m, and 1,802.23m while the hole walls were still exposed bear. The maximum temperature of 161 degrees C was observed at the hole bottom, and the product of permeability - layer thickness transmission coefficient was described by 3.72 to 4.75 times 10{sup -1} darcy.m. The geothermal structures in presence in the south-western part of the survey area and along the Wasabizawa fault were made clear, and it was found that there exists no high-temperature water system in the vicinity of borehole N11-NK-1. As tasks for the future, it was proposed that a geothermal survey of the south-eastern part which includes borehole N57-YO-2 and a geochemical survey of fluids including hot spring water and surface be conducted. (NEDO)

  2. Impact of Quota System and Catchment Area Policy on the University Admissions in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Chinweike Omeje

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quota system and the catchment areas are federal government policies formulated to bridge the gap between the educationally developed states and the educationally less developed states. Sequel to the enactment of these policies, government established several universities across the country to create equal opportunity for all candidates. In spite of the astronomical growth of the universities in Nigeria, both the federal and the state governments have not been able to contend with the surging demand for the university education, hence the adoption of the quota system and catchment area policies. Serious concerns were expressed by relevant stakeholders on their perceived impact of the quota system and the catchment area on admissions into the federal and state universities in North Central Nigeria. This study therefore examined the impact of the quota system and catchment area policies on students’ admissions in North Central Nigeria. A research question and a null hypothesis guided the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population for the study was 14,347 staff in the federal and state universities in North Central Nigeria. A sample of 1,435 was drawn through stratified proportionate sampling technique. Data were collected using questionnaire and interviews. Mean scores and standard deviations were used to answer the research question, whereas t-test statistics were used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the results showed, among others, that the impact of the quota system and catchment area policies on students’ admission was to a high extent.

  3. Classification of public lands valuable for geothermal steam and associated geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, L.H.; Haigler, L.B.; Rioux, R.L.; White, D.E.; Muffler, L.J.P.; Wayland, R.G.

    1973-01-01

    The Organic Act of 1879 (43 USC 31) that established the US Geological Survey provided, among other things, for the classification of the public lands and for the examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain. In order to provide uniform executive action in classifying public lands, standards for determining which lands are valuable for mineral resources, for example, leasable mineral lands, or for other products are prepared by the US Geological Survey. This report presents the classification standards for determining which Federal lands are classifiable as geothermal steam and associated geothermal resources lands under the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 1566). The concept of a geothermal resouces province is established for classification of lands for the purpose of retention in Federal ownership of rights to geothermal resources upon disposal of Federal lands. A geothermal resources province is defined as an area in which higher than normal temperatures are likely to occur with depth and in which there is a resonable possiblity of finding reservoir rocks that will yield steam or heated fluids to wells. The determination of a known geothermal resources area is made after careful evaluation of the available geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data and any evidence derived from nearby discoveries, competitive interests, and other indicia. The initial classification required by the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 is presented.

  4. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  5. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A.

    1995-01-01

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  6. Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul; Rasmussen, Jens Andreas

    in the Northern Permian Basin which in the eastern North Sea is separated from the Southern Permian Basin by the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The Permian basins were initiated during thermal subsidence following a late Carboniferous- early Permian rifting phase associated with extensive igneous activity recorded across...... the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the “Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Province” that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the known presence...... of hydrocarbons within the Paleozoic sediments, the Northern Permian Basin has gained much less interest outside the hydrocarbon producing Mesozoic graben systems. This is mainly due to an apparent lack of potential source rocks. A major E-W striking northward dipping fault system characterizes the study area...

  7. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V; Kundel, H; Raetsep, A [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  8. Application of heat-flow techniques to geothermal energy exploration, Leach Hot Springs area, Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sass, J.H.; Ziagos, J.P.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Munroe, R.J.; di Somma, D.E.; Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 82 holes ranging in depth from 18 to 400 meters were drilled for thermal and hydrologic studies in a 200 km/sup 2/ area of Grass Valley, Nevada, near Leach Hot Springs. Outside the immediate area of Leach Hot Springs, heat flow ranges from 1 to 6.5 hfu with a mean of 2.4 hfu (1 hfu = 10/sup -6/ cal cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ = 41.8 mWm/sup -2/). Within 2 km of the springs, conductive heat flow ranges between 1.6 and more than 70 hfu averaging 13.6 hfu. Besides the conspicuous thermal anomaly associated with the hot springs, two additional anomalies were identified. One is associated with faults bounding the western margin of the Tobin Range near Panther Canyon, and the other is near the middle of Grass Valley about 5 km SSW of Leach Hot Springs. The mid-valley anomaly appears to be caused by hydrothermal circulation in a bedrock horst beneath about 375 meters of impermeable valley sediments. If the convective and conductive heat discharge within 2 km of the Leach Hot Springs is averaged over the entire hydrologic system (including areas of recharge), the combined heat flux from this part of Grass Valley is about 3 hfu, consistent with the average regional conductive heat flow in the Battle Mountain High. The hydrothermal system can be interpreted as being in a stationary stable phase sustained by high regional heat flow, and no localized crustal heat sources (other than hydrothermal convection to depths of a few kilometers) need be invoked to explain the existence of Leach Hot Springs.

  9. Hawaii geothermal project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamins, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii's Geothermal Project is investigating the occurrence of geothermal resources in the archipelago, initially on the Island of Hawaii. The state's interest in geothermal development is keen, since it is almost totally dependent on imported oil for energy. Geothermal development in Hawaii may require greater participation by the public sector than has been true in California. The initial exploration has been financed by the national, state, and county governments. Maximization of net benefits may call for multiple use of geothermal resources; the extraction of by-products and the application of treated effluents to agricultural and aquacultural uses.

  10. Tectonic and Structural Controls of Geothermal Activity in the Great Basin Region, Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulds, J. E.; Hinz, N.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    We are conducting a thorough inventory of structural settings of geothermal systems (>400 total) in the extensional to transtensional Great Basin region of the western USA. Most of the geothermal systems in this region are not related to upper crustal magmatism and thus regional tectonic and local structural controls are the most critical factors controlling the locations of the geothermal activity. A system of NW-striking dextral faults known as the Walker Lane accommodates ~20% of the North American-Pacific plate motion in the western Great Basin and is intimately linked to N- to NNE-striking normal fault systems throughout the region. Overall, geothermal systems are concentrated in areas with the highest strain rates within or proximal to the eastern and western margins of the Great Basin, with the high temperature systems clustering in transtensional areas of highest strain rate in the northwestern Great Basin. Enhanced extension in the northwestern Great Basin probably results from the northwestward termination of the Walker Lane and the concomitant transfer of dextral shear into west-northwest directed extension, thus producing a broad transtensional region. The capacity of geothermal power plants also correlates with strain rates, with the largest (hundreds of megawatts) along the Walker Lane or San Andreas fault system, where strain rates range from 10-100 nanostrain/yr to 1,000 nanostrain/yr, respectively. Lesser systems (tens of megawatts) reside in the Basin and Range (outside the Walker Lane), where local strain rates are typically fracture density, and thus enhanced permeability. Other common settings include a) intersections between normal faults and strike-slip or oblique-slip faults (27%), where multiple minor faults connect major structures and fluids can flow readily through highly fractured, dilational quadrants, and b) normal fault terminations or tip-lines (22%), where horse-tailing generates closely-spaced faults and increased permeability

  11. Laminae development in opal-A precipitates associated with seasonal growth of the form-genus Calothrix (Cyanobacteria), Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2015-04-01

    The western discharge apron at Meinuquan (Rehai geothermal area, Yunnan Province, China), which incorporates the upper terrace, terrace front, and lower terrace, is covered with laminated opal-A precipitates that have formed from the spring waters that flow across its surface. Laminae are formed of silicified Calothrix mats or featureless opal-A that contains no microbes, scattered spherical and rod-shaped microbes, and/or rare Calothrix. Rapid silicification of the Calothrix led to preservation of their basal heterocysts, vegetative cells, trichomes, tapering filaments, and laminated and splayed sheaths. The Calothrix mats grew during the dry season when there was maximum sunlight because of low cloud cover. During this time, the mats grew under stable conditions because the water that flowed across the discharge apron was sourced from the springs, and temperature and water geochemistry was more or less constant. Growth of the Calothrix mats decreased during the wet season (April to late September) when sunlight is reduced due to the extensive cloud cover associated with the monsoonal rains. During the wet season, water flowing over the discharge apron is a mixture of rainwater, runoff from the surrounding hillsides, and spring water. Such variable flow conditions, water temperatures, and water geochemistry curtailed microbe growth and impacted silica precipitation. The precipitates at Meinuquan are like those associated with some Icelandic hot springs. Although growth of Calothrix is controlled by sunlight in both settings, the periods of maximum sunlight in China (October-March) and Iceland (June-August) are at different times of the year because of their geographic locations.

  12. Geothermal for kids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemzer, M.; Condy, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that educating children about geothermal energy is crucial to the future growth of the geothermal industry. The Geothermal Education Office (GEO) was founded in 1989 to provide materials and support to teachers and the geothermal community in educating grades K-12 about geothermal energy. GEO's goals are to: provide easy access to or referral to appropriate sources of geothermal information; foster teacher interest; create posters, booklets, lesson plans and other educational materials; monitor and review textbooks, encyclopedias and other educational materials distributed by educational groups to ensure inclusion of appropriate, accurate information and to encourage fair treatment of alternative energy resources; contribute articles to industry, science and educational publications; and foster communication and cooperation among GEO, the geothermal industry, government agencies, and educational and environmental groups

  13. Site Specific Probabilistic Seismic Hazard and Risk Analysis for Surrounding Communities of The Geysers Geothermal Development Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M.; Hutchings, L. J.; Savy, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a probabilistic seismic hazard and risk analysis from induced and tectonic earthquakes for a 50 km radius area centered on The Geysers, California and for the next ten years. We calculate hazard with both a conventional and physics-based approach. We estimate site specific hazard. We convert hazard to risk of nuisance and damage to structures per year and map the risk. For the conventional PSHA we assume the past ten years is indicative of hazard for the next ten years from Mnoise. Then, we interpolate within each geologic unit in finely gridded points. All grid points within a unit are weighted by distance from each data collection point. The entire process is repeated for all of the other types of geologic units until the entire area is gridded and assigned a hazard value for every grid points. We found that nuisance and damage risks calculated by both conventional and physics-based approaches provided almost identical results. This is very surprising since they were calculated by completely independent means. The conventional approach used the actual catalog of the past ten years of earthquakes to estimate the hazard for the next ten year. While the physics-based approach used geotechnical modeling to calculate the catalog for the next ten years. Similarly, for the conventional PSHA, we utilized attenuation relations from past earthquakes recorded at the Geysers to translate the ground motion from the source to the site. While for the physics-based approach we calculated ground motion from simulation of actual earthquake rupture. Finally, the source of the earthquakes was the actual source for the conventional PSHA. While, we assumed random fractures for the physics-based approach. From all this, we consider the calculation of the conventional approach, based on actual data, to validate the physics-based approach used.

  14. Effort allocation of the Dutch beam trawl fleet in response to a temporarily closed area in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Piet, G.J.; Poos, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The spawning stock of North Sea cod is at a historic low level and immediate management measures are needed to improve this situation. As a first step, the European Commission in 2001 closed a large area in the North Sea between February 15 and April 30 to all cod related fishing fleets in order to

  15. 78 FR 45181 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-31-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 230--Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., (Foil-Backed Paperboard), Winston-Salem, North Carolina On March 25, 2013, the Piedmont Triad Partnership...

  16. Environmental effects of geothermal energy exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co., Ltd., Japan

    1975-01-01

    The environmental effects of geothermal power generation which cause air and water pollution and destruction of natural areas are reviewed. The production of steam and hot water affect existing hot springs sources and can cause ground subsidence. Harmful gas can be released onto the atmosphere from fumarolic gas and hot springs. Hydrothermal geothermal fields occasionally contain harmful substances such as arsenic in the hot water. Serious environmental effects can result from geothermal exploitation activities such as the felling of trees for road construction, well drilling, and plant construction. Once geothermal power generation has begun, the release of H/sub 2/S into the atmosphere and the reinjection of hot water are conducted continuously and sufficient countermeasures can be taken. One problem is the effects of plant construction and operation on natural parks. It is important to reach a compromise between development and protection of natural senic areas. Two figures, two tables, and 13 references are provided.

