WorldWideScience

Sample records for geothermal activity addresses

  1. Federal Interagency Geothermal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Prencipe, Loretta [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Todaro, Richard M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Cuyler, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eide, Elizabeth [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This collaborative document describes the roles and responsibilities of key Federal agencies in the development of geothermal technologies including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), including the U.S. Forest Service; the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI), including the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and the Department of Defense (DOD).

  2. Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, Ernie [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Nelson, James [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Robertson-Tait, Ann [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Savy, Jean [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Wong, Ivan [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This Protocol is a living guidance document for geothermal developers, public officials, regulators and the general public that provides a set of general guidelines detailing useful steps to evaluate and manage the effects of induced seismicity related to EGS projects.

  3. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  4. Geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, C.J.

    1992-10-01

    Since September 1978, microseismic networks have operated continuously around US Department of Energy (DOE) geopressured-geothermal well sites to monitor any microearthquake activity in the well vicinity. Microseismic monitoring is necessary before flow testing at a well site to establish the level of local background seismicity. Once flow testing has begun, well development may affect ground elevations and/or may activate growth faults, which are characteristic of the coastal region of southern Louisiana and southeastern Texas where these geopressured-geothermal wells are located. The microseismic networks are designed to detest small-scale local earthquakes indicative of such fault activation. Even after flow testing has ceased, monitoring continues to assess any microearthquake activity delayed by the time dependence of stress migration within the earth. Current monitoring shows no microseismicity in the geopressured-geothermal prospect areas before, during, or after flow testing

  5. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES UNDER COMPREHENSIVE UTILIZATION OF GEOTHERMAL SALINE WATER RESOURCES IN THE NORTHERN DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Ramazanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study is to develop technologies for processing geothermal brine produced with the extraction of oil as well as to solve environmental problems in the region.Methods. In order to determine the chemical composition and radioactivity of the geothermal water and solid samples, we used atomic absorption and gamma spectrometry. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the technology was made on the basis of experimental studies.Results. In the geothermal water, eight radionuclides were recognized and quantified with the activity of 87 ± 5 Bq / dm3. For the processing of this water to produce lithium carbonate and other components we propose a technological scheme, which provides a step of water purification from radio-nuclides. As a result of aeration and alkalinization, we can observe deactivation and purification of the geothermal water from mechanical impurities, iron ions, hydrogen carbonates and organic substances. Water treatment allows recovering lithium carbonate, magnesite caustic powder and salt from geothermal water. The mother liquors produced during manufacturing operations meet the requirements for the water suitable for waterflooding of oil reservoirs and can be injected for maintaining the reservoir pressure of the deposits.Conclusion. The implementation of the proposed processing technology of mineralized geothermal water produced with the extraction of oil in the Northern Dagestan will contribute to extend the life of the oil fields and improve the environmental problems. It will also allow import substitution in Russia for lithium carbonate and edible salt.

  7. Outline of geothermal activity in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franko, O.; Bodis, D.; Dendek, M.; Remsik, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that in respect of different geothermal conditions in the Bohemian Massif (unfavorable) and in the West Carpathians (favorable), the development and utilization of geothermal energy are concentrated in Slovakia. THe utilization of geothermal energy for the heating of buildings in spas commenced in 1958. Thermal energy of geothermal waters was used for direct heating through heat exchangers, and in one case by a heat pump. Concentrated continuous development and utilization of geothermal energy started in 1971

  8. Overview of geothermal activities in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dhia, H.

    1990-01-01

    For Tunisia, the oil crisis and the decrease in local energy resources gave impetus to geothermal energy for potential assessment, exploration and utilization. Research undertaken showed a country with real potentialities either by its important deep aquifers or by the relatively high values of geothermal gradient and heat flow. This paper reports that it is expected that these efforts of geothermal investigation will continue in the future

  9. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, F.; Kappelmeyer, O.; Herde, O.A.

    1992-01-01

    Objective of this brochure is to present the subject Geothermics and the possible use of geothermal energy to the public. The following aspects will be refered to: -present energy situation -geothermal potential -use of geothermal energy -environemental aspects -economics. In addition, it presents an up-dated overview of geothermal projects funded by the German government, and a list of institutions and companies active in geothermal research and developments. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Geothermal exploitation activity by the United Nations in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. (Geological Survey of Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The Rift Valley in Ethiopia was investigated for geothermal exploitation by the United Nations because it has Quaternary volcanoes which often indicate possible geothermal power generation. Preparations for the project are still being made, and the chemical analysis of hot springs is being conducted. The Rift Valley has high temperature springs and potential mineral deposits. The Danakil basin in Ethiopia which is included in the Northern Afar, has several active volcanoes made up of basalt deposits and has active hot springs. The East Africa Rift Valley, the Red Sea Rift Valley, and the Afar area are also areas suitable for investigation. Seven maps are included.

  11. Geothermal Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluska, Oscar P.; Tangir, Daniel; Perri, Matias S.

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of geothermal energy is given that includes a short description of the active and stable areas in the world. The possibilities of geothermal development in Argentina are analyzed taking into account the geothermal fields of the country. The environmental benefits of geothermal energy are outlined

  12. Geothermal wells: a forecast of drilling activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.L.; Mansure, A.J.; Miewald, J.N.

    1981-07-01

    Numbers and problems for geothermal wells expected to be drilled in the United States between 1981 and 2000 AD are forecasted. The 3800 wells forecasted for major electric power projects (totaling 6 GWe of capacity) are categorized by type (production, etc.), and by location (The Geysers, etc.). 6000 wells are forecasted for direct heat projects (totaling 0.02 Quads per year). Equations are developed for forecasting the number of wells, and data is presented. Drilling and completion problems in The Geysers, The Imperial Valley, Roosevelt Hot Springs, the Valles Caldera, northern Nevada, Klamath Falls, Reno, Alaska, and Pagosa Springs are discussed. Likely areas for near term direct heat projects are identified.

  13. Documentation of the status of international geothermal power plants and a list by country of selected geothermally active governmental and private sector entities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This report includes the printouts from the International Geothermal Power Plant Data Base and the Geothermally Active Entity Data Base. Also included are the explanation of the abbreviations used in the power plant data base, maps of geothermal installations by country, and data base questionnaires and mailing lists.

  14. Documentation of the status of international geothermal power plants and a list by country of selected geothermally active governmental and private sector entities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This report includes the printouts from the International Geothermal Power Plant Data Base and the Geothermally Active Entity Data Base. Also included are the explanation of the abbreviations used in the power plant data base, maps of geothermal installations by country, and data base questionnaires and mailing lists

  15. Geothermal studies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji-Yang; Chen Mo-Xiang; Wang Ji-An; Deng Xiao; Wang Jun; Shen Hsien-Chieh; Hsiung Liang-Ping; Yan Shu-Zhen; Fan Zhi-Cheng; Liu Xiu-Wen

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuosly since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research of geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; (3) geothermal studies in mines. (orig./ME)

  16. Unzen volcanic rocks as heat source of geothermal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Masao; Sugiyama, Hiromi

    1987-03-25

    Only a few radiometric ages have been reported so far for the Unzen volcanic rocks. In this connection, in order to clarify the relation between volcanism and geothermal activity, fission track ages of zircon seperated from the Unzen volcanic rocks in western Kyushu have been dated. Since all the rocks are thought to be young, the external surface re-etch method was adopted. The results are that the age and standard error of the basal volcaniclastic rocks of the Tatsuishi formation are 0.28 +- 0.05 Ma and 0.25 +- 0.05 Ma. The next oldest Takadake lavas range from 0.26 to 0.20 Ma. The Kusenbudake lavas fall in a narrow range from 0.19 to 0.17 Ma. The latest Fugendake lavas are younger than 0.07 Ma.In conclusion, the most promising site for geothermal power generation is the Unzen hot spring field because of its very high temperature. After that, comes the Obama hot spring field because of the considerable high temperature chemically estimated. In addition, the northwestern area of the Unzen volcanic region will be promising for electric power generation in spite of no geothermal manifestations, since its volcanos are younger than 0.2 Ma. (14 figs, 14 tabs, 22 refs)

  17. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Testing Activity, Frio Formation, Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to provide the environmental input into the Division of Geothermal Energy's decisions to expand the geothermal well testing activities to include sites in the Frio Formation of Texas and Louisiana. It is proposed that drilling rigs be leased before they are removed from sites in the formation where drilling for gas or oil exploration has been unsuccessful and that the rigs be used to complete the drilling into the geopressured zone for resource exploration. This EA addresses, on a regional basis, the expected activities, affected environment, and the possible impacts in a broad sense as they apply to the Gulf Coast well testing activity of the Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram of the Department of Energy. Along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast (Plate 1 and Overlay, Atlas) water at high temperatures and high pressures is trapped within Gulf basin sediments. The water is confined within or below essentially impermeable shale sequences and carries most or all of the overburden pressure. Such zones are referred to as geopressured strata. These fluids and sediments are heated to abnormally high temperatures (up to 260 C) and may provide potential reservoirs for economical production of geothermal energy. The obvious need in resource development is to assess the resource. Ongoing studies to define large-sand-volume reservoirs will ultimately define optimum sites for drilling special large diameter wells to perform large volume flow production tests. in the interim, existing well tests need to be made to help define and assess the resource.

  18. Technical support for geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has operated continuous-recording, microearthquake monitoring networks at geopressured-geothermal test well sites since 1980. These microseismic networks were designed to detect microearthquakes indicative of fault activation and/or subsidence that can potentially result from the deep subsurface withdrawal and underground disposal of large volumes of brine during well testing. Seismic networks were established before the beginning of testing to obtain background levels of seismicity. Monitoring continued during testing and for some time after cessation of flow testing to assess any delayed microseismicity caused by the time dependence of stress migration within the earth. No flow testing has been done at the Hulin well since January 1990, and the Pleasant Bayou well has been shut down since September 1992. Microseismic monitoring continued at the Hulin and Pleasant Bayou sites until 31 December 1992, at which time both operations were shut down and field sites dismantled. During 1992, the networks recorded seismic signals from earthquakes, sonic booms, geophysical blasting, thunderstorms, etc. However, as in previous years, no local microseismic activity attributable to geopressured-geothermal well testing was recorded

  19. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  20. Natural radioactivity levels of geothermal waters and their influence on soil and agricultural activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat Saç, Müslim; Aydemir, Sercan; Içhedef, Mutlu; Kumru, Mehmet N; Bolca, Mustafa; Ozen, Fulsen

    2014-01-01

    All over the world geothermal sources are used for different purposes. The contents of these waters are important to understand positive/negative effects on human life. In this study, natural radioactivity concentrations of geothermal waters were investigated to evaluate the effect on soils and agricultural activities. Geothermal water samples were collected from the Seferihisar Geothermal Region, and the radon and radium concentrations of these waters were analysed using a collector chamber method. Also soil samples, which are irrigated with geothermal waters, were collected from the surroundings of geothermal areas, and natural radioactivity concentrations of collected samples (U, Th and K) were determined using an NaI(Tl) detector system. The activity concentrations of radon and radium were found to be 0.6-6.0 and 0.1-1.0 Bq l(-1), respectively. Generally, the obtained results are not higher compared with the geothermal waters of the world. The activity concentrations in soils were found to be in the range of 3.3-120.3 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra (eU), 0.3-108.5 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th (eTh), 116.0-850.0 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K (% K).

  1. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, J.D.; Rapport, A.

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request. ?? 1983.

  2. Calc-silicate mineralization in active geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, D.K.; Schiffman, P.; Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; McDowell, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    The detailed study of calc-silicate mineral zones and coexisting phase relations in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system were used as examples for thermodynamic evaluation of phase relations among minerals of variable composition and to calculate the chemical characteristics of hydrothermal solutions compatible with the observed calc-silicate assemblages. In general there is a close correlation between calculated and observed fluid compositions. Calculated fugacities of O{sub 2} at about 320{degrees}C in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system are about five orders of magnitude less than that at the nearby Salton Sea geothermal system. This observation is consistent with the occurrence of Fe{sup 3+} rich epidotes in the latter system and the presence of prehnite at Cerro Prieto.

  3. Active geothermal systems as natural analogs of HLW repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; Cohen, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    Geologic analogs of long-lived processes in high-level waste (HLW) repositories have been much studied in recent years. However, most of these occurrences either involve natural processes going on today at 25 degree C, or, if they are concerned with behavior at temperatures similar to the peak temperatures anticipated near HLW canisters, have long since ended. This paper points out the usefulness of studying modern geothermal systems as natural analogs, and to illustrate the concept with a dramatic example, the Salton Sea geothermal system (SSGS)

  4. Activities to Address Challenges in Digital Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Lund , Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Part 3: Structures and Networks; International audience; Based on a literature review, this paper identifies four socio-technical challenges relating to innovation actor’s interactions in digital innovation. Furthermore, the paper explores how these challenges can be addressed. The challenges are investigated in a case study of digital innovation. The study is based on a two year long research and development project where an e-newspaper concept and a demonstrator based on e-paper technology ...

  5. Addresses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Point features representing locations of all street addresses in Orange County, NC including Chapel Hill, NC. Data maintained by Orange County, the Town of Chapel...

  6. The MEMOLED: Active addressing with passive driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2011-01-01

    Passive or active matrix driving schemes in large displays are prone to high power consumption and cost, respectively. For signage applications such as large out-door displays with low refresh rates there is as yet no technological solution. Here the MEMOLED solution, an organic light-emitting diode

  7. The MEMOLED : Active Addressing with Passive Driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, Kamal; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2011-01-01

    Passive or active matrix driving schemes in large displays are prone to high power consumption and cost, respectively. For signage applications such as large outdoor displays with low refresh rates there is as yet no technological solution. Here the MEMOLED solution, an organic light-emitting diode

  8. Young (gold deposits and active geothermal systems of the Great Basin: Enigmas, questions, and exploration potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, Mark F.; Vikre, Peter G.; Faulds, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Young gold systems in the Great Basin (£ 7 Ma), though not as well studied as their older counterparts, comprise a rapidly growing and in some ways controversial group. The gold inventory for these systems has more than doubled in the last 5 years from roughly 370 tonnes (12 Moz) to 890 tonnes (29 Moz). Although these deposits are characterized by low grades, tonnages can be high and stripping ratios low, and they have been mined profitably, as exemplified by Florida Canyon and Hycroft. Active geothermal systems in the Great Basin also comprise a rapidly growing group, as evidenced by a number of recent discoveries of geothermal groundwater and a more than 50% increase in electricity production capacity from these systems in the last 5 years. Many young gold deposits are closely associated with active geothermal systems, suggesting that gold deposits may be forming today in the Great Basin. Measured or estimated geothermal reservoir temperatures commonly approach or exceed 200∞C, and other characteristics and processes (advanced argillic caps, hydrothermal eruption breccias) of these young deposits resemble those of nearby Tertiary precious metal deposits. Nonetheless, many young gold systems, especially in Nevada, are not associated with coeval igneous rocks. Similarly, almost all electricity-grade geothermal systems in Nevada are not associated with Quaternary silicic volcanic rocks, and have lower temperature gradients, lower 3He/4He ratios, and lower dissolved trace element concentrations than most magmatic-heated geothermal systems elsewhere in the world. The increasing economic significance of young gold deposits and active geothermal systems justifies more research to better understand their origins, particularly because in some aspects they remain enigmatic and controversial. Are young gold deposits in Nevada truly amagmatic, or have they received metal and fluid contributions from magmas deeper within the crust? Has gold in these deposits been

  9. Recent tectonic stress field, active faults and geothermal fields (hot-water type) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tianfeng

    1984-10-01

    It is quite probable that geothermal fields of the hot-water type in China do not develop in the absence of recently active faults. Such active faults are all controlled by tectonic stress fields. Using the data of earthquake fault-plane solutions, active faults, and surface thermal manifestations, a map showing the recent tectonic stress field, and the location of active faults and geothermal fields in China is presented. Data collected from 89 investigated prospects with geothermal manifestations indicate that the locations of geothermal fields are controlled by active faults and the recent tectonic stress field. About 68% of the prospects are controlled by tensional or tensional-shear faults. The angle between these faults and the direction of maximum compressive stress is less than 45°, and both tend to be parallel. About 15% of the prospects are controlled by conjugate faults. Another 14% are controlled by compressive-shear faults where the angle between these faults and the direction maximum compressive stress is greater than 45°.

  10. Tectonic and Structural Controls of Geothermal Activity in the Great Basin Region, Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulds, J. E.; Hinz, N.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    We are conducting a thorough inventory of structural settings of geothermal systems (>400 total) in the extensional to transtensional Great Basin region of the western USA. Most of the geothermal systems in this region are not related to upper crustal magmatism and thus regional tectonic and local structural controls are the most critical factors controlling the locations of the geothermal activity. A system of NW-striking dextral faults known as the Walker Lane accommodates ~20% of the North American-Pacific plate motion in the western Great Basin and is intimately linked to N- to NNE-striking normal fault systems throughout the region. Overall, geothermal systems are concentrated in areas with the highest strain rates within or proximal to the eastern and western margins of the Great Basin, with the high temperature systems clustering in transtensional areas of highest strain rate in the northwestern Great Basin. Enhanced extension in the northwestern Great Basin probably results from the northwestward termination of the Walker Lane and the concomitant transfer of dextral shear into west-northwest directed extension, thus producing a broad transtensional region. The capacity of geothermal power plants also correlates with strain rates, with the largest (hundreds of megawatts) along the Walker Lane or San Andreas fault system, where strain rates range from 10-100 nanostrain/yr to 1,000 nanostrain/yr, respectively. Lesser systems (tens of megawatts) reside in the Basin and Range (outside the Walker Lane), where local strain rates are typically fracture density, and thus enhanced permeability. Other common settings include a) intersections between normal faults and strike-slip or oblique-slip faults (27%), where multiple minor faults connect major structures and fluids can flow readily through highly fractured, dilational quadrants, and b) normal fault terminations or tip-lines (22%), where horse-tailing generates closely-spaced faults and increased permeability

  11. Geothermal handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    presented which will allow the Service to provide input to the federal leasing process. As an impact information source by which to judge the appropriateness of a specific activity at a specific site, a discussion of activities-impacts is provided on a phase by phase basis. Mitigation and possible enhancement techniques are also presented so that the impacts of the development can be dealt with and the fish and wildlife situation improved. The Service can achieve its objective only if biological input is made throughout the entire process of geothermal development, from exploration to testing to full field operation. A discussion of geothermal leasing procedures emphasizes the timing and nature of Service participation in current interagency lease processing, and there is a provision for the utilization of new knowledge, techniques, and responses as experience is accumulated.

  12. Geothermal fields of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearey, P.; HongBing, Wei

    1993-08-01

    There are over 2500 known occurrences of geothermal phenomena in China. These lie mainly in four major geothermal zones: Xizang (Tibet)-Yunnan, Taiwan, East Coast and North-South. Hot water has also been found in boreholes in major Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basins. This paper presents a summary of present knowledge of these geothermal zones. The geological settings of geothermal occurrences are associated mainly with magmatic activity, fault uplift and depressional basins and these are described by examples of each type. Increased multipurpose utilisation of geothermal resources is planned and examples are given of current usages.

  13. Geothermal energy in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1993-11-01

    The potential of geothermal energy utilization in Jordan was discussed. The report gave a summary of the location of geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and of ongoing projects that utilize geothermal energy for greenhouse heating, fish farming, refrigeration by absorption, and water desalination of deep aquifers. The problems facing the utilization of geothermal energy in Jordan were identified to be financial (i.e. insufficient allocation of local funding, and difficulty in getting foreign financing), and inadequate expertise in the field of geothermal energy applications. The report gave a historical account of geothermal energy utilization activities in Jordan, including cooperation activities with international organizations and foreign countries. A total of 19 reports already prepared in the areas of geochemical and hydrological studies were identified. The report concluded that the utilization of geothermal energy offers some interesting economic possibilities. (A.M.H.). 4 refs. 1 map

  14. Origin and Distribution of Thiophenes and Furans in Gas Discharges from Active Volcanoes and Geothermal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tassi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition of non-methane organic volatile compounds (VOCs determined in 139 thermal gas discharges from 18 different geothermal and volcanic systems in Italy and Latin America, consists of C2–C20 species pertaining to the alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and O-, S- and N-bearing classes of compounds. Thiophenes and mono-aromatics, especially the methylated species, are strongly enriched in fluids emissions related to hydrothermal systems. Addition of hydrogen sulphide to dienes and electrophilic methylation involving halogenated radicals may be invoked for the formation of these species. On the contrary, the formation of furans, with the only exception of C4H8O, seems to be favoured at oxidizing conditions and relatively high temperatures, although mechanisms similar to those hypothesized for the production of thiophenes can be suggested. Such thermodynamic features are typical of fluid reservoirs feeding high-temperature thermal discharges of volcanoes characterised by strong degassing activity, which are likely affected by conspicuous contribution from a magmatic source. The composition of heteroaromatics in fluids naturally discharged from active volcanoes and geothermal areas can then be considered largely dependent on the interplay between hydrothermal vs. magmatic contributions. This implies that they can be used as useful geochemical tools to be successfully applied in both volcanic monitoring and geothermal prospection.

  15. Origin and distribution of thiophenes and furans in gas discharges from active volcanoes and geothermal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, Franco; Montegrossi, Giordano; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Vaselli, Orlando

    2010-03-31

    The composition of non-methane organic volatile compounds (VOCs) determined in 139 thermal gas discharges from 18 different geothermal and volcanic systems in Italy and Latin America, consists of C(2)-C(20) species pertaining to the alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and O-, S- and N-bearing classes of compounds. Thiophenes and mono-aromatics, especially the methylated species, are strongly enriched in fluids emissions related to hydrothermal systems. Addition of hydrogen sulphide to dienes and electrophilic methylation involving halogenated radicals may be invoked for the formation of these species. On the contrary, the formation of furans, with the only exception of C(4)H(8)O, seems to be favoured at oxidizing conditions and relatively high temperatures, although mechanisms similar to those hypothesized for the production of thiophenes can be suggested. Such thermodynamic features are typical of fluid reservoirs feeding high-temperature thermal discharges of volcanoes characterised by strong degassing activity, which are likely affected by conspicuous contribution from a magmatic source. The composition of heteroaromatics in fluids naturally discharged from active volcanoes and geothermal areas can then be considered largely dependent on the interplay between hydrothermal vs. magmatic contributions. This implies that they can be used as useful geochemical tools to be successfully applied in both volcanic monitoring and geothermal prospection.

  16. Final report. Geothermal Energy Program: Information dissemination, public outreach, and technical analysis activities. April 1, 1999 to December 31, 2001. USDOE Grant No. DE-FG01-99-EE35098

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2002-03-22

    This is the final report of the accomplishments of the geothermal energy program: information dissemination, public outreach, and technical analysis activities by the project team consisting of the Geo-Heat Center, Geothermal Resources Council, Geothermal Education Office, Geothermal Energy Association, and the Washington State University Energy Program.

  17. Continuous gravity monitoring of geothermal activity; Renzoku juryoku sokutei ni yoru chinetsu katsudo no monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, M [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    To clarify the geothermal activity in the geothermal fields in New Zealand, gravity monitoring was conducted using SCINTREX automatic gravimeter. The measurements were conducted between the end of January and the beginning of March, 1996. Firstly, continuous monitoring was conducted at the standard point for about ten days, and the tidal components were estimated from the records. After that, continuous monitoring was conducted at Waimangu area for several days. Continuous monitoring was repeated at the standard point, again. At the Waimangu area, three times of changes in the pulse-shape amplitude of 0.01 mgal having a width of several hours were observed. For the SCINTREX gravimeter, the inclination of gravimeter is also recorded in addition to the change of gravity. During the monitoring, the gravimeter was also inclined with the changes of gravity. This inclination was useful not only for the correction of gravity measured, but also for evaluating the ground fluctuation due to the underground pressure source. It is likely that the continuous gravity monitoring is the relatively conventional technique which is effective for prospecting the change of geothermal reservoir. 2 figs.

  18. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  19. Geothermic analysis of high temperature hydrothermal activities area in Western plateau of Sichuan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is a high temperature hydrothermal activity area in the western plateau of Sichuan. More than 200 hot springs points have been found in the region, including 11 hot spring water temperature above local boiling point. Most of these distribute along Jinshajjiang fracture, Dege-Xiangcheng fracture, Ganzi-Litang fracture as well as Xianshuihe fracture, and form three high-temperature hydrothermal activity strips in the NW-SE direction. Using gravity, magnetic, seismic and helium isotope data, this paper analyzed the crust-mantle heat flow structure, crustal heat source distribution and water heating system. The results show that the geothermal activity mainly controlled by the "hot" crust. The ratio of crustal heat flow and surface heat flow is higher than 60%. In the high temperature hydrothermal activities area, there is lower S wave velocity zone with VsGeothermal water mainly reserve in the Triassic strata of the containing water good carbonate rocks, and in the intrusive granite which is along the fault zone. The thermal energy of Surface heat thermal activities mainly comes from the high-temperature hot source which is located in the middle and lower crust. Being in the deep crustal fracture, the groundwater infiltrated to the deep crust and absorbed heat, then, quickly got back to the surface and formed high hot springs.

  20. Estimation of tritium radiotracer activity for interconnection study in geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasi Prasetio; Satrio

    2016-01-01

    Tritium radiotracer (3H) has been applied widely in many geothermal fields around the world. This application was done by injecting radiotracer with certain amount of activity into reinjection well in order to investigate interconnection between reinjection well with surrounding production wells. The activity of injected radiotracer must meets the field condition and the volume of reservoir, detection limit of instrument, as well as safety aspect for the workers and environment from radioactive hazard. The planning of injection process must consider the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) and minimum detection limit (MDL). Based on calculation, tritium radiotracer injection in Kamojang geothermal field can be done with minimal activity of 0.15 Ci and maximum 22100 Ci, while in Lahendong field minimum activity of 0.65 Ci and maximum 7230 Ci. In these two injection studies, tritium was detected in monitoring wells between MDL and MPC limit. By using this estimation calculation, the activity of tritium that released into the environment within safety limit, thus monitoring wells with undetectable tritium infer no connectivity between those wells with reinjection well. (author)

  1. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  2. Seismic properties of fluid bearing formations in magmatic geothermal systems: can we directly detect geothermal activity with seismic methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grab, Melchior; Scott, Samuel; Quintal, Beatriz; Caspari, Eva; Maurer, Hansruedi; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2016-04-01

    Seismic methods are amongst the most common techniques to explore the earth's subsurface. Seismic properties such as velocities, impedance contrasts and attenuation enable the characterization of the rocks in a geothermal system. The most important goal of geothermal exploration, however, is to describe the enthalpy state of the pore fluids, which act as the main transport medium for the geothermal heat, and to detect permeable structures such as fracture networks, which control the movement of these pore fluids in the subsurface. Since the quantities measured with seismic methods are only indirectly related with the fluid state and the rock permeability, the interpretation of seismic datasets is difficult and usually delivers ambiguous results. To help overcome this problem, we use a numerical modeling tool that quantifies the seismic properties of fractured rock formations that are typically found in magmatic geothermal systems. We incorporate the physics of the pore fluids, ranging from the liquid to the boiling and ultimately vapor state. Furthermore, we consider the hydromechanics of permeable structures at different scales from small cooling joints to large caldera faults as are known to be present in volcanic systems. Our modeling techniques simulate oscillatory compressibility and shear tests and yield the P- and S-wave velocities and attenuation factors of fluid saturated fractured rock volumes. To apply this modeling technique to realistic scenarios, numerous input parameters need to be indentified. The properties of the rock matrix and individual fractures were derived from extensive literature research including a large number of laboratory-based studies. The geometries of fracture networks were provided by structural geologists from their published studies of outcrops. Finally, the physical properties of the pore fluid, ranging from those at ambient pressures and temperatures up to the supercritical conditions, were taken from the fluid physics

  3. Culture X: addressing barriers to physical activity in Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Emma Marie; Auvaa, Leveti; Conway, Brooke A

    2017-08-01

    There is an urgent need to address the epidemic rates of non-communicable diseases globally, and the Pacific Island region is of particular concern. Increasing physical activity participation plays an important role in reducing some of the key risk factors for non-communicable diseases including obesity and being overweight. In order to address low levels of physical activity, it is essential to understand the key barriers and facilitating factors experienced by specific population groups. The purpose of this study is to investigate key facilitating factors for participation in a dance aerobic initiative, Culture X, developed in the Pacific Island country, Samoa. The study further aims to understand ways in which the programme assists participants in addressing barriers to physical activity. Face-to-face interviews running from 10 to 20 min were conducted with 28 Culture X participants in order to gain a deep understanding of participants' personal perspectives with regard to barriers and facilitating factors to physical activity. Findings suggest the inclusion of key cultural components (including, traditional dance moves and music, prayer, community orientation and family inclusiveness) were integral for supporting ongoing participation in Culture X. These components further assisted participants in addressing important personal and social barriers to physical activity (including lack of motivation and enjoyment, lack of confidence, time management, family and social commitments and lack of support). This study highlights creative ways that health promotion in the Pacific Island region can encourage physical activity and informs health promotion literature regarding the importance of placing local culture at the heart of behaviour change initiatives. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Neutron activation analysis of core and drill cutting samples from geothermal well drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of sandstones and shales were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for a total of 30 elements. Three irradiation and five counting periods were employed. Solutions and National Bureau of Standards Reference Materials were used for comparison. The samples were obtained from drill cuttings (with a few core samples) from drillings in the Salton Sea geothermal field of California. These determinations form part of a major study to establish elemental variation as a function of mineral variation as depth and temperature in the well vary. The overall goal is to examine mineral alteration and/or element migration under typical geothermal conditions. The techniques involve typical compromises between maximizing precision for individual element determinations and the amount of time and effort that can be expended, as it is desired to examine large numbers of samples. With the limitations imposed by the reactor flux available at the U.C.Irvine TRIGA reactor, the detectors available, and time factors, most precisions are acceptable for geological comparison purposes. Some additional measurements were made by delayed-neutron counting methods to compare with uranium determinations made by conventional instrumental neutron activation analysis methods. (author)

  5. Geothermal Energy Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained with the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost- effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy -- the heat of the Earth -- is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40% of the total US energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma ( the four types of geothermal energy) still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program

  6. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-01-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development

  7. Geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparovic, N

    1962-07-01

    Live steam, transformed steam, and steam produced by expansion flashing are outlined with respect to their use in the production of electricity. The capacity, pressure, and temperature of a steam must be determined empirically by exploratory drilling. These factors are dependent on time and on the extent of nearby drilling-activity. Particulars of geothermal-steam power-plants such as steam dryness, hot-water flashing, condensation, gas extraction, and corrosion are discussed in detail. All available data (as per 1962) concerning the costs of operation and construction of geothermal power plants are tabulated. For space-heating purposes, two basic systems are utilized. When little corrosion or precipitation is expected, an open system is used, otherwise, closed systems are necessary. The space-heating system of Reykjavik, Iceland is cited as an example. A brief description of industrial applications of geothermal energy, such as the extraction of NaCl, D/sub 2/O, or boric acid, is provided. Thirty-two references are given.

  8. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes a study initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  9. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This study was initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  10. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  11. Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G. [UNR; Driscoll, N. [UCSD; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R. [USGS; Louie, J. [UNR; Pullammanappallil, S. [Optim

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie M. Kell, Graham Kent, Neal W. Driscoll, Robert E. Karlin, Robert L. Baskin, John N. Louie, Kenneth D. Smith, Sathish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 5-9, abstract NS14A-08.

  12. Review of International Geothermal Activities and Assessment of US Industry Opportunites: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-08-01

    This report contains detailed summaries, with bibliographies, of past, present, and planned geothermal development in 71 selected countries and areas. The report gives a pretty good description of types of work that had been done in each country by the mid 1980s, but does not tell much about which geothermal-provider country did the work. There are maps for most of the countries. There are numbers for market factors, but not for estimated geothermal potential. The information in this document has been superceded by the country summaries in the World Geothermal Congress Transactions of 1995, 2000, and 2005. This report was prepared by Meridian Corporation, Alexandria, VA. (DJE 2005)

  13. NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM (NGDS) GEOTHERMAL DATA DOMAIN: ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY DATA NEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [United States Department of Energy; Blackwell, David [Southern Methodist University; Chickering, Cathy [Southern Methodist University; Boyd, Toni [Oregon Institute of Technology; Horne, Roland [Stanford University; MacKenzie, Matthew [Uberity Technology Corporation; Moore, Joseph [University of Utah; Nickull, Duane [Uberity Technology Corporation; Richard, Stephen [Arizona Geological survey; Shevenell, Lisa A. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-01-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to ad- vance geothermal energy as a viable renewable ener- gy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is in- vesting in the development of the National Geother- mal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to sup- ply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are dis- cussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geother- mal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS in- cludes a work plan that addresses data assets and re- sources of interest to users, a survey of data provid- ers, data content models, and how data will be ex- changed and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  14. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of geothermal energy may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of geothermal energy, the geothermal resource, hydrothermal fluids, electricity production, district heating, process heating, geopressured brines, technology and costs, hot dry rock, magma, and environmental and siting issues

  15. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  16. Geothermal spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, J.L.; Takahashi, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    The spa business, part of the health and fitness industry that has sprung up in recent years, is highly successful world-wide. The most traditional type of spa is the geothermal spa, found in geothermal areas around the world. In Japan, for example, some 2,000 geothermal spas and resorts generate $6 billion annually. Hawaii has an ideal environment for geothermal spas, and several locations in the islands could supply warm mineral water for spa development. Hawaii receives about 6 million visitors annually, a high percentage of whom are familiar with the relaxing and therapeutic value of geothermal spas, virtually guaranteeing the success of this industry in Hawaii. Presently, Hawaii does not have a single geothermal spa. This paper reports that the geothermal spa business is an industry whose time has come, an industry that offers very promising investment opportunities, and one that would improve the economy while expanding the diversity of pleasurable vacation options in Hawaii

  17. Geothermal heat can cool, too

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellstein, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at how geothermal energy can not only be used to supply heating energy, but also be used to provide cooling too. The article reports on a conference on heating and cooling with geothermal energy that was held in Duebendorf, Switzerland, in March 2008. The influence of climate change on needs for heating and cooling and the need for additional knowledge and data on deeper rock layers is noted. The seasonal use of geothermal systems to provide heating in winter and cooling in summer is discussed. The planning of geothermal probe fields and their simulation is addressed. As an example, the geothermal installations under the recently renewed and extended 'Dolder Grand' luxury hotel in Zurich are quoted. The new SIA 384/6 norm on geothermal probes issued by the Swiss Association of Architects SIA is briefly reviewed.

  18. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, Ph.; Lemale, J.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source which consists in exploiting the heat coming from the Earth. It covers a wide range of techniques and applications which are presented in this article: 1 - the Earth, source of heat: structure of the Earth, geodynamic model and plate tectonics, origin of heat, geothermal gradient and terrestrial heat flux; 2 - geothermal fields and resources; 3 - implementation of geothermal resources: exploration, main characteristic parameters, resource exploitation; 4 - uses of geothermal resources: power generation, thermal uses, space heating and air conditioning heat pumps, district heating, addition of heat pumps; 5 - economical aspects: power generation, heat generation for district heating; 6 - environmental aspects: conditions of implementation, impacts as substitute to fossil fuels; 7 - geothermal energy in France: resources, organisation; 8 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  19. The impact of temperature on microbial diversity and AOA activity in the Tengchong Geothermal Field, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haizhou; Yang, Qunhui; Li, Jian; Gao, Hang; Li, Ping; Zhou, Huaiyang

    2015-11-01

    Using a culture-independent method that combines CARD-FISH, qPCR and 16S rDNA, we investigated the abundance, community structure and diversity of microbes along a steep thermal gradient (50-90 °C) in the Tengchong Geothermal Field. We found that Bacteria and Archaea abundance changed markedly with temperature changes and that the number of cells was lowest at high temperatures (90.8 °C). Under low-temperature conditions (52.3-74.6 °C), the microbial communities were dominated by Bacteria, which accounted for 60-80% of the total number of cells. At 74.6 °C, Archaea were dominant, and at 90.8 °C, they accounted for more than 90% of the total number of cells. Additionally, the microbial communities at high temperatures (74.6-90.8 °C) were substantially simpler than those at the low-temperature sites. Only a few genera (e.g., bacterial Caldisericum, Thermotoga and Thermoanaerobacter, archaeal Vulcanisaeta and Hyperthermus) often dominated in high-temperature environments. Additionally, a positive correlation between Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea (AOA) activity and temperature was detected. AOA activity increased from 17 to 52 pmol of NO2- per cell d-1 with a temperature change from 50 to 70 °C.

  20. The impact of temperature on microbial diversity and AOA activity in the Tengchong Geothermal Field, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haizhou; Yang, Qunhui; Li, Jian; Gao, Hang; Li, Ping; Zhou, Huaiyang

    2015-11-26

    Using a culture-independent method that combines CARD-FISH, qPCR and 16S rDNA, we investigated the abundance, community structure and diversity of microbes along a steep thermal gradient (50-90 °C) in the Tengchong Geothermal Field. We found that Bacteria and Archaea abundance changed markedly with temperature changes and that the number of cells was lowest at high temperatures (90.8 °C). Under low-temperature conditions (52.3-74.6 °C), the microbial communities were dominated by Bacteria, which accounted for 60-80% of the total number of cells. At 74.6 °C, Archaea were dominant, and at 90.8 °C, they accounted for more than 90% of the total number of cells. Additionally, the microbial communities at high temperatures (74.6-90.8 °C) were substantially simpler than those at the low-temperature sites. Only a few genera (e.g., bacterial Caldisericum, Thermotoga and Thermoanaerobacter, archaeal Vulcanisaeta and Hyperthermus) often dominated in high-temperature environments. Additionally, a positive correlation between Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea (AOA) activity and temperature was detected. AOA activity increased from 17 to 52 pmol of NO2(-) per cell d(-1) with a temperature change from 50 to 70 °C.

  1. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  2. Geothermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. Fo...

  3. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Du, H.; Bouchot, V.; Lopez, S.; Bialkowski, A.; Colnot, A.; Rigollet, C.; Sanjuan, B.; Millot, R.; Brach, M.; Asmundsson, R.; Giroud, N.

    2010-01-01

    Geothermal energy has shown a revival for several years and should strongly develop in a near future. Its potentiality is virtually unexhaustible. Its uses are multiple and various: individual and collective space heating, heat networks, power generation, heat storage, heat exchanges etc.. Re-launched by the demand of renewable energy sources, geothermal energy has become credible thanks to the scientific works published recently which have demonstrated its economical and technical relevance. Its image to the public is changing as well. However, lot of work remains to do to make geothermal energy a real industry in France. Several brakes have to be removed rapidly which concern the noise pollution of geothermal facilities, the risk of bad results of drillings, the electricity costs etc. This dossier gives an overview of today's main research paths in the domain of geothermal energy: 1 - geothermal energy in France: historical development, surface and deep resources, ambitions of the French national energy plan (pluri-annual investment plan for heat generation, incentives, regional 'climate-air-energy' schemes), specific regulations; 2 - geothermal energy at the city scale - sedimentary basins: Ile-de-France 40 years of Dogger reservoir exploitation, potentialities of clastic reservoirs - the Chaunoy sandstones example; 3 - geothermal power generation: conventional reservoirs - the Bouillante model (Guadeloupe, French Indies); the Soultz-sous-Forets pilot plant (Bas-Rhin, France); the supercritical reservoirs - the Krafla geothermal area (Iceland). (J.S.)

  4. Issues related to geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, G.O.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of potential barriers to geothermal development in Hawaii which have been overcome but some remain. Efforts continue to address issues relating to transmission, project economics, the regulatory process, resource verification, and public acceptance

  5. Development of an active solar humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination system integrated with geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elminshawy, Nabil A.S.; Siddiqui, Farooq R.; Addas, Mohammad F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Productivity increases with increasing geothermal water flow rate up to 0.15 kg/s. • Geothermal energy increases productivity by 187–465% when used with solar energy. • Daytime experimental productivity (8AM-5PM) up to 104 L/m"2 was achieved. • Daily experimental productivity (24 h) up to 192 L/m"2 was achieved. • Fresh potable water can be produced at 0.003 USD/L using this desalination setup. - Abstract: This paper investigates the technical and economic feasibility of using a hybrid solar-geothermal energy source in a humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination system. The newly developed HDH system is a modified solar still with air blower and condenser used at its inlet and outlet respectively. A geothermal water tank in a temperature range 60–80 °C which imitates a low-grade geothermal energy source was used to supply heat to water inside the humidification chamber. The experiments were conducted in January 2015 under the climatological conditions of Madinah (latitude: 24°33′N, longitude: 39°36′0″E), Saudi Arabia to study the effect of geothermal water temperature and flow rate on the performance and productivity of proposed desalination system. Analytical model was also developed to compare the effect of solar energy and combined solar-geothermal energy on accumulated productivity. Daytime experimental accumulated productivity up to 104 L/m"2 and daily average gained output ratio (GOR) in the range 1.2–1.58 was achieved using the proposed desalination system. Cost of fresh water produced using the presented desalination system is 0.003 USD/L.

  6. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappelmeyer, O.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth. It represents an inexhaustible source of energy. In many countries, which are mostly located within the geothermal belts of the world, geothermal energy is being used since many decades for electricity generation and direct heating applications comprising municipal, industrial and agricultural heating. Outside the geothermal anomalous volcanic regions, hot ground water from deep rock formations at temperatures above 70 o C is used for process heat and space heating. Low prices for gas and oil hinder the development of geothermal plants in areas outside positive geothermal anomalies; the cost of drilling to reach depths, where temperatures are above 50 o C to 70 o C, is high. The necessary total investment per MW th installed capacity is in the order of 5 Mio- DM/MW th (3 Mio $/MW th ). Experience shows, that an economic break even with oil is reached at an oil price of 30$ per barrel or if an adequate bonus for the clean, environmentally compatible production of geothermal heat is granted. Worldwide the installed electric capacity of geothermal power plants is approximately 6 000 MW e . About 15 000 MW th of thermal capacity is being extracted for process heat and space heat. The importance of the terrestrial heat as an energy resource would be substantially increased, if the heat, stored in the hot crystalline basement could be extracted at economical production costs. Geothermal energy is a competitive energy source in areas with high geothermal gradients (relative low cost for drilling) and would be competitive in areas with normal geothermal gradients, if a fair compensation for environmental implications from fossil and nuclear power production would be granted. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  7. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) Geothermal Data: Community Requirements and Information Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [United States Department of Energy; Blackwell, David [Southern Methodist University; Chickering, Cathy [Southern Methodist University; Boyd, Toni [Oregon Institute of Technology; Horne, Roland [Stanford University; MacKenzie, Matthew [Uberity Technology Corporation; Moore, Joseph [University of Utah; Nickull, Duane [Uberity Technology Corporation; Richard, Stephen [Arizona Geological survey; Shevenell, Lisa A. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-10-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to advance geothermal energy as a viable renewable energy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is investing in the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to supply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are discussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geothermal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS includes a work plan that addresses data assets and resources of interest to users, a survey of data providers, data content models, and how data will be exchanged and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  8. Geothermal studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji-Yang, Wang; Mo-Xiang, Chen; Ji-An, Wang; Xiao, Deng; Jun, Wang; Hsien-Chieh, Shen; Liang-Ping, Hsiung; Shu-Zhen, Yan; Zhi-Cheng, Fan; Xiu-Wen, Liu; Ge-Shan, Huang; Wen-Ren, Zhang; Hai-Hui, Shao; Rong-Yan, Zhang

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuously since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research on geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; and (3) geothermal studies in mines. Regional geothermal studies have been conducted recently in North China and more than 2000 values of subsurface temperature have been obtained. Temperatures at a depth of 300 m generally range from 20 to 25°C with geothermal gradients from 20 to 40°C/km. These values are regarded as an average for the region with anomalies related to geological factors. To date, 22 reliable heat flow data from 17 sites have been obtained in North China and the data have been categorized according to fault block tectonics. The average heat flow value at 16 sites in the north is 1.3 HFU, varying from 0.7 to 1.8 HFU. It is apparent that the North China fault block is characterized by a relatively high heat flow with wide variations in magnitude compared to the mean value for similar tectonic units in other parts of the world. It is suggested that although the North China fault block can be traced back to the Archaean, the tectonic activity has been strengthening since the Mesozoic resulting in so-called "reactivation of platform" with large-scale faulting and magmatism. Geothermal resources in China are extensive; more than 2000 hot springs have been found and there are other manifestations including geysers, hydrothermal explosions, hydrothermal steam, fumaroles, high-temperature fountains, boiling springs, pools of boiling mud, etc. In addition, there are many Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basins with widespread aquifers containing geothermal water resources in abundance. The extensive exploration and exploitation of these geothermal resources began early in the 1970's. Since then

  9. 1990 update of the United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Paola, G.M.; Stefansson, V.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Technical Co-operation for Development (UN/DTCD), is the United Nations executing agency for technical co-operation projects in developing countries. This paper reports that the UN/DTCD, inter alia, has played an important role for 30 years to promote geothermal resources exploration and development in many developing countries worldwide. During the period 1985-1990 some major geothermal projects have been executed and very successfully completed by the UN/DTCD, thanks to the availability of sufficient funds provided by the international community. New geothermal project proposals in 20 developing countries totaling an estimated financial requirement of $60 million have also been formulated by the UN/DTCD during the last 5 years

  10. Feasibility of Geothermal Energy Extraction from Non-Activated Petroleum Wells in Arun Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarifudin, M.; Octavius, F.; Maurice, K.

