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Sample records for geotermico cerro prieto

  1. Update of the conceptual geological model for the geothermal reservoir in Cerro Prieto, BC; Actualizacion del modelo geologico conceptual del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

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    Lira Herrera, Hector [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, B.C., (Mexico)

    2005-06-01

    An updated, conceptual geologic model is presented for the geothermal reservoir in Cerro Prieto geothermal field. The tectonic extension that formed the Basin and Range Province of the Western United States and Northwestern Mexico during Upper Tertiary in the Cerro Prieto area resulted in the formation of a half graben tectonic basin between the Cerro Prieto and Imperial faults. Called the Cerro Prieto basin, it includes listric faults, predominately northwest-southwest trending, stepped generally to the northeast. The zone of cortical weakness, formed during the Tertiary, allowed an intrusion of basic rock associated with the magnetic anomaly know as Nuevo Leon. The intrusive rock has been fed by new magmatic intrusions originated by the present tectonic extension of the Gulf of California. The oldest rocks identified in the area are gneiss and biotite-schists of Permian-Jurassic age and tonalities of Jurassic-Cretaceous age in contact with Cretaceous granites, all representing the regional basement. The lithologic column in the subsurface of the Cerro Prieto basin in formed by a basement of Cretaceous granites; an argillaceous package resting on the basement composed of gray shales with interleaves of sandstone, Tertiary brown-shales and mudstone, with an average thickness of 2700 m; clastic sediments of the Quaternary age deposited mainly by the Colorado River and alluvial fans of the Cucapa Range, comprised of gravel, sands and clays with an average thickness of 2500 m, covering the shales. The fluids feeding the geothermal reservoir heat as they pass though the zone where the basic intrusive is located (the heat source) and migrate through the listric faults toward the permeable layers of sandstone located within the gray shales. [Spanish] Se presenta el modelo geologico conceptual actualizado del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto. La tectonica extensional que origino la Provincia de Cuencas y Cordilleras (Basin and Range) del oeste de Estados Unidos y

  2. Areas to explore surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Areas para exploracion en los alrededores del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

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    Aguilar Dumas, Alvaro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: alvaro.aguilar@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Exploration plays an important role in tapping underground natural resources-whether water, oil, natural gas or minerals. Exploratory data allow us to learn reservoir conditions, increasing probable reserves and reservoir life span. Around the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, and in the Mexicali Valley in general, exploration had almost stopped but recently was resumed by the Studies Division of Comision Federal de ELectricidad (CFE)'s Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos. The division sent technical personnel to structurally map the northern and eastern portions of Laguna Salada. The paper offers a general outline of the main zones undergoing exploratory studies-studies perhaps culminating in siting exploratory wells to locate more geothermal resources (and ultimately producing them using binary power plants). CFE also wants to site injection wells west of the current production zone, and this is covered, as well. All activities are meant to increase the productive lifespan of the geothermal reservoir. [Spanish] Cuando se trata de la explotacion de recursos naturales del subsuelo, sea agua, gas, petroleo o minerales, la exploracion juega un papel muy importante, ya que permite conocer las condiciones del yacimiento que pudieran llevar a incrementar las reservas de los recursos explotados y extender su vida util. En las zonas aledanas al campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, y en general en el Valle de Mexicali, la exploracion estaba practicamente detenida habiendose reactivado a raiz de que la Subgerencia de Estudios de la Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) envio personal para realizar mapeos estructurales en las porciones norte y oriente de la Laguna Salada. Este trabajo presenta un panorama general de las areas prioritarias para realizar estudios exploratorios y poder programar, con mas bases, pozos exploratorios enfocados a localizar mas recursos geotermicos, inclusive para generar energia por medio

  3. Cost model for geothermal wells applied to the Cerro Prieto geothermal field case, BC Abstract; Modelo de costeo de pozos geotermicos aplicado para el caso del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

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    Vaca Serrano, Jaime M.E [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: jaime.vaca@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-01-15

    A project for drilling geothermal wells to produce electrical energy can be defined as a sequence of plans to get steam or geothermal fluids to satisfy a previously known demand, and, under the best possible conditions, to obtain payment. This paper presents a cost model for nine wells drilled at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in 2005 and 2006 to supply steam to the power plants operating in the field. The cost model is based on the well cost, the initial steam production, the annual decline of steam, the drilling schedule and the break-even point for each well. The model shows the cost of steam by the ton and the sale price needed to determine the discount rate and the investment return time. [Spanish] Un proyecto de perforacion de pozos geotermicos puede definirse como una secuencia o sucesion de planes para obtener vapor o fluidos geotermicos destinados a satisfacer una demanda previamente determinada, que se emplearan principalmente para generar energia electrica, bajo las mejores condiciones para obtener un pago. Este trabajo presenta un modelo de costeo para nueve pozos en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, que fueron perforados entre 2005 y 2006 como parte del suministro de vapor para las plantas generadoras que operan en este campo. El modelo de costeo se basa en el costo por pozo, la produccion inicial de vapor, la declinacion anual de vapor, los intereses de las obras de perforacion y el punto de equilibrio para cada pozo. Los resultados permiten conocer el costo de la tonelada de vapor y el precio de venta para determinar la tasa de descuento y el tiempo de retorno de la inversion.

  4. Minimal thermodynamic conditions in the reservoir to produce steam at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Condiciones termodinamicas minimas del yacimiento para producir vapor en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C.

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    Rodriguez Rodriguez; Marco Helio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-01-15

    Minimal thermodynamic conditions in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir for steam production are defined, taking into account the minimal acceptable steam production at the surface, considering a rank of mixed-enthalpies for different well-depths, and allowing proper assessments for the impacts of the changes in fluid reservoir pressure and enthalpy. Factors able to influence steam production are discussed. They have to be considered when deciding whether or not to drill or repair a well in a particular area of the reservoir. These evaluations become much more relevant by considering the huge thermodynamic changes that have occurred at the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir from its development, starting in 1973, which has lead to abandoning some steam producing areas in the field. [Spanish] Las condiciones termodinamicas minimas del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, para producir vapor se determinan tomando en cuenta la minima produccion de vapor aceptable en superficie, considerando un rango de entalpias de la mezcla y para diferentes profundidades de pozos, lo que permite valorar adecuadamente el impacto de la evolucion de la presion y entalpia del fluido en el yacimiento. Se discuten los factores que pueden afectar la produccion de vapor, los cuales se deben tomar en cuenta para determinar la conveniencia o no de perforar o reparar un pozo en determinada zona del yacimiento. Estas evaluaciones adquieren gran relevancia al considerar los enormes cambios termodinamicos que ha presentado el yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, como resultado de su explotacion iniciada en 1973, lo que ha llevado a abandonar algunas zonas del campo para la produccion de vapor. Palabras Clave: Cerro Prieto, entalpia, evaluacion de yacimientos, politicas de explotacion, presion, produccion de vapor.

  5. Presence of cross flow in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Presencia de flujo cruzado en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

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    Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco Helio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-01-15

    During the development of Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, exploitation has increased gradually, causing a continuous drop in pressure to almost 100 bars in the central and eastern parts of the field. This has occurred despite the high natural recharge induced by the reservoir exploitation and helped by the high permeability of the reservoir and the wide availability of natural recharge of low-temperature water in the vicinity. The strata above the production zones have significantly lower temperatures than these zones, but due to the particular characteristics of the reservoir, do not have pressure drops. As the pressure of producing strata declines, the hydraulic pressure differential between them and the overlying strata increases. Thus in recent years the phenomenon of cross flow occurs with greater frequency and severity. In this paper, this phenomenon is analyzed, detailing the specific mechanisms favoring it and identifying the stage (drilling or workover) in which it commonly occurs. Rigorous supervision during these stages is crucial to identifying cross flow and to taking necessary measures to save the well. Cross flow cases are presented at different stages in the history of a well: during drilling, repair, before and during the stimulation, and during production. [Spanish] Durante el desarrollo del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, la explotacion se ha incrementado en forma gradual provocando una continua caida de presion, que en las porciones central y oriente ha sido de casi 100 bars. Esto ha ocurrido a pesar de la enorme recarga natural inducida por la explotacion, favorecida por la alta permeabilidad del yacimiento y la gran disponibilidad de recarga natural de agua de baja temperatura en los alrededores del mismo. Los estratos ubicados encima de las zonas productoras presentan temperaturas significativamente menores que estos, pero debido a las caracteristicas particulares del yacimiento, no han presentado abatimiento en su presion. En la

  6. Geohydrologic conditions of the shallow aquifer in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field zone; Condiciones geohidrologicas del acuifero somero en la zona del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto

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    Vazquez Gonzalez, Rogelio [CICESE, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    1999-04-01

    Based on geohydrologic information reported by Comision Nacional del Agua, Comision Federal de Electricidad and several academic institutions, we have performed an analysis to establish in general terms, the past and present behavior of the shallow aquifer in the Cerro Prieto geothermal zone (CPGZ). The main features of the aquifer, derived from the interpretation of the results obtained with several disciplines, are as follows: The shallow aquifer in CPGZ is part of the regional hydrologic system of the Mexicali valley basin. The basin is filled with unconsolidated delta deposits interbedded with alluvial sediments from the Sierra Cucapa, which forms an impervious boundary. Because the lack of information about the hydraulic properties of the sediments, just possible ranges of values were obtained for the hydraulic conductivity and storativity corresponding to three deposit environments: a) delta flood plain facies, b) estuarine or lagoon environment facies, c) distal alluvial fan facies. [Spanish] Con base en la informacion geohidrologica de la Comision Nacional del Agua, la Comision Federal de Electricidad e instituciones academicas, se realizo un analisis para establecer las condiciones geohidrologicas y el panorama general del comportamiento historico y actual del acuifero somero en la zona del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP). De la interpretacion e integracion de los resultados obtenidos de las diferentes disciplinas utilizadas en el desarrollo del estudio, se derivan las siguientes conclusiones: El acuifero somero en la zona del CGCP forma parte del acuifero regional del valle de Mexicali. La secuencia litologica en el area de estudio esta constituida por sedimentos no consolidados de origen deltaico interdigitados con sedimentos aluviales provenientes de la Sierra Cucapa, que sirve como frontera impermeable. La informacion sobre las propiedades hidraulicas de los materiales en el area de interes es limitada, por lo cual solo se determinan los

  7. Corrosion in pipelines and well casings at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Corrosion en tuberias de linea y de revestimiento de pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

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    Miranda Herrera, Carlos A.; Canchola Felix, Ismael; Raygoza Flores, Joaquin; Mora Perez, Othon [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: carlos.miranda02@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    In the area called Poligono Hidalgo, inside the Cerro Prieto IV zone in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, corrosion has occurred in the last few years on well casings and pipelines used for geothermal fluids. Corrosion test results are presented here for pipes, type API L-80 and ASTM A-53 grade B, which were subjected to condensate from wells 403 and 424. These wells have thrown corroded material from their respective casings. With these data we pinpoint corrosive conditions in this field area and determine which pipes are adequate to case wells in similar chemical, production conditions to minimize adverse effects and extend the life of the well, allowing more efficient exploitation of the deepest production zones in the reservoir. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, dentro del area del Poligono Hidalgo en el sector conocido como Cerro Prieto IV, algunos pozos han presentado en los ultimos anos desgastes en sus tuberias de revestimiento y en las tuberias de linea para el transporte del fluido geotermico. Se presentan resultados de pruebas de corrosion con tuberias tipo API L-80 y ASTM A-53 grado B al ser sometidas al condensado de los pozos 403 y 424, los cuales han estado arrojando material de sus respectivas tuberias de revestimiento. Con estos datos se pretende conocer las condiciones corrosivas de esa zona del campo y determinar cual seria la tuberia ideal a utilizar en pozos con condiciones quimicas de produccion semejantes a fin de minimizar este efecto adverso y prolongar la vida de los pozos, a la vez que se permita la explotacion eficiente de las zonas productoras mas profundas del yacimiento.

  8. Criteria to determine the depth of the production interval in wells of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico; Criterios para determinar la profundidad del intervalo productor en pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, Mexico

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    Leon Vivar, Jesus Saul de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jesus.deleon@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    Ways to select the depth of the production interval or to complete wells in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field have changed during the development of the field. From 1961 when drilling began to the middle of 2005, a total of 325 wells were drilled. The paper compares the approaches used in the past with those of the last ten years. The Cerro Prieto system has been classified as being of liquid-dominated and high-temperature. Today, after 33 years of commercial exploitation, it has experienced a series of thermal and geochemical fluid changes making it necessary to modify the ways to select the depth of the well production intervals, according to the observed behavior of the reservoir. The new criteria include the thermal approach, the geological approach, the geochemical approach and a comparative approach with neighboring wells. If most of these criteria are interpreted correctly, the success of a well is ensured. [Spanish] Los criterios para seleccionar la profundidad del intervalo productor o la terminacion de los pozos en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto han cambiado durante el desarrollo del mismo. De 1961, cuando se perforaron los primeros pozos, hasta mediados del 2005 se han perforado un total de 325 pozos. En el presente articulo se hara una breve revision de cuales han sido los criterios usados en el pasado y los que se han venido empleando en los ultimos diez anos. El yacimiento de Cerro Prieto ha sido clasificado como de liquido dominante, de alta temperatura, pero actualmente, despues de 33 anos de explotacion comercial, ha sufrido una serie de cambios termicos y geoquimicos en sus fluidos, por lo que ha sido necesario modificar los criterios para seleccionar la profundidad del intervalo productor de los pozos de acuerdo al comportamiento observado en el yacimiento. Los criterios actuales se dividen en cuatro: 1. Criterio termico, 2. Criterio geologico, 3. Criterio geoquimico y 4. Criterio comparativo de los pozos vecinos. Cuando la mayoria de estos

  9. Evolution of the CP-I sector of the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir, BC, and exploitation alternatives; Evolucion del sector CP-I del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, y alternativas de explotacion

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    Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco Helio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    After 35 years of exploitation of the CP-I (Cerro Prieto I) sector of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, its thermal conditions have been declined substantially; the number of production wells is reduced and exploitation has been abandoned in some zones. However with a binary cycle, it is still possible to generate electricity from the remaining reservoir energy. To do so, one needs to know a detailed reservoir history of the sector, identifying the best potential strata to be assessed. In this paper, the CP-I reservoir evolution is presented and its exploitation and main reservoir characteristics -which play important roles- are identified. The CP-I zones offering the best conditions for binary cycle exploitation are identified. Exploiting partially abandoned reservoir sections is crucial for the future of the field. If such sections can be made to produce, this will help reduce the progressive steam-production decline in the occurring since production began. The production decline had been mitigated by a large area available for drilling replacement production wells, but such an area is limited now, due to the vast number of operating wells. [Spanish] Despues de 35 anos de explotacion del yacimiento en el sector de CP-I (Cerro Prieto I) del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, sus condiciones termicas han declinado considerablemente, por lo que el numero de pozos productores ha disminuido, dejando algunas zonas abandonadas a la explotacion. Sin embargo, aun es posible aprovechar la energia que contiene este sector del yacimiento para la generacion de electricidad mediante ciclo binario. Para ello primeramente se debe conocer en detalle cual ha sido la evolucion del yacimiento en este sector, identificando los estratos de mejor potencial para evaluarlos posteriormente. En este estudio se presenta la evolucion del yacimiento de CP-I como respuesta a su explotacion, identificando las principales caracteristicas del yacimiento que determinan su comportamiento. Asi

  10. Update of the basement model of the Cerro Prieto, B. C., geothermal field, Mexico; Actualizacion del modelo del basamento en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

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    Gonzalez Lopez, Macario [Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)

    1999-04-01

    With the aim to actualize the basement model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, a gravity interpretation has been held. We modeled in 2.5 D, nine profiles traced over the Bouguer anomaly map. Well data concerning lithology and density changes were used to fit the gravity models. Results of this work confirm that the geometry of the basement of Cerro Prieto, corresponds to a structural sequence. From west to east it starts as a big depression, continues with a strong uplift of the basement in the middle sector and finally deepens eastward in steps. The basement model proposed in the present work, defines a similar trend to that established by Fonseca y Razo (1980), but there are differences in basement depth in some areas. In the present model we interpret basement depths between 200 and 400 m deeper than in previous models to the south and northwest of the actual exploitation zone. [Spanish] Con el fin de actualizar el modelo del basamento en el Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto, se realizo una reinterpretacion gravimetrica, modelando en 2.5 D, 9 perfiles trazados sobre el mapa de anomalia de Bouguer. Utilizando la informacion litologica obtenida a traves de numerosas perforaciones profundas, se hicieron coincidir, dentro de los mofelos gravimetricos, las principales variaciones litologicas con cambios en la densidad. Los resultados de este trabajo reiteran que la geometria del basamento del Campo de Cerro Prieto, vista de W a E, corresponde con una secuencia estructural que se inicia con una gran depresion en el W, continua con un fuerte levantamiento y finalmente se extiende con una tendencia a profundizarse hacia el E de forma escalonada. El modelo de basamento derivado del presente trabajo, define una tendencia muy similar al modelo de basamento establecido (Fonseca y Razo, 1980), pero difiere en cuanto a la profundidad en algunos sectores del campo. En el actual trabajo se interpreta una profundidad entre 200 y 400 m mayor hacia el sur y noroeste de la

  11. Hydraulic model of the steam-lines network of the Cerro Prieto, B.C., geothermal field; Modelo hidraulico de la red de vaporductos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C.

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    Salaices, E; Garcia, A; Martinez J I; Ovando, R; Cecenas, M; Hernandez A F [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: salaices@iie.org.mx; Canchola, I; Mora, O; Miranda, C; Herandez, M; Lopez, S; Murillo, I [Comision Federal de Electricidad, B.C (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    The steam-line network of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is composed of 184 wells, and 162 of the wells are integrated and connected by pipes. Thirteen power units, with an installed electrical capacity of 720 MW, are fed by that network. The network length is 120 km, including pipes of several diameters with branches and interconnections. The extension and complexity of the steam-line system make it difficult to analyze the transport and supply of steam to the power plants. For that it was necessary to have a tool capable of analyzing the system and the performance of the network as a whole, as well as the direction and flow volumes in each part of the system. In this paper, a hydraulic model of the Cerro Prieto steam-line network is presented. The model can determine the performance of the whole network by quantifying the pressure drops, flows and heat losses of the components. The model analyses the consequences of changes in operating conditions, steam production, maintenance activities and design (such as the integration of new wells). The model was developed using PIPEPHASE 9.0, a numeric simulator of multi-phase flow in steady state with heat transfer. It is used to model systems and pipe networks for steam- and condensate-transport. [Spanish] La red de vaporductos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto esta compuesta por un conjunto de 184 pozos, de los cuales 162 son pozos integrados, interconectados entre si a traves de una red de tuberias. Por medio de esta red se alimentan 13 unidades generadoras de electricidad con una capacidad total instalada de 720 MWe. La red tiene una longitud aproximada de 120 kilometros y esta compuesta por tuberias de diferentes diametros, ramales, interconexiones, etc. La complejidad y extension del sistema de vaporductos hace muy dificil el analisis del transporte y suministro de vapor a las plantas generadoras. Lo anterior creo la necesidad de contar con una herramienta que ayudara en el analisis del sistema con el fin de

  12. Noise reduction in steam-vent points at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Reduccion del ruido en puntos de desfogue en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

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    Miranda Herrera, Carlos A [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C (Mexico)]. E-mail: carlos.miranda02@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-01-15

    Steam silencers have been placed on the power units regulation system of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, but not where the steam-pipes vent high-pressure steam (rupture disks). Moreover, the power-unit silencers are large and their abilities to reduce noise depend on an external, uncontrollable factor: pores sizes in the volcanic rocks they are made of. Thus a compact, economic and relatively easy to construct metallic silencer was designed to be used at several points of dry-steam venting to minimize the noise. The design was based on orifice-plate equations and a prototype was constructed and tested. It proved capable of reducing noise by 30 decibels for atmospheric discharges of primary steam at operating pressures. The size of the silencer can be adjusted to the particular needs of each vent case. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto solo existen silenciadores de vapor en el sistema de regulacion de las plantas generadoras, pero no en los sitios de desfogue de vapor a alta presion en los vaporductos (discos de ruptura). Ademas, los silenciadores de las plantas son muy robustos y su capacidad de reduccion del ruido depende de un factor externo no controlable, como es el tamano del poro de la roca volcanica con el que estan construidos. Por lo tanto, se diseno un silenciador metalico compacto, economico y relativamente facil de fabricar, para utilizarse en diversos puntos de descarga de vapor seco a fin de minimizar el ruido. El diseno se realizo con base en las ecuaciones de la placa de orificio. Se construyo un prototipo cuyas pruebas demostraron que es capaz de reducir el ruido hasta en 30 decibeles, al descargar desde la presion de operacion de vapor primario hacia la presion atmosferica. Las dimensiones del silenciador pueden ajustarse a las necesidades particulares de cada caso de desfogue.

  13. Studies for recovering injection capacity in wells of the Cerro Prieto, BC, geothermal field; Estudios para recuperar la capacidad de aceptacion en pozos inyectores del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

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    Alvarez Rosales, Julio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: julio.alvarez@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    As in geothermal fields around the world, at Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, former exploratory and production wells are used to inject residual brine. Since the 1980s, studies and activities have been carried out to find ways to recharge the reservoir and dispose of brine without harming the environment or underground aquifers. These include infiltration and cold-and-hot injection. Some of the studies are presented here, including analyses of litho-facies; core samples; pressure, temperature and spinner logs; well tests and injection rates-plus some studies on the shallow aquifer. All have been useful in fulfilling requirements made by environmental authorities. Because injection rates constantly decrease due to formation damage, it is proposed an additional technique be used to reduce such damages and prolong the lifetime of cold-and-hot injection wells-while ensuring the environment and shallow aquifers are not affected. [Spanish] Al igual que en diversos campos geotermicos en el mundo, en el de Cerro Prieto, Baja California se han utilizado tanto pozos inyectores perforados ex profeso como antiguos pozos exploratorios y productores para inyectar el fluido residual al subsuelo. Desde la decada de los 80 se han realizado diversos estudios y acciones en ese campo geotermico para recargar al yacimiento y para disponer del fluido residual, sin ocasionar danos al ambiente ni a los cuerpos hidricos del subsuelo, que van desde la infiltracion hasta la inyeccion en frio y en caliente. Este articulo presenta los diferentes estudios realizados con ese objetivo en el campo, incluyendo el analisis de litofacies, de nucleos de formacion, de registros de presion, temperatura y spinner, las pruebas en pozos y analisis de tasas de aceptacion, asi como los efectuados en el acuifero superficial. Todos ellos han sido de utilidad para atender los requerimientos de las autoridades ambientales. Finalmente, y en virtud de que las tasas de aceptacion de los pozos

  14. Geological and production analyses focused on exploration of the eastern part of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Analisis geologico-productivo enfocado a la exploracion de la parte oriental del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

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    Aguilar Dumas, Alvaro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)]. E-mail: alvaro.aguilar@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-01-15

    The eastern part of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CGCP), known as Poligono Nuevo Leon, is an area with proven geothermal resources, as confirmed by seven directional wells located toward the east and by vertical well M-200 located inside the polygon. Well M-200 was drilled in 1984 and has produced about 4 million tons of steam to date. It is integrated into the CP-2 sector, producing 68 t/h of steam. Presently the eastern part of CGCP, representing 25% of the total field area, is producing over half of the steam for the entire field. In the last few years, the steam has come only after increasing the number of production wells located in the eastern zone of CGCP (Rodriguez, 2006), where pressure, enthalpy and temperature conditions are better than in other parts of the field. However in the long term it will be necessary to incorporate Poligono Nuevo Leon into the productive area to expand the productive life of CGCP. This paper includes a geological analysis, plus models for steam production, temperature and enthalpy for Poligono Nuevo Leon. [Spanish] La parte oriental del Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP), conocida como Poligono Nuevo Leon, representa una area potencial con recursos geotermicos comprobados, lo que demuestran siete pozos direccionales que se han perforado hacia el este, asi como el pozo vertical M-200, localizado dentro del poligono. El pozo M-200 se perforo en 1984 y ha producido a la fecha alrededor de 4 millones de toneladas de vapor, estando integrado al sector CP-2 una produccion de 68 t/h de vapor. Actualmente la parte oriental del CGCP, que representa el 25% del area total del campo, produce mas de la mitad del total de vapor del campo. El suministro de vapor en los ultimos anos se ha logrado cubrir aumentando el numero de pozos en operacion localizados en la zona oriente del CGCP (Rodriguez, 2006), ya que es aqui donde hay condiciones de presion, entalpia y temperatura del yacimiento que son mejores que en otras areas del campo

  15. Mineralogy of the silica-epidote mineralized zone (SEMZ) in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir, B.C., Mexico; Mineralogia de la zona mineralizada de silice-epidota (ZMSE) del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, Georgina; Aragon, Alfonso; Portugal, Enrique; Arellano; Victor M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: gim@iie.org.mx; Leon, Jesus de; Alvarez, Julio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, B.C. (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    The distribution of hydrothermal minerals, mineral assemblages and fluid inclusion data were taken from drill cuttings from the production zone of wells all over the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. The production zone has been termed the silica-epidote mineralized zone (SEMZ), and is located in the deep part of the gray shale where thick layers of sandstone are found. Common mineral assemblages show three temperature ranges in the SEMZ: <200 degrees Celsius, 200-250 degrees Celsius and 250-300 degrees Celsius. The first range is characterized by clays, calcite and quartz; the second by quartz, epidote, chlorite and mica, and the third by epidote, amphibole, illite and chlorite. The study of fluid inclusions in authigenic grain quartz has shown two-phase fluid inclusions (liquid + vapor) of different salinities. A wide range exists of homogenization temperatures (Th) and for some wells there is a good agreement between Th and direct temperature measurements. [Spanish] Se determino la distribucion de minerales hidrotermales y las asociaciones parageneticas y se realizo el estudio microtermometrico de inclusiones fluidas a partir de recortes de perforacion de pozos de las distintas areas del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto. Las muestras de recortes y nucleos de perforacion estudiados provienen de la zona de produccion a la que se le ha denominado Zona Mineralizada de Silice-Epidota (ZMSE), que se encuentra en la parte profunda de la lutita gris con importantes horizontes de areniscas. En esta zona las asociaciones parageneticas mas comunes han mostrado tres intervalos de temperatura para la ZMSE: <200 degrees Celsius, 200-250 degrees Celsius, 250-300 degrees Celsius. El primer intervalo esta caracterizado principalmente por arcillas, calcita y cuarzo; el segundo por cuarzo, epidota, clorita y micas, y el tercero por epidota, anfiboles, illita y clorita. El estudio de inclusiones fluidas en fragmentos de cuarzo autigenico mostro la presencia de inclusiones de dos fases

  16. Gaseous equilibrium in sector CP IV of the Cerro Prieto, B.C. Mexico geothermal field; Equilibrio gaseoso en el sector CP IV del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel; Portugal Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); De Leon Vivar, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Campo Geotermico Cerro Prieto, Cerro Prieto, B. C. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Sector CP IV is located in the NE portion of the Cerrro Prieto geothermal field. The wells of this zone produce two-phase fluids, with different characteristics as far as their steam fraction content; in the central part and towards the NW the fluids are of dominant liquid type whereas towards the E and the S, the fluid contains a relatively higher steam fraction. The results of gaseous equilibrium FT- HSH3 showed that the fluids in the deposit are at temperatures between 275 Celsius degrees and 310 Celsius degrees and contain steam fractions between 0.01 and 0.5. The data found for the natural state are aligned in a tendency defined in the diagram FT- HSH3, that suggest the wells receive different proportions from preexisting steam in the deposit, which are mixed with the liquid phase to produce the observed discharges. The present data, besides showing the presence of deposit steam, also indicates the entrance of lower temperature fluid in the central part of sector CP IV. [Spanish] El sector CP IV se localiza en la porcion NE del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto. Los pozos de esta zona producen fluidos bifasicos, con diferentes caracteristicas en cuanto a su contenido de fraccion de vapor: en la parte central y hacia el NW los fluidos son de tipo liquido dominante mientras que hacia el E y hacia el S, el fluido contiene una fraccion relativamente alta de vapor. Los resultados de equilibrio gaseoso FT-HSH3 mostraron que los fluidos en el yacimiento se encuentran a temperaturas de entre 275 grados Celsius y 310 grados Celsius y contienen fracciones de vapor de entre -.01 y .5. Los datos hallados para el estado natural se alinean en una tendencia definida en el diagrama FT-HSH3, que sugiere que los pozos reciben diferentes proporciones de vapor pre-existente en el yacimiento, que se mezclan con fase liquida para producir las descargas que se observan. Los datos actuales, ademas de mostrar la presencia de vapor de yacimiento, tambien indican la entrada de fluidos de

  17. Analysis of productive evolution of well M-19A, Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Analisis de la evolucion productiva del pozo M-19A del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Marco H; Romero-Rios, Francisco [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-07-15

    Well M-19A has been the most productive in the Cerro Prieto field, producing around 40 million tons of fluid. The well went on line in February 1975 and was in continuous operation until June 2006. Monthly measurements for over 30 years of operating conditions and chemical and isotopic analyses of the fluids allow identification of the most significant processes occurring in the zone where the well is located. Three dominant recharge types have been identified, each lasting about 10 years. They are a) a recharge of fluids of lower temperature than the production fluids, even though the chemical and isotopic compositions are similar; b) a recharge of lower-temperature fluids with diluted chemical and isotopic compositions; and c) a progressive recharge of reinjected water with a higher chloride concentration and heavy isotopic composition. The production and reinjection rates for over 30 years of production history in the M-19A well zone allow for speculation of a reservoir pressure recovery, which is confirmed with a calculation using production data from well M-19A. The evolution of the reservoir pressure in the zone contrasts with the rest of the reservoir, where a constant pressure drop is observed, particularly toward the central and eastern parts of the field. [Spanish] El pozo M-19A ha sido el mas productivo del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, alcanzando una extraccion de mas de 40 millones de toneladas de fluido. Fue integrado a produccion en febrero de 1975 y hasta junio de 2006 ha permanecido en produccion en forma continua. Las mediciones mensuales de sus condiciones operativas y los analisis quimicos e isotopicos del agua producida permiten identificar los procesos mas significativos que han ocurrido a lo largo de esos mas de 30 anos en la zona donde se localiza el pozo. Se han identificado tres tipos de recarga dominantes que se presentan durante un periodo cercano a 10 anos cada uno, los cuales son: a) una recarga de fluidos de menor temperatura

  18. Overview of the geohydrology of Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico; Aspectos generales sobre la geohidrologia en Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Rosales, Julio [Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)

    1999-04-01

    Geohydrologic studies on the Mexicali valley have been focussed to analyze the shallow aquifer and to describe the movement of geothermal fluids. In order to establish the geohydrologic model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, data generated before and during production were integrated. Actually, information obtained from piezometric wells recently drilled is processed. These wells constitute the piezometric network of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (RPCGCP). [Spanish] Los estudios geohidrologicos realizados en el valle de Mexicali se han enfocado al analisis del acuifero superficial y a describir el movimiento de los fluidos geotermicos. Para establecer el modelo de comportamiento geohidrologico del Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto, se integro la informacion generada antes y durante su vida productiva. Actualmente se procesa la informacion obtenida con los piezometros recientemente perforados que constituyen la red piezometrica del Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto (RPCGCP).

  19. Analysis of the automation and control of the well production conditions in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico; Analisis de la automatizacion y del control de las condiciones de produccion de los pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo Zamora, Isaac [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, BC, (Mexico); Ocampo Diaz, Juan de Dios [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Mexicali, BC, (Mexico); De la Pena Reyna, Gilberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    Through 31 years of development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, the number of wells in operation and the distances between them has been increasing. Now there are 150 wells producing a mixture of water and steam at different ratios, depending on the reservoir characteristics (pressure, temperature, depth, etc.) and the operation conditions in the superficial installations (obstructions in the orifice plates diameter, separator pressures, etc.). Therefore, Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has started a pilot plan to handle the automation and control of the operating conditions of production wells, and to install a data production acquisition system. The initial results of the system are in this paper. [Spanish] A traves de los 31 anos de desarrollo del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto el numero de pozos en operacion asi como la distancia entre ellos se ha estado incrementando. Ahora hay mas de 150 pozos produciendo una cantidad de mezcla de agua y vapor a diferentes rangos, dependiendo de las caracteristicas del yacimiento (presion, temperatura, profundidad, etc.) y de las condiciones de operacion de las instalaciones superficiales (diametros de placas de orificio obstruidos, presion de los separadores, etc.). Como resultado la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) ha dado inicio a un plan de pruebas para llevar a cabo la automatizacion y control de las condiciones de operacion de los pozos productores, e instalar un sistema con equipos para recoleccion de datos del campo, cuyos primeros resultados se presentan en este articulo.

  20. Overview of Cerro Prieto studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The studies performed on the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico, since the late 1950's are summarized. Emphasis is given to those activities leading to the identification of the sources of heat and mass, the fluid flow paths, and the phenomena occurring in the field in its natural state and under exploitation.

  1. Hydrothermal alteration zones and present reservoir conditions: an approach to define production zones at the eastern portion of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Zonas de alteracion hidrotermal y condiciones actuales del yacimiento: un enfoque para determinar zonas productoras al oriente del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho Hernandez, Juan Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: juan.camacho02@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Geological factors are as essential for locating new wells as they are for defining the production zones of these wells. At the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CGCP), one of the most important geological factors is identification of the hydrothermal alteration zones (ZAH). These are divided into silica and epidote mineralogical zones (ZMSE), without CaCO{sub 3}, and silica and epidote mineralogical transition zones (ZTMSE), with CaCO{sub 3}. It has been observed that the continuous variation of reservoir thermodynamic conditions (temperature, pressure and enthalpy) is due mainly to the exploitation of geothermal resources. The presence of new thermodynamic conditions recorded at the reservoir has led to the re-location of production wells originally located during the drilling campaign of 2004 to 2006. At the geological sections on the eastern part of the CGCP, adjustments made to the well completions lie on the limits between the ZMSE and ZTMSE zones. In turn, this is related to the current, superior, thermodynamic reservoir conditions. Based on this, a new geologic approach is proposed to define possible production zones for new wells, relating the ZAH zones to current thermodynamic reservoir conditions. [Spanish] Los factores geologicos son determinantes, tanto para establecer nuevos sitios de perforacion como para determinar el intervalo productor de un pozo nuevo. En el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP) una de los factores mas importantes es la determinacion de las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal (ZAH) que se dividen en dos: zona mineralogica de silice y epidota (ZMSE), sin presencia de CaCO{sub 3}, y zona de transicion mineralogica de silice y epidota (ZTMSE), con presencia de CaCO{sub 3}. Por otra parte, tambien se ha constatado que la continua variacion de las condiciones termodinamicas del yacimiento (temperatura, presion y entalpia) es originada en buena medida por la explotacion del recurso geotermico. La ocurrencia de nuevas condiciones

  2. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  3. Heat losses estimation associated with the physical state of the thermal insulation of pipes vaporductos network in Cerro Prieto geothermal field; Estimacion de perdidas de calor asociadas al estado fisico del aislamiento termico de las tuberias de la red de vaporductos del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovando Castelar, Rosember; Martinez Estrella, Juan Ignacio; Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx; jime@iie.org.mx; aggarcia@iie.org.mx; Canchola Felix, Ismael; Miranda Herrera, Carlos; Jacobo Galvan, Paul [Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF) steam transportation network is constituted by 140 km of pipes with diameters ranging from 8 to 48 inches, which transport the steam of 165 producing wells to 13 power plants which have a total installed capacity of 720 MWe. Originally, the pipes are thermally insulated with a mineral wool or fiber glass layer and an external aluminum or iron cover. Due to the insulation material has been exposed to weather conditions during the field operation it shows nowadays different grades of wear-out, or even it is lacking in some parts of the network, causing higher heat losses from the pipes to the environment. In this work, the magnitude of the heat losses related with the present condition of the thermal insulation throughout the pipeline network is assessed. This involved determining the longitude and diameter, as well as the insulation condition of each single pipeline section, and the calculation of the heat transfer coefficients for the different thermal insulation conditions defined for this study. [Spanish] La red de transporte de vapor del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto (CGCP) esta constituida por aproximadamente 140 km de tuberias de 8 a 48 pulgadas de diametro, las cuales conducen el vapor producido por 165 pozos hacia 13 plantas generadoras, cuya capacidad instalada es de 720 MWe. Originalmente, estas tuberias son aisladas termicamente con una capa de 2 pulgadas de material aislante a base de lana mineral o fibra de vidrio, y una proteccion exterior de aluminio o hierro. Debido principalmente al impacto de las condiciones meteorologicas durante el tiempo de operacion del campo, en algunas porciones de la red el aislante presenta actualmente distintos grados de deterioro, o incluso se encuentra ausente, lo cual se traduce en una mayor perdida de calor desde las tuberias hacia el medio ambiente. En el presente trabajo se evalua la magnitud de las perdidas de calor asociadas al estado fisico del aislamiento termico de las

  4. Recent activities at the Cerro Prieto field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso E, H.; Dominguez A, B.; Lippmann, M.J.; Manon M., A.; Schroeder, R.C.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1978-12-01

    Some of the latest activities of interest to reservoir engineers at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field are described. Special emphasis is given to the wells drilled in 1978 for exploration purposes and to provide steam to the existing and future power plants. The present power output is 75 MW. Two additional 37.5 MW units are scheduled to go on line in March and May 1979, while the total generating capacity at Cerro Prieto will reach about 400 MW in 1985.

  5. Geohydrology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez R, J.; de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    The most recent information on the Cerro Prieto geothermal aquifer is summarized, with special emphasis on the initial production zone where the wells completed in the Alpha aquifer are located. These wells produce steam for power plant units 1 and 2. Brief comments also are made on the Beta aquifer, which underlies the Alpha aquifer in the Cerro Prieto I area and which extends to the east to what is known as the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas. The location of the area studied is shown. The Alpha and Beta aquifers differ in their mineralogy and cementing mineral composition, temperatures, and piezometric levels. The difference in piezometric levels indicates that there is no local communication between the two aquifers. This situation has been verified by a well interference test, using well E-1 as a producer in the Beta aquifer and well M-46 as the observation well in the Alpha aquifer. No interference between them was observed. Information on the geology, geohydrology, and geochemistry of Cerro Prieto is presented.

  6. Recent activities at the Cerro Prieto field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, E. H.; Dominguez, A.B.; Lippmann, M.J.; Manon, M.A.; Schroeder, R.C.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the latest activities of interest to reservoir engineers at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Special emphasis is given to the wells drilled in 1978 for exploration purposes and to provide steam to the existing and future power plants. The present power output is 75MW. Two additional 37.5MW units are scheduled to go on line in March and May 1979, while the total generating capacity at Cerro Prieto will reach about 400MW in 1985. Additional information is available in a number of papers in References 1 and 2.

  7. Determination of heat losses in the Cerro Prieto, Baja California, geothermal field steam transportation network based on the thermal insulation condition of the steam pipelines; Determinacion de perdidas de calor en la red de transporte de vapor del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, Baja California, con base en el estado fisico del aislamiento termico de vaporductos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovando Castelar, Rosember; Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso; Martinez Estrella, Juan Ignacio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx; Canchola Felix, Ismael; Jacobo Galvan, Paul; Miranda Herrera, Carlos; Mora Perez, Othon [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    In Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), the steam from producing wells is transported to power plants through a large and complex system of pipes thermally insulated with a 2 inches thick mineral wool or a fiber glass layer and an external aluminum or iron cover. The insulation material has been exposed to weather conditions during the field operation and has suffered density and thickness changes. In some cases the insulation has been lost completely, increasing heat transfer from the pipes to the environment. This paper analyzes the impact of the conditions of thermal insulation on heat losses in the CPGF steam-pipeline network. The heat losses are calculated by applying an iterative method to determine the surface temperature based on a heat balance calculated from the three basic mechanisms of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Finally, using length and diameter data corresponding to the condition of the thermal insulation of each pipeline-and field operation data, the overall heat losses are quantified for steam lines throughout the pipeline network in the field. The results allow us to evaluate the magnitude of the heat losses in comparison with the overall energy losses occurring during steam transport from wells to the power plants. [Spanish] En el Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP), BC, el transporte de vapor desde los pozos hasta las plantas generadoras de electricidad se lleva a cabo mediante un extenso y complejo sistema de tuberias que tipicamente se encuentran aisladas termicamente con una capa de 2 pulgadas de material aislante a base de lana mineral o fibra de vidrio, y una proteccion mecanica de aluminio o hierro galvanizado. Debido a la exposicion a las condiciones meteorologicas a traves del tiempo de operacion del campo, el aislamiento ha experimentado cambios en su densidad y espesor y en ocasiones se ha perdido por completo, lo cual repercute en una mayor transferencia de calor de las tuberias hacia el medio ambiente

  8. Exploration and development of Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teilman, M.A.; Cordon, U.J.

    1981-01-01

    A brief retrospective of the exploration and field model development at Cerro Prieto are presented. Representative field models are presented for each of the work phases. These models demonstrate how the concept of the field evolved - from a small 2 km/sup 2/ area with a relatively unknown reservoir configuration - to a geothermal resource area over 20 km/sup 2/ where the hydrothermal processes and structural environment are being studied in detail. A model integrating information from these studies was developed.

  9. Seismological studies at the Cerro Prieto field, 1978 - 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, E. L.; McEvilly, T. V.

    1982-10-01

    Varied seismological studies were conducted to determine the static and dynamic properties of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Sought were the relation of wave propagation characteristics and microearthquake activity to such features as production boundaries, recharge zones, heat sources, fluid strata, lithology and structure. Discussed are the results of the studies carried out since 1978 in light of the current knowledge of the Cerro Prieto field. Also included are interpretations of the reflection surveys carried out in the immediate production areas.

  10. Evaluation of geologic characteristics at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Halfman, S.E.; Vonder Haar, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Computerized well-log analysis of Cerro Prieto has led to the identification of a relatively large and irregular low-density volume extending from near the surface in the vicinity of Laguna Volcano to greater depths toward the northeast. This low-density volume is located about a plane of symmetry of a self-potential anomaly and a group of northeast trending active faults. The presence of a volume of relatively high-density rock has been recognized at shallow depths in the initially developed part of the resource. It is believed to be due to minerals deposited by cooled, rising geothermal brine. Storativity calculated from well logs at the south end of the western part of the field shows acceptable comparison with storativity calculated from well tests. The amount of fluid produced from the field during the period 1973-1977 is greater than the amount in situ calculated from the completed interval thicknesses. Because this part of the field is still producing today, fluid must be recharging this part of the field.

  11. The hydrogeologic-geochemical model of Cerro Prieto revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Halfman, S.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Manon M., A.

    1989-01-01

    As the exploitation of the Cerro Prieto, Mexico, geothermal field continues, there is increasing evidence that the hydrogeologic model developed by Halfman et al. (1984, 1986) presents the basic features controlling the movement of geothermal fluids in the system. At the present time the total installed capacity at Cerro Prieto is 620 MWe requiring the production of more than 10,500 tonnes/hr of a brine-steam mixture. This significant rate of fluid production has resulted in changes in reservoir thermodynamic conditions and in the chemistry of the produced fluids. After reviewing the hydrogeologic-geochemical model of Cerro Prieto, some of the changes observed in the field due to its exploitation are discussed and interpreted on the basis of the model. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Basic aspects of the Cerro Prieto reservoir water recharge; Aspectos basicos de la recarga de agua al reservorio de Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field, located 30 km South of Mexicali City, Baja California, has at present an installed capacity of 620 MW in geothermal power plants, that operating with endogenous steam, make use of the underground energy by means of deep wells, from which about 80 million cubic meters per year of high enthalpy water and steam mixture are extracted. During the exploitation physical an chemical changes in the hydrothermal fluids discharged by the wells have been detected, which shows, among other things, an elevated water recharge, located towards the West area of the field and a low recharge in the part of the east zone area. For this reason the hot brine waste re-injection is recommended, (previously treated to eliminate the silica excess) to thermally an hydraulically recharge the reservoir in that part of the field. [Espanol] El campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, situado a 30 km al sur de la ciudad de Mexicali, Baja California, cuenta actualmente, despues de 18 anos en explotacion, con 620 MW de capacidad instalada en plantas geotermoelectricas que, operando con vapor endogeno, aprovechan la energia del subsuelo mediante pozos profundos de los que se extraen alrededor de 80 millones de metros cubicos por ano de una mezcla de agua vapor de elevada entalpia. Durante la explotacion se han percibido cambios fisicos y quimicos en los fluidos hidrotermales descargados por los pozos, lo que indica, entre otras cosas, una recarga elevada de agua localizada hacia el poniente del campo y una recarga baja en una zona de la parte oriental. Por ello se recomienda la reinyeccion de salmuera geotermica caliente de desecho (previamente tratada para eliminar el exceso de silice) para recargar termica e hidraulicamente el reservorio en esa parte del campo.

  13. Brine treatment test for reinjection on Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, R.; Mercado, S.; Gamino, H. (Departamento de Geotermia, Division de Fuentes de Energia, Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Justo Sierra y Herreros Sur 2098-Altos C.P. 21020, Mexicali, B.C. (MX))

    1989-01-01

    Reinjection of disposal brine from the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant System is attractive mainly because, on top of solving the brine disposal problem, it may significantly contribute to extend the reservoir useful lifetime, through thermal and hydraulic recharge. Because the high concentration of colloidal silica in the disposal brine, laboratory and pilot plant tests were conducted in order to develop the brine treatment process. Addition of 20-40 mg/1 lime to flashed and aged brine for 10-20 minutes yields a clarified brine relatively low in suspended solids (10-30 mg/1) when the over flow rate is 38.5 1/min-m/sup 2/. 1.1 mills/kWh was the estimated cost for treatment of 800 kg/s of separated brine from the Cerro Prieto I power station.

  14. Criteria for determining casing depth in Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivas M., H.M.; Vaca S., J.M.E.

    1982-08-10

    On the basis of geological data obtained during drilling and its relation to electric logs, together with the problems that arose when drilling through formations until the production zone was reached, it is possible to establish the most suitable manner to line a well and thus formulate an optimum casings program. The main criteria to be taken into consideration in preparing such a program and its application in the drilling of wells programmed in Cerro Prieto to optimize and economize such drilling and achieve suitable techniques for well completion are presented. The criteria are based on the characteristics of the Cerro Prieto field and on casing design factors, as well as a experience gained during drilling in such a field.

  15. Seismic discrimination of a geothermal field: Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakeslee, S.

    1984-04-01

    Extensive reprocessing of a subset of the seismic reflection data from Cerro Prieto has been performed. The formations and faults identified in the resulting seismic profile were correlated to cross-sections constructed from well log data. The production region coincides with a zone of reflection attenuation. A detailed velocity analysis reveals a lid of high velocity events rimming the reflection attenuation zone. This may prove to be a valuable discriminant for locating a geothermal resource using seismic reflection data.

  16. Dating thermal events at Cerro Prieto using fission track annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, S.J.; Elders, W..

    1981-01-01

    Data from laboratory experiments and geologic fading studies were compiled from published sources to produce lines of iso-annealing for apatite in time-temperature space. Fission track ages were calculated for samples from two wells at Cerro Prieto, one with an apparently simple and one with an apparently complex thermal history. Temperatures were estimated by empirical vitrinite reflectance geothermometry, fluid inclusion homogenization and oxygen isotope equilibrium. These estimates were compared with logs of measured borehole temperatures.

  17. Correlation between precision gravity and subsidence measurements at Cerro Prieto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelwer, R.; Grannell, R. B.

    1982-10-01

    Precision gravity measurements were made in the region of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field at yearly intervals from 1977 to 1981 to assess the feasibility of using gravity to determine subsurface reservoir changes with time. The extent of mass recharge in response to the continued production of fluids from this field was studied. Changes in gravity and ground elevation were observed throughout the region for the period of observation. Results indicate that the largest changes observed were the result of the Magnitude 6.1 (Caltech) Victoria earthquake of 8 June 1980. The epicenter of this earthquake was located 25 km southeast of the field on the Cerro Prieto Fault, which bounds the field on the southwest. Subsidence of up to 55 cm was measured east of the power plant, in the region between the northern end of the Cerro Prieto Fault and the southern end of the Imperial Fault. This area has been postulated to be the site of an active spreading center or pull-apart basin, and has been characterized by a high level of seismic activity during the last 10 years.

  18. Microfossils from Cerro Prieto geothermal wells, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, M.L.; Haar, S.V.

    1982-08-10

    To aid in a paleonenvironmental and age reconstruction of the Cerro Prieto reservoir system, 59 samples of well cuttings were analyzed for microfossils. The cuttings were obtained at depths from 351 to 3495m in 14 geothermal wells in the Cerro Prieto field, Baja California, Mexico. Foraminifera was found in 6 samples, ostracodes in 19 samples and mannoplankton as coccoliths in 24 samples. Other groups, such as molluscus, insects, fish skeletal parts, and plant material were occasionally present. Detailed interpretations at this time cannot be made because of poor preservation of samples. This is primarily due to causes: dissolution by geothermal fluids that reach 350/sup 0/C, and the extensive mixing of filled Cretaceous forms (reworked from the Colorado Plateau region) with Tertiary species during drilling. Further studies of ostracodes and foraminifera from colder portions of the wells are needed. The abundant and well-preserved ostracodes indicate marine to backish water inviroments that correspond in part, to lagoonal or estuarine facies. The presence of the mid-Tertiary (15-m.y.-old) marine foraminifera, Cassigerinela chipolensis, in wells M-11 and M-38, 350 to 500m deep, is perplexing. These are not laboratory contaminates and, as yet have not been found in the drilling mud. If further studies confirm their presence at Cerro Prieto, established ideas about the opening of the Gulf of California and about Pacific Coast mid-Tertiary history will need to be rewritten.

  19. Microfossils from Cerro Prieto geothermal wells, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, M.L.; Vonder Haar, S.

    1980-01-01

    To aid in a paleoenvironmental and age reconstruction of the Cerro Prieto reservoir system, 59 samples of well cuttings were analyzed for microfossils. The cuttings were obtained at depths from 351 to 3495 m in 14 geothermal wells in the Cerro Prieto field, Baja California, Mexico. We found foraminifera in 6 samples, ostracodes in 19 samples, and nannoplankton as coccoliths in 24 samples. Other groups, such as molluscs, insects, fish skeletal parts, and plant material were occasionally present. Detailed interpretations are not possible at this time because of poor preservation of samples. This is primarily due to causes: dissolution by geothermal fluids that reach 350{sup 0}C, and the extensive mixing of filled Cretaceous forms (reworked from the Colorado Plateau region) with Tertiary species during drilling. Further studies of ostracodes and foraminifera from colder portions of the wells are needed. The abundant and well-preserved ostracodes indicate marine to brackish water environments that correspond, in part, to lagoonal or estuarine facies. The presence of the mid-Tertiary (15-My-old) marine foraminifera, Cassigerinela chipolensis, in wells M-11 and M-38, 350 to 500 m deep, is perplexing. These are not laboratory contaminates and, as yet, have not been found in the drilling mud. If further studies confirm their presence at Cerro Prieto, established ideas about the opening of the Gulf of California and about Pacific Coast mid-Tertiary history will need to be rewritten.

  20. Seismotectonics of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollar, C. J.; Reyes, L. M.; Quintanar, L.; Arellano, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    We studied the background seismic activity in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CPGF) using a network of 21 digital stations. Earthquakes are located below the exploitation area of the CPGF, between 3 and 12 km depth, within the basement. Earthquakes follow roughly a N30°E trend perpendicular to the Cerro Prieto fault. This activity is located on a horst-like structure below the geothermal field and coincides with the zone of maximum subsidence in the CPGF. Two earthquake swarms occurred along the SE-NW strike of the Cerro Prieto fault and in the neighborhood of the Cerro Prieto volcano. Magnitudes range from -0.3 to 2.5. A Vp/Vs=1.91 ratio of the activity below the volcano suggests a water-saturated medium and/or a partial-melt medium. We calculated 76 focal mechanisms of individual events. On June 1 and September 10, 1999, two earthquakes of Mw 5.2 and 5.3 occurred in the basement at depths of 7.4 and 3.8 km below the CPGF. Maximum peak accelerations above the hypocenter ranged from 128.0 to 432.0 cm/s2. Waveform modeling results in a fault geometries given by strike=236°, dip=60°, rake=-58° (normal) and strike=10°, dip=90°, rake=159° (right lateral strike-slip) for the June and September events. Observed triangular source time function of 0.7 seconds and a double source with a total duration of 1.9 seconds for the June and September events were used to calculate the synthetics seismograms. Static stress drops and seismic moments for the June and September events are: Δ\\sigma=82.5 MPa (825 bars), Mo= 7.65x1016 Nm (7.65x1023 dyne-cm) and Δ\\sigma=31.3 MPa (313 bars) and Mo=1.27x1017 Nm (1.27x1024 dyne-cm). These stress drops are typical of continental events rather than stress drops of events originated in spreading centers. We concluded from the focal mechanisms of the background seismicity and June and September 1999 events, that a complex stress environment exits in the CPGF due to the continual thinning of the crust in the Cerro Prieto basin.

  1. Precision gravity studies at Cerro Prieto: a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grannell, R.B. (California State Univ., Long Beach); Kroll, R.C.; Wyman, R.M.; Aronstam, P.S.

    1981-01-01

    A third and fourth year of precision gravity data collection and reduction have now been completed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. In summary, 66 permanently monumented stations were occupied between December and April of 1979 to 1980 and 1980 to 1981 by a LaCoste and Romberg gravity meter (G300) at least twice, with a minimum of four replicate values obtained each time. Station 20 alternate, a stable base located on Cerro Prieto volcano, was used as the reference base for the third year and all the stations were tied to this base, using four to five hour loops. The field data were reduced to observed gravity values by (1) multiplication with the appropriate calibration factor; (2) removal of calculated tidal effects; (3) calculation of average values at each station, and (4) linear removal of accumulated instrumental drift which remained after carrying out the first three reductions. Following the reduction of values and calculation of gravity differences between individual stations and the base stations, standard deviations were calculated for the averaged occupation values (two to three per station). In addition, pooled variance calculations were carried out to estimate precision for the surveys as a whole.

  2. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of US organizations sponsored by the US Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: (1) surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; (2) the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; (3) geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and (4) reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  3. Changes in steam production due to the reservoir conditions in Cerro Prieto, Baja California; Cambios en la produccion de vapor debido a las condiciones del yacimiento en Cerro Prieto, Baja California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Cardenas, Ramon; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco H. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@gfe.gob.mx

    2011-07-15

    In more than 35 years of exploitation, thermodynamic conditions have changed in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir. The effects are analyzed of the changes to the reservoir and their consequences to steam production in different field zones. For steam production, the most important features of reservoir fluids are enthalpies and pressures. The evolution of these features is presented in an enthalpy-pressure diagram. Here it can be seen that some reservoir zones have almost reached abandonment conditions. [Spanish] En mas de 35 anos de explotacion el yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto ha experimentado cambios en sus condiciones termodinamicas. En este trabajo se analiza el efecto de esos cambios del yacimiento y su repercusion en la produccion de vapor para las diferentes zonas en las que se ha dividido el campo. Las propiedades mas importantes del fluido en el yacimiento para la produccion de vapor son su entalpia y su presion, por lo que se presenta la evolucion de esas propiedades en un diagrama de presion-entalpia, en el que se observa que hay zonas del yacimiento que estan proximas a alcanzar condiciones de abandono.

  4. Reservoir engineering studies of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, K. P.; Lippmann, M. J.; Tsang, C. F.

    1982-09-01

    Reservoir engineering studies of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field began in 1978 under a five-year cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy and the Comision Federal de Electricidad de Mexico, with the ultimate objective of simulating the reservoir to forecast its production capacity, energy longevity, and recharge capability under various production and injection scenarios. During the fiscal year 1981, attempts were made to collect information on the evolution history of the field since exploitation began; the information is to be used later to validate the reservoir model. To this end, wellhead production data were analyzed for heat and mass flow and also for changes in reservoir pressures, temperatures, and saturations for the period from March 1973 to November 1980.

  5. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  6. Results from two years of resistivity monitoring at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilt, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    Dipole-dipole resistivity measurements for the combined purposes of reservoir delineation and resistivity monitoring were first made at Cerro Prieto in 1978 and have continued on an annual basis since then. Two 20 km long dipole-dipole lines with permanently emplaced electrodes at one kilometer spacings were established over the field area; one of these lines is remeasured annually. Resistivity measurements are taken using a 25 kW generator capable of up to 80A output and a microprocessor controlled signal averaging receiver; this high power-low noise system is capable of highly accurate measurements even at large transmitter-receiver separations. Standard error calculations for collected data indicate errors less than 5% for all points, but 95% confidence intervals show error limits about 2 to 4 times higher. Analysis of collected data indicate little change in the apparent resistivity of the upper 300 m over the field production zone and that in this section measurements are relatively insensitive to the annual rainfall cycle. Apparent resistivity increases were observed over the older producing zone at Cerro Prieto at depths of 1 km and greater. Large zones of decreasing apparent resistivity were observed flanking the zone of increases on both sides. The increase in apparent resistivity in the production region may be due to an increasing fraction of steam in the reservoir resulting from a production related decline in reservoir pressure. Alternatively the increases may be the result of fresh water influx from the Colorado River. The zone of declining resistivity flanking the area of increase may be due to the movement of saline waters into the reservoir region as a result of the pressure decline. Quantitative modeling of observed changes is impractical owing to the high uncertainty in estimating apparent resistivity changes and the nonuniqueness of models.

  7. Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

    1999-07-01

    The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

  8. Radon and ammonia transects across the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semprini, L.; Kruger, P.

    1981-01-01

    Radon and ammonia transects, conducted at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, involve measurement of concentration gradients at wells along lines of structural significance in the reservoir. Analysis of four transects showed radon concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 3.60 nCi/kg and ammonia concentrations from 17.6 to 59.3 mg/l. The data showed the lower concentrations in wells of lowest enthalpy fluid and the higher concentrations in wells of highest enthalpy fluid. Linear correlation analysis of the radon-enthalpy data indicated a strong relationship, with a marked influence by the two-phase conditions of the produced fluid. It appears that after phase separation in the reservoir, radon achieves radioactive equilibrium between fluid and rock, suggesting that the phase separation occurs well within the reservoir. A two-phase mixing model based on radon-enthalpy relations allows estimation of the fluid phase temperatures in the reservoir. Correlations of ammonia concentration with fluid enthalpy suggests an equilibrium partitioning model in which enrichment of ammonia correlates with higher enthalpy vapor.

  9. Performance of casings in Cerro Prieto production wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A, B.; Vital B, F.; Bermejo M, F.; Sanchez G, G.

    1981-01-01

    A careful evaluation of different production casings used at Cerro Prieto from 1964 to date has shown that the following casings have yielded particularly impressive results: 7 5/8-in. diameter, J-55, 26 lb/ft; 7 5/8-in. diameter, K-55, 45.3 lb/ft; and 5-in. diameter, K-55, 23.2 lb/ft. These casings differ from others of the same diameter but lighter weight which were also used at the field. The results are favorable in spite of severe construction problems, especially the loss of circulation during cementing operations, which we encountered in some of the wells where these casings were used. The use of gravity-fed fine sand as packing material and the arrangement of the production and intermediate casings were important in avoiding damage due to tension-compression stresses and, above all, damage due to internal or external corrosion over time. This situation is clearly evidenced if we compare the damage to the above casings with that experienced by grade N-80 production casings, especially in a corrosive environment.

  10. Detailed microearthquake studies at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, E.L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA); McEvilly, T.V.

    1981-01-01

    There appears to be an increase in seismic activity within the Cerro Prieto production zone since early 1978. The microearthquake activity is now more or less constant at a rate of 2 to 3 events per day. The b-values within the field are significantly higher inside the production zone than are those for events on faults outside of the production region. The earthquakes seem to be controlled by the Hidalgo fault, although slight clustering was observed in the center of the main production region. The earthquakes within the production zone may reflect the reservoir dynamics associated with heat and mass withdrawal. Mechanisms such as volume change, thermal stresses and weakening of materials associated with boiling (i.e., phase changes, dissolution) may all be responsible for the increased seismic activity. Although a small reinjection program has started, the pressure drawdown conditions existing within the field would imply that increased pore pressure resulting from the injection activities is not responsible for the increased seismic activity.

  11. Measured ground-surface movements, Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley, 30 kilometers southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, incurred slight deformation because of the extraction of hot water and steam, and probably, active tectonism. During 1977 to 1978, the US Geological Survey established and measured two networks of horizontal control in an effort to define both types of movement. These networks consisted of: (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from stations on an existing US Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border; and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the present and planned geothermal production area. Electronic distance measuring instruments were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks in 1978, 1979 and 1981. Lines in the regional net averaged 25 km. in length and the standard deviation of an individual measurement is estimated to be approx. 0.3 part per million of line length. The local network was measured using different instrumentation and techniques. The average line length was about 5 km. and the standard deviation of an individual measurement approached 3 parts per million per line length. Ground-surface movements in the regional net, as measured by both the 1979 and 1981 resurveys, were small and did not exceed the noise level. The 1979 resurvey of the local net showed an apparent movement of 2 to 3 centimeters inward toward the center of the production area. This apparent movement was restricted to the general limits of the production area. The 1981 resurvey of the local net did not show increased movement attributable to fluid extraction.

  12. Genesis and evolution of the Cerro Prieto Volcanic Complex, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, L.; Macías, J. L.; Sosa-Ceballos, G.; Arce, J. L.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Saucedo, R.; Avellán, D. R.; Rangel, E.; Layer, P. W.; López-Loera, H.; Rocha, V. S.; Cisneros, G.; Reyes-Agustín, G.; Jiménez, A.; Benowitz, J. A.

    2017-06-01

    The Cerro Prieto Volcanic Complex (CPVC), located in northwestern Mexico, is the only surface manifestation of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, the third largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. This geothermal field and the Salton Sea in the USA sit in a pull-apart basin that belongs to the trans-tensional tectonic zone that includes the San Andreas Fault system and the Salton Trough basin to the NW and the East Pacific Rise to the SE. In spite of its strategic importance in the generation of geothermal energy, the origin of Cerro Prieto and its relationship with the geothermal reservoir were unknown. In this contribution, we discuss the origin, evolution, and mechanisms of formation of this small monogenetic volcano and the magmas that fed the system. The volcanic complex is located on top of the Cerro Prieto left lateral fault to the northwest of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. The complex consists of a lava cone and a series of domes (˜0.15 km3) protruding from Tertiary sandstones and recent unconsolidated sediments of the alluvial plain of the Colorado River. The Cerro Prieto Volcanic Complex consists of seven stratigraphic units emplaced in a brief time span around 78-81 ka. Its activity began with the extrusion of a dacitic lava that came into contact with water-saturated sediments, causing brecciation of the lava. The activity continued with the emplacement of dacitic domes and a dyke that were destroyed by a phreatic explosion emplacing a lithic-rich breccia. This phreatic explosion formed a 300-m-wide and 40-m-deep circular crater. The activity then migrated ˜650 m to the SW where three dacitic lava domes were extruded and ended with the emplacement of a fissure-fed lava flow. Subsequent remobilization of the rocks in the complex has generated debris and hyperconcentrated flow deposits interbedded with fluviatile sediments in the surrounding terrain. All rocks of the CPVC are dacites with phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and Fe

  13. Two-phase characteristics of the feeding fluid of Cerro Prieto IV wells (Mexico) obtained by gas equilibrium; Caracteristicas bifasicas del fluido de alimentacion de pozos de Cerro Prieto IV (Mexico), obtenidas por equilibrio gaseoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan-Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano-Gomez, Victor Manuel; Portugal-Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); De Leon-Vivar, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)

    2008-10-15

    The gas composition of fluids produced by CP IV geothermal wells from the Cerro Prieto field was studied in order to identify different types of fluids entering the wells by estimating their temperature and excess steam. A method based on the Fischer Tropsch reaction and H2S equilibrium with pyrite-pyrrhotite as mineral buffer (FTHSH3) was used. The results for the reservoir natural state indicated the presence of fluids with heterogeneous reservoir temperature (between 275 and 310 degrees Celsius) and excess steam values, which were found from negative (boiled liquid that has lost steam when flowing to the well) to one (steam phase with zero liquid saturation). The study for individual wells in which boiling processes were identified, showed that through time, the feeding fluids consist of a two-phase mixture with different liquid/steam proportions. Also, the results suggested that a steam phase could occur at CP IV which is added to the feeding fluid, depending on the operation conditions of the wells. The origin of this steam could be the boiling of the deeper liquid due to a pressure drop. [Spanish] Se estudio la composicion gaseosa de los fluidos producidos por pozos geotermicos del sector CP IV del campo de Cerro Prieto para tratar de distinguir aportes de fluidos diferentes mediante la estimacion de su temperatura de yacimiento y del exceso de vapor. Se utilizo un metodo de equilibrio gaseoso basado en la reaccion de Fischer Tropsch y el equilibrio combinado pirita-pirrotita (FT-HSH3). Los resultados obtenidos indican que en el estado inicial del yacimiento existen fluidos que muestran heterogeneidad en los valores de temperatura de yacimiento (entre 275 y 310 grados Celsius), asi como en el exceso de vapor con valores desde negativos (liquido que despues de ebullir ha perdido vapor en su trayecto hacia el pozo) hasta uno (vapor con cero saturacion de liquido). El estudio individual de los pozos con fenomenos de ebullicion muestra que a traves del tiempo

  14. Analysis of two catalogues of seismicity at the Cerro Prieto geothermal area (Baja California) from 1988 to 1995, relationship with reinjection; Analisis de dos catalogos de sismicidad en el area geotermica de Cerro Prieto (Baja California) de 1988 a 1995, relacion con la reinyeccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabriol, Hubert [Centro de Investigacion y de Ensenanza Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Ensenada (Mexico)

    1996-09-01

    In order to study the effects of fluid reinjection in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, started in 1989, seismicity recorded in this area and included in the USGS-Caltech (California Technology) (US) and the Red Sismologica del Noreste de Mexico (RESNOM) of the Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Ensenanza Superior (CICESE, Mexico) catalogues is reviewed since 1988. The precision of determination of epicenters is compared with the location of moderate events recorded by a local array, setup around Cerro Prieto since August 1994. We note a bias in both catalogues, as events located by USGS-Caltech are shifted between 5 to 10 km towards south and events of RESNOM are shifted between 4 to 8 km towards northeast. That limits the use of these catalogues for precise studies of reinjection effects in the geothermal field. Seismic activity is low until 1991 and increases afterwards, particularly in 1993 and 1995. Comparison of USGS-Caltech catalogue with changes in reinjection flow rates show at beginning of 1995 only one example of short-range effect between reinjection and seismicity (but using the epicenter determination of the local network) and possibly several medium-range effects (between 6 and 8 months). In that case, the flow rate increase corresponding to the beginning of winter, could be followed by one or more events of magnitude ranging from Ml=3 to Ml=4 during midsummer. Taking into account the tectonic context of the area, it is also possible that those event could be associated either to Cerro Prieto fault or to the spreading center source of the thermal anomaly. The continuous monitoring with a local network will allow to precise those preliminary results, obtained with regional networks. [Espanol] Como parte del estudio sobre los efectos de la reinyeccion de fluido en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, iniciado en 1989, se analiza de manera critica la sismicidad registrada en el area y reportada en los catalogos de USGS-Caltech (Tecnologico de

  15. Progress report on LBL's numerical modeling studies on Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfman-Dooley, S.E.; Lippman, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1989-04-01

    An exploitation model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system is needed to assess the energy capacity of the field, estimate its productive lifetime and develop an optimal reservoir management plan. The model must consider the natural state (i.e., pre-exploitation) conditions of the system and be able to predict changes in the reservoir thermodynamic conditions (and fluid chemistry) in response to fluid production (and injection). This paper discusses the results of a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the natural state conditions of the Cerro Prieto field and compares computed and observed pressure and temperature/enthalpy changes for the 1973--1987 production period. 16 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Case history report on East Mesa and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, DG.; Sanyal, S.K.

    1979-06-01

    Well log analysis as applied to the geothermal industry is one of the areas of technology in great need of further development. One means of improving log analysis technology is to study case histories of the past uses of log analysis as applied to specific fields. The project described in this report involved case history studies on two well-known geothermal areas in North America: the East Mesa field in California and the Cerro Prieto field in Mexico. Since there was considerably more pertinent material available on East Mesa, a major part of the effort on this project was devoted to studying the East Mesa field. One particular problem that first came to attention when studying the Cerro Prieto data was the difficulty in determining actual formation temperature at the time of logging. Since the temperature can have a significant effect on well log readings, an accurate temperature determination was considered to be important.

  17. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field based on well log interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwe, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-08-10

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine the direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.

  18. Relationship between water chemistry and sediment mineralogy in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette-Silver, J.N. (Univ. de Perpignan, France); Thompson, J.M.; Ball, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical compositions of waters collected from the Cerro Prieto geothermal production wells and hydrothermal emanations are different. Compared to the Cerro Prieto well waters, the surficial waters generally contain significantly less potassium, slightly less calcium and chloride, and significantly more magnesium and sulfate. In comparison to the unaltered sediments, the changes in the mineralogy of the altered sediments appear to be controlled by the type of emanation (well, spring, mud pot, geyser, fumarole, or cold pool). However, an increase in quartz and potassium feldspar percentages seems to be characteristic of the majority of the sediments in contact with geothermal fluids. Preliminary attempts to model the chemical processes occurring in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field using chemical equilibrium calculations are reported. For this purpose the chemical compositions of thermal waters (well and surficial emanation) were used as input data to make calculations with SOLMNEQ and WATEQ2 computer programs. Then the theoretical mineral composition of altered sediments was predicted and compared to the mineralogy actually observed in the solid samples.