  17. FY 1999 geothermal development promotion study. Report on results of the elastic wave exploitation (reflection method) in No.B-5, Busadake area; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Danseiha tansa (hanshaho) hokokusho No.B-5 Busadake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are results of the elastic wave exploitation (reflection method) conducted in the Busadake area in Hokkaido to elucidate the geological and geothermal structures. The elastic wave exploitation used large-size vibrators, an explosive and 4 courses of traverse (total length: 25.675 km, number of vibration-receiving points: 1,031, and number of vibration source points: 342). The data were processed by the standard procedure of the common reflection synthesis method. The acoustic velocity logging data, collected at the structural drillings N10-MD-1 and N10-MD-2, were synthesized to have the reflection seismic records. The existing surface geology, drilling geology and gravity data were compared with the recorded deep sections for the comprehensive discussion, to extract the reflection horizon corresponding to the geological boundary, and investigate the relationships of the discrete lines of deposit structures, unconformity relations and reflection with geological and default structures determined by the data analysis. The study results of the geothermal structures suggest possible formation of the geothermal reservoir deep in the west of the default found by Line-1, based on the observed temperature structures at the drilling N7-SB-1. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1994 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Investigative construction and analysis for structural boring (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1994 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kozo shitsui chosakoji oyobi kaiseki hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    For the contribution to elucidation of the geothermal structure in the Haneyama area, Oita Prefecture, the paper carried out the drilling of structural boring exploration wells, N6-HN-1 (1,605m) and N6-HN-2 (1,402m), and the well exploration. In the well exploration, the following were conducted: measurement of earth temperature, temperature recovery test, electrical log, simple water injection test, core/cutting observation, core test, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, physical property test, measurement of homogenization temperature of fluid inclusion, etc. In the temperature log and temperature recovery test, the terminal temperature at a 1,600m depth of N6-HN-1 well and at a 1,400m depth of N6-HN-2 well was 139.6 degrees C and 26.2 degrees C, respectively. The homogenization temperature of fluid inclusion was relatively higher, +70 degrees C to +100 degrees C, than that in the results of the temperature log, but was on the side of lower temperature, -30 degrees C to -100 degrees C, in a comparison with the saturated boiling curve of the earth surface and ground water level. Namely, it was thought that around the N6-HN-1 well, there used to exist the high temperature fluid of 250 degrees C or higher at the peak period of geothermal activities, but there only existed the geothermal water of approximately 140 degrees C at the present time. (NEDO)

  19. Report on geothermal development promotion survey data processing in fiscal 1997. Tsujinodake Area No. B-6 (first report); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 1. Tsujinodake chiiki No.B-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This paper reports the achievements in the geothermal development promotion survey data processing in fiscal 1997 for Tsujinodake Area. Geological, alteration band and fluid geochemical surveys, gravity and electromagnetic exploration, and environment influence survey were generalized to summarize the state of existence of geothermal resources. Sea water permeated into deep underground portion was mixed with meteoric water from Ikeda Lake and Unagi Pond; heated by deep hot water originated from magma pools as the source of volcanic activities after formation of the Ata caldera; the resultant neutral high salt concentration hot water has risen on the Takeyama-Tsujinodake structural line; and was reserved in deep portion of Mr. Tsujinodake. The sea water permeated into deep underground portion was heated by the same deep hot water originated from magma pools as described above, has risen along the Ata caldera wall, and been reserved in the deep portion of Kaimon Dake Spa. Around the Yamakawa geothermal power plant, the permeated sea water was heated by the same magma pools as described above and by the intrusive rocks originated therefrom as the heat source. The water has risen along the shattered belt developing around the intrusive rocks or the Takeyama-Tsujinodake structure line, and been reserved. Around the Unagi pond, mixed sea and meteoric water has risen along the Yamakawa-Matsugakubo structure line, and been reserved. (NEDO)

  20. Geothermal Energy in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Eduardo; Villalba, Fabio

    1999-11-01

    Energy represents an essential element for economy, and for any sustainable development strategy, assuming it is a basic input for all production activities. It is a fundamental contra int for country's competitivity and also a main component of population's standard of life. The Agenda 21 and the General Agreement on Climatic Changes emphasize that the development and sustainable use of energy should promote economy, but taking care of the environment. Under these basic concepts, for the particular case of energy, the sustain ability of development requires the adoption of a strategy which guarantee an energy supply in terms of quality, opportunity, continuity and afford ability and, in addition, without production of negative environmental impacts. Geothermal energy is a serious energetic option for sustainable development, since presents technical and economic advantages for production of electricity at medium and large scale. Furthermore, geothermal energy allows a wide spectrum of direct applications of heat in profitable projects of high social impact as green houses, drying of seeds and wood products, fish farming, recreation and others. All of them can help the increase of communal production activities in rural areas affected by poverty

  1. Deep Production Well for Geothermal Direct-Use Heating of A Large Commercial Greenhouse, Radium Springs, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James C. Witcher

    2002-01-01

    Expansion of a large commercial geothermally-heated greenhouse is underway and requires additional geothermal fluid production. This report discusses the results of a cost-shared U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and A.R. Masson, Inc. drilling project designed to construct a highly productive geothermal production well for expansion of the large commercial greenhouse at Radium Springs. The well should eliminate the potential for future thermal breakthrough from existing injection wells and the inducement of inflow from shallow cold water aquifers by geothermal production drawdown in the shallow reservoir. An 800 feet deep production well, Masson 36, was drilled on a US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Geothermal Lease NM-3479 at Radium Springs adjacent to the A. R. Masson Radium Springs Farm commercial greenhouse 15 miles north of Las Cruces in Dona Ana County, New Mexico just west of Interstate 25 near the east bank of the Rio Grande. The area is in the Rio Grande rift, a tectonically-active region with high heat flow, and is one of the major geothermal provinces in the western United State

  2. A 3D gravity and magnetic model for the Entenschnabel area (German North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Ingo; Barckhausen, Udo; Heyde, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we focus on structural configuration of the Entenschnabel area, a part of the German exclusive economic zone within the North Sea, by means of gravity and magnetic modelling. The starting point of the 3D modelling approach is published information on subseafloor structures for shallow depths, acquired by wells and seismic surveys. Subsequent gravity and magnetic modelling of the structures of the deeper subsurface builds on this geophysical and geological information and on gravity and magnetic data acquired during a research cruise to the Entenschnabel area. On the one hand, our 3D model shows the density and susceptibility distribution of the sediments and the crust. In addition, the potential field modelling provides evidence for a differentiation between lower and upper crust. The thickness distribution of the crust is also discussed with respect to the tectonic framework. Furthermore, gravity as well as magnetic modelling points to an intrusive complex beneath the Central Graben within the Entenschnabel area. On the other hand, this work provides a geological-geophysical consistent 3D gravity and magnetic model that can be used as a starting point for further investigation of this part of the German North Sea.

  3. Flora, life form and chorology of plants in Jozak – Chaminbid area, North Khorassan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHABAT NADAF

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Floristic study of a region is of great importance as the list of plants represents the genetic resources of the area. The intended region (Jozak-Chaminbid with an area of ca. 3637.81 ha. is located in the western part of North Khorassan Province in the Maneh and Semelghan counties. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Khorassan-Kopet Dagh floristic province of the Irano-Turanian region. The mean altitude is 1415 meter and mean annual precipitation of the area is 559 mm. The plant species of the area were collected and identified according to the Floras. The floristic list of the area and its life forms and endemic species were presented. The results showed the presence of 53 families, 205 genera and 308 species. Among them 13 species were endemic to Khorassan-Kopet Dagh Province. The largest plant family was Asteraceae with 28 genera and 40 species. According to Raunkiaer’s life form categories, the identified species are categorized as hemicryptophytes 35.38%, therophytes 34.74%, cryptophytes (geophytes 12.33%, chamaephytes 11.03% and phanerophytes 6.49%. The high percentage of hemicryptophytes indicated that the area had a cold mountain climate. The chorotype of species was obtained on the basis of the available sources. Irano-Turanian plants were the most frequent chorotype of the area with 59%.

  4. FY 1999 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. No. A-4 Kunbetsudake area (Secondary); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki (dai 2 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    This survey studies possibilities of geothermal resource existence by checking the presence of high temperature anomaly by a wide-area survey with the aim of extracting the area for Survey B and Survey C to be conducted. The area for survey is an area of approximately 300km{sup 2} including Shibetsu town, Shibetsu county, and Rausu town, Menashi county, which are located east of Hokkaido. Conceptual models of the geothermal system in this area which are thought of from the results of the survey are as follows. It is assumed that heat source exists deeply in Unabetsudake (Mt. Unabetsu). From the fact that the K-Ar method age of the ejecta is 0.5Ma and the TL method age of the rate. (NEDO)ch the position of drilling of the well for survey of heeffective as heat source. It is thought that the water of hot spring/mineral spring came to indicate various spring qualities by mixture of meteoric water and fossil seawater at various ratios. The fossil seawater and old meteoric water are being heated by thermal conduction. The mixture with the original water of Kawakita hot spa is recognized in Shibetsu Kanayama hot spa. It is assumed that the high temperature area exists mostly in Unabetsudake, but the spread does not reach the position of drilling of the well for survey of heat flow rate. (NEDO)

  5. Measurement of Nuclear Interaction Rates in Crystal Using the CERN-SPS North Area Test Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Losito, R; Taratin, A

    2010-01-01

    A number of tests were performed in the North area of the SPS in view of investigating crystal-particles interactions for future application in hadron colliders. The rate of nuclear interactions was measured with 400 GeV proton beams directed into a silicon bent crystal. In this way the background induced by the crystal either in amorphous or in channeling orientation was revealed. The results provide fundamental information to put in perspective the use of silicon crystals to assist halo collimation in hadron colliders, whilst minimizing the induced loss.

  6. South Dakota Geothermal Commercialization Project. Final report, July 1979-October 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegman, S.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the South Dakota Energy Office in providing technical assistance, planning, and commercialization projects for geothermal energy. Projects included geothermal prospect identification, area development plans, and active demonstration/commercialization projects. (ACR)

  7. Colorado geothermal commercialization planning. Semi-annual progress report, January 1, 1979-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for developing the geothermal resources of Colorado is detailed. Constraints that are limiting geothermal energy development are described. Area development plans, an institutional analysis, and the outreach program are presented. (MHR)

  8. Summary of geothermal studies in Montana, 1980 through 1983. DOE final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonderegger, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The geology, hydrology, and surface manifestations of geothermal systems in Montana are described by area. Water-quality information, tables of inventory and water analysis data for springs and wells, and a geothermal resource map are included. (MHR)

  9. Volume changes of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, due to surface mass balance, ice flow, and subglacial melting at geothermal areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnson, Helgi; Dall, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    We present observed changes in the geometry of western Vatnajökull over a period of about ten years which are caused by the surface mass balance, ice flow (both during surges and quiescent periods), and basal melting due to geothermal and volcanic activity. Comparison of two digital elevation...

  10. Pueblo of Jemez Geothermal Feasibility Study Fianl Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.A. Kelley; N. Rogers; S. Sandberg; J. Witcher; J. Whittier

    2005-03-31

    This project assessed the feasibility of developing geothermal energy on the Pueblo of Jemez, with particular attention to the Red Rocks area. Geologic mapping of the Red Rocks area was done at a scale of 1:6000 and geophysical surveys identified a potential drilling target at a depth of 420 feet. The most feasible business identified to use geothermal energy on the reservation was a greenhouse growing culinary and medicinal herbs. Space heating and a spa were identified as two other likely uses of geothermal energy at Jemez Pueblo. Further geophysical surveys are needed to identify the depth to the Madera Limestone, the most likely host for a major geothermal reservoir.

  11. Proceedings of the second NATO-CCMS information meeting on dry hot rock geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, J.J. (comp.)

    1977-11-01

    A summary is presented of the second and last NATO-CCMS (North Atlantic Treaty Organization--Committee on Challenges of Modern Society) Geothermal Pilot Study Information Meeting on Dry Hot Rock Geothermal Energy. Only summaries of the formal presentations are included. Overviews of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geothermal projects are included with emphasis on the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Project. Reports of developments in nine foreign countries and on geothermal projects in US universities are also presented.