    2016-09-01

    The big obstacle to develop geothermal is frequently came from the economical viewpoint which mostly contributed by the drilling cost. However, it potentially be tackled by converting the existing decommissioned petroleum well to be converted for geothermal purposes. In Arun Field, Aceh, there are 188 wells and 62% of them are inactive (2013). The major obstacle is that the outlet water temperature from this conversion setup will not as high as the temperature that come out from the conventional geothermal well, since it will only range from 60 to 180oC depending on several key parameters such as the values of ground temperature, geothermal gradient in current location, the flow inside of the tubes, and type of the tubes (the effect from these parameters are studied). It will just be considered as low to medium temperature, according to geothermal well classification. Several adjustments has to be made such as putting out pipes inside the well that have been used to lift the oil/gas and replacing them with a curly long coil tubing which act as a heat exchanger. It will convert the cold water from the surface to be indirectly heated by the hot rock at the bottom of the well in a closed loop system. In order to make power production, the binary cycle system is used so that the low to medium temperature fluid is able to generate electricity. Based on this study, producing geothermal energy for direct use and electricity generation in Arun Field is technically possible. In this study case, we conclude that 2900 kW of electricity could be generated. While for-direct utility, a lot of local industries in Northern Sumatera could get the benefits from this innovation.

  11. Promoting Physical Activity: Addressing Barriers and Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron; Morrow, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The barriers that keep individuals from adopting and maintaining active lifestyles are very complex. Strategies for overcoming these barriers and to incentivize and assist inactive individuals to benefit from physical activity are necessary. In addition, it is important to examine the impact of public policy on active living. As youth physical…

  12. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  13. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuataz, F.-D.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives a general overview of the past and present development of geothermal energy worldwide and a more detailed one in Switzerland. Worldwide installed electrical power using geothermal energy sources amounts to 8900 MW el . Worldwide utilization of geothermal energy for thermal applications amounts to 28,000 MW th . The main application (56.5%) is ground-coupled heat pumps, others are thermal spas and swimming pools (17.7%), space heating (14.9%), heating of greenhouses (4.8%), fish farming (2.2%), industrial uses (1,8%), cooling and melting of snow (1.2%), drying of agricultural products (0.6 %). Switzerland has become an important user of geothermal energy only in the past 25 years. Earlier, only the exploitation of geothermal springs (deep aquifers) in Swiss thermal baths had a long tradition, since the time of the Romans. Today, the main use of geothermal energy is as a heat source for heat pumps utilizing vertical borehole heat exchangers of 50 to 350 meters length. 35,000 installations of this type with heating powers ranging from a few kW to 1000 kW already exist, representing the highest density of such installations worldwide. Other developments are geostructures and energy piles, the use of groundwater for heating and cooling, geothermal district heating, the utilization of draining water from tunnels and the project 'Deep Heat Mining' allowing the combined production of heat and electric power

  14. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemale, J.

    2009-01-01

    The geothermal energy, listed among the new and renewable energy sources, is characterized by a huge variety of techniques and applications. This book deals with the access to underground geothermal resources and with their energy valorization as well. After a presentation of the main geological, hydrogeological and thermal exploitation aspects of this resource, the book presents the different geothermal-related industries in detail, in particular the district heating systems, the aquifer-based heat pumps, the utilizations in the agriculture, fishery and balneology sectors, and the power generation. (J.S.)

  15. Copper-arsenic decoupling in an active geothermal system: A link between pyrite and fluid composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardani, Daniele; Reich, Martin; Deditius, Artur P.; Chryssoulis, Stephen; Sánchez-Alfaro, Pablo; Wrage, Jackie; Roberts, Malcolm P.

    2017-05-01

    Over the past few decades several studies have reported that pyrite hosts appreciable amounts of trace elements which commonly occur forming complex zoning patterns within a single mineral grain. These chemical zonations in pyrite have been recognized in a variety of hydrothermal ore deposit types (e.g., porphyry Cu-Mo-Au, epithermal Au deposits, iron oxide-copper-gold, Carlin-type and Archean lode Au deposits, among others), showing, in some cases, marked oscillatory alternation of metals and metalloids in pyrite growth zones (e.g., of Cu-rich, As-(Au, Ag)-depleted zones and As-(Au, Ag)-rich, Cu-depleted zones). This decoupled geochemical behavior of Cu and As has been interpreted as a result of chemical changes in ore-forming fluids, although direct evidence connecting fluctuations in hydrothermal fluid composition with metal partitioning into pyrite growth zones is still lacking. In this study, we report a comprehensive trace element database of pyrite from the Tolhuaca Geothermal System (TGS) in southern Chile, a young and active hydrothermal system where fewer pyrite growth rims and mineralization events are present and the reservoir fluid (i.e. ore-forming fluid) is accessible. We combined the high-spatial resolution and X-ray mapping capabilities of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) with low detection limits and depth-profiling capacity of secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in a suite of pyrite samples retrieved from a ∼1 km drill hole that crosses the argillic (20-450 m) and propylitic (650-1000 m) alteration zones of the geothermal system. We show that the concentrations of precious metals (e.g., Au, Ag), metalloids (e.g., As, Sb, Se, Te), and base and heavy metals (e.g., Cu, Co, Ni, Pb) in pyrite at the TGS are significant. Among the elements analyzed, As and Cu are the most abundant with concentrations that vary from sub-ppm levels to a few wt.% (i.e., up to ∼5 wt.% As, ∼1.5 wt.% Cu). Detailed wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (WDS) X

  16. Geothermal progress monitor: Report No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    DOE is particularly concerned with reducing the costs of geothermal power generation, especially with the abundant moderate to low-temperature resources in the US. This concern is reflected in DOE`s support of a number of energy conversion projects. Projects which focus on the costs and performance of binary cycle technology include a commercial demonstration of supersaturated turbine expansions, which earlier studies have indicated could increase the power produced per pound of fluid. Other binary cycle projects include evaluations of the performance of various working fluid mixtures and the development and testing of advanced heat rejection systems which are desperately needed in water-short geothermal areas. DOE is also investigating the applicability of flash steam technology to low-temperature resources, as an economic alternative to binary cycle systems. A low-cost, low-pressure steam turbine, selected for a grant, will be constructed to utilize fluid discharged from a flash steam plant in Nevada. Another project addresses the efficiency of high-temperature flash plants with a demonstration of the performance of the Biphase turbine which may increase the power output of such installations with no increase in fluid flow. Perhaps the most noteworthy feature of this issue of the GPM, the 17th since its inception in 1980, is the high degree of industry participation in federally-sponsored geothermal research and development. This report describes geothermal development activities.

  17. "Assistance to States on Geothermal Energy"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda Sikkema; Jennifer DeCesaro

    2006-07-10

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, related to geothermal energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on geothermal energy—Contract Number DE-FG03-01SF22367—with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of geothermal energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of responses to information requests on geothermal energy and publications. The publications addressed: geothermal leasing, geothermal policy, constitutional and statutory authority for the development of geothermal district energy systems, and state regulation of geothermal district energy systems. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about geothermal energy for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to geothermal energy in the states. Coordination with the National Geothermal Collaborative: NCSL worked and coordinated with the National Geothermal Collaborative (NGC) to ensure that state legislatures were represented in all aspects of the NGC's efforts. NCSL participated in NGC steering committee conference calls, attended and participated in NGC business meetings and reviewed publications for the NGC. Additionally, NCSL and WSUEP staff drafted a series of eight issue briefs published by the

  18. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, P.T.

    2002-08-31

    This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2001. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy.

  19. Geothermal progress monitor report No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor Report No. 6 presents a state-by-state summary of the status of geothermal leasing, exploration, and development in major physiographic regions where geothermal resource potential has been identified. Recent state-specific activities are reported at the end of each state status report, while recent activities of a more general nature are summarized briefly in Part II of the report. A list of recent publications of potential interest to the geothermal community and a directory of contributors to the geothermal progress monitoring system are also included.

  20. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  1. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  2. Geothermal industry assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

  3. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Progress is reported on the following: electrical uses, direct-heat uses, drilling activities, leases, geothermal loan guarantee program, general activities, and legal, institutional, and regulatory activites. (MHR)

  4. Nanodiamonds as Carriers for Address Delivery of Biologically Active Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petunin AI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surface of detonation nanodiamonds was functionalized for the covalent attachment of immunoglobulin, and simultaneously bovine serum albumin and Rabbit Anti-Mouse Antibody. The nanodiamond-IgGI125 and RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complexes are stable in blood serum and the immobilized proteins retain their biological activity. It was shown that the RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complex is able to bind to the target antigen immobilized on the Sepharose 6B matrix through antibody–antigen interaction. The idea can be extended to use nanodiamonds as carriers for delivery of bioactive substances (i.e., drugs to various targets in vivo.

  5. Geophysics of Geothermal Areas: State of the Art and Future Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabey, Don R.

    In May 1980 a workshop organized by the Advanced School of Geophysics of the Ettore Majorana Center for Scientific Culture was held in Erice, Italy. The purpose was to present the state of the art and future development of geophysics as related to exploration for geothermal resources and the environmental impact of the development of geothermal systems. The workshop was addressed to “younger researchers working in scientific institutions and in public or private agencies and who are particularly interested in these aspects of the energy problem.” Fourteen formal lectures were presented to the workshop. This volume contains papers based on 10 of these lectures with a preface, forward, and introduction by the editors. The ten papers are “Heat Transfer in Geothermal Areas,” “Interpretation of Conductive Heat Flow Anomalies,” “Deep Electromagnetic Soundings in Geothermal Exploration,” “A Computation Method for dc Geoelectric Fields,” “Measurement of Ground Deformation in Geothermal Areas,” “Active Seismic Methods in Geothermal Exploration,” “The Role of Geophysical Investigations in the Discovery of the Latera Geothermal Field,” “Geothermal Resources Exploration in the European Community: The Geophysical Case,” “Activity Performed by AGIP (ENI Group) in the Field of Geothermal Energy,” and “Geothermal Exploration in the Western United States.” Six of the authors are from Italy, and one each is from Iceland, the Netherlands, West Germany, and the United States. All of the papers are in English.

  6. Actively addressed single pixel full-colour plasmonic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Daniel; Frank, Russell; Wu, Shin-Tson; Chanda, Debashis

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic, colour-changing surfaces have many applications including displays, wearables and active camouflage. Plasmonic nanostructures can fill this role by having the advantages of ultra-small pixels, high reflectivity and post-fabrication tuning through control of the surrounding media. However, previous reports of post-fabrication tuning have yet to cover a full red-green-blue (RGB) colour basis set with a single nanostructure of singular dimensions. Here, we report a method which greatly advances this tuning and demonstrates a liquid crystal-plasmonic system that covers the full RGB colour basis set, only as a function of voltage. This is accomplished through a surface morphology-induced, polarization-dependent plasmonic resonance and a combination of bulk and surface liquid crystal effects that manifest at different voltages. We further demonstrate the system's compatibility with existing LCD technology by integrating it with a commercially available thin-film-transistor array. The imprinted surface interfaces readily with computers to display images as well as video.

  7. Heat‐tolerant Flowering Plants of Active Geothermal Areas in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    STOUT, RICHARD G.; AL‐NIEMI, THAMIR S.

    2002-01-01

    A broad survey of most of the major geyser basins within Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, USA) was conducted to identify the flowering plants which tolerate high rhizosphere temperatures (≥40 °C) in geothermally heated environments. Under such conditions, five species of monocots and four species of dicots were repeatedly found. The predominant flowering plants in hot soils (>40 °C at 2–5 cm depth) were grasses, primarily Dichanthelium lanuginosum. Long‐term (weeks to months) rhizosphere temperatures of individual D. lanuginosum above 40 °C were recorded at several different locations, both in the summer and winter. The potential role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the apparent adaptation of these plants to chronically high rhizosphere temperatures was examined. Antibodies to cytoplasmic class I small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) and to HSP101 were used in Western immunoblot analyses of protein extracts from plants collected from geothermally heated soils. Relatively high levels of proteins reacting with anti‐sHSP antibodies were consistently detected in root extracts from plants experiencing rhizosphere temperatures above 40 °C, though these proteins were usually not highly expressed in leaf extracts from the same plants. Proteins reacting with antibodies to HSP101 were also present both in leaf and root extracts from plants collected from geothermal soils, but their levels of expression were not as closely related to the degree of heat exposure as those of sHSPs. PMID:12197524

  8. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Cross

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the GTP’s involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including GHPs.† The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  9. Effect of Hydrothermal Alteration on Rock Properties in Active Geothermal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikisek, P.; Bignall, G.; Sepulveda, F.; Sass, I.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrothermal alteration records the physical-chemical changes of rock and mineral phases caused by the interaction of hot fluids and wall rock, which can impact effective permeability, porosity, thermal parameters, rock strength and other rock properties. In this project, an experimental approach has been used to investigate the effects of hydrothermal alteration on rock properties. A rock property database of contrastingly altered rock types and intensities has been established. The database details horizontal and vertical permeability, porosity, density, thermal conductivity and thermal heat capacity for ~300 drill core samples from wells THM12, THM13, THM14, THM17, THM18, THM22 and TH18 in the Wairakei-Tauhara geothermal system (New Zealand), which has been compared with observed hydrothermal alteration type, rank and intensity obtained from XRD analysis and optical microscopy. Samples were selected from clay-altered tuff and intercalated siltstones of the Huka Falls Formation, which acts as a cap rock at Wairakei-Tauhara, and tuffaceous sandstones of the Waiora Formation, which is a primary reservoir-hosting unit for lateral and vertical fluid flows in the geothermal system. The Huka Falls Formation exhibits argillic-type alteration of varying intensity, while underlying Waiora Formations exhibits argillic- and propylithic-type alteration. We plan to use a tempered triaxial test cell at hydrothermal temperatures (up to 200°C) and pressures typical of geothermal conditions, to simulate hot (thermal) fluid percolation through the rock matrix of an inferred "reservoir". Compressibility data will be obtained under a range of operating (simulation reservoir) conditions, in a series of multiple week to month-long experiments that will monitor change in permeability and rock strength accompanying advancing hydrothermal alteration intensity caused by the hot brine interacting with the rock matrix. We suggest, our work will provide new baseline information concerning

  10. Towards the Understanding of Induced Seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland [Array Information Technology, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Dreger, Douglas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Heidbach, Oliver [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam (Germany, German Research Center for Geosciences; Hutchings, Lawrence [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-29

    This DOE funded project was a collaborative effort between Array Information Technology (AIT), the University of California at Berkeley (UCB), the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam - German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). It was also part of the European research project “GEISER”, an international collaboration with 11 European partners from six countries including universities, research centers and industry, with the goal to address and mitigate the problems associated with induced seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). The goal of the current project was to develop a combination of techniques, which evaluate the relationship between enhanced geothermal operations and the induced stress changes and associated earthquakes throughout the reservoir and the surrounding country rock. The project addressed the following questions: how enhanced geothermal activity changes the local and regional stress field; whether these activities can induce medium sized seismicity M > 3; (if so) how these events are correlated to geothermal activity in space and time; what is the largest possible event and strongest ground motion, and hence the potential hazard associated with these activities. The development of appropriate technology to thoroughly investigate and address these questions required a number of datasets to provide the different physical measurements distributed in space and time. Because such a dataset did not yet exist for an EGS system in the United State, we used current and past data from The Geysers geothermal field in northern California, which has been in operation since the 1960s. The research addressed the need to understand the causal mechanisms of induced seismicity, and demonstrated the advantage of imaging the physical properties and temporal changes of the reservoir. The work helped to model the relationship between injection and production and medium sized magnitude events that have

  11. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  12. Geothermal training at the International Institute of Geothermal Research in Pisa, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, M.H.; Fanelli, M.

    1990-01-01

    Between 1985 and 1990 the International School of Geothermics of Pisa has held 5 long-term courses, attended by 93 trainees. This paper reports that since 1970, when it began its activity, the Italian geothermal training center has prepared a total of 293 goethermists from 64 countries. Under its present structure the International School of Geothermics organizes short courses and seminars, along with the long-term courses directed mainly at geothermal exploration

  13. Strategies to Address Common Challenges When Teaching in an Active Learning Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christina I.; Gorman, Kristen S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides practical strategies for addressing common challenges that arise for teachers in active learning classrooms. Our strategies come from instructors with experience teaching in these environments.

  14. Relative evaluation of neutron activation, X-ray fluorescence and spark source mass spectrometry for multielement analysis of geothermal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blommaert, W.; Vandelannoote, R.; Van't Dack, L.; Gijbels, R.; Van Grieken, R.

    1980-01-01

    To sulfide geothermal waters from the French Pyrenees region and bicarbonate and chloride waters from the French Vosges area, all of the following analysis techniques were applied in order to compose a broad inventory of trace elements: (1) for the dissolved metarial: neutron activation analysis after a freeze-drying step using a very short cycle, short cycle or long cycle, neutron activation after co-crystallization on 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) using a short cycle or long cycle, X-ray fluorescence after co-crystallization on PAN and spark source mass spectrometry after evaporation on graphite or preconcentration on PAN, and, (2) for the filtered or suspended material: neutron activation using a very short, short or long cycle and X-ray fluorescence. Altogether, on the average some 30 elements could be determined above the detection limit in solution and 15 in suspension. (author)

  15. Thirteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Miller, F.G.; Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1988-01-21

    PREFACE The Thirteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 19-21, 1988. Although 1987 continued to be difficult for the domestic geothermal industry, world-wide activities continued to expand. Two invited presentations on mature geothermal systems were a keynote of the meeting. Malcolm Grant presented a detailed review of Wairakei, New Zealand and highlighted plans for new development. G. Neri summarized experience on flow rate decline and well test analysis in Larderello, Italy. Attendance continued to be high with 128 registered participants. Eight foreign countries were represented: England, France, Iceland, Italy, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico and The Philippines. A discussion of future workshops produced a strong recommendation that the Stanford Workshop program continue for the future. There were forty-one technical presentations at the Workshop. All of these are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Four technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published. In addition to these forty five technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by Henry J. Ramey, Jr. from the Stanford Geothermal Program. The Workshop Banquet speaker was Gustavo Calderon from the Inter-American Development Bank. We thank him for sharing with the Workshop participants a description of the Bank???s operations in Costa Rica developing alternative energy resources, specifically Geothermal, to improve the country???s economic basis. His talk appears as a paper in the back of this volume. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: J. Combs, G. T. Cole, J. Counsil, A. Drenick, H. Dykstra, K. Goyal, P. Muffler, K. Pruess, and S. K. Sanyal. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff and students. We would like to thank Marilyn King, Pat Oto, Terri Ramey, Bronwyn Jones

  16. Japanese geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, P.

    1995-01-01

    At the end of the seventies, the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry have started two independent projects of deep geothermics research in Honshu island (Japan). The two sites are 50 km apart of each other and the boreholes have been drilled up to 2300 and 1100 m of depth, respectively, in hot-dry moderately fractured volcanic rocks. These sites are characterized by high geothermal gradients with a rock temperature reaching 250 C at the bottom of the wells. Hydraulic circulation tests are still in progress to evaluate the profitability of these sites. (J.S.). 1 fig., 1 photo

  17. Proceedings and findings of the geothermal commercialization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.; Dhillon, H.

    1979-04-01

    The proceedings are presented of a Geothermal Commercialization Workshop conducted by the Division of Geothermal Resource Management, Department of Energy. The workshop was held in January-February 1979 at The MITRE Corporation facility in McLean, Virginia. The workshop addressed geothermal hydrothermal commercialization achievements and needs in the areas of Marketing and Outreach, Economics, Scenarios, and Progress Monitoring.

  18. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. To develop the technology needed to harness the Nation's vast geothermal resources, DOE's Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies oversees a network of national laboratories, industrial contractors, universities, and their subcontractors. The following mission and goal statements guide the overall activities of the Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies. This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy.

  19. The National Geothermal Energy Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The continuous demand for energy and the concern for shortages of conventional energy resources have spurred the nation to consider alternate energy resources, such as geothermal. Although significant growth in the one natural steam field located in the United States has occurred, a major effort is now needed if geothermal energy, in its several forms, is to contribute to the nation's energy supplies. From the early informal efforts of an Interagency Panel for Geothermal Energy Research, a 5-year Federal program has evolved whose objective is the rapid development of a commercial industry for the utilization of geothermal resources for electric power production and other products. The Federal program seeks to evaluate the realistic potential of geothermal energy, to support the necessary research and technology needed to demonstrate the economic and environmental feasibility of the several types of geothermal resources, and to address the legal and institutional problems concerned in the stimulation and regulation of this new industry.

  20. The geothermal partnership: Industry, utilities, and government meeting the challenges of the 90's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal community. This year's conference, Program Review IX, was held in San Francisco on March 19--21, 1991. The theme of this review was The Geothermal Partnership -- Industry, Utilities, and Government Meeting the Challenges of the 90's.'' The importance of this partnership has increased markedly as demands for improved technology must be balanced with available research resources. By working cooperatively, the geothermal community, including industry, utilities, DOE, and other state and federal agencies, can more effectively address common research needs. The challenge currently facing the geothermal partnership is to strengthen the bonds that ultimately will enhance opportunities for future development of geothermal resources. Program Review IX consisted of eight sessions including an opening session. The seven technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy and the progress associated with the Long Valley Exploratory Well. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  1. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The following are included: geothermal power plants proposed and on-line; direct heat applications proposed and operational; trends in drilling activities; exploration; leases; outreach and technical assistance; feasibility studies and application demonstrations; geothermal loan guaranty program; research and development activities; legal, institutional, and regulatory activities; environmental activities; reports and publications; and a directory. (MHR)

  2. Assessment of volcanic and geothermal activity in the Pasco Basin and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Event network analyses indicate the most likely volcanic hazard to the Pasco Basin is influx of ash fall tephra from source areas in the Cascade Range. Less likely, but still notable, is the possibility of water flooding the Pasco Basin as a result of volcanic damming of one or more major drainages in the region. The least probable hazards include (1) influx of ash flows from eruptions in the Cascade Range or the Basin and Range Province, (2) renewed flood basalt volcanism, and (3) breaching of a repository by a dike or fissure. It is highly unlikely that volcanism will pose a direct threat to the integrity of any nuclear waste repositories in the Pasco Basin. Low-temperature geothermal water (20 degrees--90 degrees C) is present at random locations within the Pasco Basin and vicinity. This water may represent a potential resource only for direct heating purposes. Available data indicate no geothermal reservoirs with temperatures high enough and depths shallow enough for economical production of electricity are present within the Pasco Basin. 70 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Stress concentrations at structural discontinuities in active fault zones in the western United States: Implications for permeability and fluid flow in geothermal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Drew; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Faulds, James E.

    2018-01-01

    Slip can induce concentration of stresses at discontinuities along fault systems. These structural discontinuities, i.e., fault terminations, fault step-overs, intersections, bends, and other fault interaction areas, are known to host fluid flow in ore deposition systems, oil and gas reservoirs, and geothermal systems. We modeled stress transfer associated with slip on faults with Holocene-to-historic slip histories at the Salt Wells and Bradys geothermal systems in western Nevada, United States. Results show discrete locations of stress perturbation within discontinuities along these fault systems. Well field data, surface geothermal manifestations, and subsurface temperature data, each a proxy for modern fluid circulation in the fields, indicate that geothermal fluid flow is focused in these same areas where stresses are most highly perturbed. These results suggest that submeter- to meter-scale slip on these fault systems generates stress perturbations that are sufficiently large to promote slip on an array of secondary structures spanning the footprint of the modern geothermal activity. Slip on these secondary faults and fractures generates permeability through kinematic deformation and allows for transmission of fluids. Still, mineralization is expected to seal permeability along faults and fractures over time scales that are generally shorter than either earthquake recurrence intervals or the estimated life span of geothermal fields. This suggests that though stress perturbations resulting from fault slip are broadly important for defining the location and spatial extent of enhanced permeability at structural discontinuities, continual generation and maintenance of flow conduits throughout these areas are probably dependent on the deformation mechanism(s) affecting individual structures.

  4. Boron isotopes in geothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, J.

    1997-01-01

    Boron is a highly mobile element and during water-rock reactions, boron is leached out of rocks with no apparent fractionation. In geothermal systems where the water recharging the systems are meteoric in origin, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal fluid reflects the B isotope ratio of the rocks. Seawater has a distinctive B isotope ratio and where seawater recharges the geothermal system, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal system reflects the mixing of rock derived B and seawater derived B. Any deviations of the actual B isotope ratio of a mixture reflects subtle differences in the water-rock ratios in the cold downwelling limb of the hydrothermal system. This paper will present data from a variety of different geothermal systems, including New Zealand; Iceland; Yellowston, USA; Ibusuki, Japan to show the range in B isotope ratios in active geothermal systems. Some of these systems show well defined mixing trends between seawater and the host rocks, whilst others show the boron isotope ratios of the host rock only. In geothermal systems containing high amounts of CO 2 boron isotope ratios from a volatile B source can also be inferred. (auth)

  5. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  6. 77 FR 43345 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Sponsor's Notice of Change of Address, Form I-865...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ...-0076] Agency Information Collection Activities: Sponsor's Notice of Change of Address, Form I-865...: Sponsor's Notice of Change of Address. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the.... During this 60-day period, USCIS will be evaluating whether to revise the Form I-865. Should USCIS decide...

  7. Active-Source Seismic Tomography at Bradys Geothermal Field, Nevada, with Dense Nodal and Fiber-Optic Seismic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, C. H.; Parker, L.; Li, P.; Fratta, D.; Zeng, X.; Feigl, K. L.; Ak, E.; Lord, N.

    2017-12-01

    We deployed a dense seismic array to image the shallow structure in the injection area of the Brady Hot Springs geothermal site in Nevada. The array was composed of 238 5 Hz, three-component nodal instruments and 8,700 m of distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) fiber-optic cable installed in surface trenches plus about 400 m installed in a borehole. The geophone array had about 60 m instrument spacing in the target zone, whereas DAS channel separations were about 1 m. The acquisition systems provided 15 days of continuous records including active source and ambient noise signals. A large vibroseis truck (T-Rex) was operated at 196 locations, exciting a swept-frequency signal from 5 to 80 Hz over 20 seconds using three vibration modes. Sweeps were repeated up to four times during different modes of geothermal plant operation: normal operation, shut-down, high and oscillatory injection and production, and normal operation again. The cross-correlation method was utilized to remove the sweep signal from the geophone records. The first P arrivals were automatically picked from the cross-correlation functions using a combination of methods, and the travel times were used to invert for the 3D P-wave velocity structure. Models with 100 m and 50 m horizontal node spacing were obtained, with vertical node spacing of 10 to 50 m. The travel time data were fit to about 30 ms, close to our estimated picking uncertainty. We will present our 3D Vp model and the result of our search for measurable temporal changes, along with preliminary results for a 3D Vs model. The work presented herein was funded in part by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-EE0006760.

  8. Geothermal energy - availability - economy - prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappelmeyer, O.

    1992-01-01

    The heat contained in the earth's crust represents an inexhaustible reservoir of energy on the technical scale, which is available at all times of day and at all seasons. In the volcanically active zones, the earth's heat is used industrially: Worldwide, the electrical power of geothermal powerstations is about 5000 MW; in addition, about 10,000 MW are used for direct thermal applications (heating) in regions with normal geothermal conditions. The geothermal power plants have been expanded at an annual rate of 12.2% since 1970. In many developing countries, the geothermal energy is the most important home source of energy for electricity generation. In Europe, in the Paris Basin, hot groundwater is pumped from a depth of about 2 km and is used for heating blocks of flats. In France as a whole, about 170,000 flats have been supplied with heat and hot water from underground for more than a decade. (orig./DG) [de

  9. Engineered Geothermal System Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, Susan

    2014-06-19

    In June 2009, AltaRock Energy began field work on a project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “Use of Multiple Stimulations to Improve Economics of Engineered Geothermal Systems in Shallow High Temperature Intrusives.” The goal of the project was to develop an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) in the portion of The Geysers geothermal field operated by the Northern California Power Agency (NCPA). The project encountered several problems while deepening Well E-7 which culminated in the suspension of field activities in September 2009. Some of the problems encountered are particular to The Geysers area, while others might be encountered in any geothermal field, and they might be avoided in future operations.

  10. Towards understanding the puzzling lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet (China): Insight from a comparison with Yellowstone (USA) and some active volcanic hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Guo, Qinghai; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2014-01-01

    Explanations for the lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet are inferred from a comprehensive hydrochemical comparison of Tibetan geothermal waters with those discharged from Yellowstone (USA) and two active volcanic areas, Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) and Miravalles (Costa Rica) where acid springs are widely distributed and diversified in terms of geochemical characteristic and origin. For the hydrothermal areas investigated in this study, there appears to be a relationship between the depths of magma chambers and the occurrence of acid, chloride-rich springs formed via direct magmatic fluid absorption. Nevado del Ruiz and Miravalles with magma at or very close to the surface (less than 1–2 km) exhibit very acidic waters containing HCl and H2SO4. In contrast, the Tibetan hydrothermal systems, represented by Yangbajain, usually have fairly deep-seated magma chambers so that the released acid fluids are much more likely to be fully neutralized during transport to the surface. The absence of steam-heated acid waters in Tibet, however, may be primarily due to the lack of a confining layer (like young impermeable lavas at Yellowstone) to separate geothermal steam from underlying neutral chloride waters and the possible scenario that the deep geothermal fluids below Tibet carry less H2S than those below Yellowstone.

  11. Towards understanding the puzzling lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet (China): Insight from a comparison with Yellowstone (USA) and some active volcanic hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Kirk Nordstrom, D.; Blaine McCleskey, R.

    2014-11-01

    Explanations for the lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet are inferred from a comprehensive hydrochemical comparison of Tibetan geothermal waters with those discharged from Yellowstone (USA) and two active volcanic areas, Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) and Miravalles (Costa Rica) where acid springs are widely distributed and diversified in terms of geochemical characteristic and origin. For the hydrothermal areas investigated in this study, there appears to be a relationship between the depths of magma chambers and the occurrence of acid, chloride-rich springs formed via direct magmatic fluid absorption. Nevado del Ruiz and Miravalles with magma at or very close to the surface (less than 1-2 km) exhibit very acidic waters containing HCl and H2SO4. In contrast, the Tibetan hydrothermal systems, represented by Yangbajain, usually have fairly deep-seated magma chambers so that the released acid fluids are much more likely to be fully neutralized during transport to the surface. The absence of steam-heated acid waters in Tibet, however, may be primarily due to the lack of a confining layer (like young impermeable lavas at Yellowstone) to separate geothermal steam from underlying neutral chloride waters and the possible scenario that the deep geothermal fluids below Tibet carry less H2S than those below Yellowstone.

  12. Geothermal progress monitor: Report Number 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    Short articles are presented related to activities in the federal government and the geothermal industry, international developments, state and local government activities, technology development, and technology transfer. Power plant tables and a directory of organizations involved in geothermal resource development are included

  13. Geothermal progress monitor: Report Number 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Short articles are presented related to activities in the federal government and the geothermal industry, international developments, state and local government activities, technology development, and technology transfer. Power plant tables and a directory of organizations involved in geothermal resource development are included.

  14. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently

  15. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Laney

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently possible or

  16. Geothermal heat; Energie aus der Tiefe. Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Karl

    2012-09-15

    The temperature in the interior of the earth increases with the depth. But for a long time, the geothermal energy only could be used at selected locations. Therefore, almost all major geothermal power plants are located at volcanic regions. The potential of the geothermal energy is not exhausted. Currently, many new power plants are developed. Although there is no volcanic activity in Germany, also some pilot plants develop the hot surface. The deep geothermal energy sometimes is difficult to be controlled. Before drilling experts rarely know how productive the subsoil is. Also, the drillings may trigger small earthquakes.

  17. Geothermal in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the current market for geothermal projects in the US and overseas. The topics of the article include future capacity needs, upgrading the Coso Geothermal project, the productivity of the Geysers area of Northern California, the future of geothermal, and new projects at Soda Lake, Carson Basin, Unalaska Island, and the Puna Geothermal Venture in Hilo, Hawaii

  18. Geothermal Modesty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the uses for radioactivity, the future of the green electricity, the energy policy of Rhone-alps region, the end of the nuclear in Belgium, the nuclear propulsion to explore the solar system, the involvement of the Unites States in the hydrogen development, the gas exportation of China. A special part is devoted to the possibility of the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)

  19. Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

  20. Multidisciplinary exploratory study of a geothermal resource in the active volcanic arc of Basse-Terre (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navelot, Vivien; Favier, Alexiane; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Corsini, Michel; Verati, Chrystèle; Lardeaux, Jean-Marc; Mercier de Lépinay, Jeanne; Munschy, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The GEOTREF project (high enthalpy geothermal energy in fractured reservoirs), supported by the French government program, "Investissements d'avenir" develops a sustainable geothermal resource in the Vieux Habitants area, 8-km south of the currently exploited Bouillante geothermal field. The Basse Terre Island is a recent volcanic arc (meta-andesite. This metamorphism forms cleavage plans thanks to a pressure-solution mechanism. Mineralogical transformations associated with these cleavage planes have an impact on petrophysical properties. The solid phase density and porosity decrease. An anisotropy of permeability develops due to cleavage plans. Thermodynamics modelling based on the rock chemical composition and petrography observations emphasizes a steady-state mineral assemblage between 1.5 - 2 kbar and 280 - 320˚ C. This is consistent with an in situ measured volcanic arc conductive geothermal gradient of 70 ˚ C/km.

  1. The geothermal KWh cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous factors can influence the cost of geothermal electricity production: the size and power of production units, the conversion technology used (Rankine cycle or water steam), the resource quality (dry vapor or water-vapor mixing), the resource depth, the drilling activity in the country and the work people costs. In the United States of America the geothermal kWh cost ranges from 2.5 to 8.5 US cents, while in Italy and Nicaragua it ranges from 3 and 10 cents and from 5.7 to 6 cents, respectively. Results of a comparative study of the kWh production cost from different energy sources is also summarized. (J.S.). 1 tab

  2. State policies for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarto, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The most prominent geothermal resources in the USA occur in fifteen Gulf and Western states including Alaska and Hawaii. In each state, authority and guidelines have been established for administration of geothermal leasing and for regulation of development. Important matters addressed by these policies include resource definition, leasing provisions, development regulations, water appropriation, and environmental standards. Some other policies that need attention include taxation, securities regulations, and utility regulations. It is concluded that conditions needed for the geothermal industry to pursue large-scale development are consumer (utility) confidence in the resource; equitable tax treatment; prompt exploration of extensive land areas; long and secure tenure for productive properties; prompt facility siting and development; and competitive access to various consumers. With these conditions, the industry should be competitive with other energy sectors and win its share of investment capital. This publication reviews for the states various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development. The report summarizes research results from numerous specialists and outlines present state and Federal policies. The report concludes generally that if public policies are made favorable to their development, geothermal resources offer an important energy resource that could supply all new electric capacity for the fifteen states for the next two decades. This energy--100,000 MW--could be generated at prices competitive with electricity from fossil and nuclear power plants. An extensive bibliography is included. (MCW)

  3. High- and middle-energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    High and middle energy geothermal resources correspond to temperature intervals of 220-350 C and 90-180 C, respectively, and are both exploited for electricity production. Exploitation techniques and applications of high and of middle energy geothermics are different. High energy geothermics is encountered in active volcanic and tectonic zones, such as the circum-Pacific fire-belt, the lesser Antilles, the peri-Mediterranean Alpine chain or the African rift zone. The geothermal steam is directly expanded in a turbine protected against gas and minerals corrosion. About 350 high energy plants are distributed in more than 20 different countries and represent 6000 M We. The cost of high energy installed geothermal kWh ranges from 0.20 to 0.50 French Francs. Middle energy geothermics is encountered in sedimentary basins (between 2000 and 4000 m of depth), in localized fractured zones or at lower depth in the high energy geothermal fields. Heat exchangers with organic fluid Rankine cycle technology is used to produce electricity. Unit power of middle energy plants generally ranges from few hundreds of k W to few MW and correspond to a worldwide installed power of about 400 M We. The annual progression of geothermal installed power is estimated to 4 to 8 % in the next years and concerns principally the circum-Pacific countries. In France, geothermal resources are mainly localized in overseas departments. (J.S.). 3 photos

  4. Geothermal Money Book [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2004-02-01

    Small business lending is big business and growing. Loans under $1 million totaled $460 billion in June 2001, up $23 billion from 2000. The number of loans under $100,000 continued to grow at a rapid rate, growing by 10.1%. The dollar value of loans under $100,000 increased 4.4%; those of $100,000-$250,000 by 4.1%; and those between $250,000 and $1 million by 6.4%. But getting a loan can be difficult if a business owner does not know how to find small business-friendly lenders, how to best approach them, and the specific criteria they use to evaluate a loan application. This is where the Geothermal Money Book comes in. Once a business and financing plan and financial proposal are written, the Geothermal Money Book takes the next step, helping small geothermal businesses locate and obtain financing. The Geothermal Money Book will: Explain the specific criteria potential financing sources use to evaluate a proposal for debt financing; Describe the Small Business Administration's (SBA) programs to promote lending to small businesses; List specific small-business friendly lenders for small geothermal businesses, including those which participate in SBA programs; Identify federal and state incentives which are relevant to direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; and Provide an extensive state directory of financing sources and state financial incentives for the 19 states involved in the GeoPowering the West (GPW). GPW is a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored activity to dramatically increase the use of geothermal energy in the western United States by promoting environmentally compatible heat and power, along with industrial growth and economic development. The Geothermal Money Book will not: Substitute for financial advice; Overcome the high exploration, development, and financing costs associated with smaller geothermal projects; Remedy the lack of financing for the exploration stage of a geothermal project; or Solve

  5. Assessment of Geothermal Data Resources and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a review of Geothermal Technologies Program activities and archives related to data collection and analysis. It includes an assessment of the current state of geothermal data, future program and stakeholder data needs, existence of and access to critical data, and high-level direction and prioritization of next steps to meet the Program’s data needs.

  6. Preservation of Microbial Lipids in Geothermal Sinters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaur, G.; Mountain, B.W.; Hopmans, E.C.; Pancost, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lipid biomarkers are widely used to study the earliest life on Earth and have been invoked as potential astrobiological markers, but few studies have assessed their survival and persistence in geothermal settings. Here, we investigate lipid preservation in active and inactive geothermal silica

  7. Puna Geothermal Venture Hydrologic Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-04-01

    This document provides the basis for the Hydrologic Monitoring Program (HMP) for the Puna Geothermal Venture. The HMP is complementary to two additional environmental compliance monitoring programs also being submitted by Puma Geothermal Venture (PGV) for their proposed activities at the site. The other two programs are the Meteorology and Air Quality Monitoring Program (MAQMP) and the Noise Monitoring Program (NMP), being submitted concurrently.

  8. Microbiological Aspects of Geothermal Energy: Influence of Microbial Activity on Scaling and Clogging in a Cold Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerm, Stephanie; Alawi, Mashal; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Vieth, Andrea; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    The development of strategies to substantially reduce emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere is one of the major challenges of the next decades. Therefore, the utilization of subsurface stored energy arouses increasing interest. Corrosion and scaling are major problems in geothermal operation which create significant maintenance and cleaning costs. In the scope of the research project AquiScreen the operational reliability of geothermal used aquifer systems was investigated under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical, and petrologic aspects (see also Alawi et al.; General Assembly EGU 2010). This presentation focuses on the investigation of a cold storage in Berlin (Reichstag building, depth 30-50 m). In order to evaluate the impact of microbial processes in the low saline aquifer (see also Vetter et al.; General Assembly EGU 2010), the microbial communities of fluid and filter samples were investigated by Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA fingerprinting techniques based on PCR amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. Analyses of fluid samples revealed a bacterial community dominated by iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria closely related to Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus, Gallionella sp. and Thiotrix unzii. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed iron hydroxide formation and precipitation in the filter of the top side facility and the well, corresponding to the abundance of iron oxidizing bacteria. Besides oxidizing bacteria sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were detected as well, indicating the formation of micro-habitats with divergent redox zones. After several years of operation and routine maintenance procedures the injectivity of the injection wells and the endurance of the top side facility filters were reduced drastically due to clogging. Mechanical cleaning and a disinfection treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were successful to re-establish the injectivity of the wells. The results of the microbiological investigations prove

  9. Geothermal resources of the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that geothermal energy applications and research are being actively pursued in the United Kingdom despite the relatively normal heat flow regime. The cumulative expenditure on geothermal activity from 1975 to 1989 has been approximately Brit-pounds 46 million of 32% of the Renewable Energy Research Budget to date. The first practical application is a 2 MWt scheme at Southampton as part of a district heating scheme. Commercial operation started in February 1988 and further expansion is planned. The UK's enthusiasm for Hot Dry Rock has dimmed slightly as the entire program is reappraised and the long heralded deep exploration hole has yet to materialize. Future activity looks likely to focus on geothermal opportunities that have multiple uses or applications for the fluids in small scale schemes and Hot Dry Rock research will probably be linked to a pan-European program based in France

  10. Status on high enthalpy geothermal resources in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutinas, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Greece is privileged to have many high and medium enthalpy geothermal resources. Related activities during the last 5 years were conducted mainly on the previously discovered geothermal fields of Milos, Nisyros and Lesvos islands, without any deep geothermal drilling. Most efforts were focused on the demonstration of a high enthalpy geothermal reservoir on Milos, by generating electricity from high salinity fluid, with a 2 MW pilot plant. Significant experience has been gained there, by solving technical problems, but still site specific constraints have to be overcome in order to arrive at a comprehensive feasibility study, leading to the development phase. A pre-feasibility study has been carried out in the Nisyros geothermal field. Moreover, a detailed geoscientific exploration program has been completed on Lesvos island, where very promising geothermal areas have been identified. In this paper, reference is made to the most important data concerning high enthalpy geothermal resources by emphasizing the Milos geothermal field

  11. Geothermal prospects in British Columbia: Resource, market and regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghomshei, M.M.; Brown, T.L.S.; MacRae, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    British Columbia is host to about 15 young volcanic centres and 60 hot springs, all evidence of presence of geothermal resources. Most high-grade geothermal prospects in British Columbia are located along 3 volcanic belts in the south-western region of the province. It is estimated that a minimum of 800 MWe can be generated from the known prospects in this region. Significant low-grade geothermal resources exist in several provincial regions. Market applications consistent with the geothermal resources known and expected to occur in British Columbia include electrical generation, process and other direct heat uses and recreation. Leasing, exploration and development operations for high-grade geothermal resources are addressed by the British Columbia open-quotes Geothermal Resources Actclose quotes which defines geothermal resources and reserves all rights to the Crown in the right of the Province

  12. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume II. Infrastructure and community-services requirements, Island of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, G.A.; Buevens, W.R.

    1982-06-01

    The requirements of infrastructure and community services necessary to accommodate the development of geothermal energy on the Island of Hawaii for electricity production are identified. The following aspects are covered: Puna District-1981, labor resources, geothermal development scenarios, geothermal land use, the impact of geothermal development on Puna, labor resource requirments, and the requirements for government activity.

  13. Valuation of Geothermal Wells on Real Property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin

    2001-12-01

    The Geo-Heat Center is often contacted by individual property owners, real estate professionals and others for assistance in the evaluation of geothermal resources in real property transactions. This document is a summary of information on the methods we have suggested to approach this situation in the past. The first of these methods is employed in situations in which the geothermal resource is in use serving some application. The second approach is for situations in which there is a known well on the property but it is not currently in use. The information presented here does not address situations in which the property is underlain by suspected geothermal resources for which there is no surface manifestation or existing development. The information contained in this document is intended to address large capacity wells of the type that would be used for commercial geothermal applications.

  14. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  15. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in

  16. Origin and evolution of geothermal fluids from Las Tres Vírgenes and Cerro Prieto fields, Mexico – Co-genetic volcanic activity and paleoclimatic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkle, Peter; Marín, Enrique Portugal; Pinti, Daniele L.; Castro, M. Clara

    2016-01-01

    during the final stage of the Last Glacial Pluvial period. Quaternary recharge of the LTV geothermal reservoir is related to elevated precipitation rates during cooler-humid climate intervals in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. The probable replacement of connate water or pore fluids by infiltrating surface water might have been triggered by enhanced fracture and fault permeability through contemporaneous tectonic–volcanic activity in the Las Tres Vírgenes region. Fast hydrothermal alteration processes caused a secondary, positive δ 18 O-shift from 4‰ to 6‰ for LTV and from 2‰ to 4‰ for CP geothermal fluids since the Late Glacial infiltration. - Highlights: • U-Th/He ages for Cerro Prieto fluids show 4 He flux from granite basement or brines. • LTV geothermal water is composed of Quaternary meteoric water and fossil seawater. • 14 C and 4 He suggest Quaternary recharge of Las Tres Vírgenes geothermal reservoir. • Paleotemperatures point to cooler-humid climate in NW-Mexico during recharge.

  17. Geothermal energy prospecting in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Flores, J.H.; Gonzalez, E.; Ortega, M.

    1993-01-01

    Geochronological and geological studies carried out in El Salvador C. A., located a production geothermal zone to the north of the volcanic belt, in a region named Ahuachapan-Chipilapa. Hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis indicate the existence of active geothermal faults aligned to the directions South-North and Northwest-Southeast. Radon mapping in that region covered a total of 8.7 km 2 where plastic detectors were placed 200 m apart. Results confirmed the existence of active faults and two producing geothermal wells were located. (author)

  18. Traversing myths and mountains: addressing socioeconomic inequities in the promotion of nutrition and physical activity behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie

    2015-11-14

    In developed countries, individuals experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage - whether a low education level, low income, low-status occupation, or living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhood - are less likely than those more advantaged to engage in eating and physical activity behaviours conducive to optimal health. These socioeconomic inequities in nutrition and physical activity (and some sedentary) behaviours are graded, persistent, and evident across multiple populations and studies. They are concerning in that they mirror socioeconomic inequities in obesity and in health outcomes. Yet there remains a dearth of evidence of the most effective means of addressing these inequities. People experiencing disadvantage face multiple challenges to healthy behaviours that can appear insurmountable. With increasing recognition of the role of underlying structural and societal factors as determinants of nutrition and physical activity behaviours and inequities in these behaviours, and the limited success of behaviour change approaches in addressing these inequities, we might wonder whether there remains a role for behavioural scientists to tackle these challenges. This debate piece argues that behavioural scientists can play an important role in addressing socioeconomic inequities in nutrition, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and that this will involve challenging myths and taking on new perspectives. There are successful models for doing so from which we can learn. Addressing socioeconomic inequities in eating, physical activity and sedentary behaviours is challenging. However, successful examples demonstrate that overcoming such challenges is possible, and provide guidance for doing so. Given the disproportionate burden of ill health carried by people experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage, all our nutrition and physical activity interventions, programs and policies should be designed to reach and positively impact these individuals at greatest

  19. Geothermal Technologies Program: Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-02-01

    This fact sheets provides a summary of geothermal potential, issues, and current development in Alaska. This fact sheet was developed as part of DOE's GeoPowering the West initiative, part of the Geothermal Technologies Program.