  19. Evolution of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system as interpreted from vitrinite reflectance under isothermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, C.E. (US Geological Survey, Denver, CO); Pawlewicz, M.J.; Bostick, N.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Temperature estimates from reflectance data in the Cerro Prieto system correlate with modern temperature logs and temperature estimates from fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope geothermometry indicating that the temperature in the central portion of the Cerro Prieto System is now at its historical maximum. Isoreflectance lines formed by contouring vitrinite reflectance data for a given isothermal surface define an imaginary surface that indicates an apparent duration of heating in the system. The 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface has a complex dome-like form suggesting a localized heat source that has caused shallow heating in the central portion of this system. Isoreflectance lines relative to this 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface define a zone of low reflectance roughly corresponding to the crest of the isothermal surface. Comparison of these two surfaces suggest that the shallow heating in the central portion of Cerro Prieto is young relative to the heating (to 250/sup 0/C) on the system margins. Laboratory and theoretical models of hydrothermal convection cells suggest that the form of the observed 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface and the reflectance surface derived relative to it results from the convective rise of thermal fluids under the influence of a regional hydrodynamic gradient that induces a shift of the hydrothermal heating effects to the southwest.

  20. The aggressiveness of the geothermal steam controlled; La agresividad del vapor geotermico controlada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    The first two units of Cerro Prieto have generated electric energy since 1973; in 1988 completed 15 years of continuous operation, without corrosion problems in the turbines in spite of the utilization of geothermal steam. The experience and the good results obtained during the first years of operation of these two units of 37.5 MW each, were of great help for the Cerro Prieto extension, having as of this date an installed capacity of 620 MW. [Espanol] Las dos primeras unidades de Cerro Prieto han generado energia electrica desde 1973; cumplieron 15 anos de operacion continua en 1988, sin problemas de corrosion en las turbinas a pesar del uso de vapor geotermico. La experiencia y los buenos resultados obtenidos durante los primeros anos de operacion de estas dos unidades de 37.5 MW cada una fueron de gran apoyo para la aplicacion de Cerro Prieto, teniendose a la fecha 620 MW de capacidad instalada.

  1. Hydraulic model and steam flow numerical simulation of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico, pipeline network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Gutiérrez, A.; Hernández, A.F.; Martínez, J.I.; Ceceñas, M.; Ovando, R.; Canchola, I.

    2015-01-01

    The development of a hydraulic model and numerical simulation results of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CPGF) steam pipeline network are presented. Cerro Prieto is the largest water-dominant geothermal field in the world and its transportation network has 162 producing wells, connected through a network of pipelines that feeds 13 power-generating plants with an installed capacity of 720 MWe. The network is about 125 km long and has parallel high- and low-pressure networks. Prior to this study, it was suspected that steam flow stagnated or reversed from its planned direction in some segments of the network. Yet, the network complexity and extension complicated the analysis of steam transport for adequate delivery to the power plants. Thus, a hydraulic model of the steam transportation system was developed and implemented numerically using an existing simulator, which allowed the overall analysis of the network in order to quantify the pressure and energy losses as well as the steam flow direction in every part of the network. Numerical results of the high-pressure network were obtained which show that the mean relative differences between measured and simulated pressures and flowrates are less than 10%, which is considered satisfactory. Analysis of results led to the detection of areas of opportunity and to the recommendation of changes for improving steam transport. A main contribution of the present work is having simulated satisfactorily the longest (to our knowledge), and probably the most complex, steam pipeline network in the world. - Highlights: • Extensive literature review of flow models of geothermal steam gathering networks. • Hydraulic model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field steam network. • Selection and validation of the employed pressure-drop model. • Numerical flow simulation of the world's largest geothermal steam gathering network. • Detailed network pressure drop analysis and mapping of steam flow distribution

  2. Session 10: The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico: The Experiences Gained from Its Exploration and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippman, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Cerro Prieto case study demonstrated the value of a multidisciplinary effort for exploring and developing a geothermal field. There was no problem in recognizing the geothermal potential of the Cerro Prieto area because of the many obvious surface manifestations. However, the delineation of the geothermal reservoir at depth was not so straightforward. Wells drilled near the abundant surface manifestations only produced fluids of relatively low enthalpy. Later it was determined that these zones of high heat loss corresponded to discharge areas where faults and fractures allowed thermal fluids to leak to the surface, and not to the main geothermal reservoir. The early gravity and seismic refraction surveys provided important information on the general structure of the area. Unaware of the existence of a higher density zone of hydrothermally altered sediments capping the geothermal reservoir, CFE interpreted a basement horst in the western part of the field and hypothesized that the bounding faults were controlling the upward flow of thermal fluids. Attempting to penetrate the sedimentary column to reach the ''basement horst'', CFE discovered the {alpha} geothermal reservoir (in well M-5). The continuation of the geothermal aquifer (actually the {beta} reservoir) east of the original well field was later confirmed by a deep exploration well (M-53). The experience of Cerro Prieto showed the importance of chemical ratios, and geothermometers in general, in establishing the subsurface temperatures and fluid flow patterns. Fluid chemical and isotopic compositions have also been helpful to determine the origin of the fluids, fluid-production mechanisms and production induced effects on the reservoir.

  3. Overview of the Mexican-American cooperative program at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, M. J.; Zelwer, R.

    1982-09-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is coordinating the US technical activities being carried out at Cerro Prieto under a five-year agreement between the US Department of Energy and the Comission Federal de Electricidad de Mexico. This agreement, signed in July 1977, is expected to expire in July 1982. Efforts are being made to continue some of the research beyond the formal termination of the agreement. A description of the program, which involves studies of geology, geophysics, hydrodynamics, subsidence, geothermal wells and reservoirs, and aquifers, is discussed.

  4. Two-dimensional modeling of apparent resistivity pseudosections in the Cerro Prieto region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, R.; Martinez, M.

    1981-01-01

    Using a finite-difference program (Dey, 1976) for two-dimensional modeling of apparent resistivity pseudosections obtained by different measuring arrays, four apparent resistivity pseudosections obtained at Cerro Prieto with a Schlumberger array by CFE personnel were modeled (Razo, 1978). Using geologic (Puente and de la Pena, 1978) and lithologic (Diaz, et al., 1981) data from the geothermal region, models were obtained which show clearly that, for the actual resistivity present in the zone, the information contained in the measured pseudosections is primarily due to the near-surface structure and does not show either the presence of the geothermal reservoir or the granitic basement which underlies it.

  5. A preliminary interpretation of gas composition in the CP IV sector wells, Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor M; Portugal Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Perez Hernandez, Alfredo; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco Helio; Leon Vivar, Jesus de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General Cerro Prieto, B.C. (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    -temperature fluids descending through the H fault to the reservoir was inferred, since results for the wells affected by this process (located at the center of the CP IV area) showed small or negative excess steam values and slightly lower temperatures (265-270 degrees Celsius). [Spanish] A fin de aumentar la capacidad de generacion de 620 a 720 MW, se desarrollo el sector Cerro Prieto IV (CP IV) en la porcion NE del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, donde se perforaron catorce pozos nuevos a partir del ano 2000. Los pozos de la zona de CP IV producen fluidos bifasicos con caracteristicas heterogeneas en cuanto a la fraccion de vapor: en la porcion central y hacia el NW los pozos producen liquido dominante mientras que hacia el E y S producen una fraccion de vapor relativamente alta. En este trabajo se estudia la composicion gaseosa de los fluidos producidos para obtener parametros del yacimiento tales como la temperatura y la fraccion de vapor e identificar diferentes aportes de fluidos a los pozos. Se utilizo un metodo basado en la reaccion de Fischer Tropsch y el equilibrio del H{sub 2}S con pirita-pirrotita como amortiguador (FT-HSH3). Los resultados para el estado inicial indican que existen fluidos con temperaturas de yacimiento entre 275 y 310 grados Celsius asi valores de exceso de vapor entre -1 y 50%. Los resultados se alinean en un patron de mezcla FT-HSH3 que sugiere que los pozos descargan una mezcla de los dos miembros finales en diferentes proporciones. Uno de ellos parece ser un liquido con una temperatura superior a los 300 grados Celsius con exceso de vapor negativo o insignificante. El otro parece ser un fluido bifasico con temperatura de unos 275 grados Celsius y un exceso de fraccion de vapor de aproximadamente 0.5. De acuerdo con datos de cada pozo y dependiendo de las condiciones de produccion de cada uno, pueden ocurrir mezclas de fluidos con diferentes proporciones de liquido y vapor en el yacimiento. Datos de 2005 de pozos perforados despues del ano 2000

  6. Reservoir Simulation on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field: A Continuing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, M.; Marquez, R.; Arellano, V.; Esquer, C.A.

    1983-12-15

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field is a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of complex geological and hydrological structure. It is located at the southern end of the Salton-Mexicali trough which includes other geothermal anomalies as Heber and East Mesa. Although in 1973, the initial power plant installed capacity was 75 MW of electrical power, this amount increased to 180 MW in 1981 as field development continued. It is expected to have a generating capacity of 620 MW by the end of 1985, when two new plants will be completely in operation. Questions about field deliverability, reservoir life and ultimate recovery related to planned installations are being presently asked. Numerical modeling studies can give very valuable answers to these questions, even at the early stages in the development of a field. An effort to simulate the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir has been undergoing for almost two years. A joint project among Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Intercomp of Houstin, Texas, was created to perform reservoir engineering and simulation studies on this field. The final project objective is tosimulate the behavior of the old field region when production from additional wells located in the undeveloped field zones will be used for feeding the new power plants.

  7. Extension of the Cerro Prieto field and zones in the Mexicali Valley with geothermal possibilities in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca L, H.L.; de la Pena L, A.; Puente C, I.; Diaz C, E.

    1981-01-01

    This study concerns the possible extension of the Cerro Prieto field and identification of other zones in the Mexicali Valley with geothermal development potential by assessing the structural geologic conditions in relation to the regional tectonic framework and the integration of geologic and geophysical surveys carried out at Cerro Prieto. This study is based on data obtained from the wells drilled to date and the available geological and geophysical information. With this information, a geologic model of the field is developed as a general description of the geometry of what might be the geothermal reservoir of the Cerro Prieto field. In areas with geothermal potential within the Mexicali Valley, the location of irrigation wells with anomalous temperatures was taken as a point of departure for subsequent studies. Based on this initial information, gravity and magnetic surveys were made, followed by seismic reflection and refraction surveys and the drilling of 1200-m-deep multiple-use wells. Based on the results of the final integration of these studies with the geology of the region, it is suggested that the following areas should be explored further: east of Cerro Prieto, Tulecheck, Riito, Aeropuerto-Algodones, and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora.

  8. Microfaunal evidence of age and depositional environments of the Cerro Prieto section (Plio-Pleistocene), Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingle, J.C. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Microfossils including benthic and planktic foraminifera, ostracodes, calcareous algae, fish skeletal material, and fragments of pelecypods were found in 14 core samples from depths of 185 to 1952 m in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, providing evidence of both the age and depositional history of sediments comprising the 3000-m-thick Pliocene and Pleistocene section in this area. Ostracodes of brackish water and marine origin constitute the most common microfossils present in this sequence occurring in 8 samples; in situ littoral and neritic species of benthic foraminifera occur in 5 samples with planktic species present in 2 samples. Distributional patterns of ostracodes and foraminifera together with previously analyzed lithofacies (Lyons and van de Kamp, 1980) indicate that the Cerro Prieto section represents an intertonguing complex of alluvial, deltaic, estuarine, and shallow marine environments deposited along the front of the Colorado River delta as it prograded across the Salton Trough during Pliocene and Pleistocene time. Foraminiferal evidence indicates that a sand and shale unit commonly present at depths between 700 and 1100 m represents a significant mid-Pleistocene marine incursion in the Cerro Prieto area. Tentative correlation of the Cerro Prieto section with the well dated Palm Springs Formation of the Imperial Valley, California area suggests that the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary occurs at a depth of approximately 2000 m in the area of well M-93. Reworked specimens of Cretaceous foraminifera and fragments of the Cretaceous pelecypod Inoceramus were found in five samples further substantiating the Colorado Plateau provenance of a significant portion of the Colorado River deltaic sediments in the Cerro Prieto area.

  9. Dynamics of a geothermal field traced by noble gases: Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazor, E. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot, Israel); Truesdell, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Noble gases have been measured mass spectrometrically in samples collected during 1977 from producing wells at Cerro Prieto. Positive correlations between concentrations of radiogenic (He, /sup 40/Ar) and atmospheric noble gases (Ne, Ar, and Kr) suggest the following dynamic model: the geothermal fluids originated from meteoric water penetrated to more than 2500 m depth (below the level of first boiling) and mixed with radiogenic helium and argon-40 formed in the aquifer rocks. Subsequently, small amounts of steam were lost by a Raleigh process (0 to 3%) and mixing with shallow cold water occurred (0 to 30%). Noble gases are sensitive tracers of boiling in the initial stages of 0 to 3% steam separation and complement other tracers, such as Cl or temperature, which are effective only beyond this range.

  10. Hydrothermal alteration of sediments associated with surface emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Esquer P., I.; Elders, W.A.; Collier, P.C.; Hoagland, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the mineralogical changes associated with these hydrothermal vents was initiated with the aim of developing possible exploration tools for geothermal resources. The Cerro Prieto reservoir has already been explored by extensive deep drilling so that relationships between surface manifestations and deeper hydrothermal processes could be established directly. Approximately 120 samples of surface sediments were collected both inside and outside of the vents. The mineralogy of the altered sediments studied appears to be controlled by the type of emission. A comparison between the changes in mineralogy due to low temperature hydrothermal activity in the reservoir, seen in samples from boreholes, and mineralogical changes in the surface emission samples shows similar general trends below 180 C: increase of quartz, feldspar and illite, with subsequent disappearance of kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite and dolomite. These mineral assemblages seem to be characteristic products of the discharge from high intensity geothermal fields.

  11. Comments on some of the drilling and completion problems in Cerro Prieto geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A, B.; Sanchez G, G.

    1981-01-01

    From 1960 to the present, 85 wells with a total drilling length exceeding 160,000 m have been constructed at Cerro Prieto, a modest figure compared to an oil field. This activity took place in five stages, each characterized by changes and modifications required by various drilling and well-completion problems. Initially, the technical procedures followed were similar to those used in the oil industry. However, several problems emerged as a result of the relatively high temperatures found in the geothermal reservoir. The various problems that have been encountered can be considered to be related to drilling fluids, cements and cementing operations, lithology, geothermal fluid characteristics, and casings and their accessories. As the importance of high temperatures and the characteristics of the geothermal reservoir fluids were better understood, the criteria were modified to optimize well-completion operations, and satisfactory results have been achieved to date.

  12. Research on the use of waste silica from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, J.W.; Boyd, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Geo-Heat Center has been investigating the utilization of waste silica from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field for several years. The main objectives of the research were to combine silica with various additives to (1) form bricks for low cost housing, and (2) to produce a suitable road surfacing material. The various additives that were tested included hydrated lime, portland cement, plastic fibers, asphalt cement and emulsified asphalt. The silica-cement combination produced the strongest bricks and had the best weather resistance, whereas, the silica-lime combination produced the bricks with the lowest thermal conductivity and specific gravity density. The addition of plastic fibers to the silica-lime mixture improved both strength and weather resistance. The combination of asphalt and silica is not suitable as a road surfacing material, however, silica-cement appears promising.

  13. Update of the hydrogeologic model of the Cerro Prieto field based on recent well data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfman, S.E.; Manon, A.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The hydrogeologic model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Baja California, Mexico has been updated and modified on the basis of geologic and reservoir engineering data from 21 newly completed wells. Previously, only two reservoirs had been discovered: the shallow ..cap alpha.. reservoir and the deeper ..beta.. reservoir. Recently, three deep wells drilled east of the main wellfield penetrated a third geothermal reservoir (called the ..gamma.. reservoir) below the sandstones corresponding to the ..beta.. reservoir in the main part of the field. The new well data delimit the ..beta.. reservoir, confirm the important role of Fault H in controlling the flow of geothermal fluids, and enable us to refine the hydrogeologic model of the field.

  14. Oxygen isotope exchange in rocks and minerals from the Cerro Prieto geothermal system: Indicators of temperature distribution and fluid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.E.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic compositions have been measured in drill cuttings and core samples from more than 40 wells ranging in depth to more than 3.5 km in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Profiles of isotopic ratios versus sampling depths provide information on the three-dimensional distribution of temperature and fluid flow. These parameters also indicate variations in the history of hydrothermal processes in different areas of the geothermal field.

  15. Repetitive precision gravity studies at the Cerro Prieto and Heber geothermal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannell, R. B.

    1982-09-01

    To study subsidence and mass removal, a precise gravity network was established on 60 permanent monuments in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in early 1978, and repeated annually through early 1981; the survey was tied to two bedrock sites outside the limits of the current production zone. The looping technique of station occupation was utilized, in which occupation of the base was followed by occupation of several stations, followed by a return to the base. Use of two LaCoste and Romberg gravity meters, and replication of values within loops as well as entire loops, enhanced precision such that the median standard deviations of the base-to-station differences, reduced to observed gravity values, ranged from 7 to 15 microgals for individual surveys. The smaller values were obtained as field and data reduction techniques were improved and experience was gained. A similar survey was initiated in the Heber area just north of the Mexican border in early 1980. It too was established on permanent monuments, was tied to bedrock stations outside the geothermal area, and used multiple repetitions of values with two meters to achieve high precision.

  16. Preliminary isotopic studies of fluids from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Rye, R.O.; Pearson, F.J.; Olson, E.R.; Nehring, N.L.; Whelan, J.F.; Huebner, M.A.; Coplen, T.B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary isotopic studies of Cerro Prieto geothermal fluids and earlier studies of Mexicali Valley ground waters suggest local recharge of the geothermal system from the area immediately to the west. Oxygen isotope exchange of water with reservoir rock minerals at temperatures increasing with depth has produced fluids with oxygen-18 contents increasing with depth, and pressure drawdown in the southeastern part of the field has allowed lower oxygen-18 fluids to invade the production aquifer from above. The contents of tritium and carbon-14 in the fluid suggest only that the age of the fluid is between 50 and 10,000 years. The isotopic compositions of carbon and sulfur are consistent with a magmatic origin of these elements but a mixed sedimentary-organic origin appears more likely for carbon and is also possible for sulfur. Investigations of the isotopic compositions of geothermal and cold ground waters continue and are being expanded as fluids become available and as separation and analysis methods are improved. ?? 1979.

  17. Numerical Studies of the Heat and Mass Transport in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, M. J.; Bodavarsson, G. S.

    1983-06-01

    Numerical simulation techniques are employed in studies of the natural flow of heat and mass through the Cerro Prieto reservoir, Mexico and of the effects of exploitation on the field's behavior. The reservoir model is a two-dimensional vertical east to west-southwest cross section, which is based on a recent hydrogeologic model of this geothermal system. The numerical code MULKOM is used in the simulation studies. The steady state pressure and temperature distributions are computed and compared against observed preproduction pressures and temperatures; a reasonable match is obtained. A natural hot water recharge rate of about 1×10-2 kg/s per meter of field length (measured in a north-south direction) is obtained. The model is then used to simulate the behavior of the field during the 1973-1978 production period. The response of the model to fluid extraction agrees to what has been observed in the field or postulated by other authors. There is a decrease in temperatures and pressures in the produced region. No extensive two-phase zone develops in the reservoir because of the strong fluid recharge. Most of the fluid recharging the system comes from colder regions located above and west of the produced reservoir.

  18. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area.

  19. Application of oil-field well log interpretation techniques to the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershaghi, I.; Phillips, L.B.; Dougherty, E.L.; Handy, L.L.

    1979-10-01

    An example is presented of the application of oil-field techniques to the Cerro Prieto Field, Mexico. The lithology in this field (sand-shale lithology) is relatively similar to oil-field systems. The study was undertaken as a part of the first series of case studies supported by the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program (GLIP) of the US Department of Energy. The suites of logs for individual wells were far from complete. This was partly because of adverse borehole conditions but mostly because of unavailability of high-temperature tools. The most complete set of logs was a combination of Dual Induction Laterolog, Compensated Formation Density Gamma Ray, Compensated Neutron Log, and Saraband. Temperature data about the wells were sketchy, and the logs had been run under pre-cooled mud condition. A system of interpretation consisting of a combination of graphic and numerical studies was used to study the logs. From graphical studies, evidence of hydrothermal alteration may be established from the trend analysis of SP (self potential) and ILD (deep induction log). Furthermore, the cross plot techniques using data from density and neutron logs may help in establishing compaction as well as rock density profile with depth. In the numerical method, R/sub wa/ values from three different resistivity logs were computed and brought into agreement. From this approach, values of formation temperature and mud filtrate resistivity effective at the time of logging were established.

  20. Two-dimensional inversion of resistivity monitoring data from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Sasaki, Y.; Wilt, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    Two-dimensional iterative, least-squares inversions were performed on dc resistivity data obtained over the Cerro Prieto geothermal field at five successive times during the 1979-1983 period. The data were taken on a 20-km-long control line centered over the production region. Inversions were performed on the apparent resistivities after they were converted to percent changes in apparent resistivity relative to the base year data of 1979. The resulting solutions gave the percent change in resistivity within each of 47 rectangular blocks representing the reservoir and recharge regions. These changes are compared to and found consistent with hydrogeologic and recharge models proposed by other workers on the basis of geophysical well logs, well cuttings, well production, geochemical and reservoir engineering data. The solutions support the model of a reservoir that is being recharged mainly by cooler, less saline water, causing changes in both pore fluid resistivity and the extent of boiling near the wells. There may be a component of high-temperature recharge from below and to the east, but flow may be impeded by a two-phase zone. Notwithstanding the various sources of error and uncertainty in the data acquisition and 2-D inversions, repetitive, high precision dc resistivity monitoring seems to be a useful method for assessing reservoir conditions when used in conjunction with production and reservoir engineering data and analyses. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Long-term dipole-dipole resistivity monitoring at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilt, M.; Goldstein, N.E.; Sasaki, Y.

    1984-04-01

    Dipole-dipole resistivity measurements for the combined purposes of reservoir delineation and reservoir monitoring were first made at Cerro Prieto in 1978 and have continued on approximately an annual basis since then. Two 20 km-long dipole-dipole lines with permanently emplaced electrodes at 1-km spacings were established over the field area. Resistivity remeasurements have been made on one line at 6- to 18-month intervals using a 25 kW generator capable of up to 80A output and a microprocessor-controlled signal-averaging receiver. This high-power, low-noise system provides highly accurate measurements even at large transmitter receiver separations. Standard error calculations for collected data indicate errors less than 5% for all points. Results from four years of monitoring (1979-1983) indicate a 5% average annual increase in apparent resistivity over the present production area, and larger decreases in apparent resistivity in the region to the east. The increase in resistivity in the production zone is most likely due to dilution of reservoir fluids with fresher water, as evidenced by a drop in chloride content of produced waters. The area of decreasing resistivity east of the reservoir is associated with a steeply dipping conductive body, a zone of higher thermal gradients and an increase in shale thickness in the section. Decreasing resistivity in this area may be caused by an influx of high temperature, saline water from depths of 3/sup +/ km through a sandy gap in the shales.

  2. Production induced boiling and cold water entry in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir indicated by chemical and physical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, M.A. (DSIR, Wellington, New Zealand); Truesdell, A.H.; Manon, A.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical and physical data suggest that the relatively shallow western part of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is bounded below by low permeability rocks, and above and at the sides by an interface with cooler water. There is no continuous permeability barrier around or immediately above the reservoir. Permeability within the reservoir is dominantly intergranular. Mixture with cooler water rather than boiling is the dominant cooling process in the natural state, and production causes displacement of hot water by cooler water, not by vapor. Local boiling occurs near most wells in response to pressure decreases, but no general vapor zone has formed.

  3. Oxygen isotope exchange in rocks and minerals from the Cerro Prieto geothermal system: Indicators of temperature distribution and fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. E.; Elders, W. A.

    1981-12-01

    Paleotemperatures different from the present thermal regime were studied by examining coexisting mineral systems which exchanged their oxygen with the geothermal brines at different rates. Oxygen isotopic compositions were measured in drill cuttings and core and core samples from more than 40 wells. Oxygen isotopic profiles of pore filling calcites in sandstones are a measure of the recent equilibrium temperature distribution. A three dimensional map was developed, showing the equilibrium temperatures in the geothermal field. A mass balance calculation was performed using measured 18O enrichment of the geothermal brine. This calculation implies an overall water; rock volume ratio of approximately 3:1 during the history of the Cerro Prieto system.

  4. Fault Length Vs Fault Displacement Evaluation In The Case Of Cerro Prieto Pull-Apart Basin (Baja California, Mexico) Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Nava Pichardo, F. A.; Farfan, F.; Garcia Arthur, M. A.; Orozco, L.; Brassea, J.

    2013-05-01

    The Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin is located in the southern part of San Andreas Fault system, and is characterized by high seismicity, recent volcanism, tectonic deformation and hydrothermal activity (Lomnitz et al, 1970; Elders et al., 1984; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008). Since the Cerro Prieto geothermal field production started, in 1973, significant subsidence increase was observed (Glowacka and Nava, 1996, Glowacka et al., 1999), and a relation between fluid extraction rate and subsidence rate has been suggested (op. cit.). Analysis of existing deformation data (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, Sarychikhina 2011) points to the fact that, although the extraction changes influence the subsidence rate, the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. Tectonic faults act as water barriers in the direction perpendicular to the fault, and/or separate regions with different compaction, and as effect the significant part of the subsidence is released as vertical displacement on the ground surface along fault rupture. These faults ruptures cause damages to roads and irrigation canals and water leakage. Since 1996, a network of geotechnical instruments has operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. To date, the network (REDECVAM: Mexicali Valley Crustal Strain Measurement Array) includes two crackmeters and eight tiltmeters installed on, or very close to, the main faults; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 minutes range. Additionally, there are benchmarks for measuring vertical fault displacements for which readings are recorded every 3 months. Since the crackmeter measures vertical displacement on the fault at one place only, the question appears: can we use the crackmeter data to evaluate how long is the lenth of the fractured fault, and how quickly it grows, so we can know where we can expect fractures in the canals or roads? We used the Wells and Coppersmith (1994) relations between

  5. Movement of geothermal fluid in the Cerro Prieto field as determined from well log and reservoir engineering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwer, R.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrogeologic model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in its undisturbed state, developed on the basis of well log and reservoir engineering data, is discussed. According to this model, geothermal fluid enters the field from the east through a deep (>10,000 ft) sandstone aquifer which is overlain by a thick shale unit which locally prevents the upward migration of the fluid. As it flows westward, the fluid gradually rises through faults and sandy gaps in the shale unit. Eventually, some of the fluid leaks to the surface in the western part of the field, while the rest mixes with surrounding colder waters.

  6. Use of silica waste from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field as construction material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, J.W.; Boyd, T.; Monnie, D.

    1995-02-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field generates 620 MW of electric power and in the process produces 11,000 tonnes of brine per hour that is disposed of in surface ponds. Approximately 1300 tonnes of silica waste is the residual product from this hourly production of brine. At present, there is no use for this waste silica. Some experimental work has been undertaken by CFE to utilize this waste silica such as for surfacing roads with a cement-silica mixture and making bricks with various additives. However, none of this research has been documented. Approximately two years ago, a joint USDOE/CFE research project was proposed to investigate the use of the waste silica. The proposal included using the silica mixed with asphalt and cement to produce a suitable road surfacing material, and to combine the silica with various additives to be used as bricks for low cost housing. It was thought, that the low specific gravity of the silica and the proposed mixtures would give the bricks a high insulating value (low-thermal conductivity), thus protecting the residents from high solar heating, typical of Baja California and the area around Mexicali. Finally, since the geothermal fields of the area extend into the Imperial Valley of California where 420 MW of geothermal power is generated, it was hoped that this research would also be applicable to the U.S. side of the border. Some attempt has been made by UNOCAL at their Imperial Valley plant (now owned by Magma Power) to use the waste silica stabilized with cement for roads and dikes around the plant.

  7. Paleomagnetism of the Quaternary Cerro Prieto, Crater Elegante, and Salton Buttes volcanic domes in the northern part of the Gulf of California rhombochasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, J.

    1980-02-01

    Deviating thermomagnetic directions in volcanics representing the second and fifth or sixth pulse of volcanism suggest that the Cerro Prieto volcano originated about 110,000 years B.P. and continued to be active intermittently until about 10,000 years ago.

  8. Land subsidence in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, 1 Baja California, Mexico, from 1994 to 2005. An integrated analysis of DInSAR, levelingand geological data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarychikhina, O; Glowacka, E; Mellors, R; Vidal, F S

    2011-03-03

    Cerro Prieto is the oldest and largest Mexican geothermal field in operation and has been producing electricity since 1973. The large amount of geothermal fluids extracted to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in considerable deformation in and around the field. The deformation includes land subsidence and related ground fissuring and faulting. These phenomena have produced severe damages to infrastructure such as roads, irrigation canals and other facilities. In this paper, the technique of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is applied using C-band ENVISAR ASAR data acquired between 2003 and 2006 to determine the extent and amount of land subsidence in the Mexicali Valley near Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. The DInSAR results were compared with published data from precise leveling surveys (1994- 1997 and 1997-2006) and detailed geological information in order to improve the understanding of temporal and spatial distributions of anthropogenic subsidence in the Mexicali Valley. The leveling and DInSAR data were modeled to characterize the observed deformation in terms of fluid extraction. The results confirm that the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. These faults likely act as groundwater flow barriers for aquifers and reservoirs. The shape of the subsiding area coincides with the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin. In addition, the spatial pattern of the subsidence as well as changes in rate are highly correlated with the development of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field.

  9. An integrated model for the natural flow regime in the Cerro Prieto hydrothermal system based upon petrological and isotope geochemical criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; Hoagland, J..

    1981-01-01

    Studies of cuttings and cores at Cerro Prieto have now been extended to more than 50 boreholes. The aims of this petrological and isotopic work are to determine the shape of the reservoir, its physical properties, and its temperature distribution and flow regime before the steam field was produced.

  10. Thermal Models of the Ocean Floor: from Wegener to Cerro Prieto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclater, J. G.; Negrete-Aranda, R.

    2017-12-01

    Wegener (1925) argued that hot rock could explain the shallower depths of ridges in the center of the Atlantic Ocean. Hess (1963) proposed that the intrusion of molten rock occurred at a world encircling mid-ocean ridge system. However, he accounted for the elevation of the ridges by the formation of serpentinite and thermal convection. Langseth et al. (1966) provided the major advance by using a 100 km thick plate to argue such a concept could not explain the depth, heat flow versus distance relations. They had the correct model but misinterpreted the data. Reformulating theoretically, McKenzie (1967) created the generally accepted thermal model for the ocean floor. Unfortunately, in attempting to match erroneously low heat flow data, he used a 50 km thick plate. Addition of the effect of water and the realization of the importance of advective flow, enabled various groups to create thermal plate models that accounted for the heat flow and depth age relations. From this came the understanding of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust, the thermal boundary layer concept of the oceanic plate and the realization that all thermal models differed only in the way the different groups had chosen to analyze the data. During the past 40 years many have applied similar concepts to continental margins: (1) Measurement of subsidence of the Atlantic margin, continental stretching and a Time Temperature, Depth and Maturation analysis of continental basins have created the field of Basin Analysis; (2) Changes in heat flow at ocean continent boundaries have determined the position of the transition and (3) In attempting to examine the ocean continent transition process in the northernmost basin of the Gulf of California, Neumann et al (in press) observed conductive heat flow values greater than 0.75 Watts, at a depth of < 150 m, along a 10 km section of a profile across the southern extension of the Cerro Prieto fault. The magnitude of these values overwhelms local

  11. Results of the first order leveling surveys in the Mexicali Valley and at the Cerro Prieto field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results obtained from the third leveling survey carried out by the Direccion General de Geografia del Territorio Nacional (previously DETENAL) during November and December 1979 are presented. Calculations of the changes in field elevation and plots showing comparisons of the 1977, 1978, and 1979 surveys are also presented. Results from a second order leveling survey performed to ascertain the extent of ground motion resulting from the 8 June 1980 earthquake are presented. This magnitude ML = 6.7 earthquake with epicenter located 15 km southeast of the Guadalupe Victoria village, caused fissures on the surface, the formation of small sand volcanos, and the ejection of ground water in the vicinity of the Cerro Prieto field. This leveling survey was carried out between benchmark BN-10067 at the intersection of the Solfatara canal and the Sonora-Baja California railroad, and benchmark BN-10055 located at the Delta station.

  12. Analysis of the Nuevo Leon magnetic anomaly and its possible relation to the Cerro Prieto magmatic-hydrothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Wilt, M.J.; Corrigan, D.J.

    1982-10-01

    The broad dipolar magnetic anomaly whose positive peak is centered near Ejido Nuevo Leon, some 5 km east of the Cerro Prieto I Power Plant, has long been suspected to have a genetic relationship to the thermal source of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system. This suspicion was reinforced after several deep geothermal wells, drilled to depths of 3 to 3.5 km over the anomaly, intersected an apparent dike-sill complex consisting mainly of diabase but with minor rhyodacite. A detailed fit of the observed magnetic field to a computer model indicates that the source may be approximated by a tabular block 4 by 6 km in area, 3.7 km in depth, 2.3 km thick, and dipping slightly to the north. Mafic dike chips from one well, NL-1, were analyzed by means of electron microprobe analyses which showed tham to contain a titanomagnetite that is paramagnetic at in-situ temperature conditions. As the dike mineralogy does not account for the magnetic anomaly, the magnetic source is believed to be a deeper, magnetite-rich assemblage of peridotite-gabbro plutons. the suite of igneous rocks was probably passively emplaced at a shallow depth in response to crustal extension and thinning brought on by strike-slip faulting. The bottom of the magnetic source body, at an estimated depth of 6 km, is presumed to be at or near that of the Curie isotherm (575/sup 0/C) for magnetite, the principal ferromagnetic mineral in peridotitic-gabbroic rocks. The geological model derived from the magnetic study is generally supported by other geophysical data. In particular, earthquake data suggest dike injection is occurring at depths of 6 to 11 km in an area beneath the magnetic source. Thus, it is possible that heat for the geothermal field is being maintained by continuing crustal extension and magmatic activity.

  13. Effects of pressure drawdown and recovery on the Cerro Prieto beta reservoir in the CP-III area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdell, A.H. [Truesdell (Alfred H.), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lippmann, M.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The production characteristics of wells in the northwestern Cerro Prieto III area changed greatly when the Cp-III power plant went on line in 1986. Fluid extraction in the field more than doubled and reservoir-wide boiling started immediately, greatly increasing the enthalpy of produced fluids. Some well fluids showed a decrease in chloride due to adiabatic steam condensation in the well and separator, and others were enriched in chloride due to boiling. As reservoir drawdown increased, entrance of cooler and more dilute groundwaters into the reservoir became evident (i.e., condensation stopped, and there was a decrease in enthalpy and chloride in produced fluids). Although some groundwater inflow was from the leaky western margin of the reservoir, the majority is in the northeast, inferred to be local and downward, possibly through more permeable zones associated with the normal fault H. This natural recharge and some reinjection have slowed and possibly reversed pressure drawdown throughout CP-III. Enthalpy has decreased and liquid saturation has increased as the steam-rich zone in the upper part of the reservoir has either disappeared or become thinner.

  14. Subsurface imaging in a sector of Cerro Prieto transform fault near to pull-apart basin, Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico, based on crooked lines 2D seismic reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares-Agüero, M. A.; González-Escobar, M.; Arregui, S.

    2016-12-01

    In the transition zone between San Andres continental transformation system and the coupled transform faults system and rifting of Gulf of California is located the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin delimitated by Imperial fault (northeast) and Cerro Prieto fault (CPF) (southwest), this last, is the limit west of Cerro Prieto geothermic field (CPGF). Crooked lines 2D seismic reflection, covering a portion near the intersection of CPF and CPGF are processed and interpreted. The seismic data were obtained in the early 80's by Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). By decades, technical and investigation works in Cerro Prieto geothermic field and its vicinity had mapped faults at several depths but do not stablish a clear limit where this faults and CPF interact due the complex hydrothermal effects imaging the subsurface. The profiles showing the presence of a zone of uplift effect due to CPF. Considering the proximity of the profiles to CPF, it is surprising almost total absence of faults. A strong reflector around 2 km of depth, it is present in all profiles. This seismic reflector is considered a layer of shale, result of the correlation with a well located in the same region.

  15. Operation and Performance of a Biphase Turbine Power Plant at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    A full scale, wellhead Biphase turbine was manufactured and installed with the balance of plant at Well 103 of the Cerro Prieto geothermal resource in Baja, California. The Biphase turbine was first synchronized with the electrical grid of Comision Federal de Electricidad on August 20, 1997. The Biphase power plant was operated from that time until May 23, 2000, a period of 2 years and 9 months. A total of 77,549 kWh were delivered to the grid. The power plant was subsequently placed in a standby condition pending replacement of the rotor with a newly designed, higher power rotor and replacement of the bearings and seals. The maximum measured power output of the Biphase turbine, 808 kWe at 640 psig wellhead pressure, agreed closely with the predicted output, 840 kWe. When combined with the backpressure steam turbine the total output power from that flow would be increased by 40% above the power derived only from the flow by the present flash steam plant. The design relations used to predict performance and design the turbine were verified by these tests. The performance and durability of the Biphase turbine support the conclusion of the Economics and Application Report previously published, (Appendix A). The newly designed rotor (the Dual Pressure Rotor) was analyzed for the above power condition. The Dual Pressure Rotor would increase the power output to 2064 kWe by incorporating two pressure letdown stages in the Biphase rotor, eliminating the requirement for a backpressure steam turbine. The power plant availability was low due to deposition of solids from the well on the Biphase rotor and balance of plant problems. A great deal of plant down time resulted from the requirement to develop methods to handle the solids and from testing the apparatus in the Biphase turbine. Finally an online, washing method using the high pressure two-phase flow was developed which completely eliminated the solids problem. The availability of the Biphase turbine itself was 100

  16. Evaluation of a process for the removal of gases contained in geothermal steam through condensation and re-evaporation; Evaluacion de un proceso de remocion de gases contenidos en el vapor geotermico, por medio de la condensacion y de revaporacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo C, Raul; Lam Rea, Luis; Garmino, Hector; Jimenez, Humberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    The Cerro Prieto I Geothermal Field, developed and operated by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), has currently an installed electric power generation capacity of 180 MW and is at a very advanced stage in the development of Cerro Prieto II and III, which will allow to raise the generation capacity to 620 MW. During the exploitation of a geothermal field, in producing steam with the purpose of generating electricity, brines and waste gases are obtained. The hydrogen sulfide exhaust to the environment implies pollution problems, for this reason processes have been developed for the oxidation of these gases downstream the turbogenerator either in the flow of separated gases in the steam condensation or in the condensate produced. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has collaborated with CFE in the evaluation of the environmental impact of this gas and in the development of the processes for its abatement. [Espanol] El campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto I, desarrollado y operado por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), actualmente tiene una capacidad instalada de generacion de energia electrica de 180 MW, y se encuentra en etapa muy avanzada, el desarrollo de Cerro Prieto II y III, lo que permitira incrementar la capacidad de generacion a 620 MW. Durante la explotacion de un campo geotermico, al producir vapor con el proposito de generar electricidad, se obtienen salmueras y gases de desecho. La descarga de acido sulfhidrico a la atmosfera implica problemas de contaminacion, por esta razon se han desarrollado procesos para la oxidacion de este gas aguas abajo de la turbina generadora, ya sea en la corriente de gases que se separan en la condensacion del vapor o en el condensado producido. El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha colaborado con la CFE en la evaluacion del impacto ambiental de este gas y en el desarrollo de sus procesos de abatimiento.

  17. Origin and evolution of geothermal fluids from Las Tres Vírgenes and Cerro Prieto fields, Mexico – Co-genetic volcanic activity and paleoclimatic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkle, Peter; Marín, Enrique Portugal; Pinti, Daniele L.; Castro, M. Clara

    2016-01-01

    Major and trace elements, noble gases, and stable (δD, δ 18 O) and cosmogenic ( 3 H, 14 C) isotopes were measured from geothermal fluids in two adjacent geothermal areas in NW-Mexico, Las Tres Vírgenes (LTV) and Cerro Prieto (CP). The goal is to trace the origin of reservoir fluids and to place paleoclimate and structural-volcanic constraints in the region. Measured 3 He/ 4 He (R) ratios normalized to the atmospheric value (R a  = 1.386 × 10 −6 ) vary between 2.73 and 4.77 and are compatible with mixing between a mantle component varying between 42 and 77% of mantle helium and a crustal, radiogenic He component with contributions varying between 23% and 58%. Apparent U–Th/ 4 He ages for CP fluids (0.7–7 Ma) suggest the presence of a sustained 4 He flux from a granitic basement or from mixing with connate brines, deposited during the Colorado River delta formation (1.5–3 Ma). Radiogenic in situ 4 He production age modeling at LTV, combined with the presence of radiogenic carbon (1.89 ± 0.11 pmC – 35.61 ± 0.28 pmC) and the absence of tritium strongly suggest the Quaternary infiltration of meteoric water into the LTV geothermal reservoir, ranging between 4 and 31 ka BP. The present geochemical heterogeneity of LTV fluids can be reconstructed by mixing Late Pleistocene – Early Holocene meteoric water (58–75%) with a fossil seawater component (25–42%), as evidenced by Br/Cl and stable isotope trends. CP geothermal water is composed of infiltrated Colorado River water with a minor impact by halite dissolution, whereas a vapor-dominated sample is composed of Colorado River water and vapor from deeper levels. δD values for the LTV meteoric end-member, which are 20‰–44‰ depleted with respect to present-day precipitation, as well as calculated annual paleotemperatures 6.9–13.6 °C lower than present average temperatures in Baja California point to the presence of humid and cooler climatic conditions in the Baja California peninsula

  18. Elaboración de la matriz de geoindicadores ambientales en la presa José López Portillo (Cerro Prieto), fuente superficial de abastecimiento de agua potable de Monterrey, N.L., México

    OpenAIRE

    DE LEÓN GÓMEZ, HÉCTOR; MEDINA BARRERA, FRANCISCO; LIZÁRRAGA MENDIOLA, LILIANA

    2006-01-01

    Con el objetivo de conocer el estado del funcionamiento actual de la presa Cerro Prieto, en Linares, N. L., se elaboró la matriz de geoindicadores de impacto ambiental. Se basó en la aplicación de la metodología de matrices, considerando los tipos de impacto social/económico, geológico/ambiental y flora/fauna. Los resultados obtenidos son la base para la creación de un modelo de identificación de geoindicadores ambientales para presas de almacenamiento de agua potab...

  19. Geothermal well drilling manual at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez P., A.; Flores S., M.

    1982-08-10

    The objective of the drilling manual is to solve all problems directly related to drilling during the construction of a well. In this case, the topics dealt which are drilling fluids and hydraulics to be applied in the field to improve drilling progress, eliminate risks and achieve good well-completion. There are other topics that are applicable such as drill bits and the drilling string, which are closely linked to drilling progress. On this occasion drilling fluid and hydraulics programs are presented, in addition to a computing program for a Casio FX-502P calculator to be applied in the field to optimize hydraulics and in the analysis of hydraulics for development and exploration wells at their different intervals.

  20. Cerro Prieto geothermal field: exploration during exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. The description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field are presented. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development.

  1. Magnetotelluric studies at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goubau, W.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA); Goldstein, N.E.; Clarke, J.

    1981-01-01

    During three years of magnetotelluric surveying, data were acquired at 26 sites distributed over 190 km/sup 2/ around the production area. A relatively well-defined strike of N27W +- 1.5/sup 0/ (magnetic) was established. The simple model shown suggests a lateral discontinuity in the vicinity of Nueva Leon.

  2. Drilling rate for the Cerro Prieto stratigraphic sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prian C, R.

    1981-01-01

    Drilling practice at the field has been modified in several ways as better information is being obtained. The stratigraphic sequence of the area is made up of three sedimentary rock units of deltaic origin having different densities. These units have been named non-consolidated, semi-consolidated, and consolidated rocks; the thermal reservoirs are located in the latter. To investigate how the drilling rates are affected by the three rock units, plots of drilling advance versus time were made for a large number of wells. A typical plot is shown and drilling rates are practically constant in three different zones; that is, the drilling rate has only two breaks or changes in slope.

  3. Cerro Largo South orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradier, B.

    1982-01-01

    This work is about Cerro Largo South orientation. The site is located in the northeast of Uruguay in the south of Melo city, Department of Cerro Largo. The study was carried out in the young edge socket in the East side of a small valley. This metamorphic socket constituted by gneisses and crystalline limestone are in contact with upper carboniferous formations and basal deposits composed by sandstones and conglomerates

  4. Pressure changes and their effects on the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermejo M, F.J.; Navarro O, F.X.; Esquer P, C.A.; Castillo B, F.; de la Cruz D, F.C.

    1981-01-01

    Continuous extraction of the water-steam mixture at the field has been increasing to fulfill the steam requirements of the power plant. As a result, pressure declines have been observed in the producing strata in all of the wells, as well as in the geothermal reservoir as a whole. Anomalous behavior that has been observed in the wells' hydraulic columns in most cases is due to the interconnection of the various strata penetrated by the well. When this occurs, unbalanced hydraulic pressures cause the movement of fluids between the strata. As an example of this hydraulic imbalance causing the flow of fluids from an upper to a lower zone, well Nuevo Leon 1 where this effect occurs between regions 600 m apart was chosen.

  5. Proceedings: third symposium on the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    These proceedings include both English and Spanish versions of each paper presented at the symposium. Illustrations and tables, which have been placed between the two versions, include captions in both languages. Forty-one papers are included. Five papers were indexed for EDB previously. Separate abstracts were prepared for thirty-three papers and three were listed by title.

  6. Analysis of exploratory wells in the Cerro Prieto Field and the Mexicali Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobo R., J.M.; Bermejo M., F.J.

    1982-08-10

    Agricultural development in the Mexicali Valley and in the high cost of electric power required to operate the irrigation wells in the Valley prompted the Mexican government to investigate the possibility of taking advantage of thermal manifestations in the area located 28 km southeast of the city of Mexicali to generate electric power and thereby partially decrease the flight of foreign exchange. In 1958, a geologic study of the southern and southeastern zone of Mexicali was conducted to identify the possibilities of tapping geothermal resources. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge of the geologic conditions in this area and, if possible, to establish the location of exploratory and production wells and, on the basis of the results of the former, examine the geologic history in order to gain knowledge and understanding of the structural control of the steam. On the basis of this study, it was recommended that 3 exploratory wells should be drilled in order to locate weak zones that would easily allow for steam flow.

  7. Geothermal potential in Mexico; Potencial geotermico de la republica mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordaz Mendez, Christian Arturo; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Silva, German [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: christian.ordaz@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-01-15

    parte de la estrategia de la CFE para incrementar la generacion de energia electrica mediante fuentes no convencionales llevo a cabo un calculo del potencial geotermico del pais. Este calculo se efectuo a traves del inventario nacional de manifestaciones termales con que cuenta la GPG, el cual ha permitido identificar 1380 manifestaciones termales distribuidas en todo el pais, con informacion de las temperaturas tomadas superficialmente y las temperaturas obtenidas por medio de geotermometros. El calculo del potencial geotermico se hizo con base en la clasificacion de estas manifestaciones por rangos de temperatura geotermometrica, obteniendose asi recursos de alta, media y baja entalpia. Posteriormente se utilizo el metodo volumetrico para obtener el potencial geotermico nacional. Los resultados indican que para las Reservas Posibles los recursos de alta entalpia ascienden a 5691 MWe, para los de moderada entalpia son de 881 MWe y los de baja entalpia de 849 MWe dando un total de 7422 MWe. Por otra parte, las Reservas Probables para el recurso de alta entalpia son de 1643 MWe, para los de moderada entalpia de 220 MWe y para los de baja entalpia de 212 MWe dando un total de 2077 MWe. Por ultimo las Reservas Probadas se tomaron como la capacidad adicional que puede instalarse en cada uno de los campos geotermicos conocidos, dando un total de 186 MWe. La informacion se proceso y se integro por medio del Sistema de Informacion Geografica (SIG) ArcGis 9.2 (c), dando como resultado la publicacion via Intranet del Mapa del Potencial Geotermico de la Republica Mexicana.

  8. Optical atmospheric extinction over Cerro Paranal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patat, F.; Moehler, S.; O'Brien, K.; Pompei, E.; Bensby, T.; Carraro, G.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fox, A.; Gavignaud, I.; James, G.; Korhonen, H.; Ledoux, C.; Randall, S.; Sana, H.A.A.; Smoker, J.; Stefl, S.; Szeifert, T.

    2011-01-01

    Aims. The present study was conducted to determine the optical extinction curve for Cerro Paranal under typical clear-sky observing conditions, with the purpose of providing the community with a function to be used to correct the observed spectra, with an accuracy of 0.01 mag airmass-1.

  9. Sedimentary rocks Uranium in Cerro Largo Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaron, P.; Garau Tous, M.

    1976-01-01

    With the aim of the uranium minerals exploration has been carried out several studies by UTE technicians in Cerro Largo Province from 1968 to 1969. In uranium concentration has been found pyrite, phosphate, iron oxides and manganese in uranium. Furthermore in La Divisa Ore were studied concentration Uranium enrichment has been studied in La Divisa ore

  10. THE PEDAGOGICAL IDEAS OF LUIS BELTRÁN PRIETO FIGUEROA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Fuenmayor

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a synthesis, where describe to the Pedagogical Ideas of Luis Beltrán Prieto Figueroa. The investigation is based on texts of its works: Principios generales de la educación, El Estado y la Educación en América Latina; in the theoretical arguments of Corrientes del Pensamiento Pedagógico of the Upel (1989, among others. In conclusion, the Teacher, knew to understand that the materialization of a society and a democratic government had necessarily to happen through the creation of an educative system without exclusions, able to offer equality of opportunities to all the citizens

  11. Refined localization of the Prieto-syndrome locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, F.; Prieto, F. [Unidad de Genetica, Valencia (Spain); Gal, A. [Universitaets-Krankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-07-12

    PRS designates the locus for a syndromal form of X-linked mental retardation (Prieto syndrome) characterized by minor facial anomalies, ear malformation, abnormal growth of teeth, clinodactyly, sacral dimple, patellar luxation, malformation of lower limbs, abnormalities of the fundus of the eye, and subcortical cerebral atrophy. Linkage analysis localized the disease locus between DXS84 (Xp21.1) and DXS255. Here we present additional linkage data that provide further support and refinement of this localization. Individual III-18 gave birth to a male, currently aged 2 7/12 years, who clearly shows delayed psychomotor development. He began to walk at 23 months and his speech is delayed. In addition, he shows the characteristic facial anomalies, {open_quotes}dysplastic{close_quotes} ears, sacral dimple, and clinodactyly, as do all other affected males in this family. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Uruguay mining Inventory: geochemical prospecting results of Cerro de las Cuentas mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenberg, J.; Filippini, J.

    1986-01-01

    This work is about the geochemical prospecting carried out into the Uruguay mining inventory framework. In this case the survey was in Cerro de las Cuentas mapping. Cerro Largo department. Scale 1 / 50000.

  13. Report of boring made in the South of Cerro Largo district (Cerro Largo) 1977-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, E.

    1984-01-01

    The present work are within the framework and compiles the data obtained by means of the study of the perforations executed in the District Cerro Largo Sur of the detailed prospection of uranium minerals. This study was carried out by technicians of Geologic ex--Institute of Uruguay (IGU) - at the moment National Direction of Mining and Geology. (DINAMIGE). The works began at the beginning of 1977 and continued until 1978 July; The headquarters of the program of prospection of uranium was carried out by Ing. Hector Goso. In this report the conclusions drawn at the time of the detection of the works in the District already published, as well as the litologicos cuts of all the executed perforations are included

  14. Navajo minettes in the Cerros de las Mujeres, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D.; Laughlin, A. W.; Gladney, E. S.

    1985-06-01

    The Cerros de las Mujeres in west-central New Mexico are three mafic minette plugs that should be considered part of the Navajo volcanic fields on the central Colorado Plateau. This newly recognized occurrence extends the Navajo volcanic fields to the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau, within 45 km of the extensional tectonic setting in which the Mogollon ash-flow tuff cauldrons occur. The Cerros de las Mujeres provide additional evidence for contemporaneous sodic and potassic volcanism within the Navajo volcanic fields.

  15. Use of wireline logs at Cerro Prieto in identification of the distribution of hydrothermally altered zones and dike locations, and their correlation with reservoir temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seamount, D.T. Jr.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Downhole electrical and gamma-gamma density logs from nine wells weere studed and these wireline log parameters with petrologic, temperature, and petrophysical data were correlated. Here, wells M-43, T-366, and M-107 are discussed in detail as typical cases. Log data for shales show good correlation with four zones of hydrothermal alteration previously recognized on the basis of characteristic mineral assemblages and temperatures. These zones are the unaltered montmorillonite zone (< 150/sup 0/C), the illite zone (150/sup 0/C to 230/sup 0/C to 245/sup 0/C), the chlorite zone (235/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C, equivalent to the calc-silicate I zone in sands), and the feldspar zone (> 300/sup 0/C, equivalent to the calc-silicate II zone in sands),

  16. Research on heat pumps in Mexico operating with geothermal energy and waste heat; Investigacion sobre bombas de calor en Mexico operando con energia geotermica y calor de desecho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, A; Barragan-Reyes, R.M; Arellano-Gomez, V [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: aggarcia@iie.org.mx

    2008-01-15

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas and the Comision Federal de Electricidad have done research and development (R&D) on heat pumps (HP) in past years. Tested systems include mechanical compression, absorption and heat-transformers. The main R&D aspects on HP are briefly described, and also a more detailed description about three of the main studies is presented: (a) a mechanical compression HP of the water-water type operated with low-pressure geothermal steam at the Los Azufres; Mich., geothermal field, and designed for purification of brine; (b) an absorption HP for cooling and refrigeration operating with ammonia-water and low-enthalpy geothermal energy, which was tested in the Los Azufres and Cerro Prieto, BC, geothermal fields; and (c) a heat-transformer by absorption-Absorption Heat Pump Type II-tested to assess the performance of several ternary solutions as work fluids. Plans exist to install and test a geothermal heat pump at Cerro Prieto or Mexicali, BC. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas y la Comision Federal de Electricidad han realizado trabajo de investigacion y desarrollo (I&D) sobre bombas de calor (BC) en el pasado. Los sistemas probados incluyen compresion mecanica, absorcion y transformadores termicos. Este trabajo describe brevemente los principales aspectos de I&D sobre bombas de calor en forma general, y se da una descripcion mas detallada de tres de los principales estudios: (a) una BC por compresion mecanica tipo agua-agua disenada para purificacion de salmueras operando con vapor geotermico de baja presion en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.; (b) una BC por absorcion para enfriamiento y refrigeracion operando con amoniaco-agua y energia geotermica de baja entalpia, la cual fue probada en los campos geotermicos de Los Azufres y Cerro Prieto, BC; y (c) un transformador termico por absorcion -llamado Bomba de Calor por Absorcion Tipo II--, el cual fue probado para evaluar el comportamiento de diversas

  17. Research and technological development on heat pumps in Mexico operating with geothermal energy; Investigacion y desarrollo tecnologico sobre bombas de calor en Mexico operando con energia geotermica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso; Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) carried out in the past an extensive work of research and development (R&D) on heat pumps (HP). The systems tried on include heat pumps by mechanical compression, thermal absorption and thermal transformers. This paper briefly describes the main aspects of R&D on heat pumps and presents a more detailed description of three of the main studies: a) a Heat Pump (HP) by mechanical compression water-water type, designed for brine purification, operating with low pressure geothermal steam at the geothermal field Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico; b) a HP by absorption for cooling and refrigeration, operating with ammoniac/water and low enthalpy geothermal energy, which was tested in the geothermal fields of Los Azufres, Michoacan and Cerro Prieto, Baja California, and c) a thermal transformer by absorption, named Heat Pump by Absorption Type 2, which was tested to evaluate the behavior of diverse ternary solutions as working fluids. To date, there are plans to install and test a geothermal heat pump (connected to the subsoil), in Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) realizaron un trabajo extenso de investigacion y desarrollo (I&D) sobre bombas de calor (BC) en el pasado. Los sistemas que se probaron incluyen bombas de calor por compresion mecanica, absorcion y transformadores termicos. Este trabajo describe brevemente los principales aspectos de I&D sobre bombas de calor y se da una descripcion mas detallada de tres de los principales estudios: a) una Bomba de Calor (BC) por compresion mecanica tipo agua-agua, disenada para purificacion de salmueras, operando con vapor geotermico de baja presion en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan; b) una BC por absorcion para enfriamiento y refrigeracion, operando con amoniaco/agua y energia geotermica de baja entalpia

  18. Indalecio Prieto enjuicia el papel del Gobierno de la República en el estallido de la Guerra Civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marquina

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available El documento que procedemos a transcribir es una grabación efectuada por Indalecio Prieto el 28 de marzo de 1961 en la casa de los esposos Rafael y Guillermina Supervía, en Washington. La grabación se puede dividir en cuatro partes. Una primera, de introducción, donde Prieto narra cómo fue invitado a México y el anhelo por volver a España de los republicanos exiliados. Luego la narración de los acontecimientos del 14 de abril con la instauración de la II República. El tercer apartado se refiere al pronunciamiento militar del 17 de julio, que enlaza con la última parte del documento relativa a la opinión de Prieto sobre Manuel Azaña.

  19. Fluids acidity in Los Humeros geothermal reservoir, Puebla, Mexico: Mineralogical evaluation; Acidez de los fluidos del yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico: Evaluacion mineralogica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo M, Georgina; Arellano G, Victor Manuel; Portugal M, Enrique; Aragon A, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Martinez, Ignasio [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    The occurrence of the acidity in fluids from Los Humeros geothermal reservoir has been noticeable due to the accelerated corrosion of pipes lines of wells located mainly in the area known as Collapse Central and wells along the East direction of the field. On the base of the evaluation of all available chemical and mineralogical information for Los Humeros geothermal field the main objective of this work was to recognize evidences on the origin of geothermal fluids acidity. Considering the occurrence of HCl in other geothermal systems, no relation to the available information from Los Humeros was found. It is possible that the geothermal fluids acidity would be recent. It could be generated when the deep reservoir was reached by drilling wells. However, the occurrence of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} is evident due to the advance argillic alteration of surface rocks in some areas of the field. It is probable that the model proposed by D' Amore, may be valid for the geothermal field of Los Humeros. Considering that the origin of the vapor phase from the deep reservoir would be a fluid (of very high salinity) that favored the formation of the HCl gas; which moved to the vapor zone when exploitation began being transported in the vapor phase toward the upper reservoir forming aqueous HCl. [Spanish] La presencia de acidez en los fluidos producidos por el yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros se ha evidenciado por la acelerada corrosion de las tuberias de algunos pozos localizados principalmente en la zona conocida como Colapso central y en direccion Este del campo. Con el objeto de identificar evidencias que permitan establecer el origen de la acidez en los fluidos geotermicos, se llevo a cabo la evaluacion de la informacion quimica y mineralogica existente para el campo geotermico de Los Humeros. Empleando los criterios conocidos sobre la presencia de HCl en otros sistemas geotermicos no se encontro relacion con la informacion evaluada. Por lo que se sugiere que la acidez en

  20. Geochemical model of a geothermal system: an approach on the analytical uncertainty; Modelo geoquimico de sistema geotermico: un enfoque sobre la incertidumbre analitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal Verma, Mahendra [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    A procedure was developed to consider the analytical uncertainty in each parameter of geochemical analysis of geothermal fluid. The estimation of the uncertainty is based on the results of the geochemical analyses of geothermal fluids (numbered from the 0 to the 14), obtained within the framework of the comparisons program among the geochemical laboratories in the last 30 years. Also the propagation of the analytical uncertainty was realized in the calculation of the parameters of the geothermal fluid in the reservoir, through the methods of interval of uncertainty and GUM (Guide to the expression of Uncertainty of Measurement). The application of the methods is illustrated in the pH calculation of the geothermal fluid in the reservoir, considering samples 10 and 11 as separated waters at atmospheric conditions. [Spanish] Se desarrollo un procedimiento para estimar la incertidumbre analitica en cada parametro de analisis geoquimico de fluido geotermico. La estimacion de la incertidumbre esta basada en los resultados de los analisis geoquimicos de fluidos geotermicos (numerados del 0 al 14), obtenidos en el marco del programa de comparaciones entre los laboratorios geoquimicos en los ultimos 30 anos. Tambien se realizo la propagacion de la incertidumbre analitica en el calculo de los parametros del fluido geotermico en el yacimiento, a traves de los metodos de intervalo de incertidumbre y GUM (Guide to the expression of Uncertainty of Measurement). La aplicacion de los metodos se ilustra en el calculo de pH del fluido geotermico en el yacimiento, considerando las muestras 10 y 11 como aguas separadas a las condiciones atmosfericas.

  1. Shallow gas and temperature survey at San Jacinto-Tizate geothermal field, Nicaragua; Levantamiento de gases del subsuelo y temperaturas superficiales en el campo geotermico San Jacinto-Tizate, Nicaragua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostapenko, Sergio [INTERGEOTERM S. A., Managua (Nicaragua); Romero Chavez, Francisco [Centro de Investigaciones Geocientificas (CIGEO), UNAN-MANAGUA, Managua (Nicaragua)

    1995-09-01

    The geothermal reservoirs generally indicate themselves on the surface not only by thermal manifestations (fumaroles, hot springs) but also by anomalies of soil gases and subsurface temperature. Soil gas CO{sub 2} and temperature surveys were conducted at the San Jacinto-Tizate geothermal field in Nicaragua. They helped to understand better the location site of the geothermal reservoir and, together with other exploration methods, to choose the best position for the wells. The results of the drilling showed that all the wells situated inside the common anomalies of soil gas (CO{sub 2}) and temperature, encountered a high temperature geothermal reservoir. [Espanol] Los yacimientos geotermicos de altas temperaturas, ademas de manifestarse en la superficie a traves de focos visibles naturales de descarga, lo hacen en forma de anomalias de valores altos de concentracion de CO{sub 2}, y de temperaturas superficiales. La realizacion del levantamiento termico y de CO{sub 2} en el campo geotermico San Jacinto-Tizate, Nicaragua permitio definir: Los sitios de descarga no visibles del sistema geotermico; Precisar la distribucion espacial del yacimiento geotermico y Recomendar, en combinacion con otros metodos de exploracion, sitios para la perforacion de pozos geotermicos. Los resultados de las perforaciones demostraron que todos los pozos ubicados dentro de los limites de las anomalias de CO{sub 2} y temperatura, intersecaron el yacimiento permeable con aguas subterraneas de altas temperaturas.

  2. Morphological analysis of Cerro Bravo Volcano, Central Andes of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Palacio, E.; Murcia, H. F.; Robayo, C.; Chica, P.; Piedrahita, D. A.; Aguilar-Casallas, C.

    2017-12-01

    Keywords: Cerro Bravo Volcano, Volcanic landforms, Craters. Cerro Bravo Volcano (CBV) belongs to the San Diego-Cerro Machín Volcano - Tectonic Province in the Central Andes of Colombia. CVB is located 150 km NW from Bogotá, the capital of Colombia, and 25 km E from Manizales city ( 350,00 inhabitants). The volcanic activity of CBV began at 50,000 years ago and has been characterized by produce effusive and explosive (subplinian to plinian) eruptions with dacitic and andesitic in composition products. The effusive activity is evidenced by lava flows and lava domes, while the explosive activity is evidenced by pyroclastic density current deposits and pyroclastic fall deposits; some secondary deposits such as debris avalanches and lahares has been also recognised. Currently, the CBV is considered as a hazard for the Manizales city. In order to characterise the volcanic edifice, a morphological analysis was carried out and a map was created from a digital elevations model (DEM) with 12.5 m resolution as well as aerial photographs. Thus, it was possible to associate the landforms with the evolution of the volcano. Based on this analysis, it was possible to identify the base and top of the CBV edifice as 2400 and 4020 m.a.s.l., respectively, with a diameter in its major axis of 5.8 km. The volcanic edifice has four main craters opening to the north. The craters are apart from each other by heights and distances between 120 m.a.s.l. and 1 km, respectively; this geomorphology is an evidence of different eruptive stages of the volcano construction. Morphological analysis has shown that some craters were created from explosive eruptions, however the different heights between each crater suggest the creation of lava domes and their collapse as a response of the final effusive activity.

  3. Report of the Cerro Chato ultrabasic geophysical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.; Mari, C.; Lema, F.; Valverde, C.; Haut, R.

    1987-01-01

    This report refers to the obtained results of geophysical practiced during the year 1985 in the area of the ultrabasic of Cerro Chato, located in the area called Puntas del Malbajar in Durazno province. The aim was rehearsed an answer of an ultrabasic behaviour of the geophysical prospecting methods.They were carried out studies in magnetometry, induced polarization, electromagnetism and resistivity measurements in electric vertical sound. As well conclusions as recommendations express that applied geophysical methods allow to make ultrabasic charts or maps.

  4. Atmospheric conditions at Cerro Armazones derived from astronomical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakićević, Maša; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Noll, Stefan; Kausch, Wolfgang; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Kerber, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We studied the precipitable water vapour (PWV) content near Cerro Armazones and discuss the potential use of our technique of modelling the telluric absorbtion lines for the investigation of other molecular layers. The site is designated for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) and the nearby planned site for the Čerenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Methods: Spectroscopic data from the Bochum Echelle Spectroscopic Observer (BESO) instrument were investigated by using a line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) for the Earth's atmosphere with the telluric absorption correction tool molecfit. All observations from the archive in the period from December 2008 to the end of 2014 were investigated. The dataset completely covers the El Niño event registered in the period 2009-2010. Models of the 3D Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) were used for further comparison. Moreover, we present a direct comparison for those days for which data from a similar study with VLT/X-Shooter and microwave radiometer LHATPRO at Cerro Paranal are available. Results: This analysis shows that the site has systematically lower PWV values, even after accounting for the decrease in PWV expected from the higher altitude of the site with respect to Cerro Paranal, using the average atmosphere found with radiosondes. We found that GDAS data are not a suitable basis for predicting local atmospheric conditions - they usually systematically overestimate the PWV values. The large sample furthermore enabled us to characterize the site with respect to symmetry across the sky and variation with the years and within the seasons. This technique of studying the atmospheric conditions is shown to be a promising step into a possible monitoring equipment for the CTA. Based on archival observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile and of the Cerro Armazones Observatory facilities of the Ruhr Universität Bochum.Full Table 1

  5. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Cerro Partido Sheet F-24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, R; Albanell, H.; Bossi, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Cerro Partido) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils. The area corresponding to the Cerro Partido fotoplano is located in the orogenic belt or Don Feliciano belt

  6. La infertilidad en un área de salud del municipio Cerro Infertility in a health area of Cerro municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Amaylid Arteaga García; Ana Margarita Toledo Fernández; Cristina Villalón Aldana

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: caracterizar el comportamiento de la infertilidad en 11 consultorios del Policlínico "Héroes de Girón" del municipio Cerro. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. La selección de los consultorios fue por muestreo por criterios, y los de selección fueron: que tuvieran una distribución equitativa en los Grupos Básicos de Trabajo, así como la estabilidad y conocimiento profundo del área por el personal de enfermería (quien ejecutó la investigación, previa cap...

  7. Characterization of pottery from Cerro de Las Ventanas, Zacatecas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-del-Rio, H.; Mireles-Garcia, F. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, UAZ, Zacatecas (Mexico); Mendez-Cardona, R.Y. [Unidad Academica de Antropologia, UAZ, Zacatecas (Mexico); Nicolas-Caretta, M. [INAH Delegacion Zacatecas (Mexico); Coordinacion de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, UASLP, Fracc. Talleres, SLP (Mexico); Speakman, R.J. [Museum Conservation Inst., Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD (United States); Glascock, M.D. [Research Reactor Center, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2009-09-15

    With the aim of classifying prehispanic pottery from Cerro de Las Ventanas site, Juchipila, Zacatecas, Mexico, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to analyze ceramic samples at the University of Missouri Research Reactor Center. Thirty-two chemical elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Two multivariate statistical methods, cluster analysis and principal component analysis, were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Mesoamerican ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Malpaso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de Las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (orig.)

  8. Daniel Prieto Castillo y la utopía pedagógica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kintto Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En la entrevista realizada a Daniel Prieto Castillo, éste afirma que entre lo que produce la cultura, las prácticas, los saberes y quienes están en situación de aprender siempre hay mediaciones sociales. Al opinar sobre la educación alternativa dice que hay una explosión de lo alternativo porque hay una explosión de la sociedad civil en todos, los campos. Discrepa de los programas infantiles como el dirigido por XUXA por su terrible violencia referida a la saturación de sonido de la animadora no hay silencio, pausa o respiro solo gritos, es de un manipuleo insoportable.