  12. Fairbanks Geothermal Energy Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, Bernie [CHSR,LLC Owner

    2013-05-31

    The primary objective for the Fairbanks Geothermal Energy Project is to provide another source of base-load renewable energy in the Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB). To accomplish this, Chena Hot Springs Resort (Chena) drilled a re-injection well to 2700 feet and a production well to 2500 feet. The re-injection well allows a greater flow of water to directly replace the water removed from the warmest fractures in the geothermal reservoir. The new production will provide access to warmer temperature water in greater quantities.

  13. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  14. Geothermal development of the Salton Trough, California and Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, T.D.; Howard, J.H.; Lande, D.P. (eds.)

    1975-04-01

    A geological description is given of the Salton Trought followed by a chronological history of attempts to exploit the area's geothermal resources. In addition, detailed descriptions are given of all ongoing geothermal projects in the area and the organizations conducting them.

  15. A review of geothermal mapping techniques using remotely sensed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploiting geothermal (GT) resources requires first and foremost locating suitable areas for its development. Remote sensing offers a synoptic capability of covering large areas in real time and can cost effectively explore prospective geothermal sites not easily detectable using conventional survey methods, thus can aid in ...

  16. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Arizona geothermal planning/commercialization team. Quarterly topical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Mancini, F.; Goldstone, L.A.; Malysa, L.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reviewed on the following: area development plans, evaluation of geothermal applications, continued evaluation of geothermal resources, engineering and economic analyses, technical assistance in the state of Arizona, the impact of various growth patterns upon geothermal energy development, and the outreach program. (MHR)

  17. Geothermal energy and hot springs in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, T. (Hot Springs Therapeutics Research Institute, Kyushu, Univ., Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The hot springs in Ethiopia are concentrated in two areas: the North Afar depression and adjacent Red Sea shore, and a geothermal field 100 km from northeast to southwest in the central part of Ethiopia. The latter extends not only to the Great Rift Valley but also to the Aden Gulf. In the lake district in the central Great Rift Valley, there are a number of hot springs on the lake shore. These are along NE-SW fault lines, and the water is a sodium bicarbonate-type rich in HCO/sub 3/ and Na but low in C1 and Ca. In Dallol in the North Afar depression, CO/sub 2/-containing hot springs with high temperatures (110/sup 0/C) and a specific gravity of 1.4, were observed. In the South Afar depression, located in the northeastern part of the Rift Valley, there are many active volcanoes and hot springs between the lake district and the Danakil depression. The spring water is a sodium bicarbonate saline type. Nine graphs and maps are included.

  18. Investigations in fiscal 1983 on promotion of geothermal development. Part 1. Report on investigation of fumarolic environmental effects in Oku-Aizu area; 1983 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. 1. Okuaizu chiiki funkichu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    As part of the investigations on promotion of geothermal development, surveys have been carried out in the Oku-Aizu area to identify the existence and/or extent of effects of collecting geothermal fluids above the ground imposed on the environment, such as the natural ecological system. The investigated area is an area of 60 km{sup 2} covering Kawanuma County and Onuma County in Fukushima Prefecture, a mountainous area with undulations. The investigation result may be summarized as follows: the area shows the inland climate and has snow fall as much as 2 m in winter; according to the H2S diffusion prediction, the concentration thereof on the land in seasonal average is 0.7 ppm at maximum, which is a value presenting no problems. No fumarolic effects of SO2 were identified, and floating dust and Hg showed values that present no problems. With regard to water quality during and after the blowout test, no effects of blowout return were identified. The noise level was 41 to 45 phones at a place 100 m distant, and the vibration level has become the lower detection limit at a place 50 m distant. Leveling has discovered no ground movement. No variation in major constituents in thermal spring water was verified before and after the blowout test. (NEDO)

  19. Southern (DisComfort?: Latino Population Growth, Economic Integration and Spatial Assimilation in North Carolina Micropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-María González Wahl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines more closely the growth and assimilation of the Latino population in non-metropolitan areas across North Carolina. More specifically, the analysis focuses on micropolitan areas. Based on the last decennial census, micropolitan areas were newly defined by the Census Bureau to reflect the growing importance of "urban clusters" located in non-metropolitan counties.

  20. Connectivity of larval cod in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic Sea and potential implications for fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Hüssy, Karin

    2016-01-01

    in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic were investigated to (i) determine long-term trends and variability in advective transport of larvae from spawning grounds to juvenile nursery areas, (ii) estimate the degree of exchange between different management areas, and (iii) compare the results...

  1. Pigment transformation and vertical flux in an area of convergence in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, E. J. H.; Horne, E. P. W.

    Particulate samples from the water column, to depths of 80-120 m, were collected over a 10-day period during a bloom in the North Atlantic, near 37°N, 40°W, between 12 and 22 April 1990. These samples were analysed by HPLC for their chlorin and carotenoid content. The same analysis was carried out for samples of faecal pellets collected from copepods from depths of 0-100 m, which had fed in situ, and for material from sediment traps in the 100-500 m depth range. Water column pigment compositions were consistent with observations that diatoms and Phaeocystis were major components of the bloom. They also sometimes showed high concentrations of chlorophyllide a and a phaephorbide a-like pigment, which may be due to algal die-off and cell autolysis. Faecal pellets contained high concentrations of pyrophaeophorbide a lower amounts of unidentified phaeophorbides and some chlorophyll a, but none of the phaeophorbide a-like pigment found in the water column. Sediment traps contained high concentrations of the phaeophorbides characteristics of copepod faecal pellets and lower, approximately equal amounts of the water column phaeophorbide a-like pigment and chlorophyll a. The sampling area appeared to be in a jet of current, which was moving southwesterly along a front between Eastern Basin Water (to the north) and North Atlantic Central Water (to the south) and which seemed to be drawing in water from both these water masses. Areas of downwelling, thought to be associated with these convergent currents, may have accelerated the sedimentation of dead and dying phytoplankton cells.

  2. Livelihood and Rural Tourism Development in Coastal Area North Maluku Province Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrianto Singgalen, Yerik; Maxwell Simange, Silvanus

    2018-05-01

    The livelihood of the people who live in the villages in coastal and remote areas can be developed into tourism area based on local wisdom to achieve sustainable tourism. Tunuo village is a village that has a wealth of Natural Resources and the Cultural Resources to support tourism. Nevertheless, Tunuo Village has problems related to Human Resources to support tourism. Meanwhile, the livelihood of Tunuo Village as producers of copra have constraints, namely access to economic capital. The gain from copra sale is erratic and prone to change, it encourages people to seek income from other options to meet their needs. These economic pressures encourage the development of environmentally damaging activities, such as fishing using homemade bombs so that reefs may be damaged. There are also other activities, such as the production, distribution, and consumption of traditional liquor made from palm tree sap, locally known as Saguer. Therefore, the present tourism as a sector that could provide opportunities for the villagers of Tunuo to earn extra income as well as efforts to preserve the environment, and culture. This research was conducted in the village of Tunuo, North Kao District, North Halmahera Regency, North Maluku province, Indonesia. The method is qualitative Participatory Action Research (PAR). The results indicate that people have a desire and a strong motivation to develop, so that the process of forming the Tourism Awareness Group (Pokdarwis) and its seven charms (saptapesona) can take place properly. As of the socialization of tourism awareness, as well as capacity building seminar for Pokdarwiswould be able to mobilize the community to clean up trash on the beach and to encourage communities to develop local knowledge into a leading tourism product.

  3. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C. A.; Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2008 through September 2009. Major findings for this period include: - Annual precipitation was approximately 20 percent below the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation. - Streamflow was below the long-term mean at the 10 project streamgages during most of the year. - More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 26 sites—15 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-seven water-quality properties and constituents were measured. - All observations met North Carolina water-quality standards for water temperature, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. - North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, chlorophyll a, mercury, copper, iron, manganese, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at 23 sites—13 in the Neuse River Basin and 10 in the Cape Fear River Basin. - Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 18 water-quality constituents compared to samples collected during non-storm events. - Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were within ranges observed during previous years. - Five reservoirs had chlorophyll a concentrations in excess of 40 micrograms per liter at least once during 2009: Little River Reservoir, Falls Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, University Lake, and Jordan Lake.

  4. Survey of selecting the promising drilling points out of the ground survey of the FY 1992 geothermal development promotion survey. Soil gas survey (No.C-1 - Shirotori area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chijo chosa no uchi yubo kussaku chiten sentei chosa (Dojo gas chosa) hokokusho (No. C-1 Shirotori chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    As a part of the survey of selecting promising drilling points, survey was made using soil gas to grasp the area of existence of geothermal fluid in the area for careful examination and the locational distribution of fractures controlling the behavior of fluid. In the survey, the concentration of Hg in soil gas/carbon isotopic ratio of CO2 were measured at 247 measuring points. Generally speaking, there existed the hydrothermal fluid along the structure controlling geothermal activities in the area where the concentration of Hg in soil gas is high, and the volcanic gas as a heating source of geothermal fluid was rising in the area where the carbon isotopic ratio is high. In the survey, areas where both the Hg concentration and the carbon isotopic ratio were high were extracted as promising areas where the high temperature geothermal fluid possibly exists. The promising areas extracted were the periphery of the Daiichi (No.1) Shirotori Hot Spring, periphery of KT-4, southern periphery of N4-ST-2, periphery of 54E-OBN-1 - 54E-OBN-2, and periphery of N4-ST-2. Besides, a possibility of existence of geothermal fluid was indicated in the northeast of N4-ST-1 and in the northeast of KT-9. (NEDO)

  5. HEAVY METAL CONTENTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS AND SEAWATER AT TOTOK BAY AREA, NORTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyuzar Ilahude

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in north-eastern part of Tomini Bay, approximately 80 km south of Manado city, North Sulawesi. This area is closed to submarine tailing disposal system in Buyat Bay. Five marine sediment samples and four water samples from seawater and dig wells have been used for heavy metals (Hg, As, CN analyses by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. This study is a part of research conducted by Marine Geological Institute of Indonesia on morphological changes of seabed in the Totok Bay. The result shows that concentration of mercury (Hg in water samples taken from Ratatotok estuary is higher than standards stipulated Government Regulation (Peraturan Pemerintah/PP No. 82/2001. Meanwhile, concentration of arsenic (As is almost reaching its standard threshold, and conversely cyanide (CN concentration is low. This value of mercury (Hg concentration taken from Ratatotok estuary is much higher than water samples from of Buyat Bay estuary. Significant concentration of mercury (Hg analysed from those particular sampling sites indicated high mercury contamination. Therefore, further examination on ground water of dig wells is necessary, especially for mercury analysis (Hg. Furthermore, comparing the formerly obtained data of mercury concentration in the sediment, this particular study concludes that the sediments in the Totok Bay had contaminated by mercury from gold-processing of illegal mining.

  6. Review of DOE's proposal for Crystalline bedrock disposal of radioactive waste, north-central area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The DOE's Region-to-Area Screening Methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project (DOE/CH-1), the Final North-Central Region Geologic Characterization Report (DOE/CH-8(1)), and the Draft Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project (DOE/CH-15), with the associated maps, were reviewed. The review has focused on all general information regarding geologic topics and all site-specific data for DOE sites NC-10 and NC-3. This report contains two parts: (1) a point-by-point critique of perceived errors, omissions, or other shortcomings in each of the three documents; and (2) a discussion of the feasibility of crystalline bedrock as a suitable host medium for high-level radioactive waste

  7. Landscape pattern evolution of the north of Hangzhou bay coastal area in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Shuai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s in Shanghai,fast economic development,rapid urbanization,population explosion,all of these phenomena are driving radical changes in landscape pattern of coastal area.The landscape pattern evolution at the coastal regions of the north of the Hangzhou bay is analysed based on the landscape ecology theory and method by using Fragstats 3.3 software.3S technology is utilized to interpretate the sensing images at three phase in 1994,2003,2007,and selected two landscape index of the landscape level to study six town from time and space on the contrast analysis.The results show that farmland landscape is the dominant landscape in research area,landscape diversity is high and shows ascendant trend;For 13 years,six towns’(street fragmentation degree increase,the Luchaogang town has the highest degree of fragmentation.

  8. A survey on draught animal technology (DAT) in EN-Nhoud area, North Kordofan State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Elsamawal Khalil; Musa, Ezdehar Omer Mohammed

    2011-06-01

    Draught animal technology (DAT) can potentially play a central role in agriculture transformation for traditional farmers. This study surveyed the state of DAT in En-Nhoud area, North Kordofan State, Sudan in an attempt to have a clear view of the changes brought about by introducing the technology. The study followed the cross-sectional survey design. Farmers were selected from ten clusters (villages) and data were collected using questionnaires and face to face interviews with farmers in addition to group discussions with them and the different actors in the field. The results showed that farmers appreciate the role played by DAT, but they highlighted the need for further capacity building and technical backup. Harnessing issues are not well understood and applied by the farmers. The different actors involved in DAT in the area lack networking and coordination, and this reflected on the many problems and constraints faced by the farmers.