  20. Update of geothermal energy development in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutroupis, N.

    1992-01-01

    Following the completion of the Geothermal Reconnaissance Study in Greece and the successful drilling of seven deep geothermal wells in the Aegean islands of Milos and Nisyros, PPC started the first step towards geothermal development for electricity production as follows: A geothermal electric pilot plant of 2 MW e nominal capacity was installed on the Zephyria plain in Milos island (1985). During a nine month operation of the plant, problems connected with its long term operation were solved (hot reinjection of the high salinity brine, turbine washing etc). A feasibility study regarding exploitation of the Nisyros geothermal resources was completed and PPC connected Nisyros island electrically to Kos island via submarine cables. As consequence of the reaction against geothermal development by the people of Milos in early 1989, the power plant is still out of operation and the feasibility study planned for Milos has been postponed. For similar reasons the Nisyros drilling contract for five new geothermal deep wells has not come into force as yet. This paper summarizes the main PPC geothermal activities to date, the problems caused by the reactions of the Milos and Nisyros population and the relevant PPC countermeasures, as well as outlining the PPC development program for the near future

  1. Geothermal energy in Montana: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    A short description of the state's geothermal characteristics, economy, and climate is presented. A listing of the majority of the known hot springs is included. A discussion of present and projected demand is included. The results of the site specific studies are addressed within the state energy picture. Possible uses and process requirements of geothermal resources are discussed. The factors which influence geothermal development were researched and presented according to relative importance. (MHR)

  2. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. To develop the technology needed to harness the Nation's vast geothermal resources, DOE's Office of Geothermal Technologies oversees a network of national laboratories, industrial contractors, universities, and their subcontractors. The following mission and goal statements guide the overall activities of the Office. The goals are: (1) Reduce the levelized cost of generating geothermal power to 3-5 cents per kWh by 2007; (2) Double the number of States with geothermal electric power facilities to eight by 2006; and (3) Supply the electrical power or heat energy needs of 7 million homes and businesses in the United States by 2010. This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2003. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy. balanced strategy for the Geothermal Program.

  3. South Dakota geothermal handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

  4. Agribusiness enterprises-cum geothermal energy generation in Naujan, Mindoro: A pre-feasibility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanilla, Liborio S.; Corro, Rudy Jr.; Andog, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    A 40MW Geothermal power plant will soon rise in Naujan, Oriental Mindoro. To be managed by the Emerging Power, Inc. (EPI), it covers the political jurisdiction of three villages where 4,219 individuals or 1,021 households reside. Agriculture and fishing are the predominant sources of income of local residents with average daily per capita income of Php50. This is almost 20 percent below the poverty thresholds. Agriculture is coconut-based, intercropped predominantly with banana, and a few fruit trees (e.g. Coffee, cacao). Farming is primarily mountain eco-system and ecologically fragile, as cultivation has now encroached in areas serving sources of potable water for the communities. Sustainability of agricultural production is in jeopardy in view of the need to expand economic opportunities among residents. It is critical that new value-adding activities consistent with the resource endowments of the locality to be developed. The introduction of agri-based social enterprises could pave the way for weaving together the economic requirements of residents and environmental stability. This study provides an analysis of the feasibility of undertaking non-power applications in agriculture and fishery, of geothermal resources in Naujan, Oriental Mindoro. It identifies agribusiness enterprises that will address socio-economic demands of the communities covered by the Geothermal project, at the same time promoting agriculture sustainability. Using both secondary and primary data, it employs simple economic analysis in assessing the effects of directly using geothermal resources in the agribusiness enterprises. Based on available information there is evidence that there are substantial economic benefits from non-power application of geothermal resources in the project site. Copra drying using geothermal heat in place of the traditional “tapahan” system ensures higher product quality and more favorable farm gate prices. New value-adding activities from agro

  5. Geothermal pilot study final report: creating an international geothermal energy community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresee, J.C.; Yen, W.W.S.; Metzler, J.E. (eds.)

    1978-06-01

    The Geothermal Pilot Study under the auspices of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) was established in 1973 to apply an action-oriented approach to international geothermal research and development, taking advantage of the established channels of governmental communication provided by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Pilot Study was composed of five substudies. They included: computer-based information systems; direct application of geothermal energy; reservoir assessment; small geothermal power plants; and hot dry rock concepts. The most significant overall result of the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study, which is now complete, is the establishment of an identifiable community of geothermal experts in a dozen or more countries active in development programs. Specific accomplishments include the creation of an international computer file of technical information on geothermal wells and fields, the development of studies and reports on direct applications, geothermal fluid injection and small power plants, and the operation of the visiting scientist program. In the United States, the computer file has aready proven useful in the development of reservoir models and of chemical geothermometers. The state-of-the-art report on direct uses of geothermal energy is proving to be a valuable resource document for laypersons and experts in an area of increasing interest to many countries. Geothermal fluid injection studies in El Salvador, New Zealand, and the United States have been assisted by the Reservoir Assessment Substudy and have led to long-range reservoir engineering studies in Mexico. At least seven small geothermal power plants are in use or have been planned for construction around the world since the Small Power Plant Substudy was instituted--at least partial credit for this increased application can be assigned to the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study. (JGB)

  6. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. To develop the technology needed to harness the Nation's vast geothermal resources, DOE's Office of Geothermal Technologies oversees a network of national laboratories, industrial contractors, universities, and their subcontractors. The goals are: (1) Double the number of States with geothermal electric power facilities to eight by 2006; (2) Reduce the levelized cost of generating geothermal power to 3-5 cents per kWh by 2007; and (3) Supply the electrical power or heat energy needs of 7 million homes and businesses in the United States by 2010. This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2002. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy. balanced strategy for the Geothermal Program.

  7. Geothermal Direct Heat Application Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J

    1989-01-01

    The geothermal direct-use industry growth trends, potential, needs, and how they can be met, are addressed. Recent investigations about the current status of the industry and the identification of institutional and technical needs provide the basis on which this paper is presented. Initial drilling risk is the major obstacle to direct-use development. The applications presented include space and district heating projects, heat pumps (heating and cooling), industrial processes, resorts and pools, aquaculture and agriculture.

  8. Geothermal Program Review VI: proceedings. Beyond goals and objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Program Review VI was comprised of six sessions, including an opening session, four technical sessions that addressed each of the major DOE research areas, and a session on special issues. The technical sessions were on Hydrothermal, Hot Dry Rock, Geopressured and Magma resources. Presenters in the technical sessions discussed their R and D activities within the context of specific GTD Programmatic Objectives for that technology, their progress toward achieving those objectives, and the value of those achievements to industry. The ''Special Issues'' presentations addressed several topics such as the interactions between government and industry on geothermal energy R and D; the origin and basis for the programmatic objectives analytical computer model; and international marketing opportunities for US geothermal equipment and services. The unique aspect of Program Review VI was that it was held in conjunction with the National Geothermal Association's Industry Round Table on Federal R and D. The Round Table provided a forum for open and lively discussions between industry and government researchers and gave industry an opportunity to convey their needs and perspectives on DOE's research programs. These discussions also provided valuable information to DOE regarding industry's priorities and directions.

  9. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update, FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Joel Lawrence

    2001-08-01

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Program serves two broad purposes: 1) to assist industry in overcoming near-term barriers by conducting cost-shared research and field verification that allows geothermal energy to compete in today's aggressive energy markets; and 2) to undertake fundamental research with potentially large economic payoffs. The four categories of work used to distinguish the research activities of the Geothermal Program during FY 2000 reflect the main components of real-world geothermal projects. These categories form the main sections of the project descriptions in this Research Update. Exploration Technology research focuses on developing instruments and techniques to discover hidden hydrothermal systems and to explore the deep portions of known systems. Research in geophysical and geochemical methods is expected to yield increased knowledge of hidden geothermal systems. Reservoir Technology research combines laboratory and analytical investigations with equipment development and field testing to establish practical tools for resource development and management for both hydrothermal reservoirs and enhanced geothermal systems. Research in various reservoir analysis techniques is generating a wide range of information that facilitates development of improved reservoir management tools. Drilling Technology focuses on developing improved, economic drilling and completion technology for geothermal wells. Ongoing research to avert lost circulation episodes in geothermal drilling is yielding positive results. Conversion Technology research focuses on reducing costs and improving binary conversion cycle efficiency, to permit greater use of the more abundant moderate-temperature geothermal resource, and on the development of materials that will improve the operating characteristics of many types of geothermal energy equipment. Increased output and improved performance of binary cycles will result from investigations in heat cycle research.

  10. World geothermal congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povarov, O.A.; Tomarov, G.V.

    2001-01-01

    The World geothermal congress took place in the period from 28 May up to 10 June 2000 in Japan. About 2000 men from 43 countries, including specialists in the area of developing geothermal fields, creating and operating geothermal electrical and thermal plants and various systems for the earth heat application, participated in the work of the Congress. It was noted at the Congress, that development of the geothermal power engineering in the world is characterized by the large-scale application of geothermal resources for the electrical energy generation [ru

  11. Hawaii geothermal project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamins, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii's Geothermal Project is investigating the occurrence of geothermal resources in the archipelago, initially on the Island of Hawaii. The state's interest in geothermal development is keen, since it is almost totally dependent on imported oil for energy. Geothermal development in Hawaii may require greater participation by the public sector than has been true in California. The initial exploration has been financed by the national, state, and county governments. Maximization of net benefits may call for multiple use of geothermal resources; the extraction of by-products and the application of treated effluents to agricultural and aquacultural uses.

  12. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  13. Geothermal Technologies Program Overview - Peer Review Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, JoAnn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-06

    This Geothermal Technologies Program presentation was delivered on June 6, 2011 at a Program Peer Review meeting. It contains annual budget, Recovery Act, funding opportunities, upcoming program activities, and more.

  14. Geothermal energy. Pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal energy has certain features that make it highly recommendable as a source of power production. It is noted by its high load factor; it may be used as a basic or peak source; its versatility and high availability among others. In spite of these advantages, geothermal energy has not attained a significant development up to now. There are several reasons for this to happen, while the main one is that it requires an important initial investment. Assessing if an area is potentially profitable for the obtention of a given type of energy implies performing a complex set of analyses and prospective work, but it is not so significant as that associated with petroleum. The strategy for the exploration of geothermal resources is based on the execution of consecutive stages ranging from a surveillance at a regional scale to a project feasibility study, with growing investments and using more and more complex techniques. Many Latin American countries are located in areas considered as promisory concerning the development of this type of exploitation. Another factor supporting this view is a special demographic feature, showing a very irregular distribution of the population, with extense isolated areas with a minimun number of inhabitants that does not justify the extension of the electric power network. There are plants operating in four countries producing, as a whole, 881 MW. In Argentina the activities are aimed to intensifying the knowledge about the availability of this resource within the local territory and to estimating the feasibility of its usage in areas where exploration is more advanced [es

  15. Geothermal for kids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemzer, M.; Condy, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that educating children about geothermal energy is crucial to the future growth of the geothermal industry. The Geothermal Education Office (GEO) was founded in 1989 to provide materials and support to teachers and the geothermal community in educating grades K-12 about geothermal energy. GEO's goals are to: provide easy access to or referral to appropriate sources of geothermal information; foster teacher interest; create posters, booklets, lesson plans and other educational materials; monitor and review textbooks, encyclopedias and other educational materials distributed by educational groups to ensure inclusion of appropriate, accurate information and to encourage fair treatment of alternative energy resources; contribute articles to industry, science and educational publications; and foster communication and cooperation among GEO, the geothermal industry, government agencies, and educational and environmental groups

  16. South Dakota Geothermal Commercialization Project. Final report, July 1979-October 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegman, S.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the South Dakota Energy Office in providing technical assistance, planning, and commercialization projects for geothermal energy. Projects included geothermal prospect identification, area development plans, and active demonstration/commercialization projects. (ACR)

  17. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Progress is reported on the following R&D activities: evaluation of lineshaft turbine pump problems, geothermal district heating marketing strategy, and greenhouse peaking analysis. Other activities are reported on technical assistance, technology transfer, and the geothermal progress monitor.

  18. Geothermal Energy in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Eduardo; Villalba, Fabio

    1999-11-01

    Energy represents an essential element for economy, and for any sustainable development strategy, assuming it is a basic input for all production activities. It is a fundamental contra int for country's competitivity and also a main component of population's standard of life. The Agenda 21 and the General Agreement on Climatic Changes emphasize that the development and sustainable use of energy should promote economy, but taking care of the environment. Under these basic concepts, for the particular case of energy, the sustain ability of development requires the adoption of a strategy which guarantee an energy supply in terms of quality, opportunity, continuity and afford ability and, in addition, without production of negative environmental impacts. Geothermal energy is a serious energetic option for sustainable development, since presents technical and economic advantages for production of electricity at medium and large scale. Furthermore, geothermal energy allows a wide spectrum of direct applications of heat in profitable projects of high social impact as green houses, drying of seeds and wood products, fish farming, recreation and others. All of them can help the increase of communal production activities in rural areas affected by poverty

  19. Decree from July 25, 2015 related to general prescriptions applicable to geothermal activities of minor importance. Decree from July 25, 2015 related to the certification of drilling companies intervening in geothermal energy of minor importance. Decree from July 25, 2015 related to the zoning map in the field minor importance geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delduc, P.; Blanc, P.; Michel, L.

    2015-01-01

    These decrees concern various actors of the geothermal sector in the case of projects and works of minor importance. The first one defines general technical prescriptions applicable to a geothermal site of minor importance, the conditions related to the implantation of a geothermal installation of minor importance, measures to be implemented when performing geothermal works and when stopping its exploitation, control and maintenance modalities in order to prevent risks for the environment and to preserve water resource quality. The second decree defines measures to be implemented by drilling companies in the case of geothermal projects of minor importance. The third decree defines the map of geothermal areas of minor importance, specifies the map elaboration methodology and its reviewing modalities

  20. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-97. It describes 174 contracts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on greenhouse peaking. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  1. Geothermal technology in Australia: Investigating social acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, Anne-Maree; Boughen, Naomi; Ashworth, Peta; Carr-Cornish, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Issues of social acceptance, such as lack of awareness and negative community perceptions and reactions, can affect low emission energy technology development, despite general support observed for reducing carbon emissions and mitigating climate change. Negative community reactions and lack of understanding have affected geothermal developments, as demonstrated by the fearful community reactions and negative media experienced in response to seismic disturbances caused by 'hot rock' geothermal energy generation in Switzerland and Germany. Focusing on geothermal energy, this paper presents the results of using a participatory action research methodology to engage diverse groups within the Australian public. A key finding is that the majority of the Australian public report limited the knowledge or understanding of geothermal technology and have various concerns including water usage and seismic activity instigated by geothermal drilling. However, geothermal energy receives general support due to a common trend to champion renewable energy sources in preference to traditional forms of energy generation and controversial technologies. This paper also demonstrates the effectiveness of using an engagement process to explore public understanding of energy technologies in the context of climate change, and suggests a way forward for governments and industry to allocate resources for greatest impact when communicating about geothermal technology. - Highlights: → Majority of Australians have limited knowledge or understanding of geothermal technology. → Various concerns, including water usage and seismic activity instigated by drilling, were raised. → Geothermal energy has general support due to a common trend to champion renewable energy sources. → Methodology shows the effectiveness of an engagement process to explore public understanding. → Participants expressed intention to change behaviours, which can be a catalyst for change.

  2. Geothermal and volcanism in west Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, I.; Indarto, S.; Sudarsono; Fauzi I, A.; Yuliyanti, A.; Lintjewas, L.; Alkausar, A.; Jakah

    2018-02-01

    Indonesian active volcanoes extend from Sumatra, Jawa, Bali, Lombok, Flores, North Sulawesi, and Halmahera. The volcanic arc hosts 276 volcanoes with 29 GWe of geothermal resources. Considering a wide distribution of geothermal potency, geothermal research is very important to be carried out especially to tackle high energy demand in Indonesia as an alternative energy sources aside from fossil fuel. Geothermal potency associated with volcanoes-hosted in West Java can be found in the West Java segment of Sunda Arc that is parallel with the subduction. The subduction of Indo-Australian oceanic plate beneath the Eurasian continental plate results in various volcanic products in a wide range of geochemical and mineralogical characteristics. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of volcanic and magmatic rocks associated with geothermal systems are ill-defined. Comprehensive study of geochemical signatures, mineralogical properties, and isotopes analysis might lead to the understanding of how large geothermal fields are found in West Java compared to ones in Central and East Java. The result can also provoke some valuable impacts on Java tectonic evolution and can suggest the key information for geothermal exploration enhancement.

  3. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.; Camacho, M.E.; Chavez, A.; Perez, H.; Gomez, J.

    1999-01-01

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m -3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies

  4. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Tavera, L; Camacho, M E; Chavez, A; Pérez, H; Gómez, J

    1999-01-01

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m sup - sup 3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies.

  5. POST-LAUNCHING MONITORING ACTIVITIES FOR NEW TRANSACTIONAL BANKING PRODUCTS ADDRESSED TO SMES (CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuca Simona-Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current paper has the aim to provide guidelines for post-launching monitoring activities and steps related to new transactional banking products addressed to SMEs. While the pre-launching activities have the purpose of accurately defining the objectives, assumptions and estimations, the purpose of the post-launching plan is to identify: if the final objectives of a product launching have been met, on one hand, to analyze results in the sense of identifying an efficient action plan in order to overcome the lack of results (if case, but most important, to identify opportunities for optimizing the products and for communicating properly the value proposition. This paper also presents schemes for monitoring the results from a business case and for motivating the sales force, as an essential step in increasing the sales. Therefore, alternatives of incentive campaigns are presented, as sustainable campaigns with to purpose to achieve an expected success rate. As an additional support guideline for the sales force, some scenarios and post-sales actions are presented, together with an example of portfolio analysis considering potential per client. Considering the methods and details presented in the current paper, one can identify the importance and find out how to monitor the results after launching a new transactional product addressed to SMEs, can understand and design an incentive scheme and also define actions to be taken in order to increase revenues from a newly launched transactional product.

  6. A Service Delivery Model for Addressing Activity and Social Participation Needs of People Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Restall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational therapy can contribute to the health and well-being of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV who are experiencing health consequences of living long term with this disease. However, there are no comprehensive rehabilitation service delivery models to guide this emerging area of practice. The purpose of this study was to obtain critical feedback about a service delivery model to address the activity and social participation needs of people living with HIV. Method: We developed a service delivery model from a synthesis of the literature. Using a qualitative research design, we conducted individual and focus group interviews with 35 informants from diverse backgrounds and involvement in HIV-related research, service provision, and policymaking to provide critical feedback about the model. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using inductive qualitative methods. Results: The informants identified the strengths and limitations of the model and supports and barriers to its implementation. They highlighted the importance of principle-based services, increasing resources for service navigation, building capacity of rehabilitation services to address the needs of people with HIV, and increasing research and program evaluation targeted to achieving activity and social participation outcomes. Conclusions: The model provides a framework for occupational therapists to design and evaluate services for this population.

  7. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  8. Geothermal energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Enriko

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal energy, as a natural steam and hot water, has been exploited for decades in order to generate electricity as well as district heating and industrial processes. The present geothermal electrical installed capacity in the world is about 10.000 MWe and the thermal capacity in non-electrical uses is about 8.200 MWt. Electricity is produced with an efficiency of 10-17%, and the cost of the kWh is competitive with conventional energy sources. In the developing countries, where a total installed electrical power is still low, geothermal energy can play a significant role: in El Salvador, for example, 25% of electricity comes from geothermal spring, 20% in the Philippines and 8% in Kenya. Present technology makes it possible to control the environmental impact of geothermal exploitation. Geothermal energy could also be extracted from deep geopressured reservoirs in large sedimentary basins, hot dry rock systems and magma bodies. (author)

  9. Coordination of geothermal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessop, A.M.; Drury, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Visits were made in 1983 to various investigators and institutions in Canada to examine developments in geothermal research. Proposals for drilling geothermal wells to provide hot water for heating at a college in Prince Edward Island were made. In Alberta, the first phase of a program examining the feasibility of mapping sedimentary geothermal reservoirs was discussed. Some sites for possible geothermal demonstration projects were identified. In British Columbia, discussions were held between BC Hydro and Energy, Mines and Resources Canada on the drilling of a research hole into the peak of a temperature anomaly in the Meager Creek Valley. The British Columbia government has offered blocks of land in the Mount Cayley volcanic complex for lease to develop geothermal resources. A list of papers of interest to the Canadian geothermal energy program is appended.

  10. The geothermal power organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, K.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  11. Resources and geothermal heat in the Netherlands. Annual report 2011. An overview of exploration and exploitation activities and of underground gas storage; Delfstoffen en Aardwarmte in Nederland. Jaarverslag 2011. Een overzicht van opsporings- en winningsactiviteiten en van ondergrondse gasopslag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    Traditionally, this annual report publishes the activities and results of the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons in the Netherlands. Starting this year the report will be expanded with the exploration and extraction activities of rock salt and geothermal heat and the underground storage of resources (natural gas, nitrogen, CO2 and water). The first part of the annual report addresses the developments in the year 2011. This part also includes a prognosis for the extraction of natural gas for the next 25 years. Next, a number of tables illustrate developments in the field of licenses and exploration activities (seismic research and drilling) in 2011. The chapter on hydrocarbons is concluded with an overview of the extracted volumes of natural gas, condensate and petroleum and the gas flows in storage facilities. There are new chapters on exploration and extraction of rock salt and geothermal heat. Another new chapter addresses storage of resources. The second part of the annual report illustrates the situation per 1 January 2012 and the developments over the last decades in a number of overviews. The annexes, finally, include general maps of the situation as of 1 January 2012 [Dutch] Het Jaarverslag rapporteert over de activiteiten en resultaten van de opsporing en winning van koolwaterstoffen, steenzout en aardwarmte in Nederland. Daarnaast komt de ondergrondse opslag van stoffen (aardgas, stikstof, CO2 en water) aan de orde. Daarmee worden alle opsporings-, winnings- en opslagactiviteiten in Nederland en het Nederlandse deel van het Continentaal plat, vallend onder het regime van de Mijnbouwwet, gezamenlijk gerapporteerd. Het eerste deel van het jaarverslag gaat in op de ontwikkelingen in het jaar 2011. Zoals in voorgaande jaren richt dit deel zich op de opsporing, winning en de ondergrondse opslag van koolwaterstoffen. Dit betreft een overzicht van de veranderingen in de aardgas- en aardolievoorraden gedurende 2011 en de daaruit volgende situatie per 1

  12. Geothermal energy in France. Market study for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having recalled the French national objectives for 2020 related to the share of renewable energies in final energy consumption, and given a brief overview of geothermal production in Europe, this report proposes a rather detailed overview of the geothermal market and production in France: evolution of the geothermal production stock, assessment of tonnes equivalent of oil and CO 2 emissions, users, turnover, jobs. It addresses the three main geothermal sectors: high energy (boiling geothermal, the Soultz-sous-Forets power station), direct use of heat, and very low energy (heat demand in France, results and regional distribution, market structure, analysis of the price of an installation). The last part addresses the legal and financial framework: status of French law, quality issue, levers for development (purchase tariff, geologic risk, thermal regulation 2012, energy saving certificates, tax credits, and subsidies)

  13. Structural investigations of Great Basin geothermal fields: Applications and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nicholas H. [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark F [Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Because fractures and faults are commonly the primary pathway for deeply circulating hydrothermal fluids, structural studies are critical to assessing geothermal systems and selecting drilling targets for geothermal wells. Important tools for structural analysis include detailed geologic mapping, kinematic analysis of faults, and estimations of stress orientations. Structural assessments are especially useful for evaluating geothermal fields in the Great Basin of the western USA, where regional extension and transtension combine with high heat flow to generate abundant geothermal activity in regions having little recent volcanic activity. The northwestern Great Basin is one of the most geothermally active areas in the USA. The prolific geothermal activity is probably due to enhanced dilation on N- to NNE-striking normal faults induced by a transfer of NW-directed dextral shear from the Walker Lane to NW-directed extension. Analysis of several geothermal fields suggests that most systems occupy discrete steps in normal fault zones or lie in belts of intersecting, overlapping, and/or terminating faults. Most fields are associated with steeply dipping faults and, in many cases, with Quaternary faults. The structural settings favoring geothermal activity are characterized by subvertical conduits of highly fractured rock along fault zones oriented approximately perpendicular to the WNW-trending least principal stress. Features indicative of these settings that may be helpful in guiding exploration for geothermal resources include major steps in normal faults, interbasinal highs, groups of relatively low discontinuous ridges, and lateral jogs or terminations of mountain ranges.

  14. Geothermal Today - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-05-01

    U.S. Department of Energy 1999 Geothermal Energy Program Highlights The Hot Facts Getting into Hot Water Turning Waste water into Clean Energy Producing Even Cleaner Power Drilling Faster and Cheaper Program in Review 1999: The Year in Review JanuaryCal Energy announced sale of Coso geothermal power plants at China Lake, California, to Caithness Energy, for $277 million. U.S. Export-Import Bank completed a $50 million refinancing of the Leyte Geothermal Optimization Project in the Philippines. F

  15. Success in geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefansson, V.

    1992-01-01

    Success in geothermal development can be defined as the ability to produce geothermal energy at compatible energy prices to other energy sources. Drilling comprises usually the largest cost in geothermal development, and the results of drilling is largely influencing the final price of geothermal energy. For 20 geothermal fields with operating power plants, the ratio between installed capacity and the total number of well in the field is 1.9 MWe/well. The drilling history in 30 geothermal fields are analyzed by plotting the average cumulative well outputs as function of the number of wells drilled in the field. The range of the average well output is 1-10 MWe/well with the mean value 4.2 MWe/well for the 30 geothermal fields studied. A leaning curve is defined as the number of wells drilled in each field before the average output per well reaches a fairly constant value, which is characteristic for the geothermal reservoir. The range for this learning time is 4-36 wells and the average is 13 wells. In general, the average well output in a given field is fairly constant after some 10-20 wells has been drilled in the field. The asymptotic average well output is considered to be a reservoir parameter when it is normalized to the average drilling depth. In average, this reservoir parameter can be expressed as 3.3 MWe per drilled km for the 30 geothermal fields studied. The lifetime of the resource or the depletion time of the geothermal reservoir should also be considered as a parameter influencing the success of geothermal development. Stepwise development, where the reservoir response to the utilization for the first step is used to determine the timing of the installment of the next step, is considered to be an appropriate method to minimize the risk for over investment in a geothermal field

  16. Gulf Coast Programmatic Environmental Assessment Geothermal Well Testing: The Frio Formation of Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR Part 711, environmental assessments are being prepared for significant activities and individual projects of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). This environmental assessment of geopressure well testing addresses, on a regional basis, the expected activities, affected environments, and possible impacts in a broad sense. The specific part of the program addressed by this environmental assessment is geothermal well testing by the take-over of one or more unsuccessful oil wells before the drilling rig is removed and completion of drilling into the geopressured zone. Along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast (Plate 1 and Overlay) water at high temperatures and high pressures is trapped within Gulf basin sediments. The water is confined within or below essentially impermeable shale sequences and carries most or all of the overburden pressure. Such zones are referred to as geopressured strata. These fluids and sediments are heated to abnormally high temperatures (up to 260 C) and may provide potential reservoirs for economical production of geothermal energy. The obvious need in resource development is to assess the resource. Ongoing studies to define large-sand-volume reservoirs will ultimately define optimum sites for drilling special large diameter wells to perform large volume flow production tests. In the interim, existing well tests need to be made to help define and assess the resource. The project addressed by this environmental assessment is the performance of a geothermal well test in high potential geothermal areas. Well tests involve four major actions each of which may or may not be required for each of the well tests. The four major actions are: site preparation, drilling a salt-water disposal well, actual flow testing, and abandonment of the well.

  17. Geothermal Power Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Chamorro, C.R.

    2017-01-01

    Although geothermal energy has been widely deployed for direct use in locations with especial geologic manifestations, its potential for power generation has been traditionally underestimated. Recent technology developments in drilling techniques and power conversion technologies from low......-temperature heat resources are bringing geothermal energy to the spotlight as a renewable baseload energy option for a sustainable energy mix. Although the environmental impact and economic viability of geothermal exploitation must be carefully evaluated for each case, the use of deep low-temperature geothermal...... reservoirs could soon become an important contributor to the energy generation around the world....

  18. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  19. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    examined precipitation products like iron sulfides are indicating that microorganisms play an important role for the understanding of processes in engineered geothermal systems. The further identification of crucial process parameters influencing microbial activities will help to develop appropriate counter measures against microbial induced clogging and corrosion.

  20. National Conference of State Legislators Geothermal Project. Final report, February 1978-September 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The activities of the National Conference of State Legislatures Geothermal Project in stimulating and assessing state legislative action to encourage the efficient development of geothermal resources, including the use of ground water heat pumps, are reviewed by state. (MHR)

  1. Possibilities for electricity production from geothermal energy in Slovenia in the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Rajver

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to raise awareness of the public, with the aim that anyone can judge reality and accuracyof records that appear in the media on the exploitation of geothermal energy. It provides a comprehensive overviewof geothermal systems, potential of hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems, of mechanisms and characteristicsof middle and high enthalpy geothermal resources. It also deals with a mode of their conversion into electricity.Featured are the main factors affecting the decision on effectiveness of conversion of geothermal energy intoelectricity. Given are the review of the research necessary to establish the geothermal potential and assessment oftechnological and economic possibilities of installing geothermal power plants in Slovenia. The paper also describesthe state of knowledge of middle- and high temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia with initial conditions forconstructing geothermal power plants. In addition, we present theoretical calculations of the conversion efficiencyof geothermal energy into electricity with conventional turbines and present some problems for the exploitationof geothermal energy, which are associated with additional costs and further reduce the efficiency of investment.Described are the characteristics and performance of binary geothermal power plants and foreign experience inobtaining electricity from the EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System. We also address the overlapping of the oil andgas industry with the operation of the EGS and the possibility of exploiting oil and gas wells for producing thegeothermal electricity.

  2. Environmental effects of geothermal energy exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co., Ltd., Japan

    1975-01-01

    The environmental effects of geothermal power generation which cause air and water pollution and destruction of natural areas are reviewed. The production of steam and hot water affect existing hot springs sources and can cause ground subsidence. Harmful gas can be released onto the atmosphere from fumarolic gas and hot springs. Hydrothermal geothermal fields occasionally contain harmful substances such as arsenic in the hot water. Serious environmental effects can result from geothermal exploitation activities such as the felling of trees for road construction, well drilling, and plant construction. Once geothermal power generation has begun, the release of H/sub 2/S into the atmosphere and the reinjection of hot water are conducted continuously and sufficient countermeasures can be taken. One problem is the effects of plant construction and operation on natural parks. It is important to reach a compromise between development and protection of natural senic areas. Two figures, two tables, and 13 references are provided.

  3. Swiss geothermal energy update 1985 - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Hauber, L.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, geothermal R and D has evolved steadily in Switzerland. REgional low-enthalphy exploration and resource assessment are largely complete; emphasis is now on drilling and development. Vertical earth-heat exchangers (small-scale, decentralized, heat pump-coupled heating facilities) increase rapidly in number; the governmental system of risk coverage for geothermal drilling, established in 1987, gives rise to several drilling projects. Of these, a single well and a doublet have been successfully completed so far. Numerical modeling of coupled thermohydraulic processes in fracture-dominate Hot Dry Rock systems including rock-mechanics aspects, is in progress. In this paper some further efforts such as contributions to general geothermics, exploration and resource assessment activities in Switzerland, and financing of geothermal development abroad by Swiss banks are described

  4. Geothermal energy in Alaska: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markle, D.

    1979-04-01

    The following are presented: the history of geothermal energy in Alaska; a history of Alaska land ownership; legal and institutional barriers; and economics. Development, the socio-economic and physical data concerning geothermal energy are documented by regions. The six regions presented are those of the present Alaska State Planning Activities and those of the Federal Land Use Commission. Site data summaries of the one hundred and four separate geothermal spring locations are presented by these regions. (MHR)

  5. Geothermal heat pumps - gaining ground in the UK and worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Robin

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable energy companies examines the geothermal heat pump sector, and discusses the technology involved, installations of geothermal heat pumps, the activity in the UK market with increased interest in UK geothermal heat pump products from abroad, and developments in the building sector. The UK government's increased support for the industry including its sponsorship of the Affordable Warmth programme, and the future potential of ground source systems are discussed

  6. Chemical conditions of the Japanese neutral geothermal reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, H.

    1991-01-01

    The aqueous speciation were calculated for fluids of seven Japanese geothermal systems. The aqueous composition as well as CO 2 partial pressure of fluid in neutral pH geothermal reservoir are controlled by silicate, calcite and anhydrite minerals. The chemical composition of neutral pH geothermal reservoir can be predictable if two parameters (e.g. temperature and one of the cation activities) are provided. (author)

  7. Impact of geothermal development on the state of Hawaii. Executive summary. Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    Questions regarding the sociological, legal, environmental, and geological concerns associated with the development of geothermal resources in the Hawaiian Islands are addressed in this summary report. Major social changes, environmental degradation, legal and economic constraints, seismicity, subsidence, changes in volcanic activity, accidents, and ground water contamination are not major problems with the present state of development, however, the present single well does not provide sufficient data for extrapolation. (ACR)

  8. Geothermal Today: 2003 Geothermal Technologies Program Highlights (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-05-01

    This outreach publication highlights milestones and accomplishments of the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program for 2003. Included in this publication are discussions of geothermal fundamentals, enhanced geothermal systems, direct-use applications, geothermal potential in Idaho, coating technology, energy conversion R&D, and the GeoPowering the West initiative.

  9. Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-15

    Mexican Institute de Investigaciones de la Industria Electrica is actively participating. The program is itself a part of a natural resources study in...brtlan de Los Hervores geothermax area. Michoacan. Mexico. IN: ibid., v. 2, pt. 1, 381-398. 215. Mercado , S. Hißh activ.dy...indiciated that in the volcanic environment of the Taupo graben the most useful technique is de -resistivity profiling using linear arrays. 58

  10. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  11. Geothermal energy for greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacky Friedman

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy is heat (thermal) derived from the earth (geo). The heat flows along a geothermal gradient from the center of the earth to the surface. Most of the heat arrives at the surface of the earth at temperatures too low for much use. However, plate tectonics ensure that some of the heat is concentrated at temperatures and depths favorable for its commercial...

  12. Prospects of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzella, A.; Bianchi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy has great potential as a renewable energy with low environmental impact, the use of heat pumps is becoming established in Italy but the national contributions are still modest when compared to other nations. Mature technologies could double the installed geothermal power in Italy at 2020. [it

  13. Geothermal today: 1999 Geothermal Energy Program highlights (Clean energy for the 21st century booklet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, B.; Waggoner, T.

    2000-05-10

    The purpose of this publication is to educate and inform readers about research activities being carried out by the federal Geothermal Energy Program, and its achievements and future goals. This publication should help raise the visibility and awareness of geothermal energy contributions and potential, especially as part of the nation's clean energy technologies portfolio. The message of the publication is that program resources are being well spent and the results are real and tangible. A secondary message is that geothermal energy is a viable generation option with environmental, economic, and other benefits.

  14. Renewability of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, Michael; Yeh, Angus [Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Mannington, Warren [Contact Energy Limited, Taupo (New Zealand)

    2010-12-15

    In almost all geothermal projects worldwide, the rate of extraction of heat energy exceeds the pre-exploitation rate of heat flow from depth. For example, current production of geothermal heat from the Wairakei-Tauhara system exceeds the natural recharge of heat by a factor of 4.75. Thus, the current rate of heat extraction from Wairakei-Tauhara is not sustainable on a continuous basis, and the same statement applies to most other geothermal projects. Nevertheless, geothermal energy resources are renewable in the long-term because they would fully recover to their pre-exploitation state after an extended shut-down period. The present paper considers the general issue of the renewability of geothermal resources and uses computer modeling to investigate the renewability of the Wairakei-Tauhara system. In particular, modeling is used to simulate the recovery of Wairakei-Tauhara after it is shut down in 2053 after a hundred years of production. (author)

  15. Geothermal country update of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higo, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of geothermal energy in Japan. Topics covered include: present and planned production of electricity, present utilization of geothermal energy for direct heat, information about geothermal localities, and wells drilled for electrical utilization of geothermal resources to January 1, 1990

  16. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  17. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  18. Geothermal energy in California: Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citron, O.; Davis, C.; Fredrickson, C.; Granit, R.; Kerrisk, D.; Leibowitz, L.; Schulkin, B.; Wornack, J.

    1976-06-30

    The potential for electric energy from geothermal resources in California is currently estimated to be equivalent to the output from 14 to 21 large (1000 MW) central station power plants. In addition, since over 30 California cities are located near potential geothermal resources, the non-electric applications of geothermal heat (industrial, agriculture, space heating, etc.) could be enormous. Therefore, the full-scale utilization of geothermal resources would have a major impact upon the energy picture of the state. This report presents a summary of the existing status of geothermal energy development in the state of California as of the early part of 1976. The report provides data on the extent of the resource base of the state and the present outlook for its utilization. It identifies the existing local, state, and federal laws, rules and regulations governing geothermal energy development and the responsibilities of each of the regulatory agencies involved. It also presents the differences in the development requirements among several counties and between California and its neighboring states. Finally, it describes on-going and planned activities in resource assessment and exploration, utilization, and research and development. Separate abstracts are prepared for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) for Sections II--VI and the three Appendixes.

  19. Development of drilling foams for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, W.J.; Remont, L.J.; Rehm, W.A.; Chenevert, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of foam drilling fluids in geothermal applications is addressed. A description of foams - what they are, how they are used, their properties, equipment required to use them, the advantages and disadvantages of foams, etc. - is presented. Geothermal applications are discussed. Results of industry interviews presented indicate significant potential for foams, but also indicate significant technical problems to be solved to achieve this potential. Testing procedures and results of tests on representative foams provide a basis for work to develop high-temperature foams.

  20. Exploration of Geothermal Natural Resources from Menengai Caldera at Naruku, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlan, E.; Wamalwa, A.; Thompson, L. E.; Kaip, G.; Velasco, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Menengai Caldera, a large, dormant volcano, lies near the city of Naruku, Kenya (0.20°S, 36.07°E) and presents a significant natural geothermal energy resource that will benefit local communities. Kenya continues to explore and exploit its only major energy resource: geothermal energy. The Geothermal Development Company (GDC) of Kenya and University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) have initially deployed seven seismic stations to address the volcanic hazards and associated processes that occurs through the analysis of data collection from seismic sensors that record ground motion. Seven more sensors are planned to be deployed in Aug. 2011. In general, the internal state and activity of the caldera is an important component to the understanding of porosity of the fault system, which is derived from the magma movement of the hot spot, and for the exploitation of geothermal energy. We analyze data from March to May 2011 to investigate the role of earthquakes and faults in controlling the caldera processes, and we find 15 events occurred within the caldera. We will utilize the double difference earthquake location algorithm (HypoDD) to analyze the local events in order to find active faulting of the caldera and the possible location of the magma chamber. For future work, we will combine the exiting data with the new seismic station to image the location of the caldera magma chamber.

  1. Geothermal FIT Design: International Experience and U.S. Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickerson, W.; Gifford, J.; Grace, R.; Cory, K.

    2012-08-01

    Developing power plants is a risky endeavor, whether conventional or renewable generation. Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies can be designed to address some of these risks, and their design can be tailored to geothermal electric plant development. Geothermal projects face risks similar to other generation project development, including finding buyers for power, ensuring adequate transmission capacity, competing to supply electricity and/or renewable energy certificates (RECs), securing reliable revenue streams, navigating the legal issues related to project development, and reacting to changes in existing regulations or incentives. Although FITs have not been created specifically for geothermal in the United States to date, a variety of FIT design options could reduce geothermal power plant development risks and are explored. This analysis focuses on the design of FIT incentive policies for geothermal electric projects and how FITs can be used to reduce risks (excluding drilling unproductive exploratory wells).

  2. Tapping the earth's geothermal resources: Hydrothermal today, magma tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1986-12-17

    The paper discusses geothermal resources, what it is, where it is, and how to extract energy from it. The materials research activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory related to geothermal energy extraction are discussed. These include high-temperature, light-weight polymer cements, elastomers, biochemical waste processing techniques, and non-metallic heat exchanger tubing. The economics of geothermal energy is also discussed. (ACR)

  3. Geological model of supercritical geothermal reservoir related to subduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2017-04-01

    Following the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power station on 3.11 (11th March) 2011, geothermal energy came to be considered one of the most promising sources of renewable energy for the future in Japan. The temperatures of geothermal fields operating in Japan range from 200 to 300 °C (average 250 °C), and the depths range from 1000 to 2000 m (average 1500 m). In conventional geothermal reservoirs, the mechanical behavior of the rocks is presumed to be brittle, and convection of the hydrothermal fluid through existing network is the main method of circulation in the reservoir. In order to minimize induced seismicity, a rock mass that is "beyond brittle" is one possible candidate, because the rock mechanics of "beyond brittle" material is one of plastic deformation rather than brittle failure. Supercritical geothermal resources could be evaluated in terms of present volcanic activities, thermal structure, dimension of hydrothermal circulation, properties of fracture system, depth of heat source, depth of brittle factures zone, dimension of geothermal reservoir. On the basis of the GIS, potential of supercritical geothermal resources could be characterized into the following four categories. 1. Promising: surface manifestation d shallow high temperature, 2 Probability: high geothermal gradient, 3 Possibility: Aseismic zone which indicates an existence of melt, 4 Potential : low velocity zone which indicates magma input. Base on geophysical data for geothermal reservoirs, we have propose adequate tectonic model of development of the supercritical geothermal reservoirs. To understand the geological model of a supercritical geothermal reservoir, granite-porphyry system, which had been formed in subduction zone, was investigated as a natural analog of the supercritical geothermal energy system. Quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia veins, and glassy veins are observed in a granitic body. The glassy veins formed at 500-550

  4. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July 1996--September 1996. Federal Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-96. It describes 152 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on greenhouse peaking. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  5. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  6. Induced seismicity associated with enhanced geothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, Ernest; Majer, Ernest L.; Baria, Roy; Stark, Mitch; Oates, Stephen; Bommer, Julian; Smith, Bill; Asanuma, Hiroshi

    2006-09-26

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) offer the potential to significantly add to the world energy inventory. As with any development of new technology, some aspects of the technology has been accepted by the general public, but some have not yet been accepted and await further clarification before such acceptance is possible. One of the issues associated with EGS is the role of microseismicity during the creation of the underground reservoir and the subsequent extraction of the energy. The primary objectives of this white paper are to present an up-to-date review of the state of knowledge about induced seismicity during the creation and operation of enhanced geothermal systems, and to point out the gaps in knowledge that if addressed will allow an improved understanding of the mechanisms generating the events as well as serve as a basis to develop successful protocols for monitoring and addressing community issues associated with such induced seismicity. The information was collected though literature searches as well as convening three workshops to gather information from a wide audience. Although microseismicity has been associated with the development of production and injection operations in a variety of geothermal regions, there have been no or few adverse physical effects on the operations or on surrounding communities. Still, there is public concern over the possible amount and magnitude of the seismicity associated with current and future EGS operations. It is pointed out that microseismicity has been successfully dealt with in a variety of non-geothermal as well as geothermal environments. Several case histories are also presented to illustrate a variety of technical and public acceptance issues. It is concluded that EGS Induced seismicity need not pose any threat to the development of geothermal resources if community issues are properly handled. In fact, induced seismicity provides benefits because it can be used as a monitoring tool to understand the

  7. Development of Genetic Occurrence Models for Geothermal Prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. D.; Sabin, A.; Unruh, J.; Monastero, F. C.; Combs, J.