  9. Geohydrology model of the geothermal reservoirs at Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico; Modelo hidrogeologico de los yacimientos geotermicos de los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedillo Rodriguez, Fidel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    1999-12-01

    the regional lateral water recharge. On the other hand, the circular faults of the collapsed calderas of Los Humeros and Los Petreros form impermeable barriers to lateral water flow. Geothermal reservoir recharge only occurs inside the collapsed Los Humeros caldera. [Spanish] Los estudios de petrologia de agua y gases, e ingenieria de yacimientos de los pozos geotermicos, indican la existencia de dos yacimientos geotermicos. Las correlaciones petrograficas estructurales y el estado de las tuberias de produccion de los pozos geotermicos reparados, desviados y no invertidos, confirma la presencia de dos yacimientos, uno superior no agresivo con pH neutro y fluido bicarbonatado-sodico alojado en andesitas de augita; el otro, inferior, de alta temperatura y pH acido, contenido en andesitas de hornblenda y basaltos con fluidos clorurados-sodicos, ambos separados por un horizonte de tobas vitreas. Las grandes elevaciones de los niveles potenciometricos de los pozos geotermicos impide inferir la direccion de flujo de los fluidos geotermicos profundos. Los resultados litologicos y piezometricos de los pozos geothermohidrologicos perforados dentro de la caldera de Los Humeros, tambien muestra la existencia de dos acuiferos superficiales, uno relativamente frio y otro caliente. Debido a las grandes distancias entre estos pozos, y al medio geologico en que se encuentran, tampoco en ellos es posible inferir la direccion de flujo. Los estudios regionales de hidrogeologia, geofisica, hidrogeoquimica y geologico- estructurales, permiten afirmar que los acuiferos (frio y caliente) no tienen comunicacion hidraulica, ni relacion geoquimica o geologica con los pozos, norias y manantiales de los alrededores de la region de Los Humeros. Por consiguiente, la recarga de los acuiferos frio y caliente ocurre dentro de la cuenca cerrada de la caldera de Los Humeros, delimitada por el parte aguas orografico. Estos acuiferos recargan a los yacimientos geotermicos a traves de fallas y fracturas

  10. Environmental protection at the Los Azufres, Michoacan geothermal field; La proteccion ambiental en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Rangel, Ernesto; Hernandez Ayala, Cuauhtemoc [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    Geothermal-electric development is a sustainable activity from an environmental viewpoint, as is proved by the operation and management of the Los Azufres geothermal field. Impacts to soil and vegetation can be prevented and adequately mitigated. Liquid residues can be returned to the reservoir avoiding contaminating surface and ground waters and aquifers; and atmospheric emissions can kept bellow allowable limits. The main environmental technical experiences of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in this field are presented in this paper. [Spanish] El desarrollo geotermoelectrico es una actividad sustentable desde el punto de vista ambiental, como lo prueba el manejo del campo geotermico de Los Azufres. Los impactos al suelo y a la vegetacion pueden prevenirse y mitigarse con las medidas adecuadas. Los desechos liquidos pueden regresarse al yacimiento sin contaminar cuerpos de agua superficiales o acuiferos someros, y las emisiones a la atmosfera pueden controlarse para mantenerlas dentro de limites permisibles. Se presentan las principales experiencias tecnicas de tipo ambiental obtenidas por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en ese campo.

  11. Simulation of the flow phenomena in geothermal wells: developments and applications; Simulacion de los fenomenos de flujo en pozos geotermicos: desarrollos y aplicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1994-07-01

    In this paper the numerical simulators and the specialized computer programs that have been developed in the Departamento de Geotermia of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) for the study of mass transport phenomena, momentum and heat in geothermal wells, are delineated. The developments can be assembled in 5 types: a) Fluid circulation during geothermal well construction; b) Production; c) Construction; d) Return to the thermal equilibrium; e) Thermodynamic and fluid transport properties, cements, and rocks. The applications realized include, besides the normal flow phenomena that occur in geothermal wells, the study of special problems that have been found in several wells of the geothermal fields in the country. These developments constitute a tool of great utility for the reservoir engineer`s daily work and for the understanding of the specific phenomena of infrequent occurrence. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describen los simuladores numericos y programas de computo especializados que se han desarrollado en el Departamento de Geotermia del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para estudiar los fenomenos de transporte de masa, momentum y calor en pozos geotermicos. Los desarrollos pueden agruparse en 5 tipos: a) circulacion de fluidos durante la construccion de pozos, b) produccion, c) inyeccion, d) retorno a equilibrio termico, e) propiedades termodinamicas y de transporte de los fluidos, cementos y rocas. Las aplicaciones realizadas incluyen, ademas de los fenomenos normales de flujo que ocurren en pozos geotermicos, el estudio de problemas especiales que se han encontrado en diversos pozos de los campos geotermicos del pais. Estos desarrollos constituyen una herramienta de gran utilidad para el trabajo diario del ingeniero de yacimientos y para el entendimiento de fenomenos especificos de ocurrencia poco frecuente.

  12. Cerro Amarillo rhyolites, advanced AFC in the northern SVZ, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, E; Hildreth, W

    2001-01-01

    Cerro Amarillo is a Quaternary medium size (500m high, 2 km 2 ) rhyolite dome complex located close to the Chile-Argentina border, reaching a height of 4162 m, between the headwaters of the Rio Colina and the Nieves Negras Pass. It overlies a broad anticline of thick Middle Jurassic pelites (Alvarez et al., 1997). Thiele (1980) includes this complex in his 'Unidad Volcanica Antigua', a Pleistocene composite map unit made up of andesites and trachyandesites. Ramos et al. (1997), while recognizing its rhyolitic character, assigned a Tertiary age to the lava domes, most likely based on the late Pliocene age of silicic dikes outcropping eastward, in Argentina. Both the lack of younger overlying units and freshness of its components, together with preservation of the unconsolidated, easily eroded pyroclastic deposits at its base, suggest, however, that it is not older than Pleistocene (au)

  13. Hidrogeologic and geophysical studies into Agro school Melo UTU Cerro Largo province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzen, W.; Santana, I.; Mari, C.

    1986-01-01

    The technical University UTU of Uruguay requested and Hidrogeologic study with the aim to analyze the factibility to discover underground stream waters which supply groundwaters into agro school Ing Agr. Alcides E Pintos Melo, Cerro Largo province.

  14. Report of mortmorilloniticas clay in the Medina swamp (Cerro Largo district)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.; Heinzen, W.; Theune, C.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the prospect ion work for the montmorillonitics clay in the region of Medina swamp in Cerro Largo district. The existence of new deposits was detected by cartography and geological study.

  15. Lichens as biological monitors in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico; Liquenes como indicadores biologicos en el campo geotermico Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Peralta, Marlene; Chavez Carmona, Arturo [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico)

    1995-09-01

    The results obtained in the monitoring of the atmospheric emissions of the Los Azufres geothermal field in Michoacan State, Mexico utilizing lichens as monitors of the presence of sulphur and arsenic, at the areas near geothermal sites, both under evaluation and production, are presented. The results are based on symptoms which included: chlorosis, necrosis, brown and reddish spots, loss of adherence to substrate, thalli disintegration and disappearance of sensitive species; and also on the amounts of sulphur and arsenic contained in the lichens thallus. [Espanol] Se presentan los resultados obtenidos en el monitoreo de las emisiones atmosfericas del campo geotermico Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico en el que se utilizaron liquenes como indicadores de la presencia de azufre y arsenico, en las areas cercanas a los sitios de pozos geotermicos tanto en evaluacion como en produccion. Los resultados estan basados en sintomas que incluyen clorosis, necrosis, manchas cafes y rojizas, perdida de adherencia al sustrato, desintegracion del talo y desaparicion de especies sensibles; asi como en los contenidos de azufre y arsenico en los talos liquenicos.

  16. Gas geochemistry of Los Humeros geothermal field, Mexico; Geoquimica de gases del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Arellano G, Victor M; Nieva G, David; Portugal M, Enrique; Garcia G, Alfonso; Aragon A, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Torres A, Ignasio S [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Tovar A, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    1999-12-01

    Gas data of Los Humeros geothermal field were analyzed. A new method, which is based on the Fischer-Tropch reactions and on the combined pyrite-magnetite mineral equilibrium, was used. Reservoir temperature and reservoir excess steam were estimated for the starting stage of the field by using early data taken from producing wells at controlled conditions. The same parameters were also obtained for the present stage by using 1997 gas data. Reservoir temperatures ranged from 275 and 337 Celsius degrees and positive values for reservoir excess steam fractions were obtained for the starting stage. For well H-1 no excess steam was found since this well was fed by the shallower liquid-dominated reservoir. Results for 1997 showed lower scattering compared to early data and the possible occurrence of a heating process in the shallower stratum which could due to exploitation. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta un analisis de datos de la fase gaseosa producida por pozos productores del campo geotermico de Los Humeros mediante un metodo que considera el equilibrio de la reaccion de Fischer-Tropsh y el equilibrio de minerales pirita-hematia y pirita-magnetita. Este metodo provee la temperatura del yacimiento y el exceso de vapor presente en la descarga total de los pozos. Los resultados se discuten tanto para el estado inicial del yacimiento utilizando los primeros datos de produccion en los que el flujo del pozo estuvo controlado y los obtenidos en 1997 que representan el estado actual del yacimiento. En el estado inicial se estimaron temperaturas de yacimiento de entre 275 y 337 grados Celsius y excesos de vapor positivos, con excepcion del pozo H-1 que se alimenta del estrato somero dominado por liquido. Los resultados obtenidos para 1997 muestran una dispersion menor y la probable ocurrencia de un proceso de calentamiento del estrato somero propiciado por la explotacion.

  17. Design of a seismic energy dissipator for an interruptor type 3AS2-45; Diseno de un disipador de energia sismica para un interruptor tipo 3AS2-45

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Felix, Jaime

    2004-02-15

    With the aid of the theory behind seismically isolated structures and the bi-linear behavior of an isolated system of Multiple Degrees of Freedom (MDOF), the information obtained on the spectral analysis is complemented with the purpose of simulating one itself for the design of a dissipator of seismic energy. The seismicity in the world is briefly explained, (in Mexico in special for the Geothermal Field of Cerro Prieto), the types of earthquakes, etc., to give way to a documentation of the state-of-the-art in advanced seismic resistant systems and to a procedure to establish the level of seismic qualification of electrical equipment from the level of seismic performance for the Mexican Republic. [Spanish] Con la ayuda de la teoria detras de estructuras aisladas sismicamente y el comportamiento bilineal de un sistema de aislamiento de Multiples Grados de Libertad (MDOF), se complementa la informacion recabada sobre el analisis espectral con el fin de simular uno propio para el diseno de un disipador de energia sismica. Se explica brevemente la sismicidad en el mundo, en Mexico, en especial el Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto, los tipos de sismos, etc., para dar paso a una documentacion del estado del arte en sistemas sismorresistentes avanzados y a un procedimiento para establecer el nivel de calificacion sismica de equipos electricos a partir del Nivel de desempeno sismico para la Republica Mexicana.

  18. Alkaline magmatism in the Amambay area, NE Paraguay: The Cerro Sarambí complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, C. B.; Velázquez, V. F.; Azzone, R. G.; Paula, G. S.

    2011-07-01

    The Early Cretaceous alkaline magmatism in the northeastern region of Paraguay (Amambay Province) is represented by stocks, plugs, dikes, and dike swarms emplaced into Carboniferous to Triassic-Jurassic sediments and Precambrian rocks. This magmatism is tectonically related to the Ponta Porã Arch, a NE-trending structural feature, and has the Cerro Sarambí and Cerro Chiriguelo carbonatite complexes as its most significant expressions. Other alkaline occurrences found in the area are the Cerro Guazú and the small bodies of Cerro Apuá, Arroyo Gasory, Cerro Jhú, Cerro Tayay, and Cerro Teyú. The alkaline rocks comprise ultramafic-mafic, syenitic, and carbonatitic petrographic associations in addition to lithologies of variable composition and texture occurring as dikes; fenites are described in both carbonatite complexes. Alkali feldspar and clinopyroxene, ranging from diopside to aegirine, are the most abundant minerals, with feldspathoids (nepheline, analcime), biotite, and subordinate Ti-rich garnet; minor constituents are Fe-Ti oxides and cancrinite as the main alteration product from nepheline. Chemically, the Amambay silicate rocks are potassic to highly potassic and have miaskitic affinity, with the non-cumulate intrusive types concentrated mainly in the saturated to undersaturated areas in silica syenitic fields. Fine-grained rocks are also of syenitic affiliation or represent more mafic varieties. The carbonatitic rocks consist dominantly of calciocarbonatites. Variation diagrams plotting major and trace elements vs. SiO 2 concentration for the Cerro Sarambí rocks show positive correlations for Al 2O 3, K 2O, and Rb, and negative ones for TiO 2, MgO, Fe 2O 3, CaO, P 2O 5, and Sr, indicating that fractional crystallization played an important role in the formation of the complex. Incompatible elements normalized to primitive mantle display positive spikes for Rb, La, Pb, Sr, and Sm, and negative for Nb-Ta, P, and Ti, as these negative anomalies are

  19. Petrological and Geochemical Studies of the Igneous Rocks at Cerro EL Borrego, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, V. M.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.

    2013-05-01

    Cerro El Borrego, which is a hill composed of igneous rocks, is located 13.7 km to the SW of Chihuahua city, in northern Mexico. The coordinates of the hill are 28° 11' 07'' N latitude and 105° 33' 23'' W longitude. The study area is within the Basin and Range Physiographic Province, characterized by a complex tectonic-structural pattern, such as elongated ranges with folds and igneous rock formations of Paleogene age. A lava flow of Oligocene age is part of the large volcanic and plutonic activity at the early times of the Cenozoic, which occurred to the NW portion of Mexico. In Cerro El Borrego, the rocks that outcrop are middle Oligocene's rhyolitic tuff to the NW of the hill, while to its SE there is a Pleistocene polymictic conglomerate. Previous work shows different interpretations about the origin and composition of the igneous rocks at Cerro El Borrego. This project includes whole rock and textural analyses, which helped to discern the petrogenesis of these rocks. Preliminary petrographic analyses indicate that the Cerro El Borrego, is a structural dome, and its feldspar-rich rocks contain large crystals that can be appreciated without a microscope. The presence of a porphyritic texture, suggest a sallow intrusion origin. A preliminary conclusion is that Cerro El Borrego is a shallow depth intrusive body with a syenitic composition derived from the Oligocene plutonic activity.

  20. The basic limnology of a low altitnde tropical crater lake: Cerro Chato, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Umaña V, Gerardo; Jiménez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Cerro Chato Lake was visited in April, May, and lune 1992. The lake is located within an intemlediate- El lago de Cerro Chato se visitó varias veces en 1992 para estudiar su limnología básica. El lago se localiza en un antiguo crater a una altitud intermedia (1020 m) en Costa Rica, América Central. Tiene paredes empinadas y alcanza una profundidad máxima de 18.8 m. No posee salida superficial, sin embargo el agua posee una baja concentración de solutos, posiblemente como resultado de una a...

  1. Summary of the 2010 assessment on medium- to low-temperature geothermal resources in Mexico; Resumen de la evaluacion 2010 de los recursos geotermicos mexicanos de temperatura intermedia a baja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R.; Torres, Rodolfo J.; Martinez Estrella, J. Ignacio; Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx

    2011-07-15

    geothermal systems lies between 1,168 EJ and 1,274 EJ, with 90% confidence. The statistical distribution of the (conservatively) inferred reservoir temperatures indicates that 5% of these systems have temperatures between 151 and 208 degrees Celsius, 40% of these systems have temperatures between 102 and 151 degrees Celsius, 50% of these systems have temperatures between 60 and 102 degrees Celsius, and 5% of these systems have temperatures between 36 and 60 degrees Celsius. These resources contain massive amounts of thermal energy that could be used in a wide variety of direct applications and power generation projects. Potentially they are important for the economy of 26 of the 32 Mexican States. This work does not include any attempt to estimate the recuperation factor of the estimated resources. [Spanish] En 2003 publicamos nuestra primera estimacion de los recursos geotermicos mexicanos de temperatura intermedia a baja (T {<=} 200 grados centigrados) con base en datos de 1358 manifestaciones superficiales identificadas en ese momento. Debido a falta de informacion en uno o mas parametros relevantes, como coordenadas geograficas, temperatura de muestra o del yacimiento, etc., dicha evaluacion incluyo aproximadamente 30% de las manifestaciones identificadas. Desde entonces nuestro grupo incremento significativamente la cantidad de la informacion en la base de datos, mediante compilacion de datos de diferentes fuentes y trabajo de campo. Posteriormente desarrollamos una base de datos relacional y la implementamos en un Sistema de Informacion Geografica (SIG). En este trabajo presentamos un resumen de nuestra evaluacion 2010 de los recursos geotermicos mexicanos de temperatura intermedia a baja resultante de nuestra base de datos actualizada, que incluye 2361 manifestaciones geotermicas. Como en la version precedente, utilizamos el metodo volumetrico y simulaciones Montecarlo para estimar los recursos geotermicos y sus correspondientes incertidumbres para cada sistema

  2. Evaluation of the Cerro Solo nuclear ore, province of Chubut. The Cerro Solo project within the frame of uranium exploration in Argentina. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, R.J.; Navarra, P.R.; Benitez, A.F.; Gallucci, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Cerro Solo ore deposit was selected by the CNEA to invest in an assessment project because of their promising grade and amount of known and potential resources, significant to Argentina's uranium requirements. The deposit, which is located in the central region of the Chubut Province, belongs to the sandstone type and is hosted by the cretaceous Chubut Group. Technical studies carried out forecast an important growth of nuclear capacity to meet Argentina's energy requirements in the first two decades of of the the next century. To be in position to confront the challenge presented by increasing uranium resources to fuel the nuclear powers plants it is very important, as a first step, to improve the geological knowledge of uranium favorability in the country. The preliminary results of the Cerro Solo project indicate that the eastern slope of the Pichinan hills is a promising area for development of uranium resources, increasing the favorability of the San Jorge Basin in order to allow contributing to meet future uranium requirements. The Cerro Solo Project was planned in a sequential manner, as a multidisciplinary effort which includes studies on: geologic setting of mineralization, resource estimates, costs of mining and milling methods, economic analysis and environmental impact research. Among the mining methods, studies include the alternative of the in-situ leaching technology, which is becoming a low producing cost interesting possibility. (Author)

  3. Forecast of environmental impact in the evaluation of Cerro Solo nuclear mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    This work presents a project for the study of the environmental impact of the Cerro Solo uranium mine. The survey is to be carried out performing different kinds of studies: mineralization, tectonics, hydrogeology, preliminary studies on different exploitation methods, costs, reserves estimation, economical studies and preliminary studies on possible environmental impacts. (author). 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Gravity Modeling of the Cerro Goden fault zone, NW Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, G. A.; Keranen, K. M.; Asencio, E.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake served as a reminder of potential earthquake hazards on upper-crustal fault systems along the northern boundary of the Carribean plate. In this study we modeled the structure of the Cerro Goden and subparallel fault zones in northwestern Puerto Rico, which cross through densely populated areas, using existing and newly collected gravity data. The fault zone had previously been mapped at the surface, but the details of the fault zone in the subsurface and the detailed structure remain poorly constrained. We used our gravity data to extend surface geologic models to greater depth. Specifically, we modeled and interpreted a north-to-south 2-D model perpendicular to the Cerro Goden fault zone. We used horizontal derivative and residual anomaly maps to emphasize edges of subsurface bodies and shallow structures of interest. Our preliminary 2D model constrains the width and depth extent of serpentinite bodies along the fault zones, the relationship of the faults with the Cerro Goden anticline in central Puerto Rico, and confirms the steep NE dip of the faults extrapolated from surface data. Additional data will be collected in the future across the Cerro Goden fault zone to laterally extend our models of subsurface structural features.

  5. Spatial analysis of noise emission at the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mich.; Analisis espacial de emision de ruido en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarena Magana, Emilio; Ordaz Mendez, Christian A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia de Los Azufres, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: emilio.camarena@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    To verify noise emissions from the usual activities in an operating geothermal field, noise measurements were carried out in a 4.2 km{sup 2} area in the southern zone of the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field. There are seven production wells operating here and three abandoned wells. The average noise emission in the southern zone was 36.5 decibels (dB), regarded as the natural reading of environmental-noise emission. In the Christmas (valves) tree for operating production wells, the noise ranges from 70.9 to 91.7 dB, while in open discharging valves for steam-pipes, the noise can reach 118 dB. In Mexico the maximum permissible limit of noise on the periphery of a property is 68 dB in daytime and 65 dB at night. Based on measurements made at the periphery of lots where the geothermal wells are located, four out of seven production wells measured do not exceed the maximum allowable level, while the other three seem to exceed it. However no definite limits exist for the lots. It is recommended that the measurement points as indicated by the official standard in environmental matters be re-established, which will enable noise emissions by several wells that have exceeded the permissible limit, to actually fall within it. [Spanish] Se realizaron mediciones sonicas en un area de 4.2 km{sup 2} localizada en la zona sur del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., a fin de verificar la emision de ruido asociada a las actividades usuales en un campo geotermico en operacion. En esta area se encuentran siete pozos productores en operacion y tres pozos abandonados. La emision promedio de ruido en estos ultimos fue de 36.5 decibeles (dB), considerandose como la condicion natural de emision de ruido ambiental. En el arbol de valvulas de los pozos productores en operacion el ruido va de los 70.9 a los 91.7 dB, mientras que en valvulas abiertas de descarga de vaporductos la emision puede llegar hasta los 118 dB. En Mexico el limite maximo permisible de ruido en la periferia de

  6. Determination of the geothermal well damage from its production tests; Determinacion del dano en pozos geotermicos a partir de sus pruebas de produccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon Aguilar, Alfonso; Izquierdo Montalvo, Georgina; Arellano Gomez, Victor [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-06-13

    . Sin embargo, la ejecucion de este tipo de pruebas requiere de periodos relativamente largos de tiempo para lograr la estabilizacion del pozo y de costos significativos. Por lo anterior se empezaron a desarrollar tecnicas para determinar el dano a partir de pruebas de produccion. En este articulo se presenta la curva-tipo de influjo geotermico afectada por dano, a partir de la cual se puede determinar el valor de este en un pozo geotermico para el tiempo en que se realiza su prueba de produccion. Se propone la metodologia para determinar el efecto de dano en el pozo usando la curva-tipo propuesta y se demuestra su aplicabilidad con ejemplos de mediciones de pruebas de descarga en pozos de campos geotermicos mexicanos. De los analisis efectuados se encuentra que el valor numerico del dano determinado en los pozos seleccionados aumenta en funcion del tiempo de explotacion, lo cual indica un deterioro en sus caracteristicas productivas. Lo anterior ayuda a conformar un respaldo tecnico para la toma de decisiones, sobre las acciones pertinentes que pueden ejecutar en el pozo.

  7. Geothermal Energy in the Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    Mexico es The Mexicali-Imperial valley geothermal province extends into north- ern Mexico in the vicinity of Mexicali, and here, at Cerro Prieto , the...mega.,t.ý-, and it appears that 150 megawatts is nowhere near the capacity that could be supported by the Cerro Prieto field . Mexico has abundant...verted to electricity at the present time at eight sites, briefly descr: in the Pacific region: The Geysers, California; Cerro Prieto , Mexico

  8. Consideration of the ultramafic intrusive rocks in Arroyo Las Palmas (ex Cerro Chato - Las Canias) Durazno. R. O. del Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronel, N.

    1987-01-01

    This work is about the ultramafic rocks which its chemistry composition fluctuate since the basic to the ultra basic field and appear in the nascent of the Las Palmas stream near Las Canias and Cerro Chato district.

  9. Fire Management Lessons Learned From the Cerro Grande (Los Alamos) Fire and Actions Needed to Reduce Fire Risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Barry

    2000-01-01

    .... Only a few months ago, the Los Alamos fire, now officially known as the Cerro Grande fire, caused hundreds of families in Los Alamos, New Mexico, to lose their homes and more than 18,000 residents...

  10. Fire Management Lessons Learned From the Cerro Grande (Los Alamos) Fire and Actions Needed to Reduce Fire Risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Barry

    2000-01-01

    We are here today to discuss two related issues, lessons learned from the recent Cerro Grande fire, and, on a broader note, actions needed to mitigate current hazardous forest conditions in the interior West...

  11. A reverse method to estimate initial temperatures in geothermal reservoirs; Un metodo inverso para estimacion de la temperatura inicial de yacimientos geotermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: aggarcia@iie.org.mx; Ramos Alcantara, Jose R. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Arellano Gomez, Victor M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    A method is presented for estimating the initial temperature in geothermal-reservoir formations. The method is based on control theory where the measured temperatures or temperature logs are compared with corresponding simulated temperatures for different times with the well closed. The comparison is made using a control algorithm that makes changes to the originally assumed reservoir temperatures and performs iterations until the best fit between the temperature logs and the simulated temperatures is obtained. The simulation of fluid transport and heat in the well includes the processes of circulation and stop in the presence of circulation losses, modeled on macroscopic balances of momentum and energy. The transport processes in the formation regard the reservoir as an isotropic porous medium and fluid flow is described by Darcy's law. This model generates the fields of temperatures, pressures and speeds as a function of time and space. The method was tested with data from well LV-3 in Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The estimated temperatures of the undisturbed formation-or initial temperatures-are compared within {+-}15 degrees Celsius with the measured temperatures, which is an acceptable outcome from an engineering point of view. [Spanish] Se presenta un metodo para la estimacion de la temperatura inicial en las formaciones de yacimientos geotermicos. El metodo se basa en la teoria de control donde las temperaturas medidas o registros de temperatura se comparan con las correspondientes temperaturas simuladas a diferentes tiempos con el pozo cerrado. La comparacion se hace usando un algoritmo de control el cual hace cambios a las temperaturas de yacimiento originalmente supuestas y realiza iteraciones hasta que se obtiene el mejor ajuste entre los registros de temperatura y las temperaturas simuladas. La simulacion del transporte de fluidos y calor en el pozo incluye los procesos de circulacion y paro en presencia de

  12. Analysis of inflow in geothermal wells to determine their maximum flow; Analisis del influjo en pozos geotermicos para la determinacion de sus flujos maximos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon-Aguilar, Alfonso; Izquierdo-Montalvo, Georgina; Pal-Verma, Mahendra; Santoyo-Gutierrez, Socrates [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); Moya-Acosta, Sara L [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    Inflow performance relationships developed for petroleum and geothermal reservoirs are presented. Four of them were selected to be used in this work. Such relationships were developed considering features of a typical geothermal system. The performance of the selected relationships was assessed using data from production tests in several wells of different fields. A methodology is presented to determine the value of the maximum flow (W{sub max}) from the inflow relationships; its application is demonstrated using the data of the 10 production tests. It was found that the calculated value of W{sub max} under stabilization conditions may be related to the reservoir response. In general, there is a good agreement between the calculated values of W{sub max} from the different methods. The differences in the W{sub max} values vary within 10%. It was found that the stability in the calculated values of W{sub max} as a response of the reservoir is a function of the flow magnitude. So, the wells with flow greater than 200 t/h reach the stability of W{sub max} at openings 50% less of their total capacity. [Spanish] Se presentan las relaciones del comportamiento de influjo desarrolladas para yacimientos petroleros y geotermicos. Se seleccionaron cuatro de ellas para usar en este trabajo. Tales relaciones fueron desarrolladas considerando condiciones de un sistema geotermico tipico. Se analizo el comportamiento de las relaciones escogidas utilizando datos de pruebas de produccion de varios pozos de diferentes campos. Se presenta una metodologia para determinar el valor del flujo maximo (W{sub max}) a partir de las relaciones de influjo; se demuestra su aplicabilidad usando los datos de diez pruebas de produccion. Se encontro que el valor de W{sub max} calculado bajo condiciones de estabilizacion se puede relacionar con la respuesta del yacimiento. En general se encuentra buena concordancia entre los valores calculados de W{sub max} usando los diferentes metodos. Las

  13. Geología de la región del Cerro Guanaquero, Río Diamante, Mendoza Geology of Cerro Guanaquero region, Diamante River, Mendoza

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Fuentes; Victor A. Ramos

    2008-01-01

    El estudio realizado presenta nuevos datos sobre un sector poco conocido de la Cordillera Principal de Mendoza, en la alta cuenca del río Diamante en las adyacencias del cerro Guanaquero, y los primeros datos geocronológicos de sus rocas volcánicas. Las unidades geológicas presentes en el área se dividen en cuatro grupos principales: secuencias sedimentarias mesozoicas marinas y continentales intensamente plegadas y falladas; intrusivos y volcanitas intermedias de edad neógena; rocas volcánic...

  14. The last glacial cycle and palaeolake synchrony in the southern bolivian Altiplano: Cerro Azanaques case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available SYNCHRONISME ENTRE LE DERNIER CYCLE GLACIAIRE ET L'EXTENSION DES PALÉOLACS DANS LE SUD DE L'ALTIPLANO BOLIVIEN : EXEMPLE DU CERRO AZANAQUES. Dans la Cordillère Orientale, au niveau du Cerro Azanaques (18°S, Bolivie, des moraines, des sédiments glaciaires, des rivages paléolacustres, des deltas et des stromatolites qui se sont préservés, révèlent des conditions climatiques fortement différentes dans le passé. La culmination de la dernière avancée du glacier Lijunimani a été datée par la méthode du radiocarbone à 13 000 ans BP à partir de sédiments glaciaires ayant remanié un horizon organique de tourbe. La cartographie de cette diacmitite argileuse particulière révèle un delta en forme de cône bordé par un glacier cela montre que les glaciers et les anciens systèmes lacustres font partie d'un processus d'expansion simultanée. L'étude stratigraphique détaillée réalisée au Cerro Azanaques fournit de fortes évidences allant dans le sens d'une réponse commune des glaciers et des lacs à un signal piloté par un changement climatique les lacs ne sont donc pas le simple résultat de la fonte des glaciers des cordillères. SINCRONISMO ENTRE EL ÚLTIMO CICLO GLACIAL Y LA EXTENSIÓN DE LOS PALEOLAGOS EN EL SUR DEL ALTIPLANO BOLIVIANO: CASO DEL CERRO AZANAQUES. En la Cordillera Oriental, a la altura del Cerro Azanaques (18º S, Bolivia aparecen preservadas morrenas y sedimentos glaciares, líneas de costa paleolacustres, deltas y estromatolitos, lo que revela condiciones climáticas pasadas significativamente diferentes. La culminación del último avance del glaciar Lijunimani ha sido fechada mediante radiocarbono a 13 000 años BP a partir de sedimentos glaciares que han desplazado un horizonte orgánico de turba. La cartografía de esta particular diamictita arcillosa revela un delta en forma de abanico con hielo en sus márgenes lo que indica que los glaciares y los sistemas paleolacustres sufrieron un proceso

  15. Works carried out in the south of Cerro Largo district. Uranium prospection programme. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, H.

    1978-01-01

    During the carried out work of radimetric preliminary Investigation in the northeast of the uraniferous country were detected radimetric anonalias which are associated to the formation San Gregorio and Tres Islas. Later the works of prospection ratified those anomalies to which they defined in the environs other anomalies. The studies of revision of these conducted anomalies they took to conclude the necessity to carry out a detailed study of the area to that district was denominated Cerro Largo Sur

  16. Paracas Cultural Readaptation To The Nasca Entity: An Approach From The Settlement Of Cerro Cordova

    OpenAIRE

    Llanos Jacinto, Oscar Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Except rare exceptions, the Paracas society of the Ica valley has been extensively studied from decontextualized materials, including pottery collected from clandestine tomb excavations in the Ocucaje basin. From the stylistic analysis of these pieces, which also included Nasca specimens, the hypothesis was elaborated that assumed the birth from the Paracas, expressed in the well-known axiom «transition paracas-nasca». The works carried out in Cerro Córdova and those that since 2009 are carri...

  17. Dimensionless reference curves to estimate mass and energy productivities of geothermal reservoirs with or without carbon dioxide; Curvas de referencia adimensionales para estimar productividades de masa y energia de yacimientos geotermicos con/sin bioxido de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Sara L.; Iglesias, Eduardo R.; Aragon, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-09-01

    A numerical research over the contribution of the rock-fluid medium of geothermal reservoirs to mass and energy productivities of geothermal wells is made. This considering the effect of carbon dioxide and a wide range of rock matrix and fluid properties, pressure-temperature initial conditions and exploitation state of reservoir. The results are shown in form of inflow characteristics curves interrelating flowing pressure in the interface well-reservoir and the produced enthalpy with discharged mass flow. Normalizing these curves with their respective maximum values, two dimensionless curves are obtained which are proposed as reference curves to estimate the mass and energy productivities of geothermal wells. Both proposed reference curves are independents of reservoir parameters and the produced cumulative mass. [Espanol] Se investiga numericamente la contribucion del medio roca-fluido de los yacimientos geotermicos a las productividades de masa y energia de los pozos geotermicos. Se considera el efecto del bioxido de carbono y de un amplio intervalo de propiedades de la formacion rocosa y del fluido, de las condiciones iniciales de presion y temperatura, y del grado de explotacion del yacimiento. Los resultados se muestran en forma de curva caracteristicas de influjo que relacionan la presion fluyente en la intercara pozo-yacimiento y la entalpia producida, con la velocidad de flujo masico producido. Normalizando estas curvas con los correspondientes valores maximos, se obtienen dos curvas adimensionales las cuales se proponen como curvas de referencia para estimar las productividades de masa y energia de los pozos geotermicos. Las dos curvas de referencia propuestas son independientes de los parametros del yacimiento y del porcentaje de masa producida acumulada.

  18. Steam saving during maintenance of the 50-MW Unit 7 at Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan; Ahorro de vapor durante el mantenimiento de la Unidad 7 de 50 MW en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina Barajas, Elvia Nohemi; Ruiz Lemus, Alejandro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia de Los Azufres, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: elvia-medina@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-07-15

    Commercial-steam production in the southern area of Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico, Geothermal Field began in 1982 with the operation of Unit 2, the backpressure 5-MW unit, and continued in 1988 when the 50-MW condensing Unit 7 was commissioned. Today to supply steam to Unit 7, it is necessary to gather steam from 15 production wells, amounting 450 tons per hour (t/h) under operating conditions. During maintenance periods for Unit 7, production wells are removed from the steam-supply system but continue producing steam that is discharged to the atmosphere-a loss affecting the economic life of the geothermal reservoir. Therefore several actions have been proposed and tried to save the steam and preserve the geothermal resource. This paper presents the results of the actions and the technical and economic benefits obtained from them. [Spanish] La produccion de vapor con fines comerciales en la zona sur del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico, empezo en 1982 con la puesta en marcha de la Unidad 2 de 5 MW a contrapresion, para continuar en 1988 con la Unidad 7 de 50 MW a condensacion. Para cumplir con el suministro de vapor a la U-7, a la fecha es necesario integrar la produccion de 15 pozos productores, que producen un total de 450 toneladas por hora (t/h) a condiciones de operacion. Durante los periodos de mantenimiento de la U-7 los pozos son desintegrados del sistema de suministro, pero continuan produciendo vapor, el cual es descargado a la atmosfera sin ningun provecho, lo que representa una perdida que afecta la vida util del yacimiento geotermico. Por ello se han propuesto y aplicado diversas acciones operativas en cada uno de esos pozos con el objetivo de ahorrar vapor y preservar el recurso geotermico. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de esas acciones y los beneficios tecnicos y economicos obtenidos.

  19. Burn Severities, Fire Intensities, and Impacts to Major Vegation Types from the Cerro Grande Fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balice, R.G.; Bennett, K.D.; Wright, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Cerro Grande Fire resulted in major impacts and changes to the ecosystems that were burned. To partially document these effects, we estimated the acreage of major vegetation types that were burned at selected burn severity levels and fire intensity levels. To accomplish this, we adopted independently developed burn severity and fire intensity maps, in combination with a land cover map developed for habitat management purposes, as a basis for the analysis. To provide a measure of confidence in the acreage estimates, the accuracies of these maps were also assessed. In addition, two other maps of comparable quality were assessed for accuracy: one that was developed for mapping fuel risk and a second map that resulted from a preliminary application of an evolutionary computation software system, called GENIE. According to the burn severity map and the fire intensity map, the Cerro Grande Fire is estimated to have covered 42,885.4 acres and 42,854.7 acres, respectively. Of this, 57.0 percent was burned at low severity and 34.7 percent was burned at high severity. Similarly, 40.0 percent of the Cerro Grande Fire burned at high fire intensity, greater than 70 percent mortality, while 33.1 percent burned at moderately low intensity, 10 to 40 percent mortality. The most frequently burned cover types over the entire Cerro Grande Fire were ponderosa pine forest and mixed conifer forest, at approximately 43 percent each. However, portions of the fire that burned on Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) property were predominantly in ponderosa pine forests, whereas the Cerro Grande Fire burned primarily in mixed conifer forests on lands managed by other agencies. Some of the polygons of burn severities and fire intensities were extensive. The two largest burn severity polygons were 10,111 acres and 10,903 acres and these were burned at low severity. The next two largest polygons were 8999 acres (14 square miles) and 1551 acres (2.4 square miles) and both of these polygons

  20. Mineralogical and micro-thermometric features of the Los Humeros geothermal reservoir, Pue., Mexico; Caracteristicas mineralogicas y microtermometricas del yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, Georgina; Arellano, Victor M; Aragon, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: gim@iie.org.mx

    2008-07-15

    Studies on many topics have been undertaken during the exploratory and exploitation stages of the development of Los Humeros geothermal field. From a geochemical and mineralogical view-including hydrothermal mineralogy and fluid-inclusion micro-thermometry, features have been reported differing from those observed in other geothermal fields. Sometimes this has led to ambiguous conclusions. Studies of fluid-inclusion micro-thermometry have shown low-salinity and high-temperature fluids, suggesting a slight temperature decrease in the deepest portion associated with a boiling process rather than a cooling process. In 1998, Arellano et al. performed a multi-disciplinary study and proposed the existence of at least two, distinct reservoirs at depth. Mineralogical data from wells drilled at the Colapso Central zone tend to support this idea. However wells drilled in the zone known as Corredor Mastaloya seemingly show evidence of a single reservoir. [Spanish] Durante las etapas de exploracion y explotacion del campo geotermico de Los Humeros se han realizado diversos estudios cubriendo distintos topicos. Desde el punto de vista geoquimico y mineralogico (mineralogia hidrotermal y microtermometria de inclusiones fluidas) se han reportado comportamientos diferentes a los observados en otros campos del mundo, los que en ocasiones han llevado a conclusiones imprecisas. La microtermometria de inclusiones fluidas ha mostrado fluidos poco salinos de alta temperatura, asi como una ligera disminucion de temperatura en la parte profunda la cual se asocia a un proceso de ebullicion mas que a un enfriamiento del sistema. En 1998 Arellano et al realizaron un estudio multidisciplinario proponiendo la existencia de al menos dos reservorios. La informacion mineralogica de pozos perforados en la zona del Colapso Central fortalece esta propuesta. Sin embargo, para pozos localizados en la zona conocida como Corredor Mastaloya se tiene evidencia de lo que parece ser un solo yacimiento.

  1. El poblado minero-metalúrgico de El Cerro de los Almadenes (Otero de Herreros, Segovia)

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Álvarez, Jesús de la Ascensión; Ayarzagüena Sanz, Mariano; López Cidad, Jesús Fernando; Ramos Sánchez, Francisco; San Clemente Geijo, María del Pilar; Sebastián Reques, Eva; Valiente Cánovas, Santiago; Valle Gutiérrez, Mercedes del

    2014-01-01

    Se analiza en el siguiente trabajo las labores arqueológicas llevadas a cabo en el poblado minero metalúrgico de El Cerro de los Almadenes (Otero de Herreros, Segovia), que ha proporcionado importantes datos para el conocimiento de la explotación del cobre en esta zona desde época protohistórica hasta época medieval Discussed in the following paper archaeological work carried out in the metallurgical mining village of Hill of the Almadenes (Otero de Herreros, Seg...

  2. Benefício econômico do Parque Nacional Cerro Corá

    OpenAIRE

    Moisés Villalba González

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo central desta pesquisa foi estimar o benefício econômico do Parque Nacional Cerro Corra - PNCC localizado no Departamento de Amambay no Paraguai mensurando o valor obtido pelas pessoas que o visitam. Os métodos aplicados foram o Método de Custo de Viagem TCM assumindo uma distribuição de Poisson e o Método de Valoração Contingente CVM utilizando o modelo referendo com distribuição de probabilidade logística. Realizando uma amostra aleatória os dados foram coletados durante os mes...

  3. Valorización de la Sociedad Minera Cerro Verde (al primer trimestre del 2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Neira, Jorge Luis; Torres Krivic, Emilio José; Trujillo Trujillo, Hercilio Gil

    2017-01-01

    El presente estudio pretende realizar la valorización de la Sociedad Minera Cerro Verde (SMCV), empresa dedicada a la extracción, producción y comercialización de minerales: cobre, molibdeno y plata. Forma parte del grupo Freeport-McMoRan (Freeport) con sede principal en Arizona, Estados Unidos. Para realizar la valorización se emplearon dos metodologías: Flujo de Caja Descontado (FCD) y Múltiplos. La metodología del Modelo de Dividendos Descontados (MDD) no fue empleada debido a que SMCV man...

  4. Cerro Papayo: an astronomical, calendrical and traditional landmark in Ancient Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Trejo, J.; Aguilera, T.; Montero García, I. A.

    Cerro Papayo is a peculiar formed hill (almost perfect semisphere, 3,630 m) situated at the east side of the Valley of Mexico. According to surface reconnaissance there is on its cusp a prehispanic site and a modern shrine dedicated to the Virgin of Guadalupe. Its striking appearance and its unobstructed visibility from anyplace in the Valley were used, since preclassic up to postclassic periods, to mark at sunrise the moment of precise astronomical, calendrical and traditional events. The present work shows observational evidence from Cuicuilco, the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan and Tepeyacac.

  5. ALFONSO X EL SABIO, General Estoria, VI partes (tomos I-X, Pedro SÁNCHEZ-PRIETO (coord.,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene SALVO GARCÍA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La General Estoria compuesta en el taller historiográfico de Alfonso X (1221-1284 se publica íntegra por primera vez gracias a esta edición dirigida por Pedro Sánchez-Prieto y patrocinada por la Biblioteca Castro. Por las características intrínsecas de la obra y por la calidad y rigurosidad editorial esta publicación supone un acontecimiento de importantísimas consecuencias para las letras castellanas medievales que hasta ahora se encontraban incompletas sin la edición íntegra de la obra alf...

  6. Elemental analysis of pottery from Cerro de las Ventanas, Zacatecas, by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles G, F.; Mendez C, R. Y.; Nicolas C, M.; Speakman, R. J.; Glascock, M. D.

    2009-10-01

    Fifteen ceramic fragments samples from Cerro de las Ventanas site, Zacatecas, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Thirty-two elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Meso american ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Mal paso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (Author)

  7. Elemental analysis of pottery from Cerro de las Ventanas, Zacatecas, by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles G, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Mendez C, R. Y. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Antropologia, Apdo. Postal 555 Suc. C, Zacatecas (Mexico); Nicolas C, M. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Coordinacion de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Av. Industrias 101-A, Fracc. Talleres, 78494 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Speakman, R. J. [Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, 20746 Maryland (United States); Glascock, M. D. [Reactor Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, 65211 Missouri (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Fifteen ceramic fragments samples from Cerro de las Ventanas site, Zacatecas, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Thirty-two elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Meso american ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Mal paso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (Author)

  8. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbognani, L.; Hazos, M.; Sanchez, V. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)); Green, J.A.; Green, J.B.; Grigsby, R.D.; Pearson, C.D.; Reynolds, J.W.; Shay, J.Y.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Vogh, J.W.; Vrana, R.P.; Yu, S.K.T.; Diehl, B.H.; Grizzle, P.L.; Hirsch, D.E; Hornung, K.W.; Tang, S.Y.

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt.The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degree}C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3-5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  9. Examination of the home destruction in Los Alamos associated with the Cerro Grande Fire - July 10, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Cohen

    2000-01-01

    I arrived at Los Alamos on May 14, 2000 to conduct an examination of the home destruction associated with the Cerro Grande Fire. My examination occurred between the afternoon of 5/14 and late afternoon on 5/16. I had contact with the southern command post incident management team, the Los Alamos Fire Department, and the Santa Fe National Forest.The...

  10. Engaging communities in post-fire restoration: forest treatments and community-agency relations after the Cerro Grande fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ryan; Elisabeth M. Hamin

    2006-01-01

    Our research provides advice to managers in their work in post-fire forest rehabilitation based on focus groups and interviews in the Los Alamos, New Mexico, community after the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. We address two key issues: how different restoration efforts compare to natural revegetation from the public?s perspective, and how to effectively communicate with...

  11. Initial distribution of pressure and temperature in the geothermal field of Los Humeros, Puebla; Distribucion inicial de presion y temperatura del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano Gomez, Victor M.; Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso; Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Aragon Aguilar, Alfonso; Pizano, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In order to infer the distributions of non disturbed pressure and temperature of the reservoir fluid, a considerable amount of information originating from several disciplines was analyzed, corresponding to 42 wells of the geothermal field of Los Humeros. On the base of the analyzed data models were developed, in one and two dimensions, of the reservoir in an initial state. The models reveal the existence of at least two reservoirs. The first one and most superficial is located between 1600 and 1025 m.a.s.l. and it is a reservoir of dominant liquid. The pressure profile of this reservoir corresponds to a boiling water column approximately between 300 and 339 Celsius degrees. The second reservoir is located underneath the 850 m.a.s.l. and as far as the collected data, it can be said that it extends at least until the 100 m.a.s.l and it is estimated that it is a reservoir of low liquid saturation. For the wells that are fed from this zone of the field temperatures between 300 and 400 Celsius degrees were estimated. A table of the geology of the subsoil of the region of the Los Humeros is shown and a table where the chemical composition of the separated water is indicated and the enthalpy of some of the wells of Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico. [Spanish] Para inferir las distribuciones de presion y temperatura no perturbadas del fluido del yacimiento, se analizo una considerable cantidad de informacion proveniente de varias disciplinas, correspondiente a 42 pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros. Sobre la base de los datos analizados se desarrollaron modelos, en una y dos dimensiones, del yacimiento en un estado inicial. Los modelos revelan la existencia de cuando menos dos yacimientos. El primero y mas superficial se encuentra localizado entre 1600 y 1025 m.s.n.m. y es un yacimiento de liquido dominante. El perfil de presion de este yacimiento corresponde a una columna de agua en ebullicion aproximadamente entre 300 y 339 grados centigrados. El segundo yacimiento se

  12. Isotopic Evolution of Wells in the Geothermal Field of Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico; Evolucion isotopica de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Portugal Marin, Enrique; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manel; Aragon Aguilar, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); Sandoval Medina, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2002-12-01

    Isotopic ({delta}{sup 1}8 O and {delta}D) data from production and reinjection web fluids from the Los Azufres geothermal field were interpreted in order to define reservoir evolution and the occurrence of physical processes as a result of exploitation. The study included data of 30 wells, which were sampled in September, 2000. General results indicate that different phenomena seem to occur in both zones of the field. In the southern zone there are two different trends of behavior: a mixture of fluids evidenced by the {delta}D versus {delta}{sup 1}8 O trend with a positive slope, was interpreted as the result of reservoir vapor separation at a temperature above 220 Celsius degrees, since for temperatures above 220 Celsius degrees deuterium behaves as a volatile component. No well-defined {delta}{sup D} vs {delta}{sup 1}8 O trend was found for the northern zone, but some points seem to fit the same negative slope trend found in the souther zone. The study of reservoir temperatures estimated by different approaches for particular wells through time, as well as temperature results obtained with a heat and flow well simulator, suggest that reservoir boiling occurs in localized areas in both zone of the field. This process is probably due to exploitation. [Spanish] Se interpretaron datos isotopicos ({delta}{sup 1}8 O y {delta}D) de fluidos de pozos productores y de reinyeccion del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico, para definir la evolucion del yacimiento y la ocurrencia de procesos fisicos como resultado de la explotacion. En el estudio se consideran datos de treinta pozos segun el muestreo realizado en septiembre de 2000. El estudio de la evolucion en el tiempo de las estimaciones de temperatura de yacimiento mediante diferentes tecnicas, asi como la temperatura obtenida de simulacion de pozos, sugiere que ocurre ebullicion en areas localizadas en ambas zonas del campo debido a la explotacion. Los resultados generales indican la existencia de

  13. Initial thermal state of the Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico, geothermal field; Estado termico inicial del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: aggarcia@iie.org.mx

    2009-01-15

    The initial temperatures field is presented for 40 wells in the Los Humeros geothermal reservoir, along with an elevation curve based on the formation temperature or the most probable reservoir temperature. Stabilized temperatures were estimated using the Radial Spherical Heat Flow method, chosen over the Horner method based on the numerical simulation of the circulation and stop processes of well H-26. In this well, the last temperature log series was reproduced, considering circulation losses. The temperatures were used to produce isothermal curves over three geological sections of the field, which represent the initial distribution of temperatures in the reservoir and show the thermal characteristics and the relationships among thermal anomalies and faults in the reservoir. The elevation curve plotted against the initial temperature of the formation was generated based on detection of the main feed zones at each well, which in turn was developed using detailed analyses of diverse information, such as temperature logs, circulation losses, lithology, well completion, and heat velocities. Based on the results, two groups of wells may be distinguished: one between 1000 and 1600 masl with temperatures from 290 to 330 degrees Celsius, and one between 900 and 0 masl with temperatures from 300 to 400 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el campo de temperatura inicial del yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros y una curva de elevacion contra la temperatura de formacion o temperatura mas probable del yacimiento, obtenida para 40 pozos del campo. Las temperaturas estabilizadas se estimaron mediante el metodo de Flujo de Calor Esferico Radial, y su eleccion sobre las temperaturas del metodo de Horner se soporta con simulacion numerica de los procesos de circulacion y paro del pozo H-26, en la cual la ultima serie de registros se reprodujo considerando perdidas de circulacion. Con estas temperaturas se generaron curvas isotermicas para tres secciones

  14. Scaling control in superficial installations at the Las Tres Virgenes, geothermal field, BCS; Control de incrustacion en instalaciones superficiales del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia Salazar, Ruth [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)]. E-mail: ruth.tapia@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-01-15

    Silica scaling is one of the most important problems in the Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field. It affects not only the superficial installations, like brine injection pipelines, but also the injection wells where it reduces injection capacity. Separated brine passes from production wells to injection wells by means of steel pipelines 10 and 14 inches in diameter. The pipelines are affected by silica scaling that occurs when the two-phase fluid is discharged at atmospheric pressure and the separated brine is cooled and concentrated and then over saturated with amorphous silica. Even when the pipelines were cleaned periodically, it was necessary to implement a technique for prevent scaling. Two methods considered appropriate to the specific field conditions were studied, and finally the technique of modifying the brine pH was adopted. After over a year of using this technique in the general injection system, no mechanical cleaning of the pipelines has been necessary-and once cleaning was needed at least every third day. This represents an important improvement in the steam supply system. [Spanish] Uno de los problemas mas importantes en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes es la incrustacion por silice, la cual afecta no solo a instalaciones superficiales como lineas de inyeccion de salmuera, sino tambien a los pozos inyectores al reducir su capacidad de aceptacion. El agua producida por los pozos productores se conduce hasta los pozos inyectores por medio de tuberias de acero al carbon de 10 y 14 pulgadas de diametro, que se ven afectadas por la incrustacion de silice. La incrustacion ocurre debido a que cuando el fluido en dos fases es descargado a presion atmosferica, la salmuera separada, enfriada y concentrada, esta usualmente sobresaturada con respecto a la solubilidad de la silice amorfa. Aunque las tuberias se limpiaban mecanicamente, fue necesario seleccionar una tecnica para prevenir la incrustacion, para lo cual se estudiaron dos de los metodos que

  15. Isotopic behaviour of fluids from the Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico) geothermal field; Comportamiento isotopico de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Portugal M, Enrique; Arellano G, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Tello L, Mirna del Rocio; Tello H, Enrique [gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1997-05-01

    Isotopic data from well fluids from the Los Humeros geothermal field were interpreted. Twenty wells were monitored during 1994-1996 in order to study the reservoir behavior as a result of exploitation. The isotopic composition of the total discharge and also that for the reservoir liquid phase were calculated considering the reservoir excess steam at reservoir temperature. This temperature was estimated to be between 280 degrees celsius and 325 degrees celsius through the CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} geothermometer. The isotopic values for reservoir fluids were found in the ranges: between -8 and -1% for d{sup 18}O and -75 and -55% for dD. Isotopic patterns suggested the occurrence of a mixing process between reservoir and reinjection fluids since a linear trend (dD vs d{sup 18}O) with positive slope was found. The reservoir fluid for well H-7 (sampled June 1996) was found to be the isotopically lightest extreme of the relationship, while the reinjection fluid constituted the isotopically heaviest component. [Espanol] Con el fin de conocer la respuesta del yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros a la extraccion y reinyeccion de fluidos, se llevo a cabo el monitoreo de especies isotopicas d{sup 18}O y dD en fluidos de 20 pozos del campo durante 1994-1996. Se calculo la composicion isotopica del fluido de la descarga total y de la fase liquida del yacimiento, corrigiendose los valores obtenidos para la descarga total considerando el parametro exceso de vapor a la temperatura estimada de yacimiento. La temperatura del yacimiento se estimo entre 280 grados celsius y 325 grados celsius mediante el geotermometro basado en la relacion CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}. La composicion isotopica de los fluidos del yacimiento se encuentra en un amplio rango de valores: entre -8 y -1% para d{sup 18}O y entre -75 -55% para dD. Los resultados sugieren la ocurrencia de interferencia de fluidos de reinyeccion, ya que al correlacionar el contenido de deuterio contra el de oxigeno-18, los datos se alinean en

  16. Results of an injection test using ethyl alcohol as tracer at Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Resultados de una prueba de inyeccion de alcohol empleado como trazador, en el campo geotermico de Los humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Lopez Romero, Oscar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    Los Humeros is the third Mexican geothermal field where ethyl alcohol was used as organic tracer to test communication between wells. The first Mexican geothermal field where this kind of test was used Los Azufres, Michoacan. The second was Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur. In both cases, connections between wells were observed. The injection well H-29 is in the north-central sector of Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico. At a depth of 1580 meters, 600 liters of ethyl alcohol was pumped through a 60.35 mm (23/8 inch) diameter tube after 2.7 m{sup 3} of geothermal fluids were displaced, allowing the alcohol to reach the formation. Then, the normal injection process continued with water and condensed steam (130 t/h). On the basis of the experience acquired with similar tests conducted at Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, and with the goal of detecting the tracer, samples of condensed steam were collected in nearby wells (H-15, H-16, H-17, H-30, H-33, H-36 and H-8) and in distant wells-named special samples (H-32, H-1, H-11, H-12, H-19, H-20, H-35, H-37, H-39, H-6 and H-9). Condensed steam samples were collected every 12 hours, the every week and finally every 15 days, making a total of 592 samples. The chemical analysis were done in two stages because of probable with the chromatograph. In the first stage, 441 samples were run and the rest were run in the second stage. No evidence of the tracer was observed in the monitoring wells. The results confirm the existence of a low-to-moderate permeability, as was previously interpreted using pressure log data. [Spanish] Los Humeros es el tercer campo geotermico de Mexico en el que se realiza una prueba de trazadores organicos empleando alcohol etilico con la finalidad principal de conocer si existe comunicacion entre pozos. El primer campo geotermico en el que se realizo esta prueba fue el de Los Azufres, Michoacan y el segundo el de Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur; en ambos casos se encontro

  17. Drilling of bilateral wells: analysis and selection of wells in the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Perforacion de pozos bilaterales: analisis y seleccion de pozos en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly del Carmen; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: miguel.ramirez02@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    Drilling bilateral geothermal wells has been conducted successfully in fields in the U.S., the Philippines and Japan, among other places. The reason for drilling a second leg in a well is to increase production by penetrating additional production zones. In this report, criteria are presented for selecting wells in Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field to be considered for a second leg, taking into account the mechanical condition of the wells, geological targets, distances between wells, production characteristics and thermodynamic conditions. The cases of wells H-3, H-8, H-11, H-16, H-33, H-34 and H-36, which have low production, were reviewed. Wells H-3, H-8 and H-34 were selected as the best subjects for bi-directional drilling. A design is proposed for constructing a second leg in well H-8. [Spanish] La perforacion de pozos bilaterales se ha venido realizando de manera exitosa en campos geotermicos de Estados Unidos, Filipinas y Japon, entre otros. El objetivo de perforar una segunda pierna en un mismo pozo es incrementar su produccion, ya que habran mas zonas de produccion. En este reporte se presentan los criterios para la seleccion de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., candidatos para una segunda pierna, considerando el estado mecanico de los mismos, los objetivos geologicos, la distancia entre pozos, sus caracteristicas de produccion y sus condiciones termodinamicas. Para ello se revisaron los casos de los pozos H-3, H-8, H-11, H-16, H-33, H-34 y H-36, que presentan una produccion baja. Posteriormente, aplicando los criterios de evaluacion y con la informacion obtenida de cada pozo, se seleccionaron los pozos H-3, H-8 y H-34 como los que presentan mejores condiciones para la perforacion bidireccional. Finalmente, se establecio un diseno para la construccion de una segunda pierna en el pozo H-8.

  18. Mid amphibolite facies metamorphism of harzburgites in the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTMANN LÉO A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuable information is retrieved from the integrated investigation of the field relationships, microstructure and mineral compositions of harzburgites from the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite. This important tectonic marker of the geological evolution of southernmost Brazilian Shield was thoroughly serpentinized during progressive metamorphism, because the oldest mineral assemblage is: olivine + orthopyroxene + tremolite + chlorite + chromite. This M1 was stabilized in mid amphibolite facies - 550-600ºC as calculated from mineral equilibria. No microstructural (e.g. ductile deformation of olivine or chromite or compositional (e.g. mantle spinel remnant of mantle history was identified. A metamorphic event M2 occurred in the low amphibolite facies along 100 m-wide shear zones, followed by intense serpentinization (M3 and narrow 1-3 m-wide shear zones (M4 containing asbestos.

  19. Stratigraphic and tectonic revision of Cerro Olivo Complex located of Southeastern of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masquelin, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a stratigraphic and tectonic revision of Cerro Olivo Complex, located in the Southeastern part of the Uruguayan Predevonian Shield. This informal lithostratigraphic unit constitutes the country rock for the emplacement of late-orogenic granitoids, during Neoproterozoic to Cambrian times. This unit groups all the lithodemes affected by deformation and metamorphism. Recent studies indicate the presence of straight gneisses of quartzo-feldspathic composition in the coast of Maldonado Department. These rocks were interpreted as the result of intense deformation in high temperature. These tectonites base a new stratigraphic insight for the complex. They allow their lithotypes to be organized by petrotectonic features, being a function of PT conditions for every last strain process [es

  20. BESO échelle spectroscopy of solar-type stars at Cerro Armazones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, K.; Chini, R.; Hoffmeister, V. H.; Lemke, R.; Murphy, M.; Seifert, W.; Stahl, O.

    2011-03-01

    The Bochum Échelle Spectroscopic Observer BESO is a fibre-fed high-resolution spectrograph for the 1.5-m Hexapod Telescope at the Cerro Armazones Observatory in the Atacama desert in Chile. Here we report on the first BESO observations and model atmosphere analyses of solar-type stars secured in 2010 April. The quality of the data is first tested with a reflected sunlight spectrum as well as the standard G-type subgiant 70 Vir. We then investigate the bright and supposedly single F-type star ξ Gem and present the spectroscopic evidence that instead favours an equal-mass binary. We present also the first composite synthetic modelling of the G-type visual binary HR 3430 and discuss the spectroscopic observations that identify this as a triple system. We conclude with another triple, the famous and very nearby α Cen, and the basic stellar parameters of its inner, solar-type visual binary.

  1. [Reptiles from Cerro Colorado and its surroundings, Cumana, Sucre State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, O; Prieto, A; Comejo, P

    2000-01-01

    An inventory of the reptiles that inhabit in Cerro Colorado and its surroundings, was performed from March, 1994 to March, 1995. There were reported 8 species of snakes and 7 of lizards enclosed in 4 and 5 families repectively. Aspects observed were ecolology as habitat, activity, reproduction and relative abundance. The more abundant species of lizards were: Cnemidophorus femniscatus, Ameiva bifrontata, (Teiidae), Tropidurus hispidus (Tropiduridae), Gonatodes vittatus and Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae) and the ophidians: Leptodeira annulata and Mastigodryas amarali (Colubridae). It is believed that the changes occurred in the zone influenced the increase of the relative abundance of the species Leptotyphlops goudotii (Leptotyphlopidae) arid Gymnophthalmus speciosus(Gymnophthalmidae) and perhaps in the disappearance of others that have been reported at the xerophitic or semixerophitic zones of the Sucre State of Venezuela.

  2. MOVIMIENTOS DE LADERA Y PLANEAMIENTO URBANÍSTICO: EL CONFLICTO DEL CERRO DEL OPE, ARCHENA (MURCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Gómez Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los desprendimientos son un proceso natural que afecta, de forma generalizada en el Valle de Ricote, a las laderas del tipo cantil-talud. Su peligrosidad radica en que los bloques desprendidos del escarpe ruedan con facilidad, talud abajo, cuando son descalzados por efecto de la escorrentía superfi cial o desestabilizados por movimientos sísmicos. El planeamiento urbanístico se convierte en factor inductor del riesgo al clasifi car como urbanizables y urbanos suelos que, por su ubicación en pie de ladera, deberían excluirse de cualquier proceso urbanizador. Este es el caso de Archena en el entorno inmediato del cerro del Ope.

  3. Diameter characterization of timber species in primary forests of Cerro Murrucucu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa G, Ana Maria

    2006-01-01

    This study in Cerro Murrucucu forests establishes the minimum fell diameter (DMC) and its fell cycle (C). It classifies the forest in 1 (Iess damaged) and 2 (severely damaged). Ten species were selected by means of the importance Value Index (IVI) and the DMC was determined. C was estimated through the times of step method. Pentaclethra macroloba showed the highest IVI (21.5% and 21.09% for forests 1 and 2, respectively). In spite of the deterioration of forest 2 the species still showed highest importance. In forest 1 an equilibrium can be deduced, whereas in forest 2 most of the considered species show instability. The DMC for forests 1 and 2 were 30 and 20 cm respectively, indicating extractive activities are deteriorating the latest. C was 51.8 years

  4. Burn Severities, Fire Intensities, and Impacts to Major Vegetation Types from the Cerro Grande Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balice, Randy G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wright, Marjorie A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2004-12-15

    The Cerro Grande Fire resulted in major impacts and changes to the ecosystems that were burned. To partially document these effects, we estimated the acreage of major vegetation types that were burned at selected burn severity levels and fire intensity levels. To accomplish this, we adopted independently developed burn severity and fire intensity maps, in combination with a land cover map developed for habitat management purposes, as a basis for the analysis. To provide a measure of confidence in the acreage estimates, the accuracies of these maps were also assessed. In addition, two other maps of comparable quality were assessed for accuracy: one that was developed for mapping fuel risk and a second map that resulted from a preliminary application of an evolutionary computation software system, called GENIE.

  5. Photosynthesis within Mars' volcanic craters?: Insights from Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K. L.; Hynek, B. M.; McCollom, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    Discrete locales of sulfate-rich bedrocks exist on Mars and in many cases represent the products of acid-sulfate alteration of martian basalt. In some places, the products have been attributed to hydrothermal processes from local volcanism. In order to evaluate the habitability of such an environment, we are investigating the geochemical and biological composition of active fumaroles at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, where fresh basaltic cinders similar in composition to martian basalts are altered by acidic, sulfur-bearing gases. Temperatures at active fumaroles can reach as high as 400°C and the pH of the steam ranges from Cyanobacteria and Ktedonobacteria, however Actinobacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were also identified. Many of the cyanobacterial sequences were similar to those of the eukaryotic Cyanidiales, red algae that inhabit acidic, geothermal environments. Many of sequences related to Ktedonobacteria and Actinobacteria have also been found in acid mine drainage environments. The Archaeal community was far less diverse, with sequences matching those of unclassified Desulfurococcales and unclassified Thermoprotei. These sequences were more distant from isolated species than the bacterial sequences. Similar bacterial and archaeal communities have been found in hot spring environments in Yellowstone National Park, Greenland, Iceland, New Zealand and Costa Rica. Some of Mars' volcanoes were active for billions of years and by analogy to Cerro Negro, may have hosted photosynthetic organisms that could have been preserved in alteration mineral assemblages. Even on a generally cold and dry Mars, volcanic craters likely provided long-lived warm and wet conditions and should be a key target for future exploration assessing habitability.

  6. Miguel Prieto y la escenografía en la España de los años treinta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabañas Bravo, Miguel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The artist Miguel Prieto (1907-1956 worked in three main areas: painting-drawing, graphic design and set design. The latter was the one in which he demonstrated most interest in avant-garde and political commitment during the thirties, but due to his subsequent Mexican exile, has not been dealt with in recent research. This article, focused on his years in Spain, analyses his contributions to scenic design. Prieto’s first professional period, when he worked for the puppet theatre, coincided with the young Second Republic and then the convulsion of the Civil War. This popular genre was utilized for agitation, propaganda and the revolutionary theatre, and adopted both the classical repertoire and modern works by Alberti, Dieste, Lorca and other committed youthful intellectuals.

    Las tres grandes vertientes en las que el pintor Miguel Prieto (1907-1956 plasmó su creatividad fueron la pintura-dibujo, el diseño gráfico y la escenografía. Esta última, que fue en la que más énfasis puso tanto en su acercamiento a la vanguardia y el compromiso socio-político de los años treinta, como en los años finales de su trayectoria en el exilio mexicano, no ha sido suficientemente atendida. Este artículo, centrado en esa etapa española, analiza y pone en valor la aportación a la escena de Prieto coincidente con esos momentos de construcción de la joven II República y la convulsión de la Guerra Civil, que principalmente se plasmó en la escenificación de espectáculos de guiñol (extraídos del repertorio clásico o expresamente escritos por Alberti, Dieste, Lorca y otros jóvenes inquietos, ya que su tradición y clara aceptación popular los convertían en adecuado instrumento para encauzar la agitación y propaganda que querían sembrar el teatro revolucionario y la creatividad más avanzada y comprometida.

  7. Comunicación participativa para el desarrollo percibida por los Pobladores de los Distritos de Cerro Colorado, Cayma, Alto Selva Alegre y Miraflores. Arequipa - 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarte Vera, Erick Armando

    2017-01-01

    La presente investigación de tipo descriptiva y que lleva como enunciado “COMUNICACIÓN PARTICIPATIVA PARA EL DESARROLLO PERCIBIDA POR LOS POBLADORES DE LOS DISTRITOS DE CERRO COLORADO, CAYMA, ALTO SELVA ALEGRE Y MIRAFLORES, AREQUIPA – 2016”, considera como variable de estudio la Comunicación Participativa para el Desarrollo. Para la presente investigación fueron planteados los siguientes objetivos: conocer la identidad cultural de los pobladores de los distritos de Cerro ...

  8. Description of a New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species (Chelonoidis; Testudines: Testudinidae from Cerro Fatal on Santa Cruz Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Poulakakis

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp. is currently based primarily on morphological characters and island of origin. Over the last decade, compelling genetic evidence has accumulated for multiple independent evolutionary lineages, spurring the need for taxonomic revision. On the island of Santa Cruz there is currently a single named species, C. porteri. Recent genetic and morphological studies have shown that, within this taxon, there are two evolutionarily and spatially distinct lineages on the western and eastern sectors of the island, known as the Reserva and Cerro Fatal populations, respectively. Analyses of DNA from natural populations and museum specimens, including the type specimen for C. porteri, confirm the genetic distinctiveness of these two lineages and support elevation of the Cerro Fatal tortoises to the rank of species. In this paper, we identify DNA characters that define this new species, and infer evolutionary relationships relative to other species of Galapagos tortoises.

  9. Description of a New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species (Chelonoidis; Testudines: Testudinidae) from Cerro Fatal on Santa Cruz Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulakakis, Nikos; Edwards, Danielle L; Chiari, Ylenia; Garrick, Ryan C; Russello, Michael A; Benavides, Edgar; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J; Glaberman, Scott; Tapia, Washington; Gibbs, James P; Cayot, Linda J; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) is currently based primarily on morphological characters and island of origin. Over the last decade, compelling genetic evidence has accumulated for multiple independent evolutionary lineages, spurring the need for taxonomic revision. On the island of Santa Cruz there is currently a single named species, C. porteri. Recent genetic and morphological studies have shown that, within this taxon, there are two evolutionarily and spatially distinct lineages on the western and eastern sectors of the island, known as the Reserva and Cerro Fatal populations, respectively. Analyses of DNA from natural populations and museum specimens, including the type specimen for C. porteri, confirm the genetic distinctiveness of these two lineages and support elevation of the Cerro Fatal tortoises to the rank of species. In this paper, we identify DNA characters that define this new species, and infer evolutionary relationships relative to other species of Galapagos tortoises.