  9. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-97. It describes 174 contracts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on greenhouse peaking. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  10. Geothermal energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Enriko

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal energy, as a natural steam and hot water, has been exploited for decades in order to generate electricity as well as district heating and industrial processes. The present geothermal electrical installed capacity in the world is about 10.000 MWe and the thermal capacity in non-electrical uses is about 8.200 MWt. Electricity is produced with an efficiency of 10-17%, and the cost of the kWh is competitive with conventional energy sources. In the developing countries, where a total installed electrical power is still low, geothermal energy can play a significant role: in El Salvador, for example, 25% of electricity comes from geothermal spring, 20% in the Philippines and 8% in Kenya. Present technology makes it possible to control the environmental impact of geothermal exploitation. Geothermal energy could also be extracted from deep geopressured reservoirs in large sedimentary basins, hot dry rock systems and magma bodies. (author)

  11. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  12. Coordination of geothermal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessop, A.M.; Drury, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Visits were made in 1983 to various investigators and institutions in Canada to examine developments in geothermal research. Proposals for drilling geothermal wells to provide hot water for heating at a college in Prince Edward Island were made. In Alberta, the first phase of a program examining the feasibility of mapping sedimentary geothermal reservoirs was discussed. Some sites for possible geothermal demonstration projects were identified. In British Columbia, discussions were held between BC Hydro and Energy, Mines and Resources Canada on the drilling of a research hole into the peak of a temperature anomaly in the Meager Creek Valley. The British Columbia government has offered blocks of land in the Mount Cayley volcanic complex for lease to develop geothermal resources. A list of papers of interest to the Canadian geothermal energy program is appended.

  13. The geothermal power organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, K.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  14. Geoenvironmental profile of squares: north area of the city of Londrina-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Silveira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the concern to the quality and amount of the squares of the north area of the city of Londrina, state of Paraná. The square is a leisure, walk and rest place, besides favoring a closer contact of the population with the nature. The physical aspects of the furniture, presence and type of area of infantile and sporting recreation were analyzed, and also the identification and quantification of the species of trees. The results demonstrated absence of area of infantile recreation, 53% of the squares without furniture and sporting areas in 38% of the places. The amount of trees belonged to 340 individuals, divided in 35 species, with prevalence of 5 species that represents 64% of the total. Such results suggest the improvement of the amount and quality of the furniture, and a better distribution of the species of trees, giving preference for native species. The creation of a GIS, indicating the place of occurrence of the squares and its situation, is important because it facilitates the analysis of the green areas, as well as in the decisions for the urban development.

  15. Geothermal Today - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-05-01

    U.S. Department of Energy 1999 Geothermal Energy Program Highlights The Hot Facts Getting into Hot Water Turning Waste water into Clean Energy Producing Even Cleaner Power Drilling Faster and Cheaper Program in Review 1999: The Year in Review JanuaryCal Energy announced sale of Coso geothermal power plants at China Lake, California, to Caithness Energy, for $277 million. U.S. Export-Import Bank completed a $50 million refinancing of the Leyte Geothermal Optimization Project in the Philippines. F

  16. Success in geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefansson, V.

    1992-01-01

    Success in geothermal development can be defined as the ability to produce geothermal energy at compatible energy prices to other energy sources. Drilling comprises usually the largest cost in geothermal development, and the results of drilling is largely influencing the final price of geothermal energy. For 20 geothermal fields with operating power plants, the ratio between installed capacity and the total number of well in the field is 1.9 MWe/well. The drilling history in 30 geothermal fields are analyzed by plotting the average cumulative well outputs as function of the number of wells drilled in the field. The range of the average well output is 1-10 MWe/well with the mean value 4.2 MWe/well for the 30 geothermal fields studied. A leaning curve is defined as the number of wells drilled in each field before the average output per well reaches a fairly constant value, which is characteristic for the geothermal reservoir. The range for this learning time is 4-36 wells and the average is 13 wells. In general, the average well output in a given field is fairly constant after some 10-20 wells has been drilled in the field. The asymptotic average well output is considered to be a reservoir parameter when it is normalized to the average drilling depth. In average, this reservoir parameter can be expressed as 3.3 MWe per drilled km for the 30 geothermal fields studied. The lifetime of the resource or the depletion time of the geothermal reservoir should also be considered as a parameter influencing the success of geothermal development. Stepwise development, where the reservoir response to the utilization for the first step is used to determine the timing of the installment of the next step, is considered to be an appropriate method to minimize the risk for over investment in a geothermal field

  17. FY 1998 Geothermal development promotion study. Report on results of the elastic wave exploitation (reflection method) in No.B-6, Tsujinodake area; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Danseiha tansa (hanshaho) hokokusho (No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The elastic wave exploitation (reflection method) was conducted to elucidate the geothermal reservoirs, estimated to exist on the Ata caldera walls in the Tsujino area, Kagoshima Pref. The elastic wave exploitation used large-size vibrators as the vibration sources and 4 courses of traverse (total length: 6.56 km, number of vibration-receiving points: 332, and number of vibration source points: 102). The data were processed by the standard procedure of the common reflection synthesis method. The geological structures were analyzed by comparing the existing geological data with the data obtained at the drilling. The analysis results suggest that the Ata caldera walls considered to exist in the surveyed area possibly correspond to the vicinity of the default existing at the south-east boundary of the collapse structure. The analysis of the geothermal structures suggest that the sheet-shaped intruding rocks, considered to exist at a depth of around 1,000 m in the vicinity of the Kaimon hot spring resort, was possibly formed by the magma ascending along the default. The presence of the magma reservoirs deep below the area is strongly suggested to work as the heat source for the area. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Geological structure (geology/alteration zone) survey (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. Chishitsu kozo (chishitsu henshitsutai) chosa hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    For the purpose of elucidating a possibility of existence of geothermal reservoirs in the Haneyama area, Oita Prefecture, survey of the geological structure (geology/alteration zone) was conducted. The survey was made for the area of 280km{sup 2} lying from Kusu Town to Kokonoe Town, Oita Prefecture in terms of the route survey of 174km, fabrication/judgement of 52 rock slices, whole rock chemical analysis of 21 rocks, age determination, analysis of rock mineral, X-ray diffraction, literature collection, etc. As a result of the survey, the following conclusion was obtained. When considering a possibility of existence of heat source near this area, the area near the present volcanic front was regarded as promising. The fracture structure in the depths seen in the gravity structure (part of sharp dip of gravity) is more closely related to activity of geothermal water than the active structure of E-W system near the earth surface newly formed and is important when considering the existence of geothermal resource. The periphery of the Shishimuta sedimentation zone where Takigami, Oodake, Hacchobaru and Oguni are located was especially regarded as an area propmising of geothermal energy. In the survey area, the geothermal potential was the highest near Noya - Mizuwake Pass. (NEDO)

  19. Geothermal Power Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Chamorro, C.R.

    2017-01-01

    Although geothermal energy has been widely deployed for direct use in locations with especial geologic manifestations, its potential for power generation has been traditionally underestimated. Recent technology developments in drilling techniques and power conversion technologies from low......-temperature heat resources are bringing geothermal energy to the spotlight as a renewable baseload energy option for a sustainable energy mix. Although the environmental impact and economic viability of geothermal exploitation must be carefully evaluated for each case, the use of deep low-temperature geothermal...... reservoirs could soon become an important contributor to the energy generation around the world....

  20. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  1. Geothermal Energy Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained with the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost- effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy -- the heat of the Earth -- is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40% of the total US energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma ( the four types of geothermal energy) still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program

  2. Numerical investigation of the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir: a case study of the Daming geothermal field in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuyang; Song, Hongqing; Killough, John; Du, Li; Sun, Pengguang

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of geothermal energy is clean and has great potential worldwide, and it is important to utilize geothermal energy in a sustainable manner. Mathematical modeling studies of geothermal reservoirs are important as they evaluate and quantify the complex multi-physical effects in geothermal reservoirs. However, previous modeling efforts lack the study focusing on the emission reduction efficiency and the deformation at geothermal wellbores caused by geothermal water extraction/circulation. Emission efficiency is rather relevant in geothermal projects introduced in areas characterized by elevated air pollution where the utilization of geothermal energy is as an alternative to burning fossil fuels. Deformation at geothermal wellbores is also relevant as significant deformation caused by water extraction can lead to geothermal wellbore instability and can consequently decrease the effectiveness of the heat extraction process in geothermal wells. In this study, the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir in Daming County, China, are numerically investigated based on a coupled multi-physical model. Relationships between the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction, deformation at geothermal well locations, and geothermal field parameters including well spacing, heat production rate, re-injection temperature, rock stiffness, and geothermal well placement patterns are analyzed. Results show that, although large heat production rates and low re-injection temperatures can lead to decreased heat production in the last 8 years of heat extraction, they still improve the overall heat production capacity and emission reduction capacity. Also, the emission reduction capacity is positively correlated with the heat production capacity. Deformation at geothermal wellbore locations is alleviated by smaller well spacing, lower heat production rates, and smaller numbers of injectors in the well pattern, and by

  3. Urban floods: a case study in the Savigliano area (North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Audisio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood processes and effects are examined, concerning two rivers in an urbanized area in North-Western Italy (Piedmont – Cuneo Plain. In May 2008, some areas in Northern Italy were struck by intense and persistent rainfall. In the Cuneo province (Southern Piedmont, floodplain with some urban areas was inundated over ca. ten square kilometres, and the city of Savigliano (about 21 000 inhabitants was particularly hit by flood. A purposely-made historical research has evidenced approximately fifty flood events as having occurred since 1350 in the Savigliano area. Based upon historical data, both documents and maps, GIS (Geographical Information System technique and field surveys were used to quantitatively assess the growing urbanization of the city and to describe flood processes and effects over years. This work aims to describe the dynamic behaviour of the 2008 flood, also comparing it to past events, in particular those that occurred in 1896. It is emphasized how the knowledge of past events can be helpful in reducing urban flooding.

  4. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  5. Comparison of the microbial communities of hot springs waters and the microbial biofilms in the acidic geothermal area of Copahue (Neuquén, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbieta, María Sofía; González-Toril, Elena; Bazán, Ángeles Aguilera; Giaveno, María Alejandra; Donati, Edgardo

    2015-03-01

    Copahue is a natural geothermal field (Neuquén province, Argentina) dominated by the Copahue volcano. As a consequence of the sustained volcanic activity, Copahue presents many acidic pools, hot springs and solfataras with different temperature and pH conditions that influence their microbial diversity. The occurrence of microbial biofilms was observed on the surrounding rocks and the borders of the ponds, where water movements and thermal activity are less intense. Microbial biofilms are particular ecological niches within geothermal environments; they present different geochemical conditions from that found in the water of the ponds and hot springs which is reflected in different microbial community structure. The aim of this study is to compare microbial community diversity in the water of ponds and hot springs and in microbial biofilms in the Copahue geothermal field, with particular emphasis on Cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic species that have not been detected before in Copahue. In this study, we report the presence of Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi and chloroplasts of eukaryotes in the microbial biofilms not detected in the water of the ponds. On the other hand, acidophilic bacteria, the predominant species in the water of moderate temperature ponds, are almost absent in the microbial biofilms in spite of having in some cases similar temperature conditions. Species affiliated with Sulfolobales in the Archaea domain are the predominant microorganism in high temperature ponds and were also detected in the microbial biofilms.

  6. Electricity from geothermal steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheatcroft, E L.E.

    1959-01-01

    The development of the power station at Wairakei geothermal field is described. Wairakei is located at the center of New Zealand's volcanic belt, which lies within a major graben which is still undergoing some degree of downfaulting. A considerable number of wells, some exceeding 610 m, have been drilled. Steam and hot water are produced from both deep and shallow wells, which produce at gauge pressures of 1.5 MPa and 0.6 MPa, respectively. The turbines are fed by low, intermediate, and high pressure mains. The intermediate pressure turbine bank was installed as a replacement for a heavy water production facility which had originally been planned for the development. Stage 1 includes a 69 MW plant, and stage 2 will bring the capacity to 150 MW. A third stage, which would bring the output up to 250 MW had been proposed. The second stage involves the installation of more high pressure steam turbines, while the third stage would be powered primarily by hot water flashing. Generation is at 11 kV fed to a two-section 500 MVA board. Each section of the board feeds through a 40 MVA transformer to a pair of 220 V transmission lines which splice into the North Island grid. Other transformers feed 400 V auxiliaries and provide local supply.