    2007-12-01

    Exploration for utility-grade geothermal resources has mostly relied on identifying obvious surface manifestations of possible geothermal activity, e.g., locating and working near steaming ground or hot springs. This approach has lead to the development of over 130 resources worldwide, but geothermal exploration done in this manner is akin to locating hydrocarbon plays by searching for oil seeps. Confining exploration to areas with such features will clearly not discover a blind resource, that is, one that does not have surface expression. Blind resources, however, constitute the vast majority of hydrocarbon plays; this may be the case for geothermal resources as well. We propose a geothermal exploration strategy for finding blind systems that is based on an understanding of the geologic processes that transfer heat from the mantle to the upper crust and foster the conditions for hydrothermal circulation or enhanced geothermal exploration. The strategy employs a genetically based screening protocol to assess potential geothermal sites. The approach starts at the plate boundary scale and progressively focuses in on the scale of a producing electrical-grade field. Any active margin or hot spot is a potential location for geothermal resources. Although Quaternary igneous activity provides a clear indication of active advection of hot material into the upper crust, it is not sufficient to guarantee a potential utility-grade resource. Active faulting and/or evidence of high strain rates appear to be the critical features associated with areas of utility-grade geothermal potential. This is because deformation on its own can advect sufficient heat into the upper crust to create conditions favorable for geothermal exploitation. In addition, active deformation is required to demonstrate that open pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids are present and/or can be maintained. The last step in the screening protocol is to identify any evidence of geothermal activity

  8. Industrial application of geothermal energy in Southeast Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batdorf, J.A.; McClain, D.W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    Those phosphate related and food processing industries in Southeastern Idaho are identified which require large energy inputs and the potential for direct application of geothermal energy is assessed. The total energy demand is given along with that fractional demand that can be satisfied by a geothermal source of known temperature. The potential for geothermal resource development is analyzed by examining the location of known thermal springs and wells, the location of state and federal geothermal exploration leases, and the location of federal and state oil and gas leasing activity in Southeast Idaho. Information is also presented regarding the location of geothermal, oil, and gas exploration wells in Southeast Idaho. The location of state and federal phosphate mining leases is also presented. This information is presented in table and map formats to show the proximity of exploration and development activities to current food and phosphate processing facilities and phosphate mining activities. (MHR)

  9. Global geothermal energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.; Singh, A.; Pandey, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    To resolve the energy crisis efforts have been made in exploring and utilizing nonconventional energy resources since last few decades. Geothermal energy is one such energy resource. Fossil fuels are the earth's energy capital like money deposited in bank years ago. The energy to build this energy came mainly from the sun. Steam geysers and hot water springs are other manifestations of geothermal energy. Most of the 17 countries that today harness geothermal energy have simply tapped such resources where they occur. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Geothermal survey handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this handbook is to publicize widely the nature of geothermal surveys. It covers geothermal survey planning and measurement as well as measurement of thermal conductivity. Methods for the detection of eruptive areas, the measurement of radiative heat using snowfall, the measurement of surface temperature using infrared radiation and the measurement of thermal flow are described. The book also contains information on physical detection of geothermal reservoirs, the measurement of spring wells, thermographic measurement of surface heat, irregular layer surveying, air thermographics and aerial photography. Isotope measurement techniques are included.

  11. Worldwide installed geothermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, P.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide electric energy production data are easy to compile, according to the informations given by individual countries. On the contrary, thermal applications of geothermics are difficult to quantify due to the variety of applications and the number of countries concerned. Exhaustive informations sometimes cannot be obtained from huge countries (China, Russia..) because of data centralization problems or not exploitable data transmission. Therefore, installed power data for geothermal heat production are given for 26 countries over the 57 that have answered the International Geothermal Association questionnaire. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 1 photo

  12. Geothermal electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal conversion, as discussed here, is the conversion of the heat bound within the topmost three kilometres of the upper crust of the earth into useful energy, principally electricity. The characteristics of a geothermal reservoir and its individual technical features are highly site-specific. Applications therefore must be designed to match the specific geothermal reservoir. An estimate of the electric energy potential world-wide made by the Electric Power Research Institute (United States) in 1978 and based on sustaining a continuous 30-year operation is given in the box at the right for comparison purposes only. 8 refs, 5 figs

  13. Navy Geothermal Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    Domestic geothermal resources with the potential for decreasing fossil fuel use and energy cost exist at a significant number of Navy facilities. The Geothermal Plan is part of the Navy Energy R and D Program that will evaluate Navy sites and provide a technical, economic, and environmental base for subsequent resource use. One purpose of the program will be to provide for the transition of R and D funded exploratory efforts into the resource development phase. Individual Navy geothermal site projects are described as well as the organizational structure and Navy decision network. 2 figs.

  14. Quantifying the undiscovered geothermal resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released summary results of an assessment of the electric power production potential from the moderate- and high-temperature geothermal resources of the United States (Williams et al., 2008a; USGS Fact Sheet 2008-3082; http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3082). In the assessment, the estimated mean power production potential from undiscovered geothermal resources is 30,033 Megawatts-electric (MWe), more than three times the estimated mean potential from identified geothermal systems: 9057 MWe. The presence of significant undiscovered geothermal resources has major implications for future exploration and development activities by both the government and private industry. Previous reports summarize the results of techniques applied by the USGS and others to map the spatial distribution of undiscovered resources. This paper describes the approach applied in developing estimates of the magnitude of the undiscovered geothermal resource, as well as the manner in which that resource is likely to be distributed among geothermal systems of varying volume and temperature. A number of key issues constrain the overall estimate. One is the degree to which characteristics of the undiscovered resources correspond to those observed among identified geothermal systems. Another is the evaluation of exploration history, including both the spatial distribution of geothermal exploration activities relative to the postulated spatial distribution of undiscovered resources and the probability of successful discoveries from the application of standard geothermal exploration techniques. Also significant are the physical, chemical, and geological constraints on the formation and longevity of geothermal systems. Important observations from this study include the following. (1) Some of the largest identified geothermal systems, such as The Geysers vapor-dominated system in northern California and the diverse geothermal manifestations found in Yellowstone

  15. Twelfth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Rivera, J. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1987-01-22

    Preface The Twelfth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 20-22, 1987. The year ending December 1986 was very difficult for the domestic geothermal industry. Low oil prices caused a sharp drop in geothermal steam prices. We expected to see some effect upon attendance at the Twelfth Workshop. To our surprise, the attendance was up by thirteen from previous years, with one hundred and fifty-seven registered participants. Eight foreign countries were represented: England, France, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and Turkey. Despite a worldwide surplus of oil, international geothermal interest and development is growing at a remarkable pace. There were forty-one technical presentations at the Workshop. All of these are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Seven technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published; they concern geothermal developments and research in Iceland, Italy, and New Zealand. In addition to these forty-eight technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by Henry J. Ramey, Jr. from the Stanford Geothermal Program. The Workshop Banquet speaker was John R. Berg from the Department of Energy. We thank him for sharing with the Workshop participants his thoughts on the expectations of this agency in the role of alternative energy resources, specifically geothermal, within the country???s energy framework. His talk is represented as a paper in the back of this volume. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: M. Gulati, K. Goyal, G.S. Bodvarsson, A.S. Batchelor, H. Dykstra, M.J. Reed, A. Truesdell, J.S. Gudmundsson, and J.R. Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and students. We would like to thank Jean Cook, Marilyn King, Amy Osugi, Terri Ramey, and Rosalee Benelli for their valued help with the meeting

  16. Geothermal life cycle assessment - part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, E. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-01

    A set of key issues pertaining to the environmental performance of geothermal electric power have been addressed. They include: 1) greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from geothermal facilities, 2) the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a geofluid for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), 3) quantifying the impact of well field exploration on the life cycle of geothermal power, and finally 4) criteria pollutant emissions for geothermal and other electric power generation. A GHG emission rate (g/kWh) distribution as function of cumulative running capacity for California has been developed based on California and U. S. government data. The distribution is similar to a global distribution for compared geothermal technologies. A model has been developed to estimate life cycle energy of and CO2 emissions from a coupled pair of coal and EGS plants, the latter of which is powered by scCO2 captured from coal plant side. Depending on the CO2 capture rate on the coal side and the CO2 consumption rate on the EGS side, significant reductions in GHG emissions were computed when the combined system is compared to its conventional coal counterpart. In effect, EGS CO2 consumption acts as a sequestration mechanism for the coal plant. The effects CO2 emissions from the coupled system, prompt on the coal side and reservoir leakage on the EGS side, were considered as well as the subsequent decline of these emissions after entering the atmosphere over a time frame of 100 years. A model was also developed to provide better estimates of the impact of well field exploration on the life cycle performance of geothermal power production. The new estimates increase the overall life cycle metrics for the geothermal systems over those previously estimated. Finally, the GREET model has been updated to include the most recent criteria pollutant emissions for a range of renewable (including geothermal) and other power

  17. Geothermal Program Review XI: proceedings. Geothermal Energy - The Environmental Responsible Energy Technology for the Nineties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    These proceedings contain papers pertaining to current research and development of geothermal energy in the USA. The seven sections of the document are: Overview, The Geysers, Exploration and Reservoir Characterization, Drilling, Energy Conversion, Advanced Systems, and Potpourri. The Overview presents current DOE energy policy and industry perspectives. Reservoir studies, injection, and seismic monitoring are reported for the geysers geothermal field. Aspects of geology, geochemistry and models of geothermal exploration are described. The Drilling section contains information on lost circulation, memory logging tools, and slim-hole drilling. Topics considered in energy conversion are efforts at NREL, condensation on turbines and geothermal materials. Advanced Systems include hot dry rock studies and Fenton Hill flow testing. The Potpourri section concludes the proceedings with reports on low-temperature resources, market analysis, brines, waste treatment biotechnology, and Bonneville Power Administration activities. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  19. Effective geothermal heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelsen, Atle

    2006-01-01

    Scandinavia's currently largest geothermal heating project: the New Ahus hospital, is briefly presented. 300-400 wells on a field outside the hospital are constructed to store energy for both heating and cooling purposes

  20. NGDC Geothermal Data Bases

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geothermics is the study of heat generated in Earth's interior and its manifestation at the surface. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has a variety of...

  1. Geothermics in Aquitaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The geothermal exploitation of the Aquitanian Basin (S W France) started 15 years ago and has extended today to 12 different places. Three main aquifers of different depth are exploited in Bordeaux region: the old alluvial deposits of Garonne river (20-30 m), the Middle Eocene aquifer (300-400 m), and the Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer (900-1100 m) which is the deepest and most exploited for geothermal purposes. The drinkable quality of the water and the use of single-well technique are important factors that reduce the operating costs. Geothermics remains competitive with other energy sources due to the long-term stability of geothermal energy costs. (J.S.). 2 figs., 1 tab., 5 photos

  2. Geothermal resources in Italy and world-wide: scientific debate and market evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, M.; Rizzi, F.

    2008-01-01

    to the distribution and characteristics of the geothermal resources. The specialization of Italy in GPG appears not to be adequately represented within European programmes and the Tuscany region is still considered not a leading market by the investors in geothermal heat pumps and geothermal district heating. Both according to the communitarian prescriptions and the requests from local actors, a few scenarios for the development of guidelines, certification schemes and regulations are here described. These elements are consistent with the purpose of sustainability and competitiveness of local economic activities. On the basis of these evidences, the third section describes the perspectives of development of medium and low enthalpy utilizations in Italy. According to the present financial incentives schemes and the predicted modifications in relevant regulations (i.e. city plans, building regulations, etc.), a booming growth of installations is expected. This geothermal green new deal is pulled by the increasing number of life-long learning programmes for professionals (i.e. geologists) and, even more, is expected to be pulled by the implementation of risk management tools and certification schemes. As result, the analysis sets a road map for addressing the needs of geothermal actors and removing the barriers to successful investing in this local and renewable energy resource. When we return to the initial question, it seems to be the moment for changing attitude towards energy production and to win back competitiveness and sustainability in the geothermal market. [it

  3. Renewable Energy Essentials: Geothermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Geothermal energy is energy available as heat contained in or discharged from the earth's crust that can be used for generating electricity and providing direct heat for numerous applications such as: space and district heating; water heating; aquaculture; horticulture; and industrial processes. In addition, the use of energy extracted from the constant temperatures of the earth at shallow depth by means of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) is also generally referred to as geothermal energy.

  4. Geothermal environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armannsson, H.; Kristmannsdottir, H.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal utilization can cause surface disturbances, physical effects due to fluid withdrawal noise, thermal effects and emission of chemicals as well as affect the communities concerned socially and economically. The environmental impact can be minimized by multiple use of the energy source and the reinjection of spent fluids. The emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuels as an industrial energy source wherever possible

  5. A complementary geothermal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedard, R.

    1998-01-01

    A geothermal project for air conditioning and heating at four health centres in Quebec was presented. The four health centres are: le centre Dominique-Tremblay, le centre Cardinal-Villeneuve, le centre Louis-Hebert, et le centre Francois-Charon. The investment made to install the geothermal heating and cooling system, the cost of operating the system, and energy savings resulting from the investment were discussed

  6. Geothermal energy - Overview of research in 2002; Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohran, H. L.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy reviews activities in the area of geothermal energy usage in Switzerland in 2002. Several main points of interest are discussed, including Deep Heat Mining, the thermal use of drainage water from alpine railway tunnels, the quality assurance aspects of geothermal installations and pilot and demonstration (P+D) activities designed to promote the use of geothermal energy. Also, the use of constructional elements such as energy piles and novel applications such as geothermally heated greenhouses and fish farms are discussed. Examples of various P+D projects that utilise bore-hole heat exchangers and piles are given. Also, examples of the thermal use of deep aquifers are quoted and projects involving the mapping of geothermal resources and the creation of quality labels are described. Prospects for future work are discussed. The report is rounded off with lists of research and development projects and P+D projects.

  7. Geothermal System Extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnerson, Jon [Boise City Corporation, ID (United States); Pardy, James J. [Boise City Corporation, ID (United States)

    2017-09-30

    This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0000318. The City of Boise operates and maintains the nation’s largest geothermal heating district. Today, 91 buildings are connected, providing space heating to over 5.5 million square feet, domestic water heating, laundry and pool heating, sidewalk snowmelt and other related uses. Approximately 300 million gallons of 177°F geothermal water is pumped annually to buildings and institutions located in downtown Boise. The closed loop system returns all used geothermal water back into the aquifer after heat has been removed via an Injection Well. Water injected back into the aquifer has an average temperature of 115°F. This project expanded the Boise Geothermal Heating District (Geothermal System) to bring geothermal energy to the campus of Boise State University and to the Central Addition Eco-District. In addition, this project also improved the overall system’s reliability and increased the hydraulic capacity.

  8. Thermodynamics of geothermal fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, P.S.Z.

    1981-03-01

    A model to predict the thermodynamic properties of geothermal brines, based on a minimum amount of experimental data on a few key systems, is tested. Volumetric properties of aqueous sodium chloride, taken from the literature, are represented by a parametric equation over the range 0 to 300{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 1 kbar. Density measurements at 20 bar needed to complete the volumetric description also are presented. The pressure dependence of activity and thermal properties, derived from the volumetric equation, can be used to complete an equation of state for sodium chloride solutions. A flow calorimeter, used to obtain heat capacity data at high temperatures and pressures, is described. Heat capacity measurements, from 30 to 200{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 200 bar, are used to derive values for the activity coefficient and other thermodynamic properties of sodium sulfate solutions as a function of temperature. Literature data on the solubility of gypsum in mixed electrolyte solutions have been used to evaluate model parameters for calculating gypsum solubility in seawater and natural brines. Predictions of strontium and barium sulfate solubility in seawater also are given.

  9. Geothermal Program Review XIV: proceedings. Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XIV in Berkeley, April 8-10, 1996. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focused on ``Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets.`` This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Program Review XIV consisted of eight sessions chaired by industry representatives. Introductory and overview remarks were presented during every session followed by detailed reports on specific DOE-funded research projects. The progress of R&D projects over the past year and plans for future activities were discussed. The government-industry partnership continues to strengthen -- its success, achievements over the past twenty years, and its future direction were highlighted throughout the conference. The comments received from the conference evaluation forms are published in this year`s proceedings. Individual papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Geothermal Program Review VII: proceedings. DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an indepth review of its entire geothermal R and D program. The 2--3 day conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R and D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. This year's conference, Program Review 7, was held in San Francisco on March 21--23, 1989. As indicated by its title, ''DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace'', Program Review 7 emphasized developing technologies, concepts, and innovations having potential for commercial application in the foreseeable future. Program Review 7 was comprised of eight sessions including an opening session and a special presentation on the ''Role of Geothermal Energy in Minimizing Global Environmental Problems.'' The five technical sessions covered GTD-sponsored R and D in the areas of hydrothermal (two sessions), hot dry rock, geopressured, and magma. Presentations were made by the relevant field researchers, and sessions were chaired by the appropriate DOE Operations Office Geothermal Program Manager. The technical papers and commentary of invited speakers contained in these Proceedings have been compiled in the order in which they were presented at Program Review 7.

  11. Absence of remote earthquake triggering within the Coso and Salton Sea geothermal production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Lin, Guoqing; Zhan, Zhongwen; Chen, Xiaowei; Qin, Yan; Wdowinski, Shimon

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal areas are long recognized to be susceptible to remote earthquake triggering, probably due to the high seismicity rates and presence of geothermal fluids. However, anthropogenic injection and extraction activity may alter the stress state and fluid flow within the geothermal fields. Here we examine the remote triggering phenomena in the Coso geothermal field and its surrounding areas to assess possible anthropogenic effects. We find that triggered earthquakes are absent within the geothermal field but occur in the surrounding areas. Similar observation is also found in the Salton Sea geothermal field. We hypothesize that continuous geothermal operation has eliminated any significant differential pore pressure between fractures inside the geothermal field through flushing geothermal precipitations and sediments out of clogged fractures. To test this hypothesis, we analyze the pore-pressure-driven earthquake swarms, and they are found to occur outside or on the periphery of the geothermal production field. Therefore, our results suggest that the geothermal operation has changed the subsurface fracture network, and differential pore pressure is the primary controlling factor of remote triggering in geothermal fields.

  12. Diffuse helium and hydrogen degassing to reveal hidden geothermal resources in oceanic volcanic islands: The Canarian archipelago case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Padrón, Eleazar; Dionis, Samara; López, Gabriel; Melián, Gladys V.; Asensio-Ramos, María; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padilla, German; Barrancos, José; Marrero, Rayco; Hidalgo, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    During geothermal exploration, the geochemical methods are extensively used and play a major role in both exploration and exploitation phases. They are particularly useful to assess the subsurface temperatures in the reservoir, the origin of the fluid, and flow directions within the reservoir. The geochemical exploration is based on the assumption that fluids on the surface reflect physico-chemical and thermal conditions in the geothermal reservoir at depth. However, in many occasions there is not any evidence of endogenous fluids manifestations at surface, that traditionally evidence the presence of an active geothermal system. Discovery of new geothermal systems will therefore require exploration of areas where the resources are either hidden or lie at great depths. Geochemical methods for geothermal exploration at these areas must include soil gas surveys, based on the detection of anomalously high concentrations of some hydrothermal gases in the soil atmosphere, generally between 40 cm and 1 meter depth from the surface. Among soil gases, particularly interest has been addressed to non-reactive and/or highly mobile gases. They offer important advantages for the detection of vertical permeability structures, because their interaction with the surrounding rocks or fluids during the ascent toward the surface is minimum. This is the case of helium (He) and hydrogen (H2), that have unique characteristics as a geochemical tracer, owing to their chemical and physical characteristics. Enrichments of He and H2 observed in the soil atmosphere can be attributed almost exclusively to migration of deep-seated gas toward the surface. In this work we show the results of soil gas geochemistry studies, focused mainly in non-reactive and/or highly mobile gases as He and H2, in five minning grids at Tenerife and Gran Canaria, Canay Islands, Spain, during 2011-2014. The primary objective was to use different geochemical evidences of deep-seated gas emission to sort the possible

  13. Utilising geothermal energy in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Geothermal energy is generated from the radioactive decay of naturally occurring isotopes and about 20% is generated from primordial heat associated with the formation of the earth. Geothermal project reduce energy and water cost and reduces greenhouse gas emissions

  14. Sixteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1991-01-25

    The Sixteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23-25, 1991. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Mohinder Gulati of UNOCAL Geothermal. Dr. Gulati gave an inspiring talk on the impact of numerical simulation on development of geothermal energy both in The Geysers and the Philippines. Dr. Gulati was the first recipient of The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award. The registered attendance figure of one hundred fifteen participants was up slightly from last year. There were seven foreign countries represented: Iceland, Italy, Philippines, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Mexico, and Japan. As last year, papers on about a dozen geothermal fields outside the United States were presented. There were thirty-six papers presented at the Workshop, and two papers were submitted for publication only. Attendees were welcomed by Dr. Khalid Aziz, Chairman of the Petroleum Engineering Department at Stanford. Opening remarks were presented by Dr. Roland Horne, followed by a discussion of the California Energy Commission's Geothermal Activities by Barbara Crowley, Vice Chairman; and J.E. ''Ted'' Mock's presentation of the DOE Geothermal Program: New Emphasis on Industrial Participation. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: hot dry rock, geochemistry, tracer injection, field performance, modeling, and chemistry/gas. As in previous workshops, session chairpersons made major contributions to the program. Special thanks are due to Joel Renner, Jeff Tester, Jim Combs, Kathy Enedy, Elwood Baldwin, Sabodh Garg, Marcel0 Lippman, John Counsil, and Eduardo Iglesias. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Angharad Jones, Rosalee Benelli, Jeanne Mankinen, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also

  15. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  16. 2015 Annual Report - Geothermal Technologies Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-01

    Over the past year, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) supported a number of exciting initiatives and research and development (R&D)activities! The GTO budget was increased in Fiscal Years (FY) 2015-2016, providing the opportunity to invest in new technologies and initiatives, such as the DOE-wide Subsurface Crosscut Initiative, and the Small Business Vouchers (SBV)Program, which is focused on growing our small business and national laboratory partnerships. These efforts will continue to advance geothermal as an economically competitive renewable energy.

  17. Pacific Northwest geothermal 1977 review - 1978 outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngquist, W

    1978-06-01

    A survey covers some of the more important geothermal exploration and development activity in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho in 1977, including a projection of what may be expected in these areas in 1978 and the Pacific Northwest extensive young volcanic terrain as a prime exploration target; continuing investment by the geothermal industry; and recommendations that access should be provided to public lands which hold much of this resource, that it should be recognized that the hydrologic systems which bring this energy to the well bore in economic quantities can be depleted, and that taxation should account for this depletion.

  18. Development of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the geothermal development promotion survey project. NEDO is taking the lead in investigation and development to reduce risks for private business entities and promote their development. The program is being moved forward by dividing the surveys into three ranks of A, B and C from prospects of geothermal resource availability and the state of data accumulation. The survey A lacks number of data, but covers areas as wide as 100 to 300 km{sup 2}, and studies possible existence of high-temperature geothermal energy. The survey B covers areas of 50 to 70 km{sup 2}, investigates availability of geothermal resources, and assesses environmental impacts. The survey C covers areas of 5 to 10 km{sup 2}, and includes production well drilling and long-term discharge tests, other than those carried out by the surveys A and B. Results derived in each fiscal year are evaluated and judged to establish development plans for the subsequent fiscal year. This paper summarizes development results on 38 areas from among 45 areas surveyed since fiscal 1980. Development promotion surveys were carried out over seven areas in fiscal 1994. Development is in progress not only on utilization of high-temperature steam, but also on binary cycle geothermal power generation utilizing hot waters of 80 to 150{degree}C. Fiscal 1994 has carried out discussions for spread and practical use of the systems (particularly on economic effects), and development of small-to-medium scale binary systems. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Education Technologies in Addressing the Problem of Forming the Socially Active Individual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Irina N.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of technological support of the educational process in solving the problem of forming the socially active individual. The authors studied the value of the category "social activity" and analyzed educational technologies that have an impact on its formation. The obtained results gave the possibility…

  20. Shallow geothermal energy from a Danish standpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Shallow geothermal energy is sadly undeveloped in Denmark compared to the neighbouring countries. However, the general need for transformation to sustainable energy sources combined with what appears to be an increased willingness from the authorities to actively support ground source heating, may...

  1. The geochemistry of lithium-bearing geothermal water, Taupo Volcanic Zone, and shallow fluid processes in a very active silicic volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, A. S.; Hoskin, P. W.; Rudnick, R. L.; Liu, X.; Boseley, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Li abundances and isotopic systematics of Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) geothermal fluids preserves a record of processes occurring within shallow portions of geothermal reservoirs as well as deeper portions of the arc crust. Understanding Li cycling and isotopic fractionation in TVZ geothermal systems contributes to a more refined understanding of physicochemical processes affecting New Zealand's geothermal resources. A comprehensive dataset of 73 samples was compiled, with samples collected from geothermal surface features (springs, spouters, geysers, etc.) and electric-power industry production wells, collectively representing18 geothermal fields across the breadth and width the TVZ. No comparable dataset of fluid analyses exists. Ion chromatography, AAS, and quadrupole ICP-MS analyses were done for Li, Cl-, SiO2, SO42- K, Na, Ca, Mg, B, Sr and Pb concentrations. Lithium abundance in geothermal fluids from the TVZ have a dataset-wide average of 5.9 mg/L and range 4 μg/L to 29 mg/L. The Li abundance and Li/Cl ratios for geothermal water and steam condensates vary systematically as a result of boiling, mixing, and water/rock reaction. Lithium abundance and Li/Cl ratios are, therefore, indicators of shallow (above 2.5 km) and locally variable reservoir processes. δ7Li analysis of 63 samples was performed at the University of Maryland, College Park. Data quality was controlled by measurement of L-SVEC as a calibration standard and by multiple analysis of selected samples. The average δ7Li value for TVZ geothermal fluids is -0.8%. Most δ7Li values for geothermal water fall within a small range of about -3% to+2% indicating similar processes are causing similar isotopic fractionation throughout the region. Considered together, Li aundances and δ7Li values, in combination with numerical models, indicate possible evolution pathways and water/rock reactions in TVZ geothermal systems. Models based on rocks and surface water analysis indicate that Li cycles and

  2. Geothermal heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.; Tinti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, for several types of buildings and users, the choice of conditioning by heat pump and low enthalpy geothermal reservoir has been increasing in the Italian market. In fact, such systems are efficient in terms of energy and consumption, they can perform, even at the same time, both functions, heating and cooling and they are environmentally friendly, because they do not produce local emissions. This article will introduce the technology and will focus on critical points of a geothermal field design, from actual practice, to future perspectives for the geo exchanger improvement. Finally, the article presents a best practice case in Bologna district, with an economic analysis showing the convenience of a geothermal heat pump. Conclusions of the real benefits of these plants can be drawn: compared to a non-negligible initial cost, the investment has a pay-back period almost always acceptable, usually less than 10 years. [it

  3. Geothermal energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Geothermal energy research and development by the Sunshine Project is subdivided into five major categories: exploration and exploitation technology, hot-water power generation technology, volcanic power generation technology, environmental conservation and multi-use technology, and equipment materials research. The programs are being carried out by various National Research Institutes, universities, and private industry. During 1976 and 1977, studies were made of the extent of resources, reservoir structure, ground water movement, and neotectonics at the Onikobe and Hachimantai geothermal fields. Studies to be performed in the near future include the use of new prospecting methods, including artificial magnetotellurics, heat balance calculation, brightspot techniques, and remote sensing, as well as laboratory studies of the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of rock. Studies are continuing in the areas of ore formation in geothermal environments, hot-dry-rock drilling and fracturing, large scale prospecting technology, high temperature-pressure drilling muds and well cements, and arsenic removal techniques.

  4. Geothermal Exploration Case Studies on OpenEI (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.; Bennett, M.; Atkins, D.

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessment (Williams et al., 2008) outlined a mean 30 GWe of undiscovered hydrothermal resource in the western United States. One goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) is to accelerate the development of this undiscovered resource. DOE has focused efforts on helping industry identify hidden geothermal resources to increase geothermal capacity in the near term. Increased exploration activity will produce more prospects, more discoveries, and more readily developable resources. Detailed exploration case studies akin to those found in oil and gas (e.g. Beaumont and Foster, 1990-1992) will give developers central location for information gives models for identifying new geothermal areas, and guide efficient exploration and development of these areas. To support this effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been working with GTO to develop a template for geothermal case studies on the Geothermal Gateway on OpenEI. In 2012, the template was developed and tested with two case studies: Raft River Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Raft_River_Geothermal_Area) and Coso Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Coso_Geothermal_Area). In 2013, ten additional case studies were completed, and Semantic MediaWiki features were developed to allow for more data and the direct citations of these data. These case studies are now in the process of external peer review. In 2014, NREL is working with universities and industry partners to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough data set to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  5. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, J.L.

    2001-08-15

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Program serves two broad purposes: (1) to assist industry in overcoming near-term barriers by conducting cost-shared research and field verification that allows geothermal energy to compete in today's aggressive energy markets; and (2) to undertake fundamental research with potentially large economic payoffs. The four categories of work used to distinguish the research activities of the Geothermal Program during FY 2000 reflect the main components of real-world geothermal projects. These categories form the main sections of the project descriptions in this Research Update. Exploration Technology research focuses on developing instruments and techniques to discover hidden hydrothermal systems and to explore the deep portions of known systems. Research in geophysical and geochemical methods is expected to yield increased knowledge of hidden geothermal systems. Reservoir Technology research combines laboratory and analytical investigations with equipment development and field testing to establish practical tools for resource development and management for both hydrothermal reservoirs and enhanced geothermal systems. Research in various reservoir analysis techniques is generating a wide range of information that facilitates development of improved reservoir management tools. Drilling Technology focuses on developing improved, economic drilling and completion technology for geothermal wells. Ongoing research to avert lost circulation episodes in geothermal drilling is yielding positive results. Conversion Technology research focuses on reducing costs and improving binary conversion cycle efficiency, to permit greater use of the more abundant moderate-temperature geothermal resource, and on the development of materials that will improve the operating characteristics of many types of geothermal energy equipment. Increased output and improved performance of binary cycles will result from investigations in heat cycle research.

  6. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Program serves two broad purposes: (1) to assist industry in overcoming near-term barriers by conducting cost-shared research and field verification that allows geothermal energy to compete in today's aggressive energy markets; and (2) to undertake fundamental research with potentially large economic payoffs. The four categories of work used to distinguish the research activities of the Geothermal Program during FY 2000 reflect the main components of real-world geothermal projects. These categories form the main sections of the project descriptions in this Research Update. Exploration Technology research focuses on developing instruments and techniques to discover hidden hydrothermal systems and to explore the deep portions of known systems. Research in geophysical and geochemical methods is expected to yield increased knowledge of hidden geothermal systems. Reservoir Technology research combines laboratory and analytical investigations with equipment development and field testing to establish practical tools for resource development and management for both hydrothermal reservoirs and enhanced geothermal systems. Research in various reservoir analysis techniques is generating a wide range of information that facilitates development of improved reservoir management tools. Drilling Technology focuses on developing improved, economic drilling and completion technology for geothermal wells. Ongoing research to avert lost circulation episodes in geothermal drilling is yielding positive results. Conversion Technology research focuses on reducing costs and improving binary conversion cycle efficiency, to permit greater use of the more abundant moderate-temperature geothermal resource, and on the development of materials that will improve the operating characteristics of many types of geothermal energy equipment. Increased output and improved performance of binary cycles will result from investigations in heat cycle research

  7. Geophysical considerations of geothermics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, M

    1967-01-01

    The development and utilization of geothermal energy is described from the standpoint of geophysics. The internal temperature of the Earth and the history and composition of magmas are described. Methods of exploration such as gravity, magnetic, thermal and electrical surveys are discussed, as are geochemical and infrared photogrammetric techniques. Examples are provided of how these techniques have been used in Italy and at the Matsukawa geothermal field in Japan. Drilling considerations such as muds, casings and cementing materials are discussed. Solutions are proposed for problems of environmental pollution and plant expansion.

  8. Victorian first for geothermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2014-01-01

    AGL Limited (AGL) will assist Maroondah Sports Club to save hundreds of thousands of dollars on its energy bills over the next decade by commencing work to install Victoria's first GeoAir geothermal cooling and heating system. Utilising the earth's constant temperature, the new GeoAir geothermal system provides a renewable source of energy that will save the club up to $12,000 in the first year and up to $150,000 over the next 10 years

  9. Geothermal and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The production of geothermal-electric energy, presents relatively few contamination problems. The two bigger problems associated to the geothermal production are the disposition of waste fluids and the discharges to the atmosphere of non-condensable gases as CO 2 , H 2 O and NH 3 . For both problems the procedures and production technologies exist, like it is the integral use of brines and gases cleaning systems. Other problems consist on the local impact to forest areas for the effect of the vapor discharge, the contamination for noise, the contamination of aquifer shallow and the contamination related with the construction and termination of wells

  10. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  11. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Evolution of Geothermal Fluids in the Chabu High-Temperature Geothermal System, Southern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study defines reasonable reservoir temperatures and cooling processes of subsurface geothermal fluids in the Chabu high-temperature geothermal system. This system lies in the south-central part of the Shenzha-Xietongmen hydrothermal active belt and develops an extensive sinter platform with various and intense hydrothermal manifestations. All the geothermal spring samples collected systematically from the sinter platform are divided into three groups by cluster analysis of major elements. Samples of group 1 and group 3 are distributed in the central part and northern periphery of the sinter platform, respectively, while samples of group 2 are scattered in the transitional zone between groups 1 and 3. The hydrochemical characteristics show that the geothermal waters of the research area have generally mixed with shallow cooler waters in reservoirs. The reasonable reservoir temperatures and the mixing processes of the subsurface geothermal fluids could be speculated by combining the hydrochemical characteristics of geothermal springs, calculated results of the chemical geothermometers, and silica-enthalpy mixing models. Contour maps are applied to measured emerging temperatures, mass flow rates, total dissolved solids of spring samples, and reasonable subsurface temperatures. They indicate that the major cooling processes of the subsurface geothermal fluids gradually transform from adiabatic boiling to conduction from the central part to the peripheral belt. The geothermal reservoir temperatures also show an increasing trend. The point with the highest reservoir temperature (256°C appears in the east-central part of the research area, which might be the main up-flow zone. The cooling processes of the subsurface geothermal fluids in the research area can be shown on an enthalpy-chloride plot. The deep parent fluid for the Chabu geothermal field has a Cl− concentration of 290 mg/L and an enthalpy of 1550 J/g (with a water temperature of

  12. Understanding the circulation of geothermal waters in the Tibetan Plateau using oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hongbing; Zhang, Yanfei; Zhang, Wenjie; Kong, Na; Zhang, Qing; Huang, Jingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Unique geothermal resources in Tibetan Plateau were discussed. • Isotopes were used to trace circulation of geothermal water. • Magmatic water mixing dominates geothermal water evolution. - Abstract: With the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, many of the world’s rarest and most unique geothermal fields have been developed. This study aims to systematically analyze the characteristics of the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of geothermal, river, and lake waters to understand the circulation of groundwater and to uncover the mechanism of geothermal formation in the Tibetan Plateau. Field observations and isotopic data show that geothermal water has higher temperatures and hydraulic pressures, as well as more depleted D and 18 O isotopic compositions than river and lake waters. Thus, neither lakes nor those larger river waters are the recharge source of geothermal water. Snow-melt water in high mountains can vertically infiltrate and deeply circulate along some stretching tensile active tectonic belts or sutures and recharge geothermal water. After deep circulation, cold surface water evolves into high-temperature thermal water and is then discharged as springs at the surface again in a low area, under high water-head difference and cold–hot water density difference. Therefore, the large-scale, high-temperature, high-hydraulic-pressure geothermal systems in the Tibetan Plateau are developed and maintained by rapid groundwater circulation and the heat source of upwelled residual magmatic water. Inevitably, the amount of geothermal water will increase if global warming accelerates the melting of glaciers in high mountains

  13. The missing link between submarine volcano and promising geothermal potential in Jinshan, Northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. C.; Hutchings, L.; Chang, C. C.; Lee, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic group (TVG) and the Keelung submarine volcano (KSV) are active volcanoes and surrounding three nuclear plant sites in north Taiwan. The famous Jinshan-Wanli hot springs locates between TVG and KSV, moreover, the geochemical anomalies of acidic boiling springs on the seacoast infer that the origin is from magmatic fluids, sea water and meteoric water mixture, strongly implying that mantle fluids ascends into the shallow crust. The evidence for a magma chamber, submarine volcano, and boiling springs have a close spatial relationship. Based on UNECE specifications to Geothermal Energy Resources (2016), the Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area could be classified as Known Geothermal Energy Source for geothermal direct use and Potential Geothermal Energy Source for conventional geothermal system. High resolution reservoir exploration and modeling in Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area is developing for drilling risk mitigation. The geothermal team of National Taiwan Ocean University and local experts are cooperating for further exploration drilling and geothermal source evaluation. Keywords: geothermal resource evaluation, Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area, submarine volcano

  14. ThermoGIS - An integrated web-based information system for geothermal exploration and governmental decision support for M

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers, L.; Wees, J.D.A.M. van; Mijnlieff, H.F.; Kronimus, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of geothermal energy through implementation of low enthalpy geothermal production systems for both electricity and heating has been growing rapidly in Europe. Geothermal activities can take considerable advantage of a wealth of existing oil and gas data. It is a major challenge to put this

  15. Active steps for diabetes: a community-campus partnership addressing frailty and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariser, Gina; Hager, Kathy; Gillette, Patricia; Golemboski, Karen; Jackson, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Active Steps for Diabetes (ASD), a self-management education (DSME) program for aging adults with diabetes and frailty, on blood glucose control (A1C) and level of frailty of participants. Fifty females (62.2 ± 10.1 years old) with type 2 diabetes and frailty completed the program; 16 used a walking aid. Outcome measures included A1C and the modified Physical Performance Test (mPPT). Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare outcomes before and after the program and between participants who did and did not use a walking aid. ASD was effective in reducing A1C and frailty in participants who did and did not use a walking aid. The reduction in A1C was similar for the 2 groups. The reduction in frailty was greater for the group that used a walking aid. Physical activity, a keystone for blood glucose control, is difficult for older adults who are frail. ASD provides a model for DSME that may reduce frailty of participants and increase their capacity for physical activity.

  16. Submarine geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 20% of the earth's heat loss (or 2 ?? 1012 cal/s) is released through 1% of the earth's surface area and takes the form of hydrothermal discharge from young (Pleistocene or younger) rocks adjacent to active seafloor-spreading centers and submarine volcanic areas. This amount is roughly equivalent to man's present gross energy consumption rate. A sub-seafloor geothermal reservoir, to be exploitable under future economic conditions, will have to be hot, porous, permeable, large, shallow, and near an energy-deficient, populated land mass. Furthermore, the energy must be recoverable using technology achievable at a competitive cost and numerous environmental, legal and institutional problems will have to be overcome. The highest-temperature reservoirs should be found adjacent to the zones of the seafloor extension or volcanism that are subject to high sedimentation rates. The relatively impermeable sediments reduce hydrothermal-discharge flow rates, forcing the heat to be either conducted away or released by high-temperature fluids, both of which lead to reservoir temperatures that can exceed 300??C. There is evidence that the oceanic crust is quite permeable and porous and that it was amenable to deep (3-5 km) penetration by seawater at least some time in the early stages of its evolution. Most of the heat escapes far from land, but there are notable exceptions. For example, in parts of the Gulf of California, thermal gradients in the bottom sediments exceed 1??C/m. In the coastal areas of the Gulf of California, where electricity and fresh water are at a premium, this potential resource lies in shallow water (characteristics of these systems before they can be considered a viable resource. Until several of the most promising areas are carefully defined and drilled, the problem will remain unresolved. ?? 1976.

  17. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs

  18. Modeling of an Air Conditioning System with Geothermal Heat Pump for a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cocchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to address climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions attaches great importance to research aimed at using renewable energy. Geothermal energy is an interesting alternative concerning the production of energy for air conditioning of buildings (heating and cooling, through the use of geothermal heat pumps. In this work a model has been developed in order to simulate an air conditioning system with geothermal heat pump. A ground source heat pump (GSHP uses the shallow ground as a source of heat, thus taking advantage of its seasonally moderate temperatures. GSHP must be coupled with geothermal exchangers. The model leads to design optimization of geothermal heat exchangers and to verify the operation of the geothermal plant.

  19. Eleventh workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Counsil, J.R. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1986-01-23

    The Eleventh Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 21-23, 1986. The attendance was up compared to previous years, with 144 registered participants. Ten foreign countries were represented: Canada, England, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand and Turkey. There were 38 technical presentations at the Workshop which are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Six technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published and one presentation is not published. In addition to these 45 technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by J. E. Mock from the Department of Energy. The Workshop Banquet speaker was Jim Combs of Geothermal Resources International, Inc. We thank him for his presentation on GEO geothermal developments at The Geysers. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the Workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: M. Gulati, E. Iglesias, A. Moench, S. Prestwich, and K. Pruess. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and students. We would like to thank J.W. Cook, J.R. Hartford, M.C. King, A.E. Osugi, P. Pettit, J. Arroyo, J. Thorne, and T.A. Ramey for their valued help with the meeting arrangements and preparing the Proceedings. We also owe great thanks to our students who arranged and operated the audio-visual equipment. The Eleventh Workshop was supported by the Geothermal Technology Division of the U.S. Department of Energy through Contract DE-AS03-80SF11459. We deeply appreciate this continued support. January 1986 H.J. Ramey, Jr. P. Kruger R.N. Horne W.E. Brigham F.G. Miller J.R. Counsil

  20. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  1. Geothermal energy. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    Brief descriptions of geothermal projects funded through the Department of Energy during FY 1978 are presented. Each summary gives the project title, contractor name, contract number, funding level, dates, location, and name of the principal investigator, together with project highlights, which provide informaion such as objectives, strategies, and a brief project description. (MHR)

  2. Geothermal investigations in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ravnik

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology and the results of geothermal investigations, based on seventy-two boreholes in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia.The data of fundamental geothermal quantities: formation temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production of rocks as well as surface heat flow density are stored in a computerized data base. Their synthesis is given in the map of formation temperatures at 1000 m depth and in the map of surface heat flow density. In both maps the thermal difference between the Pannonian basin in theeastern and the Dinarides in the western part of Slovenia is clearly expressed.However, in the boundary area between these two tectonic units, for a distance of about 100 km in SW-NE direction, elevated horizontal gradients of formation temperature as well as heat flow density are evident. A small positive thermal anomaly in the Ljubljana depression is conspicuous.The low-temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia such as thermalsprings and thermal water from boreholes, are estimated to have a flow rate of 1120 kg/s, corresponding to the ideal total heat production of 144 MWt. In the geothermally promising areas amounting to 3200 km2 the rate of accessible resource base (ARB down to the depth of 3 km has been assessed to about 8.5 x lO 20» J.

  3. Very low energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Very low energy geothermics correspond to temperatures below 30 C and has been developed to cover heating and cooling needs of recent individual houses or tertiary industries using heat pumps and low depth aquifers (<100 m). Geothermal heat pumps industry has made great strides in European Northern countries, China, Japan and the United States of America. Geothermal heat pumps are less energy consuming than air heat pumps and require less cooling fluid and maintenance. The Aquapac procedure has been developed in France in 1983 by the AFME (French Energy Control Agency), EdF and the BRGM (Geologic and Mining Research Office) to encourage the use of geothermal heat pump for domestic and sanitary water heating and to make a survey of low-depth aquifers in the whole french territory. The decay of energy costs that started in 1986 has led to a loss of interest for the Aquapac procedure, even in the tertiary industries for which the air-conditioning demand is growing up. (J.S.). 1 tab

  4. Geothermal Grows Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  5. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  6. Developing an intervention to address physical activity barriers for African-American women in the deep south (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekmezi, Dori; Marcus, Bess; Meneses, Karen; Baskin, Monica L; Ard, Jamy D; Martin, Michelle Y; Adams, Natasia; Robinson, Cody; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2013-05-01

    To address high rates of inactivity and related chronic diseases among African-American women. Eleven focus groups on physical activity barriers for African-American women in the deep south (USA) were conducted (n = 56). Feedback guided an intervention development process. The resulting Home-Based Individually Tailored Physical Activity Print intervention was vetted with the target population in a 1-month, single arm, pre-post test demonstration trial (n = 10). Retention was high (90%). Intent-to-treat analyses indicated increases in motivational readiness for physical activity (70% of sample) and physical activity (7-day Physical Activity Recall) from baseline (mean: 89.5 min/week, standard deviation: 61.17) to 1 month (mean: 155 min/week, standard deviation: 100.86). Small improvements in fitness (6-Min Walk Test), weight and psychosocial process measures were also found. Preliminary findings show promise and call for future randomized controlled trials with larger samples to determine efficacy. Such low-cost, high-reach approaches to promoting physical activity have great potential for addressing health disparities and benefiting public health.

  7. Geothermal policy project. Quarterly report, March 1-May 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, T.D.

    1980-06-01

    Efforts continued to initiate geothermal and groundwater heat pump study activities in newly selected project states and to carry forward policy development in existing project states. Minnesota and South Carolina have agreed to a groundwater heat pump study, and Maryland and Virginia have agreed to a follow-up geothermal study in 1980. Follow-up contacts were made with several other existing project states and state meetings and workshops were held in eleven project states. Two generic documents were prepared, the Geothermal Guidebook and the Guidebook to Groundwater Heat Pumps, in addition to several state-specific documents.

  8. "Fair Play": A Videogame Designed to Address Implicit Race Bias Through Active Perspective Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Belinda; Kaatz, Anna; Chu, Sarah; Ramirez, Dennis; Samson-Samuel, Clem; Carnes, Molly

    2014-12-01

    Having diverse faculty in academic health centers will help diversify the healthcare workforce and reduce health disparities. Implicit race bias is one factor that contributes to the underrepresentation of Black faculty. We designed the videogame "Fair Play" in which players assume the role of a Black graduate student named Jamal Davis. As Jamal, players experience subtle race bias while completing "quests" to obtain a science degree. We hypothesized that participants randomly assigned to play the game would have greater empathy for Jamal and lower implicit race bias than participants randomized to read narrative text describing Jamal's experience. University of Wisconsin-Madison graduate students were recruited via e-mail and randomly assigned to play "Fair Play" or read narrative text through an online link. Upon completion, participants took an Implicit Association Test to measure implicit bias and answered survey questions assessing empathy toward Jamal and awareness of bias. As hypothesized, gameplayers showed the least implicit bias but only when they also showed high empathy for Jamal (P=0.013). Gameplayers did not show greater empathy than text readers, and women in the text condition reported the greatest empathy for Jamal (P=0.008). However, high empathy only predicted lower levels of implicit bias among those who actively took Jamal's perspective through gameplay (P=0.014). A videogame in which players experience subtle race bias as a Black graduate student has the potential to reduce implicit bias, possibly because of a game's ability to foster empathy through active perspective taking.