  10. Fifteen years of seismic monitoring at the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field; Quince anos de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Prieto, Irais; Lorenzo Pulido, Cecilia [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: cecilia.lorenzo@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Seismic monitoring at the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field started in 1992 with an analog station of vertical components detecting a large number of earthquakes of varying magnitudes. In February 1993, a seismic network was installed, composed of six digital stations DR-2000-with S-6000 and S-5000 sensors and three registration channels (N-S, E-W and vertical). This was the basis for the development of a program to correct arrival-time data for P and S waves due to instrument drift. From January to April 1994 and May to August 1995, based on the 170 seismic events recorded, a velocity model was proposed. From December 1995 to July 1996, seismic data were processed and interpreted, and zones of occurrence were determined for events according to magnitude and the predominant noise in the field. From September 2003 to December 2004, 10 seismic stations (permanent and temporary) were installed and monitored and it was concluded the most active fault system was El Volcan. From September to December 2004, production wells LV-4 and LV-13 were acid-stimulated and seismic monitoring during this period allowed for the definition of two important seismic zones, both related to the El Volcan fault system and to injection well LV-8. After reopening these production wells, it was concluded an increase in seismic activity had occurred. From May to August 2006, information was compiled from the seismic network and it was concluded El Partido had became the most active fault system. Presently the seismic network in this field is composed of one SARA station and four K2 units. The SARA station is telemetrically connected to the base station. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, el monitoreo sismico empezo a partir de 1992 con una sola estacion analogica de registro vertical, la cual detecto una gran cantidad de temblores de distintas magnitudes. En febrero de 1993 se instalo una red sismica con seis estaciones digitales DR-2000 con sensores S-6000 y S

  11. Initial temperature distribution in Los Humeros, Mexico, geothermal field; Distribucion de temperatura inicial en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A; Arellano, V; Aragon, A; Barragan, R.M; Izquierdo, G [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Pizano, A [Comision federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    The initial formation temperatures surrounding 40 wells from the Los Humeros geothermal field are presented. These temperatures were estimated using the Horner and the sphere methods. A brief discussion on the applicability of each method is presented and previous applications are detailed. Then the more likely reservoir temperature of each well versus elevation is plotted based on the estimations about the main feed zone and the temperature of each well. The boiling with depth curve for pure water is also included. Two longitudinal and one traverse geological sections are presented to illustrate the field initial temperature distribution, the lithology and layers thickness, the basement topography and the wells traversed along each sections. Also, the main feed zones of the wells are indicated. Finally, the last series of measured temperature logs in well H-26 are produced by numerical simulation. This considers the well circulation losses and an assumed initial temperature profile. This profile iteratively modified until the computed profiles match the measured temperature profiles. The last assumed temperature profile is then considered as the best approximation to the undisturbed formation temperature around well H-26 and it is then compared with the stabilized temperatures obtained via the Horner and Sphere methods. [Spanish] Se presentan las temperaturas iniciales o estabilizadas de la formacion circundante a 40 pozos del campo geotermico Los Humeros, las cuales se estimaron mediante los metodos de Horner y el metodo de la esfera. Se presenta una discusion sobre la aplicacion de cada metodo y se detallan las aplicaciones previas del metodo de la esfera. Posteriormente y con base en las estimaciones de las principales zonas de aporte de cada pozo y sus correspondientes temperaturas se grafican las temperaturas mas probables de yacimiento para cada pozo contra la elevacion y se incluye en la misma grafica la curva de ebullicion del agua contra la elevacion. Se

  12. Isotopic Behaviour of fluids from the Los Azufres, Michoacan, (Mexico) Geothermal Wells; Comportamiento isotopico de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Arellano G, Victor Manuel; Portugal M, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Tello L, Mirna del Rocio; Tello H, Enrique [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1997-01-01

    Isotopics data (oxygen-18 and deuterium) from production and reinjection well fluids from the Los Azufres geothermal field were interpreted in order to define the reservoir evolution and the occurrence of physical processes as a consequence of exploitation. The study included data for 25 wells for 1994-1996. Chemical and production data were also studied in order to explain the isotopic characteristics of the fluids. General results indicated that different phenomena seem to occur for both field zones. In the southern zone (Tejamaniles), a mixture of fluids was evidenced by the deuterium vs oxygen-18 tendency which provides a positive slope. The isotopically enriched fluid is constituted by the reinjection fluid. In the northern zone, (Maritaro) there was no evidence that the reinjection fluid is appearing in well discharges. For this zone the dominant process seems to be the reservoir vapour separation at a temperature above 220 degrees Celsius. This was suggested by the deuterium vs oxygen-18 tendency for which a negative slope was found. This trend is characteristics of a vapour separation process since for temperatures above 220 degrees Celsius deuterium behaves as a volatile component. The study of the reservoir temperatures estimated by different approaches for particular wells through time and the results obtained with a heat and fluid flow well simulator, suggest that reservoir boiling occurs in localized areas for both zones of the field. This process is probably due to exploitation. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta una interpretacion de datos de composicion isotopica (oxigeno-18 y deuterio) de fluidos de pozos productores y de reinyeccion del campo geotermico de Los Azufres. Estos datos se obtuvieron entre 1994 y 1996 con el proposito de definir la evolucion del yacimiento e identificar los procesos dominantes surgidos como consecuencia de la explotacion del campo. El estudio comprendio un numero de 25 pozos productores y de reinyeccion. La

  13. The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Summer Student Programs in La Serena, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleida, Catherine C.; Smith, C.; Van Der Bliek, N. S.; James, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) offers positions for U.S. and Chilean student interns during the Chilean summer months of January-March (northern winter semester) at the CTIO offices in La Serena, Chile. CTIO is part of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) of the United States, focused on the development of astronomy in the southern hemisphere. Six undergraduate research assistantships are offered for U.S. physics and astronomy undergraduate students through the NSF-funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. The CTIO-funded Prácticas de Investigación en Astronomía (PIA) program is run concurrently with the REU program, and offers two research assistantships for Chilean undergraduate or 1st or 2nd year masters students, also at the CTIO offices in La Serena, Chile. The CTIO REU and PIA programs provide exceptional opportunities for students considering a career in astronomy to engage in substantive research activities with scientists working at the forefront of contemporary astrophysics. Student participants work on specific research projects in close collaboration with members of the CTIO scientific and technical staff, such as galaxy clusters, gravitational lensing, supernovae, planetary nebulae, stellar populations, star clusters, star formation, variable stars and interstellar medium. The CTIO REU and PIA programs emphasize observational techniques and provide opportunities for direct observational experience using CTIO's state-of-the-art telescopes and instrumentation. The programs run for 10 weeks, from mid-January to the end of March. A two-night observing run on Cerro Tololo and a field trip to another observatory in Chile are included for students of both programs. These positions are full time, and those selected will receive a modest stipend and subsidized housing on the grounds of the offices of CTIO in La Serena, as well as travel costs to and from La Serena. In addition, the students have the

  14. The age and thermal history of Cerro Rico de Potosi, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.; Zartman, R.E.; McKee, E.H.; Rye, R.O.; Naeser, C.W.; Sanjines, V.O.; Ericksen, G.E.; Tavera, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    Cerro Rico de Potosi, Bolivia, is the world's largest silver deposit and has been mined since the sixteenth century for silver, and for tin and zinc during the twentieth century, together with by-product copper and lead. The deposit consists primarily of veins that cut an altered igneous body that we interpret to be a dacitic volcanic dome and its underlying tuff ring and explosion breccia. The deposit is compositionally and thermally zoned, having a core of cassiterite, wolframite, bismuthinite, and arsenopyrite surrounded by a peripheral, lower-temperature mineral assemblage consisting principally of sphalerite, galena, lead sulfosalt, and silver minerals. The low-temperature assemblage also was superim-posed on the high-temperature assemblage in response to cooling of the main hydrothermal system. Both the dacite dome and the ore fluids were derived from a larger magmatic hydrothermal source at depth. The dome was repeatedly fractured by recurrent movement on the fault system that guided its initial emplacement. The dome was extruded at 13.8 ?? 0.2 Ma (2??), based on U-Th-Pb dating of zircon. Mineralization and alteration occurred within about 0.3 my of dome emplacement, as indicated by a 40Ar/39Ar date of 13.76 ?? 0.10 Ma (1??) for sericite from the pervasive quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration associated with the main-stage, high-temperature, mineralization. The last thermal event able to reset zircon fission tracks occurred no later than 12.5 ?? 1.1 Ma (1??). as indicated by fission-tract dating. Minor sericite. and magmatic-steam alunite veins, were episodically formed around 11 Ma and between 8.3 and 5.7 Ma; the younger episodes occurring at the time of extensional fracturing at Cerro Rico and widespread volcanism in the adjacent Los Frailes volcanic field. None of these younger events appear to be signific-ant thermal/mineralizing events: the exceptionally flat thermal release pattern of 39Ar from sericite and the results of the fission-tract dating of

  15. Intense Seismic Activity at Chiles and Cerro Negro Volcanoes on the Colombia-Ecuador Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, R. A.; Cadena, O.; Gomez, D.; Ruiz, M. C.; Prejean, S. G.; Lyons, J. J.; White, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The region of Chiles and Cerro Negro volcanoes, located on the Colombian-Ecuadorian border, has experienced an ongoing seismic swarm beginning in Aug. 2013. Based on concern for local residents and authorities, a cooperative broadband monitoring network was installed by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano in Colombia and the Instituto Geofísico of the Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Ecuador. Since November 2013 more than 538,000 earthquakes were recorded; although since May 2015 the seismicity has decreased significantly to an average of 70 events per day. Three large earthquake swarms with increasing energy occurred in Aug.-Oct. 2013, March-May 2014, and Sept.-Dec. 2014. By the end of 2014, roughly 400 earthquakes greater than M 3 had occurred with a maximum rate of 8000 earthquakes per day. The largest earthquake was a 5.6 ML on Oct. 20, 2014. This event produced an InSAR coseismic deformation of ~23 cm (S. Ebmeier, personal communication). Most events are typical brittle failure volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes that are located in a cluster beneath the southern flank of Chiles volcano, with depths between 1.5 and 10 km. Although the great majority of earthquakes are VT, some low-frequency (LF, ~0.5 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF) events have occurred. Particle motion analysis suggests that the VLF source migrated with time. While a VLF on Oct. 15, 2014 was located south of Chiles volcano, near the InSAR source, the VLF registered on Feb. 14, 2015 was likely located very close to Chiles Volcano. We infer that magma intrusion and resulting fluid exsolution at depths greater than 5 km are driving seismicity in the Chiles-Cerro Negro region. However earthquakes are failing in a manner consistent with regional tectonics. Relative relocations reveal a structure consistent with mapped regional faults. Thus seismicity is likely controlled by an interaction of magmatic and tectonic processes. Because the regional stress field is highly compressional and the volcanoes

  16. Measurements of air contaminants during the Cerro Grande fire at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhart, Craig

    2010-08-01

    Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants was continued throughout the Cerro Grande fire that burned part of Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the fire, samples were collected more frequently than normal because buildup of smoke particles on the filters was decreasing the air flow. Overall, actual sampling time was 96% of the total possible sampling time for the May 2000 samples. To evaluate potential human exposure to air contaminants, the samples were analyzed as soon as possible and for additional specific radionuclides. Analyses showed that the smoke from the fire included resuspended radon decay products that had been accumulating for many years on the vegetation and the forest floor that burned. Concentrations of plutonium, americium, and depleted uranium were also measurable, but at locations and concentrations comparable to non-fire periods. A continuous particulate matter sampler measured concentrations that exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-10 (particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter). These high concentrations were caused by smoke from the fire when it was close to the sampler.

  17. New mammalian records in the Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, northwestern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy M. Hurtado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Tropical Rainforest and Equatorial Dry Forest are found only in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, and are among the most poorly known ecosystems of South America. Even though these forests are protected in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (PNCA, they are threatened by fragmentation because of farming and agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian species richness, using transect census, camera trapping, and specimen bone collection. Nine transects were established and 21 camera trap stations were placed along 16 km2 in three localities of PNCA, from August 2012 to April 2013. Total sampling effort was 215 km of transects and 4077 camera-days. We documented 22 species; including 17 with camera trapping, 11 with transect census, and 10 with specimen collection.  Camera traps were the most effective method, and four species (Dasyprocta punctata, Cuniculus paca, Leopardus wiedii and Puma concolor were documented only with this method. This comprised the first Peruvian record for Dasyprocta punctata, and the first record for the western slope of the Peruvian Andes for Cuniculus paca. Also, both specimen collections and sightings confirm the presence of Potos flavus, first record in the western slope of the Peruvian Andes. Panthera onca, Tremarctos ornatus and Saimiri sciureus are considered locally extinct, while several species are in need of further research. We highlight the importance of the high diversity of this rainforests and encourage local authorities to give the area the highest priority in conservation.

  18. The Final Days of Paracas in Cerro del Gentil, Chincha Valley, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes a highly significant archaeological context discovered in a late Paracas (400–200 BCE) sunken patio in the monumental platform mound of Cerro Gentil, located in the Chincha Valley, Peru. This patio area was used for several centuries for ritual activities, including large-scale feasting and other public gatherings. At one point late in this historical sequence people deposited a great deal of objects in what is demonstrably a single historical event. This was quickly followed by a series of minor events stratigraphically immediately above this larger event. This entire ritual process included the consumption of liquids and food, and involved the offering of whole pottery, pottery fragments, botanical remains, bone, lithics, baskets, pyro-engraved gourds, mummies, and other objects. We interpret these events as an “abandonment ceremony” or “termination ritual” during the late Paracas period, one that may have lasted for weeks or even months. The subsequent Topará occupation at the site (ca. 200 BCE- AD 100) involved the architectural enhancement of the mound area, but the pattern of use of the patio itself ended. Such a termination ritual signals a reorganization in the regional political structure of Paracas society. PMID:27144824

  19. The Iron Age settlement of Cerro de la Mesa (Alcolea de Tajo, Toledo. First Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega Blanco, José

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A general description of the rescue work in the site of Cerro de la Mesa is presented. The work documented a stratigraphy that covered at least all of the Iron Age. The site has a large wall typologically related with Andalusian and Levantine sites. There is a ritual area with orientalising items. Some domestic structures and a metallurgical workshop related with iron metallurgy were also documented from a later phase.

    Se presentan los resultados de los trabajos realizados en este yacimiento, cuya estratigrafía abarca, al menos toda la Edad del Hierro. Se ha excavado en extensión una potente muralla que recuerda modelos andaluces y levantinos. Se ha documentado una ocupación con materiales orientalizantes en un ambiente que puede considerarse sacro. De la fase posterior se han excavado varias estructuras domésticas, así como un conjunto que se relaciona con el trabajo del metal, tal vez una forja.

  20. Geology of Cerro Carmen prospect; uranium and rare earth element mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin Medina, Heriberto; Alarcon Farias, Boris

    2008-01-01

    The prospect Cerro Carmen is an skarn deposit with uranium (U) and Rare Earth Elements (REE )hosted in intermediate to basic volcanic rocks. The associated elements involved are Th, Ti, Fe, Y and Sc. The main mineral specie is davidite, it represent a formation temperature near to 1500 o C. The first radiometric anomalies of this prospect were discovered through aerial radiometric survey in 1982, latter in 1995, the interest expressed by Empresa Nacional de Mineria (ENAMI) and CCHEN, on REE and Uranium elements, resulted in the sign of an agreement between both parties to study this prospect,in which ENAMI provided operational resources and CCHEN provided professional resources. From geological point of view, the prospect is located at contact of volcanic rocks, that correspond to La Negra Formation of Pliensbachiano age to upper Jurassic age, with igneous rocks of Pluton Sierra Aspera of Neocomian age, in a structural lineament NW with emplacements of monzonitic and aplitic intrusive rocks from upper Cretaceous age with potassium metasomatism and mineralization of U and REE. In III and IV Regions, similar mineralization to the described one, marks a regional lineament coincidental with the axis of the iron metallogenic province, supporting the need to realize studies to improve the estimation of the potential of radioactive minerals of the country

  1. Unrest of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex: A binational Ecuador - Colombia effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Gomez, D.; Torres, R.; Cadena, O.; Mothes, P. A.; Anzieta, J. C.; Pacheco, D. A.; Bernard, B.; Acero, W.; Hidalgo, S.; Enriquez, W.; Cordova, A.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing seismic activity at the area of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located at the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto OVSP, a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area and more than 100.000 events are recorded since November 2013. The largest and more recent swarm has a daily average of 676 events between March and June 2014. Currently a seismic network of 8 seismic stations (5 in the Colombian and 3 in Ecuadorean side) are deployed in this area. Epicenters of more than 315 seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0 and 10 or more phases are located in an area 1-4 km south of Chiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most of events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Nine events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 and the largest event occurred on April 30. 2014 with a local magnitude of 4.7 and inverse-transcurrent component focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. Events with large magnitudes (above 3.0) show a very long-period component. Hot spring and deformation measurements also show signals of volcanic unrest.

  2. Finite differences numerical model for mass and energy transport in geothermal reservoirs with carbon dioxide; Modelo numerico en diferencias finitas para el transporte de masa y energia en yacimientos geotermicos con bioxido de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Sara Lilia; Ruiz, Jose Napoleon; Aragon, Alfonso; Iglesias, Eduardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-01-01

    A numerical model using finite differences method for mass and energy transport in a geothermal reservoir is presented, where the rock is considered as a porous media and the two phase-flow composed by water and carbon dioxide. The Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) method was employed to have the advantage of generate tridiagonal matrix, and that also has shown to be efficient in mono-phase natural convection studies for porous media and cavities. It is concluded that this method has the capability of modeling two-phase flow in porous media. The mathematical formulation is for two-dimensional and transient behavior, and includes a new thermodynamic model for solubility of carbon dioxide in water, that can be applied up to 350 degrees celsius and 500 bar. Finally, this paper includes a rigorous formulation for determining thermodynamics and transport properties of binary H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} system. [Espanol] Se presenta un modelo numerico en diferencias finitas para el transporte de masa y energia en el sistema roca-fluido de los yacimientos geotermicos, considerando roca porosa homogenea y flujo bifasico de agua con bioxido de carbono. Se aplica el metodo denominado de direcciones alternadas implicito que tiene la ventaja de generar matrices tridiagonales y que ha mostrado ser eficiente para estudios de conveccion natural de flujos monofasicos en medios porosos y en cavidades. Se concluye que este metodo tambien tiene la capacidad de modelar flujos bifasicos en medios porosos. La formulacion matematica, bidimensional y transitoria, incluye un nuevo modelo termodinamico para la solubilidad del bioxido de carbono en agua el cual considera el comportamiento no ideal de los componentes en la mezcla gaseosa y la compresibilidad de la fase liquida, valido hasta 350 grados celsius y 500 bar. Se incluye asimismo una formulacion, lo mas rigurosa posible, para la determinacion de las propiedades termodinamicas y de transporte del sistema binario H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}, en el

  3. Seismologic study of Los Hum eros geothermal field, Pueblo, Mexico. Part I: Seismicity, source mechanisms and stress distribution; Estudio sismologico del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico. Parte I: Sismicidad, mecanismos de fuente y distribucion de esfuerzos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lermo, Javier; Antayhua, Yanet [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F (Mexico)]. E-Mail: jles@pumas.iingen.unam.mx; Quintanar, Luis [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Lorenzo, Cecilia [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    The distribution of earthquakes at the surface and at depth in the Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla (Mexico), is analyzed from 1997-2004. Data for 95 earthquakes were registered at more than five permanent and temporary stations installed by the Comision Federal de Electricidad and the Instituto de Ingenieria of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The duration magnitudes of the quakes are equal to or lower than 3.6 Md and the focal depths do not exceed 4.0 km. Simple focal mechanisms and moment tensor inversions were made, and the number of earthquakes registered by two stations of the permanent network (numbers S05, S06) was compared with water-injection and steam-production volumes over a certain period. The results at the surface and at depth show seismic activity occurring in the northern zone of the field around injection wells I29 (well H-29) and I38 (well H-38); whereas, the simple focal mechanisms and moment tensors demonstrate stresses of heterogeneous origin, suggesting that part of the seismic activity in Los Humeros is probably induced, mainly by injecting water. [Spanish] Se analiza la distribucion en superficie y en profundidad de los sismos ocurridos en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico), durante el periodo 1997-2004. Los datos corresponden a 95 sismos registrados por mas de cinco estaciones permanentes y temporales instaladas por la Comision Federal de Electricidad y el Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, cuyas magnitudes de duracion son menores o iguales a 3.6 Md y profundidades focales que no sobrepasan los 4.0 km. Asimismo, se realizaron mecanismos focales simples y de inversion de tensor de momento, y se comparo el numero de sismos registrados por dos estaciones de la red permanente (numeros S05, S06) con la inyeccion de agua y la produccion de vapor durante cierto tiempo. Los resultados en superficie y en profundidad muestran actividad sismica en la zona norte del campo, alrededor

  4. U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology from the Cerro Empexa Formation, 1st and 2nd Regions, Precordillera, northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, A.J; Martin, M.W; Blanco, N.; Perez de Arce, C

    2001-01-01

    The Cerro Empexa Formation (Galli, 1957) is a regionally distributed andesitic volcanic and continental sedimentary unit exposed in the Precordillera of the 1st and 2nd Regions of northern Chile. The formation has generally been considered to lie within the Lower or 'mid' Cretaceous, however, this assignment is based on scant, unreliable geochronologic data. Furthermore, there are conflicting interpretations as to whether the unit predates or postdates the first major Mesozoic shortening event affecting northern Chile. Because of the formation's presumed mid-Cretaceous age and its stratigraphic position over older back-arc sedimentary successions, the unit has been interpreted to represent products of the first eastward jump in the Andean magmatic arc from the arc's initial position in the Cordillera de la Costa (Scheuber and Reutter, 1992). In this paper we present the results of mapping and field observations that indicate exposures previously assigned to the Cerro Empexa Formation include two andesitic volcanic units separated by a major unconformity. The Cerro Empexa Formation proper lies above this unconformity. We also present U-Pb zircon and K-Ar geochronology that indicate the Cerro Empexa Formation is latest Cretaceous in its lower levels, and integrate our data with previously reported 40 Ar/ 39 Ar and fission-track data in the Cerros de Montecristo area (Maksaev, 1990; Maksaev and Zentilli, 1999) to show that 1800±600 m of rocks were deposited within ca. 2.5 m.y (au)

  5. Validating numerical simulations of snow avalanches using dendrochronology: the Cerro Ventana event in Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Casteller

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by snow avalanches to property and human lives is underestimated in many regions around the world, especially where this natural hazard remains poorly documented. One such region is the Argentinean Andes, where numerous settlements are threatened almost every winter by large snow avalanches. On 1 September 2002, the largest tragedy in the history of Argentinean mountaineering took place at Cerro Ventana, Northern Patagonia: nine persons were killed and seven others injured by a snow avalanche. In this paper, we combine both numerical modeling and dendrochronological investigations to reconstruct this event. Using information released by local governmental authorities and compiled in the field, the avalanche event was numerically simulated using the avalanche dynamics programs AVAL-1D and RAMMS. Avalanche characteristics, such as extent and date were determined using dendrochronological techniques. Model simulation results were compared with documentary and tree-ring evidences for the 2002 event. Our results show a good agreement between the simulated projection of the avalanche and its reconstructed extent using tree-ring records. Differences between the observed and the simulated avalanche, principally related to the snow height deposition in the run-out zone, are mostly attributed to the low resolution of the digital elevation model used to represent the valley topography. The main contributions of this study are (1 to provide the first calibration of numerical avalanche models for the Patagonian Andes and (2 to highlight the potential of Nothofagus pumilio tree-ring records to reconstruct past snow-avalanche events in time and space. Future research should focus on testing this combined approach in other forested regions of the Andes.

  6. Sleep Dynamic Therapy for Cerro Grande Fire evacuees with posttraumatic stress symptoms: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Barry J; Melendrez, Dominic C; Johnston, Lisa G; Clark, James O; Santana, Erin M; Warner, Teddy D; Hollifield, Michael A; Schrader, Ron; Sisley, Brandy N; Lee, Samuel A

    2002-08-01

    Sleep disturbance is common among disaster survivors with posttraumatic stress symptoms but is rarely addressed as a primary therapeutic target. Sleep Dynamic Therapy (SDT), an integrated program of primarily evidence-based, nonpharmacologic sleep medicine therapies coupled with standard clinical sleep medicine instructions, was administered to a large group of fire evacuees to treat posttraumatic insomnia and nightmares and determine effects on posttraumatic stress severity. The trial was an uncontrolled, prospective pilot study of SDT for 66 adult men and women, 10 months after exposure to the Cerro Grande Fire. SDT was provided to the entire group in 6, weekly, 2-hour sessions. Primary and secondary outcomes included validated scales for insomnia, nightmares, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression, assessed at 2 pretreatment baselines on average 8 weeks apart, weekly during treatment, posttreatment, and 12-week follow-up. Sixty-nine participants completed both pretreatment assessment, demonstrating small improvement in symptoms prior to starting SDT. Treatment and posttreatment assessments were completed by 66 participants, and 12-week follow-up was completed by 59 participants. From immediate pretreatment (second baseline) to posttreatment, all primary and secondary scales decreased significantly (all p values stress disorder subscales demonstrated similar changes: intrusion (d = 0.56), avoidance (d = 0.45), and arousal (d = 0.69). Fifty-three patients improved, 10 worsened, and 3 reported no change in posttraumatic stress. In an uncontrolled pilot study, chronic sleep symptoms in fire disaster evacuees were treated with SDT, which was associated with substantive and stable improvements in sleep disturbance, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression 12 weeks after initiating treatment.

  7. Glacier mass balance reconstruction by sublimation induced enrichment of chemical species on Cerro Tapado (Chilean Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ginot

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 m long ice core down to bedrock from the Cerro Tapado glacier (5536 m a.s.l, 30°08' S, 69°55' W was analyzed to reconstruct past climatic conditions for Northern Chile. Because of the marked seasonality in the precipitation (short wet winter and extended dry summer periods in this region, major snow ablation and related post-depositional processes occur on the glacier surface during summer periods. They include predominantly sublimation and dry deposition. Assuming that, like measured during the field campaign, the enrichment of chloride was always related to sublimation, the chemical record along the ice core may be applied to reconstruct the history of such secondary processes linked to the past climatic conditions over northern Chile. For the time period 1962–1999, a mean annual net accumulation of 316 mm water equivalent (weq and 327 mm weq loss by sublimation was deduced by this method. This corresponds to an initial total annual accumulation of 539 mm weq. The annual variability of the accumulation and sublimation is related with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI: higher net-accumulation during El-Niño years and more sublimation during La Niña years. The deepest part of the ice record shows a time discontinuity; with an ice body deposited under different climatic conditions: 290 mm higher precipitation but with reduced seasonal distribution (+470 mm in winter and –180 mm in summer and –3°C lower mean annual temperature. Unfortunately, its age is unknown. The comparison with regional proxy data however let us conclude that the glacier buildup did most likely occur after the dry mid-Holocene.

  8. Model to predict the flow of tracers in naturally fractured geothermal reservoirs; Modelo para predecir el flujo de trazadores en yacimientos geotermicos naturalmente fracturados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Sabag, Jetzabeth

    1988-02-01

    {sub e1} fixes the characteristic of the family of curves. Also it was found that the irruption time for a given concentration depends strongly on {alpha}. [Spanish] El modelo propuesto ha sido desarrollado para estudiar el flujo de trazadores a traves de yacimientos geotermicos naturalmente fracturados. El sistema idealizado del yacimiento esta compuesto por dos regiones: Una region movil donde mecanismos de difusion y conveccion estan presentes y una region estancada o inmovil donde se consideran los mecanismos de difusion y adsorcion: en ambas regiones se considera la perdida de masa por decaimiento radioactivo. Las soluciones de las ecuaciones basicas de flujo estan en el espacio de Laplace y se utilizo el algoritmo de Stehfest para su inversion numerica. A pesar de la dispersion numerica que presentan estas soluciones, se encontro una tendencia bien definida para inferir el comportamiento del sistema bajo diferentes condiciones de flujo. Se encontro que, para propositos practicos el tamano de los bloques de matriz no tiene influencia sobre la respuesta de la concentracion, y la solucion se reduce a la presentada por Tang y asociados. Bajo estas condiciones, el comportamiento del sistema puede ser descrito por dos parametros adimensionales: El numero de Peclet en las fracturas y un parametro. Se derivo tambien la respuesta del trazador para la solucion pico. Se encontro una solucion analitica limite para el caso en que {alpha} tienda a cero, el cual corresponde al caso de un sistema homogeneo. Se comprobo que esta solucion limite es valida, para {alpha}<0.01. Para el caso de inyeccion continua esta solucion se reduce a la presentada por Coasts y Smith. Para la solucion pico, se encontro que el tiempo de irrupcion correspondiente a la maxima concentracion esta relacionada directamente con el grupo adimensional. Por lo tanto, es posible obtener el valor de P{sub e1} para una X{sub D} dada, o viceversa. Un grupo de graficas de concentracion adimensional en la fractura

  9. Experiences in the use of an electronic tool to measure pressure, temperature and spinner logs in the Mexican geothermal fields; Experiencias en el uso de sondas electronicas de presion, temperatura y flujo en campos geotermicos de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly; Jaimes Maldonado, Guillermo [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    In this article are exposed the results of an electronic tool to measure pressure-temperature and spinner profiles in the geothermal wells of Mexico, utilized in order to identify unobservable phenomena with traditional Kuster type pressure and temperature logs. Some examples of the applications are the identifications of production zones, interaction from between two or more zones of contribution under several conditions of operation, casing damages and apparition of sink flow intervals into the formation in producer wells. It is also presented the quantitative method utilized to calculate the masic contribution of the intervals of interest. [Spanish] En este articulo se exponen los resultados obtenidos mediante el uso de una sonda electronica para la medicion de presion-temperatura y flujo en los pozos geotermicos de Mexico, utilizada para identificar fenomenos que no son observables con las mediciones tradicionales tipo Kuster de presion y temperatura. Se ejemplifican algunas de las aplicaciones hechas, tales como la identificacion de zonas de produccion, forma de interaccion entre dos o mas zonas de aporte bajo diferentes condiciones de operacion, roturas en tuberias y aparicion de zonas ladronas en pozos. Se presenta brevemente el metodo cuantitativo utilizado para calcular el aporte masico de las intervalos de interes.

  10. GeoSteamNet: A computer code to simulate geothermal steam flow in a pipeline network; GeoSteamNet: Programa de computo para simular el flujo de vapor geotermico de una red de vaporductos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma P., Mahendra; Aragon A., Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: mahendra@iie.org.mx; Ruiz L., Alejando; Mendoza C., Alfredo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Campo Geotermico Los Azufres, Campamento Agua Fria, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    transporte del flujo de vapor en una red de vaporductos de un campo geotermico. El movimiento del fluido se rige por los siguientes principios basicos: la conservacion de la masa, el principio de movimiento lineal (segunda ley de Newton o las ecuaciones de Navier Stokes) y la primera y segunda leyes de la termodinamica. La segunda ley de la termodinamica permite definir la direccion de un proceso espontaneo, que esta indirectamente validado en el algoritmo, debido a que el vapor fluye de alta a baja presion y el calor fluye de alta a baja temperatura. Las ecuaciones no lineales se resuelven con el metodo de Newton-Raphson. Utilizando el componente ActiveX OrificeMeter, se realizo el balance de masa para el flujo de vapor en las unidades de generacion U-15 y U-16 del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., en febrero de 2009. La U-15 fue alimentada por los pozos productores AZ-04, Z-28, Z-30, AZ-65D, y AZ-66, mientras que los pozos AZ-28A, AZ-45, Z-56, Z-67 y AZ- 69D estaban conectados a la U-16. La diferencia entre la cantidad de vapor recibida en las unidades y producida por los pozos respectivos esta dentro de {+-}4%, lo cual es aceptable para fines practicos para el suministro de vapor, tomando en cuenta las incertidumbres en varios parametros tales como la presion, la temperatura, la fluctuacion de la presion en el cabezal del pozo, entre otros. Los resultados de la simulacion de una red hipotetica de vaporductos de un sistema geotermico con dos pozos productores y una planta de generacion de energia electrica ilustran la funcionalidad de GeoSteamNet, mostrando varios puntos importantes a destacar. Para una geometria especifica de las redes de vaporductos solo hay una cierta cantidad de masa (vapor) que puede ser transportado a una presion dada de los pozos y de la planta generadora. La construccion y modificacion de una red de vaporductos son muy costosas y la produccion de pozos geotermicos responde a los factores de su naturaleza, por lo tanto, hay necesidad de

  11. Geological determination of the limits, area and volume of the geothermal reservoir of the Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Determinacion geologica de los limites, area y volumen del yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Hernandez, Daniel [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    A geologic analysis to determine the limits, area and volume of the exploitable reservoir of the Los Humeros Geothermal Field, in Puebla, Mexico was carried out. We defined the structural boundaries, both at surface and at deep that seem to control the distribution of the fluids of high enthalpy and favor or limit the production of steam. With 40 wells drilled to date, an average thickness of the lithological producer Unit of 1 163 m has been estimated. A surface of 12.54 km{sup 2} was calculated, that with the estimated thickness, gives a volume of the reservoir of 14.6 km{sup 3}. We consider that there are two main production sectors in the Geothermal Field: The Central Collapse and The Mastaloya Corridor. [Spanish] Se realizo un analisis geologico para determinar los limites, area y volumen del yacimiento explotable del campo geotermico de Los Humeros en Puebla, Mexico. Se definen las barreras estructurales, tanto superficiales como del subsuelo, que controlan la distribucon de los fluidos de alta entalpia que favorecen o limitan la produccion de vapor. Con los 40 pozos perforados hasta la fecha, se estima un espesor promedio de la unidad productora de 1 163 m. Se calculo una superficie de 12.54 km{sup 2}, la que con el espesor mencionado, da un volumen del yacimiento de 14.6 km{sup 3}. Se plantea que dentro del campo existen dos sectores principales de produccion. El Colapso Central y el Corredor de Mastaloya.

  12. Geología de la región del Cerro Guanaquero, Río Diamante, Mendoza

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Fuentes; Victor A. Ramos

    2008-01-01

    El estudio realizado presenta nuevos datos sobre un sector poco conocido de la Cordillera Principal de Mendoza, en la alta cuenca del río Diamante en las adyacencias del cerro Guanaquero, y los primeros datos geocronológicos de sus rocas volcánicas. Las unidades geológicas presentes en el área se dividen en cuatro grupos principales: secuencias sedimentarias mesozoicas marinas y continentales intensamente plegadas y falladas; intrusivos y volcanitas intermedias de edad neógena; rocas volcánic...

  13. The Use of Geothermal Energy at Military Installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    Geothermal Province Source: Austin and Pringle , 1974 Salton Sea Cerro Prieto geothermal field geotherma l field I.I.D. No. 1a I.I.D. No. 2b M_ SC M_ 8C Sodium...1973 at 4.8 MWe . Otake. Japan 13 1 FS 200 ? 5 3000 7~ Growth: Operation began in 1967 at 12 MWe . 60 — expected by 1980 Cerro Prieto , Mexico 75 2...of power plant operati on is infl uenced by one or more of the chemical constituents. In the V Cerro Prieto and Wairakei fields the

  14. La «embajada oficiosa» de Indalecio Prieto en México durante la presidencia de Lázaro Cárdenas, 1939-1940

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    Mateos, Abdón

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The author tries to set Indalecio Prieto’s mission in Cárdenas’ Mexico within its political context, emphasizing the background of the relationship between the Spanish republican socialists and the Mexican leftist nationalists and its development from the 1920’s onwards. The present monograph is an account of the JARE’s management and of President L. Cárdenas’ policy towards the Spanish republican refugees until the beginning of Ávila Camacho’s presidency

    El autor contextualiza la misión de Indalecio Prieto en el México cardenista, destacando los antecedentes de las relaciones entre los republicanos-socialistas españoles y la izquierda nacionalista mexicana establecidas desde los años veinte. La monografía analiza la gestión de la JARE y la política de Lázaro Cárdenas hacia los refugiados republicanos españoles hasta el comienzo de la presidencia de Manuel Ávila Camacho.

  15. El adoratorio del cerro El Potro: Arqueología de alta montaña en la cordillera de Copiapó, norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano,Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Se exponen los resultados del reconocimiento arqueológico de las nacientes del río Los Helados y del cerro El Potro, en el valle de Copiapó. El objetivo principal fue constatar evidencias descritas para la zona que dieran cuenta de una huaca prehispánica, como también definir la orientación orográfica de la arquitectura del centro metalúrgico Viña del Cerro. Los resultados sugieren que existieron prácticas culturales vinculadas con la tradición andina de adorar a las montañas, que incluyeron ...

  16. Importaciones áticas del siglo V a.C. del Cerro del Prado (Algeciras, Cádiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, Paloma

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze a group of Attic imports, found in the excavations of Cerro del Prado, a settlement situated in the Bahía de Algeciras (Cádiz. The great interest of this group lies in the fact that it belongs to a particular chronological period, the last third of the 5th century B.C., as we have not found later imports, and in the almost exclusive presence of black glazed vases, which gives US an idea of a very definitive demand of the punic society of the Iberian Peninsula regarding the trade of greek goods.

    Presentamos en este trabajo un conjunto de importaciones áticas halladas en las excavaciones del Cerro del Prado, situado en la bahía de Algeciras (Cádiz. El interés de este conjunto reside en su pertenencia a un momento cronológico muy concreto: el último tercio del siglo V a.C., no habiéndose hallado importaciones más modernas y en la presencia absoluta de vasos de barniz negro, lo que nos habla de una demanda muy determinada de la sociedad púnica peninsular frente al comercio de productos griegos.

  17. Summary of a Gas Transport Tracer Test in the Deep Cerros Del Rio Basalts, Mesita del Buey, Los Alamos NM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ortiz, John Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Salazar, Larry Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Snyder, Emily Elisabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Here we describe results from a tracer test in the Cerros del Rio basalt beneath Mesita del Buey, Technical Area 54 (TA-54) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory). This report follows from plans outlined in our previous Tracer Test Work Plan (LANL 2016). These activities were conducted by LANL to further characterize subsurface properties of the Cerros del Rio basalts at Material Disposal Area (MDA) L (Figure 1.1-1). The work presented follows from the “Interim Measures Work Plan for Soil-Vapor Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Material Disposal Area L, Technical Area 54, Revision 1,” submitted to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in September 2014 (LANL 2014). Remediation of the MDA L vapor plume by soil-vapor extraction (SVE) is recommended as part of the final remedy in the “Corrective Measures Evaluation Report for Material Disposal Area L, Solid Waste Management Unit 54-006, at Technical Area 54, Revision 2” to meet a remedial action objective of preventing groundwater from being impacted above a regulatory standard by the transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to groundwater through soil vapor (LANL 2011).

  18. ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND ACID MINE DRAINAGE PASSIVE CO-TREATMENT AT CERRO RICO DE POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H.J. Strosnider

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide environmental problem. The passive co-treatment of AMD with municipal waste water (MWW is a cost effective approach that uses nutrients in MWW in order to treat high concentrations of metals and sulfate found in AMD. Cerro Rico de Potosí in Bolivia is one of the biggest mining cities in the world, and it is constantly facing problems with AMD. The goal of this study was to determine the reaction rates of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and other metals found in an AMD discharge from Cerro Rico by a three-stage reactor system. The AMD had a pH of 3.58 and acidity of 1080 mg/L as CaCO3 equivalent containing 12, 68, 17 and 550 mg/L of dissolved Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn respectively. The reaction rates of Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn were 1.43, 2.09, 0.01, and 0.10 d-1, respectively.

  19. Chemical changes in well fluids from the Los Humeros geothermal field: Evidences for deep recharge; Cambios quimicos en fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros: Evidencia de recarga profunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Flores Armenta, Magaly [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    Fluid (water and steam) chemical changes over time were studied in 20 wells in the Los Humeros, Mexico, geothermal field for the purpose of correlating such changes with physical processes occurring in the reservoir due to exploitation. Most wells (except well H-1) produce high-enthalpy fluids with almost no liquid, making gas geochemistry important in this field. Liquid-phase studies include fluid classification, determination of water-rock equilibrium state, and reservoir-temperature estimates. Changes in gas composition through time were studied using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction and the combined balance pyrite-hematite-magnetite (HSH2) as the buffer controlling H{sub 2}S fluid concentration. Data for most wells from 1987-1995 and 2000-2005 indicate the presence of deeper-fluid recharge, with maximum temperatures occurring in 1994-95 and 2005. The estimated temperature in well H-1 in 1994 was 305 degrees Celsius and the estimated temperature in well H-7 was 338 degrees Celsius in 1995. Temperature estimations from 2005 data were 222 degrees Celsius in well H-1D and 350 degrees Celsius in well H-7. These results are considered caused by the entrance of deeper fluids due to the increase of secondary permeability, which in turn is related to the seismicity increase in the zone. At the same time, re-injection returns in the steam phase were identified in well discharges during 1995-2000 by means of the FT-HSH2 diagram. [Spanish] Se realizo un estudio de los cambios quimicos ocurridos en fluidos (liquido y vapor) de veinte pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., Mexico, con objeto de investigar la ocurrencia de procesos del yacimiento relacionados con la explotacion. La mayoria de los pozos (excepto el pozo H-1) se caracterizan por producir descargas de alta entalpia con escasa produccion de liquido, por lo que en este campo la geoquimica de gases juega un papel importante. El estudio de la fase liquida incluyo la clasificacion de los fluidos, la

  20. Improvement in using steam for electric generation at the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Mejora en el aprovechamiento del vapor para generar energia electrica en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Rodriguez, Marco A.; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Mendoza Covarrubias, Alfredo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    Commercial exploitation in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico, started in 1982 when the first five backpressure-power units of 5-MW each were commissioned. Nowadays the installed capacity is 188 MW from 14 units: five in the South Zone fed by steam produced from 18 production wells plus two binary-cycle power units fed by residual brines; and seven in the North Zone with steam supplied by 22 production wells. There are seven backpressure-power units with high specific consumption [between 14.5 and 13.6 tons per hour of steam (t/h) per MW]. Three operate in the South Zone and four in the North Zone. This paper shows a way to achieve more efficient use of the geothermal resource by replacing the seven backpressure units, which have completed their useful lifetime-or are close to do it-with two, new condensing power units with lower specific consumption: one unit of 50 MW to be located in the North Zone and the other of 25 MW to be placed in the South Zone. No new wells need be drilled. In this way, the average specific consumption would be reduced to 8.8-7.2 t/h per MW (saving 47% of the steam), the income for electric generation would be increased and the steam-extraction rate would remain the same. [Spanish] En 1982 empezo la explotacion comercial del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico, con la instalacion y puesta en servicio de las primeras cinco unidades turbogeneradoras a contrapresion de 5 MW cada una. Actualmente la capacidad instalada es de 188 MW, con catorce unidades: cinco en la zona sur, alimentadas por el vapor de 18 pozos productores, mas dos unidades de ciclo binario que utilizan salmuera residual, y siete unidades en la zona norte, alimentadas por 22 pozos. Hay siete unidades a contrapresion con un consumo especifico elevado [entre 14.5 y 13.6 toneladas por hora (t/h) de vapor por MW], tres de las cuales se localizan en la zona sur y cuatro en la zona norte. En este documento se presenta un proyecto para hacer mas

  1. Results of exploratory drilling at the western portion of Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico, geothermal field; Resultados de la perforacion exploratoria en la porcion occidental del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarrubias Unzueta, Zenon [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-09-01

    The geological characteristics of the western portion of the Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico geothermal field were defined on the basis of EAZ-1 and EAZ-2 exploratory wells. A maximum temperature of 187 degrees celsius at 1995 m depth, with a pressure of 188 kg/cm{sup 2} were registered at EAZ-1 well. A permeable zone was detected at 1333 m with a measured temperature of 133 degrees celsius. The presence of laumontite at 1450 m depth, corresponds to a forming temperature similar to the measured one. Well EAZ-2 is also situated in the western sector of Los Azufres. During drilling, at 2197 m depth, a temperature of 222 degrees celsius and a pressure of 188 kg/cm{sup 2} were measured. Seventeen days later, 243 degrees celsius were registered at the same depth. The presence of a thermal anomaly, initially interpreted as an interest area by the existence of a low resistivity zone, was confirmed with the results above mentioned. The mineralogical analysis from 1400 m depth to the bottom of well EAZ-2 detected the existence of epidote, epidote+chlorite, epidote+amphybole, epidote+zoisite, quartz and unidentified clay+epidote, this assemblage suggest temperatures over 230 degrees celsius with a pressure of 85 bar at this interval. The temperatures estimated by fluid inclusions confirmed this interpretation. The results suggest the continuity of the Los Azufres hydrothermal system to the west, between AZ-3 and EAZ-2 wells. However, the NW sector is not connected to permeable zones associated with producing faults. [Espanol] Los resultados de la perforacion de los pozos exploratorios EAZ-1 y EAZ-2, permitieron definir las condiciones geologicas del yacimiento geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico hacia la extension occidental del campo. En el pozo EAZ-1, localizado al NW del campo, se midio una temperatura maxima de 187 grados celsius, a una profundidad de 1995 m, con una presion de 188 kg/cm{sup 2}. Se registro una zona permeable a 1333 m, con una temperatura de 131

  2. Los granitos peraluminosos de las Sierras de Vinquis, Cerro Negro y Zapata (Sierras Pampeanas, provincia de Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina, M. E.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The studied plutons are close to several batholiths of this region, as Sierra de Mazán and other, but with some mineralogical peculiarities. The magmatic cordierite, common in proximate places, is scarce, as sillimanite, while the andalusite is very rare, with few tourmaline. Fluorite and allanite are also typical accasories only in the granites of the Sierra de Zapata. All plutons are peraluminous of potassic tendency, with cortical affinity.The interpretation of the geochemical values distinguishes between granites of different maturity, emplaced under a predominant influence of active margin for Cerro Negro and Vinquis, while the batholith of Zapata has, below these concepts, a marked feature of within plate.The mineralogical associations suggest that the granites of Cerro Negro and Vinquis were emplaced to pressures of 2 kb or less and temperature of 650º C, while the granites of Zapata had done under conditions of lesser pressure, between 1.5 and 2.0 kb and lower temperature, 600-650º C.A grandes rasgos, los plutones estudiados tienen semejanzas con otros del entorno regional, tal como los de la Sierra de Mazán, pero con peculiaridades mineralógicas. La cordierita magmática, que en lugares próximos es muy abundante, es aquí escasa, al igual que la sillimanita, mientras que la andalucita es muy rara y la turmalina poco frecuente. La fluorita y allanita son accesorios comunes y de cierta abundancia sólo en los granitos de la Sierra de Zapata.Todos los plutones son peralumínicos y de tendencia potásica, con neta afinidad cortical. El estudio estadístico de datos geoquímicos seleccionados, permite diferenciar agrupaciones que tienen un reflejo satisfactorio en los plutones caracterizados, por encima de las variaciones de facies. La interpretación de los valores geoquímicos distingue granitos de desigual madurez, emplazados bajo una influencia predominante de margen activo o intraplaca de características continentales, en

  3. Eruptive history of the youngest Mexican Shield and Mexico's most voluminous Holocene eruption: Cerro El Metate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryaëlle Chevrel, Magdalena; Guilbaud, Marie-Noelle; Siebe, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Small to medium-sized shield volcanoes are an important component of many volcanic fields on Earth. The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, one of the most complex and active continental arcs worldwide, displays a large number of such medium-sized volcanoes. In particular the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field (MGVF) situated in central Mexico, is the largest monogenetic volcanic field in the world and includes more than 1000 scoria cones and about four hundred medium-sized volcanoes, also known as Mexican shields. The Mexican shields nevertheless represent nearly 70% of the total volume erupted since 1 Ma and hence played a considerable role in the formation of the MGVF. However, the source, storage, and transport as well as the physical properties (density, viscosity, volatile content, etc.) of the magmas involved in these eruptions remain poorly constrained. Here, we focus on Cerro El Metate, the youngest monogenetic andesite shield volcano of the field. New C14 dates for the eruption yield a young age (~AD 1250), which briefly precedes the initial rise of the Tarascan Empire (AD 1350-1521) in this region. This volcano has a minimum volume of ~9.2 km3 DRE, and its viscous lava flows were emplaced during a single eruption over a period of ~35 years covering an area of 103 km2. By volume, this is certainly the largest eruption during the Holocene in Mexico, and it is the largest andesitic effusive eruption known worldwide for this period. Such a large volume of lava erupted in a relatively short time had a significant impact on the environment (modification of the hydrological network, forest fires, etc.), and hence, nearby human populations probably had to migrate. Its eruptive history was reconstructed through detailed mapping, and geochemical and rheological analyses of its thick hornblende-bearing andesitic flows. Early and late flows have distinct morphologies, chemical and mineralogical compositions, and isotopic signatures which show that these lavas were fed by

  4. Spanish exiles and the dilemma of the Cold War. Prieto, Esplá, Araquistáin and Llopis | Exiliados españoles en la encrucijada de la Guerra Fría. Prieto, Esplá, Araquistáin y Llopis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luis Angosto Vélez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Personal attitudes were a determining factor in the position of Spanish Republican exiles regarding the question of restoring democracy in Spain at the beginning of the Cold War. After the Second World War had ended, many exiles came cherish a hope that such a development might be possible with the help of the victorious democracies, particularly the United States and the United Kingdom. They failed, however, to reach agreement as to which tactic to use in order to enlist this help, with some arguing in favour of giving the leading role to the government in exile, while others felt it was preferable to strike an agreement between all Spanish anti-Francoist groups in order to present a united democratic front to the new international institutions which had emerged in the post-war climate. The subtleties of both positions may be examined through a study of influential figures such as Indalecio Prieto, Carlos Esplá, Rodolfo Llopis and Luis Araquistán, of whom we now have a greater knowledge thanks to recent biographies, which form the basis of this work. | Las actitudes personales es un factor determinante de la posición del exilio republicano español ante el problema de la restauración de la democracia en España en la coyuntura del inicio de la Guerra Fría. Finalizada la Segunda Guerra Mundial, en los medios del exilio se generalizó la esperanza de que tal cosa era posible gracias a la ayuda de las democracias vencedoras, en particular de Estados Unidos y el Reino Unido. Sin embargo, no hubo unanimidad sobre la táctica a seguir para recabar esa ayuda, pues mientras unos abogaron por conceder el máximo protagonismo al gobierno en el exilio, otros consideraron más oportuno establecer un acuerdo entre las fuerzas antifranquistas españolas para presentar un frente democrático unido ante las nuevas instituciones internacionales surgidas del conflicto mundial. Ambas posturas presentan matices que pueden ser examinados a partir del talante

  5. INVENTARIO FLORÍSTICO EN EL CERRO DEL CUCHILLO, TAPÓN DEL DARIÉN COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÁRDENAS-LÓPEZ DAIRON

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del inventario florístico realizado entre agosto de 1987y julio de 1988, en el Cerro del Cuchillo, municipio de Riosucio (Chocó, Tapón delDarién colombiano. Se efectuaron diez salidas de campo con duración de quincedías cada una . Se registraron 127 familias, 428 géneros y 747 especies. Las divisionesmejor representadas fueron Magnoliophyta con 112 familias, 402 géneros y 705especies; Pteridophyta con trece familias, 23 géneros y 40 especies. Cycadophytaestuvo representada por la familia Zamiaceae con una especie y Gnetophyta por lafamilia Gnetaceae con una especie. Entre las plantas con flores (Magnoliophyta, elgrupo mejor representado fue la clase Magnoliopsida con 94 familias, 324 génerosy 573 especies. La clase Liliopsida estuvo representada por 18 familias, 78 génerosy 132 especies.

  6. Burning down the brewery: Establishing and evacuating an ancient imperial colony at Cerro Baúl, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Michael E.; Nash, Donna J.; Williams, Patrick Ryan; deFrance, Susan D.; Miranda, Ana; Ruales, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Before the Inca reigned, two empires held sway over the central Andes from anno Domini 600 to 1000: the Wari empire to the north ruled much of Peru, and Tiwanaku to the south reigned in Bolivia. Face-to-face contact came when both colonized the Moquegua Valley sierra in southern Peru. The state-sponsored Wari incursion, described here, entailed large-scale agrarian reclamation to sustain the occupation of two hills and the adjacent high mesa of Cerro Baúl. Monumental buildings were erected atop the mesa to serve an embassy-like delegation of nobles and attendant personnel that endured for centuries. Final evacuation of the Baúl enclave was accompanied by elaborate ceremonies with brewing, drinking, feasting, vessel smashing, and building burning. PMID:16293691

  7. IMPACT OF ADDITIONALS CONTAMINANTS DUE TO ACID MINE DRAINAGE IN TRIBUTARIES OF THE PILCOMAYO RIVER FROM CERRO RICO, POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H.J. Strosnider

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intensive mining and processing of the polymetallic sulfide ore body of Cerro Rico de Potosí (Bolivia has occurred since 1545. To further investigate acid mine drainage (AMD discharges and their link to downstream contamination, data were gathered during two sampling events during the most extreme periods of the dry and wet seasons of one year. Concentrations of Ag, B, Ba, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn and V in AMD and receiving streams were greater than Bolivian discharge limits and receiving water body guidelines as well as international agricultural use standards. High concentrations of rare earth metals have been documented in this area. Results indicate that contamination from mining has a larger scope than previously thought and underscore the importance of remediation.

  8. Notes on the ecology of Phyllodactylus reissi (Phyllodactylidae: Sauria in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (Tumbes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Jordán Arizmendi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Some basics aspects on the ecology of the nocturnal gecko Phyllodactylus reissi from Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (Tumbes, Peru are described. This species used rock boulders (57,4% and trees (31,9% as microhabitats primarily, exhibiting a nocturnal activity pattern, with a peak between 2100-2200 hours, remaining active until midnight. Body temperature (mean 24,4 ºC was correlated with both air and substrate temperature, with the last variable affecting in higher degree (47% the body temperature of this species. The slightly high body temperature of Phyllodactylus reissi, compared to other Phyllodactylus geckos, could be related to nocturnal microhabitat use and diurnal retreat site selection. More studies on lizard ecology from this endangered ecosystem are needed.

  9. Evaluación Integral del Riesgo Volcánico del Cerro Machín, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Leonel Vega Mora; Fernando Javier Diaz

    2013-01-01

    El volcán Cerro Machín (VCM) se encuentra situado en la Cordillera Central de Colombia. Por la composición química, magnitud y extensión de sus erupciones pasadas se reconoce como un volcán explosivo de gran potencial de daño, cuya actividad futura podría afectar intensamente y durante mucho tiempo (meses hasta años) una región estratégica para la economía del país, que cubre áreas pertenecientes a los departamentos de Tolima, Quindío, Valle del Cauca y Cundinamarca, en las cuales habitan cer...

  10. Evaluation of the Cerro Solo nuclear ore, province of Chubut. On the economic parameters of the deposit. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarra, P.R.; Sardin, P.G.; Urquiza, L.; Bernal, G.J.; Guzman Lobos, D.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results of the resources estimation carried out in the Cerro Solo uranium ore deposit, located in the Chubut Province, 1900 km SW from Buenos Aires and 380 Km W from Trelew, presented in tonnes of uranium recoverable at costs up to U$S 80/kgU, are as follows: a) Reasonable assured resources (indicated): 800 tU; b) Estimates Additional Resources (inferred): 2200 tU. Economic evaluation at the order-of-magnitude level, performed using the grade-tonnage model of the deposit, resulted a useful tool in the different stages of the project to identify the influence of technical parameters on the potential profitability. Research about feasibility of in-situ leaching method of exploitation for this deposit introduces an interesting alternative for future uranium production in the country. (Author)

  11. Development of the Cerro solo deposit and uranium favorability of the San Jorge Gulf Basin, province of Chubut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarra, P.R.; Benitez, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    In the future the uranium exploration activities of CNEA would tend to improve the knowledge of geology and uranium favorability; to perform prospection tasks, and research and development in exploration technologies, to contribute to be in a position to meet the requirements of the country in the long term. On the other hand, a strong growth of nuclear capacity is expected in the first two decades of the next century. Based on its promising grade, the Cerro Solo uranium ore deposit was selected in 1990 by the CNEA to carry out an assessment project. The intensive exploration level was accomplished, as follows: definition of general characteristics of the main orebodies; detailed geologic studies; estimation of resources with adequate data; and preliminary selection of mining-milling methods to estimate the potential profitability of the project. The deposit belongs to the sandstone type. The mineralized layers are distributed into the fluvial sandstones and conglomerates of the cretaceous Chubut Group, lying 50 to 130 m deep Resources of the deposit, with an average grade of 0.3% U, in tonnes of recoverable uranium at costs of up to $80/kg U, are: Reasonable Assured Resources (RAR): 800 t U, Estimated Additional Resources, Category I (EAR-I): 2100 t U. Follow-up drilling programmes are being performed at present in some of the target sites defined in the paleochannel that hosts the Cerro Solo deposit, in order to establish the hypothetical resources of the area. The sites were determined as a result of the exploration that CNEA conducted in the Pichinan uranium district. Recently a regional research project was formulated, for the detailed exploration in the San Jorge Gulf Basin, where the Chubut Group is distributed. 17 refs, 4 figs

  12. Constraining the Paleogene of South America: Magnetostratigraphy and paleoclimate proxy records from Cerro Bayo (Provincia de Salta, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, E.; Cotton, J. M.; Sheldon, N. D.

    2012-12-01

    Records of rapid climatic and ecological shifts in the past are crucial for understanding global systems and for predicting future impacts of climate change. Transient and broad scale hyperthermal events during the Paleogene, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), have been studied extensively through both marine records and a significant terrestrial record from North America. Despite this, little evidence exists from the climatic and ecological histories of other major landmasses, which limits the effectiveness of global climate response predictions. Here we present an integrated paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the early Paleogene from a site in central South America (Cerro Bayo, Argentina), including a new magnetostratigraphic age model, pedological and sedimentological interpretation, whole rock geochemical climate proxies, isotopic environmental proxies, and microfloral assemblages. Cerro Bayo is a 235-meter terrestrial section that exposes the Tunal, Mealla, and Maiz Gordo Formations, and based on magnetostratigraphic interpolation spans roughly 58—50 Mya, including both the PETM and EECO events. These formations are composed primarily of reddish sandstone and siltstone, much of which exhibits features characteristic of a moderate degree of pedogenesis (i.e., Inceptisols and Alfisols). High-resolution climate proxies derived from paleosol geochemical compositions highlight rapid increases in mean annual temperature (>5°C) and precipitation (>300 mm yr-1) during the PETM, as well as more gradual increasing temperature and precipitation trends leading up to the EECO. Carbon isotope stratigraphy through the section also indicates a sizable negative excursion (~4‰) during the PETM, and generally positive isotopic trends during the early Eocene. Phytolith biostratigraphy also details changes in local vegetation composition during climatic events that corresponds to similar patterns seen in terrestrial

  13. Una fosa-vertedero de época vettona en el Cerro de la Mesa (Alcolea de Tajo, Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapa Brunet, Teresa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of pits filled with earth, ashes, pottery fragments and fauna, usually known as ash pits, rubbish pits or dumps, has been recognized on many Second Iron Age settlements of the Spanish Northern Plateau, generally linked with Vaccean and Vettonian groups. However, its distribution should be extended to the west of the Southern Plateau and eastern Extremadura, as evidenced by the example of the Cerro de la Mesa village and indications coming from other western sites. We offer here a detailed study of part of a rubbish pit where certain domestic remains were withdrawn in connection with a new project of urbanisation of the Vettonian village held on the transition from the 3rd to the 2nd centuries BC.La existencia de fosas rellenas con tierra, cenizas, fragmentos cerámicos y fauna denominadas genéricamente como cenizales, basureros o vertederos, es un hecho bien conocido en la Meseta Norte durante la Segunda Edad del Hierro, vinculándose con los grupos Vacceos y Vettones. Sin embargo, su distribución debe ampliarse al occidente de la Meseta Sur y oriente extremeño, como se evidencia tanto en el Cerro de la Mesa como a través de indicios documentados en otros yacimientos más occidentales. Se presenta aquí un detallado estudio de un sector de la fosa que actuó como vertedero para la retirada de ciertos restos domésticos con ocasión de la reurbanización en profundidad del poblado vettón que tuvo lugar en la transición del siglo III al II a.C.

  14. Los marsupiales (Mammalia del Mioceno Superior de la Formación Cerro Azul (Provincia de La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visconti, G.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the most complete South American marsupial association of Huayquerian Age (late Miocene. Specimens were recovered from several new localities of central and northern La Pampa province (central Argentina, at levels assignable to Cerro Azul Fm.: Bajo Giuliani, Quehué, Telén, El Guanaco, and Laguna Chillhué. Loessoid sediments studied from this formation are indicative of lacustrine deposits overlaid by eolian levels bearing evidences of pedogenesis. A study of these levels at each one of the new localities led to their correlation in an integrated profile of Cerro Azul Fm. This formation corresponds to «Epecuén Fm.», at least in Salinas Grandes de Hidalgo, and probably also to the upper levels of Arroyo Chasicá Fm. The studied marsupials are representative of almost all major lineages (orders of South American Neogene marsupials. The marmosine didelphid Zygolestes tatei sp. nov. differs from the type species of the genus in its larger size, unreduced third lower premolar, and in the less reduction of the metaconid in the last lower molar. Another marmosine, Thylamys pinei sp. nov., differs from other Marmosini in the twinning of the para- and metaconid in the lower molars, and in the wider talonid of the m4. The Monodelphini marmosines Thylatheridium hudsoni y T. dolgopolae are abundant in several localities of this formation; their study confirms close affinities between this genus and Monodelphis. The didelphines Hyperdidelphys pattersoni and an indeterminate species of Lutreolina are also represented by a few specimens. A mandibular fragment including part of the last molar may represent the oldest record of a Sparassocynidae in central Argentina. The Borhyaenidae and Thylacosmilidae (Sparassodonta are also recorded by a few, fragmentary specimens. Pliolestes venetus sp. nov. (Paucituberculata, Caenolestidae differs from the type species of the genus in its smaller size and in the larger, less displaced metaconid in the

  15. Itaguy Guasu: un abrigo con grabados de pisadas y abstractos en el Cerro Guasú (Amambay, Paraguay); su contexto en América del Sur = Itaguy Guasu: a rock shelter with footprint and abstract engravings in The Cerro Guasú (Amambay, Paraguay); its context...

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Lasheras Corruchaga; Pilar Fatás Monforte

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo es resultado del proyecto de Inventario Nacional del Arte rupestre de Paraguay, con el que empezamos a llenar el vacío de conocimiento e investigación arqueológica sobre el arte rupestre y el periodo Arcaico (Holoceno antiguo y medio) en la cuenca del Paraguay. Publicamos uno de los abrigos catalogados en el cerro Guasú, y relacionamos los grabados parietales (petroglifos) con el depósito arqueológico del abrigo. Este cerro es Jasuka Venda, el monte sagrado de los Paî Tavyterâ, p...

  16. Decree 343/012. Is regulated the servitude established by Decree-Law 10,383, on several lines of electricity conduction -150 KV to be built in the departments of Florida, Cerro Largo, Maldonado, Flores, San Jose and Tacuarembo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This decree regulates the establishment of electricity conduction in Florida, Cerro Largo, Maldonado, Flores, San Jose and Tacuarembo towns. These electrical lines are necessary to provide the public service by UTE

  17. Composición, estructura y diversidad del cerro El Águila, Michoacán, México Composition, structure and diversity of the cerro El Águila, Michoacán, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Zacarias-Eslava

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la composición, estructura y diversidad de la vegetación presente en el cerro El Águila, Michoacán. Se reconocieron fisonómicamente 5 tipos de vegetación y en cada uno se establecieron 16 parcelas circulares de 400 m² (3.2 ha para censar los individuos leñosos ≥ 10 cm d.a.p., con una parcela anidada de 100 m² (0.8 ha para los individuos entre 2.5 y 9.9 cm d.a.p. El muestreo incluyó 46 especies agrupadas en 33 géneros y 21 familias. Los bosques tropical caducifolio y de Quercus deserticola tuvieron los valores más bajos de altura promedio ( 11 m y área basal (> 40 m²/ha. La diversidad fue mayor en el bosque tropical caducifolio (S=23 y α =5.4 y menor en el de Quercus-Pinus (S= 13 y α= 2.71. En general, los tipos de vegetación mostraron diferentes especies dominantes y una alta diversidad beta. La composición y estructura de estas comunidades puede asociarse a cambios en altitud y a la perturbación por actividades humanas. No obstante, la zona de estudio aún presenta áreas en buen estado de conservación, particularmente los bosques templados hacia las zonas con mayor altitud, por lo que se sugiere que en un futuro cercano sea incluida dentro de alguna categoría de protección estatal.This study describes composition, structure and diversity of vegetation in the Cerro El Águila, Michoacán. Five plant communities were recognized and for each one all woody individuals ≥10 cm DBH were tallied in sixteen 400 m² circular plots, whereas individuals between 2.5 and 9.9 cm DBH were measured in a 100 m² circular sub-plot centered within each larger plot. A total of 46 species, 33 genera and 21 families were recorded. The tropical deciduous forest and Quercus deserticola forest had low values of mean plant height ( 11 m and basal area (> 40 m²/ha. Diversity was greater in the tropical deciduous forest (S= 23 and α= 5.4, respectively and lower in the oak-pine forest (S= 13 and α= 2.71. All communities displayed

  18. Grado de discapacidad en pacientes hemipléjicos del "Policlínico Docente Universitario del Cerro" Evaluation of disability in hemiplegic patients from Cerro university teaching polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Estévez Perera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la hemiplejía como consecuencia de un ictus constituye una importante causa de discapacidad. La continuidad y calidad en el proceso rehabilitador supone mejores perspectivas en el pronóstico de los pacientes. Objetivo: evaluar el grado de discapacidad en los pacientes hemipléjicos del área de salud del Policlínico Docente Universitario del Cerro. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, transversal en los pacientes que acudieron consecutivamente al área de rehabilitación del citado policlínico, desde septiembre de 2009 hasta julio de 2011. La muestra estuvo constituida por 124 hemipléjicos por enfermedad cerebrovascular mayores de 15 años, los cuales fueron evaluados con la Escala de Discapacidad de Rosetón. Se excluyeron los enfermos con afasia sensorial o mixta y aquellos que se negaron a participar. Resultados: en 84 (67,8 % pacientes se encontró independencia para la orientación y predominó la semidependencia para el desplazamiento y las necesidades físicas. Para la higiene personal, 48 (38,7 % pacientes resultaron ser dependientes. La falta de motivación para ocupar el tiempo libre se encontró en 92 (74,2 % pacientes, casi siempre por dificultades en la convivencia y en las relaciones familiares. Conclusiones: el grado de discapacidad de los pacientes hemipléjicos evaluados viene dado por la semidependencia en el desplazamiento y las necesidades físicas y la dependencia para el autocuidado. Las dificultades en la convivencia y las relaciones familiares interfieren en la motivación del paciente para ocupar el tiempo libre.Introduction: hemiplegia is an important cause of disability as a result of a stroke. The persistence and quality of the rehabilitative process lead to better results in the patient prognosis. Objective: to evaluate the extent of disability in hemiplegic patients from the health area under "Cerro" university teaching polyclinics. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in

  19. Caracterización arqueométrica de cerámicas ibéricas de los yacimientos de Alarcos y El Cerro de las Cabezas

    OpenAIRE

    Guirao Polo, David

    2014-01-01

    En la presente Tesis Doctoral se han analizado arqueométricamente 146 fragmentos de cerámicas de época ibérica procedentes de los yacimientos del Cerro de Alarcos (Ciudad Real) y de El Cerro de las Cabezas (Valdepeñas, Ciudad Real). A partir del análisis químico-estadístico, mineralógico, térmico y microscópico, se ha identificado la existencia de grupos cerámicos, con características propias e identificativas, que deben vincularse a la producción cerámica de uno y otro poblado. El establecim...