  7. Siting study for Test Area North potable water deep well project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1993-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of various locations for a new potable ground water well at Test Area North (TAN). The new well is proposed to replace two existing wells located within a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume. Several locations were evaluated using computer simulations based on the hydrogeology of the site. The modeling effort involved: (1) producing a water table map, (2) superimposing the effects of pumping the proposed new production well on the water table map using the model CAPZONE, and (3) calculating the capture zone for these wells using the GWPATH model. A three dimensional contaminant transport model was used to evaluate siting a well in a deeper horizon of the aquifer. The following scenarios were investigated: (1) placing a new well 500 ft north of the existing wells; (2) locating a well 3,000 ft northwest of the existing wells; (3) deepening one of the existing wells 100 to 150 ft to produce water from beneath an interbed that acts as a hydraulic barrier; and (4) drilling a new well about 500 ft northwest of the existing wells to produce water from beneath the interbed. The recommended new well site (fourth scenario) is northwest of the existing wells, with the well completed from 500 to 600 ft below land surface to produce water from beneath the Q-R interbed. Locating the well northwest of the existing wells places the new well out of the TCE plume and reduces the possibility of transporting contaminated water across the interbed

  8. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C. [eds.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  9. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (animals/plants, No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (doshokubutsu, No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey was conducted to estimate effects of drilling of geothermal exploration well on the environment, aiming at grasping the present state of environmental elements before the survey/development. As a result of the literature survey, the following distribution were confirmed in the fauna: 5 orders 10 families 19 species in the mammalia, 10 orders 25 families 73 species in the aves, 1 order 3 families 6 species in the reptilia, 2 orders 6 families 9 species in the amphibia, and 17 orders 179 families 719 species in the insecta. In the flora, a distribution of 132 families 670 species was confirmed. The results of studying the above indicated that in the fauna, there were 10 species such as antelope as valuable animal in the area surveyed and that it is necessary to pay much attention to the environmental preservation of the habitat for those animals in the well drilling associated with geothermal survey. In the flora, the 13 valuable animals selected as animal having a fear of extinction in the 'plant-version red list' were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery. Further, as to the plant colony, there are no important colonies in terms of preservation. In well drilling, important things are efforts exerted to restore to the original state of the area altered, prevention of the washed-away of mud water, etc., and efforts exerted to preserve the environment of vegetation. (NEDO)

  10. Geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-4 'Kuenohira-yama area'; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.B-4 Kuenohira-yama chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The above-named survey had been scheduled to be conducted in fiscal years 1996-1998 for an approximately 10km{sup 2}-large area of Kokonoe-cho, Kusu-gun, Oita Prefecture. In fiscal 1996, surface surveys were conducted, such as geological and alteration zone surveys, gravity prospecting, and electromagnetic survey. In fiscal 1997, an exploration well (N9-KH-1: depth 2,222.0m) was drilled. Since the maximum temperature in the well was found to be so low as 78.5 degrees C, the survey was given up in the second year. The survey conducted at N9-KH-1 showed that deep-seated and shallow-seated ruptures developed there in the absence of aquicludes, and so it was inferred that it was a recharge area, as predicted by the temperature logging profile, with surface water flowing into the depth. The above showed that there was no deep-seated blind geothermal system which the survey was after. Since it was not likely that the shallow-seated geothermal system located in the southern part of the Mizuwake pass would be found expanding into the area of the current survey, it was decided that the survey not be carried forward to the following fiscal year. (NEDO)

  11. Investigations in fiscal 1986 on promotion of geothermal development. Part 2. Report on precision structural test well drilling and investigation works in Otaki area; 1986 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. 2. Otaki chiiki seimitsu kozo shisui oyobi chosa koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-09-01

    With an objective of promotion of geothermal development in the Otaki area in Nagano Prefecture, precision structural test well drilling and investigation works have been carried out, and the result thereof reported. The investigated area is an inclined land with an area of 70 km{sup 2} at altitudes of 1,000 to 2,000 m in the southern foot of the Mitake volcano having Otaki River as the southern border. The investigation has performed during the period from March 2 to September 30, 1987 the drilling of the N61-OT-5 test well hole (depth of 502.0 m), temperature logging, temperature restoration test, water injection test, and core test. The result of the investigation may be summarized as follows: existence of the stratigraphic succession as predicted by ground surface investigation, and existence of the Mesozoic and Palaeozoic strata of the Mino belt were verified; the Mesozoic and Palaeozoic strata of the Mino belt being the base bed have only small cracks, and very little alteration can be identified; X-ray diffraction of powder from test drilled cores recognized very little minerals altered by hot water; and the temperature logging and temperature restoration test identified no temperature indication that clearly indicates existence of heat sources. As a conclusion, there is no alteration due to hot water down to 500 m below the surface in the vicinity of the investigation well, and the possibility of a geothermal reservoir to exist is extremely low. (NEDO)

  12. Geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-4 'Kuenohira-yama area'; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.B-4 Kuenohira-yama chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The above-named survey had been scheduled to be conducted in fiscal years 1996-1998 for an approximately 10km{sup 2}-large area of Kokonoe-cho, Kusu-gun, Oita Prefecture. In fiscal 1996, surface surveys were conducted, such as geological and alteration zone surveys, gravity prospecting, and electromagnetic survey. In fiscal 1997, an exploration well (N9-KH-1: depth 2,222.0m) was drilled. Since the maximum temperature in the well was found to be so low as 78.5 degrees C, the survey was given up in the second year. The survey conducted at N9-KH-1 showed that deep-seated and shallow-seated ruptures developed there in the absence of aquicludes, and so it was inferred that it was a recharge area, as predicted by the temperature logging profile, with surface water flowing into the depth. The above showed that there was no deep-seated blind geothermal system which the survey was after. Since it was not likely that the shallow-seated geothermal system located in the southern part of the Mizuwake pass would be found expanding into the area of the current survey, it was decided that the survey not be carried forward to the following fiscal year. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1997 Report on the data processing for the geothermal development promotion investigation. No.B-3 Kumaishi Area (Phase 3); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 3. No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Described herein are the results of the comprehensive analysis of the No.B-3 Kumaishi Area, investigated in the FY 1995 to 1997 period as part of the geothermal development promotion investigation project. The ground investigation project covers geological and altered band, geochemical, gravitational and electromagnetic investigations. The drilling investigation project covers the test drilling for the structural investigation, temperature logging, water injection and temperature recovery tests at the N7-KI-1, N7-KI-2, N8-KI-3, N8-KI-4 and N9-KI-5; core cutting investigation; hot water investigation at the 4 wells; environmental impact investigation; and supplementary investigations for determination of ages of rocks and alteration, and analysis of the substances contained in the fluid. The following conclusions are derived from the findings by the comprehensive analysis. The geothermal hot water in the test area came from seawater (fossil seawater) locally captured by the highly water-permeable strata (e.g., interfaces in the strata, and fractured strata) and underground water from rain water, heated by the conducted heat to around 200 degrees C at the highest. It is estimated that the center of the conducted heat is located in the eastern part of the Yagumo Area. (NEDO)

  14. Soil degassing at the Los Humeros geothermal field (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Loïc; Carrasco-Núñez, Gerardo; Mazot, Agnès; Villanueva-Estrada, Ruth Esther; Inguaggiato, Claudio; Bernard Romero, Rubén; Rocha Miller, Roberto; Hernández Rojas, Javier

    2018-05-01

    The Los Humeros geothermal field is the third most important producer of geothermal electricity (70 MW) in Mexico. Geothermal fluids are hosted in fractured andesitic lavas and mostly consist of high enthalpy steam with limited water content (vapor fraction > 0.9). Despite the high reservoir temperature ( 300-400 °C), thermal manifestations at the surface are scarce and locally appear as steaming grounds, weak steam vents and advanced argillic alteration. Geothermal fluid upflow from the reservoir towards the surface is limited by welded ignimbrite deposits that act as a low-permeability barrier. In this study, we present the first measurements of CO2, CH4 and H2S degassing rates from the soil performed at Los Humeros. Flux measurements were complemented with δ13C composition of degassing CO2 and soil temperatures to discuss gas origin and thermal anomalies. We measured high soil degassing rates (up to 7530 g m-2 d-1 CO2, 33 g m-2 d-1 CH4 and 22 g m-2 d-1 H2S) in three localized areas (Humeros North - HN, Humeros South - HS and Xalapazco - XA) as well as high soil temperatures reaching the boiling temperature at the local altitude (90.6 °C). The particular location of these three areas suggests that the steam-dominated reservoir degases to the surface through permeable faults crossing the ignimbritic deposits. The remaining surveyed areas are characterized by weak CO2 fluxes (≤44 g m-2 d-1), non-detectable CH4 and H2S fluxes, and lower soil temperatures (5-21 °C). The compositions in δ13CCO2 from HN-HS-XA areas (δ13CCO2 = -7.94 to -2.73‰) reflect a magmatic source with some possible contribution from the sedimentary basement, as well as fractionation induced by boiling and CO2 dissolution in shallow water bodies. We also discuss the processes causing the spread in CO2/CH4 flux ratios. Finally, we estimate the heat output from the three high degassing areas to a value of 16.4 MWt.

  15. FY 1996 geothermal development/promotion survey. Report of hot water survey results (No. B-3 Kumaishi area); 1996 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Nessui no chosa hokokusho (No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Reported herein are the survey results of hot water in the Kumaishi area, Hokkaido, as part of the FY 1996 geothermal development/promotion survey project. A total of 277 spouting guidance tests were conducted by the swabbing method for 10 days at the N7-KI-1 well, which, however, failed to achieve continuous spouting of geothermal fluid. A total of 144 swabbing tests were conducted for 8 days at the N7-KI-2 well. The geothermal fluid is spontaneously spouted out, although intermittently, after the main valve was opened, because it had a pressure of 4.1 kg/cm{sup 2} G at the mouth of the well from the first. However, the final self-spouting quantity remained unchanged in spite of the guidance works. The hot water had a pH 6.4, and contained Na as a cation at 8,940 mg/L and Cl as an anion at 14,500 mg/L as the major impurities. The associated gas was mainly composed of carbon dioxide, containing little hydrogen sulfide. The hot water spouted out through the wells contained Na and a high concentration of Cl as the major impurities, suggesting possibility of mixing hot water containing a high concentration of salt with surface water. It is considered that neither hot water nor its impurity concentrations are evenly distributed in the deep underground of the Kumaishi area. It is therefore considered that the deep underground hot water sources for hot spring slightly vary in composition and impurity concentrations. (NEDO)

  16. The Geysers Geothermal Field Update1990/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, P.; Lippmann, M.; Dobson, P.F.; Poux, B.