  9. Set of Activities Addressed for Elementary School Students: Cells and the Genetic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Miranda

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The time lag between the progresses in the area of molecular biology reached in the last years and the schools science curricula  can be reduced through  initiatives of the university  regarding  the dissemina- tion of sciences. Inside of this context, one of the major objectives of the CBME has been the scientific education  and  dissemination on Molecular  Biosciences.  Among the  strategies organized  to promote the dissemination of this area, the Scientific Dissemination Coordination of CBME developed a set of playful activities  for students from public and private  elementary schools (7th  and 8th grades.  As a first step science teachers were interviewed  in order to indicate  which topics related  to molecular bio- sciences they  usually  include in their curricula  planning.  The approach  considered  in the elaboration of the set of activities  was the construction of knowledge of the concepts related  to topics as cell types, their  structures and  organelles,  and  the  importance of the  nucleus and  DNA. The set was offered to170 students. Students from private  schools were evaluated by their  performance  through  the classes, which were registered  by the  notes  of the  instructors.  Students from public  schools were evaluated through  questionnaires containing  basic  concepts  on the  theme  applied  before (pre-test and  after (post-test the set of activities  in order to measure,  respectively,  the previous and acquired knowledge. The  programming accomplished  at  the  public  school was partially modified  due  to  the  absence  of a laboratory, microscopes  and  a room  of computers, without, however,  to  alter  the  objectives  and content of the  activities.   The  comparative analysis  of the  pre- and  post-tests revealed  that, in this latter, there  was an increase of the average percentage  of correct  answers and an

  10. Program planner's guide to geothermal development in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, W.W.S.; Chambers, D.M.; Elliott, J.F.; Whittier, J.P.; Schnoor, J.J.; Blachman, S.

    1980-09-30

    The resource base, status of geothermal development activities, and the state's energy flow are summarized. The present and projected geothermal share of the energy market is discussed. The public and private sector initiatives supporting geothermal development in California are described. These include legislation to provide economic incentives, streamline regulation, and provide planning assistance to local communities. Private sector investment, research, and development activities are also described. The appendices provide a ready reference of financial incentives. (MHR)

  11. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal resources are used to produce electrical energy and to supply heat for non-electric applications like residential heating and crop drying. The utilization of geothermal energy consists of the extraction of hot water or steam from an underground reservoir followed by different methods of surface processing along with the disposal of liquid, gaseous, and even solid wastes. The focus of this paper is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 150 0 C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of non-condensing gases such as hydrogen sulphide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. In this paper it is shown that hydrogen sulphide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odour annoyances among members of the exposed public -some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 ppmv. A risk-assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukaemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. Also assessed is the risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry is briefly summarized. (author)

  12. Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council fifth annual report. Final draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Fred H.

    1981-07-07

    Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth, and can be tapped as a clean, safe, economical alternative source of energy. Much of the geothermal energy resource is recoverable with current or near-current technology and could make a significant contribution both to increasing domestic energy supplies and to reducing the US dependence on imported oil. Geothermal energy can be used for electric power production, residential and commercial space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, and agricultural process applications. This report describes the progress for fiscal year 1980 (FY80) of the Federal Geothermal Program. It also summarizes the goals, strategy, and plans which form the basis for the FY81 and FY82 program activities and reflects the recent change in national policy affecting Federal research, development and demonstration programs. The Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council (IGCC) believes that substantial progress can and will be made in the development of geothermal energy. The IGCC goals are: (1) reduce the institutional barriers so that geothermal projects can be on-line in one-half the current time; (2) make moderate temperature resources an economically competitive source of electricity; (3) remove the backlog of noncompetitive lease applications; (4) competitive lease all KGRA lands; and (5) cut the cost of hydrothermal technology by 25%.

  13. Analysis of Geothermal Pathway in the Metamorphic Area, Northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Wu, M. Y.; Song, S. R.; Lo, W.

    2016-12-01

    A quantitative measure by play fairway analysis in geothermal energy development is an important tool that can present the probability map of potential resources through the uncertainty studies in geology for early phase decision making purpose in the related industries. While source, pathway, and fluid are the three main geologic factors in traditional geothermal systems, identifying the heat paths is critical to reduce drilling cost. Taiwan is in East Asia and the western edge of Pacific Ocean, locating on the convergent boundary of Eurasian Plate and Philippine Sea Plate with many earthquake activities. This study chooses a metamorphic area in the western corner of Yi-Lan plain in northeastern Taiwan with high geothermal potential and several existing exploration sites. Having high subsurface temperature gradient from the mountain belts, and plenty hydrologic systems through thousands of millimeters annual precipitation that would bring up heats closer to the surface, current geothermal conceptual model indicates the importance of pathway distribution which affects the possible concentration of extractable heat location. The study conducts surface lineation analysis using analytic hierarchy process to determine weights among various fracture types for their roles in geothermal pathways, based on the information of remote sensing data, published geologic maps and field work measurements, to produce regional fracture distribution probability map. The results display how the spatial distribution of pathways through various fractures could affect geothermal systems, identify the geothermal plays using statistical data analysis, and compare against the existing drilling data.

  14. Counselling low-back-pain patients in secondary healthcare: a randomised trial addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Madsen, Finn Hjorth; Gonge, Bigitte; Christensen, Michael; Frost, Poul

    2012-01-01

    To assess if counselling by an occupational physician (OP) addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity integrated as a part of low-back pain (LBP) outpatient treatment influences pain, function and sick leave. Randomised controlled trial in the secondary healthcare sector with 3 months' follow-up. The participants were LBP patients who, independently of sick-leave status, expressed concerns about the ability to maintain their current job. Patients referred for surgery were excluded. The intervention consisted of two counselling sessions conducted by an OP addressing both workplace barriers and leisure-time physical activity. A workplace visit was performed if required. Pain, function and duration of sick leave due to LBP were primary outcomes. A reduction in bodily pain and improvement in physical function both measured by the 36-item short-form health survey questionnaire in favour of the intervention group was found. The change in pain score was found to be clinically relevant. The risk of sick leave for at least 8 weeks due to LBP was significantly reduced in the intervention group. Two secondary outcomes, Fear Avoidance Beliefs about physical activity and maximum oxygen uptake, supported compliance and adherence to the part of the intervention focusing on enhanced physical activity. Two short counselling sessions by an OP combining advice on meeting workplace barriers and enhancing physical activity had a substantial effect on important prognostic factors for LBP patients with moderate to severe symptoms diagnosed in outpatient rheumatological clinics. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN13071157.

  15. National Geothermal Data System: Transforming the Discovery, Access, and Analytics of Data for Geothermal Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, Kim [Arizona Geological Survey

    2013-05-01

    Compendium of Papers from the 38th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California February 11-13, 2013 The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) is a distributed, interoperable network of data collected from state geological surveys across all fifty states and the nation’s leading academic geothermal centers. The system serves as a platform for sharing consistent, reliable, geothermal-relevant technical data with users of all types, while supplying tools relevant for their work. As aggregated data supports new scientific findings, this content-rich linked data ultimately broadens the pool of knowledge available to promote discovery and development of commercial-scale geothermal energy production. Most of the up-front risks associated with geothermal development stem from exploration and characterization of subsurface resources. Wider access to distributed data will, therefore, result in lower costs for geothermal development. NGDS is on track to become fully operational by 2014 and will provide a platform for custom applications for accessing geothermal relevant data in the U.S. and abroad. It is being built on the U.S. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) data integration framework to promote interoperability across the Earth sciences community. The basic structure of the NGDS employs state-of-the art informatics to advance geothermal knowledge. The following four papers comprising this Open-File Report are a compendium of presentations, from the 38th Annual Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, taking place February 11-13, 2013 at Stanford University, Stanford, California. “NGDS Geothermal Data Domain: Assessment of Geothermal Community Data Needs,” outlines the efforts of a set of nationwide data providers to supply data for the NGDS. In particular, data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are discussed. The paper addresses the various types of data and metadata required and why simple links to existing

  16. Proposed Activities to Address Regulatory Gaps and Challenges for Licensing Advanced Reactors Using Seismic Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kammerer, Annie M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Whittaker, Andrew S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Over the last decade, particularly since implementation of the certified design regulatory approaches outlined in 10 CFR 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” interest has been increasing in the use of seismic isolation (SI) technology to support seismic safety in nuclear facilities. In 2009, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated research activities to develop new guidance targeted at isolated facilities because SI is being considered for nuclear power plants in the U.S. One product of that research, which was developed around a risk-informed regulatory approach, is a draft NRC NUREG series (NUREG/CR) report that investigates and discusses considerations for use of SI in otherwise traditionally founded large light water reactors (LWRs). A coordinated effort led to new provisions for SI of LWRs in the American Society of Civil Engineers standard ASCE/SEI 4-16, “Seismic Analysis of Safety Related Nuclear Structures.” The risk-informed design philosophy that underpinned development of the technical basis for these documents led to a set of proposed performance objectives and acceptance criteria intended to serve as the foundation for future NRC guidance on the use of SI and related technology. Although the guidance provided in the draft SI NUREG/CR report and ASCE/SEI 4 16 provides a sound basis for further development of nuclear power plant designs incorporating SI, these initial documents were focused on surface-founded or near-surface-founded LWRs and were, necessarily, limited in scope. For example, there is limited information in both the draft NUREG/CR report and ASCE/SEI 4-16 related to nonlinear analysis of soil-structure systems for deeply-embedded reactors, the isolation of components, and the use of vertical isolation systems. Also not included in the draft SI NUREG/CR report are special considerations for licensing of isolated facilities using the certified design approach in 10 CFR

  17. Proposed Activities to Address Regulatory Gaps and Challenges for Licensing Advanced Reactors Using Seismic Isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Justin Leigh; Kammerer, Annie M.; Whittaker, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, particularly since implementation of the certified design regulatory approaches outlined in 10 CFR 52, 'Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,' interest has been increasing in the use of seismic isolation (SI) technology to support seismic safety in nuclear facilities. In 2009, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated research activities to develop new guidance targeted at isolated facilities because SI is being considered for nuclear power plants in the U.S. One product of that research, which was developed around a risk-informed regulatory approach, is a draft NRC NUREG series (NUREG/CR) report that investigates and discusses considerations for use of SI in otherwise traditionally founded large light water reactors (LWRs). A coordinated effort led to new provisions for SI of LWRs in the American Society of Civil Engineers standard ASCE/SEI 4-16, 'Seismic Analysis of Safety Related Nuclear Structures.' The risk-informed design philosophy that underpinned development of the technical basis for these documents led to a set of proposed performance objectives and acceptance criteria intended to serve as the foundation for future NRC guidance on the use of SI and related technology. Although the guidance provided in the draft SI NUREG/CR report and ASCE/SEI 4 16 provides a sound basis for further development of nuclear power plant designs incorporating SI, these initial documents were focused on surface-founded or near-surface-founded LWRs and were, necessarily, limited in scope. For example, there is limited information in both the draft NUREG/CR report and ASCE/SEI 4-16 related to nonlinear analysis of soil-structure systems for deeply-embedded reactors, the isolation of components, and the use of vertical isolation systems. Also not included in the draft SI NUREG/CR report are special considerations for licensing of isolated facilities using the certified design

  18. Seismicity preliminary results in a geothermal and volcano activity area: study case Liquiñe-Ofqui fault system in Southern Andes, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estay, N. P.; Yáñez Morroni, G.; Crempien, J. G. F.; Roquer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid transport through the crust takes place in domains with high permeability. For this reason, fault damage zones are a main feature where fluids may circulate unimpeded, since they have much larger permeability than normal country rocks. With the location of earthquakes, it is possible to infer fault geometry and stress field of the crust, therefore we can determine potential places where fluid circualtion is taking place. With that purpose, we installed a seismic network in an active volcanic-geothermal system, the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS), located in Puyuhuapi, Southern Andes (44°-45°S). This allowed to link epicentral seismicity, focal mechanisms and surface expression of fluid circulation (hot-springs and volcanos). The LOFS is composed by two NS-striking dextral master faults, and several secondary NE-striking dextral and normal faults. Surface manifestation of fluid circulation in Puyuhuapi area are: 1) six hot-springs, most of them spatially associated with different mapped faults; 2) seven minor eruptive centers aligned over a 10-km-along one of the master NS-striking fault, and; 3) the Melimouyu strato-volcano without any spatial relationship with mapped faults. The network consists of 6 short period seismometers (S31f-2.0a sensor of IESE, with natural frequency of 2Hz), that were installed between July 2016 and August 2017; also 4 permanent broad-band seismometers (Guralp 6TD/ CD 24 sensor) which belong to the Volcano Observatory of Southern Andes (OVDAS). Preliminary results show a correlation between seismicity and surface manifestation of fluid circulation. Seismicity has a heterogeneous distribution: most of the earthquake are concentrated is the master NS-striking fault with fluid circulation manifestations; however along the segments without surface manifestation of fluids do not have seismicity. These results suggest that fluid circulation mostly occur in areas with high seismicity, and thus, the increment in fluid pressure enhances

  19. Environment - Geothermal, the energy to wake up - Stimulation rather than fracturing - Iceland, the Texas of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandes, Camille; Moragues, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    A first article comments the current efforts for the development of geothermal in France after a period during which it has been given up. It evokes the project of a geothermal plant near Paris (to supply Arcueil and Gentilly with energy), the increasing number of projects in different countries. It outlines the French delay in this sector, and that geothermal energy is as difficult to find as oil. It evokes the new actors of the sector and outlines the fierce competition in front of Icelander, Italian, US and Japanese actors, and the opportunities for the French ones. A second article comments the use of the hydraulic stimulation in geothermal energy exploration rather than hydraulic fracturing as in shale gas exploration, and outlines that according to geothermal energy actors this technique avoids the risk of micro-earthquake. A last article describes the activity of the geothermal sector in Iceland: geothermal energy supplies two thirds of primary energy consumption in this country. It exploits the Icelander volcanism. This development has been particularly noticeable since 2000, but some questions are raised regarding the production potential

  20. Geothermic Characters Of The Most Promising Geothermal Filed For Power Generation In Republic Of Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Kubati M.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents geothermal exploration and their geothermometric characteristics in the western part of Yemen. Geologically this volcanic province totals areas approximately 45000 km2. Tectonically the study area is considered one of the most active in the Arabian Plate boundaries that affected by the opening of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden as well as by the African rift valley. Extensive field work had been carried out to evaluate the geothermal characteristics of this area. Water and gas samples were collected from hundreds of thermal springs and shallow domestic wells and geochemically analyzed and reported. Temperatures and PH values range from 35 to 96.3 C and from 4.5 to 8.5 respectively. Deep geothermal gradient indicates that the geothermal gradients in the western part of the province Red Sea coast are relatively high up to 182 C at the depth of 3290 m. Volcanic units are affected by hydrothermal processes and became intensively altered. By applying geothermometric methods four geothermal fields have been primarily identified they are Al-Lisi and Isbil Dhamar province Al-Qafr Ibb province Damt Dhala province and the Red Sea coast geothermal fields and three water types were recognized which are Na-HCO3-Cl-S and Ca-Na-Cl and Na HCO3.Results from Al-Lisi and Isbil geothermal area are considered the most promising field. Geothermal detail studies have been achieves and location of the first geothermal exploration well is located in Al-Lisi and Isbil field.By applyig geophisical methods Iso- Resistivity contour mapsthese maps reflected high resistivity areas and low.Clearly shows the low resistivity values incentral and Western part of the study area about 11amp937mWhile up Resistivity values to the area in the eastern 600amp937m.Also through the use ofthe different current electrode spacing AB2 700 1000 1500 and 2000m.We find the low- Resistivity areas becoming more widespread and concentrated in the center of the study area and

  1. Geothermal energy utilization in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svalova, V. [Institute of Environmental Geoscience, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Geothermal energy use is the way to clean, sustainable energy development for the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and is making progress using them - mostly with low-temperature geothermal resources and heat pumps This is optimal for many regions of Russia -in the European part, in the Urals and others. Electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands There are two possible ways of using geothermal resources, depending on the properties of thermal waters heat/power and mineral extraction. The mineral-extraction direction is basic for geothermal waters, which contain valuable components in industrial quantities The most significant deposits of thermal waters represent the brines containing from 35 up to 400 and more g/l of salts. These are the minerals of many chemical dements. (author)

  2. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  3. France in the front line for geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Aude; Talpin, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    A set of articles illustrates that France is among the European leaders in heat networks fed by deep aquifers in sedimentary basins, and will soon possess new types of plants to valorise this hot water. A first article describes the operation principle and the distinction between the different geothermal energy levels (very low, low and medium, high). The still slow but actual development of geothermal energy is commented. It notably concerns local communities and industries, but not yet individuals. A brief focus is proposed on the case of the Aquitaine basin and of Bordeaux, and on the use of geothermal energy to cool the wine. The case of Ferney-Voltaire is then discussed: a whole district will be supplied with probe-based tempered water loops. The interest of the ADEME in geo-cooling is evoked. An article comments the development of a new model of deep geothermal energy developed by France and Germany: a dozen of plants are planned to be built by 2020, and the Ecogi plant in Rittershoffen is a showcase of a first application of fractured rock geothermal technology (the operation is described). A map indicates locations of geothermal search permits which have been awarded for 16 sites in France. An overview is given of various initiatives in Ile-de-France. The case of Geothermie Bouillante plant in Guadeloupe is evoked: it has been purchased by an American group and will multiply its electricity production by a factor 4 by 2025. The two last articles respectively address the need to boost the very low geothermal energy sector, and the use of geothermal energy in cities near Paris (Grigny and Viry-Chatillon) which aim at supplying energy at lower prices, and thus struggle against energy poverty

  4. Economic analysis of geothermal projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, G.; Cappetti, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the high investment costs typical of geothermal energy which necessitate careful verification of the resource before embarking on a development project. Moreover, they require the adoption of all strategies aimed at limiting investment costs and times as much as possible in order to contain the tie-up of capital in the construction activities. For this purpose a series of choices has been made regarding the constructional standardization of plants and the adoption of organizational criteria that allow cost reduction and better management of the various phases of a development project. A computer program has also been developed which makes it possible to examine the bearing the various parameters relating to the reservoir characteristics have on the cost of the kWh and to optimize resource utilization for the various activities of a development project

  5. Numerical modeling of shear stimulation in naturally fractured geothermal reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Ucar, Eren

    2018-01-01

    Shear-dilation-based hydraulic stimulations are conducted to create enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) from low permeable geothermal reservoirs, which are initially not amenable to energy production. Reservoir stimulations are done by injecting low-pressurized fluid into the naturally fractured formations. The injection aims to activate critically stressed fractures by decreasing frictional strength and ultimately cause a shear failure. The shear failure leads to a permanent ...

  6. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  7. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boening, K.

    2003-01-01

    The program of this 9th Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors IGORR includes are quite a number of fascinating new research reactor projects in France, Germany, Russia, Canada, China, Thailand, and in Australia. In addition to the session about New Facilities there are interesting sessions on the Upgrades and on the Optimization of Operation and Utilization of existing research reactors, on Secondary Neutron Sources, on Neutron Scattering applications, and on the aspects of Safety, Licensing and Decommissioning. Two particular projects of new research reactors are mentioned specially: the TRR-II project in Taiwan, has unfortunately been terminated last year because of a change to anti-nuclear of the ruling parties in the government - and the new FRM-II in Munich, Germany, which will hopefully survive such a political change and receive its green light for nuclear start up in the very near future. The charter of IGORR and its objectives are part of this address: The International Group on Research Reactors IGORR was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. The main IGORR objectives are to promote contacts between its members, to identify and discuss problems of common interest, to distribute newsletters about once or twice every year and to organize meetings about once every one-and-a-half years

  8. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance: Federal assistance program. Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-96. It describes 90 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment and resources. Research activities are summarized on low-temperature resource assessment, geothermal district heating system cost evaluation and silica waste utilization project. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, development of a webpage, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  9. Geothermal Program Review X: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- the Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R&D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R&D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year`s conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, ``Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,`` focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R&D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  10. Direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  11. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.

    2010-08-03

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  12. Technology, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) is the technology pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy. The goal of the SET-Plan is to achieve EU worldwide leadership in the production of energy technological solutions capable of delivering EU 2020 and 2050 targets for a low carbon economy. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs and manages the SET-Plan Information System (SETIS) to support the SET-Plan. Under SETIS, the JRC publishes a number of regularly updated key references on the state of low carbon technology, research and innovation in Europe. Within the framework of the SET-Plan, the geothermal sector is placed into context with other power and heat generation technologies. The talk will give an introduction to some of JRC's geothermal research activities. Amongst others, the JRC Geothermal status report will be presented. This report aims to contribute to the general knowledge about the geothermal sector, its technology, economics and policies, with a focus on innovation, research, development and deployment activities as well as policy support schemes within the European Union. The speech will present the main findings of the report, providing an overview of the activities and progress made by the geothermal energy sector, the status of its sub-technologies and current developments. In addition, the speech will discuss the economic, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy for power production, direct use and ground source heat pumps in Europe and beyond.

  13. Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region of reference

  14. Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region of reference.

  15. Geothermal training at Auckland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochstein, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 297 candidates from developing countries have attended the annual Geothermal Diploma Course at the University of Auckland between 1979 and 1989. Additional training in the form of post-graduate studies and short-term specialized courses has been given to 69 candidates from these countries between 1989 and 1989. In this paper performance indicators for the training are discussed, namely: demand, job retention rate, regional intake in relation to demand, and publication record of fellows

  16. Three-Dimensional Geothermal Fairway Mapping: Examples From the Western Great Basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, Drew L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology; Faulds, James E. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    2013-09-29

    Elevated permeability along fault systems provides pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids. Accurate location of such fluid flow pathways in the subsurface is crucial to future geothermal development in order to both accurately assess resource potential and mitigate drilling costs by increasing drilling success rates. Employing a variety of surface and subsurface data sets, we present detailed 3D geologic analyses of two Great Basin geothermal systems, the actively producing Brady’s geothermal system and a ‘greenfield’ geothermal prospect at Astor Pass, Nevada. 3D modeling provides the framework for quantitative structural analyses. We combine 3D slip and dilation tendency analysis along fault zones and calculations of fault intersection density in the two geothermal systems with the locations of lithologies capable of supporting dense, interconnected fracture networks. The collocation of these permeability promoting characteristics with elevated heat represent geothermal ‘fairways’, areas with ideal conditions for geothermal fluid flow. Location of geothermal fairways at high resolution in 3D space can help to mitigate the costs of geothermal exploration by providing discrete drilling targets and data-based evaluations of reservoir potential.

  17. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  18. Radioactivity and deep geothermal energy; Radioaktivitaet und tiefe Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janczik, Sebastian; Kaltschmitt, Martin [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft; Merkel, Broder [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie

    2012-02-15

    Due to recent developments in energy politics renewable energies get more and more importance in Germany. This is especially true for geothermal energy representing a promising option for the environmentally sound and secure generation of heat and electricity. But there are a lot of very emotional discussions due to radioactive residues and wastes produced by a geothermal plant. Thus this paper compares radioactivity resulting from geothermal energy with radioactivity coming from other natural sources. In doing so it becomes obvious that naturally radioactive sources exist in all parts of the ecosphere (i.e. air, water, soil). The paper shows also that the specific activities of radioactive elements from geothermal energy in form of residues and waste emerge from radioactive decay of nuclides and that their radiation is not higher than the radiation of other naturally occurring radioactive elements. (orig.)

  19. Deep geothermal energy: the Soultz-sous-Forets experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genter, A.; Guenot, N.; Graff, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the mining exploitation project of the geothermal heat at Soultz-sous-Forets, located 50 km NE of Strasbourg (Bas Rhin, France). A geothermal power plant, inaugurated mid-2008, will commercialize its own power generation soon. This power plant is owned by a consortium of French-German industrialists through the European economical interest group for the mining exploitation of heat. The paper presents the geological characteristics of the hot dry rock geothermal reservoir, the deep geothermal wells, the hydraulic stimulation of the reservoir rock, the surface equipments of the power plants and the production pumps, the activities of the site in 2008 and 2009 and the perspectives of development of this energy source in France in the light of the Soultz-sous-Forets site experience. (J.S.)

  20. Chairman's address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.S.

    1981-06-01

    There is no intrinsic demand for energy separable from supply; the demand for a resource reflects its availability. The Conservation Commission of the World Energy Conference used one study that predicted that if economic growth rates were to remain comparable to those of the last forty years, eight times the 1975 level of energy supply would be required by 2020. An alternative view suggested that if the income elasticity for energy declined with increasing economic development, there would be a fourfold increase in energy demand by 2020. Energy supply today and what it might be in 40 years is examined. The energy use of biomass will probably increase in certain areas of the world, but it is unlikely that there will be an overall growth in supply from this source. Energy production from fossil fuels may double between now and the early years of the next century, but unless the recovery rate of coal is increased drastically, growth will peak by mid-century. Hydro-electric and geothermal power may quadruple over the next forty years, but this will not represent a big increase in supply. Solar energy can make only a modest contribution in the next few decades. If there is to be a major increase in world energy supply, it must come from nuclear energy. The Conservation Commission felt that the potential for world energy supply is doubling between 1980 and 2000, and a further 50 percent growth to 2020. There will most likely be a 50 percent growth in per capita energy use around the world, with 3 to 4 percent annual growth rate in developing countries and perhaps the same in industrialized countries for the first 20 years, but about half that growth rate towards the end of the time period

  1. Geothermal energy. A national proposal for geothermal resources research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J.C. (ed.)

    1972-01-01

    Discussions are given for each of the following topics: (1) importance to the Nation of geothermal resources, (2) budget recommendations, (3) overview of geothermal resources, (4) resource exploration, (5) resource assessment, (6) resource development and production, (7) utilization technology and economics, (8) environmental effects, (9) institutional considerations, and (10) summary of research needs.

  2. Thermal springs, fumaroles and gas vents of continental Yemen: Their relation with active tectonics, regional hydrology and the country's geothermal potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minissale, Angelo; Mattash, Mohamed A.; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Al-Ganad, Ismail N.; Selmo, Enrico; Shawki, Nasr M.; Tedesco, Dario; Poreda, Robert; Ad-Dukhain, Abdassalam M.; Hazzae, Mohammad K.

    2007-01-01

    Most thermal springs of continental Yemen (about 65 emergences at 48 sampling sites) and a couple of fumaroles and boiling water pools have been sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition in the liquid phase and the associated free-gas phase. Whatever the emergence, all the water discharges have an isotopic signature of meteoric origin. Springs seeping out from high altitudes in the central volcanic plateau show a prevalent Na-HCO 3 -composition, clearly affected by an anomalous flux of deep CO 2 deriving from active hydrothermal systems located in the Jurassic Amran Group limestone sequence and/or the Cretaceous Tawilah Group, likely underlying the 2000-3000 m thick volcanic suite. At lower elevations, CO 2 also affects the composition of some springs emerging at the borders of the central volcanic plateau. Although mixing to a limited extent with organic CO 2 infiltrating together with the meteoric recharge waters cannot be ruled out, all the CO 2 -rich gas samples have a δ 13 C-CO 2 signature that falls in the range of mantle CO 2 (-3 13 C 3 He/ 4 He (1 a 2 -rich springs and also some mixed N 2 -CO 2 gas vents in the far east Hadramaut region support the presence of mantle magmas and related hydrothermal systems residing at the crust level in several areas of Yemen. This well agrees with the presence of Quaternary basaltic magmatic activity along the Gulf of Aden, as well as inside the central Yemen volcanic plateau. Presently, the thermal springs of Yemen are prevalently used for spas and/or bathing. Nevertheless, liquid- and gas-geothermometry and geological considerations suggest that there are at least three areas (Al Lisi, Al Makhaya and Damt) inside the Yemen volcanic plateau (around Dhamar) that may be promising prospects for the future development of geothermal energy in Yemen. Alternatively, they could be used as a source of energy for small-to-medium scale agriculture and/or industrial purposes. Moreover, most of the thermal water

  3. Thermal springs, fumaroles and gas vents of continental Yemen: Their relation with active tectonics, regional hydrology and the country's geothermal potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, Angelo [CNR - Italian Council for Research, Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Florence, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: minissa@igg.cnr.it; Mattash, Mohamed A. [Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey and Minerals Resources Board, P.O. Box 297, Sana' a (Yemen); Vaselli, Orlando [Department of Earth Sciences, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); CNR - Italian Council for Research, Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Florence, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Tassi, Franco [Department of Earth Sciences, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Al-Ganad, Ismail N. [Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey and Minerals Resources Board, P.O. Box 297, Sana' a (Yemen); Selmo, Enrico [Department of Earth Sciences, Parco Area delle Scienze 157A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Shawki, Nasr M. [Department of Geology, University of Ta' iz, P.O. Box 5679, Ta' iz (Yemen); Tedesco, Dario [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Poreda, Robert [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 227 Hutchinson Hall, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Ad-Dukhain, Abdassalam M. [Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey and Minerals Resources Board, P.O. Box 297, Sana' a (Yemen); Hazzae, Mohammad K. [Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey and Minerals Resources Board, P.O. Box 297, Sana' a (Yemen)

    2007-04-15

    Most thermal springs of continental Yemen (about 65 emergences at 48 sampling sites) and a couple of fumaroles and boiling water pools have been sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition in the liquid phase and the associated free-gas phase. Whatever the emergence, all the water discharges have an isotopic signature of meteoric origin. Springs seeping out from high altitudes in the central volcanic plateau show a prevalent Na-HCO{sub 3}-composition, clearly affected by an anomalous flux of deep CO{sub 2} deriving from active hydrothermal systems located in the Jurassic Amran Group limestone sequence and/or the Cretaceous Tawilah Group, likely underlying the 2000-3000 m thick volcanic suite. At lower elevations, CO{sub 2} also affects the composition of some springs emerging at the borders of the central volcanic plateau. Although mixing to a limited extent with organic CO{sub 2} infiltrating together with the meteoric recharge waters cannot be ruled out, all the CO{sub 2}-rich gas samples have a {delta} {sup 13}C-CO{sub 2} signature that falls in the range of mantle CO{sub 2} (-3 < {delta} {sup 13}C < -7 per mille V-PDB). The relatively high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He (1 < R/R {sub a} < 3.2) ratios measured in all the CO{sub 2}-rich springs and also some mixed N{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} gas vents in the far east Hadramaut region support the presence of mantle magmas and related hydrothermal systems residing at the crust level in several areas of Yemen. This well agrees with the presence of Quaternary basaltic magmatic activity along the Gulf of Aden, as well as inside the central Yemen volcanic plateau. Presently, the thermal springs of Yemen are prevalently used for spas and/or bathing. Nevertheless, liquid- and gas-geothermometry and geological considerations suggest that there are at least three areas (Al Lisi, Al Makhaya and Damt) inside the Yemen volcanic plateau (around Dhamar) that may be promising prospects for the future development of geothermal energy

  4. Goechemical and Hydrogeochemical Properties of Cappadocia Geothermal Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furkan Sener, Mehmet; Sener, Mehmet; Uysal, Tonguc

    2016-04-01

    In order to determine the geothermal resource potential of Niǧde, Nevşehir and Aksaray provinces in Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP), geothermal fluids, surface water, and alteration rock samples from the Cappadocia volcanic zone in Turkey were investigated for their geochemical and stable isotopic characteristics in light of published geological and tectonic studies. Accordingly, the Cappadocia Geothermal Province (CGP) has two different geothermal systems located along tectonic zones including five active and two potential geothermal fields, which are located between Tuzgölü Fault Zone and Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault and north of Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault. Based on water chemistry and isotope compositions, samples from the first area are characterized by Ca-Mg-HCO3 ve Ca-HCO3 type mineral poor waters and Ca-Na-SO4 and Ca-Mg-SO4 type for the cold waters and the hot waters, respectively, whereas hot waters from the second area are Na-Cl-HCO3 and Ca-Na-HCO3 type mineral poor waters. According to δ18O and δ2H isotope studies, the geothermal waters are fed from meteoric waters. Results of silica geothermometer indicate that the reservoir temperature of Dertalan, Melendiz Mount, Keçiboyduran Mount, Hasan Mount (Keçikalesi), Ziga, Acıgöl, and Derinkuyu geothermal waters are 150-173 oC, 88-117 oC, 91-120 oC, 94-122 oC, 131-156 oC, 157-179 oC; 152-174 oC and 102-130 oC, respectively. The REE composition of geothermal fluids, surface water, and mineral precipitates indicate that temperature has a strong effect on REE fractionation of the sampled fluids. Eu- and Ce- anomalies (Eu/Eu*, Ce/Ce*) are visible in several samples, which are related to the inheritance from the host reservoir rocks and redox-controlled fractionation of these elements during water-rock interactions. REE and Yttrium geochemistry results of altered rock samples and water samples, which were taken from same locations exhibited quite similar features in each system. Hence, it was

  5. Investigation and assessment of natural radionuclides in groundwater and geothermal fluid of Tianjin city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao; Duan Xigui; Gao Liang; Yang Yuxin

    2012-01-01

    Investigation on the specific activities of natural radionuclides in the groundwater and geothermal fluids of Tianjin city were conducted. Based on the investigation, internal dose level posed by drinking the water and fluid to local public was evaluated. Results show the specific activities of natural radionuclides in the groundwater and geothermal fluid of Tianjin city is under control, no abnormal radioactivity discovered. (authors)

  6. Preliminary study of Songa-Wayaua geothermal prospect area using volcanostratigraphy and remote sensing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokawaty, Ribka; Nugroho, Indra; Satriana, Joshua; Hafidz, Muhamad; Suryantini

    2017-12-01

    Songa-Wayaua geothermal prospect area is located on Bacan Island, Northern Molluca Province. Geothermal systems in this area associated with three Quartenary volcanoes, such as Mt. Pele-pele, Mt. Lansa, and Mt. Bibinoi. Based on literature study, five surface manifestations such as hot springs and alteration occurred within this area. The active manifestations indicate that Songa-Wayaua area has potential geothermal resource. This study objective is to evaluate Songa-Wayaua geothermal system on preliminary study stage by using volcanostratigraphy and remote sensing analysis to delineate the boundary of geothermal system area. The result of this study showed that Songa-Wayaua prospect area has four heat sources potential (e.g. Pele-pele Hummock, Lansa Hummock, Songa Hummock, and Bibinoi Hummock), controlled by geological structure presented by Pele-pele Normal Fault, and had three places as the recharge and discharge area which are very fulfilling as a geothermal system.

  7. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  8. Towards a Geocognition of Geothermal Energy: an Evolving Research Partnership in South West England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, H.; Stewart, I. S.; Ledingham, P.

    2017-12-01

    The development and deployment of novel geological technologies in industry often raise anxiety in the public sphere. New technologies are intrinsically unfamiliar, not only to the public, but also to other technical specialists in the field. This can focus conflict and uncertainty around issues that may not actually be problematic, or obscure other issues that may actually warrant closer inspection. An example of an emergent geo-technology that has received little attention in the public or general technical spheres is the introduction of Enhanced Geothermal Power in the UK. In early 2018, a project testing the viability of deep geothermal heat and power will begin in Cornwall, England, and is likely to face contested issues of public perception that have confronted other novel geological technologies, such as Carbon Capture and Storage and hydraulic fracturing. To address concerns about how the UK public will conceptualise this new technology, the Cornish deep geothermal project has developed an innovative partnership between the industry partner operating the test drilling site and a geoscience cognition research partner. That research partner integrates geoscience, cognitive psychology and media communication specialists in a three-year project that will track evolving public perceptions of and community attitudes to geothermal energy; from initial community engagements to the drilling operations and, ultimately, to the operation of the facility. Key in this study will be an exploration of how the industrial partnership impacts and affects the research process as the site testing proceeds, but also how the research process can engage with issues of communication between the industrial partner and the public. Overall, the interdisciplinary research aims to better understand how public/industry partnerships develop and evolve over the lifetime of an active geo-energy project and thereby help inform and improve community-centred geo-communication around novel

  9. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  10. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  11. The Future of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik, Michelle [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

  12. Geothermal engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the engineering required to bring geothermal resources into use. The book covers specifically engineering aspects that are unique to geothermal engineering, such as measurements in wells and their interpretation, transport of near-boiling water through long pipelines, turbines driven by fluids other than steam, and project economics. The explanations are reinforced by drawing comparisons with other energy industries.

  13. Multipurpose Use of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.; Lund, John W. (eds.)

    1974-10-09

    The conference was organized to review the non-electric, multipurpose uses of geothermal energy in Hungary, Iceland, New Zealand, United States and the USSR. The international viewpoint was presented to provide an interchange of information from countries where non-electric use of geothermal energy has reached practical importance.

  14. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  15. The National Energy Strategy - The role of geothermal technology development: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. Topics in this year's conference included Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology, Hydrothermal Reservoir Technology, Hydrothermal Hard Rock Penetration Technology, Hot Dry Rock Technology, Geopressured-Geothermal Technology and Magma Energy Technology. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.

  16. Experimental thermomechanical damage as first approach to understand the petrophysical behavior of the granitic host-rocks from an active fractured-geothermal system (Liquiñe, Chile - 39º S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Piernas, E.; Sepúlveda, J.; Arancibia, G.; Roquer, T.; Morata, D.; Bracke, R.; Vázquez, P.

    2017-12-01

    Chile's location along an active subduction zone has endowed it with a high geothermal potential. However, a better understanding of the thermomechanical and fluid transport properties of rocks is required to assess the potential of geothermal systems and thereby enhance the possibilities for their use. We have focused in the area surrounding Liquiñe, in the Southern Andean Volcanic Zone (Chile, 39º S). This area hosts several recent thermal manifestations, predominantly hot springs, and it is affected by the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ), which controls the position of the modern volcanic arc in southern Chile and cuts the Patagonian batholith. We have carried out experimental analyzes in order to understand this geothermal system and the influence of the thermomechanical features over the granitic host-rocks (low-porous crystalline rocks). To do this, physical properties such as capillary water absorption coefficient, Vp-wave velocity and compressive resistance were evaluated before and after heating rock samples at 150 ºC and 210 ºC (at ambient pressure) in an oven at a heating rate of 6 °C/min and maintaining the maximum temperature for 4 hours. The cooling rate was less than 2 °C/min to avoid shrinkage phenomena. The results show that the damage by heat was greater at 210 ºC than 150 ºC, likely due to an increased capillary coefficient ( 30% and 25%). On the contrary, Vpvelocity ( -19% and -13%) and compressive resistance ( -27% in both cases) decreased, with respect to unheated samples. Consequently, we can infer an inherent effect on the later fracture process due to the thermal stress when this granitic body was at depth. After that, and considering the local and regional strain-stress state, both factors have facilitated the fluid flow, increasing the permeability of this granitic host-rock allowing the presence of hot-springs. Future work will be to acquire complementary petrophysical parameters, such as porosity, permeability, thermal

  17. Geothermal Field Investigations of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayın, N.; Özer, N.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal energy is a type of energy that are found in the accessible depth of the crust, in the reservoirs by way of the permeable rocks, specially in heated fluid. Geothermal system is made of 3 main components; heat source, reservoir, and fluid bearing heat. Geothermal system mechanism is comprise of fluid transmission. Convection current (heat transmission) is caused by heating and causes the fluid in the system to expand. Heated fluid with low density show tendency to rise in system. Geothermal system occurs with variable geophysics and geochemical properties. Geophysical methods can determine structural properties of shallow and deep reservoirs with temperature, mineralization, gas amount, fluid movement, faulting, and sudden change in lithostratigraphic strata. This study revealed possible reservoir structures and showed examples of geophysics and gas measuring results in Turkey which is wealthy in regard to Geothermal sources.

  18. Environmental Assessment Lakeview Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treis, Tania [Southern Oregon Economic Development Department, Medford, OR (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The Town of Lakeview is proposing to construct and operate a geothermal direct use district heating system in Lakeview, Oregon. The proposed project would be in Lake County, Oregon, within the Lakeview Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA). The proposed project includes the following elements: Drilling, testing, and completion of a new production well and geothermal water injection well; construction and operation of a geothermal production fluid pipeline from the well pad to various Town buildings (i.e., local schools, hospital, and Lake County Industrial Park) and back to a geothermal water injection well. This EA describes the proposed project, the alternatives considered, and presents the environmental analysis pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. The project would not result in adverse effects to the environment with the implementation of environmental protection measures.

  19. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    Small businesses are the cornerstone of the American economy. Over 22 million small businesses account for approximately 99% of employers, employ about half of the private sector workforce, and are responsible for about two-thirds of net new jobs. Many small businesses fared better than the Fortune 500 in 2001. Non-farm proprietors income rose 2.4% in 2001 while corporate profits declined 7.2%. Yet not all is rosy for small businesses, particularly new ones. One-third close within two years of opening. From 1989 to 1992, almost half closed within four years; only 39.5% were still open after six years. Why do some new businesses thrive and some fail? What helps a new business succeed? Industry knowledge, business and financial planning, and good management. Small geothermal businesses are no different. Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A recent survey of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop many of these sites into thriving small businesses. The ''Geothermal Small Business Workbook'' (''Workbook'') was written to give geothermal entrepreneurs, small businesses, and developers the tools they need to understand geothermal applications--both direct use and small-scale power generation--and to write a business and financing plan. The Workbook will: Provide background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; Refer you to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations; Break down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps; Lead you

  20. Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endeshaw, A.; Belaineh, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

  1. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  2. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, M S

    1998-07-01

    This address delivered to the 40th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in India in 1998 opens by noting that a shortage of jobs for youth is India's most urgent problem but that the problems that attend the increasing numbers of elderly also require serious attention. The address then notes that the Earth's population is growing at an unsustainable rate while economic inequities among countries are increasing, so that, while intellectual property is becoming the most important asset in developed countries, nutritional anemia among pregnant women causes their offspring to be unable to achieve their full intellectual potential from birth. Next, the address uses a discussion of the 18th-century work on population of the Marquis de Condorcet and of Thomas Malthus to lead into a consideration of estimated increased needs of countries like India and China to import food grains in the near future. Next, the progress of demographic transition in Indian states is covered and applied to Mahbub ul Haq's measure of human deprivation developed for and applied to the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives). The address continues by reiterating some of the major recommendations forwarded by a government of India committee charged in 1995 with drafting a national population policy. Finally, the address suggests specific actions that could be important components of the Hunger-Free India Programme and concludes that all success rests on the successful implementation of appropriate population policies.

  3. INTEGRATED EXPLORATION OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Alkhasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim. The aim is to develop the energy efficient technologies to explore hydro geothermal resources of different energy potential.Methods. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technologies has been carried out with the use of physical and mathematical, thermodynamic and optimization methods of calculation and the physical and chemical experimental research.Results. We propose the technology of integrated exploration of low-grade geothermal resources with the application of heat and water resource potential on various purposes. We also argue for the possibility of effective exploration of geothermal resources by building a binary geothermal power plant using idle oil and gas wells. We prove the prospect of geothermal steam and gas technologies enabling highly efficient use of thermal water of low energy potential (80 - 100 ° C degrees to generate electricity; the prospects of complex processing of high-temperature geothermal brine of Tarumovsky field. Thermal energy is utilized in a binary geothermal power plant in the supercritical Rankine cycle operating with a low-boiling agent. The low temperature spent brine from the geothermal power plant with is supplied to the chemical plant, where the main chemical components are extracted - lithium carbonate, magnesium burning, calcium carbonate and sodium chloride. Next, the waste water is used for various water management objectives. Electricity generated in the binary geothermal power plant is used for the extraction of chemical components.Conclusions. Implementation of the proposed technologies will facilitate the most efficient development of hydro geothermal resources of the North Caucasus region. Integrated exploration of the Tarumovsky field resources will fully meet Russian demand for lithium carbonate and sodium chloride.

  4. Isotope and hydrogeochemical studies of southern Jiangxi geothermal systems, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenbin; Li Xueli; Shi Weijun; Sun Zhanxue

    1999-01-01

    Southern Jiangxi is a geothermally active region, especially in Hengjing area. According to the work plan of IAEA Regional Collaboration in the Development of Geothermal Energy Resources and Environment Management through Isotope Techniques in East Asia and the Pacific (RAS-8-075), field investigation was carried out in Hengjing, southern Jiangxi Province, to demonstrate the use of isotope and geochemical techniques in low to medium temperature geothermal system. During the field investigation, 19 samples were taken from cold springs, hot springs and surface water in the area to determine their hydrochemical and gas compositions, hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and helium isotopes. The results of the study have shown that the geothermal waters in the studying region are of the same characteristics with the local meteoric water in oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition, indicating the geothermal waters are mainly derived from the local precipitation, while the gas composition and carbon and helium isotopes reveal that some gases in the geothermal waters have mantle origin. (author)

  5. New geochemical investigations in Platanares and Azacualpa geothermal sites (Honduras)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberi, Franco; Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Cioni, Roberto; Lelli, Matteo; Menichini, Matia; Ranaldi, Massimo; Ricci, Tullio; Tarchini, Luca

    2013-05-01

    Platanares and Azacualpa geothermal sites of Honduras are located in an inner part of the Caribbean Plate far from the active volcanic front of Central America. Here geology indicates that there are not the conditions for the occurrence of shallow magmatic heat sources for high-enthalpy geothermal resources. Geothermal perspectives are related to the possibility of a deep circulation of meteoric water along faults and the storage of the heated fluid in fractured permeable reservoirs. Geochemical geothermometers indicate a temperature for the deeper part of the geothermal reservoir close to 200 °C for Platanares and of 150-170 °C for Azacualpa. Calcite scaling, with subordinate silica deposition has to be expected in both sites. CO2 soil flux investigations have been carried out in both areas and reveal the presence of positive anomalies likely corresponding to the presence at depth of fractured degassing geothermal reservoirs. Compared with the geothermal areas of Central Italy whose reservoirs are hosted in carbonate rocks, e.g. Latera (Chiodini et al., 2007), the CO2 soil flux measured in Honduras is significantly lower (mean of 17 g/m2day at Platanares and of 163 g/m2day at Azacualpa) probably because of the dominant silicate nature of the deep reservoirs.