  20. Evaluation of the Cerro Solo nuclear ore, province of Chubut. Geological characteristics of the deposit and of the basin. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, A.F.; Fuente, A.; Maloberti, A.; Landi, V.A.; Bianchi, R.E.; Marveggio de Bianchi, N.; Gayone, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Cerro Solo uranium ore deposit, is located 420 km west from Trelew city, Chubut province, in the extra-andean. The geologic environment belongs to the northwest edge portion of the intracratonic San Jorge Gulf Basin. The uraniferous district is named Pichinanes Ridge district. The mineralization lies 25 to 130 m depth, and is hosted by Los Adobes formation aged Aptian-Albian, made up by conglomerates, sandstones, coarse-sandstones and less abundant siltstones and claystones. The Cerro Solo ore deposit that belongs to the sandstone type-uranium occurrences are lenticular or tabular shaped, associated with organic material and pyrite, generally roughly parallel to the bedding (Trend-Type). The uranium minerals are uraninite and coffinite associated with organic material and pyrite, and frequently hematite, goethite, calcite, siderite and barite are observed. (Author)

  1. The rules of urban planning and administrative responsibilities in protecting to the vulnerability and risk of Cerro Tapezco in Santa Ana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Leiton, Karina

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of regulation is made of land use and administrative management of the Cerro Tapezco to show that as the years have passed it has been verified that the Costa Rican law on town planning has been inadequate for current problems due to lack of updating of various scientific and technical sources also dispersion and proliferation of competences of administrative authorities. The physical setting and planning rules is identified for CerroTapezco and surrounding towns. Local actions are explored in the elaboration of improvement and reform of the regulatory plan of Santa Ana. The administrative entities and institutions with competence in the development and implementation of plans have been identified, assessing deficiencies, inconsistencies and administrative omissions in urban planning of the city of Santa Ana and recommending changes necessary for the proper application of the Costa Rican law [es

  2. Age and kinematics of ductile deformation in the Cerro Durazno area, NW Argentina: Significance for orogenic processes operating at the western margin of Gondwana during Ordovician - Silurian times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Maja I.; Riller, Ulrich; Hongn, Fernando D.; Glodny, Johannes; Oncken, Onno

    2008-07-01

    The Cerro Durazno Pluton belongs to a suite of Paleozoic granitoid intrusions in NW-Argentina, that are central for understanding the tectonic setting of the western margin of Gondwana in Ordovician and Silurian times. The pluton and its host rocks were tectonically overprinted by metamorphic mineral shape fabrics formed under middle greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions and associated with the nearby Agua Rosada Shear Zone. Kinematic analysis of the shear zone based on the geometric relationship between individual segments of the shear plane and principal axes of mineral fabric ellipsoids indicates reverse-sense of shear with a minor component of left-lateral displacement. This is compatible with the kinematics of other ductile deformation zones in this area, collectively forming a network, which accomplished orogen-parallel extension in addition to vertical thickening. Using the Rb-Sr isotopic system, an undeformed pegmatite dike of the Cerro Durazno Pluton was dated at 455.8 ± 3.6 Ma and mineral fabrics of the Agua Rosada Shear Zone formed at middle greenschist-facies metamorphism gave deformation ages of 437.0 ± 3.8 Ma and ⩽428.4 ± 4.5 Ma. Thus, tectonic overprint at low metamorphic grade occurred about 20-30 Ma after terminal magmatism in the Cerro Durazno area. Our data from the Cerro Durazno area and regional considerations suggest that the western margin of Gondwana was characterized by orogen-parallel extension in addition to crustal thickening as well as episodes of magmatism and ductile deformation that varied greatly in time and space.

  3. Cerro Grande Fire Impact to Water Quality and Stream Flow near Los Alamos National Laboratory: Results of Four Years of Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.M. Gallaher; R.J. Koch

    2004-09-15

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande fire burned about 7400 acres of mixed conifer forest on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and much of the 10,000 acres of mountainside draining onto LANL was severely burned. The resulting burned landscapes raised concerns of increased storm runoff and transport of contaminants by runoff in the canyons traversing LANL. The first storms after the fire produced runoff peaks that were more than 200 times greater than prefire levels. Total runoff volume for the year 2000 increased 50% over prefire years, despite a decline in total precipitation of 13% below normal and a general decrease in the number of monsoonal thunderstorms. The majority of runoff in 2000 occurred in the canyons at LANL south of Pueblo Canyon (70%), where the highest runoff volume occurred in Water Canyon and the peak discharge occurred in Pajarito Canyon. This report describes the observed effects of the Cerro Grande fire and related environmental impacts to watersheds at and near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the first four runoff seasons after the fire, from 2000 through 2003. Spatial and temporal trends in radiological and chemical constituents that were identified as being associated with the Cerro Grande fire and those that were identified as being associated with historic LANL discharges are evaluated with regard to impacts to the Rio Grande and area reservoirs downstream of LANL. The results of environmental sampling performed by LANL, the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) after the Cerro Grande fire are included in the evaluation. Effects are described for storm runoff, baseflow, stream sediments, and area regional reservoir sediment.

  4. Report about drilling works made in 13 Anomaly de Taylor and in the N- NE of its, around Fraile Muerto (Cerro Largo district): Uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, J; Pirelli, H.

    1983-01-01

    The perforations were carried out to investigate in depth denominated anomaly 13 detected during the Taylor Mission (1975) and extended the punch area of study during you are suitable DINAMIGE-BRGM (Project the present report details the activities realised in the environs Fraile Muerto (Cerro Largo district) by the command team of perforations of the uranium project. Previously and contemporarily to the executed works, prospection became geophysical ground geochemistry geology and, works. (Uranium)

  5. Notas sobre la ecología de Phyllodactylus reissi (Phyllodactylidae: Sauria) en el Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (Tumbes, Perú)

    OpenAIRE

    Jordán Arizmendi, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Some basics aspects on the ecology of the nocturnal gecko Phyllodactylus reissi from Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (Tumbes, Peru) are described. This species used rock boulders (57,4%) and trees (31,9%) as microhabitats primarily, exhibiting a nocturnal activity pattern, with a peak between 2100-2200 hours, remaining active until midnight. Body temperature (mean 24,4 ºC) was correlated with both air and substrate temperature, with the last variable affecting in higher degree (47%) the bod...

  6. Multiple approaches to understanding the taxonomic status of an enigmatic new scorpion species of the genus Tityus (Buthidae) from the biogeographic island of Paraje Tres Cerros (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilardi, Renzo S.; Cajade, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Martín J.; Ceccarelli, F. Sara; Mola, Liliana M.

    2017-01-01

    Tityus curupi n. sp., belonging to the bolivianus complex, is described from the biogeographically distinct area of Paraje Tres Cerros in north-eastern Argentina. We also present a molecular species delimitation analysis between Tityus curupi n. sp. and its sister species Tityus uruguayensis Borelli 1901 to confirm species integrity. Furthermore, a cytogenetic analysis is presented for these two species which contain different multivalent associations in meiosis, as a consequence of chromosome rearrangements, and the highest chromosome numbers in the genus. PMID:28746406

  7. The exploitation of obsidian in the Central Plateau of Santa Cruz, Argentina: Results from La María and Cerro Tres Tetas and a regional perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Enrique Cueto; Ariel David Frank; Fabiana Skarbun

    2016-01-01

    La María and Cerro Tres Tetas archaeological localities are located in the Central Plateau, in the province of Santa Cruz, Argentine Patagonia. This area presents abundant lithic raw materials of very good quality for knapping including flint, chalcedony and silicified wood. These raw materials were used by the inhabitants of the region since the end of the Pleistocene until recent historical times. Besides, we have recorded the exploitation of exotic stones in low proportions at the archaeol...

  8. Impact of Santiago de Chile urban atmospheric pollution on anthropogenic trace elements enrichment in snow precipitation at Cerro Colorado, Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereceda-Balic, F.; Palomo-Marín, M. R.; Bernalte, E.; Vidal, V.; Christie, J.; Fadic, X.; Guevara, J. L.; Miro, C.; Pinilla Gil, E.

    2012-02-01

    Seasonal snow precipitation in the Andes mountain range is evaluated as an environmental indicator of the composition of atmospheric emissions in Santiago de Chile metropolitan area, by measuring a set of representative trace elements in snow samples by ICP-MS. Three late winter sampling campaigns (2003, 2008 and 2009) were conducted in three sampling areas around Cerro Colorado, a Central Andes mountain range sector NE of Santiago (36 km). Nevados de Chillán, a sector in The Andes located about 500 km south from the metropolitan area, was selected as a reference area. The experimental results at Cerro Colorado and Nevados de Chillán were compared with previously published data of fresh snow from remote and urban background sites. High snow concentrations of a range of anthropogenic marker elements were found at Cerro Colorado, probably derived from Santiago urban aerosol transport and deposition combined with the effect of mining and smelting activities in the area, whereas Nevados de Chillán levels roughly correspond to urban background areas. Enhanced concentrations in surface snow respect to deeper samples are discussed. Significant differences found between the 2003, 2008 and 2009 anthropogenic source markers profiles at Cerro Colorado sampling points were correlated with changes in emission sources at the city. The preliminary results obtained in this study, the first of this kind in the southern hemisphere, show promising use of snow precipitation in the Central Andes as a suitable matrix for receptor model studies aimed at identifying and quantifying pollution sources in Santiago de Chile.

  9. Evaluación Integral del Riesgo Volcánico del Cerro Machín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Vega Mora

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available El volcán Cerro Machín (VCM se encuentra situado en la Cordillera Central de Colombia. Por la composición química, magnitud y extensión de sus erupciones pasadas se reconoce como un volcán explosivo de gran potencial de daño, cuya actividad futura podría afectar intensamente y durante mucho tiempo (meses hasta años una región estratégica para la economía del país, que cubre áreas pertenecientes a los departamentos de Tolima, Quindío, Valle del Cauca y Cundinamarca, en las cuales habitan cerca de un millón de personas (INGEOMINAS, 2002. Este artículo muestra la metodología y resultados del estudio de “Evaluación Integral del Riesgo del Cerro Machín – Colombia”, realizado durante 2009 por el Grupo PIGA de Investigación en Política, Información y Gestión Ambiental de la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, tomando como punto de partida el estudio de “Evaluación de la Amenaza Volcánica Potencial del Cerro Machín” adelantado en el 2002 por el Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería – INGEOMINAS. En consecuencia, se genera y ajusta una nueva ecuación para la determinación del riesgo, basada en la valoración de índices de amenaza intrínseca e índices de vulnerabilidad, los primeros en función del grado de intensidad, duración, extensión y acumulación de las amenazas, y los segundos, en función del grado de exposición espacial y temporal de los elementos (sociales, económicos, institucionales y ecosistémicos y de su capacidad de respuesta intrínseca y extrínseca ante las amenazas (Vega, 2005. Con estas ecuaciones y mediante el uso de sistemas de información geográfica (SIG, se realiza para cada escenario de análisis considerado la modelación geoespacial del riesgo a nivel de cada píxel cartográfico del área territorial de estudio. En esta modelación se integra toda la información territorial del área en estudio, lo que permite obtener, de acuerdo con el

  10. Chemical variations in the Cerro de Mercado (Durango, Mexico) fluorapatite: Assessing the effect of heterogeneity on a geochronologic standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J. W.; Hodges, K. V.

    2001-12-01

    Despite the lack of an official pronouncement, the fluorapatite of Cerro de Mercado, Durango, Mexico has become the de facto standard for (U-Th)/He geochronology. In addition to being relatively inclusion-free and easily obtained, these crystals are commonly in excess of 5mm in diameter, permitting the removal of the outer skin of the crystal, theoretically eliminating the alpha-ejection correction. However, bulk analyses of the Durango fluorapatite indicate a substantial variation in U and Th concentrations from aliquot to aliquot (167-238 ppm Th; 9.7-12.3 ppm U, [1]). If similar variations were to occur on the sub-grain scale, small fragments of single crystals could contain helium excesses or deficiencies due to alpha-ejection exchange between zones with varying parent element content. We have performed a series of experiments to quantify the intra-grain variation in U and Th, in order to model the effect of this variation on ages determined on Durango fluorapatite. X-ray maps show concentric zonation in U and Th, with similar, but more apparently pronounced zonation in Si and Cl. Preliminary laser-ablation ICPMS data indicate, not surprisingly, that intra-grain variations in U and Th concentrations obtained by analysis of ~35 μ m spots are larger than that which had been previously obtained by bulk analytical techniques (with overall concentrations greater than for bulk analyses). Thus far, analyses yield U concentrations varying from 11 to 16 ppm, and Th concentrations ranging from 220 to 340 ppm. Modeling underway suggests that parent element variations on the order of 50%, such as those observed, and the resulting differential alpha-exchange could lead to several percent error in age, for ~100 μ m fragments. The effect scales inversely with fragment size, with 300 μ m fragments (roughly the size of a large, single grain analysis) having only ~1% error. This may offer an explanation for the previously observed inability to reproduce ages for the Durango

  11. Geographic Information System (GIS) Emergency Support for the May 2000 Cerro Grande Wildfire, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.R.Mynard; G.N.Keating; P.M.Rich; D.R. Bleakly

    2003-05-01

    In May 2000 the Cerro Grande wildfire swept through Los Alamos, New Mexico, burning approximately 17,400 ha (43,000 acres) and causing evacuation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the communities of Los Alamos and White Rock. An integral part of emergency response during the fire was the use of geographic information system (GIS) technology, which continues to be used in support of post-fire restoration and environmental monitoring. During the fire Laboratory GIS staff and volunteers from other organizations worked to produce maps and provide support for emergency managers, including at an emergency GIS facility in Santa Fe. Subsequent to the fire, Laboratory GIS teams supported the multiagency Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) team to provide GIS data and maps for planning mitigation efforts. The GIS teams continue to help researchers, operations personnel, and managers deal with the tremendous changes caused by the fire. Much of the work is under the auspices of the Cerro Grande Rehabilitation Project (CGRP) to promote recovery from fire damage, improve information exchange, enhance emergency management, and conduct mitigation activities. GIS efforts during the fire provided important lessons about institutional matters, working relationships, and emergency preparedness. These lessons include the importance of (1) an integrated framework for assessing natural and human hazards in a landscape context; (2) a strong GIS capability for emergency response; (3) coordinated emergency plans for GIS operations; (4) a method for employees to report their whereabouts and receive authoritative information during an evacuation; (5) GIS data that are complete, backed-up, and available during an emergency; (6) adaptation of GIS to the circumstances of the emergency; (7) better coordination in the GIS community; (8) better integration of GIS into LANL operations; and (9) a central data warehouse for data and metadata. These lessons are important for planning

  12. Addition of schelita residue from the mine in Cerro Cora Bodo / RN in the composition of ceramic materials; Adicao de residuo de scheelita da mina Bodo em Cerro Cora/RN na composicao de materiais ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A.B.D. de; Souza, M. M. de; Farias, D.S.U. de; Lima, T.C. de; Nobrega, L.F.P. de M. [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), RN (Brazil); Mendes, L.B., E-mail: anabeatriz.d.a@outlook.com [Fundacao de Apoio a Pesquisa do Rio Grande do Norte (FAPERN), Natal RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Mining activities produce mineral waste that can degrade the environment. The waste generated by companies is not reused due to the fact they fail to present an application for it that proves to be economically viable. Seeking the reuse of mineral waste and reduce the environmental impacts, this work addresses the chemical characterization by x-ray fluorescence (FRX), of the processing of scheelite reject at Bodo mine in Cerro Cora-RN. For the procedure, the sample was collected, grounded and sieved to #200, and then characterized to evaluate its chemical composition and its potential to be incorporated into materials. Besides the characterization, a water absorption test and also a bending test were performed to analyze the power and tension of the material. The result of the analysis indicated that the sample researched presents a greater concentration of SiO{sub 2} to be used as a structuring element in ceramic mass, but in the traditional formulation, it will only be added 10% of the reject in its formulation, because besides the SiO{sub 2} in the sample analyzed other elements that act with fluxes were found. It was also observed the material has low water absorption, but the reject reached low strength and breakdown voltage. We concluded that the reject of scheelite presents great potential, and therefore, further tests can be conducted to analyze the possibility of being added as raw material for the formulation of other materials like cement. (author)

  13. Babel en la mina. El campamento minero como modelo de asentamiento en el mundo industrializado: Cerro Muriano (Córdoba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cano Sanchiz, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El campamento minero contemporáneo es un tipo de asentamiento muy concreto, configurado bajo unos cánones que, con matices, suelen repetirse a escala internacional. Se trata de un lugar de convergencia, de fricción de clases. También, de un espacio heterogéneo desde el punto de vista cultural donde, sin embargo, el grupo humano formado por los obreros suele aparecer cohesionado por unas circunstancias comunes. Estas características se acentúan allí donde la inversión procede de un país distinto al de la mina. Hablamos, muchas veces, de territorios ocupados en el marco de una actividad económica de corte colonialista. Estas páginas recogen un análisis arqueológico del asentamiento surgido en torno a las minas de Cerro Muriano (Córdoba durante su explotación inglesa a principios del siglo XX. El ejemplo seleccionado nos sirve para ilustrar cómo fueron aquellos campamentos, muchos de los cuales sobrevivieron a la desaparición de la actividad minera y evolucionaron hacia núcleos de población consolidados, como es el caso.

  14. Reproductive structures of Rhamnaceae from the Cerro del Pueblo (Late Cretaceous, Coahuila) and Coatzingo (Oligocene, Puebla) Formations, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvillo-Canadell, Laura; Cevallos-Ferriz, Sergio R S

    2007-10-01

    Recently discovered fossil flowers from the Cretaceous Cerro del Pueblo and flowers and fruits from the Oligocene Coatzingo Formations are assigned to the Rhamnaceae. The Cretaceous flower, Coahuilanthus belindae Calvillo-Canadell and Cevallos-Ferriz, gen. et sp. nov., is actinomorphic with fused perianth parts forming a slightly campanulate to cupulate floral cup, with sepals slightly keeled and spatulate clawed petals. The Oligocene fossils include Nahinda axamilpensis Calvillo-Canadell and Cevallos-Ferriz, gen. et sp. nov. (characterized by its campanulate bisexual flower with stamens opposite, adnate to and enfolded by petals; and with the ovary ripening into a drupe), and a winged fruit assigned to Ventilago engoto Calvillo-Canadell and Cevallos-Ferriz, sp. nov. The flowers and drupe features indicate closer affinity to Zizipheae and/or Rhamneae, while the single samaroid fruit suggests the presence of Ventilagineae. However, the unique character combination in the fossil flowers precludes placing them in extant genera. Nevertheless, the history of the family is long and can be traced back to the Campanian. A detailed phylogenetic revision of the group that uses morphological characters from both extant and fossil plants is needed to better understand the significance of these records as well as other important fossils of the family.

  15. MUSGOS (BRYOPHYTA DEL PARQUE NACIONAL ÁVILA, SECTORES CERRO EL ÁVILA – LAGUNAZO, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Thalia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan 29 familias, 74 géneros y 111 especies de musgos para los sectores CerroEl Ávila y Lagunazo, Parque Nacional El Ávila en Caracas, Venezuela. Las familiasPottiaceae, Dicranaceae y Fissidentaceae fueron las más ricas en géneros y especies.A lo largo las seis localidades estudiadas la mayor riqueza de musgos se encontró a1700 m de altura. Del total de especies inventariadas el 60 % corresponden al hábitoacrocárpico, el 43% de los taxones se ubicaron en el sustrato terrestre y la forma devida cespitosa corta (Cc fue la más representativa, con él 44.7% de las especies demusgo. Se adicionan cinco especies a la fl ora muscícola de Venezuela: Rhodobryumroseum (Hedw. Limpr., Pilopogon tiquipayae Herzog, Taxiphyllum taxirameum(Mitt. M. Fleisch., Leskea plumaria Mitt., Bryoerythrophyllum campylocarpum(Müll. Hal. H.A. Crum. Se citan también 22 nuevos registros a la briofl ora de laregión de la Cordillera de la Costa.

  16. El patrimonio industrial petrolero en la Patagonia: Comodoro Rivadavia (Argentina y Cerro Sombrero (Chile. Una perspectiva comparada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pía Acevedo Méndez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El hallazgo de petróleo en Comodoro Rivadavia (Chubut, Argentina y en Manantiales (Tierra del Fuego, lado chileno, motivó la construcción de espacios socioproductivos bajo el modelo de Company Towns. En el caso argentino la empresa estatal Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales (Y.P.F creó el Campamento Central y la Empresa Nacional del Petróleo (ENAP creó Cerro Sombrero en Chile, los que en la década de 1970 formaron dos tejidos urbanos (barrio en el caso argentino y pueblo en el caso chileno. En esta dinámica se transformó el modo de habitar de ambos espacios, que se convirtieron en potenciales elementos turísticos, teniendo en cuenta que desde el año 2014 poseen reconocimiento patrimonial relacionado con su pasado petrolero y su arquitectura moderna. El objetivo es comparar cómo ambas empresas petroleras estatales construyeron dichos espacios “urbanos” y sus comunidades sociolaborales e indagar en la relación identidad/ patrimonio de ypefeanos y enapinos.

  17. Comportamiento del asma bronquial en un área de salud del policlínico Cerro Behavior of bronchial asthma in a health area of the "Cerro" polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Álvarez Carmenate

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en pediatría y una de las principales causas de consulta. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento del asma bronquial como problema de salud. Métodos: trabajo descriptivo, prospectivo, de corte longitudinal, en 309 niños con edades comprendidas entre 0 y 19 años con el diagnóstico de asma bronquial, atendidos en los 15 consultorios médicos del grupo básico de trabajo A del policlínico universitario "Cerro", en el período comprendido entre el 1º de enero de 2007 y el 31 de diciembre de 2007. Método empírico para la obtención de los datos clínicos epidemiológicos, y como técnica, la encuesta a través de un cuestionario. Resultados: 148 pacientes (48 % se encontraban entre 10 y 14 años, 175 (56,6 % del sexo masculino, 136 (44 % fueron clasificados como persistentes ligeros, 140 (58 % presentaron rinitis y 57 (24 % dermatitis. Había fumadores en las viviendas de 303 pacientes (98 %, hacinamiento en 290 casos (94 % y el polvo en el hogar 284 (92 %. Conclusiones: predominio en el grupo de edades de 10 a 14 años, sexo masculino. En cuanto a la severidad de la enfermedad predominó la forma persistente ligera, las manifestaciones atópicas más frecuentes fueron la rinitis y la dermatitis, los principales factores de riesgo fueron el humo del tabaco, el polvo en el hogar y el hacinamiento, y el tratamiento de elección fue el de la crisis. Se observó la falta de organización y unidad de criterios para el enfoque integral de la política intercrisis o de sostén en la atención de los pacientes.Introduction: bronchial asthma is the more frequent chronic disease in Pediatrics and one of the major causes of consultation. Objective: to describe the behavior of bronchial asthma as a health problem. Methods: a longitudinal, prospective and descriptive study was conducted in 309 children aged between 0 and 19 diagnosed with bronchial asthmas seen in the 15 medical

  18. Valores de peso y talla según la edad. Estudio realizado en niños escolares del municipio Cerro Weight and height significance related to age. Study carried out in school children from Cerro municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Francisco Corredera Guerra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el crecimiento longitudinal del niño es un proceso biológico complejo, resultado de múltiples interacciones entre factores endógenos y exógenos. Es, sin dudas, el resultado de la conjunción de factores genéticos y ambientales que afectan a las primeras edades de la vida, y que acontecen en forma continuada y dinámica desde la concepción a la madurez. OBJETIVOS: caracterizar el crecimiento en escolares de edades comprendidas entre los 5 y los 11 años, de la escuela primaria "Braulio Coroneaux", del municipio Cerro. Para lograrlo se pretenden determinar los valores del peso y de la talla según sexo y grupo etario, así como identificar las escalas de percentiles del peso y la talla correspondientes a cada grupo etario estudiado. MÉTODOS: estudio de tipo descriptivo de cohorte transversal en niños supuestamente sanos en el período comprendido del 1º de diciembre de 2006 al 28 de febrero de 2007. El universo estuvo constituido por 358 niños, de ellos se estudiaron 351. Dimensiones antropométricas utilizadas: peso y talla. Se identificaron teniendo en cuenta los criterios de cada dimensión. RESULTADOS: los valores de peso para la edad y talla para la edad reflejaron promedios superiores, diferentes a los reportados por los niños de igual sexo y edad según las tablas cubanas de crecimiento y desarrollo. Los valores de peso y talla para la edad predominaron en el sexo masculino en ambos grupos etarios. CONCLUSIONES: más del 50 % de la muestra en ambos grupos etarios se correspondió con una talla dentro de límites normales. En ambos grupos y en ambos sexos, las escalas de percentiles identificadas en la población de referencia se orientaron hacia los percentiles superiores.INTRODUCTION: child longitudinal growing is a complex biological process as a result of multiple interactions between endogenous and exogenous factors. Undoubtedly, is result of genetic and environmental factors combination affecting the first

  19. ESTRATEGIA DE REMONTAJE APLICADA SOBRE EL REGISTRO CERÁMICO DEL SITIO LOS TRES CERROS 1 (DELTA SUPERIOR DEL RÍO PARANÁ / Refitting applied to pottery from Los Tres Cerros 1 site (Upper Delta of Paraná River

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    Violeta Soledad Di Prado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El sitio arqueológico Los Tres Cerros 1 se encuentra ubicado en el departamento Victoria, Entre Ríos, y consiste en una estructura monticular con una compleja historia ocupacional. La abundancia y fragmentación del registro cerámico del sitio, llevaron a aplicar la estrategia de remontajes, con el propósito de reconstruir la historia de vida de las vasijas e identificar las prácticas humanas y los agentes naturales que actuaron en la configuración del depósito. Sobre una muestra del total de tiestos recuperados en la cuadrícula 1, se realizaron 43 remontajes, que unen fragmentos del mismo nivel y de diferentes niveles. Se identificaron semejanzas en las elecciones técnicas similares (i.e., agregado de tiesto molido, aplicación de pigmento y de surco rítmico efectuadas en distintas etapas del proceso de elaboración del número mínimo de vasijas estimado (NMV= 49. Se reconocieron contenedores utilizados sobre el fuego, posiblemente para la cocción, y piezas probablemente empleadas para servir. Por último, se propusieron hipótesis en torno a la integridad del registro y, al menos para el sector superior de la secuencia estratigráfica, se infirió un evento de ocupación que no fue mayormente disturbado en momentos posteriores al descarte.   Palabras clave: alfarería, remontajes, elecciones tecnológicas, prácticas de uso, procesos de formación de sitio.   Abstract Los Tres Cerros 1 archaeological site is located in Victoria department, Entre Ríos province, and it is a mound with a complex occupational history. The abundance and fragmentation of the ceramic record recovered from this site, led to apply the refitting strategy in order to reconstruct the vessels’ life history and identify human practices and natural agents that took part in the site configuration. From a ceramic sample of the whole recovered in grid 1, 43 reassemblies were made, joining sherds from the same level, as well as from different levels. Similar

  20. Síndrome de Burnout en estudiantes internos durante su estancia por el Hospital Pediátrico del Cerro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Acosta-Torres

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la presencia del síndrome de Burnout en su orientación unidimensional entre los estudiantes internos del sexto año de la carrera de Medicina durante su rotación por Pediatría. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal y descriptivo mediante la aplicación de la Escala Unidimensional del Burnout Estudiantil de Barraza Macías a una muestra de 230 alumnos del sexto año de la carrera de Medicina, durante su rotación por el Hospital Docente Pediátrico del Cerro, previo consentimiento informado; se indagó la presencia del mismo, sus características y se relacionó la entidad con las variables de la edad y el sexo de los estudiantes. Una vez obtenidos los datos, éstos se almacenaron en una página Excel y se procesaron por el programa XLSTAT 9, mediante la aplicación del método porcentual y el estadígrafo X2, con una significación de p < 0,05. Resultados: Se observó una incidencia del síndrome de Burnout con un nivel leve (83,91% y moderado (13,42% en la población estudiada. Su predominio se identificó en el sexo femenino, con significación estadística e independiente de la edad. Conclusiones: Los alumnos internos en su rotación por la asignatura de Pediatría se encuentran afectados en su mayoría por el síndrome de Burnout en un nivel leve, observándose dependencia del mismo en relación con el sexo femenino.

  1. Dynamic characterization of the M19 area, Cerro Negro Field, corresponding to Carabobo Block, Orinoco oil belt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, A. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). E and P Orinoco Belt Division

    2009-07-01

    The Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela is divided into the Boyaca, Junin, Ayacucho and Carabobo areas. This study characterized the M19 area of the Cerro Negro Field, corresponding to Carabobo Block, one of the most prospective areas in the Orinoco oil belt. This small section of Carabobo Block involves a stock tank original oil in place of 11,000 MMSTB with an API gravity between 7.8 and 8. The initial reservoir pressure is about 1,200 psia and solution gas drive is the predominant primary production mechanism. The range of viscosities varies from 2,000 to 6,000 cps. The average porosity is 30 per cent and permeability varies from 2 to 7 Darcies. This study focused on obtaining a better understanding of the reservoir behaviour. Results from geophysics, petrophysics, sedimentology, and reservoir engineering analysis were integrated in order to characterize the area with a simulation model and to address many uncertainties which have affected exploitation of the oil field since 1980. These issues are related to vertical drainage, horizontal well spacing, and horizontal well length. The pressure model did not reveal any evidence of main compartments within the reservoir. The petrophysical properties and fluid model honours the production behaviour of the whole field. The critical gas saturation that is needed to achieve a production gas match is approximately 3 per cent. The optimum horizontal length should not exceed 4600 feet and vertical drainage suggests a well spacing of 80 ft in order to minimize interference. The cold recovery factor would increase by reducing the horizontal spacing up to 200 mts. The need for implementing a thermal and chemical process to increase the recovery factor was reinforced. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 47 figs.

  2. Mineralogy, structural control and age of the Incachule Sb epithermal veins, the Cerro Aguas Calientes collapse caldera, Central Puna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salado Paz, Natalia; Petrinovic, Iván; Do Campo, Margarita; Brod, José Affonso; Nieto, Fernando; da Silva Souza, Valmir; Wemmer, Klauss; Payrola, Patricio; Ventura, Roberto

    2018-03-01

    The Incachule Sb epithermal veins is located near to the N-E rim of the Cerro Aguas Calientes collapse caldera (17.5-10.8 Ma), in the geologic province of Puna, Salta- Argentina. It is hosted in Miocene felsic volcanic rocks with continental arc signature. The district includes twelve vein systems with mineralization of Sb occurring in hydrothermal breccias and stockwork. The veins are composed of quartz-sulfide with pyrite, stibnite and arsenopyrite. All around the veins, wall rocks are variably altered to clay minerals and sulfates in an area of around 2.5 km wide by more than 7 km long. The hydrothermal alterations recognized are: silicic, phyllic and argillic. The veins are characterized by high contents of Sb, As, and Tl and intermediate contents of Pb-Zn-Cu, and traces of Ag and Au. Homogenization and ice-melting temperatures of fluid inclusions vary from 125 °C to 189 °C and -2.4 °C to -0.8 °C. The isotopic data indicated a range of δ34S -3.04‰ to +0.72‰ consistent with a magmatic source for sulfur. We present the firsts K-Ar ages for hydrothermal illite/smectite mixed layers (I/SR1, 60% illite layers) and illite that constrain the age of the ore deposit (8.5-6.7 ± 0.2 Ma). The data shown here, let characterized the Incachule district as a shallow low sulfidation epithermal system hosted in a collapse caldera. Our data also indicate that mineralization is structurally controlled by a fault system related to the 10.3 Ma collapse of Aguas Calientes caldera. The interpreted local stress field is consistent with the regional one.

  3. Soft-bottom crustacean assemblages in Mediterranean marine caves: the cave of Cerro Gordo (Granada, Spain) as case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barranco, C.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Sánchez-Tocino, L.; García-Gómez, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Although marine caves are priority conservation areas according to the Directive 92/43/CEE of the European Community, there is a lack of studies dealing with their soft-bottom communities. For a case study, we selected the Cerro Gordo cave at 15 m depth. Three different zones were defined: a semi-dark 25-m long entrance area, a dark intermediate area of 35 m, and the final zone at 90 m from the entrance. Sediment samples were taken from these zones as well as from outside the cave (control) by SCUBA diving. Six rectangular cores of 10 × 250 cm2 were collected in each site for macrofaunal study, and three more replicates were taken to analyze physico-chemical parameters. The granulometry showed a clear gradient from medium sands outside the cave to silt and clay in the inner zone. Measurements of the crustacean assemblages showed that the number of species and abundance were significantly higher outside the cave (30-40 species, >4,000 ind m-2) than inside (5-10 species, <1,000 ind m-2). Multivariate analyses showed a clear difference in species composition between outside and inside the cave. Caprellids, tanaids, cumaceans, and decapods were only found outside the cave, while gammarids and isopods were present both outside and inside the cave. The gammarid Siphonoecetes sabatieri and the tanaid Apseudes latreilli were the dominant species outside the cave, while the gammarids Harpinia pectinata, Harpinia crenulata, and Harpinia ala were dominant inside. The present study represents an increase in depth range and geographic distribution for Kupellonura mediterranea and Monoculodes packardi. This is the first description of soft-bottom crustacean communities from submarine caves of southern Spain.

  4. Geochemical and isotopic behavior of fluids from wells in Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Comportamiento geoquimico e isotopico del fluido de los pozos del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Lopez Romero, Oscar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    1999-12-01

    In general the wells in Los Humeros geothermal fields produce sodium bicarbonate water with a low salinity because the fluids are produced from the shallow part of the reservoir. The fluids in wells H-33 and H-6 are sodium chloride: the first influenced by fluids from deep levels in the reservoir and the second by fluids coming only from the deeps part of the reservoir. Fluid mixture for other wells depends on operating conditions. To date, it has been difficult with the geothermetric temperatures to establish the underground flow directions and whether or not an infiltration of shallow low-temperature fluids occurs. Well H-16 has the lowest-temperature fluid in the liquid phase, which suggests infiltration of shallow local fluids-a result corroborated by an isotopic study. Using the methodology of Giggenbach and Goguel, we found that the gases are in equilibrium with the liquid phase at temperatures between 275 and 325 Celsius degrees. The maximum temperature is measured in wells H-12 and H-9, where good agreement exists between this temperature and those calculated with a geothermometer of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} . Isotopic results show, in general, that the wells with the highest levels of oxygen-18 are those with the highest geothermetric temperatures (CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2})- both in the north (H-35 and H-9) and in the south (H-6 and H-12)-results that agree with the temperatures measured in the field. The initial thermodynamic conditions of the wells show that they produce fluids from the liquid region. This fact, together with the low salinity, permit the application of the D' Amore methodology, with which the estimations of vapor fractions in the reservoir are relatively low. [Spanish] En general, los pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros producen agua del tipo bicarbonato sodico con baja salinidad. Esto se debe a que extraen fluidos de la parte somera del yacimiento. Los pozos H-33 y H-6 son clorurados sodicos; el primero por cierta influencia de la zona

  5. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of rainwater at Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico and surrounding areas; Caracteristicas quimicas e isotopicas del agua de lluvia en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico y zonas aledanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Cruz Grajales, Irma [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    A study of chemical and isotopic characteristics of rainwater at Los Humeros geothermal field was undertaken for the second consecutive year. Samples were collected in seven stations-two inside the field and five on the periphery. In 1996, a total of 99 samples were collected and 104 were collected in 1997. Of these, 19-18.26% of the total-had a negative alkalinity. The Atempan (No.5) and Campamento (No.1) stations showed the highest number of anomalous samples (31.25 and 27.8%, respectively). Anomalous samples in Perote station were not observed a result that we attribute to the predominant wind direction. The results for the Campamento station are attributed to the thermal inversion phenomena occurring when the samples with negative alkalinity were obtained. Concentrations of cations in some samples were relatively high, with the maximum concentration of calcium in the Los Humeros station (79.7 ppm) . Other significantly high values were found in the Texcal station (34.8 ppm) and Perote (33.8 ppm) due to the presence of dust particles scattered in the air and because of the lack of pavement where the sampling stations are located. Another factor affecting these figures could be the presence of block and lime factories in the neighborhood. Although measured concentrations may seem high, reports exist with similar concentrations in nongeothermal areas. Oxygen-18 and deuterium contents were determined for each stations, mixing anomalous samples. The results show that the most enriched samples correspond to the San Juan Xiutetelco, Puebla (No. 6) station and the minimum to the Perote Veracruz (No. 7) station. The concentration of SO{sub 4} has marine and industrial origins, with a contribution of the first source ranging between 10 and 25 percent. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla se realizo, por segundo ano consecutivo, la caracterizacion quimica e isotopica de agua de lluvia en muestras colectadas en siete estaciones, dos localizadas dentro

  6. Proposal to neutralize acid fluids from wells in the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Propuesta para la neutralizacion de fluidos acidos provenientes de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly del Carmen; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Garcia Cuevas, Juan Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Neutralizing an acidic fluid consists of adding a sodium hydroxide solution to neutralize the H group of acids, therefore increasing the pH. The injection of sodium hydroxide has to be continuous and at a proper depth inside the well to protect against the corrosion of casing and surface equipment. Neutralization is a common practice used in geothermal fields, such as at The Geysers in the US and Miravalles in Costa Rica-places where aggressive fluids cause problems for extracting and using geothermal fluids commercially. A zone surrounding wells H-4, H-16 and H-29 in the northern section of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field, known as the Colapso Central, has shown evidence of aggressively acidic fluids. Several wells drilled in the area had to be repaired, thus plugging and isolating the deepest production zones. Well H-43 was drilled two years ago in the northern zone of the field, and even though it is not located in the aggressive-fluid zone, the well presents mineralogical features possibly indicating the presence of acidic fluids. Therefore, before producing this well it has been proposed we install a neutralization system with general characteristics presented in this paper. The system will prevent corrosion that up to now has prevented exploitation of the deep portion of Colapso Central, helping to develop the field in a more profitable way. [Spanish] Neutralizar un fluido acido consiste en agregarle una solucion de hidroxido de sodio. Esto neutraliza el grupo de acidos H y en consecuencia aumenta el pH. La inyeccion de hidroxido de sodio se realiza de manera continua y a una profundidad adecuada dentro del pozo para proteger a la tuberia y a todo el equipo superficial contra la corrosion. La neutralizacion es una practica comun que se viene realizando en campos como Los Geysers en Estados Unidos y en Miravalles, Costa Rica, donde la presencia de fluidos agresivos causa problemas en la extraccion y aprovechamiento del fluido geotermico con fines

  7. Initial isotopic geochemistry ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) of fluids from wells of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Geoquimica isotopica ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) inicial de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    Isotopic data ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) from fluids from production wells at the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field were analyzed to investigate the possible origin of these fluids and the dominant processes of the reservoir at its initial state. According to pre-exploitation data, it is suggested the Los Humeros reservoir fluids are made of a mixture of meteoric water of very light isotopic composition (paleo-fluids) and andesitic water. The relationship {delta} D vs {delta} 18 O from pre-exploitation data indicates the produced fluids are composed of a mixture of (at least) two fluids with distinct isotopic compositions. At the more enriched end of the mixing relationship are the isotopic compositions of the wells H-23 and H-18 (located in the southern area of the field), while the lighter fluids were found in well H-16 (originally) and then in well H-16 (repaired). It was found that the liquid phases of deep wells are more enriched in {delta} 18 O while the shallow wells present lower values, suggesting a convection process at the initial state. Based on this isotopic profile, it is considered that even the production depths of the wells H-1, H-12 and H-16 (repaired) are just about the same, but their respective isotopic compositions are quite different. The {delta} 18 O value for well H-16 (repaired) seems to be that of condensate steam, while the corresponding values for wells H-1 and H-12 fall within the value interval of the deep wells (H-23). This suggests wells H-1 and H-12 are collecting very deep fluids enriched in {delta} 18 O. These results could be useful in creating a conceptual model of the reservoir. [Spanish] Se analizaron datos isotopicos ({delta}18 O, {delta}D) de los fluidos de pozos productores del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., para investigar el posible origen de los fluidos asi como los procesos dominantes del yacimiento en su estado inicial. De acuerdo con datos previos a la explotacion, se plantea que los fluidos del yacimiento

  8. Evaluation of the energy potential, biogenesis and essential characteristics of the geothermal submarine systems in Mexico; Evaluacion del potencial, biogenesis y caracteristicas esenciales de los sistemas geotermicos submarinos en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Arriaga, Mario Cesar [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    profundidad, hasta los recursos geotermicos profundos, a mas de 3000 metros de profundidad. Las fuentes geotermicas no tradicionales incluyen las partes profundas y los limites de los reservorios hidrotermales tradicionales, los sistemas en roca seca o humeda caliente, los yacimientos geopresurizados del Golfo de Mexico y los sistemas submarinos hidrotermales observados principalmente en la costa norte mexicana del Oceano Pacifico. La energia geotermica submarina surge por la existencia de rupturas profundas en el fondo marino, a lo largo de los centros de dispersion oceanicos entre las placas tectonicas. Estos sistemas tienen una longitud total aproximada de 65,000 Km. en la corteza oceanica. Hay dos tipos basicos de sistemas marinos existentes en el Golfo de California: los recursos profundos, localizados a lo largo de las cordilleras entre las placas de la corteza oceanica a mas de 2000 m bajo el nivel del mar, y los recursos poco profundos cerca de las plataformas continentales, entre 20 y 50 metros de profundidad. El calor submarino poco profundo tambien se relaciona con fallas y fracturas en el fondo del mar cerca de algunas costas. Este subsistema se encuentra tambien en la costa de Punta Banda en Ensenada, Baja California. El potencial preliminar de la energia contenida en tales reservorios se estima, en promedio, en 1120 MWt por cada km3 de roca submarina. Las caracteristicas quimicas especificas de las aguas hidrotermales encontradas en esos sistemas oceanicos indican que las interacciones agua-roca, ocurren bajo condiciones de presion y temperatura altas. La energia geotermica submarina soporta ricas variedades de comunidades biologicas a profundidades donde las plantas no tienen acceso a la luz solar para realizar la fotosintesis. Hay indicios de que las posibles condiciones para la sintesis de sustancias y elementos quimicos necesaria para el origen de la vida primitiva, pudieron ser los sistemas hidrotermales submarinos.

  9. Modification of the water-level control system at the Unit 12 of Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Modificacion del sistema de control de nivel de agua en la Unidad 12 del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello Hinojosa, Raul; Aburto Huerta, S. Ramon; Mendoza Covarrubias, Hector M [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: raul.tello@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-01-15

    Unit 12 of the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field is a binary cycle unit of 1.45 MW, installed at the pad of production well Az-22. There are two separators on this pad. One separates the mix extracted from well Az-22 and the other from adjacent wells. The separated brine from both separators is gathered in a horizontal tank and sent to Unit 12. The steam is sent to Unit 7, which generates 50 MW. Once some interference occurred affecting the power generation of Unit 7 when Unit 12 was off line. This was caused by the original flow arrangement and water-level control system. To avoid interference, a water-level control system was designed and installed in the separators. The system operates independently of Unit 12, with tanks in each separator connected by a pipe. Regulation of the water level is accomplished by three motor valves and a level sensor. To ensure permanent feeding of electrical power to the valves, an automatic system was installed from transmission lines of 23 and 115 kV. In case both lines fail, there is an uninterrupted power supply (UPS) unit. At the beginning of 2005, Unit 12 was again online with a modified water-level control system that has operated satisfactorily since then. Its short periods offline have not affected Unit 7. [Spanish] La Unidad 12 del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., es una unidad de ciclo binario de 1.45 MW, instalada en la plataforma del pozo productor Az-22. En esta plataforma hay dos separadores, uno de los cuales separa la mezcla extraida del pozo Az-22 y el otro la de varios pozos aledanos. El agua separada de ambos se concentra en un tanque horizontal y de este pasa a la Unidad 12, mientras que el vapor se envia a la Unidad 7, de 50 MW. Por el tipo de arreglo original de flujo y control de nivel de agua en los equipos, ocurrian interferencias que provocaban que cuando la Unidad 12 se disparaba se afectara la generacion en la Unidad 7. Para evitar esta interferencia se diseno e instalo un sistema de control de

  10. High-resolution carbonate isotopic study of the Mural Formation (Cerro Pimas section), Sonora, México: Implications for early Albian oceanic anoxic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavaraju, J.; Lee, Yong Il; Scott, R. W.; González-León, C. M.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Saucedo-Samaniego, J. C.; Ramasamy, S.

    2018-03-01

    The 420-m thick stratigraphic section of the Mural Formation that is exposed in the Cerro Pimas area of northern Sonora, Mexico, is composed of limestone lithofacies ranging from bioclastic wackestone to boundstone, whose biota is characterized by low diversity. Prominent age-diagnostic fossils are benthic foraminifera and long-ranging calcareous algae that indicate the Aptian/Albian boundary is close to the base of the Los Coyotes Member. The carbonates of this formation have negative to positive δ13C values (-4.63 to +2.6‰) and highly depleted δ18O values that range from -12.74 to -8.34‰. The absence of correlation between δ13C and δ18O values supports a primary marine origin for the δ13C values of these limestones. The carbon-isotopic curve of the Cerro Pimas stratigraphic section has well-defined δ13C segments (C8 - C15) that compare with published curves of similar age. In the lower part of the early Albian Los Coyotes Member, the presence of OAE 1b is indicated by an increase followed by a decrease in δ13C values, suggesting correlation with the Kilian Event. The middle part of the Los Coyotes Member has a significant negative carbon-isotope excursion correlated with the globally recognizable early Albian Paquier event. Moreover, another significant negative carbon-isotope shift is observed in the upper part of the Los Coyotes Member, which can be correlated with the Leenhardt Event. The occurrence of the Kilian, Paquier and Leenhardt Events (OAE 1b cluster) in the Cerro Pimas stratigraphy confirms the global nature of these early Albian disturbances of the carbon cycle.

  11. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR DE LA FAUNA AMPHIBIA EN EL CERRO MURRUCUCÚ, PARQUE NATURAL NACIONAL PARAMILLO Y ZONA AMORTIGUADORA, TIERRALTA, CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMERO-MARTÍNEZ HERÓN JOSÉ

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estudiar la fauna anfibia en el Cerro Murrucucú (PNN Paramillo,Tierralta, Córdoba, se realizaron muestreos durante los meses de diciembre de2004, enero y febrero de 2005 en diferentes localidades; se utilizaron dos estrategiasde muestreo (búsqueda libre por inspección visual y trampas de caída. En primerainstancia se comparó la riqueza y la abundancia de las especies en tres zonasaltitudinales en uno de los sectores mejor conservados del Cerro. Se encontró queen la parte baja y media predominan las especies de la familia Hylidae, mientras queen la parte alta predominan representantes de la familia Brachycephalidae, en sumayoría especies del género Eleutherodactylus. Se registran 52 especies para el CerroMurrucucú, que representan el 8% del total de especies en Colombia y más del 80% delas documentadas para el Departamento de Córdoba; las cuales están agrupadas en dosórdenes, 10 familias y 26 géneros. Las familias más representativas, Brachycephalidaee Hylidae, concentran un poco más del 50% de las especies. También se registraronpor primera vez 18 especies para el Departamento de Córdoba y se amplia el rangode distribución geográfico de 18 especies y altitudinal de siete de estas. Se tiene elprimer registro de Eleutherodactylus cruentus para Colombia y el primero de E. viejaspara la Cordillera Occidental Colombiana

  12. Jurassic tetrapods and flora of Cañadón Asfalto Formation in Cerro Cóndor area, Chubut Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio H. Escapa; Juliana Sterli; Diego Pol; Laura Nicoli

    2008-01-01

    The plant and tetrapod fossil record of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation (Middle to Late Jurassic) found in Cerro Cóndor area (Chubut Province) is summarized here. The flora is dominated by conifers (Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae sensu lato) but also includes ferns and equisetaleans. The tetrapod fauna is composed of dinosaur taxa described in the 70's as well as other remains recently described and other vertebrate groups such as amphibians, turtles, and mammals. The amphibian remains have been i...

  13. La intrusión de Cerro Redondo (Pérmico Inferior, Cordillera Ibérica, Zaragoza): reconstrucción 3D y modelo de emplazamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Majarena Serrano, Urbez; Gil Imaz, Andrés; Lago San José, Marceliano; Galé, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    La intrusión subvolcánica de Cerro Redondo (Cordillera Ibérica, Zaragoza), de edad Pérmico Inferior, muestra una composición dactíca, una naturaleza calcoalcalina y se caracteriza por presentar una marcada estructuración interna determinada por un bandeado subvertical y d e espaciado variable (1-25 cm), que se encuentra afectado por numerosos pliegues d e flujo magmático de distinta escala (desde centimétrica hasta hectométrica). El estudio cartográfico y de la anisotropia de la susceptib...

  14. Al este del Cerro Pampa: ampliación del área de disponibilidad de obsidiana de la Pampa del Asador (Provincia de Santa Cruz)

    OpenAIRE

    Belardi, Juan Bautista; Tiberi, Pedro; Stern, Charles; Súnico, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    La Pampa del Asador ha sido identificada como el lugar de proveniencia de distintos tipos de obsidiana, mayoritariamente negra, y el Cerro Pampa, ubicado en el extremo suroeste de la pampa, ha sido un punto central a partir del cual se ha medido la dispersión de los artefactos confeccionados en esta materia prima. Sobre la base de la interpretación de imágenes satelitales, análisis químicos y trabajos de campo se presenta y discute la evidencia provista...

  15. Rock-magnetism and ore microscopy of the magnetite-apatite ore deposit from Cerro de Mercado, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Caballero-Miranda, C.; Vivallo, W.

    2001-03-01

    Rock-magnetic and microscopic studies of the iron ores and associated igneous rocks in the Cerro de Mercado, Mexico, were carried out to determine the magnetic mineralogy and origin of natural remanent magnetization (NRM), related to the thermo-chemical processes due to hydrothermalism. Chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) seems to be present in most of investigated ore and wall rock samples, replacing completely or partially an original thermoremanent magnetization (TRM). Magnetite (or Ti-poor titanomagnetite) and hematite are commonly found in the ores. Although hematite may carry a stable CRM, no secondary components are detected above 580°, which probably attests that oxidation occurred soon enough after the extrusion and cooling of the ore-bearing magma. NRM polarities for most of the studied units are reverse. There is some scatter in the cleaned remanence directions of the ores, which may result from physical movement of the ores during faulting or mining, or from perturbation of the ambient field during remanence acquisition by inhomogeneous internal fields within these strongly magnetic ore deposits. The microscopy study under reflected light shows that the magnetic carriers are mainly titanomagnetite, with significant amounts of ilmenite-hematite minerals, and goethite-limonite resulting from alteration processes. Magmatic titanomagnetites, which are found in igneous rocks, show trellis, sandwich, and composite textures, which are compatible with high temperature (deuteric) oxy-exsolution processes. Hydrothermal alteration in ore deposits is mainly indicated by martitization in oxide minerals. Grain sizes range from a few microns to >100 mm, and possible magnetic state from single to multidomain, in agreement with hysteresis measurements. Thermal spectra, continuous susceptibility measurements, and IRM (isothermal remanent magnetization) acquisition suggest a predominance of spinels as magnetic carriers, most probably titanomagnetites with low

  16. Recycling of water, carbon, and sulfur during subduction of serpentinites: A stable isotope study of Cerro del Almirez, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Jeffrey C.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Turchyn, Alexandra; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Gómez Pugnaire, María Teresa; Marchesi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    We use the concentrations and isotope compositions of water, carbon, and sulfur in serpentinites and their dehydration products to trace the cycling of volatiles during subduction. Antigorite serpentinites from the Cerro del Almirez complex, Spain, contain 9–12 wt.% H2O and 910 ± 730 ppm sulfur, and have bulk δ18O values of 8.6 ± 0.4‰, δD = − 54 ± 5‰, and δ34S = 5.0‰, consistent with serpentinization at temperatures of ~ 200 °C by seawater hydrothermal fluids in a seafloor setting. The serpentinites were dehydrated to chlorite–harzburgite (olivine + orthopyroxene + chlorite) at 700 °C and 1.6–1.9 GPa during subduction metamorphism, resulting in loss of water, and sulfur. The chlorite–harzburgites contain 5.7 ± 1.9 wt.% H2O, and have bulk δ18O = 8.0 ± 0.9‰, and δD = − 77 ± 11‰. The rocks contain 650 ± 620 ppm sulfur having δ34S = 1.2‰. Dehydration of serpentinite resulted in loss of 5 wt.% H2O having δ18O = 8–10‰ and δD = − 27 to − 65‰, and loss of 260 ppm sulfur as sulfate, having δ34S = 14.5‰. The contents and δ13C of total carbon in the two rock types overlap, with a broad trend of decreasing carbon contents and δ13C from ~ 1300 to 200 ppm and − 9.6 to − 20.2‰. This reflects mixing between reduced carbon in the rocks (210 ppm, δ13C ≈ − 26‰) and seawater-derived carbonate (δ13C ≈ − 1‰). Our results indicate: 1) Serpentinized oceanic peridotites carry significant amounts of isotopically fractionated water, carbon and sulfur into subduction zones; 2) Subduction of serpentinites to high P and T results in loss of water, and sulfur, which can induce melting and contribute to 18O, D, and 34S enrichments and oxidation of the sub-arc mantle wedge; and 3) Isotopically fractionated water, carbon, and sulfur in serpentinite dehydration products are recycled deeper into the mantle where they can contribute to isotope heterogeneities and may be significant for volatile budgets of the deep Earth.

  17. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Avalos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis, dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads, and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon. Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of

  18. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de la Muerte, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Gerardo; Soto, Alejandra; Alfaro, Willy

    2012-03-01

    Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant) and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis), dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads), and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon). Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of captured

  19. Anchoring the landscape: human utilization of the Cerro Gavilán 2 rockshelter, Middle Orinoco, from the Early Holocene to the present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Scaramelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Initial archaeological investigations at Cerro Gavilán 2, a rockshelter located in the Bolívar State of Venezuela, reveal evidence for human activity that spans the Early Holocene to the present. This report summarizes the information obtained through surface collection, limited excavation, and documentation of the surface features and rock art in the cave. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C analysis established dates from excavated strata that range between 9250 ± 60 BP to 3440 ± 40 BP, and are associated with a unifacial flake technology and charred faunal and floral remains, whereas surface remains span the known ceramic sequence for the area. Rock art corresponds to distinctive superimposed styles that indicate continual repainting of the cave through time, serving to anchor the site to the landscape for multiple societies inhabiting the region. It is suggested that the shelter may have fulfilled different functions over time and a sequence of seasonal residential, ritual, and funerary activities is proposed. The rich cultural context found in Cerro Gavilán 2 contributes to advances in Amazonian archaeology that are redefining our knowledge of early developments and the complexity of human/environmental interactions in tropical America.

  20. [Detection of Rickettsia in ectoparasites of wild and domestic mammals from the Cerro Chucanti private reserve and from neighboring towns, Panamá, 2007-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Sergio; Miranda, Roberto; Zaldívar, Yamitze; González, Publio; Berguido, Guido; Trejos, Diomedes; Pascale, Juan M; Labruna, Marcelo

    2012-06-01

    Ectoparasites are the main vectors of rickettsiosis. In Panama, however, limited data are available concerning the arthropod species that serve as vectors or reservoirs. Data are presented concerning the presence of Rickettsia in ectoparasites of wildlife and domestic animals in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve and in neighboring villages. Nine humans, 95 domestic mammals and 48 wild mammals were examined. Twenty-one species of ectoparasites were obtained, including fleas, lice, ticks and mites. These were preserved in 95% ethanol. Later, the DNA was extracted from the ticks and fleas and analyzed by molecular techniques to detect presence of Rickettsia. Of a total of 425 PCR reactions, 270 were positive for Rickettsia and 155 negative. Among the positive samples, 86 PCR amplified for the gltA gene (55% of positives) and 41 of these also amplified the ompA gene. DNA of Rickettsia amblyommii was found in horses ticks (Amblyomma cajennense, Dermacentor nitens), dogs ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) and free living nymphs in the forest. Additionally, DNA of R. felis was found in fleas from dogs Ctenocephalides felis. The presence of R. amblyommii and R. felis was detected in ticks and fleas of domestic animals in villages near Cerro Chucanti; however no Rickettsia DNA was found in ectoparasites of non-domestic wildlife.

  1. TECNOLOGÍA Y SUBSISTENCIA EN EL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO CERRO TAPERA VÁZQUEZ (PARQUE NACIONAL PRE-DELTA, REPÚBLICA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Bonomo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of the studies carried out on ceramic and bone materials recorded at Cerro Tapera Vázquez site (Argentinean Northeast are presented. Taxonomic, anatomic and taphonomic studies of bone assemblages and technological-decorative analysis and refitting of pottery were undertaken. The site is located on a mound next to El Ceibo Creek, where 16 m2 were excavated in 2008. Abundant smooth, incised and modeled pottery (handles and zoomorphic appendages and numerous bones remains of Myocastor coypus (most frequent taxon, Blastocerus dichotomus, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Cavia aperea, Leopardus geoffroyi, Lycalopex gymnocercus, Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, birds and fish (Siluriformes and Characiformes were recorded. Except Cavia aperea rodent and Dusicyon gimnocercus fox, all taxa show evidence of anthropic modification (cut marks, fresh fractures and burning. Two radiocarbon dates were obtained: 650 and 520 yrs. BP. The results reached in this study lead to the conclusion that the pre-Hispanic populations that occupied Cerro Tapera Vázquez by the end of the Late Holocene were riverine canoe peoples, with complex ceramic technology and subsistence based on hunting of coypu, capybara and cervids, fishing and small-scale horticulture.

  2. ANALISIS DEL CO-TRATAMIENTO PASIVO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES MUNICIPALES Y DRENAJE ACIDO DE MINAS EN CERRO RICO DE POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H.J. Strosnider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El drenaje acido de minas (DAM es un problema a nivel mundial. El co-tratamiento pasivo de DAM con aguas residuales municipales (ARM es una manera efectiva y de bajo costo que utiliza los nutrientes de ARM para tratar las concentraciones de metales y sulfato en DAM. Cerro Rico de Potosí, Bolivia es una de las grandes ciudades mineras en el mundo que tiene muchos problemas con el DAM. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar velocidades de reacción de Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, y otros metales en DAM provenientes de un flujo de agua en Cerro Rico usando un sistema reactor de tres etapas. El DAM tenía un pH de 3.58, acidez de 1080 mg/L equivalente a CaCO3 conteniendo concentraciones de 12, 68, 17, y 550 mg/L de Al, Fe, Mn y Zn respectivamente. Las velocidades de reacción de Al, Fe, Mn y Zn fueron de 1.43, 2.09, 0.01 y 0.10 d-1, respectivamente.

  3. Experimental and petrological constraints on long-term magma dynamics and post-climactic eruptions at the Cerro Galán caldera system, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocke, Stephanie B.; Andrews, Benjamin J.; de Silva, Shanaka L.

    2017-11-01

    Cerro Galán in NW Argentina records > 3.5 Myr of magmatic evolution of a major resurgent caldera complex. Beginning at 5.72 Ma, nine rhyodacitic ignimbrites (68-71 wt% SiO2) with a combined minimum volume of > 1200 km3 (Dense Rock Equivalent; DRE) have been erupted. The youngest of those ignimbrites is the eponymous, geochemically homogenous, caldera-forming 2.08 ± 0.02 Ma Cerro Galán Ignimbrite (CGI; > 630 km3 DRE). Following this climactic supereruption, structural and magmatic resurgence led to the formation of a resurgent dome and post-climactic lava domes and their associated pyroclastic deposits. A clear transition from amphibole to sanidine-bearing magmas occurred during the evolution of Cerro Galán and is inferred to represent a shallowing of the magma system. We test this hypothesis here using experimental phase equilibria. We conducted a series of phase equilibria experiments on the post-climactic dome lithologies under H2O-saturated conditions using cold seal Waspaloy pressure vessels with an intrinsic log fO2 of NNO + 1 ± 0.5 across a temperature-pressure range of 750-900 °C and 50-200 MPa (PH2O = Ptotal), respectively. Petrologic and geochemical analysis of the post-climactic lithologies shows that the natural phase assemblage (plagioclase + quartz + biotite + sanidine + Fe-Ti oxides ± apatite ± zircon) is stable at bearing magmas and seems to characterize many large silicic caldera-forming magma systems that erupt over million year timescales to generate long-lived volcanic complexes. The post-climactic history of Cerro Galán is informed through a detailed investigation of the textural differences among the post-climactic dome lithologies, and a comparison of those textures with previously published decompression experiments. These suggest that the highly vesiculated, pumiceous clasts with rare microlites represent magma stored within the core of the lava dome that decompressed relatively rapidly (0.003-0.0003 MPa s-1) and evolved via closed

  4. Seismologic study of Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico. Part II: Seismic tomography by attenuation of coda waves (Qc-1) of local earthquakes; Estudio sismologico del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico. Parte II: Tomografia sismica por atenuacion a partir de ondas de coda (Qc-1) de sismos locales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antayhua, Yanet; Lermo, Javier [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Carlos, Vargas [Departamento de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Colombia)]. E-mail: jles@pumas.iingen.unam.mx

    2008-07-15

    In the Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, seismic tomography has been studied using the attenuation of coda waves (Qc{sup -1}). Ninety-five local earthquakes (Md{<=}3.6) have been used with depths up to 4.0 km registered in the seismic network stations from December 1997 to December 2004. A simple backscattering model was used, filtered in four ranks of frequencies (2, 4, 6, and 8 Hz) and one window of 5 seconds. For the 3D-representation, we used an approximation based on first-order scattering of ellipsoids. The results show that values of Qc for the used frequencies have a frequency dependency shown in the equation: Qc=24{+-}12f{sup 0.86}{+-}{sup 0.06}, where the low values of Qc were observed in the zone of higher seismic and tectonic activity and in the location of injection and production wells. The high values are located in the periphery of the geothermal field. The distribution of the Qc{sup -1} attenuation in 3D and 2D shows the anomalies of high-seismic attenuation are located in the north, south, and southwestern ends of the zone presently under operation, at depths greater than 2.5 km. [Spanish] Para realizar la tomografia sismica por atenuacion de ondas de coda (Qc{sup -1}) en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, se han utilizado 95 sismos locales (Md{<=}3.6) con profundidades hasta 4.0 km, registrados en las estaciones de su red sismica, durante el periodo de diciembre 1997 a diciembre 2004. Se utilizo el modelo de retrodispersion simple, filtrados en cuatro rangos de frecuencias (2, 4, 6, y 8 Hz) y una ventana de 5 segundos. Para la representacion en 3D, se utilizo una aproximacion basada en elipsoides que representan dispersion de primer orden. Los resultados muestran que los valores de Qc para las frecuencias utilizadas tienen una dependencia con la frecuencia de la forma: Qc=24{+-}12f{sup 0.86}{+-}{sup 0.06}, donde los valores bajos de Qc fueron observados en la zona de mayor actividad sismica y en la ubicacion de pozos inyectores y

  5. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Avalos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis, dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads, and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon. Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of

  6. Cerro Negro, Nicaragua Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cinder cone in western Nicaragua has a name that means "black hill." It has erupted more than 20 times since its birth in 1850. Explosive eruptions from the...

  7. Structure of the Wagner Basin in the Northern Gulf of California From Interpretation of Seismic Reflexion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M.; Aguilar, C.; Martin, A.

    2007-05-01

    The northern Gulf of California straddles the transition in the style of deformation along the Pacific-North America plate boundary, from distributed deformation in the Upper Delfin and Wagner basins to localized dextral shear along the Cerro Prieto transform fault. Processing and interpretation of industry seismic data adquired by Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) allow us to map the main fault structures and depocenters in the Wagner basin and to unravel the way strain is transferred northward into the Cerro Prieto fault system. Seismic data records from 0.5 to 5 TWTT. Data stacking and time-migration were performed using semblance coefficient method. Subsidence in the Wagner basin is controlled by two large N-S trending sub-parallel faults that intersect the NNW-trending Cerro Prieto transform fault. The Wagner fault bounds the eastern margin of the basin for more than 75 km. This fault dips ~50° to the west (up to 2 seconds) with distinctive reflectors displaced more than 1 km across the fault zone. The strata define a fanning pattern towards the Wagner fault. Northward the Wagner fault intersects the Cerro Prieto fault at 130° on map view and one depocenter of the Wagner basin bends to the NW adjacent to the Cerro Prieto fault zone. The eastern boundary of the modern depocenter is the Consag fault, which extends over 100 km in a N-S direction with an average dip of ~50° (up to 2s) to the east. The northern segment of the Consag fault bends 25° and intersects the Cerro Prieto fault zone at an angle of 110° on map view. The acoustic basement was not imaged in the northwest, but the stratigraphic succession increases its thickness towards the depocenter of the Wagner basin. Another important structure is El Chinero fault, which runs parallel to the Consag fault along 60 km and possibly intersects the Cerro Prieto fault to the north beneath the delta of the Colorado River. El Chinero fault dips at low-angle (~30°) to the east and has a vertical offset of about 0

  8. Study of liquid and steam tracers at the Maritaro - La Cumbre area of the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mich.; Estudio con trazadores de liquido y vapor en la zona Maritaro - La Cumbre del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Quijano Leon, Jose Luis; Torres Rodriguez, Marco A [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J; Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    We ran two simultaneous tracer tests in the Maritaro-La Cumbre area of the Los Azufres geothermal field in Mexico. We wished to determine whether or not fluids injected in well Az-15 recharged the productive areas of six production wells and to estimate the fractions of injected fluid recovered in them, if any. Because only three of the wells produce water and all of them produce steam, two tracers were used, sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) for the gas phase and 1,3,6 naphthalene trisulfonate (1,3,6-nts) for the liquid phase. All of the observation wells recorded SF{sub 6}, and the three water-producing wells recorded 1,3,6-nts, proving that fluids injected in well Az-15 do recharge the area of interest. When sampling was suspended, the three water-producing wells were still producing 1,3,6-nts at significant rates. The total recovery of 1,3,6-nts at wells Az-65D, Az-04 and Az-28, 279 days after injection when sampling was halted, were, respectively, 6.1%, 0.90% y 0.16%, for a total of 7.61%. We concluded that these quantities constitute the lower boundaries for the respective recovery factors. When sampling was halted, wells Az-65D, Az-66D and Az-30 were still producing some SF{sub 6} at lower rates, and the rest of the wells were no longer recording the gas phase tracer. The total recovery of SF{sub 6} at wells Az-65D, Az-04, Az-41, Az-30, Az-28 and Az-66D were, respectively, 4.82 e-02%, 1.37 e-03%, 1.48 e-03%, 6.38 e-04%, 1.38 e-03% y 4.31 e-04%, for a total of 5.35 e-02%. The liquid recharge occurred in orders of magnitude greater than the steam. [Spanish] Se efectuaron dos pruebas simultaneas en la zona Maritaro-La Cumbre del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico. Los objetivos de estas pruebas fueron determinar si la salmuera de desecho inyectada en el pozo Az-15 recarga las zonas de alimentacion de seis pozos productores designados por CFE, y estimar que fraccion de lo inyectado recarga dichos pozos productores. Debido a que solo tres de los pozos

  9. Study with liquid and steam tracers at the Tejamaniles area, Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Estudio con trazadores de liquido y vapor en el area Tejamaniles del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx; Flores Armenta, Magaly [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Reyes Delgado, Lisette [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    monitored producing wells, and (ii) there is vertical permeability in the reservoir area between the distances mentioned. The vertical flow implies the injected fluid, relatively cold (about 40 degrees Celsius), is heated sufficiently to flow upward by convection, thus preventing, or at least slowing down, thermal interference. Results suggest the recovery of steam generated by injection into Az-08 generally tends to decrease exponentially with the horizontal distance of the studied wells to the injector, and with the vertical distance between the injection area and the corresponding production areas. [Spanish] La Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) inyecta salmueras producidas por pozos de la zona en el pozo Az-08, localizado en el area Tejamaniles, al suroeste del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich. Los objetivos principales de este estudio son: determinar si el fluido inyectado recarga nueve pozos productores del area y, si esto ocurre, estimar que fraccion del fluido inyectado recarga a cada pozo productor. Cinco de los pozos seleccionados producen mezcla; el resto produce solo vapor. Por esta razon se diseno este estudio con inyeccion simultanea de trazadores de liquido y de vapor. Los nueve pozos productores seleccionados detectaron el trazador de vapor, y los cinco pozos que producen mezcla detectaron el trazador de fase liquida. Las curvas de residencia de ambos trazadores presentan series de picos que reflejan la conocida naturaleza fracturada de este yacimiento. Los resultados demuestran que las areas de alimentacion de los nueve pozos seleccionados son recargadas por el fluido inyectado en el pozo Az-08. Conviene aclarar que al momento de preparar este trabajo se habia completado el arribo del trazador de vapor en todos los pozos, pero los pozos que producen mezcla continuaban registrando arribo del trazador de liquido. Hasta 407 dias despues de la inyeccion de los trazadores, el porcentaje total de recuperacion del trazador de fase liquida en los cinco

  10. LA ARQUITECTURA DE TIERRA Y LAS OCUPACIONES HUMANAS EN EL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO CERRO PUÑAY, CANTÓN CHUNCHI, PROVINCIA DE CHIMBORAZO, ECUADOR (Earth Architecture and Human Occupations at Cerro Puñay Archaeological Site, Chunchi Canton, Chimborazo Province, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jadán V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se refiere a la arquitectura de tierra del sitio arqueológico Cerro Puñay, ubicado al sur de la provincia de Chimborazo. Algunos perfiles estratigráficos de diferentes partes del cerro demuestran que existen cambios relacionados con la estructura del sitio: un reforzamiento de talud en la cima central, arqueosedimentos en ciertos sectores, nivelación de las cimas, construcción de terrazas, entre otras modificaciones. Aunque hay evidencias de ocupación desde el Formativo Tardío con la cultura narrío (2000-1600 a. C., las edificaciones se iniciaron con la sociedad cañari (500-1460 d. C.. Por otra parte, el sitio evidencia una reconstrucción y utilización por parte de la sociedad inca (1460-1533 d. C.. ENGLISH: This article refers to the land architecture of the Cerro Puñay archaeological site, located to the south of the province of Chimborazo. Some stratigraphic profiles, from different parts of the hill, show that there are changes related to the structure of the site: a reinforcement of slope in the central summit, archaeological sediments in certain sectors, leveling of the tops, and construction of terraces, among other modifications. Although there is evidence of occupation from the Late Formative with the Narrío culture (2000–1600 BC, the construction started with the Cañari society (500–1460 AD. On the other hand, the site shows evidence of a reconstruction and use by the Inca society (1460–1533 AD.