    2010-10-01

    In this report, we have presented data in four sections: (1) THE GEYSERS HISTORICAL UPDATE 1990-2010 - A historical update of the primary developments at The Geysers between 1990 and 2010 which uses as its start point Section IIA of the Monograph - 'Historical Setting and History of Development' that included articles by James Koenig and Susan Hodgson. (2) THE GEYSERS COMPREHENSIVE REFERENCE LIST 1990-2010 - In this section we present a rather complete list of technical articles and technical related to The Geysers that were issued during the period 1990-2010. The list was compiled from many sources including, but not limited to scientific journals and conference proceedings. While the list was prepared with care and considerable assistance from many geothermal colleagues, it is very possible that some papers could have been missed and we apologize to their authors in advance. The list was subdivided according to the following topics: (1) Field characterization; (2) Drilling; (3) Field development and management; (4) Induced seismicity; (5) Enhanced Geothermal Systems; (6) Power production and related issues; (7) Environment-related issues; and (8) Other topics. (3) GRC 2010 ANNUAL MEETING GEYSERS PAPERS - Included in this section are the papers presented at the GRC 2010 Annual Meeting that relate to The Geysers. (4) ADDITIONAL GEYSERS PAPERS 1990-2010 - Eighteen additional technical papers were included in this publication in order to give a broad background to the development at The Geysers after 1990. The articles issued during the 1990-2010 period were selected by colleagues considered knowledgeable in their areas of expertise. We forwarded the list of references given in Section 2 to them asking to send us with their selections with a preference, because of limited time, to focus on those papers that would not require lengthy copyright approval. We then chose the articles presented in this section with the purpose of providing the broadest possible

  17. Quantitative impact of hydrothermal alteration on electrical resistivity in geothermal systems from a joint analysis of laboratory measurements and borehole data in Krafla area, N-E Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Léa; Páll Hersir, Gylfi; Flóvenz, Ólafur; Gibert, Benoit; Pézard, Philippe; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Briole, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Rock permeability and fluid temperature are the two most decisive factors for a successful geothermal drilling. While those parameters are only measured from drilling, they might be estimated on the basis of their impact on electrical resistivity that might be imaged from surface soundings, for example through TEM (Transient Electro Magnetic) down to one km depth. The electrical conductivity of reservoir rocks is the sum of a volume term depending on fluid parameters and a surface term related to rock alteration. Understanding the link between electrical resistivity and geothermal key parameters requires the knowledge of hydrothermal alteration and its petrophysical signature with the Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC). Fluid-rock interactions related to hydrothermal circulation trigger the precipitation of alteration minerals, which are both witnesses of the temperature at the time of reaction and new paths for the electrical current. Alteration minerals include zeolites, smectites, chlorites, epidotes and amphiboles among which low temperatures parageneses are often the most conductive. The CEC of these mineral phases contributes to account for surface conductivity occuring at the water-rock interface. In cooling geothermal systems, these minerals constitute in petrophysical terms and from surface electrical conduction a memory of the equilibrium phase revealed from electrical probing at all scales. The qualitative impact of alteration minerals on resistivity structure has been studied over the years in the Icelandic geothermal context. In this work, the CEC impact on pore surfaces electrical conductivity is studied quantitatively at the borehole scale, where several types of volcanic rocks are mixed together, with various degrees of alteration and porosity. Five boreholes located within a few km at the Krafla volcano, Northeast Iceland, constitute the basis for this study. The deepest and reference hole, KJ-18, provides cuttings of rock and logging data down to 2215

  18. Where to Go Next? Identifying Target Areas in the North Atlantic for Future Seafloor Mapping Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfl, A. C.; Jencks, J.; Johnston, G.; Varner, J. D.; Devey, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Human activities are rapidly expanding into the oceans, yet detailed bathymetric maps do not exist for most of the seafloor that would permit governments to formulate sensible usage rules. Changing this situation will require an enormous international mapping effort. To ensure that this effort is directed towards the regions most in need of mapping, we need to know which areas have already been mapped and which areas are potentially most interesting. Despite various mapping efforts in recent years, large parts of the Atlantic still lack detailed bathymetric information. To successfully plan for future mapping efforts to fill these gaps, knowledge of current data coverage is imperative to avoid duplication of effort. While certain datasets are publically available online (e.g. NOAA's NCEI, EMODnet, IHO-DCDB, LDEO's GMRT), many are not. However, with the limited information we do have at hand, the question remains, where should we map next? And what criteria should we take into account? In 2016, a study was taken on as part of the efforts of the International Atlantic Seabed Mapping Working Group (ASMIWG). The ASMIWG, established by the Tri-Partite Galway Statement Implementation Committee, was tasked to develop a cohesive seabed mapping strategy for the Atlantic Ocean. The aim of our study was to develop a reproducible process for identifying and evaluating potential target areas within the North Atlantic that represent suitable sites for future bathymetric surveys. The sites were selected by applying a GIS-based suitability analysis that included specific user group-based parameters of the marine environment. Furthermore, information regarding current data coverage were gathered to take into account in the selection process. The results reveal the suitability of sites within the North Atlantic based on the selected criteria. Three potential target sites should be seen as flexible suggestions for future mapping initiatives rather than a rigid, defined set of areas

  19. Aging and Mobility in Rural and Small Urban Areas: A Survey of North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Jeremy W

    2011-12-01

    To investigate issues of aging and mobility in rural and small urban areas, this study analyzes the results from a survey AARP conducted of its North Dakota members. Specific objectives are to estimate the impact of age and other demographic and geographic characteristics on various measures of mobility, including ability to drive, use of public transportation, trip frequency for both discretionary and nondiscretionary travel, unmet travel demand, barriers to using public transportation, and satisfaction with available transportation options. Although most surveyed still drive, results show decreased mobility with increases in age and for people with disabilities due to decreases in driving and an increased likelihood of lack of transportation limiting the number of trips taken. People with disabilities were also significantly more likely to experience problems with public transportation. Women were found to be less likely to drive and more likely to use public transportation.

  20. A new spark detection system for the electrostatic septa of the SPS North (experimental) Area

    CERN Multimedia

    Barlow, R A; Borburgh, J; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Pinget, B

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic septa (ZS) are used in the extraction of the particle beams from the CERN SPS to the North Area experimental zone. These septa employ high electric fields, generated from a 300 kV power supply, and are particularly prone to internal sparking around the cathode structure. This sparking degrades the electric field quality, consequently affecting the extracted beam, vacuum and equipment performance. To mitigate these effects, a Spark Detection System (SDS) has been realised, which is based on an industrial SIEMENS S7-400 programmable logic controller and deported Boolean processors modules interfaced through a PROFINET fieldbus. The SDS interlock logic uses a moving average spark rate count to determine if the ZS performance is acceptable. Below a certain spark rate it is probable that the ZS septa tank vacuum can recover, thus avoiding transition into a\

  1. Geothermal Today: 2003 Geothermal Technologies Program Highlights (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-05-01

    This outreach publication highlights milestones and accomplishments of the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program for 2003. Included in this publication are discussions of geothermal fundamentals, enhanced geothermal systems, direct-use applications, geothermal potential in Idaho, coating technology, energy conversion R&D, and the GeoPowering the West initiative.

  2. Implications of Spatial Variability in Heat Flow for Geothermal Resource Evaluation in Large Foreland Basins: The Case of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Weides

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow and geothermal gradient of the sedimentary succession of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB are mapped based on a large thermal database. Heat flow in the deep part of the basin varies from 30 mW/m2 in the south to high 100 mW/m2 in the north. As permeable strata are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important aquifers are discussed and evaluated. Regional temperature distribution within different aquifers is mapped for the first time, enabling a delineation of the most promising areas based on thermal field and aquifer properties. Results of previous regional studies on the geothermal potential of the WCSB are newly evaluated and discussed. In parts of the WCSB temperatures as high as 100–210 °C exist at depths of 3–5 km. Fluids from deep aquifers in these “hot” regions of the WCSB could be used in geothermal power plants to produce electricity. The geothermal resources of the shallower parts of the WCSB (>2 km could be used for warm water provision (>50 °C or district heating (>70 °C in urban areas.

  3. Assessment of groundwater contamination risk in an agricultural area in north Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Bartzas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a specific approach is followed, considering the Pesticide DRASTIC and Susceptibility index (SI methods and a GIS framework, to assess groundwater vulnerability in the agricultural area of Albenga, in north Italy. The results indicate “high” to “very high” vulnerability to groundwater contamination along the coastline and the middle part of the Albenga plain, for almost 49% and 56% of the total study area for Pesticide DRASTIC and SI methods, respectively. These sensitive regions depict characteristics such as shallow depth to groundwater, extensive deposits of alluvial silty clays, flat topography and intensive agricultural activities. The distribution of nitrates concentration in groundwater in the study area is slightly better correlated with the SI (0.728 compared to Pesticide DRASTIC (0.693, thus indicating that both methods are characterized by quite good accuracy. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to acknowledge statistical uncertainty in the estimation of each parameter used, assess its impact and thus identify the most critical parameters that require further investigation in the future. Depth to water is the parameter that exhibited the largest impact on the Pesticide DRASTIC vulnerability index followed by the impact of the vadose zone and topography. On the other hand, the SI method is more sensitive to the removal of the topography parameter followed by the aquifer media and the depth to water parameters.

  4. Carbon Storages in Plantation Ecosystems in Sand Source Areas of North Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0–100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management. PMID:24349223

  5. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  6. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  7. Geothermal energy for greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacky Friedman

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy is heat (thermal) derived from the earth (geo). The heat flows along a geothermal gradient from the center of the earth to the surface. Most of the heat arrives at the surface of the earth at temperatures too low for much use. However, plate tectonics ensure that some of the heat is concentrated at temperatures and depths favorable for its commercial...

  8. Prospects of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzella, A.; Bianchi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy has great potential as a renewable energy with low environmental impact, the use of heat pumps is becoming established in Italy but the national contributions are still modest when compared to other nations. Mature technologies could double the installed geothermal power in Italy at 2020. [it

  9. Studies of geothermal background and isotopic geochemistry of thermal waters in Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenbin; Sun Zhanxue; Li Xueli; Shi Weijun

    1996-10-01

    The terrestrial heat flow measurement, isotope and geochemical techniques have been systematically applied to the geothermal systems in Jiangxi Province. Results show that the thermal waters in the study area all belong to the low-medium temperature convective geothermal system, which essentially differs from high temperature geothermal systems with deep magmatic heat sources. It has been proven that the isotope and geochemical techniques are very useful and effective in geothermal exploration. (13 refs., 14 tabs., 8 figs.)

  10. Interpretation of reflection seismics in the area North of Laegeren - Zurich Weinland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naef, H.; Birkhaeuser, P.; Roth, P.

    1995-05-01

    The investigations of potential siting areas for a repository for high-level radioactive waste which are concentrated in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland have been expanded since the late 1980s to include suitable sedimentary units. After extensive desk study evaluation, the approximately 100 m thick Opalinus Clay of the Tabular Jura east of the Aare river was chosen as the most promising sedimentary option. In this area not only the Opalinus Clay but also the over- and underlying units are clay-rich, in contrast to the tabular Jura west of the Aare river. In the area North of Laegeren - Zurich Weinland, where the Opalinus Clay is situated in the optimum depth range of 400 to 1000 m below surface, approximately 220 km of new high-resolution seismic profiles were recorded and interpreted together with existing seismic lines. Due to thorough field work and data processing, a very good quality of seismic lines was obtained. This allowed precise mapping of the marker horizons in general and the Opalinus Clay in detail. The goal of this study was to determine and delineate the most important tectonic units as well as to describe the potential host rocks in these units. By way of interactive interpretation of all available seismic lines, borehole data and surface data from the investigation area, depth maps of the most prominent marker horizons have been calculated and geological cross-sections constructed along the new seismic lines. The regional seismic character of the Middle Mesozoic units was modelled using borehole data from Weiach and Herdern. From this model the thickness of the Opalinus Clay along the new seismic lines was determined. The results indicate a relatively constant thickness of 95 to 120 m in the investigation area. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  11. Geothermal Exploration Case Studies on OpenEI (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.; Bennett, M.; Atkins, D.

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessment (Williams et al., 2008) outlined a mean 30 GWe of undiscovered hydrothermal resource in the western United States. One goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) is to accelerate the development of this undiscovered resource. DOE has focused efforts on helping industry identify hidden geothermal resources to increase geothermal capacity in the near term. Increased exploration activity will produce more prospects, more discoveries, and more readily developable resources. Detailed exploration case studies akin to those found in oil and gas (e.g. Beaumont and Foster, 1990-1992) will give developers central location for information gives models for identifying new geothermal areas, and guide efficient exploration and development of these areas. To support this effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been working with GTO to develop a template for geothermal case studies on the Geothermal Gateway on OpenEI. In 2012, the template was developed and tested with two case studies: Raft River Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Raft_River_Geothermal_Area) and Coso Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Coso_Geothermal_Area). In 2013, ten additional case studies were completed, and Semantic MediaWiki features were developed to allow for more data and the direct citations of these data. These case studies are now in the process of external peer review. In 2014, NREL is working with universities and industry partners to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough data set to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  12. Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-15

    Mexican Institute de Investigaciones de la Industria Electrica is actively participating. The program is itself a part of a natural resources study in...brtlan de Los Hervores geothermax area. Michoacan. Mexico. IN: ibid., v. 2, pt. 1, 381-398. 215. Mercado , S. Hißh activ.dy...indiciated that in the volcanic environment of the Taupo graben the most useful technique is de -resistivity profiling using linear arrays. 58

  13. Microearthquakes in the ahuachapan geothermal field, el salvador, central america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P L; Jacob, K H

    1971-07-23

    Microearthquakes occur on a steeply dipping plane interpreted here as the fault that allows hot water to circulate to the surface in the geothermal region. These small earthquakes are common in many geothermal areas and may occur because of the physical or chemical effects of fluids and fluid pressure.