  6. Geothermal Information Dissemination and Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clutter, Ted J. [Geothermal Resources Council (United States)

    2005-02-18

    Project Purpose. To enhance technological and topical information transfer in support of industry and government efforts to increase geothermal energy use in the United States (power production, direct use, and geothermal groundsource heat pumps). Project Work. GRC 2003 Annual Meeting. The GRC convened the meeting on Oct. 12-15, 2003, at Morelia's Centro de Convenciones y ExpoCentro in Mexico under the theme, International Collaboration for Geothermal Energy in the Americas. The event was also sponsored by the Comision Federal de Electricidad. ~600 participants from more than 20 countries attended the event. The GRC convened a Development of Geothermal Projects Workshop and Geothermal Exploration Techniques Workshop. GRC Field Trips included Los Azufres and Paricutin Volcano on Oct. 11. The Geothermal Energy Association (Washington, DC) staged its Geothermal Energy Trade Show. The Annual Meeting Opening Session was convened on Oct. 13, and included the governor of Michoacan, the Mexico Assistant Secretary of Energy, CFE Geothermal Division Director, DOE Geothermal Program Manager, and private sector representatives. The 2003 Annual Meeting attracted 160 papers for oral and poster presentations. GRC 2004. Under the theme, Geothermal - The Reliable Renewable, the GRC 2004 Annual Meeting convened on Aug. 29-Sept. 1, 2004, at the Hyatt Grand Champions Resort at Indian Wells, CA. Estimated total attendance (including Trade Show personnel, guests and accompanying persons) was ~700. The event included a workshop, Geothermal Production Well Pump Installation, Operation and Maintenance. Field trips went to Coso/Mammoth and Imperial Valley/Salton Sea geothermal fields. The event Opening Session featured speakers from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the private sector. The Geothermal Energy Association staged its Geothermal Energy Trade Show. The Geothermal Education Office staged its Geothermal Energy Workshop. Several local radio and

  7. Counselling low-back-pain patients in secondary healthcare: a randomised trial addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess if counselling by an occupational physician (OP) addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity integrated as a part of low-back pain (LBP) outpatient treatment influences pain, function and sick leave. METHODS: Randomised controlled trial in the secondary...... healthcare sector with 3 months' follow-up. The participants were LBP patients who, independently of sick-leave status, expressed concerns about the ability to maintain their current job. Patients referred for surgery were excluded. The intervention consisted of two counselling sessions conducted by an OP......-form health survey questionnaire in favour of the intervention group was found. The change in pain score was found to be clinically relevant. The risk of sick leave for at least 8 weeks due to LBP was significantly reduced in the intervention group. Two secondary outcomes, Fear Avoidance Beliefs about...

  8. The Small Helm Project: an academic activity addressing international corruption for undergraduate civil engineering and construction management students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzley, Steven E

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents an academic project that addresses the issue of international corruption in the engineering and construction industry, in a manner that effectively incorporates several learning experiences. The major objectives of the project are to provide the students a learning activity that will 1) make a meaningful contribution within the disciplines being studied; 2) teach by experience a significant principle that can be valuable in numerous situations during an individual's career, and 3) engage the minds, experiences, and enthusiasm of the participants in a real ethical challenge that is prevalent in all of their chosen professional fields. The paper describes the full details of the project, the actual implementation of it during Winter Semester 2005, the experiences gained during the initial trial, and the modifications and improvements incorporated for future implementation.

  9. Geothermal heat pump performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  10. Geothermal Heat Pump Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  11. Geothermal heating saves energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romsaas, Tor

    2003-01-01

    The article reviews briefly a pioneer project for a construction area of 200000 m''2 with residences, business complexes, a hotel and conference centre and a commercial college in Oslo. The energy conservation potential is estimated to be about 60-70 % compared to direct heating with oil, gas or electricity as sources. There will also be substantial reduction in environmentally damaging emissions. The proposed energy central combines geothermal energy sources with heat pump technology, utilises water as energy carrier and uses terrestrial wells for energy storage. A cost approximation is presented

  12. Heat flow and geothermal processes in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flóvenz, Ólafur G.; Saemundsson, Kristján

    1993-09-01

    Heat flow values, derived from temperature measurements in shallow boreholes in Iceland, vary substantially across the country. The near-surface temperature gradients range from almost 0 to 500°C/km. The thermal conductivity of water-saturated rocks varies from 1.6 to 2.0 W/m°C. The temperature gradient in Iceland is mainly dependent on four factors: (1) the regional heat flow through the crust, (2) hydrothermal activity, (3) the permeability of the rock, and (4) residual heat in extinct volcanic centers. As Iceland is mainly made of basaltic material the radiogenic heat production is almost negligible. The thermal conductivity is, on the other hand, mainly influenced by the porosity of the rock; it increases as the porosity decreases. Iceland is made of sequences of flood basalts that formed within the volcanic rift zone—a continuation of the axis of the Mid-Atlantic ridge—and subsequently drifted sideways. Fresh basaltic lava is usually highly porous (30%) and fractured, and heat is mainly transported by convection. Therefore, a very low or even no temperature gradient is observed at shallow levels within the volcanic rift zone. As the basalt becomes buried the pores close due to lithostatic pressure and formation of secondary minerals. Below 500-1000 m depth in an uneroded lava pile, the heat is mainly transported by conduction. In the lowlands and valleys of Iceland outside the volcanic rift zone, 1000-1500 m of the original lava pile has been eroded, leaving thermal conduction as the most important heat transport mechanism. The regional temperature gradient has been measured in drillholes in dense and poorly permeable rocks away from the geothermal fields. The results show that the temperature gradient varies from 50 to 150°C/km. The highest values are found close to the volcanic rift zone and the gradient decreases with distance from the spreading axis. This result is mainly based on numerous shallow boreholes (60-500 m) but in some cases the results

  13. Geothermal energy and the utility market -- the opportunities and challenges for expanding geothermal energy in a competitive supply market: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year's conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,'' focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  14. inaugral address

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While political reorientation and economic redress were of immediate concern, ... South African context, where widespread changes have been proposed for education at all ... education at school and other levels and needs to be addressed so as to ..... the major national curriculum intervention in environmental education.

  15. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-98 (October--December 1997). It describes 216 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include requests for general information including maps and material for high school debates, and material on geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, space heating and cooling, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, industrial applications, electric power and snow melting. Research activities include work on model construction specifications of lineshaft submersible pumps and plate heat exchangers, a comprehensive aquaculture developer package and revisions to the Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 18, No. 4) which was devoted entirely to geothermal activities in South Dakota, dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, tours of local geothermal uses, geothermal library acquisition and use, participation in workshops, short courses and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  16. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  17. Geothermal Energy and its Prospects in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeckas, B.

    1995-01-01

    Data on the geothermal resources in lithuania and on their prospective usage are presented. The analysis covers water horizons of the geothermal anomaly in West Lithuania and their hydrogeology. The energy of the 3 km thick geothermal source was evaluated. Technical and economical possibilities of using geothermal energy in West Lithuania are described. Some aspects of the investment and of the project of a geothermal power plant in Klaipeda are considered. (author). 6 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Potential of geothermal systems in Picardy

    OpenAIRE

    Dourlat, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal systems are not only about electrical plants or urban heating networks, but also concerned with geothermal energy assisted with a heat pump. In the former region of Picardy (North of France), 97% of the territory is suitable for very low temperature geothermal power. The French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management and the Picardy Region decided in 2016 to finance a facilitator to encourage geothermal use. To carry out this aim, it is important to consider the geothermal...

  19. Standard Guide for Specifying Thermal Performance of Geothermal Power Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers power plant performance terms and criteria for use in evaluation and comparison of geothermal energy conversion and power generation systems. The special nature of these geothermal systems makes performance criteria commonly used to evaluate conventional fossil fuel-fired systems of limited value. This guide identifies the limitations of the less useful criteria and defines an equitable basis for measuring the quality of differing thermal cycles and plant equipment for geothermal resources. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Third workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P. (eds.)

    1977-12-15

    The Third Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering convened at Stanford University on December 14, 1977, with 104 attendees from six nations. In keeping with the recommendations expressed by the participants at the Second Workshop, the format of the Workshop was retained, with three days of technical sessions devoted to reservoir physics, well and reservoir testing, field development, and mathematical modeling of geothermal reservoirs. The program presented 33 technical papers, summaries of which are included in these Proceedings. Although the format of the Workshop has remained constant, it is clear from a perusal of the Table of Contents that considerable advances have occurred in all phases of geothermal reservoir engineering over the past three years. Greater understanding of reservoir physics and mathematical representations of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated reservoirs are evident; new techniques for their analysis are being developed, and significant field data from a number of newer reservoirs are analyzed. The objectives of these workshops have been to bring together researchers active in the various physical and mathematical disciplines comprising the field of geothermal reservoir engineering, to give the participants a forum for review of progress and exchange of new ideas in this rapidly developing field, and to summarize the effective state of the art of geothermal reservoir engineering in a form readily useful to the many government and private agencies involved in the development of geothermal energy. To these objectives, the Third Workshop and these Proceedings have been successfully directed. Several important events in this field have occurred since the Second Workshop in December 1976. The first among these was the incorporation of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) into the newly formed Department of Energy (DOE) which continues as the leading Federal agency in geothermal reservoir engineering research. The Third

  1. Numerical investigation on the implications of spring temperature and discharge rate with respect to the geothermal background in a fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenjiao; Xu, Tianfu; Mariethoz, Gregoire

    2018-04-01

    Geothermal springs are some of the most obvious indicators of the existence of high-temperature geothermal resources in the subsurface. However, geothermal springs can also occur in areas of low average subsurface temperatures, which makes it difficult to assess exploitable zones. To address this problem, this study quantitatively analyzes the conditions associated with the formation of geothermal springs in fault zones, and numerically investigates the implications that outflow temperature and discharge rate from geothermal springs have on the geothermal background in the subsurface. It is concluded that the temperature of geothermal springs in fault zones is mainly controlled by the recharge rate from the country rock and the hydraulic conductivity in the fault damage zone. Importantly, the topography of the fault trace on the land surface plays an important role in determining the thermal temperature. In fault zones with a permeability higher than 1 mD and a lateral recharge rate from the country rock higher than 1 m3/day, convection plays a dominant role in the heat transport rather than thermal conduction. The geothermal springs do not necessarily occur in the place having an abnormal geothermal background (with the temperature at certain depth exceeding the temperature inferred by the global average continental geothermal gradient of 30 °C/km). Assuming a constant temperature (90 °C here, to represent a normal geothermal background in the subsurface at a depth of 3,000 m), the conditions required for the occurrence of geothermal springs were quantitatively determined.

  2. Policy for geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, S [Public Utilities Bureau, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan

    1973-01-01

    Government actions related to Japanese geothermal energy development in the past include: a mining and industrial research subsidy of 27 million yen granted to Kyushu Electric Power Co. in 1952, a mining and industrial research subsidy of 13 million yen granted to Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. in 1960, a study on steam production technology for geothermal power generation by Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. funded at 3.5 hundred million yen from the Research Development Corporation of Japan, and a study on steam production technology for large scale geothermal power generation by Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. funded at 7.6 hundred million yen by the Research Development Corporation of Japan. The following projects are planned by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry for 1973: a two-year geothermal power promotion including investigations into the utilization of hot water, new methods for geothermal reservoir detection and steam well drilling, and environmental effects, studies on hydrothermal systems, basic investigations for geothermal indicators in 30 areas, and a means to finance the construction of geothermal power plants in Kakkonda (Iwate Prefecture) and Hatchobara (Oita Prefecture).

  3. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  4. Geothermal energy. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    As most of the alternative power sources, geothermal energy started being considered as a tentative one during the early 1970s. At that time the world's demand for energy was mostly fed by means of petroleum, coal, gas and other primary materials. The low prices of these raw materials at that time and the lack of general consciousness on the environmental contamination problems caused by the combustion processes did not forecast any significant changes for the coming years. However, as from 1973, a constant raise in prices, specially for liquid fuels, started to take place. A few years later, in the early 1980s, a growing interest for nature and for the delicate equilibrium of the ecological and for systems started to awaken. These facts led several countries to re-evaluate their power resources and to reconsider those showing less negative incidence upon the environment. Among such alternatives, geothermal energy introduces certain features that make it highly advisable for developing countries, in addition to the fact that the mean heat reservoirs are located within this group of nations [es

  5. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash

    2004-03-01

    Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

  6. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 3, March-April 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the following areas: electric uses; direct heat uses; drilling activities; exploration; leases; outreach and technical assistance; feasibility studies and application demonstrations; geothermal loan guarantee program; general activities; R and D activities; legal, institutional, and regulatory activities; environmental activities; and state, local, and private sector activities. Also included are a list of reports and publications and a directory of individuals in the geothermal community. (MHR)

  7. Colorado geothermal commercialization program. Geothermal energy opportunities at four Colorado towns: Durango, Glenwood Springs, Idaho Springs, Ouray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.; Zimmerman, J.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of four prospective geothermal development sites in Colorado was analyzed and hypothetical plans prepared for their development. Several broad areas were investigated for each site. The first area of investigation was the site itself: its geographic, population, economic, energy demand characteristics and the attitudes of its residents relative to geothermal development potential. Secondly, the resource potential was described, to the extent it was known, along with information concerning any exploration or development that has been conducted. The third item investigated was the process required for development. There are financial, institutional, environmental, technological and economic criteria for development that must be known in order to realistically gauge the possible development. Using that information, the next concern, the geothermal energy potential, was then addressed. Planned, proposed and potential development are all described, along with a possible schedule for that development. An assessment of the development opportunities and constraints are included. Technical methodologies are described in the Appendix. (MHR)

  8. The use of geothermal energy at a chieftan's farm in medieval Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sveinbjarnardottir

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at the farm site of Reykholt, in the Reykholtsdalur valley in western Iceland (Fig. 1 , have produced evidence of sophisticated use of geothermal energy in the medieval period that is unmatched by comparable finds elsewhere in this geothermally and volcanically active country.

  9. National Geothermal Data System Hub Deployment Timeline (Appendix E-1-d)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudill, Christy [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey)

    2015-12-20

    Excel spreadsheet describing activity, spending, and development for the four data hubs (Arizona Geoloical Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, Illinois Geological Survey, and Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology) serving data for the National Geothermal Data System under the State Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System Project.

  10. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.

    1993-01-01

    This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components

  11. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, R

    1996-07-01

    By means of this graduation address at the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) in Bombay, the Chancellor of Urdu University voiced his concerns about overpopulation in India. During the speaker's tenure as Health Minister of Maharashtra, he implemented a sterilization incentive program that resulted in the state's having the best family planning (FP) statistics in India for almost 10 years. The incentive program, however, was misused by overenthusiastic officials in other states, with the result that the FP program was renamed the Family Welfare Programme. Population is growing in India because of improvements in health care, but the population education necessary to change fertility will require more time than the seriousness of the population problem allows. In the longterm, poverty and illiteracy must be addressed to control population. In the meanwhile, the graduate program at the IIPS should be expanded to include an undergraduate program, marriage age laws should be enforced, and misconceptions about religious objections to FP must be addressed. India can not afford to use the measures forwarded by developed countries to control population growth. India must integrate population control efforts with the provision of health care because if population continues to grow in the face of reduced infant mortality and longer life expectancy, future generations will be forced to live in a state of poverty and economic degradation.

  12. Niland development project geothermal loan guaranty: 49-MW (net) power plant and geothermal well field development, Imperial County, California: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The proposed federal action addressed by this environmental assessment is the authorization of disbursements under a loan guaranteed by the US Department of Energy for the Niland Geothermal Energy Program. The disbursements will partially finance the development of a geothermal well field in the Imperial Valley of California to supply a 25-MW(e) (net) power plant. Phase I of the project is the production of 25 MW(e) (net) of power; the full rate of 49 MW (net) would be achieved during Phase II. The project is located on approximately 1600 acres (648 ha) near the city of Niland in Imperial County, California. Well field development includes the initial drilling of 8 production wells for Phase I, 8 production wells for Phase II, and the possible need for as many as 16 replacement wells over the anticipated 30-year life of the facility. Activities associated with the power plant in addition to operation are excavation and construction of the facility and associated systems (such as cooling towers). Significant environmental impacts, as defined in Council on Environmental Quality regulation 40 CFR Part 1508.27, are not expected to occur as a result of this project. Minor impacts could include the following: local degradation of ambient air quality due to particulate and/or hydrogen sulfide emissions, temporarily increased ambient noise levels due to drilling and construction activities, and increased traffic. Impacts could be significant in the event of a major spill of geothermal fluid, which could contaminate groundwater and surface waters and alter or eliminate nearby habitat. Careful land use planning and engineering design, implementation of mitigation measures for pollution control, and design and implementation of an environmental monitoring program that can provide an early indication of potential problems should ensure that impacts, except for certain accidents, will be minimized.

  13. Environmental impact in geothermal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkle, P.; Torres R, V.; Gonzalez P, E.; Guevara G, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generally, water exploitation and deep steam of geothermal fields may be cause of a pollution potential on the surface, specially by the chemical composition of geothermal water which has a high concentration of minerals, salts and heavy metals. The utilization of stable isotopes as deuterium and oxygen 18 as radioactive tracers and water origin indicators allow to know the trajectories and sources of background waters as well as possible moistures between geothermal waters and meteoric waters. Some ions such as chlorides and fluorides present solubilities that allow their register as yet long distances of their source. (Author)

  14. 2012 geothermal energy congress. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Within the Geothermal Energy Congress 2012 from 13th to 16th November 2012, in Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Comparison of different methods for the design of geothermal probes on the example of the thermal utilization of smouldering fires at heaps (Sylvia Kuerten); (2) Determination of the thermo-physical features of loose rocks (Johannes Stegner); (3) Tools for the planning and operation of district heating grids (Werner Seichter); (4) geo:build - System optimisation of the cooling mode of the ground-source heat and cooling supply (Franziska Bockelmann); (5) Successful and economic conception, planning and optimization of district heating grids (Werner Seichter); (6) Treacer / Heat transfer decoupling in a heterogeneous hydrothermal reservoir characterized by geological faults in the Upper Rhine Graben (I. Ghergut); (7) Determination of the porosity, thermal conductivity and particle size distribution in selected sections of the Meisenheim-1 drilling core (Saar-Nahe basin, Rheinland-Palatinate) under consideration of geothermally relevant formulation of questions (Gillian Inderwies); (8) Innovative technologies of exploration in the Jemez Geothermal project, New Mexico, USA (Michael Albrecht); (9) Geothermal energy, heat pump and TABS - optimization of planning, operational control and control (Franziska Bockelmann); (10) The impact of large-scale geothermal probes (storage probes) on the heat transfer and heat loss (Christopher Steins); (11) Numeric modelling of the permocarbon in the northern Upper Rhine Graben (L. Dohrer); (12) Engineering measurement solutions on quality assurance in the exploitation of geothermal fields (C. Lehr); (13) Evaluation and optimization of official buildings with the near-surface geothermal energy for heating and cooling (Franziska Bockelmann); (14) On-site filtration for a rapid and cost-effective quantification of the particle loading in the thermal water stream (Johannes Birner

  15. Rock geochemistry related to mineralization processes in geothermal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, A. Al; Indarto, S.; Setiawan, I.

    2018-02-01

    Abundant geothermal systems in Indonesia suggest high heat and mass transfer associated with recent or paleovolcanic arcs. In the active geothermal system, the upflow of mixed fluid between late stage hydrothermal and meteoric water might contain mass of minerals associated with epithermal mineralisation process as exemplified at Lihir gold mine in Papua New Guinea. In Indonesia, there is a lack of study related to the precious metals occurrence within active geothermal area. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the possibility of mineralization process in active geothermal area of Guci, Central Java by using geochemical analysis. There are a lot of conducted geochemical analysis of water, soil and gas by mapping the temperature, pH, Hg and CO2 distribution, and estimating subsurface temperature based on geothermometry approach. Then we also apply rock geochemistry to find minerals that indicate the presence of mineralization. The result from selected geothermal area shows the presence of pyrite and chalcopyrite minerals on the laharic breccias at Kali Putih, Sudikampir. Mineralization is formed within host rock and the veins are associated with gold polymetallic mineralization.

  16. Potential for Geothermal Energy in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin Soe Moe

    2010-12-01

    Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself from kilometers deep into the earth's crust in some places of world. It is power extracted from heat stored in the earth. It is a renewable energy source because the heat is continuously produced inside the earth. Geothermal energy originates from the heat retained within the Earth's core since the orginal formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. Most high temperature geothermal heat is harvested in regions close to tectonic plate boundaries where volcanic activity rises up to the surface of the Earth. It is one of the best renewable sources of energy and is capable of maintaining its temperature. The heating cost is very low. It uses less electricity and 75 per cent more efficient than the oil furnace and 48 per cent more efficient than the gas furnace. The energy is not only used for heating a place but also for cooling down the site. It generates uniform energy and creates no sound pollution. Maintenance cost is very cheap. The life of the underground piping is more than 50 year.

  17. Geothermal materials development at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    As part of the DOE/OGT response to recommendations and priorities established by industrial review of their overall R&D program, the Geothermal Materials Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is focusing on topics that can reduce O&M costs and increase competitiveness in foreign and domestic markets. Corrosion and scale control, well completion materials, and lost circulation control have high priorities. The first two topics are included in FY 1997 BNL activities, but work on lost circulation materials is constrained by budgetary limitations. The R&D, most of which is performed as cost-shared efforts with U.S. geothermal firms, is rapidly moving into field testing phases. FY 1996 and 1997 accomplishments in the development of lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant cements for well completions; corrosion resistant, thermally conductive polymer matrix composites for heat exchange applications; and metallic, polymer and ceramic-based corrosion protective coatings are given in this paper. In addition, plans for work that commenced in March 1997 on thermally conductive cementitious grouting materials for use with geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are discussed.

  18. NASA GSFC Science Communication Working Group: Addressing Barriers to Scientist and Engineer Participation in Education and Public Outreach Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, L.; Hsu, B. C.; Campbell, B. A.; Hess, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Science Communication Working Group (SCWG) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been in existence since late 2007. The SCWG is comprised of education and public outreach (E/PO) professionals, public affairs specialists, scientists, and engineers. The goals of the SCWG are to identify barriers to scientist and engineer engagement in E/PO activities and to enable those scientists and engineers who wish to contribute to E/PO to be able to do so. SCWG members have held meetings with scientists and engineers across GSFC to determine barriers to their involvement in E/PO. During these meetings, SCWG members presented examples of successful, ongoing E/PO projects, encouraged active research scientists and engineers to talk about their own E/PO efforts and what worked for them, discussed the E/PO working environment, discussed opportunities for getting involved in E/PO (particularly in high-impact efforts that do not take much time), handed out booklets on effective E/PO, and asked scientists and engineers what they need to engage in E/PO. The identified barriers were consistent among scientists in GSFC's four science divisions (Earth science, planetary science, heliophysics, and astrophysics). Common barriers included 1) lack of time, 2) lack of funding support, 3) lack of value placed on doing E/PO by supervisors, 4) lack of training on doing appropriate/effective E/PO for different audiences, 5) lack of awareness and information about opportunities, 6) lack of understanding of what E/PO really is, and 7) level of effort required to do E/PO. Engineers reported similar issues, but the issues of time and funding support were more pronounced due to their highly structured work day and environment. Since the barriers were identified, the SCWG has taken a number of steps to address and rectify them. Steps have included holding various events to introduce scientists and engineers to E/PO staff and opportunities including an E/PO Open House, brown bag seminars on

  19. Analysis of ecological effects of geopressured-geothermal resource development. Geopressured-geothermal technical paper No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The activities involved in geopressured-geothermal resource production are identified and their ecological impacts are discussed. The analysis separates those activites that are unique to geopressured-geothermal development from those that also occur in oil and gas and other resource developments. Of the unique activities, those with the greatest potential for serious ecological effect are: (1) accidental brine discharge as a result of a blowout during well drilling; (2) subsidence; (3) fault activation and enhanced seismicity; and (4) subsurface contamination of water, hydrocarbon, and mineral reservoirs. Available methods to predict and control these effects are discussed.

  20. Synopsis of Past Stimulation Methods in Enhanced (Engineered) Geothermal Systems, Boreholes, and Existing Hydrothermal Systems with Success Analysis and Recommendations for Future Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, T.; Mattson, E.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) are gaining in popularity as a technology that can be used to increase areas for geothermal resource procurement. One of the most important factors in the success of an EGS system is the success of the subsurface reservoir that is used for fluid flow and heat mining through advection. There are numerous challenges in stimulating a successful reservoir, including maintaining flow rates, minimizing leak off, preventing short-circuiting, and reducing the risk of microseismicity associated with subsurface activity. Understanding past examples of stimulation can be invaluable in addressing these challenges. This study provides an overview of stimulation methods that have been employed in EGS systems from 1974-2017. We include all geothermal reservoirs and demonstration projects that have experienced hydrofracturing, chemical stimulation, and induced thermal stress for a comprehensive list. We also examine different metrics and measures of success in geothermal reservoir stimulation to draw conclusions and provide recommendations for future projects. Multiple project characteristics are reported including geologic setting, stress conditions, reservoir temperature, injection specifics, resulting microseismicity, and overall project goals. Insight into optimal and unproductive stimulation methods is crucial to conserving mental capital, utilizing project funding, and ensuring EGS technology advances as efficiently as possible.

  1. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA) [fr

  2. Inaugural address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    Along with the R and D activities related to technology upgradation in the existing reactors, considerable efforts are being expended in various units of Department of Atomic Energy for the development of advanced technologies to meet the future requirements of Indian nuclear power programme. The two major activities in this thrust area are development of technologies related to the 500 MWe PHWRs and fast breeder reactors. An overview of the activities in some of the thrust areas is given. (author)

  3. Characterizations of geothermal springs along the Moxi deep fault in the western Sichuan plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jihong; Xu, Mo; An, Chengjiao; Wu, Mingliang; Zhang, Yunhui; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Guoping

    2017-02-01

    Abundant geothermal springs occur along the Moxi fault located in western Sichuan Province (the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau), highlighted by geothermal water outflow with an unusually high temperature of 218 °C at 21.5 MPa from a 2010-m borehole in Laoyulin, Kangding. Earthquake activity occurs relatively more frequently in the region and is considered to be related to the strong hydrothermal activity. Geothermal waters hosted by a deep fault may provide evidence regarding the deep underground; their aqueous chemistry and isotopic information can indicate the mechanism of thermal springs. Cyclical variations of geothermal water outflows are thought to work under the effect of solid earth tides and can contribute to understanding conditions and processes in underground geo-environments. This paper studies the origin and variations of the geothermal spring group controlled by the Moxi fault and discusses conditions in the deep ground. Flow variation monitoring of a series of parameters was performed to study the geothermal responses to solid tides. Geothermal reservoir temperatures are evaluated with Na-K-Mg data. The abundant sulfite content, dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) data are discussed to study the oxidation-reduction states. Strontium isotopes are used to trace the water source. The results demonstrate that geothermal water could flow quickly through the Moxi fault the depth of the geothermal reservoir influences the thermal reservoir temperature, where supercritical hot water is mixed with circulating groundwater and can reach 380 °C. To the southward along the fault, the circulation of geothermal waters becomes shallower, and the waters may have reacted with metamorphic rock to some extent. Our results provide a conceptual deep heat source model for geothermal flow and the reservoir characteristics of the Moxi fault and indicate that the faulting may well connect the deep heat source to shallower depths. The

  4. Geothermal Permeability Enhancement - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Beall; Mark Walters

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective is to apply known permeability enhancement techniques to reduce the number of wells needed and demonstrate the applicability of the techniques to other undeveloped or under-developed fields. The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) concept presented in this project enhances energy extraction from reduced permeability zones in the super-heated, vapor-dominated Aidlin Field of the The Geysers geothermal reservoir. Numerous geothermal reservoirs worldwide, over a wide temperature range, contain zones of low permeability which limit the development potential and the efficient recovery of heat from these reservoirs. Low permeability results from poorly connected fractures or the lack of fractures. The Enhanced Geothermal System concept presented here expands these technologies by applying and evaluating them in a systematic, integrated program.

  5. Geothermal energy utilization and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dickson, Mary H; Fanelli, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal energy refers to the heat contained within the Earth that generates geological phenomena on a planetary scale. Today, this term is often associated with man's efforts to tap into this vast energy source. Geothermal Energy: utilization and technology is a detailed reference text, describing the various methods and technologies used to exploit the earth's heat. Beginning with an overview of geothermal energy and the state of the art, leading international experts in the field cover the main applications of geothermal energy, including: electricity generation space and district heating space cooling greenhouse heating aquaculture industrial applications The final third of the book focuses upon environmental impact and economic, financial and legal considerations, providing a comprehensive review of these topics. Each chapter is written by a different author, but to a set style, beginning with aims and objectives and ending with references, self-assessment questions and answers. Case studies are includ...

  6. Geothermal Technologies Program: Direct Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-08-01

    This general publication describes geothermal direct use systems, and how they have been effectively used throughout the country. It also describes the DOE program R&D efforts in this area, and summarizes several projects using direct use technology.

  7. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.; Mahmoudi, H.; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability

  8. Geothermics of the Apenninic subduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zito

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The subduction of the Adriatic microplate is analysed from a geothermal point of view. In particular four main geodynamic units are distinguished: foreland, foredeep and slab, accretionary prism, and back-arc basin. Each of them is examined from a geothermal point of view and the related open question are discussed. The most relevant results are the determination of the undisturbed geothermal gradient in the aquifer of the foreland; the discovery of a « hot » accretionary prism; and a new model of instantaneous extension of the back-arc basins. The main conclusion is that geothermal data are consistent with a westward dipping subduction that migrated eastward producing a sequence of several episodes at the surface.

  9. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  10. Geothermal Program Review IV: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The research and development program of DOE's Geothermal Technology Division is reviewed in separate presentations according to program area. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  11. World status of geothermal energy use: past and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, John

    2000-01-01

    The past and potential development of geothermal energy is reviewed, and the use of geothermal energy for power generation and direct heat utilisation is examined. The energy savings that geothermal energy provides in terms of fuel oil and carbon savings are discussed. Worldwide development of geothermal electric power (1940-2000) and direct heat utilisation (1960 to 2000), regional geothermal use in 2000, the national geothermal contributions of geothermal energy, and the installed geothermal electric generating capacities in 2000 are tabulated

  12. Assessment of geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California. Volume 1. Environment, health, and socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D. (ed.)

    1980-07-01

    Utilization of the Imperial Valley's geothermal resources to support energy production could be hindered if environmental impacts prove to be unacceptable or if geothermal operations are incompatible with agriculture. To address these concerns, an integrated environmental and socioeconomic assessment of energy production in the valley was prepared. The most important impacts examined in the assessment involved air quality changes resulting from emissions of hydrogen sulfide, and increases in the salinity of the Salton Sea resulting from the use of agricultural waste waters for power plant cooling. The socioeconomics consequences of future geothermal development will generally be beneficial. (MHR)

  13. Geothermal energy geopressure subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The proposed action will consist of drilling one geopressured-geothermal resource fluid well for intermittent production testing over the first year of the test. During the next two years, long-term testing of 40,000 BPD will be flowed. A number of scenarios may be implemented, but it is felt that the total fluid production will approximate 50 million barrels. The test well will be drilled with a 22 cm (8.75 in.) borehole to a total depth of approximately 5185 m (17,000 ft). Up to four disposal wells will provide disposal of the fluid from the designated 40,000 BPD test rate. The following are included in this assessment: the existing environment; probable environmental impacts-direct and indirect; probable cumulative and long-term environmental impacts; accidents; coordination with federal, state, regional, and local agencies; and alternative actions. (MHR)

  14. Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanloz, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); Stone, H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); et al.

    2013-12-31

    DOE, through the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, requested this study, identifying a focus on: i) assessment of technologies and approaches for subsurface imaging and characterization so as to be able to validate EGS opportunities, and ii) assessment of approaches toward creating sites for EGS, including science and engineering to enhance permeability and increase the recovery factor. Two days of briefings provided in-depth discussion of a wide range of themes and challenges in EGS, and represented perspectives from industry, government laboratories and university researchers. JASON also contacted colleagues from universities, government labs and industry in further conversations to learn the state of the field and potential technologies relevant to EGS.

  15. INTEGRATED EXPLORATION OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. Alkhasov; D. A. Аlkhasova; R. M. Aliyev; A. Sh. Ramazanov

    2016-01-01

    The aim. The aim is to develop the energy efficient technologies to explore hydro geothermal resources of different energy potential.Methods. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technologies has been carried out with the use of physical and mathematical, thermodynamic and optimization methods of calculation and the physical and chemical experimental research.Results. We propose the technology of integrated exploration of low-grade geothermal resources with the application of heat ...

  16. Geothermal energy development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, S.; Okandan, E.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal fields in Turkey are related to rather complex zones of collision between the Eurasian and African continents, and penetration of the Arabian plate into the Anatolian continental mass. These processes gave rise to fracturing of the lithosphere and eruption of magmas. Geothermal regional assessment studies have proven several low enthalpy sources and some high enthalpy fields suitable for electricity generation. This paper summarizes developments in exploration-drilling and give examples of direct utilization implemented in recent years

  17. The Oregon Geothermal Planning Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-02

    Oregon's geothermal resources represent a large portion of the nation's total geothermal potential. The State's resources are substantial in size, widespread in location, and presently in various stages of discovery and utilization. The exploration for, and development of, geothermal is presently dependent upon a mixture of engineering, economic, environmental, and legal factors. In response to the State's significant geothermal energy potential, and the emerging impediments and incentives for its development, the State of Oregon has begun a planning program intended to accelerate the environmentally prudent utilization of geothermal, while conserving the resource's long-term productivity. The program, which is based upon preliminary work performed by the Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, will be managed by the Oregon Department of Energy, with the assistance of the Departments of Economic Development, Geology and Mineral Industries, and Water Resources. Funding support for the program is being provided by the US Department of Energy. The first six-month phase of the program, beginning in July 1980, will include the following five primary tasks: (1) coordination of state and local agency projects and information, in order to keep geothermal personnel abreast of the rapidly expanding resource literature, resource discoveries, technological advances, and each agency's projects. (2) Analysis of resource commercialization impediments and recommendations of incentives for accelerating resource utilization. (3) Compilation and dissemination of Oregon geothermal information, in order to create public and potential user awareness, and to publicize technical assistance programs and financial incentives. (4) Resource planning assistance for local governments in order to create local expertise and action; including a statewide workshop for local officials, and the formulation of two specific community resource development

  18. Geothermal energy applications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, X.; Tang, N.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper updates geothermal energy applications in China. To total energy consumption for electricity is 20.38 MWe, and for direct use is 41,222 TJ/yr, even though the beneficial heat was estimated to be 7,198 TJ/yr. The attached tables are the basic geothermal information mainly the years 1985-1989. Some of the tables are additions to the report or preceeding years

  19. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Maricopa County Geothermal Development Plan evaluated the market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified six potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 100{sup 0}C (212{sup 0}F) and in addition, four suspected intermediate temperature areas (90{sup 0} to 150{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0} to 300{sup 0}F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in and near the Phoenix metropolitan area where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing, trade and service sectors of the regional economy provides opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. A regional energy use analysis is included containing energy use and price projections. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support this growth, though agricultural water use is expected to diminish. The study also contains a detailed section matching geothermal resources to potential users. Two comparative analyses providing economic details for space heating projects are incorporated.

  20. Geothermal energy abstract sets. Special report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C. (comp.)

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography contains annotated citations in the following areas: (1) case histories; (2) drilling; (3) reservoir engineering; (4) injection; (5) geothermal well logging; (6) environmental considerations in geothermal development; (7) geothermal well production; (8) geothermal materials; (9) electric power production; (10) direct utilization of geothermal energy; (11) economics of geothermal energy; and (12) legal, regulatory and institutional aspects. (ACR)

  1. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, S.

    1991-01-01

    Activities in Alberta relating to research on the impact of climate change on the Great Plains are reviewed. Alberta has been active in trying to understand climate, and trying to change it. These activities have included the provision of significant irrigation capabilities in southern Alberta, and many years of research into the possibility of weather modification for precipitation enhancement and hail suppression. Organizations in Alberta active in the area of climate include the Alberta Climatological Association, the Climate Advisory Committee, the Alberta Research Council, the provincial departments Alberta Environment and Alberta Forestry, Lands and Wildlife, and the Department of Agriculture. It is widely recognized that crop production on the Great Plains is dependent on water, and climate is one of the greatest sources of risk facing agriculture in Alberta

  2. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, Ahmad [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2017-08-11

    The objective of this is to develop a 3-D numerical model for simulating mode I, II, and III (tensile, shear, and out-of-plane) propagation of multiple fractures and fracture clusters to accurately predict geothermal reservoir stimulation using the virtual multi-dimensional internal bond (VMIB). Effective development of enhanced geothermal systems can significantly benefit from improved modeling of hydraulic fracturing. In geothermal reservoirs, where the temperature can reach or exceed 350oC, thermal and poro-mechanical processes play an important role in fracture initiation and propagation. In this project hydraulic fracturing of hot subsurface rock mass will be numerically modeled by extending the virtual multiple internal bond theory and implementing it in a finite element code, WARP3D, a three-dimensional finite element code for solid mechanics. The new constitutive model along with the poro-thermoelastic computational algorithms will allow modeling the initiation and propagation of clusters of fractures, and extension of pre-existing fractures. The work will enable the industry to realistically model stimulation of geothermal reservoirs. The project addresses the Geothermal Technologies Office objective of accurately predicting geothermal reservoir stimulation (GTO technology priority item). The project goal will be attained by: (i) development of the VMIB method for application to 3D analysis of fracture clusters; (ii) development of poro- and thermoelastic material sub-routines for use in 3D finite element code WARP3D; (iii) implementation of VMIB and the new material routines in WARP3D to enable simulation of clusters of fractures while accounting for the effects of the pore pressure, thermal stress and inelastic deformation; (iv) simulation of 3D fracture propagation and coalescence and formation of clusters, and comparison with laboratory compression tests; and (v) application of the model to interpretation of injection experiments (planned by our

  3. Geothermal systems: Principles and case histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybach, L.; Muffler, L. J. P.

    The classification of geothermal systems is considered along with the geophysical and geochemical signatures of geothermal systems, aspects of conductive heat transfer and regional heat flow, and geothermal anomalies and their plate tectonic framework. An investigation of convective heat and mass transfer in hydrothermal systems is conducted, taking into account the mathematical modelling of hydrothermal systems, aspects of idealized convective heat and mass transport, plausible models of geothermal reservoirs, and preproduction models of hydrothermal systems. Attention is given to the prospecting for geothermal resources, the application of water geochemistry to geothermal exploration and reservoir engineering, heat extraction from geothermal reservoirs, questions of geothermal resource assessment, and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development. A description is presented of a number of case histories, taking into account the low enthalpy geothermal resource of the Pannonian Basin in Hungary, the Krafla geothermal field in Northeast Iceland, the geothermal system of the Jemez Mountains in New Mexico, and extraction-reinjection at the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador.

  4. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farlinger, W.

    1997-01-01

    In this second keynote address of the conference Mr. Farlinger, Chairman of Ontario Hydro, attempted to respond to some of the criticisms levelled at the Corporation in the course of the Macdonald Committee process. He appeared to be particularly vexed by the criticism of IPPSO, saying that in effect, they are' beating up on their only customer', at a time when Hydro is being pulled in several different directions, and was facing pressure from jurisdictional dispute with municipal utilities, (MEUs). Nevertheless, he agreed with the need for restructuring. He defended Hydro by saying that the Macdonald Report in fact represented a vindication of the position Ontario Hydro had taken, particularly on such issues as open competition, customer choice, rationalization of the distribution system, and termination of Hydro's monopoly position. At the same time, he objected to the Report's assertion that dismantling the generation system into smaller units would be in the best interest of the people of Ontario. He suggested that there would be several large US utility companies willing and able to fill the vacuum if there was no large company with its head office in Ontario to stake its claim to the provincial market

  5. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys in Overt and Subtle Volcanic Systems, Hawai’i and Maui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercho, Steven [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Owens, Lara [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Walsh, Patrick [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Drakos, Peter [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Martini, Brigette [Corescan Inc., Ascot (Australia); Lewicki, Jennifer L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kennedy, Burton M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Suites of new geophysical and geochemical exploration surveys were conducted to provide evidence for geothermal resource at the Haleakala Southwest Rift Zone (HSWRZ) on Maui Island, Hawai’i. Ground-based gravity (~400 stations) coupled with heli-bourne magnetics (~1500 line kilometers) define both deep and shallow fractures/faults, while also delineating potentially widespread subsurface hydrothermal alteration on the lower flanks (below approximately 1800 feet a.s.l.). Multi-level, upward continuation calculations and 2-D gravity and magnetic modeling provide information on source depths, but lack of lithologic information leaves ambiguity in the estimates. Additionally, several well-defined gravity lows (possibly vent zones) lie coincident with magnetic highs suggesting the presence of dike intrusions at depth which may represent a potentially young source of heat. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured along transects across geophysically-defined faults and fractures as well as young cinder cones along the HSWRZ. This survey generally did not detect CO2 levels above background, with the exception of a weak anomalous flux signal over one young cinder cone. The general lack of observed CO2 flux signals on the HSWRZ is likely due to a combination of lower magmatic CO2 fluxes and relatively high biogenic surface CO2 fluxes which mix with the magmatic signal. Similar surveys at the Puna geothermal field on the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone (KLERZ) also showed a lack of surface CO2 flux signals, however aqueous geochemistry indicated contribution of magmatic CO2 and He to shallow groundwater here. As magma has been intercepted in geothermal drilling at the Puna field, the lack of measured surface CO2 flux indicative of upflow of magmatic fluids here is likely due to effective “scrubbing” by high groundwater and a mature hydrothermal system. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations, δ13C compositions and 3He/4He values were sampled at Maui from several shallow

  6. Addressing key concepts in physical geography through interactive learning activities in an online geo-ICT environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Steegen, An; Martens, Lotte

    2016-04-01

    The increasing number of geospatial datasets and free online geo-ICT tools offers new opportunities for education in Earth Sciences. Geospatial technology indeed provides an environment through which interactive learning can be introduced in Earth Sciences curricula. However, the effectiveness of such e-learning approaches in terms of learning outcomes has rarely been addressed. Here, we present our experience with the implementation of digital interactive learning activities within an introductory Physical Geography course attended by 90 undergraduate students in Geography, Geology, Biology and Archaeology. Two traditional lectures were replaced by interactive sessions (each 2 h) in a flexible classroom where students had to work both in team and individually in order to explore some key concepts through the integrated use of geospatial data within Google EarthTM. A first interactive lesson dealt with the classification of river systems and aimed to examine the conditions under which rivers tend to meander or to develop a braided pattern. Students were required to collect properties of rivers (river channel pattern, channel slope, climate, discharge, lithology, vegetation, etc). All these data are available on a global scale and have been added as separate map layers in Google EarthTM. Each student collected data for at least two rivers and added this information to a Google Drive Spreadsheet accessible to the entire group. This resulted in a database of more than one hundred rivers spread over various environments worldwide. In a second phase small groups of students discussed the potential relationships between river channel pattern and its controlling factors. Afterwards, the findings of each discussion group were presented to the entire audience. The same set-up was followed in a second interactive session to explore spatial variations in ecosystem properties such as net primary production and soil carbon content. The qualitative evaluation of both interactive

  7. Preliminary geothermal investigations at Manley Hot Springs, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.

    1982-04-01

    Manley Hot Springs is one of several hot springs which form a belt extending from the Seward Peninsula to east-central Alaska. All of the hot springs are low-temperature, water-dominated geothermal systems, having formed as the result of circulation of meteoric water along deepseated fractures near or within granitic intrusives. Shallow, thermally disturbed ground at Manley Hot Springs constitutes an area of 1.2 km by 0.6 km along the lower slopes of Bean Ridge on the north side of the Tanana Valley. This area includes 32 springs and seeps and one warm (29.1/sup 0/C) well. The hottest springs range in temperature from 61/sup 0/ to 47/sup 0/C and are presently utilized for space heating and irrigation. This study was designed to characterize the geothermal system present at Manley Hot Springs and delineate likely sites for geothermal drilling. Several surveys were conducted over a grid system which included shallow ground temperature, helium soil gas, mercury soil and resistivity surveys. In addition, a reconnaissance ground temperature survey and water chemistry sampling program was undertaken. The preliminary results, including some preliminary water chemistry, show that shallow hydrothermal activity can be delineated by many of the surveys. Three localities are targeted as likely geothermal well sites, and a model is proposed for the geothermal system at Manley Hot Springs.

  8. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  9. Seismic characterization of geothermal reservoirs by application of the common-reflection-surface stack method and attribute analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Pussak

    2015-01-01

    An important contribution of geosciences to the renewable energy production portfolio is the exploration and utilization of geothermal resources. For the development of a geothermal project at great depths a detailed geological and geophysical exploration program is required in the first phase. With the help of active seismic methods high-resolution images of the geothermal reservoir can be delivered. This allows potential transport routes for fluids to be identified as well as regions with h...

  10. Hydrogeochemistry Characteristics and Daily Variation of Geothermal Water in the Moxi Fault,Southwest of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jihong; Xu, Mo; An, Chenjiao; Zhang, Yunhui; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    The Xianshuihe Fault with frequent earthquakes activities is the regional deep fault in China. The Moxi Fault is the southern part of the Xianshuihe Fault, where the strong activities of geothermal water could bring abundant information of deep crust. In this article, some typical geothermal springs were collected along the Moxi fault from Kangding to Shimian. Using the the Na-K-Mg equilibrium diagram, it explains the state of water-rock equilibrium, and estimates the reservoir temperature basing appropriate geothermometers. Basing on the relationship between the enthalpy and chlorine concentration of geothermal water, it analyze the mixing progress of thermal water with shallow groundwater. Moreover, the responses of variation of geothermal water to the solid tides are considered to study the hydrothermal activities of this fault. The Guanding in Kangding are considered as the center of the geothermal system, and the hydrothermal activities decrease southward extending. Geothermal water maybe is heated by the deep heat source of the Himalayan granites, while the springs in the south area perform the mixture with thermal water in the sub-reservoir of the Permian crystalline limestone. It improves the research of hydrothermal activities in the Moxi Fault, meanwhile using the variation of geothermal water maybe become a important method to study the environment of deep earth in the future.