  11. El volcanismo bimodal del volcán cerro Corona, Alta Sierra de Somún Curá, provincia de Río Negro Bimodal volcanism of the Cerro Corona volcano in the Alta Sierra de Somún Curá (Río Negro province)

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Maro; Marcela B Remesal

    2012-01-01

    La Alta Sierra de Somún Curá es uno de los complejos volcánicos terciarios postplateau en el ambiente de la meseta basáltica de Somún Curá, en la Patagonia extrandina. En ella se encuentra el cerro Corona, un volcán en escudo que corresponde al centro de mayor altura en la región. Está construido por rocas efusivas y piroclásticas subordinadas, fundamentalmente traquiandesíticas-basálticas, con variaciones traquíticas tanto en sus flancos como en su cráter. A pesar de la bimodalidad compositi...

  12. Al Este del Cerro Pampa: ampliación del área de disponibilidad de obsidiana de la Pampa del Asador (Provincia de Santa Cruz) East of the Cerro Pampa: enlargement of the obsidian availability area from Pampa del Asador (Santa Cruz Province)

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Bautista Belardi; Pedro Tiberi; Charles Stern; Alejandro Súnico

    2006-01-01

    La Pampa del Asador ha sido identificada como el lugar de proveniencia de distintos tipos de obsidiana, mayoritariamente negra, y el Cerro Pampa, ubicado en el extremo suroeste de la pampa, ha sido un punto central a partir del cual se ha medido la dispersión de los artefactos confeccionados en esta materia prima. Sobre la base de la interpretación de imágenes satelitales, análisis químicos y trabajos de campo se presenta y discute la evidencia provista por nódulos y artefactos de obsidiana r...

  13. Cosmic ray observations at Chacaltaya and Cerro la Negra combined with the Pierre Auger and Milagro observatories: GRBs and search for cosmic ray correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saavedra, O.; Martinez, O.; Salazar, H.; Velarde, A.; Villasenor, L.; Zepeda, A.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the possibility to search for cosmic ray phenomena time correlated among distant experiments that are currently running in the world. In particular we consider the correlations of events detected by four experiments: between Milagro, operating in USA, and Cerro La Negra Cosmic Ray Laboratory, under construction in Mexico, and between Chacaltaya, in Bolivia, and Auger Observatory, under construction in Argentina. Almost complete sky coverage with fairly uniform celestial exposure of the northern and the southern hemispheres by the above four experiments at the same time could provide important information on astrophysical phenomena. Search for Gamma Ray Bursts and search for non random coincidence between these experiments seem to be feasible under an international extensive air shower joint experiment with the main goal to watch GRBs and other astrophysical phenomena

  14. Construcciones y cementerios del período Intermedio Tardío en el cerro Ñañañique (departamento de Piura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Après un abandon de plus d'un millénaire, le site de Cerro Ñañañique est réoccupé sans doute à partir du Xème siècle de notre ère. Les fouilles réalisées ont permis de reconnaître l'existence d'un ensemble monumental, composé de terrasses artificielles, et d'un complexe de bâtiments et structures couvrant tout le sommet du cerro. De petites constructions furent édifiées sur le bas versant Est et au moins cinq cimetières sont connus dans les environs immédiats. L'ensemble de ces vestiges prouve le maintien d'une occupation du secteur jusqu'à la fin de la période préhispanique. L'article est centré sur l'analyse de quatorze contextes funéraires provenant d'un des cimetières de cette époque. Y sont décrits les positions, orientations et associations des différents corps exhumés ainsi que le mobilier funéraire associé. Une comparaison avec les traditions voisines connues permet de confirmer certaines similitudes et en particulier les relations étroites avec les zones méridionales. Después de un abandono de más de un milenio, el sitio de Cerro Ñañañique se reocupó, posiblemente desde el siglo X d.c. Las excavaciones realizadas permitieron reconocer la existencia de un conjunto monumental compuesto de terrazas artificiales y de un complejo de edificios y estructuras que cubre toda la cumbre del cerro. Pequeñas construcciones fueron también edificadas en la parte baja de la vertiente este y hubo, por lo menos, cinco cementerios a proximidad. El conjunto de estos vestigios comprueba la permanencia de una ocupación del sector hasta el final de la época prehispánica. El artículo está centrado en el análisis de catorce contextos funerarios de aquella época. Se describen la posición, la orientación y las asociaciones de los varios cuerpos exhumados, así como el material funerario asociado. Una comparación con las tradiciones vecinas permite confirmar ciertas semejanzas y particularmente las relaciones

  15. Approaching viscosity control: electrical heating of extra heavy oil as alternative to diluent injection in down hole in Cerro Negro Field, Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Manuel [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, PDVSA (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Electrical heating is a method used to enhance oil recovery in extra heavy oil reservoirs. This method can be used when diluent injection or other methods are not able to reduce oil viscosity sufficiently or when problems of product quality or quantity arise. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of electrical heating, individually and simultaneously with injection of diluents. For this purpose, simulations were undertaken in one well with integrated electrical heating and diluent injection in Cerro Negro Field in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela. Results have shown that the application of both methods together is more profitable than the application of electrical heating alone. This paper demonstrated that the use of electrical heating and diluent injection combined is a valid alternative to diluent injection alone, reducing production loss.

  16. Procesos históricos y ambientales en Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí, México, 1948-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Martínez Chaves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre el municipio Cerro de San Pedro enfatizan la continuidad ambiental aparente que estimula la minería; sin embargo, esta lectura subvalora otras dinámicas que ocurren en la zona. Con base en observaciones directas de trabajo en campo, para realizar análisis de coberturas vegetales, entrevistas con los habitantes de la zona, revisión de cartografía e investigación de archivo, el presente trabajo muestra procesos como la explotación de recursos vegetales y el pastoreo, como actividades económicas paralelas a las labores mineras, y que no habían sido tratados hasta ahora.

  17. Justificación y diseño de falsa protección diferencial de barras para S.E Cerro de la Plata

    OpenAIRE

    Feliz Juárez, Javier Fernando

    2009-01-01

    La finalidad de nuestro proyecto es el diseño y justificación de un sistema de protección de barras de alimentación de 45 kV para la subestación eléctrica blindada de “Cerro de la Plata” (Madrid), propiedad de la compañía eléctrica Unión Fenosa Distribución. La particularidad de este diseño radica en la consecución de un sistema de protección de barras de subestación que cumpla las exigencias básicas de los sistemas de protección, sin la utilización de un relé de protección ded...

  18. Geology, geochronology, and geochemistry of basaltic flows of the Cat Hills, Cat Mesa, Wind Mesa, Cerro Verde, and Mesita Negra, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, F.; Budahn, J.R.; Peters, L.; Unruh, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The geochronology, geochemistry, and isotopic compositions of basaltic flows erupted from the Cat Hills, Cat Mesa, Wind Mesa, Cerro Verde, and Mesita Negra volcanic centres in central New Mexico indicate that each of these lavas had unique origins and that the predominant mantle involved in their production was an ocean-island basalt type. The basalts from Cat Hills (0.11 Ma) and Cat Mesa (3.0 Ma) are similar in major and trace element composition, but differences in MgO contents and Pb isotopic values are attributed to a small involvement of a lower crustal component in the genesis of the Cat Mesa rocks. The Cerro Verde rock is comparable in age (0.32 Ma) to the Cat Hills lavas, but it is more radiogenic in Sr and Nd, has higher MgO contents, and has a lower La/Yb ratio. This composition is explained by the melting of an enriched mantle source, but the involvement of another crustal component cannot be disregarded. The Wind Mesa rock is characterized by similar age (4.01 Ma) and MgO contents, but it has enriched rare-earth element contents compared with the Cat Mesa samples. These are attributed to a difference in the degree of partial melting of the Cat Mesa source. The Mesita Negra rock (8.11 Ma) has distinctive geochemical and isotopic compositions that suggest a different enriched mantle and that large amounts of a crustal component were involved in generating this magma. These data imply a temporal shift in magma source regions and crustal involvement, and have been previously proposed for Rio Grande rift lavas. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  19. El Cerro de los Santos: paisaje, negociación social y ritualidad entre el mundo ibérico y el hispano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Cardiel, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian shrine of Cerro de los Santos is located next to one of the main roads in the Southeast of the Meseta, in the middle of an area without any town of some entity. This paper aims to highlight its status as a shrine of passage, i.e. as a sacred, safe point where voyagers could rest overnight under the protection of the god. The creation of a statio by the Romans in such a place and its dedication to the goddess Pales provide more circumstantial evidence for this theory. Furthermore, some domestic material contexts can be defined, probably connected with this activity, and clearly different from the well-known ritual contexts of the shrine.La ubicación del santuario ibérico del Cerro de los Santos junto a una de las principales vías de comunicación del sureste meseteño y en el centro de una comarca desprovista de núcleos urbanos de cierta entidad permite subrayar en este artículo su uso continuado como santuario de paso, lugar sacro y seguro al que los caminantes podrían acogerse para pernoctar bajo la protección de la divinidad. La creación de una statio en el enclave en época romana y su dedicación a la diosa Pales no son sino argumentos ulteriores en este sentido. Se identifican además contextos materiales domésticos, distintos de los espacios de culto bien conocidos del santuario, relacionables con esta otra actividad.

  20. Cambio del uso de la tierra y pérdida de la cobertura boscosa, comunidades agrarias Sechina, La Ensenada y Cerro San Gil, Izabal Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddi Alejandro Vanegas Chacón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available En Guatemala, pocas temáticas son abordadas con tanta pasión como el acceso a la tierra y sus relaciones de productividad. Ante el juicio histórico y la evidencia de las estadísticas se deslumbra que las políticas agrarias de los últimos cincuenta años, si bien mitigaron la pobreza en el agro rural conllevaron con ellas daños ambientales irreversibles y deudas agrarias millonarias. Se estudió la dinámica del cambio de uso de la tierra y la pérdida de la cobertura boscosa en las comunidades agrarias beneficiadas por la Ley de Transformación Agraria, Sechina, La Ensenada y Cerro San Gil ubicadas en el departamento de Izabal. Se utilizó fotointerpretación y se realizaron estudios semidetallados de la intensidad de la tierra para el periodo 1958 a 2010. Se concluyó que bajo las premisas de “mejora a la tierra” de la Ley de Transformación Agraria ocurrió cambio de uso y cobertura de la tierra, de forestal a agropecuaria, en las comunidades agrarias Sechina 42%, La Ensenada 46,2% y Cerro San Gil 48,6%, donde se promovieron sistemas de aprovechamiento agrícola que conllevaron al sobre-uso de las tierras en 42%, 78% y 30%, respectivamente. Esto sugiere, que la adquisición de la tierra no es el fin, más bien es el medio, para promover desarrollo rural sostenible, a través de acompañamiento técnico agropecuario, monitoreo y evaluación tanto económica como ambiental.

  1. Calc-silicate mineralization in active geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, D.K.; Schiffman, P.; Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; McDowell, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    The detailed study of calc-silicate mineral zones and coexisting phase relations in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system were used as examples for thermodynamic evaluation of phase relations among minerals of variable composition and to calculate the chemical characteristics of hydrothermal solutions compatible with the observed calc-silicate assemblages. In general there is a close correlation between calculated and observed fluid compositions. Calculated fugacities of O{sub 2} at about 320{degrees}C in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system are about five orders of magnitude less than that at the nearby Salton Sea geothermal system. This observation is consistent with the occurrence of Fe{sup 3+} rich epidotes in the latter system and the presence of prehnite at Cerro Prieto.

  2. Age and kinematics of ductile deformation in the Cerro Durazno area, NW Argentina: Significance for orogenic processes operating at the western margin of Gondwana during Ordovician-Silurian times

    OpenAIRE

    M. I. Wegmann; U. Riller; F. D. Hongn; Johannes Glodny; Onno Oncken

    2008-01-01

    The Cerro Durazno Pluton belongs to a suite of Paleozoic granitoid intrusions in NWArgentina, that are central for understanding the tectonic setting of the western margin of Gondwana in Ordovician and Silurian times. The pluton and its host rocks were tectonically overprinted by metamorphic mineral shape fabrics formed under middle greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions and associated with the nearby Agua Rosada Shear Zone. Kinematic analysis of the shear zone based on the geometric relat...

  3. Evolution evidence of a basic fluid to an acid based in the analysis of hydrothermal alteration of the geothermic field of the Azufres, Michoacan; Evidencias de evolucion de un fluido basico a acido a partir del analisis de la alteracion hidrotermal del campo geotermico de los Azufres, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Partida, Eduardo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Hydrothermal alteration at the Los Azufres geothermal field is mostly composed of calc-silicate minerals that define a propylitic alteration zone, which shows progressive dehydration with depth and temperature increase. A generalized zoning of the calc-silicate zone can be observed, with zeolites in the upper part and epidote-clinozoisite at the deepest levels. An argillic alteration zone overlies the calc-silicate zone and is the dominant surface manifestation of the hydrothermal alteration. In some parts, there is a mineral assemblage composed of kaolinite-alunite-native sulfur-quartz (advanced argillic zone) formed by the interaction of vapor and shallow groundwater. The proto-fluid at the Los Azufres geothermal system is related to a neutral sodium chlorine brine, which favors deep propyllitic alteration (productive zone). This zone is characterized by secondary permeability due to fracturing. At depth the geothermal field is dominated by a pressurized liquid, yielding to vapor at more shallow zone. The gradual change from a liquid to a vapor phase occurs through boiling at depths between 1,200 and 1,500 m, and is accompanied by changes in the hydrothermal alteration mineralogy. The type of alteration passes from proylitic to argillic by means of an oxidation-acidification process, which includes the participation of a gas, particularly CO{sub 2}. Considering the physicochemical characteristic of the brine and the evolution of the paragenetic sequence, the Los Azufres geothermal field could de considered a model for hydrothermal behavior at ore deposits which develop by boiling and oxidation of low sulfidation fossil hydrothermal fluids. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Los Azufres la zona de alteracion hidrotermal esta formada en su mayor parte por calcosilicatos (que definen una zona paragenetica del tipo propilitico), los cuales muestran una deshidratacion progresiva conforme se va profundizando e incrementandose la temperatura. Se puede generalizar un

  4. Seismic monitoring during acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13 at the Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, Mexico; Monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13 del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas Salgado, Saul; Arredondo Fragoso, Jesus; Ramirez Silva, German; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    From September through December 2004 a seismic monitoring in the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field was carried out simultaneously with the acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13. The seismic network had four digital seismographs and recorded 174 local seismic events, 131 regional ones and many more volcanic signals at seismic station TV20 during the acid stimulation. Additionally, 37 seismic events were located, 22 of them inside the most important geothermal zone at depths between 0.4 and 4 km with typically low magnitudes (0.7 to 2.2 Md). Two relevant zones were determined: Zone A related to the El Volcan fault system and Zone B related to injection well LV-8. In Zone A the well-induction stage and the operation start of the wells LV-4 and LV-13 after acidification on October 30 and November 17, 2004, increased seismic activity to a maximum of 12 daily events in early December. When the two wells in Zone B were cooled before the acidification, the seismic events recorded there increased to a maximum of 6 daily events on October 2, and then decreased. Also in Zone B the seismic activity increased after well-induction and the start of well production once they were acidified, recording up to 11 daily events in late November. According to the seismic distribution, we may conclude that the most active fault systems are El Volcan and El Viejo. New proposals for well locations in the field are supported by these results. [Spanish] De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se realizo un estudio de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, simultaneamente con las estimulaciones acidas de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13. Se utilizo una red sismica conformada por cuatro sismografos digitales, logrando registrar en la estacion sismica TV20 un total de 174 sismos locales, 131 sismos regionales y muchas mas senales de tipo volcanico, durante el periodo del monitoreo de la estimulacion acida. Ademas, se localizaron un total de 37 sismos, de los cuales 22 se

  5. Mineralized breccia clasts: a window into hidden porphyry-type mineralization underlying the epithermal polymetallic deposit of Cerro de Pasco (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottier, Bertrand; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Casanova, Vincent; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Wälle, Markus; Fontboté, Lluís

    2018-01-01

    Cerro de Pasco (Peru) is known for its large epithermal polymetallic (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu-Bi) mineralization emplaced at shallow level, a few hundred meters below the paleo-surface, at the border of a large diatreme-dome complex. Porphyry-style veins crosscutting hornfels and magmatic rock clasts are found in the diatreme breccia and in quartz-monzonite porphyry dikes. Such mineralized veins in clasts allow investigation of high-temperature porphyry-style mineralization developed in the deep portions of magmatic-hydrothermal systems. Quartz in porphyry-style veins contains silicate melt inclusions as well as fluid and solid mineral inclusions. Two types of high-temperature (> 600 °C) quartz-molybdenite-(chalcopyrite)-(pyrite) veins are found in the clasts. Early, thin (1-2 mm), and sinuous HT1 veins are crosscut by slightly thicker (up to 2 cm) and more regular HT2 veins. The HT1 vein quartz hosts CO2- and sulfur-rich high-density vapor inclusions. Two subtypes of the HT1 veins have been defined, based on the nature of mineral inclusions hosted in quartz: (i) HT1bt veins with inclusions of K-feldspar, biotite, rutile, and minor titanite and (ii) HT1px veins with inclusions of actinolite, augite, titanite, apatite, and minor rutile. Using an emplacement depth of the veins of between 2 and 3 km (500 to 800 bar), derived from the diatreme breccia architecture and the supposed erosion preceding the diatreme formation, multiple mineral thermobarometers are applied. The data indicate that HT1 veins were formed at temperatures > 700 °C. HT2 veins host assemblages of polyphase brine inclusions, generally coexisting with low-density vapor-rich inclusions, trapped at temperatures around 600 °C. Rhyolitic silicate melt inclusions found in both HT1 and HT2 veins represent melt droplets transported by the ascending hydrothermal fluids. LA-ICP-MS analyses reveal a chemical evolution coherent with the crystallization of an evolved rhyolitic melt. Quartz from both HT1 and HT2 veins

  6. Condensers for measuring steam quality at the inlet of back-pressure units of the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Condensadores para medir la calidad del vapor a la entrada de las turbinas a contrapresion del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval Medina, Fernando; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Rubi; Reyes Delgado, Lisette; Medina Martinez, Moises [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia de Los Azufres (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.sandoval@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-01-15

    Electrical conductivity is an indirect measurement of the quality of the steam supplied to power units. In the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field, the electrical conductivity once was measured in a discrete and periodic way by condensing steam samples through a water-cooled condenser. In an attempt to continuously measure conductivity, conductivity meters were installed where the units discharged, but the values proved unstable and unrepresentative. Thereafter, taking into account that steam quality should be measured at the steam delivery-reception point, equipment was designed and tested for continuously condensing steam. Finally it was possible to get an air-cooled condenser able to condense 500 milliliters per minute, enough to collect a representative flow of the steam and to measure its electrical conductivity. The equipment was installed in all seven back-pressure units operating in the field and to date has been operating in an optimal manner. [Spanish] La conductividad electrica es una medida indirecta de la calidad del vapor que se suministra a las unidades turbogeneradoras. En el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., la conductividad electrica se media en forma puntual y periodica, condensando muestras de vapor por medio de un serpentin enfriado con agua. Despues, ante la necesidad de medirla en forma continua, se instalaron conductivimetros en las descargas de las unidades, pero los valores resultaron muy inestables y poco representativos. Considerando, ademas, que la calidad del vapor debe medirse en el punto de entrega-recepcion, se disenaron y probaron equipos para condensar vapor de manera continua, lograndose construir un condensador enfriado por aire que logra condensar un flujo de 500 mililitros por minuto, cantidad suficiente para tener un flujo representativo del vapor que alimenta a las turbinas y medirle su conductividad electrica. Se instalaron estos equipos en las siete unidades turbogeneradoras a contrapresion que funcionan en el campo

  7. The use of residual geothermal energy in an edible mushroom production plant, Los Humeros geothermal fields (Mexico): Achievements and alternatives; El uso de la energia geotermica residual en la planta productora de hongos comestibles del campo geotermico Los Humeros (Mexico): Logros y alternativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel Rangel, Maria Elena [Proteccion ambiental, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    A plant for raising edible mushrooms with residual geothermal energy is a project of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The results reflect important achievements in the development of technology for the productions of wholesome and available food with geothermal heat instead of conventional energy sources. The installations have an enormous technological and commercial potential- demonstrated by the cultivation of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), which success has awakened the interest of research institutions. The Instituto of Ecologia, A.C., has begun a joint project with CFE cultivating shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) with geothermal energy. These achievements mark a clear trend toward the integral use of facilities, the establishment of a crop with greater economic advantages, and the diffusion of this project. [Spanish] La planta productora de hongos comestibles es un proyecto de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) para dar un uso alterno a la energia geotermica residual. Los resultados obtenidos hasta el momento reflejan logros importantes en la generacion de tecnologia propia para la produccion de un alimento sano y accesible, sustituyendo la energia proveniente de combustibles convencionales por calor geotermico. Las instalaciones creadas cuentan con un enorme potencial tecnologico y comercial demostrando con el cultivo de las setas (Pleurotus ostreatus) con un exito tal que ha despertado el interes de instituciones dedicadas a la investigacion. Tal es el caso de Instituto de Ecologia, A.C que acualmente se encuentra involucrado en un proyecto conjunto sobre el cultivo del hongo Lentinula edodes (shiitake) utilizando energia geotermica en su proceso productivo. Con lo anterior, se esta marcando una clara tendencia hacia el aprovechamiento integral de las instalaciones, el establecimiento de un cultivo con mayores ventajas economicas y la difusion de este proyecto.

  8. Economic, environmental and social impacts of geothermal development, and energy savings and efficient use of power in Baja California, Mexico; Impactos economicos, ambientales y sociales del desarrollo geotermico y del ahorro y uso eficiente de la electricidad en Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell R, Hector E.; Montero A, Gisela [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Instituto de Ingenieria, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: hecr@iing.mxl.uabc.mx; Lambert A., Alejandro A. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Facultad de Ingenieria, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    geotermico a combustoleo hacia 1 a 1 de geotermia a gas natural. El costo unitario de energia del gas natural con una eficiencia de 50% es 24 veces el costo de la misma unidad de vapor geotermico con 16% de eficiencia. Generar con combustoleo o gas natural en turbinas simples cuesta el doble que con gas natural en ciclo combinado, mientras que con vapor geotermico cuesta tres veces menos. Al disminuir la participacion geotermica los costos de produccion de electricidad se incrementaron para llegar en 2005 a 122.80 USD/MWh. La salida del combustoleo disminuyo las emisiones de SO{sub x} de 4.16 kg/MWh a 0.19 kg/MWh. Los ciclos combinados con gas natural abatieron las emisiones relativas de NO{sub x} y CO{sub 2} en 30%, pero las 2.6 millones de toneladas anuales de CO{sub x} no variaron significativamente. La geotermia evita que se quemen anualmente 20 millones de barriles equivalentes de petroleo. La Prospectiva 2005-2025 implica para Baja California instalar 4500 MW adicionales para alcanzar 7200 MW. La matriz energetica se transformara dependiendo mas del gas natural que incrementara su participacion del 60% al 86%. La geotermia disminuira su participacion en la capacidad instalada al 10%, eliminando su efecto amortiguador en el costo de produccion. Las emisiones de SO{sub x} se mantendran en 2,200 toneladas por ano (t/a) emitiendose principalmente por la geotermoelectricidad, las de NO{sub x} aumentaran de 6,000 t/a en 2005 a 24,000 t/a en 2025, y las de CO{sub x} se incrementaran de 3.4 millones de t/a en 2005 a 12.7 millones de t/a en 2025. El costo de generacion sera afectado por los cambios en la matriz energetica al predominar el uso del gas natural. En terminos absolutos aumentara de 648 millones de dolares en 2005 a 2273 millones de dolares en 2025. El costo de generacion dependera en 70% del uso de gas natural. En la Planeacion Sistemica las metas planteadas se orientaron a: a) reducir los usos propios en los procesos de generacion, b) reducir los usos propios y las

  9. Estudio de los fundentes utilizados en la metalurgia del cobre en Cerro Muriano (Córdoba durante el período Romano Altoimperial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criado, A. J.

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available There are no doubts that Hispania was, under the Roman Empire, the most profitable and abundant in resources of all the mining districts exploded by Rome -Hispania, Galia, Danubian Provinces, Dacia, Greece, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt and North Africa-. Plinius gives the same data and hands many more in the passages dedicated to the mining and the working of the metals in his Natural History. Of all the many mining places that this author refers, the exploiting in copper at Cerro Muriano presents the main interest; of this he says that it was of an unbeatable quality, used, among other applications, to manufacture the very famous "Copper of Campania". The utilization of fusing agents, adapted to the process of copper obtainment, is fundamental for obtaining this high quality. The addition of these fusing agents was very important for the control of the work parameters and to reach the required temperatures. The high purity of the obtained copper shows a very close knowledge of the phenomena involved in the process.

    Durante el Imperio Romano, de todos los distritos mineros explotados por Roma -Hispania, Galia, las provincias danubianas, Dacia, Grecia, Asia Menor, Siria, Egipto y el Norte de África-, sin duda el más rentable y más abundante en recursos era Hispania. Plinio facilita muchos datos en los pasajes dedicados a la minería y el trabajo de los metales en su Historia Natural. Entre los muchos lugares mineros que este autor cita, nos interesa ahora la explotación de cobre en Cerro Muriano, del cual dice que era de una calidad inmejorable, utilizado, entre otras aplicaciones, para fabricar el famosísimo cobre de Campania. Para poder obtener esta elevada calidad, es fundamental la utilización de fundentes adecuados en el proceso de obtención de cobre. La adición de estos fundentes era vital para controlar los parámetros de trabajo y alcanzar las temperaturas requeridas. La elevada pureza del cobre obtenido demuestra un

  10. Mecanismo de inserción del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay en el Parque Tecnológico Industrial del Cerro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Márquez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay, LATU, teniendo en cuenta su misión: "Impulsar el desarrollo sustentable del país y su inserción internacional a través de la innovación y transferencia de soluciones de valor, en servicios analíticos, metrológicos, tecnológicos, de gestión y evaluación de la conformidad de a cuerdo a la normativa aplicable", está trabajando en el apoyo a las micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas del país. Como estrategia para contribuir al logro de la misión, se ha iniciado una política de descentralización, eligiendo zonas de actividad con requerimientos similares, en cuanto a las necesidades de mejora de la competitividad de las empresas. En la zona de Montevideo llamada el Cerro, el gobierno municipal gestiona un Parque Tecnológico Industrial, PTIC, apoyando y alojando en su predio, 58 empresas. Este Parque se puede ver como un conglomerado de empresas, en una misma zona, con necesidades similares. El mecanismo de inserción del LATU en el PTIC, ha contado con una herramienta fundamental que es la instalación de una oficina en el propio Parque, cuyo objetivo principal es facilitar y asegurar la contribución del LATU al desarrollo y competitividad de las mipymes allí agrupadas.AbstractAttending to the Technological Laboratory of Uruguay (LATU's mission, to promote the sustainable development of the country and its international insertion through innovation and transfer of valuable solutions, it is working on support for micro, small and medium companies. As a management strategy to achieve the mission, a policy of decentralization, approaching to the enterprises, it's being implemented. In this context, it has been developed a methodology for insertion in the Industrial Technological Park of Cerro, PTIC. This park, which is managed by the municipal government, agglomerates a group of companies, in the same area with similar needs. The LATU's mechanism of insertion in the PTIC, has counted on with a

  11. Characterization of post-fire surface cover, soils, and burn severity at the Cerro Grande Fire, New Mexico, using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, R.F.; Rockwell, B.W.; Haire, S.L.; King, T.V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Forest fires leave behind a changed ecosystem with a patchwork of surface cover that includes ash, charred organic matter, soils and soil minerals, and dead, damaged, and living vegetation. The distributions of these materials affect post-fire processes of erosion, nutrient cycling, and vegetation regrowth. We analyzed high spatial resolution (2.4??m pixel size) Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected over the Cerro Grande fire, to map post-fire surface cover into 10 classes, including ash, soil minerals, scorched conifer trees, and green vegetation. The Cerro Grande fire occurred near Los Alamos, New Mexico, in May 2000. The AVIRIS data were collected September 3, 2000. The surface cover map revealed complex patterns of ash, iron oxide minerals, and clay minerals in areas of complete combustion. Scorched conifer trees, which retained dry needles heated by the fire but not fully combusted by the flames, were found to cover much of the post-fire landscape. These scorched trees were found in narrow zones at the edges of completely burned areas. A surface cover map was also made using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) data, collected September 5, 2000, and a maximum likelihood, supervised classification. When compared to AVIRIS, the Landsat classification grossly overestimated cover by dry conifer and ash classes and severely underestimated soil and green vegetation cover. In a comparison of AVIRIS surface cover to the Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) map of burn severity, the BAER high burn severity areas did not capture the variable patterns of post-fire surface cover by ash, soil, and scorched conifer trees seen in the AVIRIS map. The BAER map, derived from air photos, also did not capture the distribution of scorched trees that were observed in the AVIRIS map. Similarly, the moderate severity class of Landsat-derived burn severity maps generated from the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) calculation

  12. Las mineralizaciones de barita de Cerro del Hierro (Sevilla. Características mineralógicas y geoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán Huertos, E.

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available Different barite deposits (stratabound, vein and karstic types are occurring in the Lower Cambrian carbonatic materials of the Cerro del Hierro, Sevilla (Ossa-Morena Zone. Calcite, hematite, goethite and minor chalcopyrite are common associated minerals, with limonite and malachite as alterations. The content of barite can be as high as 98 %. There is a close relationship between barite type and Sr content (vein 34S ranges between 32,7 ‰ (stratiform barites and 20,7 ‰ (epigenetic barites. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio for the epigenetic barites oscillates between 0.70873 and 0.71112 which could be the result of the infiuence of different mineralization solutions. A primary origin for the stratabound barites is proposed, in relation with the diagenesis of the limestones occurred during the Lower Cambrian. Epigenetic barites were formed after the Hercynian Orogenesis by remobilization of the stratiform ores, with Ba and Sr supplied from the lixiviation of the host rocks. The last process could be much more important for the karstic barite formation.En los materiales carbonatados del Cámbrico inferior del Cerro del Hierro (Zona de Ossa-Morena existen diversos tipos de mineralizaciones de barita (estratoligadas, filonianas y kársticas. La barita está acompañada de calcita, hematites, goethita, y calcopirita accesoria, y limonitas y malaquita como fases tardías de alteración, y presenta una gran pureza química [ > 98% SO4(Ba,Sr]. Existe una relación entre la tipología de la barita y el contenido en Sr, en el sentido de filonianas 34S en las baritas oscila entre 32,7 ‰ para las estratoligadas y 20,7 ‰ para las epigenéticas. Las razones 87Sr/86Sr determinadas sobre baritas epigenéticas varían entre 0.70873 y 0.71112, lo que puede interpretarse como consecuencia de la participación de diversos tipos de soluciones mineralizantes. Se propone un origen primario de las baritas estratoligadas, en relación con la diagénesis de los

  13. Geothermal Resource Verification for Air Force Bases,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    680OF (3600 C) in the Salton Sea, California, and the nearby Cerro Prieto region of Mexico . Liquid water can exist underground in nature to a maxi...northwest Mexico’s Cerro Prieto field and southcentral California’s Imperial Valley area [banwell (1970)]. The Baca field in New Mexico’s Jemez Mountains...SAND8l-7123 j O Philip R./Grant, Jr En -gy R aon, Inc. 9720-D Candelaria, NE Albuquerque, New Mexico 87111 Abstract Geothermal energy offers a

  14. ANÁLISIS DE MACRORRESTOS VEGETALES EN EL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO LOS TRES CERROS 1 (ISLA LAS MORAS, VICTORIA, ENTRE RÍOS / Macroremains plant analysis on the Tres Cerros 1 archaeological site (Las Moras island, Victoria, Entre Ríos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Milagros Colobig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es la primera aproximación al estudio de macrorrestos botánicos en el sitio Los Tres Cerros 1 (isla Las Moras, Victoria, Entre Ríos. Estos restos fueron recuperados mediante la técnica de flotación manual. A partir del material extraído, se exploró el rol de los recursos vegetales y su importancia en la subsistencia en los grupos humanos que habitaron el Delta Superior del río Paraná durante el Holoceno tardío. Se identificaron cinco familias: Solanaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Poaceae (Maideae y Oryzoideae y Amaranthaceae. Los estudios permitieron estimar que a partir de 700 ARCP hubo un incremento en la abundancia y variabilidad de recursos vegetales utilizados con respecto a períodos anteriores. La presencia de elementos oryzoides, y graminoides (específicamente Maideae evidenció la existencia de vegetales silvestres y domesticados, aportando nuevos registros sobre el aprovechamiento, manejo y cultivo de las plantas en el área de estudio en el Holoceno tardío.   Abstract  This paper entails the first approach to macrobotanical remains obtained from Los Tres Cerros 1 (Isla Las Moras, Victoria, Entre Ríos. The remains were recovered by means of manual flotation technique. The extracted material allowed us to explore the role played by vegetable resources role and their importance to the subsistence of human populations of Upper Paraná Delta during the late Holocene. Five botanical families were recognized: Solanaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Poaceae (Maideae and Ehrhartoideae and Amaranthaceae. Studies estimate that from 700 RCYBP, there was an increase in the abundance and variability of plant resources used, as compared to previous periods. The presence of oryzoides and graminoid elements (specifically Maideae showed the presence of wild and domesticated plants, providing new records on the use of plants in the area studied, in the late Holocene.

  15. Observations of the Breakdown of Mountain Waves Over the Andes Lidar Observatory at Cerro Pachon on 8/9 July 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, J. H.; Fritts, D. C.; Wang, L.; Gelinas, L. J.; Rudy, R. J.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P. D.; Smith, S.; Franke, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    Although mountain waves (MWs) are thought to be a ubiquitous feature of the wintertime southern Andes stratosphere, it was not known whether these waves propagated up to the mesopause region until Smith et al. (2009) confirmed their presence via airglow observations. The new Andes Lidar Observatory at Cerro Pachon in Chile provided the opportunity for a further study of these waves. Since MWs have near-zero phase speed, and zero wind lines often occur in the winter upper mesosphere (80 to 100 km altitude) region due to the reversal of the zonal mean and tidal wind, MW breakdown may routinely occur at these altitudes. Here we report on very high spatial/temporal resolution observations of the initiation of MW breakdown in the mesopause region. Because the waves are nearly stationary, the breakdown process was observed over several hours; a much longer interval than has previously been observed for any gravity wave breakdown. During the breakdown process observations were made of initial horseshoe-shaped vortices, leading to successive vortex rings, as is also commonly seen in Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of idealized and multiscale gravity wave breaking. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) structures were also observed to form. Comparing the structure of observed KHI with the results of existing DNS allowed an estimate of the turbulent kinematic viscosity. This viscosity was found to be around 25 m2/s, a value larger than the nominal viscosity that is used in models.

  16. NUEVOS APORTES AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LA HERPETOFAUNA DE LA FORMACIÓN CERRO AZUL (MIOCENO SUPERIOR, PROVINCIA DE LA PAMPA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUSTÍN SCANFERLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENSe describen nuevos materiales fósiles de anfibios y reptiles hallados en sedimentos referidos a la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior, procedentes de numerosas localidades de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Los nuevos registros se basan en un resto craneano de anuro asignado al géneroCeratophrys, restos de caparazón de tortugas terrestres del géneroChelonoidis, vértebras asignables al lagarto de la familia TeiidaeTupinambis, y una vértebra troncal de serpiente comparable al género de colubroideos actualesPhilodryas. Tanto los registros terciarios previos de géneros actuales de anfibios y reptiles en América del Sur, como así también la asociación recuperada en el Mioceno Superior de La Pampa sugieren que la mayoría de los géneros que componen la herpetofauna Neotropical estaban presentes en el Mioceno, patrón similar al observado en otras regiones del mundo.

  17. Estudios bioarqueológicos en el sitio Los Tres Cerros 1 (Delta Superior del río Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Scabuzzo

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de los estudios bioarqueológicos efectuados en la serie de esqueletos humanos del sitio Los Tres Cerros 1 (departamento de Victoria, Entre Ríos, Argentina, una estructura antropogénica monticular ocupada entre ca. 1227 y 560 años AP por cazadores, recolectores, pescadores y horticultores, asignados a la entidad arqueológica Goya-Malabrigo. Las investigaciones bioarqueológicas se enfocaron en determinar la estructura sexo-etaria de la muestra, estudiar las lesiones óseas y analizar las prácticas mortuorias. De acuerdo a estos estudios, en el sitio se enterraron al menos 16 individuos de distintos grupos etarios y ambos sexos. La variabilidad de modos de disponer a los muertos incluye entierros primarios, secundarios y elementos óseos dispersos. Algunos huesos presentaban termoalteración y ocre sobre la superficie. Se discuten estas evidencias a nivel regional con otros sitios del Delta del Paraná con presencia de esqueletos humanos asignados a la entidad Goya-Malabrigo.

  18. Ecological Impacts of the Cerro Grande Fire: Predicting Elk Movement and Distribution Patterns in Response to Vegetative Recovery through Simulation Modeling October 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, Susan P. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2005-10-01

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 17,200 ha in north-central New Mexico as the result of an escaped prescribed burn initiated by Bandelier National Monument. The interaction of large-scale fires, vegetation, and elk is an important management issue, but few studies have addressed the ecological implications of vegetative succession and landscape heterogeneity on ungulate populations following large-scale disturbance events. Primary objectives of this research were to identify elk movement pathways on local and landscape scales, to determine environmental factors that influence elk movement, and to evaluate movement and distribution patterns in relation to spatial and temporal aspects of the Cerro Grande Fire. Data collection and assimilation reflect the collaborative efforts of National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory) personnel. Geographic positioning system (GPS) collars were used to track 54 elk over a period of 3+ years and locational data were incorporated into a multi-layered geographic information system (GIS) for analysis. Preliminary tests of GPS collar accuracy indicated a strong effect of 2D fixes on position acquisition rates (PARs) depending on time of day and season of year. Slope, aspect, elevation, and land cover type affected dilution of precision (DOP) values for both 2D and 3D fixes, although significant relationships varied from positive to negative making it difficult to delineate the mechanism behind significant responses. Two-dimensional fixes accounted for 34% of all successfully acquired locations and may affect results in which those data were used. Overall position acquisition rate was 93.3% and mean DOP values were consistently in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 leading to the conclusion collar accuracy was acceptable for modeling purposes. SAVANNA, a spatially explicit, process-oriented ecosystem model, was used to simulate successional dynamics. Inputs to the

  19. Prácticas de sacrificio en el Cerro de la Mesa (Alcolea de Tajo, Toledo: el depósito ritual de la Casa 1

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    Ana CABRERA DÍEZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los depósitos con restos óseos animales enterrados bajo el pavimento en ámbitos domésticos forman parte de prácticas rituales bien conocidas en la Protohistoria peninsular, tradicionalmente asociadas a la fundación o remodelación de nuevos edificios o a ritos vinculados a la propiciación y la fertilidad. Aunque los ejemplos mejor estudiados se encuentran en la zona levantina, el fenómeno también se conoce en yacimientos del interior. Este artículo tiene por objeto presentar un depósito ritual excavado en el poblado vetón del Cerro de la Mesa, en el valle medio del Tajo, cuyas características formales lo emparentan con las ofrendas domésticas de la zona ibérica. Se trata de un hoyo situado en el umbral de la Casa 1, que contiene los restos seleccionados de varios ovinos y un pequeño cuenco cerámico colocado en posición invertida. El análisis de los restos óseos, el contenido del cuenco y el estudio del contexto arqueológico en que se situaba el depósito han permitido relacionarlo con prácticas de sacrificio y libación dentro del marco de la religiosidad vetona. Este trabajo pretende igualmente contribuir a la formación de un corpus peninsular de inhumaciones rituales de animales en contextos domésticos, que impulse el adecuado estudio de la ritualidad protohistórica.

  20. Perfil infectológico de poblaciones mapuche de Cerro Policía y Aguada Guzmán de la provincia de Río Negro

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    Rey, Jorge Alberto

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro trabajo analiza la prevalencia de marcadores de algunas infecciones que afectan las poblaciones mapuche de Cerro Policía (CP y Aguada Guzmán (AG en la Prov. de Río Negro. Los estudios incluídos son: determinación de anticuerpos anti-Treponema pallidum, anti-Trypanosoma cruzii, anti-Echinococcus granulosus, antígeno de superficie de la Hepatitis B (HBsAg, anticuerpos contra el core de la Hepatitis B (anti-HBc, anticuerpos contra el virus de la Hepatitis A (anti-HAV. Se estudiaron 160 muestras en CP y 83 en AG. Los resultados muestran alta prevalencia para anti-HAV en CP (89.2% y en AG (77.1% y para hidatidosis (10.6% y 9.6% respectivamente. Se hallaron valores nulos o bajos para sífilis (CP: 0.0 % y AG:2.4%. La prevalencia para Chagas fue del 10% en CP y 0.0% en AG. Los datos para Hepatitis B fueron nulos o bajos: HBsAg (CP:0.0% y AG:1.2% y anti-HBc(CP:0.6% y AG:0.0%. Los resultados indican que, aún estando estas dos poblaciones tan próximas muestran diferencias en los perfiles de los marcadores serológicos estudiados. Al comparar las tasas de prevalencia con las de otras poblaciones de América, cada una presenta un perfil diferente que depende de la población y del agente infeccioso considerado.

  1. LOS “CUERNOS DE LA CONSAGRACIÓN” EN EL CERRO DE LA ENCANTADA: CRONOLOGÍA DE UN SÍMBOLO

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    José Luis Sánchez Meseguer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde su aparición en 1978, el ejemplar de “cuernos de la consagración” de El Cerro de La Encantada (Granátula de Calatrava, Ciudad Real, España es sin duda el elemento de ese yacimiento del Bronce de La Mancha que más incógnitas plantea y que más dificultades presenta al interpretar el significado de su presencia en tierras tan occidentales, y especialmente tan en el interior de la Península Ibérica. Sus características y su semejanza con los ejemplares localizados en El Oficio, yacimiento almeriense correspondiente a la cultura de El Argar, su contexto arqueológico y cultural, sus paralelos y su cronología, testimonian una relación entre la Península Ibérica y el Mediterráneo Oriental durante la Edad del Bronce, concretamente a mediados del II milenio A.C. y en época premicénica, cuyo carácter necesariamente trascendió lo meramente“comercial”; no se trata de un elemento mueble sino arquitectónico, sin antecedentes conocidos en el III Milenio A.C. peninsular, que pone de manifiesto que su existencia no puede ser el resultado de un intercambio/comercio/regalo de materias primas o de objetos, sino de la presencia en tierras manchegas de una ideología que debió llegar hasta aquí en la mente de gentes que la guardaban en la memoria de su bagaje cultural.

  2. Large rock avalanches in southern Perù: the Cerro Caquilluco - Cerrillos Negros rock slide - avalanche (Tacna, Tomasiri, Perù)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, G.; Hermanns, R. L.; Murillo, P. V.

    2012-04-01

    The Andean bent which coincides with the Peruvian-Chilean border region is characterised by one of the largest relief contrasts on earth with depth of the subduction trench ranging from 5000 to 6000 m below sea level and mountain tops ranging from 5500 to 6300 m a.s.l.. The western flank of the Andes is subdivided in 4 major geologic zones (i.e. Coastal Cordillera, longitudinal Basin or depression, the Precordillera or western escarpment and western Cordillera). Local relief contrasts are also pronounced due to the incision of deep canyons into several million old uplifted surfaces, preserved because of the extremely dry climate with precipitation averaging a few mm and less per year. The Lluta collapse (minimum age of 2.5 Ma; volume 26 km3) is one of the largest non-volcanic non-marine landslides on Earth and has been mapped in that area (Wörner et al., 2002). Systematic mapping in northern Chile and Southern Peru has revealed that this is not the only gigantic landslide in the area but that further landslides of similar size occurred in the area, located both along the canyon slopes and along the western escarpment of the Cordillera. This suggests that landsliding has been a major factor in controlling erosion. This contribution describes first results on mapping a giant landslide complex in southern Perù called the Cerro Caquilluco - Cerrillos Negros Tomasiri rock slide - avalanche complex. The systematic mapping we have carried out in the area is presented in a further contribution to this conference. The Cerro Caquilluco - Cerrillos Negros Tomasiri rock slide - avalanche complex affected the upper part of a SW dipping paleosurface (8° to 9°) cut by a disconnected and regular primitive drainage network organized in a series of SW trending parallel valleys. This network developed within the lower Miocene pinkish tuffaceous deposits of the Huaylillas formation, whereas the main landslide scarp lies within the conglomerates of the Upper Moquegua formation

  3. Itaguy Guasu: un abrigo con grabados de pisadas y abstractos en el Cerro Guasú (Amambay, Paraguay; su contexto en América del Sur = Itaguy Guasu: a rock shelter with footprint and abstract engravings in The Cerro Guasú (Amambay, Paraguay; its context...

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    José Antonio Lasheras Corruchaga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es resultado del proyecto de Inventario Nacional del Arte rupestre de Paraguay, con el que empezamos a llenar el vacío de conocimiento e investigación arqueológica sobre el arte rupestre y el periodo Arcaico (Holoceno antiguo y medio en la cuenca del Paraguay. Publicamos uno de los abrigos catalogados en el cerro Guasú, y relacionamos los grabados parietales (petroglifos con el depósito arqueológico del abrigo. Este cerro es Jasuka Venda, el monte sagrado de los Paî Tavyterâ, pueblo guaraní cuyo territorio tradicional abarcaba el norte de Paraguay oriental y  zonas limítrofes de Brasil. El abrigo presenta más de mil trescientos grabados que representan pisadas animales y humanas, vulvas y signos abstractos.La excavación arqueológica dio un único nivel de ocupación con industria lítica sobre lascas planoconvexas (tradicionalmente limaces o lesmas y puntas bifaciales. Se halló un hogar datado por termoluminiscencia en 5212± 323 BP, lo que remite al Arcaico / Holoceno Medio, al que asignamos los grabados y, en general, todo el conjunto del estilo de pisadas inventariado en Paraguay en doce sitios. Esta datación absoluta es la más antigua para este estilo o tradición en el continente, y permite pensar en el Amambay como un área nuclear en la elaboración y la dispersión del discurso y de los temas gráficos del arte rupestre de estilo de pisadas en América del sur, el único tipo de arte presente en gran parte del continente. This paper is the result of the project of the National Inventory of the Rock Art of Paraguay, with which we begin to fill the knowledge and archaeological research vacuum on rock art and the Archaic Period (Lower and Middle Holocene in thebasin of Paraguay river. The paper presents one of the rock shelters catalogued in Cerro Guasú, and links the parietal engravings (petroglyphs to the archaeological deposit of the rock shelter. This hill is Jasuka Venda, the sacred mountain of the Pa

  4. Evaluación de la contaminación por metales en pasivos ambientales de actividades metalúrgicas históricas en el distrito minero Cerro de San Pedro, S.L.P. (México)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez y Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Pasivos ambientales minero-metalúrgicos son frecuentemente encontrados en regiones donde estas actividades se han desarrollado históricamente, como es el caso del Estado de San Luis Potosí, en donde desde el siglo XVI han existido importantes centros mineros, destacando entre ellos el Distrito Minero de Cerro de San Pedro que se localiza en la porción centro-sur del Estado, 19.5 kilómetros al NW de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí. La situación geográfica del sitio donde se descubriero...

  5. “La parte alta del cerro es para los pequeños mineros”. Sobre la vigencia del régimen minero especial para Marmato y su influencia en la construcción de territorialidad

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    Gloria Patricia Lopera Mesa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina las circunstancias que motivaron la expedición de un régimen especial para las minas de Marmato a mediados del siglo XX, el cual reserva la parte alta del cerro para el ejercicio de la pequeña minería. Asimismo, explora la vigencia de dichas normas y la manera en que ellas han influido la construcción de territorialidad y el desarrollo de una forma de vida en torno al ejercicio de la pequeña minería tradicional.

  6. The Springhill Formation (Jurassic-Cretaceous) as a potential low enthalpy geothermal reservoir in the Cerro Sombrero area, Magallanes Basin, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarrigue, S. C.; Elgueta, S.; Arancibia, G.; Morata, D.; Sanchez, J.; Rojas, L.

    2017-12-01

    Low enthalpy geothermal energy technologies are being developed around the world as part of policies to replace the use of conventional sources of energy by renewable ones. The reuse of abandoned oil and gas wells in sedimentary basins, whose reservoirs are saturated with water at temperatures above 120°C, is of increasing interest due to the low initial cost.In Chile, interest in applying this technology is focused on the Magallanes Basin (Austral Basin in Argentina) in the extreme south of the country, where important hydrocarbon deposits have been exploited for more than six decades with more than 3,500 wells drilled to depths of over 4,000m. Hydrocarbons have been extracted mainly from the Upper Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous Springhill Formation, which includes sandstone lithofacies with porosities of 12% to 19% and permeability of 10mD and 1100mD. This formation has been drilled mainly at depths of 1500m to 3000m, the estimated geothermal gradient in the zone is 4.9 °C/100m with well bottom temperature measurements oscillating between 60° and 170°C, sufficient for district heating, and even, electricity generation by means of ORC technologies.To understand in detail the behavior and distribution of the different lithofacies of the Springhill Formation in the Sombrero Oil and Gas Field, sedimentological and geological 3D models have been generated from existing well logs and seismic data. To comprehend the quality of the reservoirs on the other hand, many petrophysical studies of drill core samples representative of the different lithofacies, complemented by electric well log interpretations, were carried out. Results confirm the existence of at least two quartz-rich sandstone lithofacies as potential geothermal reservoirs. In the principal settlement in this area, Cerro Sombrero township (1,800 population), the annual average temperature is 6.4°C, requiring constant domestic heating which, at present comes exclusively from natural gas. The study shows

  7. How Pore-Fluid Pressure due to Heavy Rainfall Influences Volcanic Eruptions, Example of 1998 and 2008 Eruptions of Cerro Azul (Galapagos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, F.; Amelung, F.; Gregg, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    About 30 worldwide seismic studies have shown a strong correlation between rainfall and earthquakes in the past 22 years (e.g. Costain and Bollinger, 2010). Such correlation has been explained by the phenomenon of hydro-seismicity via pore pressure diffusion: an increase of pore-fluid in the upper crust reduces the normal stress on faults, which can trigger shear failure. Although this pore pressure effect is widely known for earthquakes, this phenomenon and more broadly poro-elasticity process are not widely studied on volcanoes. However, we know from our previous works that tensile failures that open to propagate magma through the surface are also pore pressure dependent. We have demonstrated that an increase of pore pressure largely reduces the overpressure required to rupture the magma reservoir. We have shown that the pore pressure has more influence on reservoir stability than other parameters such as the reservoir depth or the edifice loading. Here, we investigate how small pore-fluid changes due to hydrothermal or aquifer refill during heavy rainfall may perturb the conditions of failure around magma reservoirs and, what is more, if these perturbations are enough to trigger magma intrusions. We quantify the pore pressure effect on magmatic system by combining 1) 1D pore pressure diffusion model to quantify how pore pressure changes from surface to depth after heavy rainfall events and 2) 2D poro-elastic numerical model to provide the evolution of failure conditions of the reservoir as a consequence of these pore pressure changes. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to characterize the influence on our results of the poro-elastic parameters (hydraulic diffusivity, permeability and porosity) and the geometry of the magma reservoir and the aquifer (depth, size, shape). Finally, we apply our methodology to Cerro Azul volcano (Galapagos) where both last eruptions (1998 and 2008) occurred just after heavy rainfall events, without any pre-eruptive inflation. In

  8. Emplacement and deformation of the Cerro Durazno Pluton delineates stages of the lower Paleozoic tectono-magmatic evolution in NW-Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongn, F.; Riller, U.

    2003-04-01

    Regional-scale transpression and transtension are considered to be important in the lower Paleozoic tectono-magmatic evolution of metamorphic and granitoid basement rocks of the southern central Andes. In order to test whether such kinematic changes affected Paleozoic basement rocks on the local scale, i.e. in the Eastern Cordillera of NW-Argentina, we performed a detailed field-based structural analysis of the 456 Ma granitoid Cerro Durazno pluton (CDP). The results of our analysis point to the following stages in the geodynamic evolution of this area: (1) Metamorphism and deformation of Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic basement rocks occurred at high T and low to medium P prior to emplacement of the CDP. This lead to the formation of schists and migmatites characterized by pervasive planar and linear mineral shape fabrics and the growth of andalusite, cordierite and fibrolite. (2) Magmatic foliation in the CDP is defined by the shape-preferred orientation of euhedral feldspar phenocrysts and microgranitoid enclaves. These fabrics are concordant to the NE-SW striking intrusive contact with migmatitic host rocks. The lack of submagmatic or high-T solid-state fabrics in the CDP may indicate that cooling and solidification of granitoid magma was not accompanied by regional deformation. Alternatively, emplacement of granitoid magma may have been facilitated by the creation of open space at mid-crustal level induced by regional deformation. (3) Ductile deformation under greenschist metamorphic conditions overprinted magmatic fabrics of the CDP. This is evident by NW-SE striking metamorphic foliation surfaces transecting magmatic shape fabrics at high angles. During this deformation, the pluton was thrust on a SW-dipping shear zone toward the NE over low-grade metamorphic host rocks which lead to a condensation of metamorphic isograds in the host rocks. Ages of strained pegmatitic dikes indicate that this deformation occurred at about 430 Ma. In summary, the difference in age

  9. Crystallization conditions and petrogenesis of the lava dome from the ˜900 years BP eruption of Cerro Machín Volcano, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeger, Kathrin; Halama, Ralf; Hansteen, Thor; Savov, Ivan P.; Murcia, Hugo F.; Cortés, Gloria P.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    The last known eruption at Cerro Machín Volcano (CMV) in the Central Cordillera of Colombia occurred ˜900 years BP and ended with the formation of a dacitic lava dome. The dome rocks contain both normally and reversely zoned plagioclase (An24-54), unzoned and reversely zoned amphiboles of dominantly tschermakite and pargasite/magnesio-hastingsite composition and olivine xenocrysts (Fo = 85-88) with amphibole/clinopyroxene overgrowth, all suggesting interaction with mafic magma at depth. Plagioclase additionally exhibits complex oscillatory zoning patterns reflecting repeated replenishment, fractionation and changes in intrinsic conditions in the magma reservoir. Unzoned amphiboles and cores of the reversely zoned amphiboles give identical crystallization conditions of 910 ± 30 °C and 360 ± 70 MPa, corresponding to a depth of about 13 ± 2 km, at moderately oxidized conditions (f = +0.5 ± 0.2 ΔNNO). The water content in the melt, calculated based on amphibole chemistry, is 7.1 ± 0.4 wt.%. Rims of the reversely zoned amphiboles are relatively enriched in MgO and yield higher crystallization temperatures (T = 970 ± 25 °C), slightly lower melt H2O contents (6.1 ± 0.7 wt.%) and overlapping pressures (410 ± 100 MPa). We suggest that these rims crystallized following an influx of mafic melt into a resident magma reservoir at mid-crustal depths, further supported by the occurrence of xenocrystic olivine. Crystallization of biotite, albite-rich plagioclase and quartz occurred at comparatively low temperatures (probably during early stages of ascent or storage at shallower levels. Based on amphibole mineral chemistry, the felsic resident melt had a rhyolitic composition (71 ± 2 wt.% SiO2), whereas the hybrid magma, from which the amphibole rims crystallized, was dacitic (64 ± 3 wt.% SiO2). The bulk rock chemistry of the CMV lava dome dacites is homogenous. They have elevated (La/Nb)N ratios of 3.8-4.5, typical for convergent margin magmas, and display several

  10. Comportamiento del índice de bajo peso al nacer en el Policlínico Docente Cerro durante los años 2009-2010

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    Ramona Moraima Torres Zulueta

    Full Text Available Introducción: el bajo peso al nacerconstituye el índice predictivo más importante de la mortalidad infantil y se plantea que es 20 veces mayor que en el recién nacido con peso adecuado. Objetivo: comparar el comportamiento del índice de bajo peso al nacer en recién nacidos de un Policlínico durante los años 2009 y 2010. Método: se realizó un estudio comparativo de tipo descriptivo en el Policlínico Universitario Cerro, en la provincia La Habana, durante los años 2009 y 2010. El Universo estuvo constituido por los 350 recién nacidos vivos en el 2009 y los 318 en el 2010, y la muestra estuvo conformada por 23 niños con bajo peso al nacer en el 2009 y por 21 en el 2010. Se revisaron las historias obstétricas de las madres y se identificaron algunas variables socio-demográficas. Resultados: en ambos años estudiados la edad materna de mayor bajo peso al nacer fue de 20 a 34 años, con 73,9 y 80,9 %. Los factores de riesgo que se asociaron al bajo peso fueron: el hábito de fumar, que predominó en ambos años de estudio, representado por un 60,8 % en 2009 y por un 61,9 % en el 2010; el trastorno hipertensivo, con un 35 % en el año 2010 y un 27,7 % en el año 2009, y en ambos años fue superior en el grupo de gestantes con hipertensión arterial crónica. La anemia aumentó considerablemente en el 2010 en un 80,9 %, comparado con un 69,5 % en el año 2009. Conclusiones: el bajo peso al nacer resultó más frecuente en las gestantes de 20 a 34 años. Los factores de riesgo asociados al bajo peso al nacer con mayor frecuencia fueron: la anemia, el hábito de fumar y los trastornos hipertensivos.

  11. Vigilancia de la salud pública después de una erupción volcánica: lecciones aprendidas en Cerro Negro, Nicaragua, 1992

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    Malilay Josephine

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La erupción del volcán Cerro Negro cerca de León, Nicaragua, el 9 de abril de 1992 lanzó alrededor de 1,7 millones de toneladas de ceniza en una zona de 200 km². Se efectuó una evaluación inicial de los efectos en la salud de cerca de 300 000 residentes, con los datos normalmente obtenidos mediante el sistema nacional de vigilancia epidemiológica. Se determinó que el número de consultas a los establecimientos de atención de salud por diarrea e infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA aumentó en las dos comunidades estudiadas, una dentro de la zona del desastre y otra en sus cercanías. En particular, las consultas por diarrea aguda fueron casi 6,0 veces más numerosas que antes de la erupción en ambas comunidades y las consultas por IRA, 3,6 veces más frecuentes en Malpaisillo (la comunidad cercana a la zona del desastre y 6,0 veces más frecuentes en Telica (la comunidad situada dentro de esa zona. Casi todas fueron consultas por enfermedad en lactantes y niños menores de 5 años. El aumento de la tasa de morbilidad por diarrea, que frecuentemente se produce después de las erupciones volcánicas, exige que se investiguen detalladamente el tipo y la calidad del abastecimiento de agua después de una acumulación cuantiosa de ceniza. Es preciso examinar con mayor detenimiento los problemas respiratorios asociados con la ceniza para determinar el espectro de esas enfermedades y el momento en que se presentan en lactantes y otros subgrupos especiales de la población. Los datos acopiados por medio de la vigilancia pasiva sobre las condiciones de salud antes y después de una erupción pueden emplearse para detectar la morbilidad relacionada con la erupción. Los sistemas que ya están establecidos, como el sistema nacional de vigilancia epidemiológica de Nicaragua, se pueden modificar o ampliar para mejorar su sensibilidad a nuevos casos y, por ende, su capacidad de ofrecer servicios de notificación apropiados a los organismos de

  12. El límite sur de la necrópolis medieval judía del Cerro de la Horca (Toledo y el problema del contacto con otros cementerios

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    Ruiz Taboada, Arturo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological excavation of a plot on 25 General Villalba St. has allowed for the identification of what could have been part the southern end of the Medieval Jewish Cemetery of the Cerro de la Horca, an area characterized by the presence of three different rite cemeteries: the aforementioned Je-wish cemetery, a Muslim Taifa Period cemetery linked to the Madrid road, and a Christian cemetery associated to the San Eugenio hermitage. In addition, the lack of lucillos (brick half-barrelled vaults and the presence of side covacha (rock-cut and terraced tombs contributes to a more complete knowledge of both the burial typology known for this cemetery, and its evolution and development.La excavación de un solar localizado en el número 25 de la calle General Villalba ha permitido identificar lo que pudo configurar parte del límite sur del cementerio judío medieval del Cerro de la Horca, en una zona caracterizada por la convergencia de cementerios de diferentes religiones: el ya mencionado judío, un segundo musulmán de época Taifa asociado al camino de Madrid y un tercero cristiano, dependiente de la ermita de San Eugenio. Además, la ausencia de lucillos y la presencia de tumbas en covacha lateral y escalonadas vienen a completar tanto la tipología de enterramientos conocida para este cementerio como su evolución y desarrollo.

  13. Evolution of the geothermal system in Acoculco, Pue., Mexico: Study based on petrography of well EAC-2 and other information; Evolucion del sistema geotermico de Acoculco, Pue., Mexico: un estudio con base en estudios petrograficos del pozo EAC-2 y en otras consideraciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viggiano Guerra, Julio Cesar [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: cesar.viggiano@live.com; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Silva, German R. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    yacimientos tipo kaipohan. Dos pozos exploratorios se han perforado en la zona: en 1995 el EAC-1 a 1810 m de profundidad y en 2008 el EAC-2 a 1900 m de profundidad. En este reporte se discuten los resultados e interpretacion de los estudios petrograficos del segundo pero se emplea parte de la informacion del primero para la interpretacion de la evolucion del sistema hidrotermal. De manera sintetica se puede establecer que la zona geotermica de Acoculco se encuentra en su etapa hidrotermal senil dado que se ha verificado, de acuerdo con los estudios de mineralogia hidrotermal y con otras consideraciones, un cambio en el regimen de convectivo hacia convectivo forzado o conductivo. Sobresale el hecho de que el sistema no se ha reciclado, quiza porque las rocas no lo han permitido y, por lo tanto, esta feneciendo. Esto, naturalmente, no ha sido obice para la presencia de un importante volumen de masa caliente (300 grados centigrados) hornfelsica y granitica en el subsuelo que abre un espectro de posibilidades para la explotacion de un sistema geotermico mejorado (EGS, por sus siglas en ingles). Quedaria por investigar la factibilidad del proyecto en el tema de la vulnerabilidad de las rocas de yacimiento (hornfels y granito) para su mejora de permeabilidad por los medios convencionales experimentados en estos proyectos, ya que parece ser que la naturaleza fracaso en ese intento.

  14. Application of SPCALC for chemical and thermodynamic speciation of fluids -example for wells LV-4A, LV-11 and LV-13, Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS; Aplicacion del SPCALC en la especiacion quimica y termodinamica de fluidos: ejemplo del caso de los pozos LV-4A, LV-11 y LV-13, del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viggiano Guerra, J.C.; Sandoval Medina, F.; Flores Armenta, M.C. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.sandoval@cfe.gob.mx, E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx; Perez, R.J. [Universidad de Calgary (Canada); Gonzalez Partida, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Geociencias, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    + CO{sub 2}) if boiling occurs or is induced, for instance, by flashing. Reactions occurring during the process produce the rest of the observed minerals in rocks (illite+quartz{+-}epidote), although the balance diagrams do not truly represent the process due to the just-mentioned explanation. On the other hand the oversaturated phases, according to SPCALC, are mainly silica varieties (from quartz to chalcedony), a prediction that is confirmed by the silica scaling occurring at superficial installations. Calcite, on the contrary, is reported as unsaturated, an apparent contradiction with reality, which shows problematic calcite scaling produced during the well exploitation according to the same just-mentioned mechanism. It is therefore recommended to adjust the SPCALC calculations at the reservoir level to be able to prevent imminent calcite scaling. Chemical and multi-phase speciation by using SPCALC results are useful and practical, if results are interpreted carefully. [Spanish] El SPCALC es un excelente software recientemente adquirido por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) a traves de un contrato con la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) y la universidad de Calgary, Canada, mediante el cual se obtiene la especiacion quimica y multifasica de fluidos geotermicos. La metodologia consiste en el calculo de variables termodinamicas, tales como las actividades (a) y las fugacidades (f) de las especies quimicas, asi como los indices de saturacion (log Q/K) de las fases minerales del yacimiento, lo que implica que modela condiciones termodinamicas de yacimiento (pH entre otras cosas) contribuyendo asi a pronosticar incrustaciones y corrosion dado que tambien simula la tasa de corrosion de los fluidos. En este articulo se modelan fluidos que han percolado a traves de rocas granodioriticas cretacicas de los pozos LV-4A, LV-11 y LV-13 del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, haciendo uso del software mencionado a partir de sus analisis quimicos. Asi

  15. Estimation of production characteristic curves of geothermal wells and of the permeability of rocky formations through one single mass flow-pressure-enthalpy (W-P-h) measurement at the wellhead; Estimacion de curvas caracteristicas de produccion de pozos geotermicos y de permeabilidades de formaciones rocosas a partir de una sola medicion flujo masico-presion- entalpia (W-P-h) a boca de pozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Moya, Sara; Aragon, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The proposed methodology described ahead (Moya et al.,1996; Moya et al.,1997a, 1997b and 1997c) simplifies the construction of production characteristic curves of geothermal wells and of its associated thermal productivity, in requiring one single measurement of mass flow-pressure-enthalpy (W-P-h) at the wellhead. Therefore it is an ecological option, technically and economically more feasible. On the other hand, the methodology also allows to diagnose the rocky formation absolute permeability in the well feeding zone. This permeability is usually determined through well bottom pressure tests, than in some cases are difficult to interpret. The permeability inferred by means of the proposed technology represents a complementary tool for these field tests and for the laboratory measurements on drilling cores. [Espanol] La metodologia propuesta que se describe a continuacion [Moya et al., 1995d; Moya et al., 1996; Moya et al., 1997a, 1997b y 1997c] simplifica la construccion de curvas caracteristicas de produccion de pozos geotermicos y de su productividad termica asociada al requerir solo una medicion de flujo masico-presion-entalpia (W-P-h) a boca de pozo. Es por tanto una alternativa ecologica, tecnica y economicamente mas factible. Por otra parte, la metodologia tambien permite diagnosticar el valor de la permeabilidad absoluta de la formacion rocosa en la zona de alimentacion al pozo. Esta permeabilidad se determina usualmente a partir de pruebas de presion a fondo de pozo que en algunos casos son dificiles de interpretar. La permeabilidad inferida mediante la metodologia propuesta representa una herramienta complementaria a estas pruebas de campo y a las mediciones de laboratorio sobre nucleos de perforacion.

  16. An empirical calibration for 4He quantification in minerals and rocks by laser fusion and noble gas mass spectrometry using Cerro de Mercado (Durango, Mexico) fluorapatite as a standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, Jesus; Pi, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    An empirical calibration with a natural mineral standard (fluorapatite from Cerro de Mercado, Mexico) is proposed as a method to determine the 4 He concentration of mineral and rock samples. The procedure is based on the fusion of several aliquots of the fluorapatite standard with a well-spaced weight distribution in order to obtain a good correlation in coordinates of 4 He peak height versus fluorapatite weight. The weight is then converted to moles using the accepted mineral age (31.4 Ma) and appropriate formula. Experimental peak height of 4 He for the unknown samples are converted to moles with the regression determined for fluorapatite. The procedure is fast and inexpensive, and both precision and accuracy are always below 10% and usually about 3-5%

  17. The flow dynamics of an extremely large volume pyroclastic flow, the 2.08-Ma Cerro Galán Ignimbrite, NW Argentina, and comparison with other flow types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cas, Ray A.F.; Wright, Heather M.; Folkes, Christopher B.; Lesti, Chiara; Porreca, Massimiliano; Giordano, Guido; Viramonte, Jose G.

    2011-01-01

    The 2.08-Ma Cerro Galán Ignimbrite (CGI) represents a >630-km3 dense rock equivalent (VEI 8) eruption from the long-lived Cerro Galán magma system (∼6 Ma). It is a crystal-rich (35–60%), pumice (fabric, defined by aligned elongate pumice and lithic clasts, and minerals (e.g. biotite). A sub-horizontal anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility fabric is defined by minute magnetic minerals in all localities where it has been analysed. The CGI is poor in both vent-derived (‘accessory’) lithics and locally derived lithics from the ground surface (‘accidental’) lithics. Locally derived lithics are small (particle concentration and suppressed turbulence at the depositional boundary layer, despite being a low aspect ratio ignimbrite. Based on these features, we question whether high velocity and momentum are necessary to account for extensive flow mobility. It is proposed that the CGI was deposited by a pyroclastic flow system that developed a substantial, high particle concentration granular under-flow, which flowed with suppressed turbulence. High particle concentration and fine-ash content hindered gas loss and maintained flow mobility. In order to explain the contemporaneous maintenance of high particle concentration, high sedimentation rate at the depositional boundary layer and a high level of mobility, it is also proposed that the flow(s) was continuously supplied at a high mass feeding rate. It is also proposed that internal gas pressure within the flow, directed downwards onto the substrate over which the flow was passing, reduced the friction between the flow and the substrate and also enhanced its mobility. The pervasive sub-horizontal fabric of aligned pumice, lithic and even biotite crystals indicates a consistent horizontal shear force existed during transport and deposition in the basal granular flow, consistent with the existence of a laminar, shearing, granular flow regime during the final stages of transport and deposition.