  14. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA, HANFORD, WASHINGTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM(reg s ign) system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m (328 ft) and 200 m (656 ft)) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  15. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  16. The Silting-Up Prevention in the Geothermal Absorbent Openings of Geothermal Energy Plant Pyrzyce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noga Bogdan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents precipitation results from cold thermal water deposits that are the main cause of clogging in absorbent geothermal wells and borehole areas. As a result of physical and chemical analysis, laboratory tests and observation of the operation of a geothermal installation, a new method was developed to prevent the precipitation of sludge from cooled thermal water. The method being a modification of soft acidising was tentatively named as a super soft acidising method

  17. Renewability of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, Michael; Yeh, Angus [Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Mannington, Warren [Contact Energy Limited, Taupo (New Zealand)

    2010-12-15

    In almost all geothermal projects worldwide, the rate of extraction of heat energy exceeds the pre-exploitation rate of heat flow from depth. For example, current production of geothermal heat from the Wairakei-Tauhara system exceeds the natural recharge of heat by a factor of 4.75. Thus, the current rate of heat extraction from Wairakei-Tauhara is not sustainable on a continuous basis, and the same statement applies to most other geothermal projects. Nevertheless, geothermal energy resources are renewable in the long-term because they would fully recover to their pre-exploitation state after an extended shut-down period. The present paper considers the general issue of the renewability of geothermal resources and uses computer modeling to investigate the renewability of the Wairakei-Tauhara system. In particular, modeling is used to simulate the recovery of Wairakei-Tauhara after it is shut down in 2053 after a hundred years of production. (author)

  18. Geothermal Alteration of Basaltic Core from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Christopher Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Snake River Plain is located in the southern part of the state of Idaho. The eastern plain, on which this study focuses, is a trail of volcanics from the Yellowstone hotspot. Three exploratory geothermal wells were drilled on the Snake River Plain. This project analyzes basaltic core from the first well at Kimama, north of Burley, Idaho. The objectives of this project are to establish zones of geothermal alteration and analyze the potential for geothermal power production using sub-aquife...

  19. Fiscal 1998 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on data processing (No. B-6 - Tsujinodake area - Phase 2); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 2. No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The result of the data processing (Phase 1) and the result of the 1998 survey carried out for the Tsujinodake area, Kagoshima Prefecture, were subjected to a comprehensive analysis, and the state of existence of geothermal resources in this area was compiled into a report. In fiscal 1998, structural boring (N10-TD-1), thermal water examination, seismic exploration, environmental impact assessment, fluid inclusion examination, and rock dating were conducted. Some findings obtained from the comprehensive analysis are mentioned below. In the vicinity of structural borehole N10-TD-1, fluids move along geological boundaries and in permeable layers in the horizontal direction, with an aquiclude serving as a border. At levels deeper than 980m, there flows a mixture of seawater heated to approximately 135 degrees C by thermal conduction and water originating in Lake Ikeda. Still deeper, water from Ikeda Lake flows in and lowers the temperature. It is suggested that there may be a sharp and abrupt rise in temperature at levels deeper than the cooling region near the bottom of structural borehole N10-TD-1. It is inferred that the magma reservoir that produced the Tsujinodake lava is small as a heat source or that it has not yet formed a high temperature geothermal system shallow in the ground. (NEDO)

  20. Geothermal country update of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higo, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of geothermal energy in Japan. Topics covered include: present and planned production of electricity, present utilization of geothermal energy for direct heat, information about geothermal localities, and wells drilled for electrical utilization of geothermal resources to January 1, 1990

  1. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  2. Absence of remote earthquake triggering within the Coso and Salton Sea geothermal production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Lin, Guoqing; Zhan, Zhongwen; Chen, Xiaowei; Qin, Yan; Wdowinski, Shimon

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal areas are long recognized to be susceptible to remote earthquake triggering, probably due to the high seismicity rates and presence of geothermal fluids. However, anthropogenic injection and extraction activity may alter the stress state and fluid flow within the geothermal fields. Here we examine the remote triggering phenomena in the Coso geothermal field and its surrounding areas to assess possible anthropogenic effects. We find that triggered earthquakes are absent within the geothermal field but occur in the surrounding areas. Similar observation is also found in the Salton Sea geothermal field. We hypothesize that continuous geothermal operation has eliminated any significant differential pore pressure between fractures inside the geothermal field through flushing geothermal precipitations and sediments out of clogged fractures. To test this hypothesis, we analyze the pore-pressure-driven earthquake swarms, and they are found to occur outside or on the periphery of the geothermal production field. Therefore, our results suggest that the geothermal operation has changed the subsurface fracture network, and differential pore pressure is the primary controlling factor of remote triggering in geothermal fields.

  3. Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterson, Roelof; Boyles, Joseph Michael; Diebold, Peter Ulrich

    2010-06-08

    Methods of using geothermal energy to treat subsurface formations are described herein. Methods for using geothermal energy to treat a subsurface treatment area containing or proximate to hydrocarbons may include producing geothermally heated fluid from at least one subsurface region. Heat from at least a portion of the geothermally heated fluid may be transferred to the subsurface treatment area to heat the subsurface treatment area. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  4. Structural investigations of Great Basin geothermal fields: Applications and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nicholas H. [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark F [Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Because fractures and faults are commonly the primary pathway for deeply circulating hydrothermal fluids, structural studies are critical to assessing geothermal systems and selecting drilling targets for geothermal wells. Important tools for structural analysis include detailed geologic mapping, kinematic analysis of faults, and estimations of stress orientations. Structural assessments are especially useful for evaluating geothermal fields in the Great Basin of the western USA, where regional extension and transtension combine with high heat flow to generate abundant geothermal activity in regions having little recent volcanic activity. The northwestern Great Basin is one of the most geothermally active areas in the USA. The prolific geothermal activity is probably due to enhanced dilation on N- to NNE-striking normal faults induced by a transfer of NW-directed dextral shear from the Walker Lane to NW-directed extension. Analysis of several geothermal fields suggests that most systems occupy discrete steps in normal fault zones or lie in belts of intersecting, overlapping, and/or terminating faults. Most fields are associated with steeply dipping faults and, in many cases, with Quaternary faults. The structural settings favoring geothermal activity are characterized by subvertical conduits of highly fractured rock along fault zones oriented approximately perpendicular to the WNW-trending least principal stress. Features indicative of these settings that may be helpful in guiding exploration for geothermal resources include major steps in normal faults, interbasinal highs, groups of relatively low discontinuous ridges, and lateral jogs or terminations of mountain ranges.

  5. Great Western Malting Company geothermal project, Pocatello, Idaho. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, N.T.; McGeen, M.A.; Corlett, D.F.; Urmston, R.

    1981-12-23

    The Great Western Malting Company recently constructed a barley malting facility in Pocatello, Idaho, designed to produce 6.0 million bushels per year of brewing malt. This facility uses natural gas to supply the energy for germination and kilning processes. The escalating cost of natural gas has prompted the company to look at alternate and more economical sources of energy. Trans Energy Systems has investigated the viabiity of using geothermal energy at the new barley processing plant. Preliminary investigations show that a geothermal resource probably exists, and payback on the installation of a system to utilize the resource will occur in under 2 years. The Great Western Malting plant site has geological characteristics which are similar to areas where productive geothermal wells have been established. Geological investigations indicate that resource water temperatures will be in the 150 to 200/sup 0/F range. Geothermal energy of this quality will supply 30 to 98% of the heating requirements currently supplied by natural gas for this malting plant. Trans Energy Systems has analyzed several systems of utilizing the geothermal resource at the Great Western barley malting facility. These systems included: direct use of geothermal water; geothermal energy heating process water through an intermediary heat exchanger; coal or gas boosted geothermal systems; and heat pump boosted geothermal system. The analysis examined the steps that are required to process the grain.

  6. Work for the International Energy Agency's Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA) in 2006; Arbeiten fuer das IEA Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA) 2006 - Jahresbericht 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybach, L.; Megel, T.

    2006-12-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses work done in 2006 within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA). Information exchange with representatives of countries where geothermal energy is used is discussed as are the contributions made in this area by Swiss representatives. In particular, comprehensive appendices to the report present the Swiss Country Report, a basic paper on geothermal sustainability, comments on the environmental impact of geothermal energy development and risks posed by fluid injection in enhanced geothermal systems.

  7. Microbial community stratification controlled by the subseafloor fluid flow and geothermal gradient at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2014-10-01

    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Spatial Distribution Of Local Markets In Ife North Local Government Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMOTOYE-OMISORE Oyelola

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Researches have been carried out in the past by several authors concerning agricultural marketing without the use of geospatial techniques. This research therefore is meant to show the efficacy of Geographical Information System GIS in local market distribution. The role of market place as a man-made feature where goods and services are exchanged for the purpose of satisfying human needs cannot be overemphasized especially in the general development of villages and towns. This study shows the effectiveness of GIS without the use of metrics method to determine the agricultural market locations and closeness of the markets in Ife North Local Government area. Different kinds of people bring their goods from far and near villages for sale and sustainability in this research both primary and secondary data were collected. Primary data includes the use of Global Positioning System GPS receiver to collect coordinate points of the existing markets. It also involves verbal interview with market women. While secondary data were sourced from administrative maps and satellite images of the area of study it was geo-referenced and digitized. Arc Map was used to run average nearest neighbor analysis. Base on the analysis performed the major constraint facing the market people is poor road network which affect majority of the farmers in transporting their goods from remote villages as indicated in this study. As a result new markets sites were proposed with the use of geospatial techniques for easy accessibility.

  9. Geologic and operational summary, COST No. G-2 well, Georges Bank area, North Atlantic OCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Roger V.; Simonis, Edvardas K.

    1980-01-01

    The Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) No. G-2 well is the second deep well to be drilled in the Georges Bank Basin and the third in a series of COST wells on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The G-2 was drilled by Ocean Production Company, acting as the operator for 19 participating companies between January 6 and August 30, 1977. The semisubmersible rig Ocean Victory was used to drill the well to a depth of 21,874 feet at a location 132 statute miles east-southeast of Nantucket Island in 272 feet of water. An earlier deep Stratigraphic test, the COST No. G-l well, was drilled 42 statute miles west of the G-2 well, to a depth of 16,071 feet in 1976 (fig. 1). Geological and engineering data obtained from the well were used by companies and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluating the petroleum potential and possible drilling problems in the U.S. North Atlantic OCS area in preparation for lease sale 42 held on December 18, 1979. The Stratigraphic test was intentionally drilled away from any potential petroleum-bearing feature, but in a block bordering several tracts that were included in the sale area.

  10. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in riverine and marine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaohui; Tang Jianhui; Chen Yingjun; Li Jun; Zhang Gan

    2011-01-01

    PCN congeners were analyzed in marine and riverine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China. Concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.12 to 5.1 ng g -1 dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 1.1 ng g -1 dw. The levels of PCNs varied largely, with industrial group approximately ten folds higher than those of the rural in riverine sediment. A strong impact by direct discharge from local factories was suggested. Similar compositional profiles were found within groups. High resemblance of compositional profiles between industrial samples and Halowax 1014 was observed. It was indicated that PCNs in riverine sediments were mainly from release of industrial usage, with additional contributions from industrial thermal process at certain sites. In marine sediments, it was suggested that PCNs along the coast of Laizhou Bay were mainly controlled by riverine input. While in the central bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - Highlights: → We investigated the PCN levels both in the riverine and marine surface sediments of Laizhou Bay. → PCN concentrations in the river sediments of industrial group were ten times higher than in the rural group. → Leakage from industrial materials and thermal processes were the major sources. → PCNs in the coastal sites were more influenced by the river discharge. → In the centre bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - A systematic sampling of riverine and marine sediments was conducted in Laizhou Bay area to investigate the distribution and possible sources of PCNs.