  11. DMRC studies geothermal energy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-01

    The Deep Mining Research Consortium (DMRC) is an industry-led research consortium that includes Vale Inco, Xstrata, Rio Tinto, Goldcorp, Agnico-Eagle, Barrick Gold, CANMET and the City of Sudbury. This article reported on the application of geothermal energy technologies to cool deep mine workings and use the heat from underground to produce energy to heat surface buildings. Researchers at the University of British Columbia's Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials have proposed the use of heat pumps and water-to-air heat exchangers at depth to chill mine workings. The heat pumps would act as refrigerators, taking heat from one area and moving it elsewhere. The purpose would be to extract heat from naturally occurring ground water and pass the chilled water through a heat exchanger to cool the air. The heated water would then be pumped to surface and used to heat surface facilities. The technology is well suited for using geothermal energy from decommissioned mines for district heating. The technology has been successfully used in Spring Hill, Nova Scotia, where geothermal energy from a decommissioned coal mine is used to heat an industrial park. A feasibility study is also underway for the city of Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories to produce up to 10 megawatts of heat from the Con Gold Mine, enough energy to heat half of Yellowknife. Geothermal energy can also be used to generate electricity, particularly in the Pacific Rim where underground temperatures are higher and closer to surface. In Sudbury Ontario, the enhanced geothermal systems technology would require two holes drilled to a depth of four kilometers. The ground between the two holes should be fractured to create an underground geothermal circuit. Geothermal energy does not produce any greenhouse gases or chemical wastes. 1 fig.

  12. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  13. Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensenbigler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback. (EV)

  14. Briefing Book, Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council (IGCC) Meeting of April 28, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-04-28

    The IGCC of the U.S. government was created under the intent of Public Law 93-410 (1974) to serve as a forum for the discussion of Federal plans, activities, and policies that are related to or impact on geothermal energy. Eight Federal Departments were represented on the IGCC at the time of this meeting. The main presentations in this report were on: Department of Energy Geothermal R&D Program, the Ormat binary power plant at East Mesa, CA, Potential for direct use of geothermal at Defense bases in U.S. and overseas, Department of Defense Geothermal Program at China Lake, and Status of the U.S. Geothermal Industry. The IGCC briefing books and minutes provide a historical snapshot of what development and impact issues were important at various time. (DJE 2005)

  15. Plate boundary deformation and man-made subsidence around geothermal fields on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Keiding, Marie

    2010-07-01

    We present Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from 1992-1999 and 2003-2008 as well as GPS data from 2000-2009 for the active plate boundary on the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland. The geodetic data reveal deformation mainly due to plate spreading, anthropogenic subsidence caused by geothermal fluid extraction and, possibly, increasing pressure in a geothermal system. Subsidence of around 10. cm is observed during the first 2. years of production at the Reykjanes geothermal power plant, which started operating in May 2006. We model the surface subsidence around the new power plant using point and ellipsoidal pressure sources in an elastic halfspace. Short-lived swarms of micro-earthquakes as well as aseismic fault movement are observed near the geothermal field following the start of production, possibly triggered by the stresses induced by geothermal fluid extraction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Plate boundary deformation and man-made subsidence around geothermal fields on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Keiding, Marie; Á rnadó ttir, Thó ra; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Decriem, Judicaë l; Hooper, Andrew John

    2010-01-01

    We present Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from 1992-1999 and 2003-2008 as well as GPS data from 2000-2009 for the active plate boundary on the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland. The geodetic data reveal deformation mainly due to plate spreading, anthropogenic subsidence caused by geothermal fluid extraction and, possibly, increasing pressure in a geothermal system. Subsidence of around 10. cm is observed during the first 2. years of production at the Reykjanes geothermal power plant, which started operating in May 2006. We model the surface subsidence around the new power plant using point and ellipsoidal pressure sources in an elastic halfspace. Short-lived swarms of micro-earthquakes as well as aseismic fault movement are observed near the geothermal field following the start of production, possibly triggered by the stresses induced by geothermal fluid extraction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Synthetic Modeling of A Geothermal System Using Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and Magnetotelluric (MT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega Saputra, Rifki; Widodo

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia has 40% of the world’s potential geothermal resources with estimated capacity of 28,910 MW. Generally, the characteristic of the geothermal system in Indonesia is liquid-dominated systems, which driven by volcanic activities. In geothermal exploration, electromagnetic methods are used to map structures that could host potential reservoirs and source rocks. We want to know the responses of a geothermal system using synthetic data of Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and Magnetotelluric (MT). Due to frequency range, AMT and MT data can resolve the shallow and deeper structure, respectively. 1-D models have been performed using AMT and MT data. The results indicate that AMT and MT data give detailed conductivity distribution of geothermal structure.

  18. Welcome address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donowaki, Mitsuro

    1992-01-01

    Recent dramatic changes in the international environment had great influence on the process of arms control and disarmament. The need for improving and strengthening the Non-proliferation Treaty proposed examination of the possibility to activate special inspection mechanism of IAEA. With regard to the nuclear tests ban, the US and Russia have already brought into effect the threshold test-ban Treaty and the peaceful nuclear explosions Treaty. Within these circumstances it is inevitable to stress the importance of solving regional disputes and conflicts in South-East Asia which is strongly supported by Japan which hosted this meeting

  19. Application of subsurface temperature measurements in geothermal prospecting in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flóvenz, Ólafur G.

    1985-12-01

    In geothermal areas in Iceland aquifers are in most cases found to occur in highly permeable near-vertical fractures in the low permeability basaltic crust. Therefore heat transfer in the rocks surrounding the aquifers is mainly conductive. Temperature profiles in shallow non-flowing boreholes are used to construct a two dimensional model of the temperature distribution in the vicinity of near vertical aquifers. This is done by finite element solution of the equation of heat transfer which requires knowledge of the regional temperature gradient outside the area of geothermal activity and some constraints on the temperature within the aquifers. The model is helpful in estimating dip and location of near-vertical water bearing fractures and thus in siting production wells. An example of successful use to the method and of soil temperature measurements from a geothermal field in North-Iceland is demonstrated.

  20. Mutnovo geothermal power complex at Kamchatka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britvin, O.V.; Povarov, O.A.; Klochkov, E.F.; Tomarov, G.V.; Koshkin, N.L.; Luzin, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The data on geothermal resources at Kamchatka and experience in their application are presented. The description of the geothermal power complex objects at the Mutnovo deposit is given. The basic trends and stages of the prospective geothermal power development in this region are indicated. It is specified for unique huge geothermal heat reserves, which by different estimates may provide for the total electrical and thermal capacity, exceeding 2000 MW [ru

  1. Microbiological monitoring in geothermal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Vetter, A.; Vieth, A.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2009-12-01

    In times of increasing relevance of alternative energy resources the utilization of geothermal energy and subsurface energy storage gains importance and arouses increasing interest of scientists. The research project “AquiScreen” investigates the operational reliability of geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. Microbiological analyses based on fluid and solid phases of geothermal systems are conducted to evaluate the impact of microbial populations on these systems. The presentation focuses on first results obtained from microbiological monitoring of geothermal plants located in two different regions of Germany: the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin in the southern part characterized by different salinities and temperatures. Fluid and filter samples taken during regular plant operation were investigated using genetic fingerprinting based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes to characterize the microbial biocenosis of the geothermal aquifer. Sequencing of dominant bands of the fingerprints and the subsequent comparison to 16S rRNA genes from public databases enables a correlation to metabolic classes and provides information about the biochemical processes in the deep biosphere. The genetic profiles revealed significant differences in microbiological community structures of geothermal aquifers investigated. Phylogenetic analyses indicate broad metabolical diversity adapted to the specific conditions in the aquifers. Additionally a high amount of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected indicating very specific indigenous biocenosis. However, in all geothermal plants bacteria were detected despite of fluid temperatures from 45° to 120°C. The identified microorganisms are closely related to thermophilic and hyperthermophilic species detectable in hot wells and hot springs, like Thermus scotoductus and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, respectively. Halophilic species were detected in

  2. Sixth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P. (eds.)

    1980-12-18

    researchers, engineers and managers involved in geothermal reservoir study and development and the provision of a forum for the prompt and open reporting of progress and for the exchange of ideas, continue to be met . Active discussion by the majority of the participants is apparent both in and outside the workshop arena. The Workshop Proceedings now contain some of the most highly cited geothermal literature. Unfortunately, the popularity of the Workshop for the presentation and exchange of ideas does have some less welcome side effects. The major one is the developing necessity for a limitation of the number of papers that are actually presented. We will continue to include all offered papers in the Summaries and Proceedings. As in the recent past, this sixth Workshop was supported by a grant from the Department of Energy. This grant is now made directly to Stanford as part of the support for the Stanford Geothermal Program (Contract No. DE-AT03-80SF11459). We are certain that all participants join us in our appreciation of this continuing support. Thanks are also due to all those individuals who helped in so many ways: The members of the program committee who had to work so hard to keep the program to a manageable size - George Frye (Aminoil USA), Paul G. Atkinson (Union Oil Company). Michael L. Sorey (U.S.G.S.), Frank G. Miller (Stanford Geothermal Program), and Roland N. Horne (Stanford Geothermal Program). The session chairmen who contributed so much to the organization and operation of the technical sessions - George Frye (Aminoil USA), Phillip H. Messer (Union Oil Company), Leland L. Mink (Department of Energy), Manuel Nathenson (U.S.G.S.), Gunnar Bodvarsson (Oregon State University), Mohindar S. Gulati (Union Oil Company), George F. Pinder (Princeton University), Paul A. Witherspoon (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), Frank G. Miller (Stanford Geothermal Program) and Michael J. O'Sullivan (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory). The many people who assisted behind the scenes

  3. China starts tapping rich geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, D.

    1980-09-01

    Attention is given to the electric and power installation running on geothermal energy at Yangbajain, Tibet. Other geothermal projects in Tibet, the Yunnan Province and the North China Plain are also outlined. Applications of geothermal energy are described, including the heating of homes and factories, spinning, weaving, paper-making and the making of wine.

  4. Research status of geothermal resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincheng; Li, Guang

    2017-08-01

    As the representative of the new green energy, geothermal resources are characterized by large reserve, wide distribution, cleanness and environmental protection, good stability, high utilization factor and other advantages. According to the characteristics of exploitation and utilization, they can be divided into high-temperature, medium-temperature and low-temperature geothermal resources. The abundant and widely distributed geothermal resources in China have a broad prospect for development. The medium and low temperature geothermal resources are broadly distributed in the continental crustal uplift and subsidence areas inside the plate, represented by the geothermal belt on the southeast coast, while the high temperature geothermal resources concentrate on Southern Tibet-Western Sichuan-Western Yunnan Geothermal Belt and Taiwan Geothermal Belt. Currently, the geothermal resources in China are mainly used for bathing, recuperation, heating and power generation. It is a country that directly makes maximum use of geothermal energy in the world. However, China’s geothermal power generation, including installed generating capacity and power generation capacity, are far behind those of Western European countries and the USA. Studies on exploitation and development of geothermal resources are still weak.

  5. Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, John [UNR; Pullammanappallil, Satish [Optim; Honjas, Bill [Optim

    2016-08-01

    J. N. Louie, Pullammanappallil, S., and Honjas, W., 2011, Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development: Proceedings of the New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 2011, Nov. 21-23, Auckland, paper 32, 7 pp. Preprint available at http://crack.seismo.unr.edu/geothermal/Louie-NZGW11.pdf

  6. Geothermal Energy Development annual report 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report is an exerpt from Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1979 (LBL-10686). Progress in thirty-four research projects is reported including the following area: geothermal exploration technology, geothermal energy conversion technology, reservoir engineering, and geothermal environmental research. Separate entries were prepared for each project. (MHR)

  7. Prospects of geothermal resource exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrelier, P.H.; Cornet, F.; Fouillac, C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of geothermal energy to generate electricity has only occurred during the past 50 years by drilling wells in aquifers close to magmas and producing either dry steam or hot water. The world's production of electricity from geothermal energy is over 6000 MWe and is still growing. The direct use of geothermal energy for major urban communities has been developed recently by exploitation of aquifers in sedimentary basins under large towns. Scaling up the extraction of heat implies the exploitation of larger and better located fields requiring an appropriate method of extraction; the objective of present attempts in USA, Japan and Europe is to create heat exchangers by the circulation of water between several deep wells. Two field categories are considered: the extension of classical geothermal fields beyond the aquifer areas, and areas favoured by both a high geothermal gradient, fractures inducing a natural permeability at large scale, and good commercial prospects (such as in the Rhenan Graben). Hot dry rocks concept has gained a large interest. 1 fig., 5 tabs., 11 refs

  8. Electricity from geothermal steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheatcroft, E L.E.

    1959-01-01

    The development of the power station at Wairakei geothermal field is described. Wairakei is located at the center of New Zealand's volcanic belt, which lies within a major graben which is still undergoing some degree of downfaulting. A considerable number of wells, some exceeding 610 m, have been drilled. Steam and hot water are produced from both deep and shallow wells, which produce at gauge pressures of 1.5 MPa and 0.6 MPa, respectively. The turbines are fed by low, intermediate, and high pressure mains. The intermediate pressure turbine bank was installed as a replacement for a heavy water production facility which had originally been planned for the development. Stage 1 includes a 69 MW plant, and stage 2 will bring the capacity to 150 MW. A third stage, which would bring the output up to 250 MW had been proposed. The second stage involves the installation of more high pressure steam turbines, while the third stage would be powered primarily by hot water flashing. Generation is at 11 kV fed to a two-section 500 MVA board. Each section of the board feeds through a 40 MVA transformer to a pair of 220 V transmission lines which splice into the North Island grid. Other transformers feed 400 V auxiliaries and provide local supply.

  9. Geothermal policy project. Quarterly report, June 1-August 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    Efforts continued to initiate geothermal and water source heat pump study activities in newly selected project states and to carry forward policy development in existing project states. Follow-up contacts were made with several project states, and state meetings and workshops were held in nine project states. Two state-specific documents were prepared during this reporting period, for Nevada and Wyoming.

  10. Living with Contradictions: Complementing Activity Theory with the Notion of "Installed Base" to Address the Historical Dimension of Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igira, Faraja; Aanestad, Margunn

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the historical dimension of the relation between information systems innovation and organizational transformation. We analyse findings from a study of ongoing transformations in the healthcare sector in Zanzibar, Tanzania. The process is described with a particular focus on instances where some contradictions in the old…

  11. Geothermal Reservoir Technology Research Program: Abstracts of selected research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, M.J. (ed.)

    1993-03-01

    Research projects are described in the following areas: geothermal exploration, mapping reservoir properties and reservoir monitoring, and well testing, simulation, and predicting reservoir performance. The objectives, technical approach, and project status of each project are presented. The background, research results, and future plans for each project are discussed. The names, addresses, and telephone and telefax numbers are given for the DOE program manager and the principal investigators. (MHR)

  12. Geochemical studies of the geothermal area East of the Jombo Hill intrusion Coast Province. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tole, M.P.

    1985-09-01

    Geothermal resources in Kenya can be classified into two types; (i) High temperature geothermal resources, found within the Kenyan section of Rift Valley System, and (ii) Low temperature geothermal resources found outside the main Rift Valley System (figure 1). The high temperature geothermal resources have received first priority in research and development, and this has culminated in their exploitation at the Olkaria Geothermal Field which currently generates 45 MW of electricity, representing approximately 18% of Kenya's electricity requirements. Further research is directed at opening up electricity generating plants within the Rift Valley Geothermal Systems occuring between Lake Bogoria and Lake Magadi. The low temperature geothermal resources have received less attention in Kenya. In some countries, low temperature geothermal resources have been utilised for a number of domestic and commercial undertakings (table 1), among them (a) space heating (b) recreational baths (c) sugar refining. In china, low temperature (less than 90 o C) geothermal reservoirs have been used to provide energy for electrical generating plants (Reed and Bliss, 1983). An examination of the distribution of the low temperature geothermal sites in Kenya (figure 1) indicates that most of them could be easily utilised for one or more of the domestic and commercial activities mentioned above, by virtue of their location. In order that recommendations regarding the type of use that each of these hotsprings can be put to can be made, proper evaluation of each site must be made: in particular the underground hotwater temperatures as well as the extent of the geothermal field at each site must be evaluated. Geochemical studies provide the cheapest (most cost-effective) method of geothermal energy exploration. The purpose of this project was to determine the extent of the hot zone, as well as the underground reservoir temperatures in the geothermal field North East of the Jomo Hill intrusion

  13. Greece, Milos Island Geothermal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delliou, E.E.

    1990-01-01

    On Milos island (Aegean Sea) a high enthalpy, water dominated geothermal field of high salinity exists. At 1985, a 2MW geothermoelectric pilot plant was installed on the island. This plant has been provided by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of Japan under a contract with Public Power Corporation of Greece. Due to high salinity of the geothermal fluid, unforeseen problems (scaling mainly) arisen in both steam and brine cycles. As a consequence, the operation (trial mainly) of the power plant have been interrupted several times for long periods, in order to identify the arisen, each time, problems and find the most appropriate technical solution. The above fact, as well as, some unfortunate coincidences described in this paper, led Milos people to react against geothermal development in their island. The sequence of the events, technical and non-technical, their approach and the relevant conclusions are reported in this presentation

  14. Geothermal hydrogen - a vision? Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zittel, W.; Weindorf, W.; Wurster, R.; Bussmann, W.

    2001-07-01

    With the progresses in geothermal electricity production by means of the hot-dry-rock (HDR) method electricity might be produced at cost of between 0.07 - 0.09 ECU/kWh, depending on systems sizes of between 5 - 20 MW{sub e}. The electricity can be used to produce hydrogen from electrolysis and water. This method of electricity production offers high availability with operating hour of between 7,600 - 8,000 hours per year. The 40 GWh electricity production per year from one 5 MW{sub e} geothermal plant are sufficient to produce enough hydrogen for the operation of an average fueling station with about 400 refuelings per day at cost of about 20 - 30 percent higher than today's gasoline (including taxes). In this contribution some details of the analysis are presented as well as a general discussion of geothermal hydrogen production as a future energy vector. (orig.)

  15. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  16. Geothermal resource assessment in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Hyoung Chan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (Korea); Park, Sungho; Kim, Jongchan; Koo, Min-Ho [Kongju National University (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    To estimate available geothermal energy and to construct temperature at depth maps in Korea, various geothermal data have been used. Those include 1560 thermal property data such as thermal conductivity, specific heat and density, 353 heat flow data, 54 surface temperature data, and 180 heat production data. In Korea, subsurface temperature ranges from 23.9 C to 47.9 C at a depth of 1 km, from 34.2 C to 79.7 C at 2 km, from 44.2 C to 110.9 C at 3 km, from 53.8 C to 141.5 C at 4 km, and from 63.1 C to 171.6 C at 5 km. The total available subsurface geothermal energy in Korea is 4.25 x 10{sup 21} J from surface to a depth of 1 km, 1.67 x 10{sup 22} J to 2 km, 3.72 x 10{sup 22} J to 3 km, 6.52 x 10{sup 22} J to 4 km, and 1.01 x 10{sup 23} J to 5 km. In particular, the southeastern part of Korea shows high temperatures at depths and so does high geothermal energy. If only 2% of geothermal resource from surface to a depth of 5 km is developed in Korea, energy from geothermal resources would be equivalent to about 200 times annual consumption of primary energy ({proportional_to}2.33 x 10{sup 8} TOE) in Korea in 2006. (author)

  17. Developing a framework for assessing the impact of geothermal development phases on ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedi, Jarot M.; Willemen, Louise; Nurlambang, Triarko; van der Meer, Freek; Koestoer, Raldi H.

    2017-12-01

    The 2014 Indonesian National Energy Policy has set a target to provide national primary energy usage reached 2.500 kWh per capita in the year 2025 and reached 7.000 kWh in the year 2050. The National Energy Policy state that the development of energy should consider the balance of energy economic values, energy supply security, and the conservation of the environment. This has led to the prioritization of renewable energy sources. Geothermal energy a renewable energy source that produces low carbon emissions and is widely available in Indonesia due to the country’s location in the “volcanic arc”. The development of geothermal energy faces several problems related to its potential locations in Indonesia. The potential sites for geothermal energy are mostly located in the volcanic landscapes that have a high hazard risk and are often designated protected areas. Local community low knowledge of geothermal use also a challenge for geothermal development where sometimes strong local culture stand in the way. Each phase of geothermal energy development (exploration, construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning) will have an impact on the landscape and everyone living in it. Meanwhile, natural and other human-induced drivers will keep landscapes and environments changing. This conference paper addresses the development of an integrated assessment to spatially measure the impact of geothermal energy development phases on ecosystem services. Listing the effects on the ecosystem services induced by each geothermal development phases and estimating the spatial impact using Geographic Information System (GIS) will result in an overview on where and how much each geothermal development phase affects the ecosystem and how this information could be included to improve national spatial planning.

  18. Geological Model of Supercritical Geothermal Reservoir on the Top of the Magma Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, N.

    2017-12-01

    We are conducting supercritical geothermal project, and deep drilling project named as "JBBP: Japan Beyond Brittle Project" The temperatures of geothermal fields operating in Japan range from 200 to 300 °C (average 250 °C), and the depths range from 1000 to 2000 m (average 1500 m). In conventional geothermal reservoirs, the mechanical behavior of the rocks is presumed to be brittle, and convection of the hydrothermal fluid through existing network is the main method of circulation in the reservoir. In order to minimize induced seismicity, a rock mass that is "beyond brittle" is one possible candidate, because the rock mechanics of "beyond brittle" material is one of plastic deformation rather than brittle failure. To understand the geological model of a supercritical geothermal reservoir, granite-porphyry system, which had been formed in subduction zone, was investigated as a natural analog of the supercritical geothermal energy system. Quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia veins, and glassy veins are observed in a granitic body. The glassy veins formed at 500-550 °C under lithostatic pressures, and then pressures dropped drastically. The solubility of silica also dropped, resulting in formation of quartz veins under a hydrostatic pressure regime. Connections between the lithostatic and hydrostatic pressure regimes were key to the formation of the hydrothermal breccia veins, and the granite-porphyry system provides useful information for creation of fracture clouds in supercritical geothermal reservoirs. A granite-porphyry system, associated with hydrothermal activity and mineralization, provides a suitable natural analog for studying a deep-seated geothermal reservoir where stockwork fracture systems are created in the presence of supercritical geothermal fluids. I describe fracture networks and their formation mechanisms using petrology and fluid inclusion studies in order to understand this "beyond brittle" supercritical geothermal reservoir, and a geological

  19. Crossing the Barriers: An Analysis of Land Access Barriers to Geothermal Development and Potential Improvement Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Developers have identified many non-technical barriers to geothermal power development, including access to land. Activities required for accessing land, such as environmental review and private and public leasing can take a considerable amount of time and can delay or prevent project development. This paper discusses the impacts to available geothermal resources and deployment caused by land access challenges, including tribal and cultural resources, environmentally sensitive areas, biological resources, land ownership, federal and state lease queues, and proximity to military installations. In this analysis, we identified challenges that have the potential to prevent development of identified and undiscovered hydrothermal geothermal resources. We found that an estimated 400 MW of identified geothermal resource potential and 4,000 MW of undiscovered geothermal resource potential were either unallowed for development or contained one or more significant barriers that could prevent development at the site. Potential improvement scenarios that could be employed to overcome these barriers include (1) providing continuous funding to the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) for processing geothermal leases and permit applications and (2) the creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures. The model results forecast that continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 80 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 124 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures coupled with continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 97 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 152 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The small impact on potential deployment in these improvement scenarios suggests that these 4,400 MW have other barriers to development in addition to land access. In other words, simply

  20. Geothermal Play-Fairway Analysis of the Tatun Volcano Group, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Ru; Song, Sheng-Rong

    2017-04-01

    Geothermal energy is a sustainable and low-emission energy resource. It has the advantage of low-cost and withstanding nature hazards. Taiwan is located on the western Ring of Fire and characteristic of widespread hot spring and high surface heat flows, especially on the north of Taiwan. Many previous studies reveal that the Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) has great potential to develop the geothermal energy. However, investment in geothermal development has inherent risk and how to reduce the exploration risk is the most important. The exploration risk can be lowered by using the play-fairway analysis (PFA) that integrates existing data representing the composite risk segments in the region in order to define the exploration strategy. As a result, this study has adapted this logic for geothermal exploration in TVG. There are two necessary factors in geothermal energy, heat and permeability. They are the composite risk segments for geothermal play-fairway analysis. This study analyzes existing geologic, geophysical and geochemical data to construct the heat and permeability potential models. Heat potential model is based on temperature gradient, temperature of hot spring, proximity to hot spring, hydrothermal alteration zones, helium isotope ratios, and magnetics. Permeability potential model is based on fault zone, minor fault, and micro-earthquake activities. Then, these two potential models are weighted by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and combined to rank geothermal favorability. Uncertainty model is occurred by the quality of data and spatial accuracy of data. The goal is to combine the potential model with the uncertainty model as a risk map to find the best drilling site for geothermal exploration in TVG. Integrated results indicate where geothermal potential is the highest and provide the best information for those who want to develop the geothermal exploration in TVG.

  1. Radon and temperature as tracer of geothermal flow system: application to Arxan geothermal system, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X.; Shao, J.; Cui, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, hydrogeological and hydrochemical investigations were applied to explain geothermal system factors controlling groundwater mineralization in Arxan geothermal system, Northeastern China. Geothermal water samples were collected from different locations (thermal baths and wells). Radon concentrations of water samples representing different water types and depths were controlled using RAD7. In addition to radon concentration, physical parameters such as temperature (T), pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and TDS were measured in situ, while major ions were analyzed in laboratory. Temperature spatial variability in the study area was described using kriging interpolation method. Hydrochemical analysis and thermal parameters suggest two distinct hydrogeological systems. The first type was dominated by a moderate temperature (25 41°C) with a chemical facies Na-HCO3, which characterizes Jurassic deep water. The second water type was characterized by Ca.Na-HCO3 type with a temperature <25 °C and represents the shallow aquifer. Superficial aquifer displays higher radon concentration (37 to 130 Bq/L), while deep groundwater from Jurassic aquifer shows relatively a low radon concentration (6 to 57.4 Bq/L). Seasonal and geographical variations of radon give insight into the processes controlling radon activities in the Arxan groundwater. Radon concentrations along with spatial distribution of water temperature reveal the existence of vertical communication between shallow aquifer and deep Jurassic aquifer through vertical faults and fractures system, the emanation of radon from thermal water and groundwater is controlled by the geological structure of the area. Furthermore, the knowledge and conclusion demonstrates that combined use of radon and temperature as tracers can give insight into the characteristics of geological structure and geothermal flow system.

  2. Geothermal Progress Monitor: Report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor, the 14th since its inception in 1980, highlights the anticipated rapid growth in the use of geothermal heat pumps and documents the continued growth in the use of geothermal energy for power generation, both in this country and abroad. In countries with a relatively large demand for new generation capacity, geothermal, if available, is being called on as a preferable alternative to the use of domestic or imported oil. On the other hand, in this country where current demand for new capacity is less, geothermal energy is commonly being put to use in small power generation units operating on the hot water resource.

  3. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  4. Geothermal country report of Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottlik, P.

    1990-01-01

    There is a slow but steady increase in the number of geothermal wells in Hungary. The rate of increase is 3-5 new wells/year. In the last years technical development and the raising of efficiency came to the front in utilization of geothermal energy. Technical development is supported by the state. This paper reports that the main directions were: developing a pump suitable for Hungarian conditions, working out the model of sandy and karstic aquifers for simulation and prediction, and developing new chemicals and methods for treating thermal water

  5. New Mexico Geothermal Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witcher, J.C.; Whittier, J.; Morgan, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the New Mexico Geothermal Data Base (NMGDB) which is a comprehensive public-domain data base of low-temperature geothermal resource information for New Mexico that is designed to assist researchers and developers. A broad range of geoscience, engineering, climatic, economic, and land status information are complied in the dBASE III PLUS data base management system for use on an IBM or IBM-compatible personal computer. A user friendly menu format with on-screen prompts allows easy and convenient use

  6. Leverkusen revenue office building with geothermal and district heating; Finanzamt Leverkusen setzt auf Geothermie und Fernwaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keveloh, Holger [Depenbrock Systembau GmbH und Co. KG, Bielefeld (Germany); Paterak, Anette; Wiemer, Bianca; Foerschler, Eberhard [Assmann Beraten+Planen GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Efficient air conditioning of office buildings is possible with concrete core activation via a geothermal heat pump. The new building of the revenue office at Leverkusen will use this technology. (orig.)

  7. Geothermal Monitoring of Kueishantao Island Offshore of Northeastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Tang Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the geothermal variation of the active volcano, Kueishantao island, we conducted continuous monitoring of borehole temperatures beginning in July 2006. Fifteen miniature temperature loggers with resolution better than 0.001 degree were deployed at different depths in a 290-m well. The borehole temperatures ranged between 22 and 34 degree . No significant annual variation was found below 30 m depth. We divided the geotherm into three sections. The shallow one, at a depth less than 110 m, showed an extreme negative geothermal gradient of -0.6 degree (100 m-1, which may be strongly affected by the convection of shallow water. The middle section, at a depth between 110 and 250 m, had a geotherm of 9.7 degree (100 m-1. The heat flow was estimated to be 153 mW m-2, on the same order as that acquired on the seafloor around Kueishantao island. The lower portion, below 250 m depth, showed a geotherm of -8.5 degree (100 m-1 which may be effected by a fracture zone identified by the drilling data. The average geotherm for the whole hole is 4.8 degree (100 m-1. Several thermal events with amplitudes of -0.023 ~ 0.015 degree and durations of tens of hours were found in different depths in the well. These events have been identified to correlate with the occurrences of typhoons. During the study period there were 17 earthquakes greater than 3.4 in magnitude and within 50 km radius of Kueishantao. However, we did not find any significant relationships between earthquake occurcence and temperature variations in the borehole. More observation data are needed to discuss the mechanism of temperature variation.

  8. Modeling thermal stress propagation during hydraulic stimulation of geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Gunnar; Miller, Stephen A.

    2017-04-01

    A large fraction of the world's water and energy resources are located in naturally fractured reservoirs within the earth's crust. Depending on the lithology and tectonic history of a formation, fracture networks can range from dense and homogeneous highly fractured networks to single large scale fractures dominating the flow behavior. Understanding the dynamics of such reservoirs in terms of flow and transport is crucial to successful application of engineered geothermal systems (also known as enhanced geothermal systems or EGS) for geothermal energy production in the future. Fractured reservoirs are considered to consist of two distinct separate media, namely the fracture and matrix space respectively. Fractures are generally thin, highly conductive containing only small amounts of fluid, whereas the matrix rock provides high fluid storage but typically has much smaller permeability. Simulation of flow and transport through fractured porous media is challenging due to the high permeability contrast between the fractures and the surrounding rock matrix. However, accurate and efficient simulation of flow through a fracture network is crucial in order to understand, optimize and engineer reservoirs. It has been a research topic for several decades and is still under active research. Accurate fluid flow simulations through field-scale fractured reservoirs are still limited by the power of current computer processing units (CPU). We present an efficient implementation of the embedded discrete fracture model, which is a promising new technique in modeling the behavior of enhanced geothermal systems. An efficient coupling strategy is determined for numerical performance of the model. We provide new insight into the coupled modeling of fluid flow, heat transport of engineered geothermal reservoirs with focus on the thermal stress changes during the stimulation process. We further investigate the interplay of thermal and poro-elastic stress changes in the reservoir

  9. Geothermal regimes of the Clearlake region, northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, M. [ed.; Burns, K.L.; Potter, R.M.

    1998-06-01

    The first commercial production of power from geothermal energy, at The Geysers steamfield in northern California in June 1960, was a triumph for the geothermal exploration industry. Before and since, there has been a search for further sources of commercial geothermal power in The Geysers--Clear Lake geothermal area surrounding The Geysers. As with all exploration programs, these were driven by models. The models in this case were of geothermal regimes, that is, the geometric distribution of temperature and permeability at depth, and estimates of the physical conditions in subsurface fluids. Studies in microseismicity and heat flow, did yield geophysical information relevant to active geothermal systems. Studies in stable-element geochemistry found hiatuses or divides at the Stoney Creek Fault and at the Collayomi Fault. In the region between the two faults, early speculation as to the presence of steamfields was disproved from the geochemical data, and the potential existence of hot-water systems was predicted. Studies in isotope geochemistry found the region was characterized by an isotope mixing trend. The combined geochemical data have negative implications for the existence of extensive hydrothermal systems and imply that fluids of deep origin are confined to small, localized systems adjacent to faults that act as conduits. There are also shallow hot-water aquifers. Outside fault-localized systems and hot-water aquifers, the area is an expanse of impermeable rock. The extraction of energy from the impermeable rock will require the development and application of new methods of reservoir creation and heat extraction such as hot dry rock technology.

  10. Mexican geothermal development and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, J.M.E.V.

    1998-01-01

    Geothermics in Mexico started in 1954, by drilling the first geothermal well in Pathe, State of Hidalgo, which reached a depth of 237 meters. In 1959 electrical generation from geothermal origin began, with an installed capacity of 3.5 MW. From 1959 to 1994 Mexico increased its installed capacity to 753 MW, by developing three geothermal fields: Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, and Los Humeros. Currently, 177 wells produce steam at a rate of 36 tons per hour (t/h) each. Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE, Federal Commission of Electricity) has planned to increase the geothermal-electric installed capacity through construction and installation of several projects. Repowering of operating units and development of new geothermal zones will also allow Mexican geothermal growth

  11. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Federal Assistance Program quarterly project progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the third quarter of FY98 (April--June, 1998). It describes 231 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with included requests for general information including material for high school and university students, and material on geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, spacing heating and cooling, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, industrial applications, snow melting and electric power. Research activities include work on model construction specifications for line shaft submersible pumps and plate heat exchangers, and a comprehensive aquaculture developers package. A brochure on Geothermal Energy in Klamath County was developed for state and local tourism use. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 19, No. 2) with articles on research at the Geo-Heat Center, sustainability of geothermal resources, injection well drilling in Boise, ID and a greenhouse project in the Azores. Other outreach activities include dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, tours of local geothermal uses, geothermal library acquisitions and use, participation in workshops, short courses and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  12. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Drilling and Testing Activity (Frio, Wilcox, and Tuscaloosa Formations, Texas and Louisiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a program to evaluate the feasibility of developing the geothermal-geopressured energy resources of the Louisiana-Texas Gulf Coast. As part of this effort, DOE is contracting for the drilling of design wells to define the nature and extent of the geopressure resource. At each of several sites, one deep well (4000-6400 m) will be drilled and flow tested. One or more shallow wells will also be drilled to dispose of geopressured brines. Each site will require about 2 ha (5 acres) of land. Construction and initial flow testing will take approximately one year. If initial flow testing is successful, a continuous one-year duration flow test will take place at a rate of up to 6400 m{sup 3} (40,000 bbl) per day. Extensive tests will be conducted on the physical and chemical composition of the fluids, on their temperature and flow rate, on fluid disposal techniques, and on the reliability and performance of equipment. Each project will require a maximum of three years to complete drilling, testing, and site restoration.

  13. Ninth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Gudmundsson, J.S. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1983-12-15

    The attendance at the Workshop was similar to last year's with 123 registered participants of which 22 represented 8 foreign countries. A record number of technical papers (about 60) were submitted for presentation at the Workshop. The Program Committee, therefore, decided to have several parallel sessions to accommodate most of the papers. This format proved unpopular and will not be repeated. Many of the participants felt that the Workshop lost some of its unique qualities by having parallel sessions. The Workshop has always been held near the middle of December during examination week at Stanford. This timing was reviewed in an open discussion at the Workshop. The Program Committee subsequently decided to move the Workshop to January. The Tenth Workshop will be held on January 22-24, 1985. The theme of the Workshop this year was ''field developments worldwide''. The Program Committee addressed this theme by encouraging participants to submit field development papers, and by inviting several international authorities to give presentations at the Workshop. Field developments in at least twelve countries were reported: China, El Salvador, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, and the United States. There were 58 technical presentations at the Workshop, of which 4 were not made available for publication. Several authors submitted papers not presented at the Workshop. However, these are included in the 60 papers of these Proceedings. The introductory address was given by Ron Toms of the U.S. Department of Energy, and the banquet speaker was A1 Cooper of Chevron Resources Company. An important contribution was made to the Workshop by the chairmen of the technical sessions. Other than Stanford Geothermal Program faculty members, they included: Don White (Field Developments), Bill D'Olier (Hydrothermal Systems), Herman Dykstra (Well Testing), Karsten Pruess (Well Testing), John Counsil

  14. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  15. Bulgarian geothermal energy resources - state and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramatikov, P S [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Dept. of Physical Engineering, South West Univ. ` Neofit Rilsky` , Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria)

    1997-12-01

    As special attention is paid to geothermal energy because the geothermal sources are distributed all over the territory of Bulgaria. Governmental incentives for initiating national action programs for energy efficiency, new renewable sources and the environment as well as educational activities are particularly important. The energy sector, as any other sector of the national economy, is currently undergoing considerable changes on its way to market relations, primarily connected to determining the role of the state as well as the form of ownership. The state energy policy is based on a long - term energy strategy complying with the natural conditions of the country, the expected macro - economic development, the geopolitical situation and regional development of energy cooperation with neighboring and closely situated countries. Limited reserves of fossil fuels, increased local and global environmental risks and recent technological achievements have straightened the global importance of renewable sources of thermal and electric energy. This is even more relevant for Bulgaria with small fossil fuel reserves (lignite) to be nearly exhausted and the environment notably polluted. Concerning local renewable sources of thermal energy and electricity, it is necessary to re-estimate their strategic role, to complete the input data for the resources, also to establish national programs supported by research and educational activities and international cooperation. (orig./AKF)

  16. Hydraulic fracturing in granite under geothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, P.; Lockner, D.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental hydraulic fracturing of granite under geothermal conditions produces tensile fracture at rapid fluid injection rates and shear fracture at slow injection rates and elevated differential stress levels. A sudden burst of acoustic emission activity accompanies tensile fracture formation whereas the acoustic emission rate increases exponentially prior to shear fracture. Temperature does not significantly affect the failure mechanism, and the experimental results have not demonstrated the occurrence of thermal fracturing. A critical result of these experiments is that fluid injection at intermediate rates and elevated differential stress levels increases permeability by more than an order of magnitude without producing macroscopic fractures, and low-level acoustic emission activity occurs simultaneously near the borehole and propagates outward into the specimen with time. Permeability measurements conducted at atmospheric pressure both before and after these experiments show that increased permeability is produced by permanent structural changes in the rock. Although results of this study have not demonstrated the occurrence of thermal fracturing, they suggest that fluid injection at certain rates in situ may markedly increase local permeability. This could prove critical to increasing the efficiency of heat exchange for geothermal energy extraction from hot dry rock. ?? 1980.

  17. New Mexico low-temperature geothermal resources and economic development programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittier, J.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on New Mexico's low-temperature geothermal resources which have been utilized to promote economic development initiatives within the state. Public funds have been leveraged to foster exploration activities which have led to the establishment of several direct-use projects at various sites within New Mexico. State policies have focused on attracting one business sector, the commercial greenhouse industry, to expand and/or relocate in New Mexico. Geothermal-related promotional activities have begun to show success in achieving economic growth. New Mexico now has almost half of the geothermally-heated greenhouse space in the nation. It is anticipated that the greenhouse sector will continue to grow within the state. Future economic development activities, also relying upon the geothermal resource base, will include vegetable dehydration and aquaculture with a focus on the microalgae sector

  18. The low-energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Low-energy geothermal resources are characterized by temperatures ranging from 30 to 100 C. The principal worldwide applications are: towns and greenhouses heating, spa bathing, agriculture products drying, etc.. Sources depth ranges from 1500 to 2500 m in porous and permeable formations (sandstones, sands, conglomerates, limestones..) carrying aquifers. The worldwide installed power was of about 11500 MWth in 1990, with an annual production of about 36000 GWh (about 1% of worldwide energy consumption). The annual production rate is estimated to 10% and would represent a 30000 and 80000 MWth power in 2000 and 2010, respectively. In France, low-energy geothermal resources are encountered principally in Mesozoic sediments of the Parisian and Aquitanian basins. French geothermics has developed during the last 30 years and principally between 1980 and 1985 after the second petroleum crack. After 1985, the decay of fossil fuel costs and the development of corrosion problems in the geothermal wells have led to the abandonment of the less productive fields and to the study of technical solutions to solve the corrosion problems. (J.S.). 1 fig., 5 photos

  19. Experiments Demonstrate Geothermal Heating Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    When engineers design heat-pump-based geothermal heating systems for homes and other buildings, they can use coil loops buried around the perimeter of the structure to gather low-grade heat from the earth. As an alternative approach, they can drill well casings and store the summer's heat deep in the earth, then bring it back in the winter to warm…

  20. Geothermal GW cogeneration system GEOCOGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grob, Gustav R

    2010-09-15

    GEOCOGEN is the GW zero pollution, no risk solution to replace nuclear and fossil fuelled power plants. It can be built near the energy consumption centers, is invisible and produces electricity and heat at a fraction of the cost of any other the energy mix options. It is a break through deep well geothermal energy technology lasting forever driving also millions of electric vehicles.

  1. The GEOTREF program, a new approach for geothermal investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Frédéric; Viard, Simon; Garcia, Michel

    2017-04-01

    The GEOTREF is an R&D program supported by the ADEME, French environmental agency and by the «Investissement d'Avenir », a French government program to found innovative projects. The GEOTREF program aims to develop an integrated analysis of high temperature geothermal reservoir in volcanic context. It is a collaborative program between nine research laboratories and two industrial partners. This program is supported for four years and funds 12 PhDs and 5 post-doctoral grants in various fields: geology, petrography, petrophysics, geophysics, geochemistry, reservoir modelling. The first three years are dedicated to the exploration phases that will lead to the drilling implantation. The project has two main objectives. 1.- Developing innovative and interactive methods and workflows leading to develop prospection and exploration in per volcanic geothermal target. This objective implicates: Optimization of the targeting to mitigate financial risks Adapting oil and gas exploration methods to geothermal energy, especially in peri-volcanic context. 2.- Applying this concept to different prospects in the Caribbean and South America The first target zone is located in Guadeloupe, an island of the active arc of the subduction zone where the Atlantic plate subducts under the Caribbean one. The GEOTREF prospect zone is on the Basse Terre Island in its south part closed to the Soufriere volcano, the active volcanic system. On the same island a geothermal field is exploited in Bouillante, just northward from the GEOTREF targeting area.

  2. Geothermal energy--managing the resource in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    Prerequisites for geothermal potential are meteoric waters, underground fractures or faults. Areas of plate tectonic activity, which make up the earth's crust, are the prime areas of geothermal exploration. Along these edges, it has been found that the weakness of the crust has allowed magmatic intrusions into the crust, and extrusions (volcanos) that have provided the sources of heat at a depth shallow enough to be developed economically. British Columbia sits right above the line where the Pacific and North American plates come together, and as a result is ideally located. Altogether, four volcanic belts lie within the province, including Garibaldi, and extension of the American Cascade belt in which Mount St. Helen's is situated. It is this same belt that the most promising potential for electrical production from geothermally-heated steam has been found in British Columbia, Canada./sub 9/ Meager Creek, about 150 kilometres north of Vancouver, has been the site of considerable geothermal exploration activity over the past ten years. In recent years, crews funded by the provincial utilities corporation, B.C. Hydro, have completed drilling a series of shallow test holes plus three deep wells to depths of more than 3 000 metres. These latter holes have been cased awaiting a decision on possible development for future power generation.

  3. Hydrogeology of the Owego-Apalachin Elementary School Geothermal Fields, Tioga County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John H.; Kappel, William M.

    2015-12-22

    The hydrogeology of the Owego-Apalachin Elementary School geothermal fields, which penetrate saline water and methane in fractured upper Devonian age bedrock in the Owego Creek valley, south-central New York, was characterized through the analysis of drilling and geophysical logs, water-level monitoring data, and specific-depth water samples. Hydrogeologic insights gained during the study proved beneficial for the design of the geothermal drilling program and protection of the overlying aquifer during construction, and may be useful for the development of future geothermal fields and other energy-related activities, such as drilling for oil and natural gas in similar fractured-bedrock settings.

  4. Heat flow, heat transfer and lithosphere rheology in geothermal areas: Features and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, G.; Rybach, L.

    2005-10-01

    Surface heat flow measurements over active geothermal systems indicate strongly positive thermal anomalies. Whereas in "normal" geothermal settings, the surface heat flow is usually below 100-120 mW m - 2 , in active geothermal areas heat flow values as high as several watts per meter squared can be found. Systematic interpretation of heat flow patterns sheds light on heat transfer mechanisms at depth on different lateral, depth and time scales. Borehole temperature profiles in active geothermal areas show various signs of subsurface fluid movement, depending on position in the active system. The heat transfer regime is dominated by heat advection (mainly free convection). The onset of free convection depends on various factors, such as permeability, temperature gradient and fluid properties. The features of heat transfer are different for single or two-phase flow. Characteristic heat flow and heat transfer features in active geothermal systems are demonstrated by examples from Iceland, Italy, New Zealand and the USA. Two main factors affect the rheology of the lithosphere in active geothermal areas: steep temperature gradients and high pore fluid pressures. Combined with lithology and structure, these factors result in a rheological zonation with important consequences both for geodynamic processes and for the exploitation of geothermal energy. As a consequence of anomalously high temperature, the mechanical lithosphere is thin and its total strength can be reduced by almost one order of magnitude with respect to the average strength of continental lithosphere of comparable age and thickness. The top of the brittle/ductile transition is located within the upper crust at depths less than 10 km, acts as the root zone of listric normal faults in extensional environments and, at least in some cases, is visible on seismic reflection lines. These structural and rheological features are well illustrated in the Larderello geothermal field in Tuscany.

  5. Microbial iron cycling in acidic geothermal springs of Yellowstone National Park: Integrating molecular surveys, geochemical processes and isolation of novel Fe-active microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Kozubal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical, molecular, and physiological analyses of microbial isolates were combined to study the geomicrobiology of acidic iron oxide mats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP. Nineteen sampling locations from 11 geothermal springs were studied ranging in temperature from 53 to 84 °C and pH 2.4 to 3.6. All iron-oxide mats exhibited high diversity of crenarchaeal sequences from the Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales, and Desulfurococcales. The predominant Sulfolobales sequences were highly similar to Metallosphaera yellowstonensis str. MK1, previously isolated from one of these sites. Other groups of archaea were consistently associated with different types of iron oxide mats, including undescribed members of the phyla Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Bacterial sequences were dominated by relatives of Hydrogenobaculum spp. above 65-70 °C, but increased in diversity below 60 °C. Cultivation of relevant iron-oxidizing and iron-reducing microbial isolates included Sulfolobus str. MK3, Sulfobacillus str. MK2, Acidicaldus str. MK6, and a new candidate genus in the Sulfolobales referred to as Sulfolobales str. MK5. Strains MK3 and MK5 are capable of oxidizing ferrous iron autotrophically, while strain MK2 oxidizes iron mixotrophically. Similar rates of iron oxidation were observed for M. yellowstonensis str. MK1 and Sulfolobales str. MK5 cultures, and these rates are close to those measured in situ. Biomineralized phases of ferric iron varied among cultures and field sites, and included ferric oxyhydroxides, K-jarosite, goethite, hematite, and scorodite depending on geochemical conditions. Strains MK5 and MK6 are capable of reducing ferric iron under anaerobic conditions with complex carbon sources. The combination of geochemical and molecular data as well as physiological observations of isolates suggests that the community structure of acidic Fe mats is linked with Fe cycling across temperatures ranging from 53 to 88 oC.

  6. Proceedings of NEDO International Geothermal Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-11

    This is a proceedings of the NEDO International Geothermal Symposium held in Sendai in 1997. The worldwide geothermal energy power generation capacity exceeds 7000 MW. Geothermal energy is widely used also for heating, snow melting, greenhouse cultivation as well as electric power generation. Geothermal energy generates far less CO2 causing the global warming than fossil fuels. The geothermal energy is clean and renewable. Considering the environmental issue and energy supply/demand of the world, we have to exert further efforts for the geothermal development. In this conference, discussions were made on each country`s experiences of the geothermal development, and future prediction and strategies for geothermal utilization in the Asia/Pacific region, in particular. Further, in the technical session, conducted were the IEA study and technical presentation/discussion for technical cooperation. The proceedings includes research reports of more than 30, which are clarified into three fields: impacts of the geothermal development on the environment, technical development of the hot dry rock power generation system, and development of technology for collecting deep-seated geothermal resource

  7. A new idea: The possibilities of offshore geothermal system in Indonesia marine volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahat Prabowo, Teguh; Fauziyyah, Fithriyani; Suryantini; Bronto, Sutikno

    2017-12-01

    High temperature geothermal systems in Indonesia are commonly associated with volcanic systems. It is believed that volcanoes are acting as the heat source for a geothermal system. Right now, most of the operating geothermal fields in the world are assosiating with volcanic settings which known as the conventional geothermal system. Volcanoes are created in active tectonic zone such as collision zone and MOR (mid oceanic ridge). The later is the one which formed the marine volcanoes on the sea floor. The advances of today’s technology in geothermal energy has created many ideas regarding a new kind of geothermal system, including the ideas of developing the utilization of marine volcanoes. These marine volcanoes are predicted to be hotter than the land system due to the shorter distance to the magma chamber. Seamounts like NEC, Banua Wuhu, and Kawio Barat in Indonesia Sea are good spots to be studied. Methods such as remote sensing using NOAA images, sonar, and MAPR are commonly used, eventhough these would be more accurate with more detailed techniques. This has become the challenge for all geothermal scientists to overcome for a better study result.

  8. The state of the Canadian geothermal heat pump industry 2010 : industry survey and market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    This report provided an overview of the state of the Canadian geothermal heat pump industry for 2010. In 2003, the Canadian GeoExchange Coalition (CGC) embarked on a market transformation initiative that continues to shape Canada's geothermal heat pump markets. The market for ground source heat pumps has grown by more than 60 percent annually in 2006, 2007, and 2008. The large increases in oil prices has created a price effect strong enough to trigger fuel switching for many consumers. Growth in the industry has also coincided with grant and financial assistance programs deployed by provincial governments, utilities, and the federal government. The ecoENERGY retrofitting program initiated in 2007 encouraged the use of geothermal heat pumps in the residential retrofit market. Tax rebate and load programs, as well as direct grants from provincial governments have increased demand in the new-built market. Canada's geothermal heat pump markets are growing much faster than United States geothermal markets. Closed horizontal loop systems accounted for 49.4 percent of residential installations. The CGC has trained over 2968 installers as well as many designers and inspectors for geothermal heat pumps. Colleges and public institutions are now creating training programs related to geothermal energy use. The total economic activity of the geoexchange industry in 2009 was estimated at in excess of $500 million. 29 tabs., 63 figs.

  9. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area.

  10. Geothermal gradients map of Hokkaido; Hokkaido no chion kobaizu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akita, F.; Matsunami, T.; Wakahama, H. [Hokkaido Geological Survey, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-06-15

    This paper outlines the newly prepared geothermal gradient map (GGM) of Hokkaido which is important for survey on geothermal and hot spring resources. The temperature data of 687 wells were compiled by data collection and field survey. The geothermal gradient was calculated from the ratio of the temperature difference between the bottom (deepest well log) and the ground surface (10degC) to a bottom depth. GGM was prepared using data of 85 wells which show real geothermal temperatures through conductive temperature profiles, or SBHT (static bottom hole temperature) calculation is possible. Geological profiles were classified into three types based on base rocks. The thermal structure of GGM was clearly divided into a high geothermal gradient over 10degC/100m, and a low one within 3degC/100m. The former showed active volcano and high geothermal areas, while the latter showed a volcanic front arc area. This underground temperature structure relates to the formation process of volcanos and the origin of magma, and is also similar to the trend of a crust thermal flow rate. The geothermal gradient increases with a decrease in Curie point depth. 26 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for space and water heating at Marlin, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, M.F.; Green, T.F.; Keeney, R.C.; Ellis, P.F. II; Davis, R.J.; Wallace, R.C.; Blood, F.B.

    1983-05-01

    The Torbett-Hutchings-Smith Memorial Hospital geothermal heating project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE, is documented. The five-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessments; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analyses; public awareness programs; materials testing; and environmental monitoring. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 155/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private-sector economic incentives currently exist, especially for profit-making organizations, to develop and use this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, poultry dressing, natural cheese making, fruit and vegetable dehydrating, soft-drink bottling, synthetic-rubber manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluid's scaling and corrosion tendencies can be avoided through proper analysis and design; (5) a production system which uses a variable-frequency drive system to control production rate is an attractive means of conserving parasitic pumping power, controlling production rate to match heating demand, conserving the geothermal resource, and minimizing environmental impacts.

  12. Longitudinal active living research to address physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour in children in transition from preadolescence to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhajarine, Nazeem; Katapally, Tarun R; Fuller, Daniel; Stanley, Kevin G; Rainham, Daniel

    2015-05-17

    Children can be highly active and highly sedentary on the same day! For instance, a child can spend a couple of hours playing sports, and then spend the rest of the day in front of a screen. A focus on examining both physical activity and sedentary behaviour throughout the day and in all seasons in a year is necessary to generate comprehensive evidence to curb childhood obesity. To achieve this, we need to understand where within a city are children active or sedentary in all seasons. This active living study based in Saskatoon, Canada, aims to understand the role played by modifiable urban built environments in mitigating, or exacerbating, seasonal effects on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour in a population of children in transition from preadolescence to adolescence. Designed as an observational, longitudinal investigation this study will recruit 800 Canadian children 10-14 years of age. Data will be obtained from children representing all socioeconomic categories within all types of neighbourhoods built in a range of urban designs. Built environment characteristics will be measured using previously validated neighbourhood audit and observational tools. Neighbourhood level socioeconomic variables customized to Saskatoon neighbourhoods from 2011 Statistics Canada's National Household Survey will be used to control for neighbourhood social environment. The validated Smart Cities Healthy Kids questionnaire will be administered to capture children's behaviour and perception of a range of factors that influence their activity, household (including family socioeconomic factors), parental, peer and neighbourhood influence on independent mobility. The outcome measures, different intensities of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, will be collected using global positioning system equipped accelerometers in all four seasons. Each accelerometry cycle will be matched with weather data obtained from Environment Canada. Extensive weather data will be

  13. A Layman's Guide to Geothermal Aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kenan C

    1981-01-01

    The following paper is designed as an aid to anyone contemplating a venture into commercially raising giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Oregon Institute of Technology has been actively involved in a research program to determine the feasibility of such a venture and results to date have been very encouraging. This aquaculture research was initiated in 1975 and was developed as an effort to utilize excess energy from the school’s geothermal heating system. Therefore, most of the information gathered here, will apply to flow-through systems which use geothermal water to maintain a suitable environment for the animals. A study of the market potential for freshwater prawns has been conducted and a favorable response received from wholesale distributors in the Pacific Northwest. Not only is a good market available, but distributors have suggested paying from $4.50 to $5.00 per pound for whole prawns in the size category of 16 to 20 tails to the pound, for a constant fresh supply. By maintaining constant temperatures of 27 degrees Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit) ± 1 degree Celsius in our research ponds, we have been able to produce this size prawn in 6 to 8 months.

  14. Bibliography: injection technology applicable to geothermal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnell, A.J.; Eichelberger, R.L.

    1982-03-19

    This bibliography cites 500 documents that may be helpful in planning, analysis, research, and development of the various aspects of injection technology in geothermal applications. These documents include results from government research; development, demonstration, and commercialization programs; selected references from the literature; symposia; references from various technical societies and installations; reference books; reviews; and other selected material. The cited references are from (1) subject searching, using indexing, storage, and retrieval information data base of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center's on-line retrieval system, RECON; (2) searches of references from the RECON data base, of work by authors known to be active in the field of geothermal energy research and development; (3) subject and author searches by the computerized data storage and retrieval system of Chemical Abstracts, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC; and (4) selected references from texts and reviews on this subject. Each citation includes title, author, author affiliation, date of publication, and source. The citations are listed in chronological order (most recent first) in each of the subject categories for which this search was made. The RECON accession number is also given.

  15. Using Facilities And Potential Of Geothermal Resources In The Canakkale Province - NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Acar Deniz, Zahide

    2016-04-01

    Turkey, due to its geological location, has a rich potential in point of geothermal resources. Çanakkale province is located northwestern (NW) part of Turkey and it has important geothermal fields in terms of geothermal energy potential. Geothermal resources reach to the surface both effects of past volcanic activity and extensions of fault zones associated with complex tectonic systems in the region. The aim of this study is to summarize hydrogeochemical characteristics, using facilities and potential of hot springs and spas located in the Çanakkale province. There are 13 geothermal fields in the region and the surface temperatures of hot springs are ranging between 28 centigrade degree and 175 centigrade degree. Hydrogeochemical compositions of thermal water display variable chemical compositions. Na, Ca, SO4, HCO3 and Cl are the dominant ions in these waters. Thermal waters of Tuzla and Kestanbol geothermal fields which is located the near coastal area can be noted NaCl type. Because these two geothermal waters have high TDS values, scaling problems are seen around the hot springs and pipelines. Geothermal waters in the province are meteoric origin according to oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium isotopes data. Long underground residence times of these waters and its temperatures have caused both more water - rock interaction and low tritium values. Geothermal energy is utilized in many areas in Turkey today. It is generally used for space heating, balneotherapy and electricity generation. Explorations of geothermal resources and investments in geothermal energy sector have risen rapidly in the recent years particularly in western Turkey. High-temperature geothermal fields are generally located in this region related to the Aegean Graben System and the North Anotalian Fault Zone. All geothermal power plants in Turkey are located in this region. Considering the Çanakkale province, most geothermal fields are suitable for multipurpose usage but many of them have

  16. Local expansion in circulatory death kidney transplant activity improves wait-listed outcomes and addresses inequities of access to transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Mirshekar-Syahkal, Bahar; Summers, Dominic; Bradbury, Lisa L; Aly, Mohamed; Bardsley, Victoria; Berry, Miriam; Norris, Joseph M; Torpey, Nick; Clatworthy, Menna Ruth; Bradley, J Andrew; Pettigrew, Gavin John

    2016-01-01

    In the UK, circulatory death (DCD) kidney transplant activity has increased rapidly, but marked regional variation persists. We report how increased DCD kidney transplant activity influenced wait-listed outcomes for a single centre. Between 2002/03 and 2011/12, 430 (54%) DCD and 361 (46%) DBD kidney-only transplants were performed in the Cambridge Transplant Centre, with a higher proportion of DCD donors fulfilling expanded criteria status (41% DCD vs 32% DBD; $\\small \\textit{P}$=0.01). Compa...

  17. Use of environmental radioactive isotopes in geothermal prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Lopez M, A.; Huerta, M.; Flores R, J. H.; Pena, P.

    2010-10-01

    Oil resources decrease and environmental impact of burning fossil fuels support the use of alternative energies around the world. By far nuclear energy is the alternative which can supply huge amount of clean energy. Mexico has two nuclear units and has also explored and exploited the use of other complementary renewal energies, as wind and geothermal. Mexico is the third geothermal-energy producer in the world with an installed capacity of 960 MW and is planning the installation of 146 MW for the period 2010-2011, according to information of the Mexican Federal Electricity Board. This paper presents a study case, whose goal is to look for areas where the heat source can be located in geothermal energy fields under prospecting. The method consist in detecting a natural radioactive tracer, which is transported to the earth surface by geo-gases, generated close to the heat source, revealing areas of high permeability properties and open active fractures. Those areas are cross correlated to other resistivity, gravimetric and magnetic geophysical parameters in the geothermal filed to better define the heat source in the field. (Author)

  18. Geothermal investigations with isotope and geochemical techniques in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) for Latin America on the Use of Isotope and Geochemical Techniques in Geothermal Exploration started in 1984. The first activity carried out was a Seminar on isotope and geochemical techniques in geothermal exploration, which took place in June 1984 in Morelia, Mexico. During the seminar, which was attended by representatives of the institutions which later took part in the programme, the objectives, main research lines, and geothermal fields to be studied during the CRP were discussed. The first research contracts were awarded towards the end of 1984. The field work started in 1985 and continued through 1990. During the implementation of the CRP a considerable number of geothermal fields were studied in the nine participating countries. The investigations carried out were geochemically quite comprehensive in most cases, but in some others they were still in a reconnaissance stage when the CRP ended: the latter studies are not reported in these proceedings, but the data obtained are in principle available from the relevant national institutions. While investigations with conventional geochemical techniques had already started in several fields before 1985, isotope methods were applied for the first time in all cases during this CRP. Due to the remoteness and high elevation of many of the fields studied and the adverse meteorological conditions during long periods of the year, the investigations could not proceed rapidly: this is the main reason for the unusually long duration of the CRP, which could be concluded only after more than five years after its inception

  19. Geothermal exploration in the Virunga Prospect, Northern Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolie, E.

    2009-04-01

    German technical cooperation has taken the initiative to support partner countries in geothermal energy use. Therefore the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) is carrying out the technical cooperation programme GEOTHERM. As an example of the ongoing project activities, preliminary results of studies carried out in the Virunga geothermal prospect in Northern Rwanda will be presented. The study area is located along the Western branch of the East African Rift System. Weak geothermal surface manifestations, e.g. hot springs and bubbling pools, indicate an existing hydrothermal system. Previous studies did not determine location, distribution, quality and quantity of the heat source. Consequently the aim of this study is to detect and assess the heat source with a multi method approach. Remote sensing techniques, geochemical analyses and geophysical measurements have been applied to make a first serious attempt. More detailed geophysical investigations and gas measurements are planned to start in spring 2009. Aerial photographs and satellite images were used for a high-resolution structural analysis to determine major fault zones, which are dominating the flow paths of hydrothermal fluids. In the frame of a regional geophysical survey (Magnetotellurics and Transient Electromagnetics) a zone of low resistivity values could be detected SW of the Karisimbi stratovolcano, which is corresponding with the results of the geochemical analyses. Assumptions are made that a magmatic body may exist in a depth of 5 km below surface.

  20. Oxygen isotope studies of the Salton Sea geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Interbedded shales and sandstones were drilled to a depth of 1588 metres in Sinclair Number Four Well, Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Bottom hole temperatures are approximately 290 0 C. The oxygen dels of hydrothermal and detrital calcite have a systematic relationship at any depth in the geothermal reservoir. Typical values are: vein calcite, +6 0 / 00 ; calcite in white sandstone, +10 0 / 00 ; calcite in dark gray shale, +11 0 / 00 ; calcite in light gray shale, +17 0 / 00 ; calcite in red-brown shale, +20 0 / 00 . This succession represents decreasing water-rock interaction that is also indicated by the clay mineralogy of the shales. Permeability has a marked effect on the equilibration of water and rocks at any given temperature. Original differences in permeability have resulted in partial preservation of original detrital sedimentary compositions. The fluids in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field are probabaly partially evaporated Colorado River water, and their oxygen del values vary as much as 4 0 / 00 throughout the field. Truesdell's (1974) data suggest that dissolved salts may make the water oxygen activity del as much as 6 0 / 00 greater than the concentration del in the geothermal reservoir. Such an uncertainty is a serious impediment to precise isotope geothermometry in this system.(auth.)

  1. In the Loop : A look at Manitoba's geothermal heat pump industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    This booklet outlines the position of Manitoba's heat pump market with the objective of promoting the widespread use of geothermal heat pumps in the province. It makes reference to the size of the market, customer satisfaction with heat pumps, and opinion of key players in the industry regarding the heat pump market. The information in this booklet is drawn on market research and lessons learned in Europe and the United States. In October 2001, a group of key stakeholders in Manitoba's heat pump market attended an industry working meeting to address the issues of market barriers, market enablers and market hot buttons. Market barriers include the high cost of geothermal heat pumps, lack of consumer awareness, lack of consistent standards, and public perception that heat pumps are not reliable. Market enablers include the low and stable operating costs of geothermal heat pumps, high level of comfort, high quality and reliability of geothermal heat pumps, and financial incentives under Manitoba Hydro's Power Smart Commercial Construction Program. Market hot buttons include lowering the cost of geothermal heat pumps, improving industry performance, increasing consumer awareness, and forming a Manitoba Geothermal Trade Association. Approximately 2,500 heat pump systems have been installed in Manitoba. In 2001, heat pump sales in Manitoba grew 40 per cent. 1 tab., 6 figs

  2. Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System, Phase 1 and Phase 2. Volume 3: Systems description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, H. B.

    The major fraction of hydrothermal resources with the prospect of economic usefulness for the generation of electricity are in the 300(0)F to 425(0)F temperature range. Cost effective conversion of the geothermal energy to electricity requires new ideas to improve conversion efficiency, enhance brine flow, reduce plant costs, increase plant availability, and shorten the time between investment and return. The problems addressed are those inherent in the geothermal environment, in the binary fluid cycle, in the difficulty of efficiently converting the energy of a low temperature resource, and in geothermal economics some of these problems are explained. The energy expended by the down hole pump; the difficulty in designing reliable down hole equipment; fouling of heat exchanger surfaces by geothermal fluids; the unavailability of condenser cooling water at most geothermal sites; the large portion of the available energy used by the feed pump in a binary system; the pinch effect, a loss in available energy in transferring heat from water to an organic fluid; flow losses in fluids that carry only a small amount of useful energy to begin with; high heat exchanger costs, the lower the temperature interval of the cycle, the higher the heat exchanger costs in $/kW; the complexity and cost of the many auxiliary elements of proposed geothermal plants; and the unfortunate cash flow vs. investment curve caused by the many years of investment required to bring a field into production before any income is realized.

  3. Seismicity and source spectra analysis in Salton Sea Geothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Chen, X.

    2016-12-01

    The surge of "man-made" earthquakes in recent years has led to considerable concerns about the associated hazards. Improved monitoring of small earthquakes would significantly help understand such phenomena and the underlying physical mechanisms. In the Salton Sea Geothermal field in southern California, open access of a local borehole network provides a unique opportunity to better understand the seismicity characteristics, the related earthquake hazards, and the relationship with the geothermal system, tectonic faulting and other physical conditions. We obtain high-resolution earthquake locations in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, analyze characteristics of spatiotemporal isolated earthquake clusters, magnitude-frequency distributions and spatial variation of stress drops. The analysis reveals spatial coherent distributions of different types of clustering, b-value distributions, and stress drop distribution. The mixture type clusters (short-duration rapid bursts with high aftershock productivity) are predominately located within active geothermal field that correlate with high b-value, low stress drop microearthquake clouds, while regular aftershock sequences and swarms are distributed throughout the study area. The differences between earthquakes inside and outside of geothermal operation field suggest a possible way to distinguish directly induced seismicity due to energy operation versus typical seismic slip driven sequences. The spatial coherent b-value distribution enables in-situ estimation of probabilities for M≥3 earthquakes, and shows that the high large-magnitude-event (LME) probability zones with high stress drop are likely associated with tectonic faulting. The high stress drop in shallow (1-3 km) depth indicates the existence of active faults, while low stress drops near injection wells likely corresponds to the seismic response to fluid injection. I interpret the spatial variation of seismicity and source characteristics as the result of fluid

  4. Geothermal energy in Denmark. The Committee for Geothermal Energy of the Danish Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Danish Energy Agency has prepared a report on the Danish geothermal resources and their contribution to the national energy potential.Environmental and socio-economic consequences of geothermal power systems implementation are reviewed. Organizational models and financing of geothermal-seismic research are discussed, and the Committee of the Energy Agency for Geothermal Energy recommends financing of a pilot plant as well as a prompt elucidation of concession/licensing problems. (EG)

  5. 20 CFR 641.335 - How should the Governor address the coordination of SCSEP services with activities funded under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM The State Senior Employment Services Coordination Plan § 641.335 How... Agencies on Aging in the State and the State and Local Boards established under title I of WIA. (OAA sec... State Plan must describe the steps being taken to ensure that the SCSEP is an active partner in each One...

  6. The Activities and Impact of State Programs to Address Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer, 2011–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina F. Trivers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC, at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, released a three-year funding opportunity announcement (FOA for a competitive, non-research cooperative agreement. The agreement enhanced the capacities of state health departments to promote the application of best practices for evidence-based breast cancer genomics through education, surveillance, and policy activities. The FOA required that applicants focus on activities related to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC. The DCPC funded three states: Georgia, Michigan, and Oregon. Georgia was a first-time recipient of cancer genomics funding, whereas Michigan and Oregon had long standing activities in cancer genomics and had received CDC funding in the past. By the end of the funding period, each state had well-functioning and impactful state-based programs in breast cancer genomics. This article highlights the impact of a few key state activities by using CDC’s Science Impact Framework. There were challenges to implementing public health genomics programs, including the need to develop relevant partnerships, the highly technical nature of the subject matter, a lack of genetic services in certain areas, and the difficulty in funding genetic services. Georgia, Michigan, and Oregon have served as models for others interested in initiating or expanding cancer genomics programs, and they helped to determine what works well for promoting and integrating public health genomics into existing systems.

  7. Geothermal Potential Analysis Using Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 (Case Study: Mount Ijen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukojo, B. M.; Mardiana, R.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal energy is also a heat energy contained in the earth’s internal. Indonesia has a total geothermal potential of around 27 GWe. The government is eager for the development of geothermal in Indonesia can run well so that geothermal can act as one of the pillars of national energy. However, the geothermal potential has not been fully utilized. One of the geothermal potention is Mount Ijen. Mount Ijen is a strato volcano that has a crater lake with a depth of about 190 m and has a very high degree of acidity and the volume of lake water is very large. With the abundance of potential geothermal potential in Indonesia, it is necessary to have an activity in the form of integrated geoscience studies to be able to maximize the potential content that exists in a geothermal area. One of the studies conducted is to do potential mapping. This research performs image data processing of Landsat 8, Sentinel 2, RBI Map, and preliminary survey data. This research carried out the Vegetation Index, surface temperature and altitude. The equipment used in this research includes image processing software, number processing software, GPS Handheld and Laptop. Surface Temperatures in the Mount Ijen have anomalies with large temperatures ranging between 18° C to 38° C. The best correlation value of altitude and ground surface temperature is -0.89 ie the correlation of January surface temperature. While the correlation value of Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 vegetation index was 0.81. The land cover confidence matrix scored 80%. Land cover in the research area is dominated by forests by 35% of the research area. There is a potential area of geothermal potential is very high on Mount Ijen with an area of 39.43 hectares located in Wongsorejo District and adjacent to District Sempol.

  8. Direct utilization of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010) which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005). This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MW th , almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr), about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology), 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating), 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes) of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO 2 being released to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity). (author)

  9. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  10. Non-electrical uses of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber E.; Fanelli, M.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive review covers the recognition of natural hot fluids in ancient times and their use for therapeutic baths; the first production of electricity from geothermal steam at Larderello, Italy, in 1904; the widespread geographical occurrence of geothermal fluids; exploration techniques; the extraction of geothermal fluids and their uses in spas, agriculture, aquaculture, domestic heating, and industrial applications; geothermal greenhouse heating world-wide; geothermal heating of animal and poultry houses, in culture of alligators and crocodiles (in Atagawa, Japan), and in fish culture; piping arrangements for district heating, and a tabulation of district heating installations world-wide; downhole exchanger systems used in Klamath Falls, Oregon, for domestic heating; industrial heating applications; and methods of disposal of geothermal fluids. Maps, diagrams, graphs, photographs, tables, and 48 references are included.

  11. Geothermal development and policy in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datuin, R.; Roxas, F.

    1990-01-01

    The Philippines is the second largest geothermal energy producer in the world although its geothermal energy potential has barely been utilized. Out of an estimated total reserves of 8,000 MW, only about 11 percent or 894 MW are currently on stream for power generation. The electricity production from geothermal steam registered a growth of 8.9 percent from 1988 to 1989, one of the highest among local energy sources. During that same period, geothermal energy rated the highest capacity utilization of 67 percent compared to the average system capacity utilization of 43 percent. This paper describes both the use of geothermal energy and government policies concerning geothermal energy in the Philippines

  12. Trends in scientific activity addressing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a bibliometric study covering the period 1973–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iribarren-Maestro Isabel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in scientific research on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies by applying bibliometric tools to the scientific literature published between 1973 and 2002. Methods The data for the study were obtained from Medline database, in order to determine the volume of scientific output in the above period, the countries involved, the type of document and the trends in the subject matters addressed. The period 1973–2002 was divided in three sub-periods. Results We observed a significant growth in scientific production. The percentage of increase is 871.7 from 1973 to 2002. This is more evident since 1991 and particularly in the 1996–2001 period. The countries found to have the highest output were the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France and Germany. The evolution in the subject matters was almost constant in the three sub-periods in which the study was divided. In the first and second sub-periods, the subject matters of greatest interest were more general, i.e Nervous system or Nervous system diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Scrapie, and Chemicals and Drugs, but in the last sub-period, some changes were observed because the Prion-related matters had the greatest presence. Collaboration among authors is small from 1973 to 1992, but increases notably in the third sub-period, and also the number of authors and clusters formed. Some of the authors, like Gajdusek or Prusiner, appear in the whole period. Conclusion The study reveals a very high increase in scientific production. It is related also with the beginnings of research on bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, with the establishment of progressive collaboration relationships and a reflection of public health concerns about this problem.

  13. Geothermal energy for Hawaii: a prospectus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, W.W.S.; Iacofano, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of geothermal development is provided for contributors and participants in the process: developers, the financial community, consultants, government officials, and the people of Hawaii. Geothermal energy is described along with the issues, programs, and initiatives examined to date. Hawaii's future options are explored. Included in appendices are: a technical glossary, legislation and regulations, a geothermal directory, and an annotated bibliography. (MHR)

  14. Geothermal energy in Italy and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo di Calvisi, C.

    2001-01-01

    Geothermal systems and fields are analysed giving particular evidence to the value of the geothermal source as an important natural source of energy. The paper analyses hydrothermal systems and describes the international experimental studies on the use of geothermal reservoirs in hot rocks with geopressured and magmatic systems. Experts are optimistic as far as the use of this innovative source of energy is possible in the medium-short term [it

  15. Where is Argentina going in geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mange, J

    1977-01-01

    A brief review is given of geothermal exploration and development in Argentina. Methodical efforts to inventory the geothermal resources of the country were begun in 1974. The Commission set itself the task of locating the geothermal anomalies and then selecting particular anomalies for intensive exploration in order to confirm or discard the possibilities of exploiting the resource. The known principal anomalies are listed and the two selected for intensive exploration are indicated. (JSR)

  16. Study deep geothermal energy; Studie dypgeotermisk energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havellen, Vidar; Eri, Lars Sigurd; Andersen, Andreas; Tuttle, Kevin J.; Ruden, Dorottya Bartucz; Ruden, Fridtjof; Rigler, Balazs; Pascal, Christophe; Larsen, Bjoern Tore

    2012-07-01

    The study aims to analyze the potential energy with current technology, challenges, issues and opportunities for deep geothermal energy using quantitative analysis. It should especially be made to identify and investigate critical connections between geothermal potential, the size of the heating requirements and technical solutions. Examples of critical relationships may be acceptable cost of technology in relation to heating, local geothermal gradient / drilling depth / temperature levels and profitability. (eb)

  17. 1978 annual report, INEL geothermal environmental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Sullivan, J.F.; Stanley, N.E.

    1979-04-01

    The objective of the Raft River Geothermal Environmental Program, in its fifth year, is to characterize the beneficial and detrimental impacts resulting from the development of moderate-temperature geothermal resources in the valley. This report summarizes the monitoring and research efforts conducted as part of this program in 1978. The results of these monitoring programs will be used to determine the mitigation efforts required to reduce long-term impacts resulting from geothermal development.

  18. An Economic Evaluation of Binary Cycle Geothermal Electricity Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzgerald, Crissie

    2003-01-01

    .... Variables such as well flow rate, geothermal gradient and electricity prices were varied to study their influence on the economic payback period for binary cycle geothermal electricity production...

  19. Geothermal energy technology: issues, R and D needs, and cooperative arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, the National Research Council, through its Energy Engineering Board, formed the Committee on Geothermal Energy Technology. The committee's study addressed major issues in geothermal energy technology, made recommendations for research and development, and considered cooperative arrangements among government, industry, and universities to facilitate RandD under current severe budget constraints. The report addresses four types of geothermal energy: hydrothermal, geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma systems. Hydrothermal systems are the only type that are now economically competitive commercially. Further technology development by the Department of Energy could make the uneconomical hydrothermal resources commercially attractive to the industry. The economics are more uncertain for the longer-term technologies for extracting energy from geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma systems. For some sites, the cost of energy derived from geopressured and hot dry rock systems is projected within a commercially competitive range. The use of magma energy is too far in the future to make reasonable economic calculations.

  20. Geothermal well log interpretation midterm report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1979-02-01

    Reservoir types are defined according to fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, and salinity and fluid chemistry. Improvements are needed in lithology and porosity definition, fracture detection, and thermal evaluation for more accurate interpretation. Further efforts are directed toward improving diagnostic techniques for relating rock characteristics and log response, developing petrophysical models for geothermal systems, and developing thermal evaluation techniques. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated only on hydrothermal geothermal reservoirs. Other geothermal reservoirs (hot dry rock, geopressured, etc.) are not considered.

  1. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    Washington's geothermal potential is discussed. The following topics are covered: exploration, drilling, utilization, legal and institutional setting, and economic factors of direct use projects. (MHR)

  2. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  3. Geothermal energy, what technologies for what purposes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This book, fully illustrated and rich of concrete examples, takes stock of the different technologies implemented today to use the Earth's heat: geothermal heat pumps for domestic, tertiary and collective residential uses, geothermal district heating networks and geothermal power plants for power generation. This overview is completed by a description of the future perspectives offered by this renewable energy source in the World and in France in terms of energy independence and technological innovation: geo-cooling, hybrid systems, absorption heat pumps or stimulated geothermal systems. (J.S.)

  4. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  5. Status of geothermal development in Hawaii - 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, G.O.

    1992-01-01

    Hawaii plans that geothermal will be a significant part of its energy mix to reduce its 90% dependency on imported oil for its electricity. The resource on the Big Island of Hawaii appears promising. However, the geothermal program in Hawaii continues to face stiff opposition from a few people who are determined to stop development at any cost. The efforts of geothermal developers, together with the State and County regulatory framework have inadvertently created situations that have impeded progress. However, after a 20-year effort the first increment of commercial geothermal energy is expected on line in 1992

  6. Geothermal Progress Monitor. Report No. 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Two themes dominate this issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor, the 15th since its inception in 1980. The first of these is the significance of the government/industry partnership role in geothermal development. This joint effort is reflected in the continued, measured growth in the use of geothermal energy, for both power generation and direct use applications, in this country and abroad, as well as in the development of new, innovative technologies to ensure a bright future for the resource. The second theme is the growing popularity of geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) among utilities, their customers, and federal agencies, all with disparate interests in the technology.

  7. Models of Geothermal Brine Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Moller Weare; John H. Weare

    2002-03-29

    Many significant expenses encountered by the geothermal energy industry are related to chemical effects. When the composition, temperature of pressure of the fluids in the geological formation are changed, during reservoir evolution, well production, energy extraction or injection processes, the fluids that were originally at equilibrium with the formation minerals come to a new equilibrium composition, temperature and pressure. As a result, solid material can be precipitated, dissolved gases released and/or heat lost. Most geothermal energy operations experience these phenomena. For some resources, they create only minor problems. For others, they can have serious results, such as major scaling or corrosion of wells and plant equipment, reservoir permeability losses and toxic gas emission, that can significantly increase the costs of energy production and sometimes lead to site abandonment. In future operations that exploit deep heat sources and low permeability reservoirs, new chemical problems involving very high T, P rock/water interactions and unknown injection effects will arise.

  8. Geothermal Heat Pump Benchmarking Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-01-17

    A benchmarking study was conducted on behalf of the Department of Energy to determine the critical factors in successful utility geothermal heat pump programs. A Successful program is one that has achieved significant market penetration. Successfully marketing geothermal heat pumps has presented some major challenges to the utility industry. However, select utilities have developed programs that generate significant GHP sales. This benchmarking study concludes that there are three factors critical to the success of utility GHP marking programs: (1) Top management marketing commitment; (2) An understanding of the fundamentals of marketing and business development; and (3) An aggressive competitive posture. To generate significant GHP sales, competitive market forces must by used. However, because utilities have functioned only in a regulated arena, these companies and their leaders are unschooled in competitive business practices. Therefore, a lack of experience coupled with an intrinsically non-competitive culture yields an industry environment that impedes the generation of significant GHP sales in many, but not all, utilities.

  9. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  10. Effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory was initiated in 1988 to determine the effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA), Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. The study addressed three principal issues: (1) the sources of thermal water in the hot springs at Mammoth, La Duke, and Bear Creek; (2) the degree of subsurface connection between these areas; and (3) the effects of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA on the Park's thermal features. The authors investigations included, but were not limited to, geologic mapping, electrical geophysical surveys, chemical sampling and analyses of waters and rocks, determinations of the rates of discharge of various thermal springs, and hydrologic tracer tests

  11. Numerical modeling of regional stress distributions for geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Theophile; Peter-Borie, Mariane; Gentier, Sylvie; Blaisonneau, Arnold

    2017-04-01

    Any high-enthalpy unconventional geothermal projectcan be jeopardized by the uncertainty on the presence of the geothermal resource at depth. Indeed, for the majority of such projects the geothermal resource is deeply seated and, with the drilling costs increasing accordingly, must be located as precisely as possible to increase the chance of their economic viability. In order to reduce the "geological risk", i.e., the chance to poorly locate the geothermal resource, a maximum amount of information must be gathered prior to any drilling of exploration and/or operational well. Cross-interpretation from multiple disciplines (e.g., geophysics, hydrology, geomechanics …) should improve locating the geothermal resource and so the position of exploration wells ; this is the objective of the European project IMAGE (grant agreement No. 608553), under which the work presented here was carried out. As far as geomechanics is concerned, in situ stresses can have a great impact on the presence of a geothermal resource since they condition both the regime within the rock mass, and the state of the major fault zones (and hence, the possible flow paths). In this work, we propose a geomechanical model to assess the stress distribution at the regional scale (characteristic length of 100 kilometers). Since they have a substantial impact on the stress distributions and on the possible creation of regional flow paths, the major fault zones are explicitly taken into account. The Distinct Element Method is used, where the medium is modeled as fully deformable blocks representing the rock mass interacting through mechanically active joints depicting the fault zones. The first step of the study is to build the model geometry based on geological and geophysical evidences. Geophysical and structural geology results help positioning the major fault zones in the first place. Then, outcrop observations, structural models and site-specific geological knowledge give information on the fault

  12. Annotated geothermal bibliography of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budding, K.E.; Bugden, M.H. (comps.)

    1986-01-01

    The bibliography includes all the Utah geothermal references through 1984. Some 1985 citations are listed. Geological, geophysical, and tectonic maps and reports are included if they cover a high-temperature thermal area. The references are indexed geographically either under (1) United States (national studies), (2) regional - western United States or physiographic province, (3) Utah - statewide and regional, or (4) county. Reports concerning a particular hot spring or thermal area are listed under both the thermal area and the county names.

  13. Aqueous systems and geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Significant unpublished results reported include: osmotic coefficients of KCl solutions vs. molality at 109 to 201 0 C; cadmium ion diffusivities in CaCl 2 hydrous melts; a x-ray diffraction study of the uranyl complex in water; solubility of amorphous silica in aqueous NaNO 3 solutions at 100 to 300 0 C; and corrosion of carbon steel by geothermal brine

  14. Igneous-related geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R L; Shaw, H R

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary survey of the geothermal resource base associated with igneous-derived thermal anomalies in the upper 10 km of the crust is presented. The approach to numerical estimates of igneous-related heat contents rests on estimates of the probable volumes of high-level magma chambers and determinations of the radiometric ages of the youngest volcanism from those chambers combined with simple thermal calculations based on these values. (MHR)

  15. What is geothermal steam worth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhallsson, S.; Ragnarsson, A.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal steam is obtained from high-temperature boreholes, either directly from the reservoir or by flashing. The value of geothermal steam is similar to that of steam produced in boilers and lies in its ability to do work in heat engines such as turbines and to supply heat for a wide range of uses. In isolated cases the steam can be used as a source of chemicals, for example the production of carbon dioxide. Once the saturated steam has been separated from the water, it can be transported without further treatment to the end user. There are several constraints on its use set by the temperature of the reservoir and the chemical composition of the reservoir fluid. These constraints are described (temperature of steam, scaling in water phase, gas content of steam, well output) as are the methods that have been adopted to utilize this source of energy successfully. Steam can only be transported over relatively short distances (a few km) and thus has to be used close to the source. Examples are given of the pressure drop and sizing of steam mains for pipelines. The path of the steam from the reservoir to the end user is traced and typical cost figures given for each part of the system. The production cost of geothermal steam is estimated and its sensitivity to site-specific conditions discussed. Optimum energy recovery and efficiency is important as is optimizing costs. The paper will treat the steam supply system as a whole, from the reservoir to the end user, and give examples of how the site-specific conditions and system design have an influence on what geothermal steam is worth from the technical and economic points of view

  16. Federal reservation of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Union Oil had developed or was seeking to develop wells on the land in Sonoma County, California in order to produce geothermal steam for generating electricity. The US Attorney General brought a quiet title action pursuant to 21(b) of the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 to determine whether geothermal resources are included in the mineral reservation under the Homestead Act. The US District Court granted Union Oil's motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. On appeal, the Ninth Circuit reversed and remanded. In summary, the court concluded on the basis of the legislative history of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act that sources of energy are intended to remain in the government's possession, and the purposes of the Act will be best served by including geothermal resources in the reservation of mineral interests. Noting the strictly agricultural purpose of the Act, the subsurface estate reservation was broadly interpreted, even though title passed to all rights that were not expressly reserved. The court left open on remand the question of estoppel of the government from interfering with private lessees by developing subsurface resources compensation.This is a unique and intriguing decision, as it opens wide the definition of ''mineral interest,'' construing it in the timely terms of a valuable natural resource that may be in great demand for future energy needs. The decision is being appealed to the United States Supreme Court, and it will be interesting to observe whether this liberal interpretation of mineral interests will be upheld.

  17. Geothermal energy in Switzerland - outline lecture; Uebersichtsvortrag Geothermie Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, M [Bundesamt fuer Energiewirtschaft, Bern (Switzerland); Gorhan, H L [Elektrowatt Engineering AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    CO{sub 2}- emission in Switzerland need to be reduced over the next 50 years. In 1990, a first step towards improvement was taken by the Swiss Feseral Office of Energy by establishing the ``Energy 2000`` action plan. Apart from practical recommendations for general energy saving measures, this programme provides also clear objectives in respect to increased and more effecient utilization of indigenious and renewable energy resources. Geothermal energy is one of these resources. In addition to the amount of geothermal heat delivered in 1990, it is planned to produce a further 170 GWh of geothermal energy by the year 2000. This correesponnds to about 6% of a total of 3000 GWh which, it is envisaged, will be produced by all alternative heat resources together by the year 2000. Today, most geothermal energy is provided by shallow borehole heat exchangers. However, intensive development of wide ranging and innovative geothermal techniques is taking place at present. These R and D activities, as well as projects at present being realised, receive significant support from the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den kommenden 50 Jahren soll und muss CO{sub 2}-Emission in der Sweiz betraechtlich reduziert werden. Einen ersten Schritt dazu bildet das. im Jahre 1990 vom bundesamtes fuer Energiewirtschaft erarbeitete, Programm ``Energie 2000``. Nebst konkreten Vorschlaegen zum allgemeinen Energiesparen wurden in diesem programm auch Zielsetzungen fuer eine vermehrte, innovative und efficiente Nutzung von einheimischen und erneuerbaren Energieressourcen formuliert. Dazu zaelt auch die Geometrie. Zusaetzlich zur bereits im Jahre 1990 produzierten Waerme soll die Geometrie im Jahr 2000 ca. 170 GWh an Waermeenergie lifern. Das entspricht ca.6% der fuer das Jahr 2000 geplanten Gesamtalternativ- Energieproduktion von 3000 GWh. Bei der geothermischen Energieproduktion satmmt bis heute der groesste Anteil von untiefen Erdwaermesonden. Die Anwendung neuer und

  18. Microbiological monitoring in geothermal plants and a cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, Mashal; Lerm, Stephanie; Vieth, Andrea; Vetter, Alexandra; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    geothermal systems. Furthermore, an observed reduction of the filter operation times in a cold storage could be traced back to an enhanced growth of a filamentous iron-oxidizing bacterium related to Thiotrix. The further identificaton of crucial process parameters that are influencing microbial activities will help developing appropriate counter measures against microbial induced clogging and corrosion.

  19. Fiscal 1999 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on resource assessment for Shiramizugoe area; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Shiramizugoe chiiki shigen hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Under an assumed plan of building a geothermal power station in the Shiramizugoe area of Makizono-cho, Aira-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture, investigations will be conducted under a 4-year program into the amount of geothermal resources, the dimensions and cost performance of a geothermal power station under consideration, and the environmental impact that the locating of such will incur, through for example identifying areas containing geothermal reservoirs suitable for geothermal power generation. In fiscal 1999, activities were conducted in the three fields of (1) survey plan preparation, (2) comprehensive analysis, and (3) environmental assessment. Under item (1), a survey and coordination implementation plan was prepared, existing data were analyzed for the construction of geothermal models out of which a suitable geothermal structure was specified for digging, and a list was drafted of locations for borehole digging for fiscal 2000. Under item (2), it was found that most of the past surveys covered the Ogiri area and that the Shiramizugoe area was but poorly covered. Discussion was made on the geological structure, geothermal structure, geothermal water hydraulic structure, and the geothermal water system. Under item (3), the plan was summarily explained to the local administration, associations of hot spring hotels, and inhabitants in the vicinity, and their consent was obtained. (NEDO)

  20. The geopressured-geothermal resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wys, J.N.; Dorfman, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the Geopressured-Geothermal resource has an estimated 5,700 recoverable quad of gas and 11,000 recoverable quad of thermal energy in the onshore Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts area alone. After 15 years the program is now beginning a transition to commercialization. The program presently has three geopressured-geothermal wells in Texas and Louisiana. The Pleasant Bayou Well has a 1 MWe hybrid power system converting some gas and the thermal energy to electricity. The Gladys McCall Well produced over 23 MM bbls brine with 23 scf per bbl over 4 1/2 years. It is now shut-in building up pressure. The deep Hulin Well has been cleaned out and short term flow tested. It is on standby awaiting funds for long-term flow testing. In January 1990 an Industrial Consortium for the Utilization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource was convened at Rice University, Houston, TX. Sixty-five participants heard industry cost-shared proposals for using the hot geopressured brine. Proposals ranged from thermal enhanced oil recovery to aquaculture, conversion, and environmental clean up processes. By the September meeting at UTA-Balcones Research Center, industry approved charters will have been received, an Advisory Board will be appointed, and election of officers from industry will he held