  18. Geochemistry and isotopic characterization of rain in the zones of Los Azufres, Michoacan and Los Humeros, Puebla and its relation with geothermal fluids; Caracterizacion geoquimica e isotopica de lluvia en las zonas de Los Azufres, Michoacan y Los Humeros, Puebla y su relacion con fluidos geotermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Mahendra P; Santoyo, Socrates; Aragon, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Fernandez, Ma. Elena [Comision Federal de Electricidad Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Tovar, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Azufres (Mexico); Casimiro, Emigdio; Sandoval, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico); Johnson, Craig [USGS, Denver, Colorado, (United States); Gerardo-Abaya, Jane [IAEA, Viena (Austria)

    1999-12-01

    , whereas there is less then 10% sea spray sulfate at Los Azufres. The {delta}{sup 3}4S values of H{sub 2}S of geothermal fluid are very similar to those of rainwater. A compilation of {delta}{sup 3}4S values for different sources of sulfur emissions indicates that it is practically impossible to define the origin of sulfur in rainwater, but the combined results of chemical and isotopic monitoring suggest that the geothermal emissions have no contribution to rainwater acidity. [Spanish] Se presentan los resultados preliminares obtenidos del estudio de monitoreo quimico e isotopico de las precipitaciones pluviales en los campos geotermicos de Los Humeros, Los Azufres y sus zonas de referencia durante el periodo de lluvia 1995-1998. Se recolectaron las muestras de lluvia en siete de los sitios de Los Humeros y ocho de Los Azufres. Los valores de la alcalinidad resultaron positivos para casi todas las muestras de lluvia en Los Humeros, lo que indica que en esta zona no existe acidez. Algunos valores de alcalinidad en los sitios Vivero y Guadalajara de Los Azufres fueron negativos, aunque muy pequenos, por lo que se concluye que existe poca acidez en la lluvia en Los Azufres. En el caso de Los Humeros se encontro buena correlacion entre la alcalinidad y la concentracion de calcio, lo que sugiere que las muestras puedan estar afectadas probablemente por el polvo de la zona. La concentracion de aniones, Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4} y NO{sub 3} es baja en ambos campos y con una tendencia bien definida. La concentracion de NO{sub 3} y SO{sub 4} en las lluvias de Los Azufres disminuye con el avance de la temporada. En el caso de Los Humeros casi no existe NO{sub 3} y SO{sub 4} en las lluvias de Los Azufres disminuye con el avance de la temporada. En el caso de Los Humeros casi no existe NO{sub 3}. Como referencia cabe senalar que los valores de NO{sub 3} en las lluvias de la ciudad de Mexico son superiores a 10 ppm e indican una relacion con la contaminacion industrial. Esto sugiere que el

  19. Study with a steam tracer in a zone near well Az-64, in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mich.; Estudio con un trazador de vapor en la zona aledana al pozo Az-64, en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Quijano Leon, Jose Luis; Torres Rodriguez, Marco A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J.; Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sandoval Medina, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    and 539 m from the injector. The results showed the six monitored wells are recharged from injection in Az-64 and quantified the corresponding recoveries as steam. Because only a steam-phase tracer was used, we were unable to determine liquid-recovery amounts. The work also allowed us to characterize relations between the permeability in the studied zone and the known distribution of faults. Some relationships were suggested unconsidered before. [Spanish] En el estudio con trazadores precedente a este, efectuado en la zona Maritaro-La Cumbre del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., se comprobo que la inyeccion en el pozo Az-15 recarga a un grupo de pozos situados a una distancia maxima del inyector de algo menos de 2000 m. Y se comprobo que la inyeccion en dicho pozo o bien no recarga a pozos situados a mas de 2300 m hacia el este, en las inmediaciones de la falla Laguna Verde, o lo hace muy lentamente en un largo periodo. Como es importante recargar la zona mencionada en ultimo termino, se decidio entonces explorar la posibilidad de recargarla desde el pozo Az-64, localizado en dicha area. Para ello se diseno el presente estudio. Se designaron seis pozos productores para monitorear el arribo del trazador. Debido a que todos estos pozos producen vapor (aunque varios producen tambien liquido), y por consideraciones economicas, se decidio utilizar en este caso un trazador de vapor solamente. Se utilizo hexafluoruro de azufre (SF6), un trazador utilizado con exito previamente en este campo. El 24 de octubre de 2006 se inyectaron 96.4 kg de SF6 en el pozo Az-64. El monitoreo de los pozos se realizo durante 156 dias a partir de esa fecha. El trazador se detecto en los seis pozos productores monitoreados. En todos los casos las formas de las curvas de residencia manifestaron claramente la naturaleza fracturada de la permeabilidad involucrada. En todos los casos las curvas de recuperacion del trazador indicaron claramente que la llegada del mismo se habia completado

  20. Behavior patterns of chemical and isotopic species (2006-2007) in the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field, as a response to reinjection; Patrones de comportamiento de especies quimicas e isotopicas (2006-2007) en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., en respuesta a la reinyeccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Arellano G, Victor Manuel; Martinez E, Ignacio; Aragon A, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Reyes D, Lisette; Gonzalez, Rubi [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia de Los Azufres, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    quimicos e isotopicos ({delta}18 O y {delta}D) de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., obtenidos en 2006 y 2007, para investigar los cambios ocurridos en sus patrones de comportamiento y su relacion con el proceso de reinyeccion de fluidos al yacimiento. El analisis de los datos comprendio las estimaciones de cloruros en las descargas totales, temperaturas de yacimiento, exceso de vapor en los fluidos de alimentacion, las concentraciones de CO{sub 2} en las descargas totales y en la fase liquida del yacimiento y las saturaciones de liquido en la formacion. Con los resultados se elaboraron mapas de isovalores de los parametros mencionados correspondientes a 2006 y 2007 para investigar su evolucion con respecto a los mapas obtenidos en 2005, asi como su relacion con las historias de reinyeccion. Se correlacionaron las composiciones isotopicas de los fluidos incluyendo los de reinyeccion para estimar efectos de mezcla de fluidos. Los resultados indican que las variables estudiadas responden a las tasas de reinyeccion en el campo. Las relaciones {delta}D vs {delta}18 O indican que un buen numero de pozos del campo producen diferentes proporciones de retornos de reinyeccion; en la zona norte los pozos AZ-65D, AZ-13, AZ-32, AZ-9A, AZ-9AD, AZ-28A, AZ-69D y AZ-44 producen una mayor proporcion mientras que los pozos AZ-5, AZ-28 y AZ-19 entre otros, producen una menor proporcion. En la zona sur los pozos AZ-2A, AZ-16AD, AZ-46 y AZ-33 producen relativamente altas proporciones de retornos de reinyeccion mientras que los pozos AZ-34, AZ-36 y AZ-37 producen menores proporciones. La distribucion de saturaciones de liquido hallada en 2007 muestra que las areas de maxima saturacion han disminuido con respecto a las distribuciones de este parametro en 2005 y 2006. En 2007 las saturaciones maximas de liquido se localizaron alrededor de los pozos AZ-22 y AZ-23 (zona sur) y AZ-28, AZ-32, AZ-45 y AZ-48 (zona norte), mientras que las saturaciones minimas se localizaron en

  1. Study of the mining possibilities in the surroundings of Mahoma - Guaycuru phase I Feasibility of the mafic body of Mahoma-Guaycuru and of the complex mafic - Stratified ultramafic of the Cerros Negros and San Jose and Colonia provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronel, N.; Techera, J.; Ramos, E.; Pineyro, G.

    1990-01-01

    In Mahoma - Guaycuru area has been carried out regional cartography to place the geologic context, mainly the Mahoma bodies magmatic intrusive s, Guaycuru and Cerros Negros. The area has good mining possibilities due to their geologic environment. They exist also geochemical anomalies in the area that they should be taken as base for future works in the same one. In this environment studies were begun with the bodies magmatic mafic and ultramafic, due to its feasibility in Platino ides, Chromium, Nickel, Cobalt . It intent to adjust in a following stage (it Leaves II) a work methodology in an occurrence of minerals metallic. for future works,la occurrence of metallic minerals it lacks elements of economic interest in concentrations high, just as it demonstrates it the geochemical of rocks carried out, and the lack of anomalies in the geochemical of active silts and of floors. As element of interest single Gold appears in samples alluvial deposits but their source would not be the mafic rocks. Other occurrence of metallic minerals appears

  2. Aproximación a La Caracterización Ecológica de La Quebrada Fucha en La Reserva Forestal de los Cerros Orientales en La Localidad de San Cristóbal. (Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Restrepo Villamil (Página 96-113

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la práctica de campo realizada el día 10 de octubre de 2008, en la quebrada Fucha en una reserva forestal protegida por la Empresa de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogotá en los cerros orientales de la localidad de San Cristóbal. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue realizar una aproximación a la caracterización de este sistema acuático, para lo cual, se colectaron insectos acuáticos (entomofauna y perifiton, se caracterizaron los suelos de la ribera y se realizaron análisis de las variables fisicoquímicas de la zona. Los insectos acuáticos que se encontraron sumaron un total de 188 individuos, en donde las familias más abundantes fueron Simuliidae y Ceratopogonidae con 60 individuos cada una (32% c/u y las de menor abundancia fueron Odontoceridae, Lepharoceridae y Pyralidae con 1 individuo c/u (0.53% c/u; por otra parte, se encontraron 14 géneros de perifiton. El sistema presenta una diversidad media de acuerdo al índice de Shannon (1.55. La principal fuente de energía del sistema es la materia orgánica disuelta, por lo que la vía que predomina es la detrítica.

  3. Simulator of a geotermoelectric unit for the training of operators; Simulador de una unidad geotermoelectrica para entrenamiento de operadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavira Mondragon, Jose Antonio; Lopez Aguilera, Diana Monica; Roldan Villasana, Edgardo Javier; Rodriguez Lozano, Saul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The use of simulators replica in real time for operators training has demonstrated to be one of the best forms to enable the personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). This article shows the basic characteristics of a simulator replica of the Cerro Prieto geotermoelectric power station of Baja California. It is expected that with this simulator 400 people between operators, shift superintendents and operation and maintenance auxiliary personnel become qualified. [Spanish] El uso de simuladores replica en tiempo real para entrenamiento de operadores de centrales generadoras ha demostrado ser una de las mejores formas de capacitar al personal de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Este articulo muestra las caracteristicas principales de un simulador replica de la central geotermoelectrica de Cerro Prieto Baja California. Se espera que con este simulador se capaciten 400 personas entre operadores, superintendentes de turno y auxiliares de operacion y mantenimiento.

  4. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  5. Seismicity and arrival-time residuals from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, V.; Frez, J.

    1981-01-01

    Hypocenter distribution in space and time of the aftershock activity from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980 was studied. It was concluded that the main event excited aftershocks in several pre-existing nests at the northwest end of the Cerro Prieto Fault, but no significant activity occurred at the immediate neighborhood of the main event. The depth of the aftershocks increases with the distance from the northwest end of the fault and this feature might be related with the higher temperatures and the spreading center located between the ends of the Imperial and Cerro Prieto Faults. The significance of the arrival-times residuals for local and regional stations is discussed both for P and S-waves and the importance of obtaining station corrections is emphasized. The non-uniqueness in determining a structure which minimizes the residuals is illustrated. Two different structures which satisfy the local data are presented.

  6. Detección de Rickettsia spp. en ectoparásitos de animales domésticos y silvestres de la Reserva Natural Privada Cerro Chucantí y comunidades aledañas, Panamá, 2007-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Bermúdez; Roberto Miranda; Yamitzel Zaldívar; Publio González; Guido Berguido; Diomedes Trejos; Juan M. Pascale; Marcelo Labruna

    2012-01-01

    Introducción. Los ectoparásitos son los principales vectores de rickettsiosis. En Panamá se tienen escasos datos sobre los artrópodos que pudieran considerarse vectores o reservorios. Objetivos. Presentar datos sobre la presencia de Rickettsia spp. en ectoparásitos de fauna silvestre y animales domésticos en la Reserva Natural Privada Cerro Chucantí y poblados vecinos. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron 9 personas, 95 mamíferos domésticos y 48 silvestres. Los animales domésticos se ex...

  7. Subsidence monitoring with geotechnical instruments in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    E. Glowacka; O. Sarychikhina; V. H. Márquez Ramírez; B. Robles; F. A. Nava; F. Farfán; M. A. García Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The Mexicali Valley (northwestern Mexico), situated in the southern part of the San Andreas fault system, is an area with high tectonic deformation, recent volcanism, and active seismicity. Since 1973, fluid extraction, from the 1500–3000 m depth range, at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), has influenced deformation in the Mexicali Valley area, accelerating the subsidence and causing slip along the traces of tectonic faults that limit the subsidence area. Detailed fi...

  8. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Power and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-22

    Matsukawa, Japan Vapor Dominated 20’ MWe - Cerro Prieto . Mexico Liquid Dominated 150 MWe 400 MWe by 1985 Direct Flash Wairakei, New Zealand Liquid...11/83 Valmy Coal 125 1/ 10/84 Industrial Cogen. Cogeneration 140 6/85 Oil Field Cogen. Cogeneration 280 7/85 Geysers 20 Geothermal 110 9/85 Harry Allen...block number) MX Electric Power Crude Oil New Mexico Siting Analysis Fuel Oil Nevada Environmental Report Gasoline Utah Natural Gas Texas ABSTRACT

  9. Geotechnical Applications of the Self-Potential Method. Report 3. Development of Self-Potential Interpretation Techniques for Seepage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    D. V., and Corwin, R. F. 1982. Inversion of Self-Potential Data from the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field , Mexico : Geophysics, Vol 47, No. 6, pp 938...type curves, and shows a field example for which quantitative tech- niques were used to interpret SP data for a geothermal area in terms of heat and...bibliography E Electrode studies DS Dam seepage investigation F In- field seepage investigation G Geothermal investigation L Laboratory measurement of streaming

  10. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. Geotechnical Applications of the Self Potential (SP) Method. Report 4. Numerical Modeling of SP Anomalies: Documentation of Program SPPC and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Vicksburg, MS Fitterman, D. V., and Corwin, R. F. 1982. "Inversion of Self Potential Data from the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field , Mexico ," Geophysics, Vol...reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Geophysics Subsurface fluid flow Seepage Self potential )9 ABSTRACT (Continue...homogeneous halfspace. A field example is also shown where SP data collected near a leaky dam site is used to locate the zone of leakage. The

  11. News Letter: European Geophysical Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    GLOWACKA, E.; ARELLANO, F. Land subsidence measurements at Cerro Prieto geothermal field (Baja California, Mexico ) using SAR interferometry 126...topics’ of ionospheric research, written by specialists in their respective fields . Useful as a textbook for students as well as for research...Geophysics thus have available mature, thoughtful reviews of recent developments in their own field , and they may be confident of keeping abreast in

  12. Parabolic troughs to increase the geothermal wells flow enthalpy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Alvaro; Almanza, Rafael [Engineering Institute, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Building 12, Cuidad Universitaria, Mexico D.F., A.P. 70-472, C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This work investigates the feasibility of using parabolic trough solar field to increase the enthalpy from geothermal wells' flow in order to increase the steam tons; in addition, it is possible to prevent silica deposition in the geothermal process. The high levels of irradiance in Northwestern Mexico make it possible to integrate a solar-geothermal hybrid system that uses two energy resources to provide steam for the geothermal cycle, like the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. The plant consists of a geothermal well, a parabolic trough solar field in series, flash separator, steam turbine and condenser. Well '408' of Cerro Prieto IV has enthalpy of 1566kJ/kg and its quality must be increased by 10 points, which requires a {delta}h of 194.4kJ/kg. Under these considerations the parabolic troughs area required will be 9250m{sup 2}, with a flow of 92.4tons per hour (25.67kg/s). The solar field orientation is a N-S parabolic trough concentrator. The silica content in the Cerro Prieto geothermal brine causes problems for scaling at the power facility, so scale controls must be considered. (author)

  13. DESESTABILIZACIÓN DE LADERAS Y PELIGRO DE PROCESOS DE REMOCIÓN EN MASA. CASO DE ESTUDIO: FALDEOS DEL CERRO CURRUHUINCA. SAN MARTÍN DE LOS ANDES. NEUQUÉN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla S. Urra Matus

    2012-12-01

    process of urbanization has characterized as very dynamic and spontaneous, being built, thus, a disorderly and dismantled social and spatial city. San Martín de los Andes is not outside of that process from the beginning of the 1980s has experienced a great population growth, due to the arrival of immigrants to the area, which were occupying areas unsuitable for settlement. The slopes of the mountain, in this case those of Cerro Curruhuinca, do not constitute a physical constraint. It is necessary to deepen studies of risk on the slopes of the mountains, build public works and increase environmental monitoring, in such a way of mitigating the damage that may occur to removal processes in mass.

  14. Función pulmonar en niños sanos de 7 y 8 años de las comunas de Cerro Navia y Los Andes expuestos a diferentes niveles de contaminación por MP10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cebulj Navarrete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar si difieren los valores espirométricos evaluados en niños sanos de 7- 8 años provenientes de comunas con niveles históricos de alta versus baja contaminación atmosférica en Chile. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, no experimental, exploratorio y transversal y ex post facto causa y efecto. Se realizaron en total 261 encuestas de salud respiratoria y calificaron, según criterios de inclusión, 110 niños sanos de 7 y 8 años (55 niños en cada comuna. Se realizaron exámenes espirométricos: Con espirómetro de turbina SPIROBANK G, considerando variables VEF1, FEF25-75, PEF y CVF. La obesidad, actividad física, contaminación intramuros por calefacción y exposición a humo de tabaco también fueron descritas. Resultados: Las variables espirométricas analizadas VEF1 y FEF25-75 mostraron diferencias significativas (p<0.05 y PEF mostró diferencias altamente significativas (p <0.005 según localidad, es decir, que la media de estas variables en Los Andes, comuna agroindustrial con baja contaminación atmosférica, es mayor que la de Cerro Navia, comuna con altos niveles de contaminación del aire. En la variable PEF se encontró, además, significancia entre género. La CVF no presentó diferencia entre comunas. Conclusiones: Los niños sanos de 7 y 8 años que habitan en comunas donde la exposición a contaminación atmosférica es alta presentan una menor función pulmonar comparada con los niños sanos, de similares características, que habitan en comunas con bajos niveles de contaminación atmosférica. Existen otros factores que podrían influir en el detrimento de la función pulmonar y que en este estudio fueron descritos como factores confundentes.

  15. Detailed chronology of a giant Pleistocene rock-avalanche sequence in the hyperarid southern Peru revealed by jointly applied 10Be and 3He cosmic ray exposure dating : The Study case of the Cerro Caquilluco landslide complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Zerathe; Laurence, Audin; Carlos, Benavente; Régis, Braucher; Pierre-Henri, Blard; Didier, Bourlès; Julien, Carcaillet; Fabrizio, Delgado; Pascal, Lacroix; Valderrama Patricio, Murillo; Aster Team

    2015-04-01

    Giant landslides are recognized to be remarkably abundant on the Western Andean front of southern Peru and northern Chile, especially in the Arica Bend region (e.g. Crosta et al., 2014a). This area is characterized by strong topographic gradients and subsequent incision of deep canyons, due to the evolution of the Andean range that provide suitable conditions for the development of such instabilities. The climate is hyper-arid (Atacama Desert), although rare but highly impulsive wet events have been evidenced since the Pleistocene. In parallel, this region is submitted to strong (Mw 8-9) and recurrent (~100 yrs) subduction earthquakes. Previous studies suggest that large landslides represent the main agent of erosion of the Western Cordillera, providing soft material for subsequent fluvial remobilization. However the lack of time constrains on the numerous fossil landslides identified away from major canyons still hamper to assess a real mass balance of sliding material versus the known fluvial erosion and tectonic uplift rates. Finally the role of landslides in the long-term erosion rates of the Andean range on its arid flank remains quantitatively unknown. Recently, two studies gave divergent opinions about the main factor supposed to control the slope failures in that region. Based on cosmogenic nuclides derived erosion rates, McPhillips et al. (2014) argue that the last Holocene climate variation did not have had any effect on the rate of landsliding, suggesting that here landslides are mainly triggered by earthquake. On the other hand, Margirier et al. (2014) have showed a temporal correlation between a failure episode of the giant Chuquibamba landslide and the Ouki wet climatic event identified on the Altiplano ~100 ka ago. In this study we focus on dating the Cerro Caquilluco rock avalanche complex described by Crosta et al. (2014). With a total volume of about 15 km3, a length of 43 km and an internal structure characterized by various depositional lobes

  16. TERRAIN, CERRO GORDO COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. Uranium project in Cerro Largo south orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradier, B.

    1982-01-01

    This study of orientation was realized with the purpose of recognizing the extension of the anomalies from a known source , and of being able to determine the choice of the places and the quality of the material to sampling to obtain an ideal response. We have chosen the introduction of this study in a place that offers a source in power of Uranium located accurately and that presents a sequence pedology that group the main types of soils

  18. PROJETO BRA/13/008 Consolidação da Cooperação Técnica Sul- Sul Brasileira RESGATE E VALORIZAÇÃO DO PATRIMÔNIO CULTURAL FRONTEIRIÇO Inventário do patrimônio Cultural de Cerro Largo- Uruguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prefeitura Municipal de Bagé Bagé, RS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O Projeto“Resgate e Valorização do Patrimônio Cultural Fronteiriço” foi elaborado em conjunto pela Intendência de Cerro Largo, Uruguai, e o Município de Bagé, RS, Brasil. O Município de Bagé, então, apresentou-se ao chamado realizado pelo Programa de Projetos de Cooperação Técnica Descentralizada Sul-Sul, da Subchefia de Assuntos Federativos da Presidência da República(SAF/PR e a Agência Brasileira de Cooperação (ABC/MRE.                Em Abril de 2015, vencendo processo licitatório, a empresa Parnaso Arquitetura, inicia o trabalho, divido em cinco produtos:Levantamento do Patrimônio Cultural do Departamento de CerroLargo;Plano Departamental de preservação;Elaboração de Manual de Manutenção de Edifícios Patrimoniais;Normativa resultante do inventário;ElaboraçãodeAnteprojetoparaarestauraçãodeumaconstruçãodevalorpatrimonial.            A equipe de trabalho está composta por profissionais brasileiros e uruguaios.                O primeiro produto, que está concluído, é o tema de nossa apresentação.                Foram visitados todos os locais identificados pela Intendência de Cerro largo como de interesse a preservação e os bens declarados Monumentos Históricos Nacionais Uruguaios através da Lei 14.040 de 20/10/1971, Estes locais compreendem obras arquitetônicas, de engenharia, monumentos, lugares históricos e paisagens, tanto urbanos como rurais. Foram ainda acrescidos, pela equipe de consultoria, exemplares destas categorias, além da identificação de acervos documentais e museológicos, bibliotecas e locais com potencial arqueológico e paleontológico, além do patrimônio imaterial.

  19. Paracas geoglyphs of the peruvian south coast: Cerro Lechuza and Cerro Pico

    OpenAIRE

    García Soto, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, the manufacture of large found drawings on desert plains and hill slopes of the Peruvian south coast was at-tributed to the Nasca society. However, since the 1980s, it is known that this cultural manifestation is a tradition that wouldhave begun towards the 750 BC during the early part of the development of the Paracas culture. Paracas geoglyphs have beenreported from Pisco to the Rio Grande Basin of Nasca, particularly in the area of Palpa where the where they have identifiedm...

  20. Detección de Rickettsia spp. en ectoparásitos de animales domésticos y silvestres de la Reserva Natural Privada Cerro Chucantí y comunidades aledañas, Panamá, 2007-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bermúdez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los ectoparásitos son los principales vectores de rickettsiosis. En Panamá se tienen escasos datos sobre los artrópodos que pudieran considerarse vectores o reservorios. Objetivos. Presentar datos sobre la presencia de Rickettsia spp. en ectoparásitos de fauna silvestre y animales domésticos en la Reserva Natural Privada Cerro Chucantí y poblados vecinos. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron 9 personas, 95 mamíferos domésticos y 48 silvestres. Los animales domésticos se examinaron con anuencia del propietario, mientras que la fauna silvestre se capturó con trampas Sherman y Tomahawk. Se extrajeron 21 especies de ectoparásitos: pulgas, piojos, garrapatas y otros ácaros, los cuales se preservaron en etanol al 95 %. Se extrajo material genético de garrapatas y pulgas para ser analizado por técnicas moleculares en la detección de Rickettsia spp. Resultados. Se practicaron 425 reacciones de PCR, de las cuales, 270 resultaron negativas y 155 positivas. De las positivas, 86 amplificaron para el gen gltA (55 % de las positivas; de estos también amplificaron 41 (26 % para ompA. Se encontró material genético de Rickettsia amblyommii, en garrapatas de caballos (Amblyomma cajennense, Dermacentor nitens, de perros (Rhipicephalus sanguineus y ninfas de Amblyomma recolectadas en el bosque. Además, se detectó ADN de R. felis en pulgas Ctenocephalides felis de perros. Conclusiones. Se pudo detectar la presencia de R. amblyommii y R. felis en garrapatas y pulgas de animales domésticos de los poblados cercanos a Cerro Chucantí, aun cuando no se pudo encontrar material genético de Rickettsia en ectoparásitos de la fauna silvestre.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i2.390

  1. CURRENT STATE OF CONSERVATION, FIRST PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD AND POPULATION ESTIMATION OF THE COASTAL JAGUAR (Panthera onca centralis AND RECORDS OF COMPANION FAUNA OF MEDIUM-SIZED AND HIGHER MAMMALS IN THE PROTECTED FOREST CERRO BLANCO OF THE CHONGÓN COLONCHE MOUNTAIN RANGE, GUAYAQUIL – ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saavedra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chongón-Colonche Mountain Range is important for their goods and environmental services, its high biodiversity, and being one of the few coastal regions of Ecuador, which still houses the coastal Jaguar Panthera onca centralis. In the Forest Protector Cerro Blanco (BPCB, last Southeast extension of the mountain chain, it was developed the field research through the data collection with direct and indirect medium-sized and higher mammals’ records. Besides a Cuddeback Digital camera trap was used, by selecting a sampling point within a probable route of the jaguar. Inspections in a nearby quarry were made to observe traces of major feline registries. The same consolidated past sightings or evidence of witnesses which complemented the study for the determination of the status of the species in the BPCB. The study showed indirect and direct records of white-tailed deer, peccaries, raccoons, agoutis, wild rabbits, howler monkeys, Capuchin white or monkeys, agouti, bears Anteaters and Jaguars from the coast for which it is considered that the BPCB is probably a meeting place between two individuals; however, it is important to note that the results presented are preliminary.

  2. Un corredor verde entre cerros desde 1934, y las posibilidades actuales desde un ejercicio académico de pregrado en Recoleta./ A green corridor between the hills since 1934, and its current possibilities, explored through an undergraduate academic exercise in Recoleta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pavez Reyes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de una investigación FAU –U. Chile, “El antiguo sector de La Chimba: en defensa de sus vestigios patrimoniales, una vida comunitaria de escala barrial y un futuro ambiente sustentable” , y la reconsideración de una proposición de Karl Brunner en Recoleta, un grupo de estudiantes exploran un polígono del pericentro norte de Santiago, presentando las posibilidades y limitaciones actuales para lograr una cierta continuidad verde entre los cerros San Cristóbal y Blanco en la perspectiva de una renovación con mayor sustentabilidad urbana./ This article is part of the research project entitled “The old area of La Chimba: in defense of its heritage traces, a neighborhood scale community life and a sustainable environment for the future” (funded through the Universidad de Chile’s Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism research fund. A group of undergraduate architecture students revisit a proposition made by Karl Brunner for Recoleta, exploring the possibilities and limitations to achieve a continuity of green spaces between the San Cristobal and Blanco hills, from an urban sustainability perspective.

  3. Projeto BRA/13/008 Consolidação da Cooperação Técnica Sul- Sul Brasileira Resgate e Valorização do Patrimônio Cultural Fronteiriço Inventário do Patrimônio Cultural de Cerro Largo- Uruguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prefeitura Municipal de Bagé Bagé, RS

    2015-12-01

    • ElaboraçãodeAnteprojetoparaarestauraçãodeumaconstruçãodevalorpatrimonial.             A equipe de trabalho está composta por profissionais brasileiros e uruguaios.                 O primeiro produto, que está concluído, é o tema de nossa apresentação.                 Foram visitados todos os locais identificados pela Intendência de Cerro largo como de interesse a preservação e os bens declarados Monumentos Históricos Nacionais Uruguaios através da Lei 14.040 de 20/10/1971, Estes locais compreendem obras arquitetônicas, de engenharia, monumentos, lugares históricos e paisagens, tanto urbanos como rurais. Foram ainda acrescidos, pela equipe de consultoria, exemplares destas categorias, além da identificação de acervos documentais e museológicos, bibliotecas e locais com potencial arqueológico e paleontológico, além do patrimônio imaterial.

  4. Groundwater impact on geothermal systems; Impacto del agua subterranea en los sistemas geotermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenbach, R.; Wagner, I. M.

    2009-07-01

    Thermal behavior of geothermal systems is influenced by the presence and the velocity of the groundwater. The impact has to be accounted for during the dimensioning as well as during the construction. it is shown that the impact on the interference with neigh bored installation has to be controlled, especially in case of groundwater flow. (Author) 9 refs.

  5. Invasion of geothermal fluids into hydrocarbon reservoirs; La invasion de fluidos geotermicos en yacimientos de hidrocarburos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Arriaga, Mario Cesar [Universidad Michoacana, Facultad de Ciencias, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: msuarez@umich.mx

    2009-01-15

    Oil reservoirs beneath the coast of the Gulf of Mexico contain geothermal brine at 150 degrees Celsius and produce a mixture of hot brine and oil. Water from an aquifer 6000 m deep flows vertically through conductive faults. These nonisothermal conditions affect the effective saturations and the relative permeability of the immiscible phases. Dynamic viscosities of oil and water diminish, affecting the displacement of both fluids. Studied wells produce from the oil-saturated zone above the aquifer, yet the total volume of produced water can equal or exceed the volume of oil. The presence of water is a severe problem. We produced an original numerical model able to predict the critical production when the wells start to be invaded by geothermal brine. The model has a single equation in partial derivatives, of a parabolic and nonlineal type, which is a function of water saturation, three-dimension space and time. A gas phase can be included in the model. This equation is a generalization of the classic isothermal result of Buckley-Leverett, in a single dimension. The model is solved numerically by using the Finite Element method on a nonstructured network. The historic effect of water invasion observed in some critical cases is reproduced. After production with both phases stable, a sudden brine invasion can occur with a sharp reduction of the oil volume produced. The immediate objective is to optimize the production so the well will be able to produce a stable water-oil mix where oil always prevails. [Spanish] Se reportan reservorios de aceite situados en la costa del Golfo de Mexico que son invadidos por salmuera geotermica con una temperatura de 150 grados centigrados, produciendo una mezcla variable de agua caliente y aceite. El agua de un acuifero, a 6000 metros de profundidad, fluye verticalmente por fallas conductivas. Estas condiciones no isotermicas afectan las saturaciones efectivas y las permeabilidades relativas de las fases inmiscibles. Las viscosidades dinamicas del agua y del aceite disminuyen, afectando el desplazamiento de ambos fluidos. Los pozos estudiados producen en la zona saturada de aceite, arriba del acuifero, pero el volumen total de agua producida puede igualar o exceder al del petroleo. La presencia de esta agua deviene entonces un serio problema practico. Hemos creado un modelo numerico original, capaz de predecir el gasto critico para el cual los pozos empiezan a ser invadidos por salmuera geotermica. El modelo esta constituido por una sola ecuacion en derivadas parciales, parabolica no lineal, funcion de la saturacion del agua, del espacio tridimensional y del tiempo, y puede incluirse tambien una fase gaseosa. Con ella se establece una generalizacion del resultado clasico isotermico de Buckley-Leverett en una dimension. El modelo se resuelve numericamente empleando el metodo de Elementos Finitos sobre una malla no estructurada. Se reproduce el efecto historico de la invasion de agua observado en algunos casos criticos. Luego de cierto tiempo de extraccion con ambas fases estables, puede ocurrir una invasion subita de salmuera con disminucion abrupta del volumen de aceite producido. El objetivo inmediato es optimizar el gasto para que el pozo produzca una mezcla estable agua-aceite donde el aceite predomine siempre.

  6. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Federal Assistance Program, Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    The report summarizes activities of the Geo-Heat Center (GHC) at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1995. It describes contacts with parties during this period related to assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research is also being conducted on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low-temperature geothermal resource assessment, use of silica waste from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field as construction materials and geothermal heat pumps. Outreach activities include the publication of a quarterly Bulletin on direct heat applications and dissemination of information on low-temperature geothermal resources and utilization.

  7. Caracterización petrográfica y geoquímica del batolito Cerro Aspero-Alpa Corral (32°34'-32°42' LS y 64°43'-64°52' LO, provincia de Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porta, G.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cerro Aspero-Alpa Corral (CA-AC batholith is a 440 km2 granite body present in the Southern edge of the Eastern Pampean Ranges, Córdoba province, central Argentina. The intrusive body of probably paleozoic age shows both post-tectonic and epizonal character. Country rocks include Upper Precambrian-Lower Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks mainly represented by mica-schists, gneisses and migmatites, locally interrupted by minor amphibolite and marble outcrops.This paper deals with representative petrographic and geochemical data that characterize a 150 km2 central stripe between 32°34'-32°42'S and 64°43'-64°52'W.Three granitic facies have been distinguished based on their distinctive modal mineralogy and texture, and upon well known chemical parameters.A K-feldspar megacryst porphydic-type is the areally prevalent facies, but dykes of micro- leucogranites and biotite-phenocryst bearing granite are also well represented. They are all monzogranites of subalkaline and peraluminous chemistry. Their mineralogy shows variable proportions of QAP constituents and micas, with minor phases represented by Fe-Ti oxides, apatite (Ap, titanite (Tt, allanite (Aln.Microgranular enclaves, abundantly distributed in the porphydic facies, provide valuable information for a better understanding of parental magma evolution.The high-Ca content of the melt makes this body quite distinctive compared to its larger northern neighbour, the Achala batholith.Pegmatite and aplite bodies, as well as fluorite bearing breccias and quartz veins, barren or mineralized, are also present within the CA-AC batholith.El batolito Cerro Aspero-Alpa Corral (CA-AC es un cuerpo granítico que aflora en el extremo sur de las Sierras Pampeanas Orientales, en la provincia de Córdoba, República Argentina, cubriendo una superficie cercana a los 440 km2.Es un cuerpo intrusivo postcinemático de probable edad paleozoica. Las rocas encajantes son metamorfitas correspondientes al Prec

  8. Spatio-temporal evolution of aseismic ground deformation in the Mexicali Valley (Baja California, Mexico from 1993 to 2010, using differential SAR interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sarychikhina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ground deformation in Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico, the southern part of the Mexicali-Imperial valley, is influenced by active tectonics and human activity, mainly that of geothermal fluid extraction in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. Significant ground deformation, mainly subsidence (~ 18 cm yr−1, and related ground fissures cause severe damage to local infrastructure. The technique of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR has been demonstrated to be a very effective remote sensing tool for accurately measuring the spatial and temporal evolution of ground displacements over broad areas. In present study ERS-1/2 SAR and ENVISAT ASAR images acquired between 1993 and 2010 were used to perform a historical analysis of aseismic ground deformation in Mexicali Valley, in an attempt to evaluate its spatio-temporal evolution and improve the understanding of its dynamic. For this purpose, the conventional 2-pass DInSAR was used to generate interferograms which were used in stacking procedure to produce maps of annual aseismic ground deformation rates for different periods. Differential interferograms that included strong co-seismic deformation signals were not included in the stacking and analysis. The changes in the ground deformation pattern and rate were identified. The main changes occur between 2000 and 2005 and include increasing deformation rate in the recharge zone and decreasing deformation rate in the western part of the CPGF production zone. We suggested that these changes are mainly caused by production development in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field.

  9. Simulation and resistivity modeling of a geothermal reservoir with waters of different salinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Wilt, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Goldstein, N.E.

    1982-10-01

    Apparent resistivities measured by means of repetitive dipole-dipole surveys show significant changes within the Cerro Prieto reservoir. The changes are attributed to production and natural recharge. To better understand the observed geophysical phenomena a simple reservoir simulation study combined with the appropriate DC resistivity calculations to determine the expected magnitude of apparent resistivity change. We consider production from a liquid-dominated reservoir with dimensions and parameters of the Cerro Prieto A reservoir and assume lateral and vertical recharge of colder and less saline waters. Based on rather schematic one- and two-dimensional reservoir simulations, we calculate changes in formation resistivity which we then transform into changes in apparent resistivity that would be observed at the surface. Simulated changes in apparent resistivities over the production zone show increases of 10 to 20% over a 3 year period at the current rate of fluid extraction. Changes of this magnitude are not only within our ability to discern using proper field techniques, but are consistent in magnitude with some of the observed effects. However, the patterns of apparent resistivity changes in the simulated dipole-dipole pseudosection only partially resemble the observed field data. This is explained by the fact that the actual fluid recharge into the A reservoir is more complicated than assumed in our simple, schematic recharge models.

  10. Chilean Astronomers and the Birth of Cerro Tololo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, H.

    1990-11-01

    P# JMEN. Hace treinta afios que se tnict6 en Chile la de n luga adecuado pata establecer observatoro astron6ini- Co, que a en wi ieflector de 1 in de diam'etrr . importante destacar el papel que le corres-pondi6 al Obseiwatorio Nacional de Ia Universidad de `Chile -- re'.-. tarde Departamento de de la inisma Univer- sidad .- en 1 de este proycoto. Los resultados han ido mucho mct5 impoftaftes lo esperado . de tal nodo q. el prc -ama destinado a instalar ui telescopio de tama- f ha I levado al establ ecimiento de iri centro de acti- cientfica de relieve inten-acional. ALb(TRA . Thifty years ago the search for a site adequate for the est 1ishment of an astronomical was fn (Thile. Initially it was planned that the main telescope would be a 1 in i-cf lector. It is importaft to the role played by th O Astm-'n6mioo Nacional de la Unfversidad de Cbf Ic - later 0: Depaftamento de of the same University - in the development of this project. The results have been much more important than was e:-:pected initially: in thiS way the prr gram for a telescope of moderate size was transfo -med in a major project wh i ch 1 cad to the estab 1 ). shinent of an i nt i ona 1 center of scieftific research. AQ/ W : OBSERVATORIES

  11. Petrological imaging of an active pluton beneath Cerro Uturuncu, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Duncan D.; Blundy, Jon D.; Hutchinson, Michael C.; Rust, Alison C.

    2014-03-01

    Uturuncu is a dormant volcano in the Altiplano of SW Bolivia. A present day ~70 km diameter interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) anomaly roughly centred on Uturuncu's edifice is believed to be a result of magma intrusion into an active crustal pluton. Past activity at the volcano, spanning 0.89 to 0.27 Ma, is exclusively effusive and almost all lavas and domes are dacitic with phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, biotite, ilmenite and Ti-magnetite plus or minus quartz, and microlites of plagioclase and orthopyroxene set in rhyolitic groundmass glass. Plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions (MI) are rhyolitic with major element compositions that are similar to groundmass glasses. H2O concentrations plotted versus incompatible elements for individual samples describe a trend typical of near-isobaric, volatile-saturated crystallisation. At 870 °C, the average magma temperature calculated from Fe-Ti oxides, the average H2O of 3.2 ± 0.7 wt% and CO2 typically 0.5 Ma compared to those intrusion of more mafic magmas into the evolving, shallow plutonic mush also occurred further amplifying local temperature fluctuations. Crystallisation and resorption of accessory phases, particularly ilmenite and apatite, can be detected in MI and groundmass glass trace element covariation trends, which are oblique to WRs. Marked variability of Ba, Sr and La in MI can be attributed to temperature-controlled, localised crystallisation of plagioclase, orthopyroxene and biotite within the evolving mush.

  12. MOSE: a feasibility study for the prediction of the optical turbulence and meteorological parameters at Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciadri, Elena; Lascaux, Franck; Fini, Luca

    2013-12-01

    The optical turbulence (OT) forecast is definitely mandatory for ground-based astronomy supported by AO to schedule scientific programs, instrumentation and instrumentation mode (ex: narrow or wide field) to retrieve effective outputs from the AO potentialities and optimize the telescope management and scientific feedbacks.A status report of the on-going MOSE project aiming at assess the feasibility of the prediction of the (1) OT and (2) all the classical atmospheric parameters from which the OT depends on at the two major ESO sites for ground-based astronomy in the visible and infrared regimes is presented. The study employed a wide variety of measurements obtained with different instruments running simultaneously to constrain and validate the model. Results obtained so far are very promising showing that the hydrodynamic technique is already mature for an operational implementation in present and forthcoming observatories. In this contribution we will present a summary of the most important achieved results and forthcoming plans to overcome the observed limitations. The analysis of procedures required to quantify the models score of success for the OT revealed us that an improved strategy for automatic systematic monitoring of turbulence is necessary in modern Observatories.

  13. Assessing the environmental impact of geothermal residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, G.L.; Kirk, D.W.; Graydon, J.W.; Seyfried, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    Scale, sludge and drilling mud from three geothermal fields (Bulalo, Philippines; Cerro Prieto, Mexico; and Dixie Valley, USA) containing As, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb at levels above the earth's crustal abundance were studied for their environmental impact. Several techniques and procedures were used to assess the risk posed by the residues: whole rock analysis, X- ray diffraction, radioactivity counting, protocol leach tests, toxicity testing, accelerated weathering test and a preliminary acid mine dramage potential test. There was no evidence of toxicity or genotoxicity present in any of the samples tested. Leaching tests indicated that all of the wastes could be classified as non-hazardous. One sample showed a low-level radio activity but it was still within the occupational dose limit. Three samples tested positive for acidification potential while none of the regulated elements were found in the leachate after three months of weathering test

  14. Geothermal power plants of Mexico and Central America: a technical survey of existing and planned installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo. R.

    1978-07-01

    In this report, the fifth in a series describing the geothermal power plants of the world, the countries of Mexico and of Central America are studied. The geothermal plants are located in areas of recent and active volcanism; the resources are of the liquid-dominated type. Details are given about the plants located at Cerro Prieto in Mexico and at Ahuachapan in El Salvador. In both cases, attention is paid to the geologic nature of the fields, the well programs, geofluid characteristics, energy conversion systems, materials of construction, effluent handling systems, economic factors and plant operating experience. Exploration and development activities are described for other promising geothermal areas in Mexico and El Salvador, along with those in the countries of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama.

  15. Silica Waste Utilisation Phase II - Preliminary Laboratory Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, J.W.; Boyd, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    A second phase of laboratory testing is being performed on waste silica from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Mexico. The main objective is to produce mixes of various combinations of hydrated lime, portland cement, and plastic fibers with the waste silica from disposal ponds to determine their suitability for use as insulating bricks in low cost housing. Silica-cement mixtures appear to have the highest flexural strength and resistance to weathering. Silica-lime mixtures appear to have the best insulating properties (lowest thermal conductivity). The addition of plastic fibers to the silica-lime mixture appears to improve both strength and weather resistance. Work is still in progress and will be completed in 1996 with the construction of various test walls in the Mexicali, Mexico area.

  16. Proposed geologic model based on geophysical well logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz C, S.; Puente C, I.; de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation of the subsurface based on a qualitative interpretation of well logs was carried out at Cerro Prieto to obtain information on the distribution of the different lithofacies that make up a deltaic depositional system. The sedimentological interpretation derived from the resistivity and spontaneous potential are shown in several cross-sections of the field. In addition to the sedimentological interpretation, a map of the structural geology of the region based on well logs and available geophysical information was prepared, including the results of gravity and seismic refraction surveys. The depth to the zone of hydrothermal alteration described by Elders (1980) was found by means of temperature, electrical, and radioactive logs. Two maps showing the configuration of the top of this anomaly show a clear correlation with the gravity anomalies found in the area.

  17. Mexican geothermal development and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, J.M.E.V.

    1998-01-01

    Geothermics in Mexico started in 1954, by drilling the first geothermal well in Pathe, State of Hidalgo, which reached a depth of 237 meters. In 1959 electrical generation from geothermal origin began, with an installed capacity of 3.5 MW. From 1959 to 1994 Mexico increased its installed capacity to 753 MW, by developing three geothermal fields: Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, and Los Humeros. Currently, 177 wells produce steam at a rate of 36 tons per hour (t/h) each. Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE, Federal Commission of Electricity) has planned to increase the geothermal-electric installed capacity through construction and installation of several projects. Repowering of operating units and development of new geothermal zones will also allow Mexican geothermal growth

  18. Status of geothermal resources in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Bert, G.

    1990-01-01

    Except for some isolated instances with tourist or therapeutic objectives and some attempts in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, there are no projects for direct heat utilization of geothermal resources in Mexico. Therefore, all places that are studied are studied with geothermal-electric objectives. It is convenient to keep in mind that in Mexico, by law, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is the public utility in charge of electrical energy service. This institution is directly responsible for the exploration, development and commercial use of geothermal energy for electrical generation. Therefore, this paper includes the present and planned exploration and utilization of geothermal resources only for electricity generation for the period 1985 to the present. Likewise, starting 5 years ago, the CFE efforts have been directed toward the development of high enthalpy fields

  19. Role of forest conservation in lessening land degradation in a temperate region: the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo-Delgado, Lilia; López-García, José; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    With international concern about the rates of deforestation worldwide, particular attention has been paid to Latin America. Forest conservation programmes in Mexico include Payment for Environmental Services (PES), a scheme that has been successfully introduced in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve. To seek further evidence of the role of PES in lessening land degradation processes in a temperate region, the conservation state of the Cerro Prieto ejido within the Reserve was assessed by an analysis of changes in vegetation cover and land-use between 1971 and 2013. There were no changes in the total forest surface area, but the relative proportions of the different classes of cover density had changed. In 1971, closed and semi-closed forest occupied 247.81 ha and 5.38 ha, 82.33% and 1.79% of the total area of the ejido, respectively. By 2013, closed forest had decreased to 230.38 ha (76.54% of the ejido), and semi-closed cover was 17.23 ha (5.72% of the ejido), suggesting that some semi-closed forest had achieved closed status. The final balance between forest losses and recovery was: 29.63 ha were lost, whereas 13.72 ha were recovered. Losses were mainly linked to a sanitation harvest programme to control the bark beetle Scolytus mundus. Ecotourism associated with forest conservation in the Cerro Prieto ejido has been considered by inhabitants as a focal alternative for economic development. Consequently, it is essential to develop a well-planned and solidly structured approach based on social cohesion to foster a community-led sustainable development at local level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trilobite-based biostratigraphy (arthropoda-trilobita) and related faunas of the Cambrian from Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuen-Romero, F. J.; Valdez-Holguín, J. E.; Buitrón-Sánchez, B. E.; Monreal, R.; Enríquez-Ocaña, L. F.; Aguirre-Hinojosa, E.; Ochoa-Granillo, J. A.; Palafox-Reyes, J. J.

    2018-04-01

    A biostratigraphic analysis based on trilobites of the main Cambrian outcrops from Sonora, Mexico is performed. The data are based on a combination of field work and published sources, including four previously studied locations from northern and eastern Sonora (Caborca, Cananea, Mazatán, and Arivechi) as well as a new location in the central part of the state of Sonora (San José de Gracia). Chronostratigraphic positions are assigned to the Cambrian outcrops according to Peng et al., 2012 and Cohen et al., 2017. In the Caborca area, the Puerto Blanco, Proveedora, Buelna, Cerro Prieto, Arrojos and El Tren formations comprise a wide range of biozones, which starts from the Fritzaspis Zone until the Glossopleura walcotti Zone (Begadean-Lincolnian Series, global Stage 3-Stage 5, Series 2-Series 3). The Bolsa Quartzite and the Abrigo Limestone exposed in Cananea area are assigned to the Cedaria/Cedarina dakotaensis Zone until the Crepicephalus Zone (Lincolnian Series-Marjuman Stage, global Series 3-Guzhangian). In the San José de Gracia area, The Proveedora, Buelna, Cerro Prieto and El Gavilán formations range from the ?Bristolia mohavensis or ?Bristolia insolens zones until the upper part of Mexicella mexicana Zone, Albertella highlandensis Subzone (Series 2-Series 3, Stage 4-Stage 5). In the Arivechi area, the La Sata, El Mogallón, La Huerta and the Milpillas formations range from Poliella denticulata Zone to the Elvinia Zone (Lincolnian-Millardan, Delamaran-Steptoean, global Series 3-Furongian, Stage 5-Paibian). Paleozoic marine fauna distribution in northwest Mexico and the southwest United States of America, suggest that during this time an extensive faunal province existed, containing a great variety of marine invertebrates with notorious intraspecific affinity. The biotic association includes poriferans, archaeocyathids, brachiopods, mollusks, arthropods and echinoderms as predominant elements.

  1. Tectonoestratigraphic and Thermal Models of the Tiburon and Wagner Basins, northern Gulf of California Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J.; Ramirez Zerpa, N. A.; Negrete-Aranda, R.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Gulf of California Rift System consist sofa series faults that accommodate both normal and strike-slip motion. The faults formed a series of half-greens filled with more than 7 km of siliciclastic suc­cessions. Here, we present tectonostratigraphic and heat flow models for the Tiburón basin, in the southern part of the system, and the Wag­ner basin in the north. The models are constrained by two-dimensional seis­mic lines and by two deep boreholes drilled by PEMEX­-PEP. Analysis of the seismic lines and models' results show that: (i) subsidence of the basins is controlled by high-angle normal faults and by flow of the lower crust, (ii) basins share a common history, and (iii) there are significant differences in the way brittle strain was partitioned in the basins, a feature frequently observed in rift basins. On one hand, the bounding faults of the Tiburón basin have a nested geometry and became active following a west-to-east sequence of activation. The Tiburon half-graben was formed by two pulses of fault activity. One took place during the protogulf extensional phase in the Miocene and the other during the opening of Gulf of California in the Pleistocene. On the other hand, the Wagner basin is the result of two fault generations. During the late-to middle Miocene, the west-dipping Cerro Prieto and San Felipe faults formed a domino array. Then, during the Pleistocene the Consag and Wagner faults dissected the hanging-wall of the Cerro Prieto fault forming the modern Wagner basin. Thermal modeling of the deep borehole temperatures suggests that the heat flow in these basins in the order of 110 mW/m2 which is in agreement with superficial heat flow measurements in the northern Gulf of California Rift System.

  2. Taxonomic status of Choanoscolex lamothei García-Prieto, 1990 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea)using morphological and molecular evidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Rosas, V. R.; Pérez-Ponce de León, G.; Choudhury, A.; de Chambrier, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 6 (2003), s. 1212-1219 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/1314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Cestoda * Proteocephalidea * Choanoscolex lamothei Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.137, year: 2003

  3. Environmental framework for the development of the Los Humeros, Puebla geothermal field; Contexto ambiental del desarrollo del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrana Melchor, Eugenio J.; Fernandez Solorzano, Maria Elena; Mendoza Rangel, Ernesto; Hernandez Ayala, Cuauhtemoc [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2005-06-01

    The construction, operation and maintenance of the Los Humeros, Puebla, geothermal field were undertaken in accordance with Mexican environmental regulations. The resolutions on environmental impacts, license for atmospheric pollution prevention, concession title for exploitation and use of national waters, permission for wastewater discharging services, company registration for producing dangerous wastes and fulfillment of all conditions noted in the documents show the applicable environmental laws for the project have been followed. [Spanish] La construccion, operacion y mantenimiento del campo geotermoelectrico Los Humeros, Puebla, se ha llevado a cabo dentro del marco juridico ambiental vigente en Mexico. Las resoluciones en materia de impacto ambiental, la licencia en materia de prevencion de la contaminacion de la atmosfera, el titulo de concesion para explorar, usar o aprovechar aguas nacionales, el permiso para descargar aguas residuales domesticas, el registro como empresa generadora de residuos peligrosos, y el cumplimiento de las disposiciones y condicionantes establecidos en cada uno de estos documentos, evidencian la observancia de la legislacion ambiental aplicable al proyecto.

  4. Thermal fracturing of the well H-40, Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Fracturamiento termico del pozo H-40 del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly; Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-01-15

    Well H-40 was drilled for production in 1997, but the well was not able to sustain flow. After it was monitored to assess its injection capacity, the well was changed to an injection well, but the well did not accept more than 5 tons of fluid per hour (t/h). The well was stimulated by thermal fracturing in three tests made in October 2005. As a result, the well can accept up to 110t/h and can be used as an injection well. [Spanish] El pozo H-40 se perforo con objetivos de produccion en 1997. Sin embargo, el pozo resulto incapaz de mantenerse fluyendo. Despues de un periodo de monitoreo se evaluo su capacidad de aceptacion para tratar de utilizarlo como pozo inyector, observandose que no aceptaba mas de 5 toneladas por hora (t/h) de fluido. Por lo tanto, se decidio estimularlo mediante fracturamiento termico con tres pruebas que se realizaron en octubre de 2005, lograndose que el pozo llegara a aceptar hasta 110 t/h, lo que permitira que el pozo pueda ser usado como inyector.

  5. The necessity of renovation of the fundamental concepts of geochemistry for the geothermal systems; La necesidad de renovacion de los conceptos fundamentales de geoquimica para los sistemas geotermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahendra Jaiswal, Pal Verma [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this article the exhaustive experimentation of the compilation of the experimental data of quartz solubility is presented along with the saturation curve water - steam and in the zone of compressed liquid. On the base of these data a regression relation was derived, which is valid for the entire range of temperature from 0 to 374 Celsius degrees. This study was developed by Mahendra Pal Verma Jaiswal, researcher of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta el experimento exhaustivo de la recopilacion de los datos experimentales de la solubilidad de cuarzo a lo largo de la curva de saturacion agua - vapor y en la zona de liquido comprimido. Sobre la base de estos datos se derivo una relacion de regresion, la cual es valida para todo el rango de temperatura desde 0 a 374 grados Celsius. Este estudio fue desarrollado por Mahendra Pal Verma Jaiswal, investigador del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Cerro Armazones spectroscopy of F dwarfs (Pribulla+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribulla, T.; Sebastian, D.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Stahl, O.; Berndt, A.; Chini, R.; Hoffmeister, V.; Mugrauer, M.; Neuhauser, R.; Vanko, M.

    2015-04-01

    Optical spectroscopy at the OCA was secured using the BESO spectrograph fibre-fed from the focus of the 1.5m Hexapod telescope (see Fuhrmann et al. 2011). 409 spectra of 187 dwarfs were obtained between 2009 April 10 and 2010 March 29. Exposure times ranged between 300 and 1800s. (2 data files).

  7. WITHDRAWN: The Palaeocene Cerro Munro tonalite intrusion (Chubut Province, Argentina): A plutonic remnant of explosive volcanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C.; Aragón, E.; Castro, A.; Pedreira, R.; Sánchez-Navas, A.; Díaz-Alvarado, J.; D´Eramo, F.; Pinotti, L.; Aguilera, Y.; Cavarozzi, C.; Demartis, M.; Hernando, I. R.; Fuentes, T.

    2017-10-01

    The publisher regrets that an error occurred which led to the premature publication of this paper. This error bears no reflection on the article or its authors. The publisher apologizes to the authors and the readers for this unfortunate error in Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 78C (2017) 30 - 60, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2017.06.002. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal

  8. Cerro Xalapaxco: An Unusual Tuff Cone with Multiple Explosion Craters, in Central Mexico (Puebla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M. J.; Siebe, C.

    1994-01-01

    The Xalapaxco tuff cone is located on the northeast flank of La Malinche stratovolcano in central Mexico. An unusually large number (10) of explosion craters, concentrated on the central and on the uphill side of the cone, expose alternating beds of stratified surge deposits and massive fall deposits.

  9. Baseboard depth study by electrical soundings between Centurion and Noblia (Cerro Largo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.

    1983-11-01

    This study gives an idea of the structure of the sedimentary basin between Noblia and Centurion. Appeared a rise area of baseboard (200 m.) in correlation with a heavy shaft gravimetry. To have a more precise knowledge of the area would be necessary to increase the density of drilling in areas of outcrops of the Tres Islas formation to know its resistivity

  10. Cerro Xalapaxco: an unusual tuff cone with multiple explosion craters, in central Mexico (Puebla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Michael J.; Siebe, Claus

    1994-11-01

    The Xalapaxco tuff cone is located on the northeast flank of La Malinche stratovolcano in central Mexico. An unusually large number (10) of explosion craters, concentrated on the central and on the uphill side of the cone, expose alternating beds of stratified surge deposits and massive fall deposits. The morphology of the cone and the characteristics of its deposits point to the involvement of significant quantities of groundwater during its eruption. The phreatomagmatic eruptions which led to the cone's formation pierced an alluvial fan, whose source is a glacially carved canyon near the summit of La Malinche volcano. The large canyon was cut during repeated glacial episodes, the last of which ended ca. 8500 years ago. The present alluvial fan mostly consists of reworked glacio-fluviatile andesite/dacite material from La Malinche. Rising magma encountered substantial amounts of groundwater within the limestone basement and in overlying intercalated pyroclastic and glacio-fluviatile deposits of the alluvial fan. Short-lived phreatomagmatic eruptions produced surge and airfall deposits. Xenoliths found in the cone beds are composed of dacite and andesite clasts, limestone, chert, and rare ignimbrite fragments. No juvenile material could be unequivocally identified, but is represented most probably by porphyritic dacite similar in texture and composition to La Malinche lavas. The multiple craters were formed as a response to changes in water and magma supply during the short-lived eruption. Hence, the locations where ideal magma/water ratios existed to fuel phreatomagmatic explosions shifted in time and space. Analysis of diameter/depth ratios of the craters indicates that the activity shifted from the center of the cone to its periphery in the west. Due to the configuration of the hydrographic environment, more groundwater flowing from La Malinche was available from the fan on the uphill side than below the cone at later stages of the eruption. The apparently anomalous position of the tuff cone on the slopes of a stratovolcano in a presently dry environment can be explained by more humid climatic conditions prevailing at the time of eruption.

  11. Heat Flow Budget of the Gulf of California Rift: Preliminary Results of a High Resolution Survey Across the Wagner Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete-Aranda, R.; Neumann, F.; Harris, R. N.; Contreras, J.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Sclater, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    The thermal regime exerts a primary control on rift dynamics and mode of extension for continental lithosphere. We present three heat-flow profiles across the southern terminus of the Cerro Prieto fault, in the northern Gulf of California. The longest profile is 42 km and has a measurement spacing of 1 km that spans the hanging-wall block (Wagner basin) and the footwall block of that fault. Measurements were taken with a 6.5 m long Fielax, violin-bow probe. Most measurements are of good quality, i.e., the probe fully penetrated sediments and measurements were stable enough to perform reliable inversion for heat flow and thermal properties. However, it was necessary to perform numerous corrections due to environmental phenomena related the copious sedimentation in the area, and seasonal changes in water temperature. Our measurements indicate the total throughput across the central rift and its east shoulder is 15 KW/m per meter of rift length. More important, heat flow values cluster in three distinct spatial groups: (i) heat flow in the well sedimented depocenter of the Wagner basin is approximately 200 mW/m2; (ii) the footwall block heat-flow is approximately 400 mW/m2; and (iii) heat flow across the fault zone is very high, up to 5,000 mW/m2. Our interpretation is that the former value represents the background conductive heat flow in the rift whereas heat flow across the fault represents advective heat transport by hydrothermal fluids. The high heat flow in the footwall block of the Cerro Prieto fault might be result of both conductive and advective heat transfer by fluid seepage from the basin. These data provide evidence that fluids from deep magma bodies transported along faults assist rifting in the northern Gulf of California. We are exploring how fluids may play a role in weakening the lithosphere and help localizing/delocalizing strain along major transforms and numerous normal faults observed in the area.

  12. Conceptual Model for the Geothermal System of the Wagner Basin, Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Neumann, F.; Negrete-Aranda, R.; Contreras, J.; Batista-Cruz, R. Y.; Kretzschmar, T.; Avilés-Esquivel, T. A.; Reyes Ortega, V.; Flores-Luna, C. F.; Gomez-Trevino, E.; Martin, A.; Constable, S.

    2017-12-01

    Cerro Prieto in northwestern Mexico is one of the biggest geothermal plants in the world. Cerro Prieto sits in the Gulf of California rift system, which consists of a series of spreading centers and transform faults. The aim of this study is to evaluate the geothermal potential of the nearby offshore Wagner basin. To this end, we acquired and analyzed a set of different methods, such as reflection seismics, heat flow, magnetotelluric and controlled source electromagnetics, hydrogeochemistry and echosounder. Seismic reflection data show that the Wagner basin is a semi-graben, A profile crossing it shows numerous closely spaced faults, particularly in its eastern part. We found very high heat flow values, in excess of 1000 mW/m2, and large variability on the eastern flank of the Wagner basin, whereas there are more consistent and much lower values across the central and western parts. The high and variable heat flow values are suggestive of advective heat transfer We collected cores and interstitial water samples. The hydrogeochemistry analyses show that in the cores recovered from high heat flow areas, the relations bromide/choride and bromide/sulfide are clearly different from sea water. In contrast, those relations were close to sea water in areas with low heat flow. Similarly, the isotope relations such as 2H/18O show a similar pattern, further indicating the groundwater origin of the interstitial water found in high heat flow zones. In the magnetoteluric measurements we found the presence of a deep conductor that is located approximately under the basin center, extends from the base of the crust to depths of about 40 km, and dips toward the NE. This conductor is probably related to the heat source of the geothermal system. Active source electromagnetics show the presence of shallow conductors that correlate with the faults visible in the seismic sections. There are two distinct conductors, one in the eastern flank and another in the western flank of the basin

  13. Antonio María Baggio, Adriana Cosseddu y Antonio Márquez Prieto (Coord., Fraternidad y Justicia, Comares, Granada, 2012, 94 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Hierrezuelo Conde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta obra nos ofrece una visión triádica entre libertad, justicia y fraternidad, destacando el carácter novedoso de esta última. En efecto, únicamente un análisis conjunto de las tres categorías permitiría alcanzar, según sus autores, un significado pleno de la fraternidad. Esta relación queda en evidencia en el art. 1 de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos del hombre. De hecho, se destaca a la fraternidad como el principio olvidado de la revolución francesa (liberté, egalité, fraternité. Diversos autores la analizan como categoría política, lo que permitiría corregir algunos errores e injusticias de los sistemas políticos. Por otro lado, en la fraternidad podemos observar la relacionalidad, entendida como las relaciones entre los hombres. Asimismo, cuando hablamos de justicia se requieren tres elementos: la relacionalidad, la reciprocidad y la socialidad, en la medida en que la relación requiere lugar en el espacio social, donde adquiere sentido.

  14. Modelling of the thermal structure of the Mexican Volcanic Belt for geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, Damien; María Prol-Ledesma, Rosa; Smit, Jeroen; Limberger, Jon; van Wees, Jan-Diederik

    2017-04-01

    Mexico is a major geothermal energy player in the world with an installed capacity of over 900 MW for electricity production, positioning Mexico at the 6th position. The installed capacity is supported by 4 geothermal location: Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, Los Humeros, and Las Tres Virgenes. Two of these sites are in Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) a volcanic arc structure that is the result of the subduction of the Cocos Plate underneath the North American plate. The interesting feature of this onshore volcanic arc is the combination of magmatism with the extentional stress field within the arc with a shear component as a result of the oblique subduction. As a result of this combination, is a very favourable regional setup for the development of geothermal energy. The core of the work is the establishment of a thermal model at present day at the scale of TMVB. The elements considered in the thermal-tectonic model are the composition of the lithosphere, the volcanic evidences, and temperature measurements available. The newly developed b3t software at Utrecht University and TNO will perform the modelling, which allow the identification of thermal variation in the lithosphere at present-day with the data integration. The result of the thermal-tectonic modelling is a thermal model of the TMVB lithosphere that is considered according to the general geological and geodynamical context. The variation of temperature are intricately related to the magmatic centres and the lithological composition of the TMVB.

  15. Geophysical characterization of subaerial hydrothermal manifestations in Punta Banda, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Marquez, L.; Prol-Ledesma, R. M.; Arango, C.; Canet, C.

    2009-04-01

    Important growth of population in Baja California Peninsula has triggered the need for energy and fresh water. The most sustainable possibility for increasing the availability of fresh water is the use of renewable energy sources in desalination plants. The abundance of geothermal manifestations in the peninsula provides a reliable energy source for desalination purposes. Geothermal development of the Baja California Peninsula dates from the 70's, when the Cerro Prieto geothermal field started producing electricity. Two important cities, Tijuana and Ensenada, are located in the north-western area of Baja California. The city of Ensenada has a desalination plant that is due to be replaced and the geothermal resources of the area could be an option for the new desalination plant. Punta Banda, a region near Ensenada, was specially investigated to determine its geothermal potential. Subaerial springs and the submarine vents were sampled and studied in this work, also geological and geochemical studies were performed, moreover geoelectrical surveys were accomplished to characterize the hydrothermal system at depth. Even though saline intrusion is a severe problem in Ensenada (TDS higher than 3000), thermal springs away from the coast and coastal springs have salinities lower than sea water. According to the geoelectrical models obtained from profiles, the inferred conductive features can be related to thermal anomalies. The existence of hot springs located along a trend suggests that the dynamic of the thermal fluid is restricted by secondary faults.

  16. Ambient Noise Tomography of Southern California Images Dipping San Andreas-Parallel Structure and Low-Velocity Salton Trough Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, S.; Klemperer, S. L.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient noise tomography (ANT) images the entire crust but does not depend on the spatial and temporal distribution of events. Our ANT high-resolution 3D velocity model of southern California uses 849 broadband stations, vastly more than previous studies, and four years of data, 1997-1998, 2007, and 2011, chosen to include our own broadband Salton Seismic Imaging Project, a 40-station transect across the Salton Trough, as well as other campaign stations in both Mexico and the U.S.A., and permanent stations. Our shear-wave model has 0.05° x 0.05° lateral and 1 km vertical blocks. We used the Harvard Community Velocity Model (CVM-H) as the initial model for the inversion. We show significant differences relative to the CVM-H model, especially in the lower crust and upper mantle. We observe prominent low-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle under the Salton Buttes and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields, indicating high-temperatures and possibly partial-melt. Similar low-velocity zones have been previously observed along the Gulf of California. We also observe vertical to gradually dipping lateral velocity contrasts in the lower crust under the southern part of the San Andreas Fault. The east to northeast dip may represent crustal fabric sheared by movement of the Pacific plate under the North American plate prior to the initiation of transform motion.

  17. Infection levels and seasonality of monogeneans in the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Perciformes: Centrarchidae) from Nuevo León, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz-Silva, L; Iruegas-Buentello, F J; Escobar-González, B; Molina-Garza, Z J

    2016-11-01

    Largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, is a native fish species with special importance for sport fishing competitions in Nuevo León, Mexico. However, no study has investigated the parasitic fauna of M. salmoides, and no reports are available on monogenean parasites in this fish species. Therefore, we described the monogenean parasites of M. salmoides and the effects of season and fish condition factor in five reservoirs: La Boca (LB), El Cuchillo-Solidaridad (CS), Sombreretillo (S), Laguna Salinillas (LS) and Cerro Prieto (CP). The monogeneans infecting M. salmoides were Clavunculus unguis and Acolpenteron ureteroecetes (collected in all localities), as well as Syncleithrium fusiformis, Haplocleidus furcatus, Clavunculus bifurcatus and Urocleidus principalis (CS). Clavunculus unguis had the highest prevalence in fish from all reservoirs. The abundance of monogeneans was generally greater in late spring to autumn than in winter. Although season was not correlated with abundance (r s = 0.0934, P <  0.0154), the months of highest temperature (from May to September) were positively correlated with parasite abundance. A significant association was observed between fish condition factor and the presence of monogeneans (P <  0.05), except for A. ureteroecetes. Our findings include five new geographic records for C. unguis, S. fusiformis, H. furcatus and C. bifurcatus.

  18. Minutes of the eighth meeting of the centers for the analysis of thermal-mechanical energy conversion concepts. Report No. CATMEC/10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.

    1978-03-01

    Highlights of the meeting were discussions on the problem of waste heat rejection including the effects of noncondensable gases in geothermal power plants, a review of the state of the art in binary fluid geothermal power plants, and progress reports on the preparation of chapters and sections of the ''Sourcebook on the Production of Electricity from Geothermal Energy.'' Appendices are included with information on: the dry cooling enhancement program; condenser effects on Rankine cycle performance; waste heat rejection systems; effect on seasonal variations of ambient temperatures on the performance of low temperature power cycles; geothermal loop experimental facility fact sheet; Heber geothermal demonstration plant fact sheet; geothermal energy conversion systems using geofluids with high levels of noncondensable gases; analysis of East Mesa 16-29 well flow data; site-specific sub- and super-critical hybrid power cycles; novel hybrid fossil-geothermal power plants; total flow comparative cost studies; and, fact sheets on the geothermal component test facility, Magmamax dual binary power plant, and Cerro Prieto geothermal field and power plant. (JGB)

  19. Subsidence and Extension Rates of Laguna Salada Basin, Northeastern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J.; Martin-Barajas, A.; Herguera, J. C.

    2002-12-01

    Laguna Salada basin in northeastern Baja California, Mexico, is an active half-graben product of the trans-tensional tectonics of the Gulf of California. It lies at the boundary between the North America and Pacific plates, 15 km west of the Cerro Prieto-Imperial fault system. We present the results of a time series analysis of the uppermost 980 m of a gamma ray log from the geothermal exploratory well ELS1 drilled in the proximity of the Laguna Salada fault, which bounds the basin on its eastern margin. Our analysis indicates its stratigraphy is cyclical and that the spectrum of the gamma ray log is similar to the spectrum of δ18O Pleistocene variations, which strongly suggest an orbital origin. Based on this, we establish a correlation between the gamma ray log and δ18O stages to constrain ages of sediments with an estimated uncertainty of ~10 kyr. We found that sedimentation rates at ELS1 site have remained constant during the last 780 kyr. The sedimentation rate at the ELS1 site is 1.6 mm/yr. This value is extrapolated to obtain the vertical and perpendicular to strike slip rates of Laguna Salada fault. It was found that the vertical slip component is 4.22 mm/yr and the perpendicular to strike slip component (E-W direction) is 1.55 mm/yr.

  20. State-of-the-art of liquid waste disposal for geothermal energy systems: 1979. Report PNL-2404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defferding, L.J.

    1980-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of geothermal liquid waste disposal is reviewed and surface and subsurface disposal methods are evaluated with respect to technical, economic, legal, and environmental factors. Three disposal techniques are currently in use at numerous geothermal sites around the world: direct discharge into surface waters; deep-well injection; and ponding for evaporation. The review shows that effluents are directly discharged into surface waters at Wairakei, New Zealand; Larderello, Italy; and Ahuachapan, El Salvador. Ponding for evaporation is employed at Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Deep-well injection is being practiced at Larderello; Ahuachapan; Otake and Hatchobaru, Japan; and at The Geysers in California. All sites except Ahuachapan (which is injecting only 30% of total plant flow) have reported difficulties with their systems. Disposal techniques used in related industries are also reviewed. The oil industry's efforts at disposal of large quantities of liquid effluents have been quite successful as long as the effluents have been treated prior to injection. This study has determined that seven liquid disposal methods - four surface and three subsurface - are viable options for use in the geothermal energy industry. However, additional research and development is needed to reduce the uncertainties and to minimize the adverse environmental impacts of disposal. (MHR)

  1. Symposium in the field of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Miguel; Mock, John E.

    1989-04-01

    Mexico and the US are nations with abundant sources of geothermal energy, and both countries have progressed rapidly in developing their more accessible resources. For example, Mexico has developed over 600 MWe at Cerro Prieto, while US developers have brought in over 2000 MWe at the Geysers. These successes, however, are only a prologue to an exciting future. All forms of energy face technical and economic barriers that must be overcome if the resources are to play a significant role in satisfying national energy needs. Geothermal energy--except for the very highest grade resources--face a number of barriers, which must be surmounted through research and development. Sharing a common interest in solving the problems that impede the rapid utilization of geothermal energy, Mexico and the US agreed to exchange information and participate in joint research. An excellent example of this close and continuing collaboration is the geothermal research program conducted under the auspices of the 3-year agreement signed on April 7, 1986 by the US DOE and the Mexican Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The major objectives of this bilateral agreement are: (1) to achieve a thorough understanding of the nature of geothermal reservoirs in sedimentary and fractured igneous rocks; (2) to investigate how the geothermal resources of both nations can best be explored and utilized; and (3) to exchange information on geothermal topics of mutual interest.

  2. Evaluation of recurrent radiation with Cobalt 60 gamma rays on agronomic traits of barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) in the R2M1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega G, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of recurrent radiation on agronomic traits in two barley varieties. The research was carried out at experimental fields pertaining to the Instituto de Investigacion Agropecuaria, Acuicola y Forestal of the Estado de Mexico (ICAMEX). The biological material was irradiated in the Gamma Cell 220 at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The experimental design was divided plots in the randomized blocks, with four replications. The factor varieties (Cerro Prieto and Puebla) was assigned to the big plots mean while in the factor doses was assignated to the small plots (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 krad of gamma rays). The variables under study were: germination, number of shoots, plant height, incidence of Puccinia striiformis, days to flowering, days to physiological maturity, spike length and yield. The analysis of variance exhibited no significant differences between varieties for all the studied variables. Regarding to dose, most of the studied variables exhibited significant differences, except for incidence of Puccinia striiformis and days to flowering. The interaction variety x doses showed significance only for the variable days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. The mean separation by Tukey test at 0.05 and the regression analysis showed that the variables: germination, number of shoots, plant height, spike length and yield decreased as the dose increased. On the other hand in the variables incidence of Puccinia striiformis, days to flowering and days to physiological maturity exhibited a direct relationship with the dose. (Author)

  3. Geothermal Field Development in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, Hector Alonso

    1983-12-15

    Mexico is a Country characterized by its diversified means of Power Gerneration. Actual installed capacity is almost 19000 MW, of which 205 MW corresponds to Geothermal Plants, that is, 180 MW in Cerro Prieto and 25 MW of Portable Plants in Los Azufres. To date, 346 area with exploitation possibilites, are known. They are mainly distributed along the Volcanic Belt where the most prominent are, Los Azufres, La Primavera, Los Humeros, Ixtlan De Los Hervores and Los Negritos, among others. Proved reserves are 920 MW, and the accessible resource base are 4600 MW identified and 6000 MW undiscovered. The long range construction studies intends to achieve a total installed capacity of 100000 MW, by the end of this century, including 2000 MW Geothermal, through conventional and Portable Plants. It is not a definite program but a development strategy. The carrying out of a definite program, will depend upon the confirmation of Hypothesis made in previous studies, and the economic decisions related to the financial sources availability, and techologies to be used in the future as well.

  4. Recent Volcanism in the Northern Gulf of California: The Effects of Thick Deltaic Sedimentation in Magmatic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A.; Hurtado, J. C.; Weber, B.; Schmitt, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Quaternary volcanism in the northern Gulf of California provides a unique opportunity to characterize active crustal accretion under thick deltaic sedimentation from the Colorado River. Up to 17 volcanic seamounts are identified by high-resolution bathymetry and seismic reflexion profiles, principally in the Lower Delfin and the sheared peninsular margin north of Canal de Ballenas. Samples from eight subaereal and three submarine volcanoes are distinctively composed of andesite to rhyolite, and no basaltic eruptions are yet recognized, although dolerite sills and xenoliths of microphyric gabbro are reported in geothermal wells both, in the Salton and Cerro Prieto basins and saucer shape sills in the Lower Delfin basin indicate shallow mafic intrusions. Sr-Nd isotope data indicate that parent magma derives from partial melting of the Pacific mantle indicating that continental rupture is complete in the active rift basins. However, these rocks also demonstrate evidence of assimilation (eNd 1 to 5) and thus are compositionally modified as they are transported through the thick sequence of water rich sediments. Re-melting of hydrothermally altered mafic intrusives, crystal fractionation and variable (volcanic eruptions. We conclude that thick deltaic deposits promote magmatic differentiation and formation of a hybrid type of new crust in narrow rift basins in the northern Gulf of California and the Salton Trough.

  5. Available Energy and Cumulative Frequency Curves for Parabolic Trough Concentrators with Alignment North–South, in the Northwest of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Lentz–Herrea

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Northwest of Mexico is a well known region with the highest ambient temperatures along the summer and the highest levels of irradiance, which make it feasible to install solar field concentrators. This work provides beam irradiance data that can be used to design a solar north–south parabolic trough system. The variation between the value of beam solar irradiance estimated by a pyranometer and the direct irradiance received by the aperture area of a parabolic trough concentrator (PTC is well–known as cosθ. This variation was evaluated every day of the year, obtaining values of average irradiance for Cerro Prieto (CP lat. 32°39', long. 115° 21', and San Luis Rio Colorado (SLR lat. 32°30', long. 114°46', with which they were elaborated the available energy and cumulative frequency curves (CFC. These are useful to know the number of hours of field solar concentrators which can operate at different levels of energy, as well as the steam production of a solar–geothermal hybrid system to produce electricity.

  6. Aero radiometric relay of the areas including in the photo map: Sierra de los Rios (C 15), Fraile Muerto (Page E-16) and Cerro de Las Cuentas (Page E- 17) Cerro Largo district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leone, H; Rossi, P; Massa, E; Spoturno, J.

    1976-01-01

    The present work constitutes the second part of the report realised on the aerorradimetric relief of the Long Hill Department. 1,325 km of in detail regular prospection were arrived at end on the photo-plans Died Frayle, Hill of Cuentas and Mountain range of the Rivers. This constitutes a 59% of the total of the areas released in all the campaign. A series took place in addition to aircraft reconnaissances on the photo-plans Step Pereira, Cordobes and Cerrezuelo covering 480 km, on the departments of Long Hill and bordering areas of the department of Peach tree. These works took place between days 8 of November to the 8 of December of 1970 being developed in this period, the making a flight, elaboration of the cintilometricos registries and interpretation of the same. The work area includes/understands the flights inclusively number 16 to the 26 and 30 and 31 flights in agreement can be seen in the advance plane. Scale 1:100.000

  7. Valores de presión arterial en escolares sanos de una escuela primaria del municipio Cerro Arterial pressure values in healthy students from a primary school of Cerro municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Francisco Corredera Guerra; Yanet Villar Badía; Tania Rosa González Rodríguez; Reynaldo Gómez Urbina

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la hipertensión constituye un notable problema de salud en el ámbito mundial que determina una importante causa de morbilidad, en la que están involucrados factores genéticos y ambientales. La presión arterial en la infancia aumenta progresivamente a lo largo de los años, y es una importante variable a considerar. OBJETIVO: caracterizar el comportamiento de algunas variables cardiovasculares y nutricionales en escolares supuestamente sanos. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio de tipo...

  8. APORTES PALEOBOTÁNICOS EN LA RECONSTRUCCIÓN DE PALEODIETAS. ANÁLISIS DE COPROLITOS DEL CERRO CASA DE PIEDRA, SANTA CRUZ/Palaeobotany contributions in palaeodiets reconstruction. Coprolites analysis of Cerro Casa de Piedra, Santa Cruz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Martínez Tosto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los coprolitos son heces fósiles deshidratadas o mineralizadas que contienen inclusiones orgánicas e inorgánicas. El estudio de las inclusiones de origen vegetal de los coprolitos permite conocer los ítems vegetales consumidos por los organismos e inferir la estacionalidad en el uso del sitio. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el contenido de polen y de microrrestos vegetales de un coprolito humano del sitio CCP7 relacionado a una capa arqueológica fechada en 8920±200 C14 (UGA 7383 años AP. El sitio CCP7 está ubicado en la provincia de Santa Cruz (Argentina en el ecotono bosque-estepa. Se realizaron los análisis polínicos y microhistológicos de los restos vegetales del coprolito. Se identificaron 13 tipos polínicos, tres de ellos pertenecientes a la vegetación del bosque y el resto a la estepa. Mediante el análisis microhistológico se identificaron las especies Azorella monanthos, Empetrum rubrum y Gaultheria mucronata. El análisis simultáneo de la información extraída de los datos palinológicos y de los microhistológicos mostró coincidencias parciales entre el contenido de polen y de restos vegetales, permitiendo reconstruir la porción vegetal de la paleodieta e inferir la época del año en que el hombre que dio origen al coprolito estuvo ocupando el sitio CCP7.   Abstract Coprolites are dehydrated or mineralized fossil feces containing organic and inorganic inclusions. The study of plant inclusions of coprolites allows knowing the vegetable items consumed by organisms and inferring the seasonality in the use of the site. This work aims at studying pollen and plant remains from a human coprolite in the CCP7 site related to an archaeological layer dated from around 8920±200 14C (UGA 7383 years BP. CCP7 is located in the province of Santa Cruz (Argentina within the forest-steppe ecotone. Pollen and microhistological analyses of coprolite plant remains were conducted. Thirteen pollen types were identified: three from forest vegetation and the rest from the steppe. Azorella monanthos, Empetrum rubrum and Gaultheria mucronata were identified by means of microhistological analysis. Simultaneous microhistological and palynological data analysis showed partial matches between the content of pollen and plant remains, which helped to rebuild the palaeodiet plant portion and infer the time of year that the person who produced the coprolite was occupying the CCP7 site.

  9. GIS-Based Detection of Gullies in Terrestrial LiDAR Data of the Cerro Llamoca Peatland (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Forbriger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cushion peatlands are typical features of the high altitude Andes in South America. Due to the adaptation to difficult environmental conditions, they are very fragile ecosystems and therefore vulnerable to environmental and climate changes. Peatland erosion has severe effects on their ecological functions, such as water storage capacity. Thus, erosion monitoring is highly advisable. Erosion quantification and monitoring can be supported by high-resolution terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR. In this study, a novel Geographic Information System (GIS-based method for the automatic delineation and geomorphometric description of gullies in cushion peatlands is presented. The approach is a multi-step workflow based on a gully edge extraction and a sink filling algorithm applied to a conditioned digital terrain model. Our method enables the creation of GIS-ready polygons of the gullies and the derivation of geomorphometric parameters along the entire channel course. Automatically derived boundaries and gully area values correspond to a high degree (93% with manually digitized reference polygons. The set of methods developed in this study offers a suitable tool for the monitoring and scientific analysis of fluvial morphology in cushion peatlands.

  10. Note on the diet of Ameiva edracantha (Squamata, Teiidae in Cerros de Amotape National Park, Tumbes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Jordán

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Ameiva edracantha Bocourt 1874, a terrestrial diurnal teiid lizard distributed in northwestern Peru and southwestern Ecuador is described for the first time. Stomach contents of fifteen individuals collected from quebrada La Angostura were analyzed. Lepidopteran larvae, coleopterans, orthopterans and spiders were the dominant preys in the lizard’s diet. Snout-vent length and head length, width and height were not correlated to prey length, width and volume. Other parameters such as profitability and prey target selection could be involved in prey selection by A. edracantha.

  11. What Did They Say in the Hall of the Dead? Language and Identity in the Cerro Maravilla Hearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron Rivera, German

    2010-01-01

    Identity has become a major interest for researchers in the areas of linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics. Recent understandings of identity emphasize its malleability and fluidity. This conceptualization of identities as malleable comes from the realization that speakers relate strategically to propositions and their interlocutors in…

  12. Cerro Bombero: registro de Hippidion saldiasi Roth, 1899 (Equidae, Perissodactyla en el Holoceno temprano de Patagonia (Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdi, M. T.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A new record of Hippidion saldiasi with new radiocarbon data referred to early Holocene (8,850 ± 80 year C-14 B.P of Patagonia is reported. Both its peculiar geographic location in a scarcely prospected zone and its radiocarbon age, provide new elements to discuss the previous hypotheses about the extinction of the horses and its relations with the human beings that inhabited the different environments of South America.Presentamos un nuevo registro de Hippidion saldiasi con datación radiocarbónica directa correspondiente al Holoceno temprano de Patagonia (8.850 ± 80 años C-14 AP. Su particular ubicación temporal y geográfica en una zona poco estudiada hasta ahora y su registro reciente, aportan nuevos elementos para discutir las hipótesis previas sobre la extinción de los caballos y su relación con los grupos humanos que colonizaron los diferentes ambientes de América del Sur.

  13. Disputes over land and water rights in gold mining : The case of Cerro de San Pedro, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborg, D.; Boelens, R.

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes different visions and positions in a conflict between the developer of an open-pit mine in Mexico and project opponents using the echelons of rights analysis framework, distinguishing four layers of dispute: contested resources; contents of rules and regulations;

  14. Síndrome de Burnout en estudiantes internos durante su estancia por el Hospital Pediátrico del Cerro

    OpenAIRE

    José Ramón Acosta-Torres; Rogelio Balado-Sansón; María E. Sardiña-Arce; Araiz Consuegra-Otero

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la presencia del síndrome de Burnout en su orientación unidimensional entre los estudiantes internos del sexto año de la carrera de Medicina durante su rotación por Pediatría. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal y descriptivo mediante la aplicación de la Escala Unidimensional del Burnout Estudiantil de Barraza Macías a una muestra de 230 alumnos del sexto año de la carrera de Medicina, durante su rotación por el Hospital Docente Pediátrico del Cerr...

  15. Results of investigation at the Miravalles Geothermal Field, Costa Rica: Part 1, Well logging. Resultados de las investigaciones en el campo geotermico de Miravalles, Costa Rica: Parte 1, Registros de pozos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, B.R.; Lawton, R.G.; Kolar, J.D.; Alvarado, A.

    1989-03-01

    The well-logging operations performed in the Miravalles Geothermal Field in Costa Rica were conducted during two separate field trips. The Phase I program provided the deployment of a suite of high-temperature borehole instruments, including the temperature/rabbit, fluid sampler, and three-arm caliper in Well PGM-3. These same tools were deployed in Well PGM-10 along with an additional survey run with a combination fluid velocity/temperature/pressure instrument used to measure thermodynamic properties under flowing well conditions. The Phase II program complemented Phase I with the suite of tools deployed in Wells PGM-5, PGM-11, and PGM-12. 4 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Estimation of the Energy Content in Maritaro; Northern Sector of the Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico Geothermal Field; Estimacion de la energia contenida en Maritaro, sector norte del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Arriaga, Mario Cesar [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1997-05-01

    The methodology, the conceptual synthetic model and results obtained during the modeling and numerical simulation of Maritaro, northern sector of the Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico hydrothermal system, are reported. A Central objective of this work, was to carry out an updated evaluation of the reservoir`s energy content and to estimate, between tolerable margins of error, the longevity and approximate amount of useful energy that could be transformed in electricity. The probable initial state and the period of exploitation 1980-1996 were satisfactorily reproduced by the numerical model. The natural thermodynamic state, estimated for the reservoir before its commercial exploitation begun, corresponds to the compressed liquid region, at 92 bar of average pressure, an average temperature of 301 degrees celsius, with an enthalpy of 1 344 kj/kg. The hottest zones are located toward the center and eastern portions of the field, and the colder regions, at the western periphery. It was considered a minimum volume of exploitable reservoir equal to 49 km{sup 3}, and a maximum volume, including a possible western reserve zone, of 74 km{sup 3}. Several scenarios were numerically studied, including the installation from 75 MWe up to 400 MWe. The 280 MWe power is considered to be the maximum feasible capacity to be installed in the minimum presently known volume. The 400 MWe power characterize the upper, hypothetical limit capacity, assuming that the reserve zone is variable. This last stage having the highest risk. [Espanol] En este documento se reporta la metodologia sintetico conceptual y los resultados obtenidos mediante el modelado matematico y la simulacion numerica de Maritaro, sector norte del sistema hidrotermal de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico. El objetivo central del trabajo fue realizar una evaluacion actualizada de la capacidad energetica contenida en este reservorio y estimar, dentro de margenes tolerables de error, la longevidad y cantidad aproximada de energia util que pudiera transformarse en electricidad. El probable estado inicial y el periodo de explotacion 1980-1996 fueron reproducidos satisfactoriamente por el modelo numerico. El estado termodinamico natural estimado para el yacimiento, antes del inicio de su explotacion comercial, caracteriza a un reservorio de liquido comprimido, a una presion promedio de 92 bar, a temperatura media de 301 grados celsius y una entalpia promedio de 1 344 kJ/kg. Las zonas mas calientes se situan hacia el centro-este y las mas frias hacia el oeste del campo. El volumen minimo de reservorio explotable se calculo en 49 km{sup 3} y el maximo, incluyendo la posible zona occidental de reserva, es de 74 km{sup 3}. Se estudiaron numericamente varios escenarios de explotacion factible, desde 75 hasta 400 MWe. El escenario de 280 MWe conforma la capacidad maxima instalable en el yacimiento actualmente conocido. La capacidad de 400 MWe representa el limite extremo hipotetico y de mas alto riesgo para explotar a Maritaro, suponiendo favorable la zona occidental de reserva.

  17. Results of investigation at the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica. Resultados de las investigaciones en el campo geotermico de Miravalles, Costa Rica; Parte 2, Muestreo de fluidos pozo abajo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigsby, C.O.; Goff, F.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.A.; Dennis, B.; Kolar, J.; Corrales, R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, San Jose (Costa Rica))

    1989-10-01

    Samples of the geothermal fluids in the Miravalles, Costa Rica, geothermal system were collected from production wellbores using downhole fluid samplers, from flowing wellheads using miniseparators, and from hot springs that discharge in the area. The reservoir fluid at Miravalles is a neutral-chloride-type water, but fumaroles and acid-sulfate springs are present within the main thermal area, and there are bicarbonate-rich hot springs that are clearly related to the neutral-chloride reservoir fluids. Dissolved gases are primarily a mixture of CO{sub 2} with air, but samples collected in the fumarolic areas also contain H{sub 2}S. Water-stable isotope analyses suggest local meteoric recharge, and the reservoir fluid shows oxygen isotopic shifts of about 2.5% due to high-temperature oxygen exchange between water and rock. Chemical geothermometer temperatures are consistent with the measured downhole temperature of 220{degrees} to 255{degrees}C. This pattern of neutral-chloride reservoir fluids with acid-sulfate springs near the source region and bicarbonate-rich chloride hot springs at the periphery of the system suggests a lateral outflow type of hydrothermal system. In addition to the geochemical evidence, temperature profiles from several of the wells show temperature reversals that are characteristic of lateral outflow plumes. We find no evidence for the underlying, higher temperature (300{degrees}C) system, which has been suggested by other investigators. 24 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Interpretation of an E-W seismic cross section in Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Interpretacion geofisica de una seccion sismica de reflexion con direccion E-W en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo Fragoso, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    On the basis of reflection seismic studies conducted at Los Humeros, Puebla, geothermal field. There were identified several reflection horizons correlated with the following lithology features: the basis of theignimbrites, the Teziutlan andesites, and the top of the calcareous basement and the faults affecting them at depth in the well H-27 sector. It was observed that Los Humeros fault ends at the buried fault F-II that affects the calcareous basement in the well H-8 area. The presence of steaming grounds at the surface suggests that there are fluid transports between them. In the sector corresponding to the location of faults F-II to F-V, at the top of the basement depth, there are bending of the faults traces related to recent magnetic intrusive that metamorphosed the sedimentary basement to produce skarn. These intrusive act as the heat source of the hydrothermal system. It is considered that the best sites to drill the wells to develop the field are those in which the faults bends were observed, because near the fault traces, the best conditions for the flow of fluids are expected. [Spanish] Por medio de estudio de sismica de reflexion realizados en Los Humeros, Puebla, se determinaron reflectores que se correlacionaron con la base de las ignimbritas, el espesor de las andesitas Teziutlan, la cima del basamento calcareo y estructuras que lo desplazan a mayor profundidad en la zona del pozo H-27. Se observo que la falla de los Humeros termina sobre la falla sepultada F-11, la cual desplaza al basamento a mayor profundidad en la zona del pozo H-8. La presencia de manifestaciones de vapor en la superficie sugiere que existe transporte de fluidos entre ellas. En la zona donde se ubican las fallas de la F-11 a la F-V, a la profundidad de la cima del basamento sedimentario, se presentan arqueamientos sobre las trazas de las fallas relacionados con intrusiones magmaticas recientes que metamorfizaron al basamento sedimentario (skarn) y que sirven actualmente de alimentacion calorifica al acuifero hidrotermal de alta temperatura. Se considera que los sectores favorables para ubicar pozos de desarrollo son los sitios donde se presentan los arqueamientos mencionados, proximos a trazas de falla debido a que se asegura la existencia de fracturamiento y la transferencia de fluidos.

  19. Response to exploitation (1982-2002) of the Los Azufres, Michoacan (Mexico) geothermal field. Part I: North Zone; Respuesta a la explotacion (1982-2003) del yacimiento geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan (Mexico). Parte I: Zona Norte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano G, Victor Manuel; Barragan R, Rosa Maria [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Torres R, Marco Antonio; Sandoval M, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    This work studies the thermodynamic evolution of the Los Azufres northern zone reservoir fluids as a response of exploitation since 1982 to 2002 is presented. Thermodynamic conditions for reservoir fluids were estimated using the WELFLO heat-and flow-well simulator, using production data as the input. The initial thermodynamic conditions of the north zone wells indicated the presence of compressed liquid; also it was noticed that the first response to exploitation was a pressure drop and an enthalpy increase, while the long term response indicated a very small pressure change but a high enthalpy increment. The analysis of production, chemical and isotopic (d18O, dD) data in this zone showed interference effects of fluids reinjected in well Az-52 on well Az-5; and in well Az-15 on wells Az-13, Az-28 and Az-43. At the present time due to the low injection flow rates, this effect is minimal. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un estudio sobre la evolucion termodinamica de los fluidos de la zona norte del yacimiento de Los Azufres desde el inicio de su explotacion en 1982 hasta el ano 2002, considerando las condiciones de fondo de pozos del campo, como respuesta a la extraccion e inyeccion de fluidos. Las condiciones termodinamicas de los fluidos del yacimiento se estimaron mediante el simulador del flujo de fluidos y calor en pozos {sup W}ELFLO{sup ,} a partir de datos de produccion. Las condiciones termodinamicas iniciales de los fluidos de la zona norte de campo se encontraron en la region de liquido comprimido; la primera respuesta a la explotacion consistio en una disminucion de presion y un incremento en la entalpia. A largo plazo, se observaron cambios muy pequenos en la presion y grandes incrementos en la entalpia. El analisis de datos quimicos, isotopicos (d18O, dD) y de produccion de pozos en la zona norte evidencio la ocurrencia de interferencia de fluidos de reinyeccion del pozo Az-52 con el pozo Az-5 y del pozo Az-15 con los pozos Az-13, Az-28 y Az 43 aunque actualmente debido al bajo volumen de fluidos que reciben los pozos productores este efecto es minimo.

  20. Response to exploitation (1982-2002) of the Los Azufres, Michoacan (Mexico) geothermal field. Part II: South Zone; Respuesta a la explotacion (1982-2003) del yacimiento geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan (Mexico). Parte II: Zona Sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano G, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico); Torres R, Marco Antonio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Barragan R, Rosa Maria [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico); Sandoval M, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2005-06-01

    The paper describes the thermodynamic evolution of fluids in the Los Azufres geothermal field's southern zone reservoir, as a response to exploitation from 1982 to 2002. Thermodynamic conditions for the reservoir fluids were estimated with production data using the WELFLO heat-and-flow well simulator. In the southern zone, initial fluid thermodynamic conditions indicated that compressed liquid, two-phase fluids and vapor occurred in the reservoir, depending on the well depths. The fist response to exploitation consisted in a pressure drop an enthalpy increase. For the long term, the following patterns have been identified: pressure and mass flow-rate drop, boiling, cooling, vapor production and in some wells affected by injection an increase in both pressure and mass flow rate. The isotopic results of well fluids in the southern zone showed the occurrence of two processes. The first, with a positive slope, indicates a mixing of reservoir and injection fluids and mainly affects wells Az-2, Az-16, Az-33, Az-36 and Az-46. The second, with a negative slope, results from the original processes of reservoir steam separation and partial condensation. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un estudio sobre la evolucion termodinamica de los fluidos de la zona sur del yacimiento de Los Azufres, como respuesta a la extraccion e inyeccion de fluidos, desde el inicio de su explotacion en 1982 hasta el ano 2002. Las condiciones termodinamicas de los fluidos del yacimiento se estimaron mediante el simulador de flujo de fluidos y calor en pozos WELFLO, a partir de datos de produccion. Las condiciones termodinamicas iniciales de los fluidos de la zona sur, indicaron la existencia de liquido comprimido, dos fases con liquido dominante y dos fases con vapor dominante, dependiendo de la profundidad de los pozos. La respuesta inicial de la zona sur a la explotacion consistio en una disminucion de la presion y un aumento en la entalpia mientras que a mas largo plazo se han observado los siguientes fenomenos: disminucion de presion y gasto, ebullicion, enfriamiento, produccion de vapor y en algunos de los pozos afectados por el proceso de inyeccion un aumento en la presion y en la tasa de produccion. Los resultados isotopicos de los fluidos de pozos de la zona sur indicaron la ocurrencia de dos procesos: el primero, de pendiente positiva, indica mezcla entre fluidos del yacimiento y fluidos de reinyeccion y afecta principalmente a los pozos Az-2, Az-16, Az-33, Az-36 y Az-46; y el segundo, de pendiente negativa, resulta del proceso original de separacion de vapor y condensacion parcial en el yacimiento.

  1. Productive fluid intervals in wells H-35 and H-39, Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla (Mexico); Intervalos productores de fluidos en los pozos H-35 y H-39 del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina Martinez, Moises [Comision Federal de Electridad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents the results of log interpretations using the percentage method to define the productive fluid intervals in wells H-35 and H-39. These were identified with pressure, temperature and flow rate (PTS) electronic logs, used for the first time in this field. The test were carried out with the well integrated to the electrical generation units. Well H-35 fed steam to Units 1, 4, 5 and 7 through a plate with a restriction orifice diameter of 50.8 mm (2 inches), a well head pressure of 45 bars and a mass flow rate of 40 t/h. Well H-39 fed steam to Unit 3 through plate with a restriction orifice diameter of 50.8 mm (2 inches), a well head pressure of 27 bars and a mass flow rate of 30 t/h. [Spanish] Se presenta la intervencion realizada por el metodo de porcentajes para definir los intervalos productores de fluidos en los pozos H-35 y H-39. El estudio se hizo a partir de datos obtenidos con una sonda electronica de presion, temperatura y velocidad de flujo (PTS), utilizada por primera vez en este campo. En ambos casos se realizaron las pruebas con el pozo integrado a las unidades de generacion electrica, el primero suministra vapor para las Unidades 1, 4, 5 y 7 a traves de una placa de orificio de restriccion de 50.8 mm (2 pulgadas) de diametro, con presion de cabezal de 45 bar manometricos y un gasto de mezcla de 40 t/h. El segundo alimenta a la Unidad 3, fluye por orificio de 50.8 mm (2 pulgadas) de diametro y produce 30 t/h de mezcla con una presion en la cabeza de 27 bar.

  2. Results of test of acid fluids neutralization in the well H-43, Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla; Resultados de la prueba de neutralizacion de fluidos acidos en el pozo H-43, campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly del Carmen; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Sandoval Medina, Fernando; Rosales Lopez, Cesar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-07-15

    The well H-43 was drilled in Los Humeros Geothermal Field, Pue., in 2007 and 2008. When well production was measured, it was found the well produced acid fluids with high corrosion potential. Then it was decided to try to neutralize the acidity of the H-43 fluids by adding a solution of sodium hydroxide. This is a basic substance used to neutralize mainly the acid groups H+, and the goal was to raise the pH of the fluids to minimize its corrosive features. First sodium hydroxide was injected into the well to protect the casing of 244.4 mm (9 5/8 in) against corrosion and then all the surface installations. It was possible to increase the pH of the well fluid from 5.2 up to 6.8 without altering the steam production, thus demonstrating the neutralization procedure is feasible. The approximate costs of the neutralization tests performed, including equipment for the proposed neutralization system, the neutralizer (NaOH), and drilling the well are about 71.4 million pesos (around 5.5 million USD). We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.5 and a return on investment in five years, considering the income from energy sales at present value. [Spanish] El pozo H-43 fue perforado en el campo de Los Humeros, Pue., en 2007-2008, y al evaluar su produccion se encontro que producia fluidos acidos de alto potencial corrosivo. Se decidio por tanto realizar una prueba para neutralizar la acidez de los fluidos de este pozo, que consistio en agregarle una solucion de hidroxido de sodio. Esta es una sustancia basica que neutraliza principalmente los grupos acidos H+, con lo que se buscaba aumentar el pH del fluido lo necesario para reducir al maximo su caracter corrosivo. La inyeccion del hidroxido de sodio se realizo dentro del pozo a fin de proteger de la corrosion a la tuberia de revestimiento de 244.4 mm (9 5/8 pulgadas), y posteriormente a todos los equipos superficiales. Como resultado de la prueba, se logro aumentar el pH del fluido producido por el pozo de 5.2 a un maximo de 6.8, sin alterar su produccion de vapor, demostrandose asi que el procedimiento de neutralizacion es factible. Los costos aproximados de las pruebas de neutralizacion realizadas, incluyendo equipos del sistema de neutralizacion propuesto, los gastos del neutralizador (NaOH) y la perforacion del pozo son de unos 71.4 millones de pesos. Se estimo una relacion beneficio/costo de 1.5 y una recuperacion de la inversion, considerando los ingresos por venta de energia a valor presente se obtiene en 5 anos.

  3. Renewed Volcano-Stratigraphc Studies of Calderas with Geothermal Potential in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, J. L.; Arce, J. L.; García-Tenorio, F.; Layer, P. W.; Saucedo, R.; Castro, R.; Garduño, V. H.; Jimenez, A.; Pérez, H.; Valdez, G.; Meriggi, L.

    2014-12-01

    During the past six years we have carried out volcanologic fieldwork either in active geothermal fields in Mexico (Los Azufres, Tres Vírgenes, and Cerro Prieto) or in potential sites in which some geothermal exploration studied had been done by the National Power Company (CFE). These studies have been very successful in reassessing the location of the geothermal reservoirs within the volcanic successions through detailed mapping of the volcanic units using high resolution topography and satellite imagery to produce 3-D imagery in conjunction with field work to produce preliminary geologic maps. Detailed stratigraphy of volcanic units, assisted with 40Ar/39Ar and radiocarbon geochronology have redefined the evolution of some of these complexes. For example, our studies at Los Azufres geothermal field located in the State of Michoacán indicate that the volcanic complex of the same name sits upon a structural high transected by E-W faults related to the youngest structures of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The volcanic complex has been emplaced during the past ~1.5 Ma. During this time, magmas evolved from basaltic to rhyolitic in composition with the emplacement of circa 100 vents. Several landforms have undergone intense hydrothermal alteration and, in some cases, generated debris avalanches. The revised stratigraphy based on drill holes and new dates of cores suggested that the geothermal reservoir is hosted in Miocene rocks bracketed between the Miocene Sierra de Mil Cumbres volcanics (17-22 Ma) and the products of the volcanic field itself. Similar studies will be carried out at four other Pleistocene calderas (Acoculco, La Primavera, Aguajito and Reforma) attempting to refine their volcanic stratigraphy, evolution, and the location of the geothermal system, and those results will help in the design of exploration strategies for geothermal sources.

  4. A bottom-driven mechanism for distributed faulting in the Gulf of California rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Patricia; Tan, Eh; Contreras, Juan; Lavier, Luc

    2017-11-01

    Observations of active faulting in the continent-ocean transition of the Northern Gulf of California show multiple oblique-slip faults distributed in a 200 × 70 km2 area developed some time after a westward relocation of the plate boundary at 2 Ma. In contrast, north and south of this broad pull-apart structure, major transform faults accommodate Pacific-North America plate motion. Here we propose that the mechanism for distributed brittle deformation results from the boundary conditions present in the Northern Gulf, where basal shear is distributed between the Cerro Prieto strike-slip fault (southernmost fault of the San Andreas fault system) and the Ballenas Transform Fault. We hypothesize that in oblique-extensional settings whether deformation is partitioned in a few dip-slip and strike-slip faults, or in numerous oblique-slip faults may depend on (1) bottom-driven, distributed extension and shear deformation of the lower crust or upper mantle, and (2) the rift obliquity. To test this idea, we explore the effects of bottom-driven shear on the deformation of a brittle elastic-plastic layer with the help of pseudo-three dimensional numerical models that include side forces. Strain localization results when the basal shear abruptly increases in a step-function manner while oblique-slip on numerous faults dominates when basal shear is distributed. We further explore how the style of faulting varies with obliquity and demonstrate that the style of delocalized faulting observed in the Northern Gulf of California is reproduced in models with an obliquity of 0.7 and distributed basal shear boundary conditions, consistent with the interpreted obliquity and boundary conditions of the study area.

  5. Systematic heat flow measurements across the Wagner Basin, northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Florian; Negrete-Aranda, Raquel; Harris, Robert N.; Contreras, Juan; Sclater, John G.; González-Fernández, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    A primary control on the geodynamics of rifting is the thermal regime. To better understand the geodynamics of rifting in the northern Gulf of California we systematically measured heat-flow across the Wagner Basin, a tectonically active basin that lies near the southern terminus of the Cerro Prieto fault. The heat flow profile is 40 km long, has a nominal measurement spacing of ∼1 km, and is collocated with a seismic reflection profile. Heat flow measurements were made with a 6.5-m violin-bow probe. Although heat flow data were collected in shallow water, where there are significant temporal variations in bottom water temperature, we use CTD data collected over many years to correct our measurements to yield accurate values of heat flow. After correction for bottom water temperature, the mean and standard deviation of heat flow across the western, central, and eastern parts of the basin are 220 ± 60, 99 ± 14, 889 ± 419 mW m-2, respectively. Corrections for sedimentation would increase measured heat flow across the central part of basin by 40 to 60%. We interpret the relatively high heat flow and large variability on the western and eastern flanks in terms of upward fluid flow at depth below the seafloor, whereas the lower and more consistent values across the central part of the basin are suggestive of conductive heat transfer. Moreover, heat flow across the central basin is consistent with gabbroic underplating at a depth of 15 km and suggests that continental rupture here has not gone to completion.

  6. Seismic structure beneath the Gulf of California: a contribution from group velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luccio, F.; Persaud, P.; Clayton, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion measurements from local and regional earthquakes are used to interpret the lithospheric structure in the Gulf of California region. We compute group velocity maps for Rayleigh waves from 10 to 150 s using earthquakes recorded by broad-band stations of the Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs in Baja California and Mexico mainland, UNM in Mexico, BOR, DPP and GOR in southern California and TUC in Arizona. The study area is gridded in 120 longitude cells by 180 latitude cells, with an equal spacing of 10 × 10 km. Assuming that each gridpoint is laterally homogeneous, for each period the tomographic maps are inverted to produce a 3-D lithospheric shear wave velocity model for the region. Near the Gulf of California rift axis, we found three prominent low shear wave velocity regions, which are associated with mantle upwelling near the Cerro Prieto volcanic field, the Ballenas Transform Fault and the East Pacific Rise. Upwelling of the mantle at lithospheric and asthenospheric depths characterizes most of the Gulf. This more detailed finding is new when compared to previous surface wave studies in the region. A low-velocity zone in northcentral Baja at ˜28ºN which extends east-south-eastwards is interpreted as an asthenospheric window. In addition, we also identify a well-defined high-velocity zone in the upper mantle beneath central-western Baja California, which correlates with the previously interpreted location of the stalled Guadalupe and Magdalena microplates. We interpret locations of the fossil slab and slab window in light of the distribution of unique post-subduction volcanic rocks in the Gulf of California and Baja California. We also observe a high-velocity anomaly at 50-km depth extending down to ˜130 km near the southwestern Baja coastline and beneath Baja, which may represent another remnant of the Farallon slab.

  7. Geothermal Fields on the Volcanic Axis of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, S.; Gonzalez, A.

    1980-12-16

    At present in Mexico, geothermal energy is receiving a great impulse due to the excellent results obtained in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, in which a geothermoelectric plant is operated. This plant has four units of 37.5 MW each, with a total capacity of 150 MW, and under program 470 MW more by 1984. The Government Institution, Comisi6n Federal de Electricidad, is in charge of the exploration and exploitation of geothermal fields as well as construction and operation of power plants in Mexico. By this time CFE has an extensive program of exploration in the central part of Mexico, in the Eje Neovolcdnico. In this area, several fields with hydrothermal alteration are under exploration, like the Michoac6n geothermal area, where Los Azufres geothermal field is being developed. Seventeen wells have been drilled and twelve of them presented excellent results, including two dry steam wells. In other areas, such as Arar6, Cuitzeo, San Agustln del Maiz,Ixtldn de Los Hervores and Los Negritos, geological, geophysical and geochemical explorations have been accomplished, including shallow well drilling with good results. Another main geothermal area is in the State of Jalisco with an extension of 5,000 m2, where La Primavera geothermal field shows a lot of volcanic domes and has an intensive hydrothermal activity. Deep wells have been drilled, one of them with a bottom temperature of 29OOC. Other fields in this area, like San Narcos, Hervores de La Vega, La Soledad, Villa Corona, etc., have a good geothermal potential. A new geothermal area has been explored recently in the eastern part of the country named Los Humeros, Puebla. In this area studies are being made and there are plans for well drilling exploration by the beginning of 1981. Like this one, there are many other areas in the country in which 300 hydrothermal alteration zones are been classified and 100 of them are considered economically exploitable.

  8. Subsidence monitoring with geotechnical instruments in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Márquez Ramírez, V. H.; Robles, B.; Nava, F. A.; Farfán, F.; García Arthur, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The Mexicali Valley (northwestern Mexico), situated in the southern part of the San Andreas fault system, is an area with high tectonic deformation, recent volcanism, and active seismicity. Since 1973, fluid extraction, from the 1500-3000 m depth range, at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), has influenced deformation in the Mexicali Valley area, accelerating the subsidence and causing slip along the traces of tectonic faults that limit the subsidence area. Detailed field mapping done since 1989 (González et al., 1998; Glowacka et al., 2005; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008) in the vicinity of the CPGF shows that many subsidence induced fractures, fissures, collapse features, small grabens, and fresh scarps are related to the known tectonic faults. Subsidence and fault rupture are causing damage to infrastructure, such as roads, railroad tracks, irrigation channels, and agricultural fields. Since 1996, geotechnical instruments installed by CICESE (Centro de Investigación Ciéntifica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, B.C.) have operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. Instruments are installed over or very close to the affected faults. To date, the network includes four crackmeters and eight tiltmeters; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 min range. Instrumental records typically show continuous creep, episodic slip events related mainly to the subsidence process, and coseismic slip discontinuities (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, 2010; Sarychikhina et al., 2015). The area has also been monitored by levelling surveys every few years and, since the 1990's by studies based on DInSAR data (Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Hansen, 2001; Sarychikhina et al., 2011). In this work we use data from levelling, DInSAR, and geotechnical instruments records to compare the subsidence caused by anthropogenic activity and/or seismicity with slip recorded by geotechnical instruments, in an attempt to obtain more information

  9. New constraints on slip rates and locking depths of the San Andreas Fault System from Sentinel-1A InSAR and GAGE GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L. A.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Higa, J. T.; Xu, X.; Tong, X.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    After over a decade of operation, the EarthScope (GAGE) Facility has now accumulated a wealth of GPS and InSAR data, that when successfully integrated, make it possible to image the entire San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) with unprecedented spatial coverage and resolution. Resulting surface velocity and deformation time series products provide critical boundary conditions needed for improving our understanding of how faults are loaded across a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. Moreover, our understanding of how earthquake cycle deformation is influenced by fault zone strength and crust/mantle rheology is still developing. To further study these processes, we construct a new 4D earthquake cycle model of the SAFS representing the time-dependent 3D velocity field associated with interseismic strain accumulation, co-seismic slip, and postseismic viscoelastic relaxation. This high-resolution California statewide model, spanning the Cerro Prieto fault to the south to the Maacama fault to the north, is constructed on a 500 m spaced grid and comprises variable slip and locking depths along 42 major fault segments. Secular deep slip is prescribed from the base of the locked zone to the base of the elastic plate while episodic shallow slip is prescribed from the historical earthquake record and geologic recurrence intervals. Locking depths and slip rates for all 42 fault segments are constrained by the newest GAGE Facility geodetic observations; 3169 horizontal GPS velocity measurements, combined with over 53,000 line-of-sight (LOS) InSAR velocity observations from Sentinel-1A, are used in a weighted least-squares inversion. To assess slip rate and locking depth sensitivity of a heterogeneous rheology model, we also implement variations in crustal rigidity throughout the plate boundary, assuming a coarse representation of shear modulus variability ranging from 20-40 GPa throughout the (low rigidity) Salton Trough and Basin and Range and the (high rigidity) Central

  10. Subsidence monitoring with geotechnical instruments in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Glowacka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mexicali Valley (northwestern Mexico, situated in the southern part of the San Andreas fault system, is an area with high tectonic deformation, recent volcanism, and active seismicity. Since 1973, fluid extraction, from the 1500–3000 m depth range, at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF, has influenced deformation in the Mexicali Valley area, accelerating the subsidence and causing slip along the traces of tectonic faults that limit the subsidence area. Detailed field mapping done since 1989 (González et al., 1998; Glowacka et al., 2005; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008 in the vicinity of the CPGF shows that many subsidence induced fractures, fissures, collapse features, small grabens, and fresh scarps are related to the known tectonic faults. Subsidence and fault rupture are causing damage to infrastructure, such as roads, railroad tracks, irrigation channels, and agricultural fields. Since 1996, geotechnical instruments installed by CICESE (Centro de Investigación Ciéntifica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, B.C. have operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. Instruments are installed over or very close to the affected faults. To date, the network includes four crackmeters and eight tiltmeters; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 min range. Instrumental records typically show continuous creep, episodic slip events related mainly to the subsidence process, and coseismic slip discontinuities (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, 2010; Sarychikhina et al., 2015. The area has also been monitored by levelling surveys every few years and, since the 1990's by studies based on DInSAR data (Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Hansen, 2001; Sarychikhina et al., 2011. In this work we use data from levelling, DInSAR, and geotechnical instruments records to compare the subsidence caused by anthropogenic activity and/or seismicity with slip recorded by geotechnical instruments, in an attempt to obtain

  11. Análisis e interpretación de los materiales volcánicos del Cerro de los Frailes (Cabo de Gata. Almería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Soler, J. M.

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of Los Frailes volcano had two stages, which produced amphibole andesites (Frailes-I and two-pyroxene andesites (Frailes-II respectively, Iying on the extension of the dacites and andesites of the southernmost Cabo de Gata volcanoes (Revancha-Sabinal. The FRAILES-I stage is discontinuous, and has mainly produced domes and autoclastic breccias, in addition to an intermediate level of pumice-and-ash flow; this unit has some intercalated sedimentary levels. To the NE it is covered by a formation of sedimentary and hydroclastic rocks. The Frailes-II stage is continuous, and has formed some lava flows, the two summit domes, and sorne pyroclastic rocks of scarcely explosive origin. Other volcanic features are some domes and dikes of biotite-amphibole dacites, which affect to the Frailes-I-group; these are the southern continuation of the dacitic volcanic group of Rodalquilar-Rellana-Garbanzal. The generally accepted idea of a succesion in Cabo de Gata of cycles which started very explosively and ended with subvolcanic extrussions (domes does not seem to be very realistic at least in the building of Los Frailes. A review of geochronological data, and the field disposition of the described materials does not discard the hypothesis that the pyroxene andesites of FrailesI-I might have been formed simultaneously or even than later the ignimbritic dacites of the Rodalquilar group.La formación del volcán de Los Frailes se produjo en dos ciclos, de composiciones andesítica anfibólica (Frailes-I y andesitica de dos piroxenos (Frailes-II, apoyadas sobre la prolongación hacia el este de las andesitas y dacitas del extremo sur de Cabo de Gata (edificio de Revancha-Sabinal-Cabo de Gata. El ciclo Frailes-I es discontínuo y ha formado domos y brechas autoclásticas principalmente, mas un nivel intermedio de colada piroclástica pumítica; este ciclo contiene niveles sedimentarios intercalados. Al NE es cubierto por una formación de rocas sedimentarias e hidroclásticas. El ciclo Frailes-II es continuo, y ha producido coladas de lava, los dos domos sumitales, y brechas piroclásticas de formación poco o nada explosiva. Otras manifestaciones volcánicas presentes son diques y domos de composición dacítica (biotítica-anfibólica, que cortan a los materiales del ciclo Frailes-I, y que serían los representantes más meridionales del grupo volcánico dacítico de Rodalquilar-Rellana-Garbanzal. Por tanto la propuesta sucesión generalizada de ciclos que comenzaron siendo muy explosivos para acabar con extrusiones subvolcánicas (domos no es válida esencialmente en la construcción de Los Frailes. Una revisión de los datos geocronológicos, y la disposición en el campo de los materiales permite considerar la hipótesis de que las andesitas piroxénicas del ciclo Frailes-II pudieron ser contemporáneas o posteriores a las dacitas (esencialmente ignimbríticas del grupo de Rodalquilar.

  12. ¿Ladrones, pequeños empresarios o trabajadores independientes? : K’ajchas, trapiches y plata en el cerro de Potosí en el siglo XVIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barragàn, R.

    2015-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the history of a group of self-employed workers that produced 20 to 35% of Potosí’s silver in the 18th century. The paper begins remembering the contribution of historiography to the study of the k’ajchas. The analysis is centered then, in the property rights to the

  13. Mal de montaña crónico entre mineros de Cerro de Pasco: Evidencias epidemiológicas y fisiológicas.

    OpenAIRE

    Arregui, Alberto; Leon Velarde, Fabiola; Monge, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Hace cien mil años Viault (1890) demostró un aumento en el número de glóbulos rojos de personas que vivían en Morococha a 4,500 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Desde entonces se empezó a desarrollar el concepto de adaptación a las grandes alturas. Estudios posteriores demostraron que efectivamente el nativo de altura lograba aclimatarse a su ambiente con poco oxígeno pero que eventualmente podía perder esta adaptación. La descripción del primer caso de Mal de Montaña Crónico (MMC) hecha por Mo...

  14. Los efectos urbanos de la minería en el Perú: del modelo de Cerro de Pasco y La Oroya al de Cajamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Vega-Centeno, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    El impacto de la explotación minera en las ciudades peruanas ha tenido diferentes consecuencias urbanas a lo largo de la historia. De las ciudades mineras coloniales hemos pasado al modelo de ciudad industrial o ciudad campamento, que es aún el modelo predominante en la actualidad. Según él, la empresa concentra o superpone responsabilidades referidas tanto a la esfera productiva como a la gestión del espacio urbano que se ha creado. Sin embargo, la globalización de la economía y el desarroll...

  15. Zonificación ecológica del cerro "El Potosí", Galeana, Nuevo León, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. García A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the proposal made in order to declare "El Potosí" mountain as a special biosphere reserve, an ecological zonification map was made considering the nucleus zone, buffer and habitat rehabilitation. Criteria used for zonification the distribution of vegetation and wildlife populations, taken from cartographic interpretation using a satellite image and information of biodiversity. Ten vegetation types and four land-uses were defined, 45 species were found at a special conservation status: 19 of them are plants and 26 are animals.

  16. O Cerro Aconcágua (6959m, Argentina: um destino de turismo de Aventura: um alto lugar mítico e simbólico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Raspaud

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumo

    Este artigo busca compreender o modo de organização e de funcionamento de um destino do turismo de aventura de alta altitude. Após relembrar o conteúdo do conceito de destino turístico, descreve o exemplo histórico de Chamonix. Em seguida, através do método da observação participante, no âmbito de uma expedição amadora, ele análisa a organização concreta in situ do destino de Aconcágua. Em conclusão, para além dos serviços propostos, este artigo sublinha que, para a clientela de turistas alpinistas, o preço de um tal destino reporta-se, ao senso simbólico atribuído a ele, as provas físicas e mentais suportadas, e a sociabilidade própria ao meio cultural do mundo do alpinismo.

    Palavras-chave: destino turístico; turismo de aventura; Aconcágua; valores simbólicos; sociabilidade.

     

    Abstract

    The aim of this article is to understand the organization and working process of a high altitude touristic destination. After the definition of the concept of touristic destination, it describes the historic example of Chamonix. Then, by the way of the observing participation method, realized during an amateur expedition, the concrete organization in situ of the Aconcagua destination is analysed. In conclusion, the author underlines the fact that, more than the services offered, the price of such a destination is, for the mountaineer clients, in the symbolic sense given to the destination, in the physical and mental suffering tried out, and the lived sociability of the cultural mountaineering world.

    Keywords : touristic destination ; adventure tourism ; Aconcagua ; symbolic values ; sociability.

  17. Prácticas de sacrificio en el Cerro de la Mesa (Alcolea de Tajo, Toledo): el depósito ritual de la Casa 1

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Díez, Ana; Moreno-garcía, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Los depósitos con restos óseos animales enterrados bajo el pavimento en ámbitos domésticos forman parte de prácticas rituales bien conocidas en la Protohistoria peninsular, tradicionalmente asociadas a la fundación o remodelación de nuevos edificios o a ritos vinculados a la propiciación y la fertilidad. Aunque los ejemplos mejor estudiados se encuentran en la zona levantina, el fenómeno también se conoce en yacimientos del interior. Este artículo tiene por objeto presentar un depósito ritual...

  18. The exploitation of obsidian in the Central Plateau of Santa Cruz, Argentina: Results from La María and Cerro Tres Tetas and a regional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Enrique Cueto

    2016-09-01

    Results from this work strengthen the idea that the groups which lived in the Central Plateau knew about and exploited an obsidian source known as Pampa del Asador. A raise in the use of this raw material throughout time is recorded, reaching its peak in the late Holocene. We identified two different moments in the exploitation of obsidian at the regional level. During the final Pleistocene and early Holocene, obsidian would not have played a relevant role in the organization of technology. Production sequences indicate that tools probably were entered to the sites already manufactured. During the middle and late Holocene nodules and cores could have been brought into the sites. The strategies involved in their reduction are in broad terms similar to those implemented with local raw materials; there is no evidence that obsidian had more value in any way. On the other hand, it is also not possible to state that there was just an eventual exploitation of this raw material. We believe that obsidian was acquired during mobility circuits which enabled the contact between different groups.

  19. Itaguy Guasu: un abrigo con grabados de pisadas y abstractos en el cerro Guasú (Amambay, Paraguay): su contexto en América del Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Lasheras Corruchaga, José Antonio; Fatás Monforte, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo es resultado del proyecto de Inventario Nacional del Arte rupestre de Paraguay, con el que empezamos a llenar el vacío de conocimiento e investigación arqueológica sobre el arte rupestre y el periodo Arcaico (Holoceno antiguo y medio) e

  20. FACTORES QUE CONDICIONAN EL CONSUMO DE DROGAS EN ESTUDIANTES DEL 4TO Y 5TO DE SECUNDARIA DEL COLEGIO IGNACIO ALVAREZ THOMAS DE CERRO COLORADO AREQUIPA, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    VILCA CEBALLOS, NURY VANESSA

    2014-01-01

    DROGAS USO, ABUSO Y DEPENDENCIA DE LAS DROGAS CLASIFICACIÓN DE LAS DROGAS TIPOS DE DROGAS DROGAS ILEGALES ENFERMEDADES SOCIALES DROGADICCIÓN TABAQUISMO FACTORES QUE CONDICIONAN EL CONSUMO DE DROGAS FACTORES SOCIALES FACTORES PSICOLÓGICOS

  1. Cooperación y conflicto entre empresas, comunidades, nuevos movimientos sociales y el papel del gobierno. El caso de cerro de San Pedro (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las relaciones de cooperación y conflicto entre la Compañía Minera (MSX y las comunidades de San Pedro, Soledad y San Luis Potosí, los Nuevos Movimientos Sociales y los tres niveles de gobierno involucrados. La compañía Minera inició operaciones en una mina a cielo abierto de oro y plata con el apoyo de oficiales de los gobiernos locales, estatales y federal. Los habitantes de estas comunidades apoyados por grupos ambientalistas y Organizaciones No Gubernamentales argumentan que el proyecto contamina las fuentes de agua fresca, además de perturbar el medio ambiente y la ecología de la región. En tal sentido el artículo analiza el impacto, la interacción social y de conflicto entre los distintos actores desde una perspectiva local y socio-ambiental, previa contextualización histórica de subregión y el desarrollo de la industria minera.

  2. Efficiency of RAPD, ISSR, AFLP and ISTR markers for the detection of polymorphisms and genetic relationships in camote de cerro (Dioscorea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paulina Velasco-Ramírez

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: This indicates an important level of genetic differences despite the fact that the plant is asexually propagated. Based on the diversity statistics, any marker tested in present work can be recommended for use in large-scale genetic studies of populations. However, the low correlations among different molecular marker systems show the importance of the complementarity of the information that is generated by different markers for genetic studies involving estimation of polymorphism and relationships.

  3. La transformación del espacio doméstico y de los modos de vida en Bogotá 1945-1959 : las casas de las firmas Herrera & Nieto Cano y Ricaurte Carrizosa & Prieto

    OpenAIRE

    Roa Rojas, Margarita María

    2017-01-01

    The thesis analyzes the transformation of domestic space and ways of life in Bogotá between 1945 and 1959, as an expression of a fundamental and representative stage in towards the construction of modernity in Colombia. Two studios, highly representative of the domestic architecture of the city, have been chosen as objects of study; The first, Herrera & Nieto Cano (HNC), which clearly characterizes the initial moment of modern Bogota architecture, marked by eclecticism and the own transiti...

  4. El empleo de armamento como elemento de aporte cronológico al arte rupestre postpaleolítico del Cerro de San Isidro (Domingo García, Segovia = The Use of Weapons as an Element of Chronological Contribution the Post-Paleolithic Rock Art in the Cerro...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Pecci Tenrero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La dificultad que entraña el establecimiento de una horquilla cronológica, más o menos determinada, para ubicar la estación de arte rupestre postpaleolítico de Domingo García (Segovia en una época concreta, pues hasta el momento las técnicas empleadas para el estudio de los centenares de grabados son infructuosas, ha hecho que se lleve a cabo un análisis interno de las imágenes que se exhiben portando algún tipo de arma, en busca de información que pueda arrojar luz sobre el período aproximado en que fueron esculpidas en los paneles de los afloramientos rocosos.Since it is difficult to establish a precise chronological range, in order to place in a particular period station rock art post-Paleolithic Domingo García (Segovia, Spain, and so far the techniques used to study hundreds of engravings have not borne fruit, it has made it conducted an internal analysis of the images that can carry some sort of weapon, looking for information that could shed light on the approximate period in which were carved panels rocky outcrops.

  5. A bottom-driven mechanism for distributed faulting: Insights from the Gulf of California Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, P.; Tan, E.; Choi, E.; Contreras, J.; Lavier, L. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Gulf of California is a young oblique rift that displays a variation in rifting style along strike. Despite the rapid localization of strain in the Gulf at 6 Ma, the northern rift segment has the characteristics of a wide rift, with broadly distributed extensional strain and small gradients in topography and crustal thinning. Observations of active faulting in the continent-ocean transition of the Northern Gulf show multiple oblique-slip faults distributed in a 200 x 70 km2area developed some time after a westward relocation of the plate boundary at 2 Ma. In contrast, north and south of this broad pull-apart structure, major transform faults accommodate Pacific-North America plate motion. Here we propose that the mechanism for distributed brittle deformation results from the boundary conditions present in the Northern Gulf, where basal shear is distributed between the Cerro Prieto strike-slip fault (southernmost fault of the San Andreas fault system) and the Ballenas Transform fault. We hypothesize that in oblique-extensional settings whether deformation is partitioned in a few dip-slip and strike-slip faults, or in numerous oblique-slip faults may depend on (1) bottom-driven, distributed extension and shear deformation of the lower crust or upper mantle, and (2) the rift obliquity. To test this idea, we explore the effects of bottom-driven shear on the deformation of a brittle elastic-plastic layer with pseudo-three dimensional numerical models that include side forces. Strain localization results when the basal shear is a step-function while oblique-slip on numerous faults dominates when basal shear is distributed. We further investigate how the style of faulting varies with obliquity and demonstrate that the style of faulting observed in the Northern Gulf of California is reproduced in models with an obliquity of 0.7 and distributed basal shear boundary conditions, consistent with the interpreted obliquity and boundary conditions of the study area. Our

  6. Initiation, evolution and extinction of pull-apart basins: Implications for opening of the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, J.; Axen, G.; Abera, R.

    2017-11-01

    San Jacinto and Elsinore - Cerro Prieto fault systems formed.

  7. Seismic reflection-based evidence of a transfer zone between the Wagner and Consag basins: implications for defining the structural geometry of the northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Escobar, Mario; Suárez-Vidal, Francisco; Hernández-Pérez, José Antonio; Martín-Barajas, Arturo

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the structural characteristics of the northern Gulf of California by processing and interpreting ca. 415 km of two-dimensional multi-channel seismic reflection lines (data property of Petróleos Mexicanos PEMEX) collected in the vicinity of the border between the Wagner and Consag basins. The two basins appear to be a link between the Delfín Superior Basin to the south, and the Cerro Prieto Basin to the north in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley along the Pacific-North America plate boundary. The seismic data are consistent with existing knowledge of four main structures (master faults) in the region, i.e., the Percebo, Santa María, Consag Sur, and Wagner Sur faults. The Wagner and Consag basins are delimited to the east by the Wagner Sur Fault, and to the west by the Consag Sur Fault. The Percebo Fault borders the western margin of the modern Wagner Basin depocenter, and is oriented N10°W, dipping (on average) ˜40° to the northeast. The trace of the Santa María Fault located in the Wagner Basin strikes N19°W, dipping ˜40° to the west. The Consag Sur Fault is oriented N14°W, and dips ˜42° to the east over a distance of 21 km. To the east of the study area, the Wagner Sur Fault almost parallels the Consag Sur Fault over a distance of ˜86 km, and is oriented N10°W with an average dip of 59° to the east. Moreover, the data provide new evidence that the Wagner Fault is discontinuous between the two basins, and that its structure is more complex than previously reported. A structural high separates the northern Consag Basin from the southern Wagner Basin, comprising several secondary faults oriented NE oblique to the main faults of N-S direction. These could represent a zone of accommodation, or transfer zone, where extension could be transferred from the Wagner to the Consag Basin, or vice versa. This area shows no acoustic basement and/or intrusive body, which is consistent with existing gravimetric and magnetic data for the region.

  8. Mechanisms of arsenic enrichment in geothermal and petroleum reservoirs fluids in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkle, Peter; Bundschuh, Jochen; Sracek, Ondra

    2010-11-01

    -type reservoirs are irrelevant for water-rock interaction processes, as suggested by low arsenic aqueous concentration for both Cerro Prieto geothermal fluids (high temperature - sedimentary type) and oil field formation water (low temperature - sedimentary type). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimation of the resource and technological prospective of geothermal energy in Mexico (Annexe 3 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Estimacion del recurso y prospectiva tecnologica de la geotermia en Mexico (Anexo 3 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias R, Eduardo; Arellano G, Victor; Torres R, Rodolfo Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Due to its individual geologic-structural characteristics, Mexico counts on abundant geothermal resources. At the moment we count on a database that includes 2,332 geothermal manifestations distributed in 27 of the 32 Mexican states, the geothermal resources are classified as high temperature and intermediate or low temperature resources. Those of high temperature can be used for the generation of electrical energy. Those of intermediate to low temperature are more appropriate for direct applications of the geothermal heat. As of today, in Mexico exist four geothermal fields of high temperature that are being exploded for the electrical generation. [Spanish] Debido a sus particulares caracteristicas geologico-estructurales, Mexico cuenta con abundantes recursos geotermicos. Actualmente contamos con una base de datos que incluye 2,332 manifestaciones geotermicas distribuidas en 27 de los 32 estados mexicanos, los recursos geotermicos se clasifican en de alta temperatura y recursos de temperatura intermedia a baja. Los de alta temperatura pueden utilizarse para la generacion de energia electrica. Los de temperatura intermedia a baja son mas apropiados para aplicaciones directas del calor geotermico. Actualmente en Mexico existen cuatro campos geotermicos de alta temperatura que estan siendo explotados para la generacion electrica.

  10. "Paabel" kuulutab meile ette hävingut / Marianne Kõrver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõrver, Marianne, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Mängufilm "Paabel" ("Babel") : stsenarist Guillermo Arriaga : režissöör Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu : operaator Rodrigo Prieto : peaosades Cate Blanchett, Brad Pitt, Gael Garcia Bernal, Koji Yokusho : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Mehhiko, 2006

  11. Pretensioonikas embus / Kadri Kõusaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõusaar, Kadri

    2007-01-01

    Mängufilm "Paabel" ("Babel") : stsenarist Guillermo Arriaga : režissöör Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu : operaator Rodrigo Prieto : peaosades Cate Blanchett, Brad Pitt, Gael Garcia Bernal : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Mehhiko, 2006

  12. Maailm kui globaalne piirsituatsioon / Jan Kaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaus, Jan, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Mängufilm "Paabel" ("Babel") : stsenarist Guillermo Arriaga : režissöör Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu : operaator Rodrigo Prieto : peaosades Cate Blanchett, Brad Pitt, Gael Garcia Bernal, Koji Yokusho : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Mehhiko, 2006

  13. Vsjo natshalos s oshibki / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2007-01-01

    Mängufilm "Paabel" ("Babel") : stsenarist Guillermo Arriaga : režissöör Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu : operaator Rodrigo Prieto : osades Brad Pitt, Kate Blanchett : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Mehhiko, 2006

  14. Eesti graafikute edu Hispaanias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Hispaanias Orenses toimunud V rahvusvahelisel graafikabiennaalil (dets. 1998/jaan. 1999) pälvisid kiituse koos rahalise preemiaga Reti Saks, Vive Tolli, Benjamin Vasserman. Julio Prieto Naspereira auhinna žüriilt I preemia Tamoya Uchidale Jaapanist

  15. Antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea and their major contributed antioxidant compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Shuqin; Wang, Kaidi; Lei, Yukun; Yao, Shuting; Lu, Baiyi; Huang, Weisu

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea were evaluated, and their major antioxidant compounds contributed to the total amount of synergy were determined. The antioxidant compounds in O. fragrans flowers with green tea were identified by LC-MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA. The synergistic antioxidant interactions between O. fragrans flowers with green tea and their antioxidant compounds were tested using the Prieto?s model after the simulated digestion. T...

  16. Novel Therapeutic Development of NF1-Associated Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Biological Analyses of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNST)” 2) Journal article : Prieto-Granada CN, Wiesner T, Messina JL, Jungbluth...benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor , and/or focal S100 protein positivity (ង%) in the absence of other markers . The epithelioid MPNST cases displayed...diffusely S100 protein positive, and 2 of the tumors tested with INI1/SMARCB1 (MPNST54, 58) also showed loss of expression of this marker . Prieto

  17. Evaluación de la erosión hídrica del suelo en la finca "Santos García" ubicada en el cerro Las Mesas, Matagalpa, mediante el uso del radionucleido ambiental Cesio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Pérez Matus,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el proceso de erosión hídrica presente en la finca “Santos García”, Ciudad Darío, Matagalpa. Para cuantificar las pérdidas de suelo se empleó la técnica nuclear del 137Cesio (como radioisótopo trazador ambiental. A su vez, se analizó la influencia de factores e indicadores que intervienen en el proceso de pérdida de suelo: pendiente y precipitación, textura (método Bouyoucos, color (tabla Munsell, materia orgánica (digestión húmeda con dicromato de potasio, pH (método Potenciométrico y capacidad de intercambio catiónico (acetato de amonio pH 7 1N. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan grandes pérdidas de suelo asociadas a las características fisicoquímicas de éste. Se manifiesta la urgente necesidad de implementar medidas de conservación de suelo que permitan la sustentabilidad agrícola en el sitio de estudio.

  18. Retraction notice to "The Palaeocene Cerro Munro tonalite intrusion (Chubut Province, Argentina): A plutonic remnant of explosive volcanism?"[J. S. Am. Earth Sci. 78C 38-60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C.; Aragón, E.; Castro, A.; Pedreira, R.; Sánchez-Navas, A.; Díaz-Alvarado, J.; D´Eramo, F.; Pinotti, L.; Aguilera, Y.; Cavarozzi, C.; Demartis, M.; Hernando, I. R.; Fuentes, T.

    2017-10-01

    The publisher regrets that an error occurred which led to the premature publication of this paper. This error bears no reflection on the article or its authors. The publisher apologizes to the authors and the readers for this unfortunate error in Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 78C (2017) 38-60, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2017.06.002.

  19. New research results on “La Plaza de Toros” of Cerro de San Pelayo” (Martimor, Salamanca: a tumulus burial with inhumation at the beginning of the Firts Millenium in the Western area of the North Meseta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Jiménez, Óscar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the latest results obtained from the systematic revision of the materials from this unique site. We present here the burial level in its complete context and the first results of the analyses of this assemblage. We have documented in it human bones, elements of fauna possibly associated with a funerary feast, storage pottery and the well-known geometric painted vessel. The results obtained by analysis of the distribution and post-depositional processes are also very interesting, allowing us to recreate the space in which seem to be represented symbolic and prestige elements that indicate important social changes in these societies. All this, together with the calibration of the radiocarbon dates taken from the tumulus, offers a more complete archaeological documentation of this little known area in the South-western of the Northern Meseta.

    En este trabajo pretendemos adelantar los últimos resultados obtenidos de la revisión sistemática realizada sobre los materiales de este yacimiento de características únicas hasta ahora en la región. Avanzamos aquí la presentación del nivel de enterramiento en su contexto completo y los primeros resultados de los análisis de este conjunto. En él documentamos restos humanos, elementos de fauna posiblemente asociados a un banquete funerario, elementos de almacenaje y el ya conocido vaso pintado con decoración geométrica. Los resultados obtenidos por los análisis de dispersión y procesos postdeposicionales son igualmente de gran interés, permitiéndonos recrear ese espacio en el que parecen estar representados elementos simbólicos y de prestigio que indican importantes cambios en las sociedades de aquel momento. Todo ello, unido a la recalibración de las fechas radiocarbónicas del interior del túmulo, ofrece una completa documentación arqueológica de un momento poco conocido en el área sudoccidental de la Meseta Norte.

  20. Desarrollo de las ventas del gremio prefabricador de Antioquia, en la ejecución del proyecto “Jardín Circunvalar de Medellín” en el cerro Pan de Azúcar

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo Jiménez, Gloria Patricia; Builes Cano, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    La Alcaldía de Medellín con la Empresa de Desarrollo Urbano (EDU) del municipio de Medellín, estructuraron un proyecto para la ciudad, un plan de renovación urbana y rural, que interviene las laderas de Medellín -- Este proyecto denominado Cinturón Verde Metropolitano – Jardín Circunvalar de Medellín, está conformado por: El Camino de la Vida (sendero peatonal), La Ruta de Campeones (sendero para bicicletas) y el Corredor de Movilidad Limpia, Ecoparques y Vivienda -- La ejecución de las activ...