  11. Flower colour variation and chromosome numbers in the north western distributional area of Turners sidoides (Turneraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana G. Solís Neffa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the evolutionary studies that are being carried out in Turners sidoides autopolyploid complex (x= 7, a systematic survey was made in the northwestern area (Bolivia of its distribution. Six populations with salmon flowers and thirty five with yellow ones of the subsp. pinnatifida were found. The distribution of these populations is associated with climatic and spatial variables. The populations with salmon flowers live in the dry forests (Chaco Boreal Biogeographical Province, while yellow flowered populations occur in the inter-andean valleys (Boliviano-Tucumana Biogeographical Province. All the population studied are diploid. The results obtained support the allopatric diversification model of populations with yellow and salmon flowers at the diploid level, probably favoured by the orographic barriers and climatic changes that have arisen during the Andes development and Quaternary glaciations. Moreover, our analysis evidences that the north western area of T. sidoides constitutes an important centre of variation of the subsp. pinnatifida and the major centre of diploids hitherto detected

  12. Study with liquid and steam tracers at the Tejamaniles area, Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Estudio con trazadores de liquido y vapor en el area Tejamaniles del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx; Flores Armenta, Magaly [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Reyes Delgado, Lisette [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    The Mexican Federal Commission for Electricity injects brines produced by nearby geothermal wells into well Az-08, located in the Tejamaniles area, in the southwestern portion of Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field. The main goals of this study are to determine whether or not the injected fluid recharges nine producing wells in the area, and if so, to estimate the fraction of the injected fluid recharging each producing well. Five of the selected wells produce mixes of liquid and steam and the rest produce only steam. For this reason, we designed this study with simultaneous injections of liquid- and steam-tracers. The nine selected producing wells detected the steam-tracer, and the five wells producing mixes detected the liquid-phase tracer. The residence curves of both tracers present a series of peaks reflecting the known fractured nature of the reservoir. The results show the feeding areas of the nine selected wells are recharged by the fluid injected into well Az-08. When this paper was written, the arrival of steam-tracers in all wells was completed, but the wells producing mixes of liquid and steam continued to record the arrival of the liquid-tracer. Until 407 days after injecting the tracer, the total percentage recovery of liquid phase tracer in the five wells producing mixes of liquid and steam was 3.5032%. The arrival of the steam tracer ended in all nine wells 205 days after the tracer was injected, with an overall recovery rate of 2.1553 x 10-2%. The recovery rates imply the recharge rates of the monitored wells by the injector Az-08 are modest, but it appears the amounts of the recovered liquid-phase tracer will increase significantly. The modest recovery rates suggest most of the fluid injected into the well Az-08 disperses in the reservoir, contributing to recharge and maintaining the pressure. Results reveal that: (i) the injected fluid is heated at depths from 700 to over 1000 m, where it boils and rises to reach the feeding areas of the

  13. Prospecting for a Blind Geothermal System Utilizing Geologic and Geophysical Data, Seven Troughs Range, Northwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Corina

    To aid in the discovery and evaluation of blind resources, it is important to utilize geologic, geophysical, and geochemical techniques to find the required elements (e.g., heat source, fluid to transport the heat, and permeability in a reservoir) for geothermal energy production. Based on a regional low resistivity anomaly discovered through a reconnaissance magnetotelluric (MT) survey, detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and a 2 m temperature survey were conducted to delineate the most likely areas for blind geothermal activity in the Seven Troughs Range, Nevada. The Seven Troughs Range resides in the northwestern Basin and Range province 190 km northeast of Reno and 50 km northwest of Lovelock in western Nevada. There is no known geothermal system in the area. Mesozoic metasedimentary strata and intrusions dominate the northern and southern parts of the range but are nonconformably overlain by a thick sequence (~ 1.5 km) of Oligocene to Miocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and Quaternary sediments in the central part of the range. The southern part of the range consists of a basement horst block bounded by two major range-front faults, with Holocene fault scarps marking the more prominent fault on the east side of the range. In contrast, several gently to moderately west-tilted fault blocks, with good exposures of the Tertiary volcanic strata and bounded by a series of steeply east-dipping normal faults, characterize the central part of the range. Kinematic analysis of faults in the range and regional relations indicate a west-northwest-trending extension direction. Accordingly, slip and dilation tendency analyses suggest that north-northeast striking faults are the most favorably oriented for reactivation and fluid flow under the current stress field. Two areas in the Seven Troughs Range have a favorable structural setting for generating permeability and channeling geothermal fluids to the near surface: 1) A major right step in the range

  14. Evaluating the Effect from Constructing Binary Geothermal Power Units Based on Spent Petroleum and Gas Boreholes in the South Regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.

    2018-02-01

    The article substantiates the possibility of efficiently harnessing the geothermal resources available in the North Caucasian region through constructing binary geothermal power plants (GeoTPPs) using idle petroleum and gas wells. The power capacities of GeoTPPs are evaluated, and the basic characteristics of these power plants in case of constructing them in the promising areas are determined. The overall useful GeoTPP capacity equal to approximately 330 MW can be obtained from using the entire fleet of idle wells available in these areas. Diagrams confirming the possibility of reaching the optimal flowrate of geothermal heat carrier circulating in the geothermal circulation system loop are presented. This flowrate corresponds to a binary GeoTPP's maximal useful power output. The article shows, taking the Ternair geothermal field as an example, that it is inefficient to use medium-enthalpy thermal waters for generating energy at a binary GeoTPP involving reinjection of a spent heat carrier. It is shown that good prospects can be expected from applying a hybrid geothermal and combined-cycle technology, by means of which it is possible to use lowenthalpy (80-100°C) thermal waters for generating electricity in a highly efficient manner. In accordance with such technology, geothermal heat is used in the binary GeoTPP cycle for heating low-boiling working fluid to its evaporation temperature. The working fluid is evaporated and superheated by using the heat of exhaust gases from a gas turbine power unit. Owing to combined use of the thermal water heat potential and the heat of exhaust gases from a gas turbine power plant in a hybrid process system, it becomes possible to obtain high power performance indicators of hybrid geothermal and combined-cycle power plants. This conclusion is confirmed by the results from numerical evaluations carried out as applied to the Ternair geothermal field. With the fully harnessed resource potential of the Ternair field, the total

  15. Analysis of characteristics and radiation safety situation of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ruilan; Li Jianhui; Wang Xiaoqing; Huang Mingquan

    2014-01-01

    According to the radiation safety management of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China, features and radiation safety conditions of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China were analyzed based on summarizing the inspection data for 2011-2013. So the main problems of radiation environment security on uranium mine were studied. The relevant management measures and recommendations were put forward, and the basis for environmental radiation safety management decision making of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in future was provided. (authors)

  16. The post collisional metamorphic evolution from Ultra High Temperature to Amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Odesan area during the Triassic collision between the North and South China cratons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Choon; Oh, Chang Whan; Kim, Tae Sung; Yi, Kee Wook

    2015-04-01

    The Odaesan Gneiss Complex (OGC) is the eastern end of the Hongseong-Odesan collision belt in Korean Peninsula which is the extension of the Dabie-Sulu collision belt between the North and South China blocks. The OGC mainly consists of banded and migmatitic gneiss with porphyritic granitoid and amphibolite. The banded gneiss can be subdivided into garnet-biotite and garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneisses. The highest metamorphic P/T conditions of the migmatitic and garnet-biotite banded gneiss were 760-820°C/6.3-7.2kbar and 810-840°C/7.2-7.8kbar respectively. On the other hand, the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss records 940-950°C/10.5-10.7kbar that is corresponded to UHT metamorphic condition. These data indicate that the peak UHT metamorphic condition of the study area was preserved only within the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss because its lower water content than other gneisses and UHT metamorphic mineral assemblage was completely replaced by the granulite facies metamorphism in other gneisses due to their higher water content than the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss. Finally all gneisses experienced amphibolite facies retrograde metamorphism which is observed locally within rocks, such as garnet rim and surrounding area. The peak UHT metamorphism is estimated to occur at ca. 250-230 Ma using SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age dating and was caused by the heat supplied from asthenospheric mantle through the opening formed by slab break-off during early post collision stage. The calculated metamorphic conditions represent that geothermal gradient of the study area during the post collision stage was 86°C/kbar indicating the regional low-P/T metamorphic event. Besides the Triassic metamorphic age, two Paleoproterozoic metamorphic ages of ca. 1930 and 1886 Ma are also recognized by the SHRIMP age dating from the banded gneisses and Paleoproterozoic emplacement age of ca. 1847 Ma is identified from the porphyritic granitoid which formed in the within plate tectonic

  17. ThermoGIS: An integrated web-based information system for geothermal exploration and governmental decision support for mature oil and gas basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.-D. van; Juez-Larre, J.; Mijnlieff, H.; Kronimus, A.; Gessel, S. van; Kramers, L.; Obdam, A.; Verweij, H.; Bonté, D.

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years the use of geothermal energy through implementation of low enthalpy geothermal production systems for both electricity and heating have been growing rapidly in north-western Europe. Geothermal exploration and production takes largely place in sedimentary basins at depths from 2

  18. Human-Modified Permafrost Complexes in Urbanized Areas of the Russian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenets, V. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    ) are formed in the urban territories, which are characterized by modified permafrost characteristics, by the new set of cryogenic processes, and by modified temperature trends. NTGC classification depends on initial natural settings and on type, intensity and duration of technogenic pressure. For instance, field reconnaissance of permafrost and geological conditions resulted in characterization of 17 NTGC types in Norilsk industrial area, 11 types in Yamburg Gas Condensate Field, Tazovsky Peninsula, and 32 types along gas and oil pipelines in the north of Western Siberia. Particular interest presents the dynamics of NTGC depending on the scale of urban system, on the set of its elements and on duration of technogenic impacts on permafrost. Important aspect is assessment of climate change impacts on structures and environment in various areas on permafrost

  19. The geopressured-geothermal resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wys, J.N.; Dorfman, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the Geopressured-Geothermal resource has an estimated 5,700 recoverable quad of gas and 11,000 recoverable quad of thermal energy in the onshore Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts area alone. After 15 years the program is now beginning a transition to commercialization. The program presently has three geopressured-geothermal wells in Texas and Louisiana. The Pleasant Bayou Well has a 1 MWe hybrid power system converting some gas and the thermal energy to electricity. The Gladys McCall Well produced over 23 MM bbls brine with 23 scf per bbl over 4 1/2 years. It is now shut-in building up pressure. The deep Hulin Well has been cleaned out and short term flow tested. It is on standby awaiting funds for long-term flow testing. In January 1990 an Industrial Consortium for the Utilization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource was convened at Rice University, Houston, TX. Sixty-five participants heard industry cost-shared proposals for using the hot geopressured brine. Proposals ranged from thermal enhanced oil recovery to aquaculture, conversion, and environmental clean up processes. By the September meeting at UTA-Balcones Research Center, industry approved charters will have been received, an Advisory Board will be appointed, and election of officers from industry will he held

  20. Klamath Falls geothermal field, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230{degree}F (38 to 110{degree}C) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppM dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. 73 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Technologies for the exploration of highly mineralized geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    The prospects of the integrated processing of the high-parameter geothermal resources of the East Ciscaucasia of artesian basin (ECAB) with the conversion of their heat energy into electric energy at a binary geoPP and the subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds from thermal waters are evaluated. The most promising areas for the exploration such resources are overviewed. The integrated exploration of hightemperature hydrogeothermal brines is a new trend in geothermal power engineering, which can make it possible to significantly increase the production volume of hydrogeothermal resources and develop the geothermal field at a higher level with the realization of the energy-efficient advanced technologies. The large-scale exploration of brines can solve the regional problems of energy supply and import substitution and fulfill the need of Russia in food and technical salt and rare elements. The necessity of the primary integrated exploration of the oil-field highly mineralized brines of the South Sukhokumskii group of gas-oil wells of Northern Dagestan was shown in view of the exacerbated environmental problems. Currently, the oil-field brines with the radioactive background exceeding the allowable levels are discharged at disposal fields. The technological solutions for their deactivation and integrated exploration are proposed. The realization of the proposed technological solutions provides 300 t of lithium carbonate, 1650 t of caustic magnesite powder, 27300 t of chemically precipitated chalk, 116100 t of food salt, and up to 1.4 mln m3 of desalinated water from oil-field brines yearly. Desalinated water at the output of a geotechnological complex can be used for different economic needs, which is important for the arid North Caucasus region, where the fresh water deficiency is acute, especially in its plain part within the ECAB.

  2. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, July-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B. C.; Toth, W. J. [comps.

    1981-10-01

    The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. Background information is provided; program objectives and the technical approach that is used are discussed; and the benefits of the program are described. The summary of findings is presented. Prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are covered and findings and recommendations are summarized. The commercialization activities carried out by the respective state teams are described for the following: Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

  3. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountai