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Sample records for geosynthetic clay liners

  1. Comprehensive review of geosynthetic clay liner and compacted clay liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, M. Uma; Muthukumar, M.

    2017-11-01

    Human activity inevitably produces waste materials that must be managed. Some waste can be reused. However many wastes that cannot be used beneficially must be disposed of ensuring environmental safety. One of the common methods of disposal is landfilling. The most common problems of the landfill site are environmental degradation and groundwater contamination caused by leachate produced during the decomposition process of organic material and rainfall. Liner in a landfill is an important component which prevent leachate migration and prevent groundwater contamination. Earthen liners have been widely used to contain waste materials in landfill. Liners and covers for municipal and hazardous waste containment facilities are often constructed with the use of fine-grained, low plasticity soils. Because of low permeability geosynthetic clay liners and compacted clay liners are the main materials used in waste disposal landfills. This paper summaries the important geotechnical characteristics such as hydraulic conductivity, liquid limit and free swell index of geosynthetic clay liner and compacted clay liner based on research findings. This paper also compares geosynthetic clay liner and compacted clay liner based on certain criteria such as thickness, availability of materials, vulnerability to damage etc.

  2. Geosynthetic clay liners shrinkage under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabadani, Hamid; Rayhani, Mohammad T

    2014-06-01

    Geosynthetic clay liners are used as part of composite liner systems in municipal solid waste landfills and other applications to restrict the escape of contaminants into the surrounding environment. This is attainable provided that the geosynthetic clay liner panels continuously cover the subsoil. Previous case histories, however, have shown that some geosynthetic clay liner panels are prone to significant shrinkage and separation when an overlying geomembrane is exposed to solar radiation. Experimental models were initiated to evaluate the potential shrinkage of different geosynthetic clay liner products placed over sand and clay subsoils, subjected to simulated daily thermal cycles (60°C for 8 hours and 22°C for 16 hours) modelling field conditions in which the liner is exposed to solar radiation. The variation of geosynthetic clay liner shrinkage was evaluated at specified times by a photogrammetry technique. The manufacturing techniques, the initial moisture content, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to width) of the geosynthetic clay liner were found to considerably affect the shrinkage of geosynthetic clay liners. The particle size distribution of the subsoil and the associated suction at the geosynthetic clay liner-subsoil interface was also found to have significant effects on the shrinkage of the geosynthetic clay liner. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. GAS PERMEABILITY OF GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Vučenović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geosynthetic clay liners (GCL are manufactured hydraulic barriers consisting of mineral and geosynthetic components. They belong to a group of geosynthetic products whose primary purpose is to seal and they have been used in many geotechnical and hydrotechnical applications, landfi lls and liquid waste lagoons for quite a while. They are used in landfill final cover systems to prevent the infi ltration of precipitation into the landfi ll body and the penetration of gases and liquids from the landfill into the atmosphere and environment. Laboratory and fi eld research and observations on regulated landfi lls have proven the eff ectiveness of GCL as a barrier for the infi ltration of precipitation into the landfi ll body as well as the drainage of fl uid beneath the landfill. Due to the presence of high concentrations of gases in the landfill body, there is a growing interest in determining the efficiency of GCL as a gas barrier. It was not until the last twenty years that the importance of this topic was recognized. In this article, current GCL gas permeability studies, the testing methods and test results of gas permeability in laboratory conditions are described.

  4. Geosynthetic clay liners - slope stability field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, D.A.; Daniel, D.E.; Koerner, R.M.; Bonaparte, R.

    1997-01-01

    A field research project was developed to examine the internal shear performance of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs). Several combinations of cross sections were assembled using GCL materials that were available at the time of project initiation. The cross sections utilized were intended to simulate landfill cover applications. Thirteen (13) resulting test plots were constructed on two different slope angles, and each plot is instrumented for physical displacement and soil moisture characteristics. Test plots were constructed in a manner that dictated the shear plane in the clay portion of the GCL product. The project purpose is to assess field performance and to verify design parameters associated with the application of GCLs in waste containment applications. Interim research data shows that test slopes on 2H:1V show global deformation, but little internal shear evidence, and the 3H:1V slopes show little deformation at approximately 650 days. The research is ongoing, and this paper presents the most recent information available from the project

  5. Slope Stability of Geosynthetic Clay Liner Test Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen full-scale field test plots containing five types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) were constructed on 2H:IV and 3H:IV slopes for the purpose of assessing slope stability. The test plots were designed to simulate typical final cover systems for landfill. Slides occurr...

  6. Long-term performance of geosynthetic clay liners in cappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubeuge, K.P. von; Fricke, A.

    1998-01-01

    Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) are relatively thin composite materials combining bentonite clay and geosynthesis (usually geotextiles). GCLs have been employed by the waste industry for well over a decade now, and their level of usage is rapidly increasing world-wide. In landfill facilities, GCLs are generally used to replace or augment compacted clay liners. Until recently, the decision to do so has primarily been based on the availability of clay material on site (i.e., economic considerations). However, the advantages in using a GCL over other sealing elements such as compacted clay are not only economic but technically based, and the economic benefits extend beyond the construction phase, as a thin GCL can increase the revenue earning potential of a facility. This paper will highlight the shear behaviour of GCLs and demonstrate the long-term stability. (orig.)

  7. In-situ studies on the performance of landfill caps (compacted soil liners, geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, capillary barriers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchior, S.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1986 different types of landfill covers have been studied in-situ on the Georgswerder landfill in Hamburg, Germany. Water balance data are available for eight years. The performance of different carriers has been measured by collecting the leakage on areas ranging from 100 m 2 to 500 m 2 . Composite liners with geomembranes performed best, showing no leakage. An extended capillary barrier also performed well. The performance of compacted soil liners, however, decreased severely within five years due to desiccation, shrinkage and plant root penetration (liner leakage now ranging from 150 mm/a to 200 mm/a). About 50 % of the water that reaches the surface of the liner is leaking through it. The maximum leakage rates have increased from 2 x 10 -10 m 3 m -2 s -1 to 4 x 10 -8 m 3 m -2 s -1 . Two types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) have been tested for two years now with disappointing results. The GCL desiccated during the first dry summer of the study. High percolation rates through the GCL were measured during the following winter (45 mm resp. 63 mm in four months). Wetting of the GCL did not significantly reduce the percolation rates

  8. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  9. Measurement of gas permeability through geo-synthetic clay liners; Mesure de la permeabilite au gaz a travers des geosynthetiques bentonitiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouazza, A.; Vangpaisal, T. [Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    While much research has been performed to investigate the ability of GCLs to limit flow through minimization of the saturated hydraulic conductivity, very little is known about their capabilities to control gas flux and therefore reducing gas migration into the atmosphere or the areas surrounding landfills. The aim of this study was to assess gas flow through GCLs with a simple and reliable testing procedure. A gas permeameter was developed to study gas flow through partially saturated geo-synthetic clay liners (GCLs). Measurements of the differential pressure across the GCL sample at varying flow rates were used to calculate gas permeability at different moisture contents. For the range of water content studied (65% < {omega} < 128%) a decrease of around 4 orders of magnitude in the GCL permeability has been observed. This suggests that the GCL degree of hydration during the design life of a waste containment facility is an important issue to address in the design process of a lining or cover system using a GCL. (authors)

  10. Fluid migration through geo-membrane seams and through the interface between geo-membrane and geo-synthetic clay liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, M.

    2005-03-01

    Composite liners are used to limit the contamination migration from landfills. Their successful performance is closely related with the geo-membrane as it provides the primary barrier to diffusive and advective transport of contaminants. Critical issues on the performance of the geo-membranes are the seams between geo-membrane panels and the inevitable defects resulting, for instance, from inadequate installation activities. In landfills, where high density polyethylene geo-membranes are usually used, seams are typically made by the thermal-hot dual wedge method. A literature review on quality control of the seams showed that, in situ, fluid-tightness of seams is evaluated in qualitative terms (pass/failure criteria), despite their importance to ensure appropriate performance of the geo-membranes as barriers. In addition, a synthesis of studies on geo-membrane defects indicated that defects varying in density from 0.7 to 15.3 per hectare can be found in landfills. Defects represent preferential flow paths for leachate. Various authors have developed analytical solutions and empirical equations for predicting the flow rate through composite liners due to defects in the geo-membrane. The validity of these methods for composite liners comprising a geo-membrane over a geo-synthetic clay liner (GCL) over a compacted clay liner (CCL) has never been studied from an experimental point of view. To address the problem of fluid migration through the geo-membrane seams, an attempt is made to provide a test method, herein termed as 'gas permeation pouch test', for assessing the quality of the thermal-hot dual wedge seams. This test consists of pressurizing the air channel formed by the double seam with a gas to a specific pressure and, then, measuring the decrease in pressure over time. From the pressure decrease, both the gas permeation coefficients, in steady state conditions, and the time constant, in unsteady state conditions, can be estimated. Experiments were carried out

  11. Critical interfaces in geosynthetic multilayer liner system of a landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xuede

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is to identify the critical interface in a geosynthetic multilayer liner system by examining the effects of the interface shear strength of liner components, leachate level, leachate buildup cases, and peak and residual interface strengths. According to current landfill design procedures, conducting stability analysis along the same interface at both the back slope and base may result in a non-conservative result. The critical interfaces with the minimum factor of safety are generally found at different locations along the back slope and base. The critical interface for a multilayer liner system cannot simply be assumed during stability analysis. It can shift from one interface to another with changes in the leachate level and with different leachate buildup cases. The factor of safety for an interface with a high friction angle and low apparent cohesion generally drops much more quickly than it does under inverse conditions when the leachate level increases. The failure interface in a liner system under residual conditions is usually different from the failure interface under peak conditions.

  12. Simultaneous sorption of As, B, Cr, Mo and Se from coal fly ash leachates by Al(sup3+)-pillared bentonite clay: implication for the construction of activated geo-synthetic clay liner

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available successfully removed oxyanion species from generated coal FA leachates. This study shows that Al(sup3+)-modified bentonite clay is an effective adsorbent for oxyanion species in coal FA leachates and could be applied as a reactive barrier in coal FA retention...

  13. Fluid migration through geo-membrane seams and through the interface between geo-membrane and geo-synthetic clay liner; Contribution a l'etude des transferts de masse au niveau des joints de geomembrane et a l'interface entre geomembrane et geosynthetique bentonitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, M

    2005-03-15

    Composite liners are used to limit the contamination migration from landfills. Their successful performance is closely related with the geo-membrane as it provides the primary barrier to diffusive and advective transport of contaminants. Critical issues on the performance of the geo-membranes are the seams between geo-membrane panels and the inevitable defects resulting, for instance, from inadequate installation activities. In landfills, where high density polyethylene geo-membranes are usually used, seams are typically made by the thermal-hot dual wedge method. A literature review on quality control of the seams showed that, in situ, fluid-tightness of seams is evaluated in qualitative terms (pass/failure criteria), despite their importance to ensure appropriate performance of the geo-membranes as barriers. In addition, a synthesis of studies on geo-membrane defects indicated that defects varying in density from 0.7 to 15.3 per hectare can be found in landfills. Defects represent preferential flow paths for leachate. Various authors have developed analytical solutions and empirical equations for predicting the flow rate through composite liners due to defects in the geo-membrane. The validity of these methods for composite liners comprising a geo-membrane over a geo-synthetic clay liner (GCL) over a compacted clay liner (CCL) has never been studied from an experimental point of view. To address the problem of fluid migration through the geo-membrane seams, an attempt is made to provide a test method, herein termed as 'gas permeation pouch test', for assessing the quality of the thermal-hot dual wedge seams. This test consists of pressurizing the air channel formed by the double seam with a gas to a specific pressure and, then, measuring the decrease in pressure over time. From the pressure decrease, both the gas permeation coefficients, in steady state conditions, and the time constant, in unsteady state conditions, can be estimated. Experiments were

  14. Accurate control testing for clay liner permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R J

    1991-08-01

    Two series of centrifuge tests were carried out to evaluate the use of centrifuge modelling as a method of accurate control testing of clay liner permeability. The first series used a large 3 m radius geotechnical centrifuge and the second series a small 0.5 m radius machine built specifically for research on clay liners. Two permeability cells were fabricated in order to provide direct data comparisons between the two methods of permeability testing. In both cases, the centrifuge method proved to be effective and efficient, and was found to be free of both the technical difficulties and leakage risks normally associated with laboratory permeability testing of fine grained soils. Two materials were tested, a consolidated kaolin clay having an average permeability coefficient of 1.2{times}10{sup -9} m/s and a compacted illite clay having a permeability coefficient of 2.0{times}10{sup -11} m/s. Four additional tests were carried out to demonstrate that the 0.5 m radius centrifuge could be used for linear performance modelling to evaluate factors such as volumetric water content, compaction method and density, leachate compatibility and other construction effects on liner leakage. The main advantages of centrifuge testing of clay liners are rapid and accurate evaluation of hydraulic properties and realistic stress modelling for performance evaluations. 8 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Production of polyol carbonates and their intercalation into Smectite clays

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Uzma

    2017-01-01

    In hyper-saline conditions, clays in geosynthetic clay liners contract and fail to form a hydraulic barrier due to removal of water from the interlayer spaces of smectite, which is the swelling mineral component of bentonites used in geosynthetic clay liners. Five-membered cyclic carbonates such as propylene carbonate have been reported to form stable intercalated complexes with hydrated Na-smectite, which maintain swollen states at 1M). Glycerol carbonate was selected as an alternative c...

  16. Geosynthetic applications in landfill design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshunnar, I.S.; Afifi, S.S.; Tiseo, B.

    1996-01-01

    Landfills are designed to contain waste and to provide protection against discharges of leachate into the environment. Main components of a landfill include a liner system, a leachate collection system, and a cover system. Traditional designs have typically incorporated clay soils for containment and sands with embedded piping for leachate collection. As a result of recent advances in design, geosynthetic materials are now widely used for components. While these materials present cost and feasibility advantages, they also pose significant challenges in stability evaluations, handing during installation, and quality assurance. This paper presents an overview of applications of geosynthetics in design and construction, including: Advantages, disadvantages, design criteria, possible economic benefits of various systems, and related construction considerations. 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Use of clays as liners in solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gerardo [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Anahuac Mexico Norte, Huixquilucan, Edo. de Mexico 52786 (Mexico); Almanza, Rafael [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2009-06-15

    An alternative to synthetic materials for use in solar pond liners is to select clayey soils as hydraulic barriers. This option reduces the cost of construction and the risk of contamination of subsoil and groundwater by hot brines. This paper deals with the physical, chemical and hydraulic properties of different soils tested mainly as compacted clay liners. The underdeveloped nations have the option to use this type of liner, but before doing so several tests are recommended, including those for soil and water composition, permeability, plasticity and X-ray diffraction analysis. In this investigation the following samples are analyzed: native clayey soils with illite, montmorillonite and halloysite, treated and non-treated bentonites in powder and granulated form, a mixture of zeolite and sodium bentonite, and industrial minerals composed largely of halloysite, kaolinite and attapulgite selected clays. Neutral salt aqueous solutions (NaCl and KCl) at different concentrations and under temperature gradients were used for compatibility testing conducted on these specimens. Experiment setup and particular testing procedures are also discussed. (author)

  18. TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS TO CREATE ESTHETICAL CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES USING THE GEOSYNTHETICS MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Eugen Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Geosynthetics is the term used to describe a range of generally polymeric products used to solve some civil engineeringproblems. The term is generally regarded to encompass eight main product categories: geotextiles, geogrids, geonets,geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, geofoam, geocells (cellular confinement and geocomposites. The syntheticpolymeric nature of these products makes them suitable for use in the ground where high levels of durability arerequired. Not only because, properly formulated, they can also be used in exposed applications. Geosynthetics areavailable in a wide range of forms and materials, each to suit a slightly different end use. These products have a widerange of applications and are currently used in many civil, geotechnical, transportation, geoenvironmental, hydraulic,and private development applications including roads, airfields, railroads, embankments, retaining structures,reservoirs, canals, dams, erosion control, sediment control, landfill liners, landfill covers, mining, aquaculture andagriculture. The paper presents basic aspects of geotextiles, drainage, geocomposite designissues and technicalsolutions of their use.

  19. Use of x-ray radiographic methods in the study of clay liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, P.G.; May, J.H.; Brown, K.W.; Thomas, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray radiography has been widely used in soil investigation to study the distribution of layers in soil cores and the effects of changing conditions (loading or impact) on soil structure. X-ray radiographic techniques also can be useful in studying clays or clay soils used in liners. Laboratory investigations were undertaken to demonstrate that X-ray radiographic techniques could be used to detect density and soil structure changes that usually accompany variations in hydraulic conductivity of clay liners. An example of a real-time test of a simulated bentonite and sand, liner attacked with acid lead nitrate and examples of radiographic examination of clay soil (non-calcareous smectite) samples that have been permeated by lead acetate or lead nitrate are presented. The changes in density and structure can be related to changes observed in hydraulic conductivity during permeation. X-ray radiography easily can be applied to field samples of soil or clay liner materials to detect density and structural changes that occur as the liner and permeating fluid interact. X-ray techniques have applications in both understanding failure mechanisms and forecasting liner performance

  20. Hydraulic and mechanical behavior of landfill clay liner containing SSA in contact with leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Lu, Haijun; Liu, Junzhu; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiong

    2018-05-01

    Sewage sludge ash (SSA) produced by municipal sludge can be used as a modified additive for clay liner, and improves the working performance of landfill clay liner in contact with leachate. Under the action of landfill leachate, the permeability, shear strength, phase composition, and pore structure of the modified clay are investigated through the flexible wall permeability test, triaxial shear test, thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption test, respectively. The hydraulic conductivity of the modified clay containing 0-5% SSA is in the range of 3.94 × 10 -8 -1.16 × 10 -7  cm/s, and the pollutant concentration of the sample without SSA was higher than others. The shear strength of the modified clay is more than that of the traditional clay liner, the cohesion rate of modified clay increases from 32.5 to 199.91 kPa, and the internal friction angle decreases from 32.5° to 15.6°. Furthermore, the weight loss rates of the samples are 15.69%, 17.92%, 18.06%, and 20.68%, respectively, when the SSA content increases from 0% to 5%. The total pore volume and average pore diameter of the modified clay decrease with the increase in the SSA content, respectively. However, the specific area of the modified clay increases with the increase in the SSA content.

  1. EFFECTS OF INORGANIC SALT SOLUTION ON SOME PROPERTIES OF COMPACTED CLAY LINERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALID R. MAHMOOD AL-JANABI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Processed and natural clays are widely used to create impermeable liners in solid waste disposal landfills. The engineering properties of clay liners can be significantly affected by the leachate from the waste mass. In this study, the effect of inorganic salt solutions will be investigated. These solutions used at different concentrations. Two type of inorganic salt MnSO4 and FeCl3 are used at different concentration 2%,5%, 10%. Clay used in this study was the CL- clay (kaolinite. The results show that the consistency limits and unconfined compressive strength increased as the concentration of salts increased. While the permeability tends to decrease as salt concentration increased. Also, the compression index decreases as the concentration increased from 2% to 5%. The swelling index tends to increase slightly as the concentration of MnSO4 increased, while its decrease as the concentration of FeCl3. In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the performance of compacted clay liner exposed to the certain chemicals generated by the leachate and their effects on the geotechnical properties of compacted clay liner such consistency limits, permeability coefficient, compressibility characteristics and unconfined compressive strength.

  2. Electrokinetic Stabilisation Method of Soft Clay in Pure System using Electrokinetic Geosynthetic Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Jefferson, I.; Madun, A.; Abidin, M. H. Z.; Rogers, C. D. F.

    2018-04-01

    Electrokinetic stabilisation (EKS) method has the ability to solve the problems of soft highly compressibility soil. This study will present the results from an experimental study of EKS on soft soils using inactive kaolinite clay, inert electrode and distilled water (DW) as a pure system mechanism before any chemical stabilisers being used in this research. Therefore, this will provide a baseline study to improve the efficiency of EKS approach. The test model was using inert electrode of Electrokinetic Geosythentic (EKG) developed at the Newcastle University to apply a constant voltage gradient of 50 V/m across a soil sample approximately 400 mm. Distilled water was used at the pore electrolyte fluid compartments supplied under zero hydraulic gradient conditions for the periods of 3, 7 and 14 days. Throughout the monitoring, physical and chemical characteristics were measured. Results from the monitoring data, physical and chemical properties of the pure system showed the development of pH gradient, the changes of electrical conductivity and chemical concentrations with regards to the distance from anode and treatment periods due to the electrochemical effects even though there was no chemical stabilisers were introduced or released from the degradation of electrodes.

  3. The Compressibility and Swell of Mixtures for Sand-Clay Liners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muawia A. Dafalla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sand-clay liners utilize expansive clay to act as a filler to occupy the voids in the sand and thus reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the mixture. The hydraulic conductivity and transfer of water and other substances through sand-clay mixtures are of prime concern in the design of liners and hydraulic barriers. Many successful research studies have been undertaken to achieve appropriate mixtures that satisfy hydraulic conductivity requirements. This study investigates compressibility and swelling properties of mixtures to ensure that they were acceptable for light structures, roads, and slabs on grade. A range of sand-expansive clay mixtures were investigated for swell and compression properties. The swelling and compressibility indices were found to increase with increasing clay content. The use of highly expansive material can result in large volume changes due to swell and shrinkage. The inclusion of less expansive soil material as partial replacement of bentonite by one-third to two-thirds is found to reduce the compressibility by 60% to 70% for 10% and 15% clay content, respectively. The swelling pressure and swell percent were also found significantly reduced. Adding less expansive natural clay to bentonite can produce liners that are still sufficiently impervious and at the same time less problematic.

  4. Liner failure around a tunnel or a storage cell in Callovo-Oxfordian clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damjanac, Branko; Radakovic-Guzina, Zorica; Billaux, Daniel; Poutrel, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of the feasibility studies for the storage of radioactive waste in a deep geological layer, the post-failure behaviour of the concrete liner of the galleries and storage cells may have a direct effect on long term safety. In fact, the failure of the liner will result in new loads on the canisters placed inside the works, and in the de-stressing of the Callovo-Oxfordian clays, which may lead to a change in the Excavation Damage Zone. These phenomenons are studied via numerical modelling, using properties derived from ANDRA's underground laboratory (CMHM) project. Two types of gallery geometries are analyzed: one with a thinner concrete liner and filled interior (the standard gallery); and another with a thick concrete liner filled with concrete canisters (the MAVL disposal cell). The Standard Gallery is filled with a Cam-Clay material after 100 years of creep, while the MAVL disposal cell is filled with 16 concrete canisters immediately after installation of the concrete liner. Progressive failure of the concrete liner due to time-dependent deformation of the surrounding rock (Callovo-Oxfordian clay) over a long period of time is analyzed. The analyses are carried out in two steps. In the initial simulations, the concrete liner is represented as a continuum strain-softening Mohr-Coulomb material. The locations of stress-induced fractures in the concrete are determined from this continuum model. The stress-induced fractures are then specified as pre-defined discontinuities in the concrete liner in subsequent dis-continuum simulations. In a dis-continuum model, the large deformations and movements of the concrete blocks as the liner disintegrates can be simulated without numerical problems. The Callovo-Oxfordian clay is represented as an elastic-plastic-viscous material using the Lemaitre constitutive relation. The majority of the simulations are carried out over 5,000 years of creep time, with a

  5. Effects of leachate concentration on the integrity of solidified clay liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qiang; Zhang, Qian

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of landfill leachate concentration on the degradation behaviour of solidified clay liners and to propose a viable mechanism for the observed degradation. The results indicated that the unconfined compressive strength of the solidified clay decreased significantly, while the hydraulic conductivity increased with the leachate concentration. The large pore proportion in the solidified clay increased and the sum of medium and micro pore proportions decreased, demonstrating that the effect on the solidified clay was evident after the degradation caused by exposure to landfill leachate. The unconfined compressive strength of the solidified clay decreased with increasing leachate concentration as the leachate changed the compact structure of the solidified clay, which are prone to deformation and fracture. The hydraulic conductivity and the large pore proportion of the solidified clay increased with the increase in leachate concentration. In contrast, the sum of medium and micro pore proportions showed an opposite trend in relation to leachate concentration, because the leachate gradually caused the medium and micro pores to form larger pores. Notably, higher leachate concentrations resulted in a much more distinctive variation in pore proportions. The hydraulic conductivity of the solidified clay was closely related to the size, distribution, and connection of pores. The proportion of the large pores showed a positive correlation with the increase of hydraulic conductivity, while the sum of the proportions of medium and micro pores showed a negative correlation.

  6. LABORATORY TESTING OF BENTONITE CLAYS FOR LANDFILL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kovačević Zelić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Top and bottom liners are one of the key construction elements in every landfill. They are usually made as compacted clay liners (CCLs composed of several layers of compacted clay with strictly defined properties or by the use of alternative materials such as: GCL – geosynthetic clay liner, BES – bentonite enhanced soils or bentonite/polymer mixtures. Following the state of the art experiences in the world, GCLs are used in Croatian landfills for several years, as well. Depending upon the location and the obeying function, GCLs have to fulfill certain conditions. A legislated compatibility criterion has to be proven by various laboratory tests. In the paper are presented the results of direct shear and chemical compatibility tests of GCLs as well as the results of permeability measurement of kaolin clay (the paper is published in Croatian .

  7. The impact of hazardous waste leachate on performance of clay liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavat, Nasim; Nalbantoglu, Zalihe

    2013-02-01

    Penetration of hazardous liquids through waste containment barriers exerts contamination and considerable alterations in geotechnical properties of clay liners. In general, these changes are attributed to the variation of the dielectric constant and the chemistry of the pore fluids which cause changes in soil structure. In the present study, a series of laboratory tests were performed on natural and contaminated clay soil permeated with different hazardous liquids: ethylene glycol and toluene which are generally found in petroleum-contaminated sites, possessing intermediate and low dielectric constants. Toluene was used in its pure form and ethylene glycol was used at various percentages of 0, 20, 40 and 60% by the volume of distilled water. In addition, natural sea water was also utilized as an inorganic fluid for permeation and salinization of the clay soil. The overall test results indicated that plasticity, sedimentation time, unconfined compressive strength, swell and compressibility generally decreased with increasing organic fluid/water concentration, while a slight increase in the permeability values was observed. Pure toluene resulted in diminution of plasticity and considerable flocculation of the particles which caused the soil to become granular. Sea water also caused particle flocculation and reduction in plasticity, swell potential and unconfined compressive strength, although it was noted that compressibility properties remained unchanged compared to distilled water. Finally, the correlation between the electrical resistivity and plasticity index values suggested that the electrical resistivity measurements can be used as a detecting technique for subsurface soil and waste barrier contamination.

  8. Dispersion and settlement of heavy metals in clay liners for sanitary landfills. Comparison of laboratory and field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The migration of heavy metals from long-standing waste dumps (blast furnace flue dust, ore flotation slurries, household refuse and toxic waste dumps) into natural clay barriers or artificial mineral liners was investigated in laboratory studies and field studies. (orig.) [de

  9. Hydraulic performance of compacted clay liners under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaeef, A A; Rayhani, M T

    2015-10-01

    Compacted clay liners (CCLs) are commonly used as hydraulic barriers in several landfill applications to isolate contaminants from the surrounding environment and minimize the escape of leachate from the landfill. Prior to waste placement in landfills, CCLs are often exposed to temperature fluctuations which can affect the hydraulic performance of the liner. Experimental research was carried out to evaluate the effects of daily thermal cycles on the hydraulic performance of CCLs under simulated landfill conditions. Hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on different soil specimens after being exposed to various thermal and dehydration cycles. An increase in the CCL hydraulic conductivity of up to one order of magnitude was recorded after 30 thermal cycles for soils with low plasticity index (PI = 9.5%). However, medium (PI = 25%) and high (PI = 37.2%) plasticity soils did not show significant hydraulic deviation due to their self-healing potential. Overlaying the CCL with a cover layer minimized the effects of daily thermal cycles, and maintained stable hydraulic performance in the CCLs even after exposure to 60 thermal cycles. Wet-dry cycles had a significant impact on the hydraulic aspect of low plasticity CCLs. However, medium and high plasticity CCLs maintained constant hydraulic performance throughout the test intervals. The study underscores the importance of protecting the CCL from exposure to atmosphere through covering it by a layer of geomembrane or an interim soil layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Examined the hydraulic conductivity evolution as function of dry density of Tunisian clay soil. ► Follow the hydraulic conductivity evolution at long-term of three clay materials using the waste solution (pH=2.7). ► Determined how compaction affects the hydraulic conductivity of clay soils. ► Analyzed the concentration of F and P and examined the retention of each soil. - Abstract: Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 × 10 −10 , 2.08 × 10 −9 and 6.8 × 10 −10 m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m 3 ). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH = 2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m 3 ) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity.

  11. Geosynthetics in geoenvironmental engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner W Müller

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Geosynthetics are planar polymeric products, which are used in connection with soil, rock or other soil-like materials to fulfill various functions in geoenvironmental engineering. Geosynthetics are of ever-growing importance in the construction industry. Sealing of waste storage facilities to safely prevent the emission of wastewater, landfill gas and contaminated dust as well as the diffusion of pollutants into the environment and coastal protection against storms and floods and reconstruction after natural disaster are important fields of application. We will give an overview of the various geosynthetic products. Two examples of the material problems related to geosynthetics are discussed in detail: the effect of creep on the long-term performance of geocomposite drains and the numerical simulation of the interaction of soil with geogrids. Both issues are of importance for the use of these products in landfill capping systems. The various functions, which geosynthetics may fulfill in the protection of coastal lines, are illustrated by case studies. The geosynthetic market is evaluated and economical and environmental benefits, as well as environmental side effects related to the use of geosynthetics, are discussed.

  12. Hydraulic performance of Compacted Clay Liners (CCLs) under combined temperature and leachate exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaeef, A A; Rayhani, M T

    2014-12-01

    Experimental investigations were carried out to investigate the effect of thermo-chemical exposures on the hydraulic performance of Compacted Clay Liners (CCLs) in landfills. Hydraulic conductivity of most CCL specimens was increased by two to three times their initial values when exposed to 55 °C for 75 days. CCL specimens also experienced increases in their hydraulic conductivities when exposed to leachate at room temperature. This behaviour could be due to the decrease in viscosity when the permeant was changed from tap water to leachate. However, as the leachate exposure time exceeded the first 15 days, hydraulic conductivity readings decreased to as much as one order of magnitude after 75 days of leachate permeation at room temperature. The gradual decrease in the CCLs hydraulic conductivities was most likely due to chemical precipitation and clogging of pore voids within the soils which seemed to reduce the effective pore volume. The rate of hydraulic conductivity reduction due to leachate permeation was slower at higher temperatures, which was attributed to the lower permeant viscosity and lower clogging occurrence. The observed hydraulic behaviours were correlated to the physical, mineral, and chemical properties of the CCLs and described below. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Geotechnical and geochemical assessments of shales in Anambra basin, SE-Nigeria as compacted clay liner in landfill system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tijani, Moshood N.; Adesina, Rasheed B.; Wagner, Jean-Frank

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A major constraint to the development of properly engineered landfills is the high cost of synthetic liners and its scarcity in the local markets in developing country like Nigeria, which calls for alternative local materials for landfill liner. Consequently, crushed shale / clay shale deposits appear inexpensive and can be utilized to effectively retard the spread of leachate from landfills. Hence, this study focus on the assessment of geotechnical, geochemical and sorption characteristics of shale units from Anambra Basin, SE-Nigeria for suitability or otherwise as compacted clay liner (CCL) in landfills. Twelve samples consisting of three each from four different formations namely: Enugu, Nkporo, Imo and Ameki formations were collected and subjected to basic geotechnical tests such as grain size analysis, Atterberg's limits, compaction and coefficient of permeability following standard testing methods (BS 1377). In addition, mineralogical X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and geochemical ICP-MS / ICP-ES analyses were employed for geochemical characterization. CEC and batch sorption tests with respect to Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu and Zn as contaminant in leachates were also employed for sorption characterization. The results of the geotechnical tests conducted on the shale samples revealed that the crushed shale samples have liquid limit range of 55-79%, percentage fines of 80-93%, percentage clay of 23- 36% and activity of 0.8-2.1, all of which satisfy the basic requirements of clay liners according to the specifications of Daniel, 1993. Samples from Enugu, Nkporo and Imo shale have plasticity index range of 40- 54% which is above the recommended limit of 35% and thus likely to exhibit excessive shrinkage and settlement. However, the laboratory compaction shows maximum dry density of 16.8-18.4 kN/m 3 and 17.3- 19.1 kN/m 3 respectively for Standard Proctor and Modified AASHTO energy levels which suggests no significant change the

  14. A parametric study on hydraulic conductivity and self-healing properties of geotextile clay liners used in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parastar, Fatemeh; Hejazi, Sayyed Mahdi; Sheikhzadeh, Mohammad; Alirezazadeh, Azam

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, the raise of excessive generation of solid wastes is considered as a major environmental concern due to the fast global population growth. The contamination of groundwater from landfill leachate compromises every living creature. Geotextile clay liner (GCL) that has a sandwich structure with two fibrous sheets and a clay core can be considered as an engineered solution to prevent hazardous pollutants from entering into groundwater. The main objective of the present study is therefore to enhance the performance of GCL structures. By changing some structural factors such as clay type (sodium vs. calcium bentonite), areal density of clay, density of geotextile, geotextile thickness, texture type (woven vs. nonwoven), and needle punching density a series of GCL samples were fabricated. Water pressure, type of cover soil and overburden pressure were the environmental variables, while the response variables were hydraulic conductivity and self-healing rate of GCL. Rigid wall constant head permeability test was conducted on all the samples. The outlet water flow was measured and evaluated at a defined time period and the hydraulic conductivity was determined for each sample. In the final stage, self-healing properties of samples were investigated and an analytical model was used to explain the results. It was found that higher Montmorillonite content of clay, overburden pressure, needle punching density and areal density of clay poses better self-healing properties and less hydraulic conductivity, meanwhile, an increase in water pressure increases the hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, the observations were aligned with the analytical model and indicated that higher fiber inclusion as a result of higher needle-punching density produces closer contact between bentonite and fibers, reduces hydraulic conductivity and increases self-healing properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Numerical study of unsaturated flows and seepage of contaminants from subgrade mill tailings disposal areas equipped with bottom-clay liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.; Witten, A.J.; Sharp, R.D.; Long, E.C. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    A computer code (MIGRAT) is developed to quantify the migration of moisture and multiple decaying and retarded contaminants in the unsaturated zone. MIGRAT was specifically conceived to assess the impacts of open mine to allow its use in many problems related to shallow, subsurface waste disposal. The model is applied to a generic uranium-mill-tailings pit constructed with a clay-lined bottom and steep unlined sidewalls. The contaminant decays and only one contaminant is retarded. This study shows the anticipated result that moisture and contamination migrate slowly through the bottom clay liner and that, in this migration, concentrations of the retarded contaminant significantly lag the unretarded contaminant. More importantly, this study reveals that the major pathway from the pit to the groundwater is through the sidewall. The time scales for this pathway are much shorter than those associated with the clay liner, and retardation has little effect on the rate of contaminant migration

  16. Soil-Geosynthetic Interaction Test to Develop Specifications for Geosynthetic-Stabilized Roadways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    soil-geosynthetic composite (KSGC) for a wide range of geosynthetics. The tests were conducted after establishment of test configurations that were found suitable for specification of geosynthetic-stabilized base roadways. Field performance of experi...

  17. Soil reinforcement with geosynthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessaim Mohammed Mustapha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportionality of existence of land with good bearing to erect any building or building is very small, to remedy this deficiency it is necessary to resort to techniques of reinforcement of the soils which can constitute a very important development. Among these methods of remediation, there is reinforcement by the geosynthetics which constitute an effective solution to these constraints. This process tends to stabilize the soil in question with increased load bearing capacity in civil engineering and geotechnical works such as embankments, slopes, embankments and hydraulic structures, with an inestimable gain in time, economy and durability while preserving the natural and environmental aspect.

  18. 488-1D Ash Basin closure cap help modeling- Microdrain® liner option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-03

    At the request of Area Completion Engineering and in support of the 488-1D Ash Basin closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed hydrologic simulations of the revised 488-1D Ash Basin closure cap design using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. The revised design substitutes a MicroDrain Liner®—60-mil low-density polyethylene geomembrane structurally integrated with 130-mil drainage layer—for the previously planned drainage/barrier system—300-mil geosynthetic drainage layer (GDL), 300-mil geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and 6-inch common fill soil layer. For a 25-year, 24-hour storm event, HELP model v3.07 was employed to (1) predict the peak maximum daily hydraulic head for the geomembrane layer, and (2) ensure that South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) requirements for the barrier layer (i.e., ≤ 12 inches hydraulic head on top of a barrier having a saturated hydraulic conductivity ≤ 1.0E-05 cm/s) will not be exceeded. A 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches rainfall (Weber 1998). HELP model v3.07 results based upon the new planned cap design suggest that the peak maximum daily hydraulic head on the geomembrane barrier layer will be 0.15 inches for a minimum slope equal to 3%, which is two orders of magnitude below the SCDHEC upper limit of 12 inches.

  19. Variation of crack intensity factor in three compacted clay liners exposed to annual cycle of atmospheric conditions with and without geotextile cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, E; Jalili Ghazizade, M; Abduli, M A; Gatmiri, B

    2014-08-01

    Performance of compacted clay liners commonly used as landfill barrier systems can be subject to decline in terms of hydraulic conductivity if left exposed to atmospheric conditions for an extended period of time prior to placement of overlaying layers. The resulting desiccation cracking can lead to increased hydraulic conductivity. Desiccation crack intensity was studied for three clayey soils commonly used for construction of landfill barrier system in a relatively large scale test setup exposed to real time atmospheric conditions over a complete annual cycle. A white separator geotextile cover was presumed to be capable of reducing the intensity of desiccation cracking through absorbing and maintaining higher amounts of moisture and reducing the temperature of the soil surface in comparison to a directly exposed soil surface. Desiccation cracking was monitored using a digital imaging technique for three compacted clay liners in two sets, one open to air and the second covered with the white geotextile. Crack intensity factor approached a relatively stable phase after certain cycles corresponding to atmospheric dry wet cycles. The results indicated that the white separator geotextile was capable of reducing the crack intensity factor by 37.4-45.9% throughout the experiment including the cyclic phase of desiccation cracking. During the stable phase, the maximum reduction in crack intensity factor of 90.4% as a result of applying geotextile cover was observed for the soil with the lowest plastic index and clay content and therefore the lowest magnitude of crack intensity factor. The other two soils with similar clay content but different plastic index showed 23.6% and 52.2% reductions in crack intensity factor after cyclic phase when covered with geotextile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of membrane behaviour during transport of pollutants n clay barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musso, M.; Pejon, O.

    2010-01-01

    The study of the transport of contaminants in clay barriers had a extensive development in environmental geotechnics. The most studied transport processes are solutes by advection - dispersion and diffusion generated by hydraulic and chemical gradients respectively. Greater attention should be given to the chemical - osmotic flow and behavior membrane clay barriers, since in one case the water molecules move through the existence of a chemical gradient and on the other the means totally or partially inhibits the passage of solutes. The team developed to measure these processes was constructed based on items international literature and performance was verified using two types of materials KCl solution . One material is a bentonite geocomposite (Geosynthetic Clay Liner GCL ) similar to that used by other researchers. The other material is a soil barrier compacted clay (Compacted Clay Liner CCL) Fm. Corumbataí (Permian), belonging to the Paraná basin in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil . The results show the proper performance of the equipment built . Osmotic pressure generation and membrane performance was verified for both samples. Further corroborated influence of the type of clay mineral in the osmotic pressure generated value and membrane behavior

  1. Workshop 1: Geosynthetics in Transportation Geotechnics

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuoka, Fumio; Zornberg, Jorge; Machado do Vale, José Luís; Neves, José

    2016-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the Workshop 1 - Geosynthetics in Transportation Geotechnics - of the 3rd International Conference on Transportation Geotechnics, 4-7 September 2016, Guimarães, Portugal. The main goals of the workshop were: state-of-the-art of the use of geosynthetics in transportation geotechnics; theory and research of geosynthetics engineering for transportation engineering; key issues in practice; and perspective.

  2. Dispersion and settlement of heavy metals in clay liners for sanitary landfills. Comparison of laboratory and field studies. Verlagerung und Festlegung von Schwermetallen in tonigen Deponieabdichtungen. Ein Vergleich von Labor- und Gelaendestudien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J F

    1992-01-01

    The migration of heavy metals from long-standing waste dumps (blast furnace flue dust, ore flotation slurries, household refuse and toxic waste dumps) into natural clay barriers or artificial mineral liners was investigated in laboratory studies and field studies. (orig.)

  3. 488-1D Ash basin closure cap help modeling-Microdrain® liner option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-06

    At the request of Area Completion Engineering and in support of the 488-1D Ash Basin closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed hydrologic simulations of the revised 488-1D Ash Basin closure cap design using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. The revised design substitutes a MicroDrain Liner®—50-mil linear low-density polyethylene geomembrane structurally integrated with 130-mil drainage layer—for the previously planned drainage/barrier system—300-mil geosynthetic drainage layer (GDL), 300-mil geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and 6-inch common fill soil layer. For a 25-year, 24-hour storm event, HELP model v3.07 was employed to (1) predict the peak maximum daily hydraulic head for the geomembrane layer, and (2) ensure that South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) requirements for the barrier layer (i.e., ≤ 12 inches hydraulic head on top of a barrier having a saturated hydraulic conductivity ≤ 1.0E-05 cm/s) will not be exceeded. A 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches rainfall (Weber 1998). HELP model v3.07 results based upon the new planned cap design suggest that the peak maximum daily hydraulic head on the geomembrane barrier layer will be 0.179 inches for a minimum slope equal to 3%, which is approximately two orders of magnitude below the SCDHEC upper limit of 12 inches.

  4. Development of an accelerated creep testing procedure for geosynthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The report presents a procedure for predicting creep strains of geosynthetics using creep tests at elevated temperatures. Creep testing equipment was constructed and tests were performed on two types of geosynthetics: High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)...

  5. Cover and liner system designs for mixed-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, A.

    1994-01-01

    Land disposal of mixed waste is subject to a variety of regulations and requirements. Landfills will continue to be a part of waste management plans at virtually all facilities. New landfills are planned to serve the ongoing needs of the national laboratories and US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and environmental restoration wastes will ultimately need to be disposed in these landfills. This paper reviews the basic objectives of mixed-waste disposal and summarizes key constraints facing planners and designers of these facilities. Possible objectives of cover systems include infiltration reduction; maximization of evapotranspiration; use of capillary barriers or low-permeability layers (or combinations of all these); lateral drainage transmission; plant, animal, and/or human intrusion control; vapor/gas control; and wind and water erosion control. Liner system objectives will be presented, and will be compared to the US Environmental Protection Agency-US Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidance for mixed-waste landfills. The measures to accomplish each objective will be reviewed. Then, the design of several existing or planned mixed-waste facilities (DOE and commercial) will be reviewed to illustrate the application of the various functional objectives. Key issues will include design life and performance period as compared/contrasted to postclosure care periods, the use (or avoidance) of geosynthetics or clays, intermediate or interim cover systems, and soil erosion protection in contrast to vegetative enhancement. Possible monitoring approaches to cover systems and landfill installations will be summarized as well

  6. An analytical model for solute transport through a GCL-based two-layered liner considering biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, C.; Xie, H.J.; Wang, Y.Z.; Chen, Y.M.; Jiang, Y.S.; Tang, X.W.

    2014-01-01

    An analytical model for solute advection and dispersion in a two-layered liner consisting of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and a soil liner (SL) considering the effect of biodegradation was proposed. The analytical solution was derived by Laplace transformation and was validated over a range of parameters using the finite-layer method based software Pollute v7.0. Results show that if the half-life of the solute in GCL is larger than 1 year, the degradation in GCL can be neglected for solute transport in GCL/SL. When the half-life of GCL is less than 1 year, neglecting the effect of degradation in GCL on solute migration will result in a large difference of relative base concentration of GCL/SL (e.g., 32% for the case with half-life of 0.01 year). The 100-year solute base concentration can be reduced by a factor of 2.2 when the hydraulic conductivity of the SL was reduced by an order of magnitude. The 100-year base concentration was reduced by a factor of 155 when the half life of the contaminant in the SL was reduced by an order of magnitude. The effect of degradation is more important in approving the groundwater protection level than the hydraulic conductivity. The analytical solution can be used for experimental data fitting, verification of complicated numerical models and preliminary design of landfill liner systems. - Highlights: •Degradation of contaminants was considered in modeling solute transport in GCL/SL. •Analytical solutions were derived for assessment of GCL/SL with degradation. •Degradation in GCL can be ignored as half-life is larger than 1 year. •Base concentration is more sensitive to half-life of SL than to permeability of SL

  7. An analytical model for solute transport through a GCL-based two-layered liner considering biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, C. [Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xie, H.J., E-mail: xiehaijian@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); MOE Key Laboratory of Soft Soils and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Y.Z.; Chen, Y.M.; Jiang, Y.S.; Tang, X.W. [MOE Key Laboratory of Soft Soils and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2014-01-01

    An analytical model for solute advection and dispersion in a two-layered liner consisting of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and a soil liner (SL) considering the effect of biodegradation was proposed. The analytical solution was derived by Laplace transformation and was validated over a range of parameters using the finite-layer method based software Pollute v7.0. Results show that if the half-life of the solute in GCL is larger than 1 year, the degradation in GCL can be neglected for solute transport in GCL/SL. When the half-life of GCL is less than 1 year, neglecting the effect of degradation in GCL on solute migration will result in a large difference of relative base concentration of GCL/SL (e.g., 32% for the case with half-life of 0.01 year). The 100-year solute base concentration can be reduced by a factor of 2.2 when the hydraulic conductivity of the SL was reduced by an order of magnitude. The 100-year base concentration was reduced by a factor of 155 when the half life of the contaminant in the SL was reduced by an order of magnitude. The effect of degradation is more important in approving the groundwater protection level than the hydraulic conductivity. The analytical solution can be used for experimental data fitting, verification of complicated numerical models and preliminary design of landfill liner systems. - Highlights: •Degradation of contaminants was considered in modeling solute transport in GCL/SL. •Analytical solutions were derived for assessment of GCL/SL with degradation. •Degradation in GCL can be ignored as half-life is larger than 1 year. •Base concentration is more sensitive to half-life of SL than to permeability of SL.

  8. Modeling of geosynthetic reinforced capping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanadham, B.V.S.; Koenig, D.; Jessberger, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The investigation deals with the influence of a geosynthetic reinforcement on the deformation behavior and sealing efficiency of the reinforced mineral sealing layer at the onset of non-uniform settlements. The research program is mainly concentrated in studying the influence of reinforcement inclusion in restraining cracks and crack propagation due to soil-geosynthetic bond efficiency. Centrifuge model tests are conducted in the 500 gt capacity balanced beam Bochum geotechnical Centrifuge (Z1) simulating a differential deformation of a mineral sealing layer of a landfill with the help of trap-door arrangement. By comparing the performance of the deformed mineral sealing layer with and without geogrid, the reinforcement ability of the geogrid in controlling the crack propagation and permeability of the mineral swing layer is evaluated

  9. Tests for the characterization of bentonite used in the manufacture of clay geo synthetic barriers (GBR-C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiro, A.; Mateo, B.; Garcia, H.; Llorente, S.

    2011-01-01

    Bentonites are clays essentially composed of the smectite minerals. they are used in the manufacture of Clay Geosynthetic Barriers )GBR-C) which are low-permeability geosynthetic materials, forming part of the lining technologies and construction waterproofing systems. This article shows a series of testing to evaluate the quality of the bentonite for such use. Correlation between different testing has also been established in order to identify the most suitable ones for their characterization. (Author) 8 refs.

  10. Composite liners protect ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatzky, R; August, H

    1987-12-01

    For about 10 years flexible membrane liners (FMLs) have been used as bottom liners to protect ground water in the vicinity of waste sites. But a permeation (absorption, diffusion, desorption) of chemical liquids, e.g. hydrocarbons (HC) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) will generally occur. The rates of permeation depend, first of all, on the chemical affinity, the thickness of the FML and the boundary conditions. In order to improve the barrier quality of polymeric membranes, it is necessary to study the transport processes of HC and CHC through the polymeric materials. Long-term tests with composite liners are additionally carried out. These are liners which consist of two components, flexible membrane and natural soil liner (recompacted clay, bentonite-soil mixtures). Laboratory studies show that with composite liners a perfect sealing of waste sites may be possible. Test methods for measuring permeation rates of HC and CHC through polymeric membranes and methods of testing for the development of composite liner systems are presented. (orig.)

  11. Improving rutting resistance of pavement structures using geosynthetics: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzapour Mounes, Sina; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Khodaii, Ali; Almasi, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Geosynthetics is one type of synthetic materials utilized for improving the performance of pavements against rutting. Various studies have been conducted on using different geosynthetic materials in pavement structures by different researchers. One of the practices is a reinforcing material in asphalt pavements. This paper intends to present and discuss the discoveries from some of the studies on utilizing geosynthetics in flexible pavements as reinforcement against permanent deformation (rutting).

  12. Improving Rutting Resistance of Pavement Structures Using Geosynthetics: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Mirzapour Mounes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Geosynthetics is one type of synthetic materials utilized for improving the performance of pavements against rutting. Various studies have been conducted on using different geosynthetic materials in pavement structures by different researchers. One of the practices is a reinforcing material in asphalt pavements. This paper intends to present and discuss the discoveries from some of the studies on utilizing geosynthetics in flexible pavements as reinforcement against permanent deformation (rutting.

  13. Geosynthetic wall performance : facing pressure and deformation : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study was to validate the performance of blocked-faced Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) wall and to validate the Colorado Department of Transportations (CDOT) decision to waive the positive block connection for closely-space...

  14. Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Integrated Bridge System, Synthesis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report is the second in a two-part series to provide engineers with the necessary background knowledge of Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) technology and its fundamental characteristics as an alternative to other construction methods. It suppl...

  15. Reliability-based optimization design of geosynthetic reinforced road embankment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Road embankments are typically large earth structures, the construction of which requires for large amounts of competent fill soil. In order to limit costs, the utilization of geosynthetics in road embankments allows for construction of steep slopes ...

  16. Long‐Term Monitoring of a Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Integrated Bridge System (GRS‐IBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The geosynthetic reinforced soil integrated bridge system (GRS-IBS) is an innovative alternative to conventional bridge technology that utilizes closely spaced layers of geosynthetic reinforcement and compacted granular fill material to provide direc...

  17. Selection of Liner Materials and Design of Hazardous Water Facilities in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahel N. Abduljauwad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development in Saudi Arabia has produced a broad spectrum of wastes.  In the last two decades, several refineries and petrochemical industries have been established. These industries have produced sludges and other toxic wastes which need proper planning for their handling and disposal. This paper covers design and selection of liner materials for two hazardous waste disposal sites. One of them is located in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, while the second one is located in the Western part. The paper will present complete design details of the natural compacted and geosynthetic soil liners and the leachate collection and removal system for primary liners and leak detection/leachate collection and removal system for secondary liners.

  18. Mitigation measures for soil embankments against fault rupture using geosynthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos

    2010-01-01

    , the number of the reinforcements, the height of the soil layer and the applied fault displacement was examined. The results which were obtained from this investigation indicate that the proposed configurations of reinforced soil can be efficiently used in order to reduce the permanent deformations developed......In the current study the ability of geosynthetics to reduce the permanent deformations developed due to a fault rupture propagation in a soil embankment is investigated. For this purpose parametric numerical analyses were performed and the effect of the material properties of the geosynthetics...

  19. The role of geotextiles in geosynthetic applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anandjiwala, RD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available , is required. Needlepunched nonwoven geotextiles are extensively used in civil engineering applications, including road and railway construction, landfills, land reclamation, sea defence, and reinforcement of clay slopes. Such applications require geotextiles...

  20. Smart timber bridge on geosynthetic reinforced soil (GRS) abutments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Senalik; James P. Wacker; Travis K. Hosteng; John Hermanson

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Buchanan County, Iowa, has cooperated with the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), and Iowa State University’s Bridge Engineering Center (ISU–BEC) to initiate a project involving the construction and monitoring of a glued-laminated (glulam) timber superstructure on geosynthetic reinforced soil (...

  1. Accelerated load testing of geosynthetic base reinforced pavement test sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the benefits of geosynthetic stabilization and reinforcement of subgrade/base aggregate layers in flexible pavements built on weak subgrades and the effect of pre-rut pavement sections, prior to the ...

  2. Sanitary landfill liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole V.; Stentsøe, Steen; Petersen, Søren

    DS/INF 466 is the revised Danish recommendation for investigations, design and construction of landfill liners.......DS/INF 466 is the revised Danish recommendation for investigations, design and construction of landfill liners....

  3. Organic waste treatment with organically modified clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pancoski, S.E.; Alther, G.

    1989-01-01

    The use of organically modified clays in hazardous waste management applications offers a significant new and untapped potential. These clays may be used in the stabilization of organic wastes and organically contaminated soils, for waste water treatment, for oil spill control, for liner systems beneath fuel oil storage tanks, and as a component within liner systems of hazardous waste storage treatment and disposal facilities. Organically modified clays (organophilic clays) may be employed in each of these systems to adsorb organic waste constituents, enhancing the performance of the applications

  4. Migration behavior of landfill leachate contaminants through alternative composite liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varank, Gamze, E-mail: gvarank@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Top, Selin, E-mail: stop@yildiz.edu.tr; Sekman, Elif, E-mail: esekman@yildiz.edu.tr; Akkaya, Ebru, E-mail: ekoca@yildiz.edu.tr; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan, E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Bilgili, M. Sinan, E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-08-01

    Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors with different alternative composite liners were simultaneously operated for a period of about 540 days to investigate and to simulate the migration behaviors of phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) from landfill leachate to the groundwater. Alternative landfill liners of four reactors consist of R1: Compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R2: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R3: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + bentonite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), and R4: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + zeolite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn). Wastes representing Istanbul municipal solid wastes were disposed in the reactors. To represent bioreactor landfills, reactors were operated by leachate recirculation. To monitor and control anaerobic degradation in the reactors, variations of conventional parameters (pH, alkalinity, chloride, conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, ammonia and alcaly metals) were also investigated in landfill leachate samples. The results of this study showed that about 35-50% of migration of organic contaminants (phenolic compounds) and 55-100% of migration of inorganic contaminants (heavy metals) to the model groundwater could be effectively reduced with the use of bentonite and zeolite materials in landfill liner systems. Although leachate contaminants can reach to the groundwater in trace concentrations, findings of this study concluded that the release of these compounds from landfill leachate to the groundwater may potentially be of an important environmental concern based on the experimental findings. - Research highlights: {yields} Migration of

  5. Analysis on the Long Term Effect of Trial Test Road Constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at Recess UTHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, M. M. M.; Edayu, A. E.; Adnan, Z.; Ismail, B.

    2016-07-01

    The reinforcement used in soil for construction of roads on the soft clay is very important as it will determine the level of service of the road after it was built. Damage or defects on the road surface to be an indicator of the level of the road has dropped and shows the deformation of the road. For this research, an analysis has carried out on the long-term effect of trial test road constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at RECESS UTHM. Through this research, the reinforcement using Rawell Geosynthetic Clay Liner (RGCL) was the best with the stability is 14964 N, a low flow is 2.69mm, stiffness modulus is 1766 MPa, the peak load is 739.4 N and a lower horizontal deformation which is 1.71 µm compared Woven Geotextile section and section without geotextile [1] [9]. In terms of deformation can be seen clearly from physical observations that section without geotextile suffered significant damage than others. Settlement of road can also be analyzed by a longitudinal section that plotted based on the result of leveling work. After that, settlements are more visible way on the right side of the road trial. Through lab tests conducted, it indicate that the coring samples obtained from sites of each section meets the specifications set by the Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) in terms of stability, flow and stiffness [1]. Through this study, a trial road built on soft soil can be used as a test site because of the uniqueness of these roads which has three different types of reinforcements.

  6. Clay membrane made of natural high plasticity clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels; Baumann, Jens

    1998-01-01

    Leachate containment in Denmark has through years been regulated by the DIF Recommendation for Sanitary Landfill Liners (DS/R 466). It states natural clay deposits may be used for membrane material provided the membrane and drainage system may contain at least 95% of all leachate created throughout...... ion transport as well as diffusion.Clay prospection for clays rich in smectite has revealed large deposits of Tertiary clay of very high plasticity in the area around Rødbyhavn on the Danish island Lolland. The natural clay contains 60 to 75% smectite, dominantly as a sodium-type. The clay material...... has been evaluated using standardised methods related to mineralogy, classification, compaction and permeability, and initial studies of diffusion properties have been carried out. Furthermore, at a test site the construction methods for establishing a 0.15 to 0.3m thick clay membrane have been tested...

  7. Clay membrane made of natural high plasticity clay:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels; Baumann, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Leachate containment in Denmark has throughout the years been regulated by the DIF Recommendation for Sanitary Landfill Liners (DS/R4669. It states that natural clay deposits may be used as membrane material provided the membrane and drainage system contains at least 95% of all leachate created...... into account advective ion transport as well as diffusion. Clay prospecting for clays rich in smectite has revealed large deposits of Tertiary clay of very high plasticity in the area around Rødbyhavn on the Danish island of Lolland. The natural clay contains 60-75% smectite, dominantly as a sodium......-type. The clay material has been evaluated using the standardized methods related to mineralogy, classification, compaction and permeability, and initial studies of diffusion properties have been carried out. Furthermore, at a test site the construction methods for establishing a 0.15-0.3 m thick clay membrane...

  8. Liner mounting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halila, Ely E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A mounting assembly includes an annular supporting flange disposed coaxially about a centerline axis which has a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart supporting holes therethrough. An annular liner is disposed coaxially with the supporting flange and includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart mounting holes aligned with respective ones of the supporting holes. Each of a plurality of mounting pins includes a proximal end fixedly joined to the supporting flange through a respective one of the supporting holes, and a distal end disposed through a respective one of the liner mounting holes for supporting the liner to the supporting flange while unrestrained differential thermal movement of the liner relative to the supporting flange.

  9. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject...

  10. An assessment of the geometry effect of geosynthetics for base course reinforcements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Yang, Ph.D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Geosynthetic-reinforced base course is potentially a cost-effective solution for flexible pavement construction. With the recent advance in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design in the United States, there is a need to develop the next generation design method for geosynthetic-reinforced bases in flexible pavements. To develop such a design method requires an improved understanding about the mechanistic behavior, especially the in-plane elastic behavior, of geosynthetics. In this paper, the geometry effect of geosynthetics was discussed. The author first reviewed recent experimental and numerical studies. Analytical equations based on cellular material mechanics were presented for determining the in-plane elastic properties of geosynthetics. The analytical equations were used to evaluate a few geosynthetics with typical geometries. The results showed that, with the same polymeric material and typical product geometries, the geocell has a better confinement effect than geogrids, and the triaxial geogrid with a triangular aperture has a better confinement effect than the biaxial geogrid with a rectangular aperture. It was also demonstrated that the traditional uniaxial tensile modulus may be a poor indicator of the effectiveness of geosynthetics for base course reinforcements.

  11. Optimization in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Seaborne trade is the lynchpin in almost every international supply chain, and about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container. In this survey we give an overview of data-driven optimization problems in liner shipping. Research in liner shipping is motivated by a need for handling...... still more complex decision problems, based on big data sets and going across several organizational entities. Moreover, liner shipping optimization problems are pushing the limits of optimization methods, creating a new breeding ground for advanced modelling and solution methods. Starting from liner...... shipping network design, we consider the problem of container routing and speed optimization. Next, we consider empty container repositioning and stowage planning as well as disruption management. In addition, the problem of bunker purchasing is considered in depth. In each section we give a clear problem...

  12. USSR imploding liner program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A summary is given of the history and rationale of the USSR program to implode metallic liners for the fusion program. The explosive driven, magnetic drive, and compressed gas driven research is reviewed. (MOW)

  13. Performance of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soils Under Static and Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Touahmia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates and discusses the composite behavior of geosynthetic reinforced soil mass. It presents the results of a series of large-scale laboratory tests supported by analytical methods to examine the performance of geogrid reinforcement subjected to static and cyclic pullout loading. The testing equipment and procedures used for this investigation are outlined. The results show that geosynthetic reinforcement can mobilize great resistance to static pulling load under high confining pressures. The reinforcement exhibits gradual deformation under cyclic loading showing no sign of imminent pullout failure for all levels of applied loads. In general, the results demonstrate that geosynthetic can be used in situations where loads are non-static, although care will be required in ensuring that appropriate factors of safety are applied to control the resulting deformation. A simplified analytical model for calculating the pulling capacity of geosynthetic reinforcement is proposed.

  14. Development of an accelerated creep testing procedure for geosynthetics : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Temperature-creep relationships in geosynthetics vary for each type of geogrid and depend on many factors such as polymer structure, manufacture process, degree of crystallinity, and glass-transition temperature. The extrapolation procedures to predi...

  15. Experimental evaluation of cell liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierman, R.W.; Simmons, L.D.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    Cell liners may be used in breeder reactor sodium pipe ways, sodium cells, and lower cavity region to provide a leak-tight cell and to protect the concrete from sodium in the unlikely event of a sodium spill. The objectives of the HEDL liner verification test program are to evaluate the integrity of liner concepts under postulated accident conditions and to develop the experimental data base which will demonstrate that liners will not fail. Two specific tests are reported; a high temperature liner feature test, and a large-scale liner sodium spill test. In both tests no failures of the liners or tendencies toward failure were detected. The discussed liner designs appeared to be conservative, and the liner strength appeared to be more than adequate

  16. Seismic performance of geosynthetic-soil retaining wall structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnani, Saman

    Vertical inclusions of expanded polystyrene (EPS) placed behind rigid retaining walls were investigated as geofoam seismic buffers to reduce earthquake-induced loads. A numerical model was developed using the program FLAC and the model validated against 1-g shaking table test results of EPS geofoam seismic buffer models. Two constitutive models for the component materials were examined: elastic-perfectly plastic with Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) failure criterion and non-linear hysteresis damping model with equivalent linear method (ELM) approach. It was judged that the M-C model was sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. The mechanical property of interest to attenuate dynamic loads using a seismic buffer was the buffer stiffness defined as K = E/t (E = buffer elastic modulus, t = buffer thickness). For the range of parameters investigated in this study, K ≤50 MN/m3 was observed to be the practical range for the optimal design of these systems. Parametric numerical analyses were performed to generate design charts that can be used for the preliminary design of these systems. A new high capacity shaking table facility was constructed at RMC that can be used to study the seismic performance of earth structures. Reduced-scale models of geosynthetic reinforced soil (GRS) walls were built on this shaking table and then subjected to simulated earthquake loading conditions. In some shaking table tests, combined use of EPS geofoam and horizontal geosynthetic reinforcement layers was investigated. Numerical models were developed using program FLAC together with ELM and M-C constitutive models. Physical and numerical results were compared against predicted values using analysis methods found in the journal literature and in current North American design guidelines. The comparison shows that current Mononobe-Okabe (M-O) based analysis methods could not consistently satisfactorily predict measured reinforcement connection load distributions at all elevations under both static

  17. Plasma-driven liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, H.; Linhart, J.G.; Bortolotti, A.; Nardi, V.

    1992-01-01

    The deposition of thermal energy by laser or ion beams in an ablator is capable of producing a very large acceleration of the adjacent pusher - for power densities of 100 Terrawatts/cm 2 , ablator pressure in the range of 10 Mbar is attainable. In the case of a plasma drive such driving pressures and accelerations are not directly possible. When a snowplough (SP) is used to accelerate a thin liner, the driving pressure is that of the magnetic piston pushing the SP, i.e. at most 0.1 Mbar. However, the initial radius r 0 of the liner can be a few centimeters, instead of 1 (mm) as in the case in direct pellet implosions. In order to compete with the performance of the beam-driven liners, the plasma drive must demonstrate that a) thin liner retains a high density during the implosion (lasting a fraction of a μsec); b) radial compression ratio r 0 /r min of the order of 100 can be attained. It is also attractive to consider the staging of two or more liners in order to get sharpening and amplifications of the pressure and/or radiation pulse. If a) and b) are verified then the final pressures produced will be comparable with those of the beam-driven implosions. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs

  18. Acoustic Liners for Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G (Inventor); Grady, Joseph E (Inventor); Kiser, James D. (Inventor); Miller, Christopher (Inventor); Heidmann, James D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An improved acoustic liner for turbine engines is disclosed. The acoustic liner may include a straight cell section including a plurality of cells with straight chambers. The acoustic liner may also include a bent cell section including one or more cells that are bent to extend chamber length without increasing the overall height of the acoustic liner by the entire chamber length. In some cases, holes are placed between cell chambers in addition to bending the cells, or instead of bending the cells.

  19. Liner used in tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinchak, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    A composite liner has been developed for use in hazardous waste impoundments and in tailings ponds where uranium is involved. The liner offers a high degree of reliability against seepage, is durable, and provides a firm working surface. The advantages of the liner are discussed

  20. Utilization of sepiolite materials as a bottom liner material in solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yucel; Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H; Tanyu, Burak F; Koparal, Savas

    2014-01-01

    Landfill bottom liners are generally constructed with natural clay soils due to their high strength and low hydraulic conductivity characteristics. However, in recent years it is increasingly difficult to find locally available clay soils that satisfy the required engineering properties. Fine grained soils such as sepiolite and zeolite may be used as alternative materials in the constructions of landfill bottom liners. A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using natural clay rich in kaolinite, sepiolite, zeolite, and their mixtures as a bottom liner material. Unconfined compression tests, swell tests, hydraulic conductivity tests, batch and column adsorption tests were performed on each type of soil and sepiolite-zeolite mixtures. The results of the current study indicate that sepiolite is the dominant material that affects both the geomechanical and geoenvironmental properties of these alternative liners. An increase in sepiolite content in the sepiolite-zeolite mixtures increased the strength, swelling potential and metal adsorption capacities of the soil mixtures. Moreover, hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures decreased significantly with the addition of sepiolite. The utilization of sepiolite-zeolite materials as a bottom liner material allowed for thinner liners with some reduction in construction costs compared to use of a kaolinite-rich clay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  2. Ball clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the ball clay industry is provided. In 2000, sales of ball clay reached record levels, with sanitary ware and tile applications accounting for the largest sales. Ball clay production, consumption, prices, foreign trade, and industry news are summarized. The outlook for the ball clay industry is also outlined.

  3. Capturing strain localization behind a geosynthetic-reinforced soil wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Timothy Y.; Borja, Ronaldo I.; Duvernay, Blaise G.; Meehan, Richard L.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents the results of finite element (FE) analyses of shear strain localization that occurred in cohesionless soils supported by a geosynthetic-reinforced retaining wall. The innovative aspects of the analyses include capturing of the localized deformation and the accompanying collapse mechanism using a recently developed embedded strong discontinuity model. The case study analysed, reported in previous publications, consists of a 3.5-m tall, full-scale reinforced wall model deforming in plane strain and loaded by surcharge at the surface to failure. Results of the analysis suggest strain localization developing from the toe of the wall and propagating upward to the ground surface, forming a curved failure surface. This is in agreement with a well-documented failure mechanism experienced by the physical wall model showing internal failure surfaces developing behind the wall as a result of the surface loading. Important features of the analyses include mesh sensitivity studies and a comparison of the localization properties predicted by different pre-localization constitutive models, including a family of three-invariant elastoplastic constitutive models appropriate for frictional/dilatant materials. Results of the analysis demonstrate the potential of the enhanced FE method for capturing a collapse mechanism characterized by the presence of a failure, or slip, surface through earthen materials.

  4. Liner Service Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard

    . The research field of liner shipping network design is relatively young and many open research questions exists. Among others, a unified and rich mathematical model formulating the main characteristics of the business domain has not been clearly described and exact methods for such mathematical models...... management is of great concern to liner shippers as 70-80% of vessel round trips experience delays in at least one port. A novel mathematical model for handling a disruption using a series of recovery techniques is presented as the The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem. The model has been applied to four real...... is based upon improving the constructed solution by applying an IP model as a large scale neighbourhood to each service in the network. The IP is based on estimating the benefit of inserting and removing port calls within a predefined neighborhood of candidate ports. Furthermore, the heuristic applies...

  5. Fast liner proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, A.R.; Freeman, B.L.; Gerwin, R.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Krakowski, R.A.; Malone, R.C.; Marshall, J.; Miller, R.L.; Suydam, B.

    1977-08-01

    This is a proposal to study, both theoretically and experimentally, the possibility of making a fusion reactor by magnetically imploding a cylindrical metallic shell on a prepared plasma. The approach is characterized by the following features: (1) the nonrotating liner would be driven by an axial current, (2) the plasma would also carry an axial current that provides an azimuthal magnetic field for thermal insulation in both the radial and longitudinal directions, (3) solid end plugs would be utilized to prevent axial loss of particles, and (4) liner speeds would be in the 10 6 cm/s range. The preliminary calculations indicate (1) that the energetics are favorable (energy inputs of about 10 MJ might produce a machine in the break-even regime), (2) that radiation and heat losses could be made tolerable, (3) that alpha-particle heating could be made very effective, and (4) that Taylor instabilities in a fast liner might be harmless because of the large viscosities at high pressures. A preliminary conceptual design of the sort of fusion reactor that might result from such an approach is discussed, as are some of the relevant reactor scaling arguments

  6. Preparations to ship EPICOR liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, S.P.

    1983-06-01

    The sampling and analysis of the hydrogen rich atmosphere of the 49 EPICOR II ion-exchange prefilter liners generated in the decontamination of radioactive water at TMI-2 will provide data to ensure safe storage and shipment of highly loaded ion-exchange media. This report discusses the prototype gas sampling tool used to breech the containment of the liners, the tool support equipment for sampling and inerting the liners, and the characterization program used for determining the radiolytic hydrogen generation rates in the liners

  7. Model tests of geosynthetic reinforced slopes in a geotechnical centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aklik, P.

    2012-01-01

    Geosynthetic-reinforced slopes and walls became very popular in recent years because of their financial, technical, and ecological advantages. Centrifuge modelling is a powerful tool for physical modelling of reinforced slopes and offers the advantage to observe the failure mechanisms of the slopes. In order to replicate the gravity induced stresses of a prototype structure in a geometrically 1/N reduced model, it is necessary to test the model in a gravitational field N times larger than that of the prototype structure. In this dissertation, geotextile-reinforced slope models were tested in a geotechnical centrifuge to identify the possible failure mechanisms. Slope models were tested by varying slope inclination, tensile strengths of the geotextiles, and overlapping lengths. Photographs of the geotextile reinforced slope models in flight were taken with a digital camera and the soil deformations of geotextile reinforced slopes were evaluated with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The experimental results showed that failure of the centrifuge models initiated at midheight of the slope, and occurred due to geotextile breakage instead of pullout. The location of the shear surface is independent of the tensile strength of the geotextile; it is dependent on the shear strength of the soil. It is logical to see that the required acceleration of the centrifuge at slope failure was decreased with increasing slope inclination. An important contribution to the stability of the slope models was provided by the overlapping of the geotextile layers. It has a secondary reinforcement effect when it was prolonged and passed through the shear surface. Moreover, the location of the shear surface observed with PIV analysis exactly matches the tears of the retrieved geotextiles measured carefully after the centrifuge testing. It is concluded that PIV is an efficient tool to instrument the slope failures in a geotechnical centrifuge.(author) [de

  8. A comparison of analytical approaches for the assessment of seismic displacements of geosynthetically reinforced geostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzavara, I.; Tsompanakis, Y.; Zania, Varvara

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the current study is to assess the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures and the potential of the geosynthetics to prevent the seismic induced instabilities taking advantage of their reinforcing effect. For this purpose, representative models of reinforced soil slopes are developed...

  9. Discrete analysis of clay layer tensile strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, T.N.H.; Ple, O.; Villard, P.; Gourc, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The Discrete Element Method is used to investigate the tensile behaviour and cracks mechanisms of a clay material submitted to bending loading. It is the case of compacted clay liners in landfill cap cover application. Such as the soil tested in this study is plastic clay, the distinct elements model was calibrated with previous data results by taking into account cohesive properties. Various contact and cohesion laws are tested to show that the numerical model is able to reproduce the failure mechanism. Numerical results are extending to simulate a landfill cap cover and comparing to experimental large scale field bending tests achieved in a real site of storage. (authors)

  10. Liner system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses one of the most important regulatory and design decisions which is determining the type of liner system. The liner system includes a combination of low hydraulic conductivity and leakage control materials to be provided beneath a mine waste management unit to avoid seepage losses, which could result in an unacceptable threat to beneficial uses of ground water. This is more difficult for mine wastes than for other types of waste disposal because: The physical and chemical properties of mine wastes vary widely; The sizes )volume and areal extent) of mine waste management units is often very large so that the costs of liners can impact economic feasibility of some operations. The U.S. Congress considered the differences between mine wastes and other types of wastes when it passed the Bevill amendment to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1980. That amendment exempted most mine wastes from hazardous waste regulation until the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a study to determine the appropriate degree of regulation for mine wastes. In 1986, the EPA issued a report recognizing that, with a few exceptions for certain processed materials, mine wastes do not present the same level of threat as other wastes and therefore should be regulated differently. An additional important factor which differentiates mine waste disposal management units form other solid waste disposal units is that, except in unusual circumstances, mine and process facilities are located where the mineral resource is being extracted. Therefore, the location of the mine waste disposal facilities cannot solely be based upon a site selection study. as a result, some mines are located where the distance or depth to a valuable water resource is relatively small, while others are located in remote desert areas with no contiguous surface water resources, and deep ground water of limited quantity and/or quality

  11. Fluoride retention by kaolin clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kau, P. M. H.; Smith, D. W.; Binning, Philip John

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the potential effectiveness of kaolin clay liners in storage of fluoride contaminated waste, an experimental study of the sorption and desorption behaviour of fluoride in kaolin clay was conducted. The degree of fluoride sorption by kaolin was found to depend on solution p......H and available fluoride concentration with equilibrium being achieved within 24 h. A site activation process involving the uptake of fluoride was also observed at the initial stages of sorption. This behaviour was attributed to a layer expansion process of the clay during sorption. The maximum fluoride sorption...... capacity was found to be 18.3 meq/100 g at pH 6 and 8.6 meq/100 g at pH 7. A competitive Langmuir sorption isotherm where sorption is dependant on both pH and fluoride concentration is employed to characterise the experimental sorption and desorption data. The sorption and desorption isotherms revealed...

  12. Leakage Performance of the GM + CCL Liner System for the MSW Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The contaminants in the landfill leachate press pose a grave threat to environment of the soil and the groundwater beneath the landfill. Despite there being strict requirements in relevant provisions of both domestic and foreign countries for the design of the bottom liner system. Pollution of the soil and the groundwater still took place in a number of landfills because of the leakage. To investigate the leakage rate of the liner systems, the minimum design requirements of the liner systems are summarized according to the provisions of four countries, including China, USA, Germany, and Japan. Comparative analyses using one-dimensional transport model are conducted to study the leakage performance of these liner systems composed of geomembrance (GM and compacted clay layer (CCL meeting the relevant minimum design requirements. Then parametric analyses are conducted to study the effects of the hydraulic head, the thickness of GM, the hydraulic conductivity of CCL, and so forth on the leakage performance of the liner system. It is concluded that the liner system designed according to the minimum design requirements of Germany provide the best antileakage performance, while that of Japan performs the lowest. The key parameters affecting the failure time of the liner system are summarized. Finally, some suggestions for the design of the liner systems are made according to the analyses.

  13. Clay Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  14. Stabilized imploding liner fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, D.L.; Cooper, A.L.; Ford, R.; Gerber, K.A.; Hammer, D.A.; Jenkins, D.J.; Robson, A.E.; Turchi, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept in imploding liner plasma compression is described in which a liquid metal liner is imploded by pistons driven by high-pressure gas, and stability of the inner surface against Rayleigh-Taylor modes is achieved by rotation. The principle has been demonstrated by using a water liner to compress air. This 'captive liner' offers the possibility of stable, reversible implosion-expansion cycles in which the plasma energy is recovered into the driving system, leading to reactor cycles with low Q and, hence, small size. A new method of setting up closed-field confinement geometries inside a liner using a rotating electron beam is described. Plasma currents induced by the beam provide initial plasma heating and generate the containment geometry. Persistence of plasma currents 100 times longer than the beam duration has been observed. Development of these methods could lead to a very compact thermonuclear reactor operating in the manner of a reciprocating engine. (author)

  15. HOST liner cyclic facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D.

    1983-01-01

    The HOST Liner Cyclic Program is utilizing two types of test apparatus, rectangular box rigs and a full annular rig. To date two quartz lamp cyclic box rigs have been tested and a third is to begin testing in late October 1983. The box rigs are used to evaluate 5x8 inch rectangular linear samples. A 21 inch diameter outer liner simulator is also being built up for testing beginning in April 1984. All rigs are atmospheric rigs. The first box rig, a three 6-kVA lamp installation, was operated under adverse conditions to determine feasibility of using quartz lamps for cyclic testing. This work was done in December 1981 and looked promising. The second box rig, again using three 6-kVA lamps, was operated to obtain instrumentation durability information and initial data input to a Finite Element Model. This limited test program was conducted in August 1983. Five test plates were run. Instrumentation consisted of strain gages, thermocouples and thermal paint. The strain gages were found to fail at 1200 F as expected though plates were heated to 1700 F. The third box rig, containing four 6-kVA lamps, is in build up for testing to begin in late October 1983. In addition to 33 percent greater power input, this rig has provision for 400 F backside line cooling air and a viewing port suitable for IR camera viewing. The casing is also water cooled for extended durability.

  16. Development of liner cutting method for stainless steel liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahata, Masato; Wignarajah, Sivakmaran; Kamata, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to develop a laser cutting method for cutting and removing stainless steel liners from concrete walls and floors in cells and fuel storage pools of nuclear facilities. The effects of basic laser cutting parameters such as cutting speed, assist gas flow etc. were first studied applying a 1 kW Nd:YAG laser to mock up concrete specimens lined with 3 mm thick stainless steel sheets. These initial studies were followed by studies on the effect of unevenness of the liner surface and on methods of confining contamination during the cutting process. The results showed that laser cutting is superior to other conventional cutting methods from the point of view of safety from radioactivity and work efficiency when cutting contaminated stainless steel liners. In addition to the above results, this paper describes the design outline of a laser cutting system for cutting stainless liners at site and evaluates its merit and cost performance. (author)

  17. Influence of leachate on the Oligocene-Miocene clays of the İstanbul area, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTOPRAK, SADIK; LAÇİN, DAVUT

    2018-01-01

    Oligo-Miocene clay outcrops on the European side (west and northwest part) of İstanbul were analysed. Formerly, a landfill and sanitary landfill were built on the clay. Mineral liners of the current and extending parts of the İstanbul landfill consist of these clays, since they include a considerable amount of smectite, illite, and kaolinite. With this feature, these clays are also an important candidate for the buffer material of repositories for nuclear wastes of newly planned nuclear power...

  18. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part II: Functionally graded foam liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, L.; Forero Rueda, M.A.; Gilchrist, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    The energy absorbing liner of safety helmets was optimised using finite element modelling. In this present paper, a functionally graded foam (FGF) liner was modelled, while keeping the average liner density the same as in a corresponding reference single uniform density liner model. Use of a functionally graded foam liner would eliminate issues regarding delamination and crack propagation between interfaces of different density layers which could arise in liners with discrete density variations. As in our companion Part I paper [Forero Rueda MA, Cui L, Gilchrist MD. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part I: Layered foam liner. Mater Des [submitted for publication

  19. Characterization of EPICOR II Prefilter Liner 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yesso, J.D.; Pasupathi, V.; Lowry, L.

    1982-08-01

    As part of the overall TMI-2 Information and Examination Program, EPICOR II Prefilter Liner 16 was examined to provide information to aid in the development of technology for safely processing highly loaded ion-exchange media. The characterization program included sampling and analyses of the liner contents, including ion-exchange media, liquids and gases, as well as examinations of the liner interior and exterior. This report details the handling of the liner, sampling and analysis of the contents, and the examinations of the liner

  20. Characterization of EPICOR II Prefilter Liner 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynhoff, N.L.; Pasupathi, V.

    1983-04-01

    As part of the overall TMI-2 Information and Examination Program, EPICOR II Prefilter Liner 3 was examined to provide information to aid in the development of technology for safely processing highly loaded ion-exchange media. The characterization program included sampling and analyses of the liner contents, including ion-exchange media, liquids and gases, as well as examinations of the liner interior and exterior. This report details the handling of the liner, sampling and analysis of the contents, and the examinations of the liner

  1. clay nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present work deals with the synthesis of specialty elastomer [fluoroelastomer and poly (styrene--ethylene-co-butylene--styrene (SEBS)]–clay nanocomposites and their structure–property relationship as elucidated from morphology studies by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray ...

  2. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    .The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the proposed methods help...... take the container transportation times that can be realized in the network nor the number of transshipments into consideration. This is mainly because the optimization problem is based on other transportation networks where these constraints are not decisive to the quality of the network. Furthermore......, the problem in itself is challenging to optimize due to its size and complexity. However, the field has seen crucial progress and is mature to include handling of competitiveness in the actual design of the network.As a liner shipping network is an organic entity, which is constantly changed to reflect...

  3. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...

  4. Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason; Eskridge, Richard; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Lee, Michael; Martin, Adam; Smith, James; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For practical applications of magnetized target fusion, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Quasi-spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a quasi-spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC). Theoretical analysis and computer modeling of the concept are presented. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of the flow parameters in the liner and the target, the impact between the liner and the target plasma can be made to be shockless in the liner or to generate at most a very weak shock in the liner. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Geological and geotechnical characteristics of Metro Manila volcanic soils and their suitability for landfill soil liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edna Patricia; Catane, Sandra; Pascua, Chelo; Zarco, Mark Albert

    2010-05-01

    Due to the Philippines's island-arc setting, andesitic tuff and volcanic ash constitute two-thirds of the country's agricultural land. In situ weathering of these volcanic sediments produces volcanic soils. Metro Manila volcanic soils were studied to determine their suitability for landfill soil liner. The soils were analyzed using XRD and XRF, and were tested for geotechnical properties. The results show the presence of the smectite group, a swelling variety of clay. The smectite-type clays are weathering products of volcanic glasses which are dominant components of the parental rocks. The high amounts of Al2O3 indicate an Al-rich type of soil. The clay species is either di- or tri-octahedral type, which points to montmorillonite as the main clay species. Swelling clay lowers the permeability of soils and reduces the infiltration and lateral movement of leachates in the ground. Also, geotechnical tests revealed moderate to high plasticity indices and low hydraulic conductivity values. The study shows that the physicochemical characteristics of volcanic soils meet the criteria for a soil liner for future sanitary landfill projects as mandated by RA 9003, a recently ratified solid waste management act of the Philippines. Being widespread, volcanic soils can be viewed as an important resource of the country.

  6. Uranium-mill-tailings remedial-action project (UMTRAP) cover and liner technology development project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.; Freeman, H.D.; Cline, J.F.; Beedlow, P.A.; Buelt, J.L.; Relyea, J.R.; Tamura, T.

    1982-01-01

    Cover and liner systems for uranium mill tailings in the United States must satisfy stringent requirements regarding long-term stability, radon control, and radionuclide and hazardous chemical migration. The cover placed over a tailings pile serves three basic purposes: (1) to reduce the release of radon, (2) to prevent the intrusion of plant roots and burrowing animals into the tailings, and (3) to limit surface erosion. The liner placed under a tailings pile prevents the migration of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals to groundwater. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing and evaluating cover and liner systems that meet these objectives and conform to federal standards. The cover and liner technology discussed in this paper involves: (1) single and multilayer earthen cover systems, (2) asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems, (3) biobarrier systems, (4) revegetation and rock covers, and (5) asphalt, clay, and synthetic liner systems. These systems have been tested at the Grand Junction, Colorado, tailings pile, where they have been shown to effectively reduce radon releases and radionuclide and chemical migration

  7. Graphical Acoustic Liner Design and Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor); Jones, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An interactive liner design and impedance modeling tool comprises software utilized to design acoustic liners for use in constrained spaces, both regularly and irregularly shaped. A graphical user interface allows the acoustic channel geometry to be drawn in a liner volume while the surface impedance calculations are updated and displayed in real-time. A one-dimensional transmission line model may be used as the basis for the impedance calculations.

  8. Geotechnical characterization of mined clay from Appalachian Ohio: challenges and implications for the clay mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Anthony R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan

    2011-07-01

    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling.

  9. On decisive factors of liner anchorage behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucchardt, F.; Weber, M.; Yazdi, F.

    1984-01-01

    Design of reinforced and prestressed containments for nuclear power plants in the FRG shall be guided by DIN 25459; this also includes the structural behaviour of the liner. While the containment safety analysis is a more global matter, the liner and especially the liner anchorage behaviour concentrates on local effects which need a more refined local area description. Due to the predominant stiffness of the concrete structure liner failure analysis are performed by decoupling the steel membrane which is then only supported by anchorage springs. A comprehensive nonlinear analytical study is carried out to examine the anchorage behaviour. (Author) [pt

  10. Fracture-dissociation of ceramic liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Kwan; Oh, Jin-Rok; Her, Man Seung; Shim, Young Jun; Cho, Tae Yeun; Kwon, Sung Min

    2008-08-01

    The use of BIOLOX delta ceramic (CeramTec AG, Plochingen, Germany) has been increasing. This ceramic prevents cracking by restraining the phase transformation due to the insertion of nano-sized, yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia into the alumina matrix. This restrains the progress of cracking through the formation of platelet-like crystal or whiskers due to the addition of an oxide additive. We observed a case of BIOLOX delta ceramic liner (CeramTec AG) rim fracture 4 months postoperatively. Radiographs showed that the ceramic liner was subluxated from the acetabular cup. Scratches on the acetabular cup and femoral neck were seen, and the fracture was visible on the rim of the liner. Under electron microscope, metal particle coatings from the ceramic liner were identified. The ceramic liner, fracture fragments, and adjacent tissues were removed and replaced with a ceramic liner and femoral head of the same size and design. We believe the mechanism of the fracture-dissociation of the ceramic liner in this case is similar to a case of separation of the ceramic liner from the polyethylene shell in a sandwich-type ceramic-ceramic joint. To prevent ceramic liner fracture-dissociation, the diameter of the femoral neck needs to be decreased in a new design, while the diameter of the femoral head needs to be increased to ensure an increase in range of motion.

  11. Characterization of infiltration rates from landfills: supporting groundwater modeling efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Young, Horace; Johnson, Barnes; Johnson, Ann; Carson, David; Lew, Christine; Liu, Salley; Hancocks, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to characterize infiltration rates from landfill liners to support groundwater modeling efforts. The focus of this investigation was on collecting studies that describe the performance of liners 'as installed' or 'as operated'. This document reviews the state of the science and practice on the infiltration rate through compacted clay liner (CCL) for 149 sites and geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) for 1 site. In addition, it reviews the leakage rate through geomembrane (GM) liners and composite liners for 259 sites. For compacted clay liners (CCL), there was limited information on infiltration rates (i.e., only 9 sites reported infiltration rates.), thus, it was difficult to develop a national distribution. The field hydraulic conductivities for natural clay liners range from 1 x 10(-9) cm s(-1) to 1 x 10(-4) cm s(-1), with an average of 6.5 x 10(-8) cm s(-1). There was limited information on geosynthetic clay liner. For composite lined and geomembrane systems, the leak detection system flow rates were utilized. The average monthly flow rate for composite liners ranged from 0-32 lphd for geomembrane and GCL systems to 0 to 1410 lphd for geomembrane and CCL systems. The increased infiltration for the geomembrane and CCL system may be attributed to consolidation water from the clay.

  12. Repairing liner of the reactor; Reparacion del liner del reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-07-15

    Due to the corrosion problems of the aluminum coating of the reactor pool, a periodic inspections program by ultrasound to evaluate the advance grade and the corrosion speed was settled down. This inspections have shown the necessity to repair some areas, in those that the slimming is significant, of not making it can arrive to the water escape of the reactor pool. The objective of the repair is to place patches of plates of 1/4 inch aluminum thickness in the areas of the reactor 'liner', in those that it has been detected by ultrasound a smaller thickness or similar to 3 mm. To carry out this the fuels are move (of the core and those that are decaying) to a temporary storage, the structure of the core is confined in a tank that this placed inside the pool of the reactor, a shield is placed in the thermal column and it is completely extracted the water for to leave uncover the 'liner' of the reactor. (Author)

  13. Repairing liner of the reactor; Reparacion del liner del reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-07-15

    Due to the corrosion problems of the aluminum coating of the reactor pool, a periodic inspections program by ultrasound to evaluate the advance grade and the corrosion speed was settled down. This inspections have shown the necessity to repair some areas, in those that the slimming is significant, of not making it can arrive to the water escape of the reactor pool. The objective of the repair is to place patches of plates of 1/4 inch aluminum thickness in the areas of the reactor 'liner', in those that it has been detected by ultrasound a smaller thickness or similar to 3 mm. To carry out this the fuels are move (of the core and those that are decaying) to a temporary storage, the structure of the core is confined in a tank that this placed inside the pool of the reactor, a shield is placed in the thermal column and it is completely extracted the water for to leave uncover the 'liner' of the reactor. (Author)

  14. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailing speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  15. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  16. Interactions of tailings leachate with local liner materials found at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.E.; Gee, G.W.; Serne, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    The mill tailings site at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania is the first mill site to receive remedial action under the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program. Part of this remedial action will require excavating the 53,500 m 3 (70,000 yd 3 ) of tailings on the site having a specific activity exceeding 100 pCi/g, and encapsulating these contaminated tailings in a clay-lined cell. As part of the remedial action effort, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been studying the interactions of tailings and tailings leachate with locally occurring clays proposed for liner materials. These studies include physical and chemical characterization of amended and unamended local clays, chemical characterization of the tailings, column studies of tailings leached with deionized water, and column studies of clays contacted with tailings solutions to determine the attenuation properties of the proposed liner materials. Column studies of tailings leached with deionized water indicated that the Canonsburg tailings could represent a source of soluble radium-226 and uranium-238, several trace metals, cations, and the anions SO 4 , NO 3 , and Cl. Of these soluble contaminants, uranium-238, radium-226, the trace metals As and Mo, and the anions F and SO 4 were present at levels exceeding maximum concentration levels in the tailings leaching column effluents. However, local clays, both in amended and unamended form were effective in attenuating contaminant migration. The soil amendments tested failed to increase radium attenuation. The tailings leaching studies indicated that the tailings will produce leachates of neutral pH and relatively low contaminant levels for at least 200 years. We believe that compacting the tailings within the encapsulation cell will help to reduce leaching of contaminants from the liner system, since very low permeabilities ( -8 cm/s) were observed for even slightly compacted tailings materials

  17. Localized deformation of zirconium-liner tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Fumihisa; Uchida, Masaaki

    1988-03-01

    Zirconium-liner tube has come to be used in BWR. Zirconium liner mitigates the localized stress produced by the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI). In this study, simulating the ridging, stresses were applied to the inner surfaces of zirconium-liner tubes and Zircaloy-2 tubes, and, to investigate the mechanism and the extent of the effect, the behavior of zirconium liner was examined. As the result of examination, stress was concentrated especially at the edge of the deformed region, where zirconium liner was highly deformed. Even after high stress was applied, the deformation of Zircaloy part was small, since almost the concentrated stress was mitigated by the deformation of zirconium liner. In addition, stress and strain distributions in the cross section of specimen were calculated with a computer code FEMAXI-III. The results also showed that zirconium liner mitigated the localized stress in Zircaloy, although the affected zone was restricted to the region near the boundary between zirconium liner and Zircaloy. (author)

  18. The AGN Nature of LINER Nuclear Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Márquez, Isabel; Masegosa, Josefa [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Granada (Spain); González-Martin, Omaira [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia (Mexico); Hernández-Garcia, Lorena [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Rome (Italy); Pović, Mirjana [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Granada (Spain); Ethiopian Space Science and Technology Institute and Entoto Observatory and Research Center, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Netzer, Hagai [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Cazzoli, Sara; Olmo, Ascensión del, E-mail: isabel@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Granada (Spain)

    2017-11-16

    Low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are specially interesting objects since not only they represent the most numerous local Active Galactic Nuclei population, but they could be the link between normal and active galaxies as suggested by their low X-ray luminosities. The origin of LINER nuclei being still controversial, our works, through a multiwavelength approach, have contributed, firstly, to confirm that a large number of nuclear LINERs in the local universe are AGN powered. Secondly, from the study of X-ray spectral variability, we found that long term variations are very common, and they are mostly related to hard energies (2–10keV). These variations might be due to changes in the absorber and/or intrinsic variations of the source. Thirdly, Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging also indicates that LINERs are the low luminosity end of AGN toward lower luminosities, and MIR spectroscopy shows that the average spectrum of AGN-dominated LINERs with X-ray luminosities L{sub X}(2–10 keV) > 10{sup 41} erg/s is similar to the average mid-IR spectrum of AGN-dominated Seyfert 2s; for fainter LINERS, their spectral shape suggests that the dusty-torus may disappear. Fourth, the extended Hα emission of LINERs at HST resolution indicates that they follow remarkably well the Narrow Line Region morphology and the luminosity-size relation obtained for Seyfert and QSOs; HST Hα morphology may suggest the presence of outflows, which could contribute to the line broadening, with the resulting consequences on the percentage of LINERs where the Broad Line Region is detected. This issue is being revisited by our group with a high spectral resolution set of optical data for nearby type-1 LINERs. Finally, concerning systematic studies on the role of star formation in LINERs, which are scarce, our contribution deals with the study of a sample of the most luminous, highest star formation rate LINERs in the local Universe (at z from 0.04 to 0.11), together with its comparison

  19. The AGN nature of LINER nuclear sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Isabel; Masegosa, Josefa; González-Martin, Omaira; Hernández-Garcia, Lorena; Pović, Mirjana; Netzer, Hagai; Cazzoli, Sara; del Olmo, Ascensión

    2017-11-01

    Low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are specially interesting objects since not only they represent the most numerous local Active Galactic Nuclei population, but they could be the link between normal and active galaxies as suggested by their low X-ray luminosities. The origin of LINER nuclei being still controversial, our works, through a multiwavelength approach, have contributed, firstly, to confirm that a large number of nuclear LINERs in the local universe are AGN powered. Secondly, from the study of X-ray spectral variability, we found that long term variations are very common, and they are mostly related to hard energies (2-10 keV). These variations might be due to changes in the absorber and/or intrinsic variations of the source. Thirdly, Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging also indicates that LINERs are the low luminosity end of AGN towards lower luminosities, and MIR spectroscopy shows that the average spectrum of AGN-dominated LINERs with X-ray luminosities L_X(2-10 keV) > 10^{41} erg/s is similar to the average mid-IR spectrum of AGN-dominated Seyfert 2s; for fainter LINERS, their spectral shape suggests that the dusty-torus may disappear. Fourth, the extended Hα emission of LINERs at HST resolution indicates that they follow remarkably well the Narrow Line Region morphology and the luminosity-size relation obtained for Seyfert and QSOs; HST Hα morphology may suggest the presence of outflows, which could contribute to the line broadening, with the resulting consequences on the percentage of LINERs where the Broad Line Region is detected. This issue is being revisited by our group with a high spectral resolution set of optical data for nearby type-1 LINERs. Finally, concerning systematic studies on the role of star formation in LINERs, which are scarce, our contribution deals with the study of a sample of the most luminous, highest star formation rate LINERs in the local Universe (at z from 0.04 to 0.11), together with its comparison with both

  20. The AGN Nature of LINER Nuclear Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Márquez, Isabel; Masegosa, Josefa; González-Martin, Omaira; Hernández-Garcia, Lorena; Pović, Mirjana; Netzer, Hagai; Cazzoli, Sara; Olmo, Ascensión del

    2017-01-01

    Low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are specially interesting objects since not only they represent the most numerous local Active Galactic Nuclei population, but they could be the link between normal and active galaxies as suggested by their low X-ray luminosities. The origin of LINER nuclei being still controversial, our works, through a multiwavelength approach, have contributed, firstly, to confirm that a large number of nuclear LINERs in the local universe are AGN powered. Secondly, from the study of X-ray spectral variability, we found that long term variations are very common, and they are mostly related to hard energies (2–10keV). These variations might be due to changes in the absorber and/or intrinsic variations of the source. Thirdly, Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging also indicates that LINERs are the low luminosity end of AGN toward lower luminosities, and MIR spectroscopy shows that the average spectrum of AGN-dominated LINERs with X-ray luminosities L X (2–10 keV) > 10 41 erg/s is similar to the average mid-IR spectrum of AGN-dominated Seyfert 2s; for fainter LINERS, their spectral shape suggests that the dusty-torus may disappear. Fourth, the extended Hα emission of LINERs at HST resolution indicates that they follow remarkably well the Narrow Line Region morphology and the luminosity-size relation obtained for Seyfert and QSOs; HST Hα morphology may suggest the presence of outflows, which could contribute to the line broadening, with the resulting consequences on the percentage of LINERs where the Broad Line Region is detected. This issue is being revisited by our group with a high spectral resolution set of optical data for nearby type-1 LINERs. Finally, concerning systematic studies on the role of star formation in LINERs, which are scarce, our contribution deals with the study of a sample of the most luminous, highest star formation rate LINERs in the local Universe (at z from 0.04 to 0.11), together with its comparison with

  1. Repairing liner of the reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar H, F.

    2001-07-01

    Due to the corrosion problems of the aluminum coating of the reactor pool, a periodic inspections program by ultrasound to evaluate the advance grade and the corrosion speed was settled down. This inspections have shown the necessity to repair some areas, in those that the slimming is significant, of not making it can arrive to the water escape of the reactor pool. The objective of the repair is to place patches of plates of 1/4 inch aluminum thickness in the areas of the reactor 'liner', in those that it has been detected by ultrasound a smaller thickness or similar to 3 mm. To carry out this the fuels are move (of the core and those that are decaying) to a temporary storage, the structure of the core is confined in a tank that this placed inside the pool of the reactor, a shield is placed in the thermal column and it is completely extracted the water for to leave uncover the 'liner' of the reactor. (Author)

  2. Accelerating Thick Aluminum Liners Using Pulsed Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrala, G.A.; Hammerburg, J.E.; Bowers, D.; Stokes, J.; Morgan, D.V.; Anderson, W.E.; Cochrane, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have investigated the acceleration of very thick cylindrical aluminum liners using the Pegasus II capacitory bank. These accelerated solid liners will be used to impact other objects at velocities below 1.5 km/sec, allowing one to generate and sustain shocks of a few 100 kilobar for a few microseconds. A cylindrical shell of 1100 series aluminum with an initial inner radius of 23.61 mm, an initial thickness of 3.0 mm, and a height of 20 mm, was accelerated using a current pulse of 7.15 MA peak current and a 7.4 microsecond quarter cycle time. The aluminum shell was imploded within confining copper glide planes with decreasing separation with an inward slope of 8 degrees. At impact with a cylindrical target of diameter 3-cm, the liner was moving at 1.4 km/sec and its thickness increased to 4.5 mm. Radial X-ray radiograms of the liner showed both the liner and the glide plane interface. The curvature of the inner surface of the liner was measured before impact with the 15-mm radius target. The radiograms also showed that the copper glide planes distorted as the liner radius decreased and that some axial stress is induced in the liner. The axial stresses did not affect the inner curvature significantly. Post-shot calculations of the liner behavior indicated that the thickness of the glide plane played a significant role in the distortion of the interface between the liner and the glide plane

  3. LINER galaxy properties and the local environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, Georgina V.; Alonso, Sol; Duplancic, Fernanda; Mesa, Valeria

    2018-05-01

    We analyse the properties of a sample of 5560 low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies selected from SDSS-DR12 at low red shift, for a complete range of local density environments. The host LINER galaxies were studied and compared with a well-defined control sample of 5553 non-LINER galaxies matched in red shift, luminosity, morphology and local density. By studying the distributions of galaxy colours and the stellar age population, we find that LINERs are redder and older than the control sample over a wide range of densities. In addition, LINERs are older than the control sample, at a given galaxy colour, indicating that some external process could have accelerated the evolution of the stellar population. The analysis of the host properties shows that the control sample exhibits a strong relation between colours, ages and the local density, while more than 90 per cent of the LINERs are redder and older than the mean values, independently of the neighbourhood density. Furthermore, a detailed study in three local density ranges shows that, while control sample galaxies are redder and older as a function of stellar mass and density, LINER galaxies mismatch the known morphology-density relation of galaxies without low-ionization features. The results support the contribution of hot and old stars to the low-ionization emission although the contribution of nuclear activity is not discarded.

  4. Dynamic stabilization of imploding liquid metal liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyuki; Fujiie, Yoichi

    1979-01-01

    The rotational stabilization has been proposed against the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the imploding liquid metal liner. In this paper, the discussion is made on the possibility of the dynamic stabilization by applying the oscillating azimuthal magnetic field in addition to the axial field. In contrast to the rotational stabilization, the required (field) energy for this stabilization is also used for the liner driving or the plasma confinement. In the analysis, the liner subjected to the acceleration is assumed to be infinitely long, at rest and have the situation at the start of the implosion or turnaround. At turnaround, the existence of the plasma is taken into account. The perturbed motion of the liner is discussed with a linear stability analysis. Results are as follows: (1) The dynamic stabilization at the start of the implosion is possible if the distance from the conducting wall to the liner outer surface is comparable with or less than the liner thickness. (2) At turnaround, the stability is improved with decreasing the ratio of the plasma radius to that of the liner inner surface however the kink mode (m = 1) cannot be suppressed. (author)

  5. Thermoplastic liners for carbon steel pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdi, Mauyed S.; AlDossary, Abdullah K. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-12-19

    Materials selection for pipe and fittings used to convey corrosive fluids has often been a challenge. Traditionally, exotic Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA) have been used in corrosive environments despite their high cost. Plastic lined carbon steel piping offers a cost effective alternative to the use of CRAs by eliminating corrosion, significantly reducing the use of toxic chemicals and the heavy metal usually present in CRAs. Thermoplastic Liners offer the combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical strength, which are unachievable with singular materials. Under pressure conditions, the liner is fully supported by the metalwork, while under vacuum conditions, the liner must be thick enough along with venting system to withstand the collapsing forces created by the negative pressure. Plastic liners have been used successfully to line and protect metallic pipelines for many years and have become an indispensable requirement of the oil and gas industry particularly with water injection and hydrocarbon services. In the case of internally corroded pipes, the use of thermoplastic liners for rehabilitation is an option to extend the lifetime of companies' assets, reduce maintenance cost and increase intervals between T and Is. For new construction, plastic liners in carbon steel pipes can compete technically and economically with pipelines of CRA materials and other corrosion inhibition systems. This paper describes various design features, installations of thermoplastic liners in comparison to other corrosion inhibition methods. (author)

  6. Exploratory shaft liner corrosion estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An estimate of expected corrosion degradation during the 100-year design life of the Exploratory Shaft (ES) is presented. The basis for the estimate is a brief literature survey of corrosion data, in addition to data taken by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The scope of the study is expected corrosion environment of the ES, the corrosion modes of general corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion, dissimilar metal corrosion, and environmentally assisted cracking. The expected internal and external environment of the shaft liner is described in detail and estimated effects of each corrosion mode are given. The maximum amount of general corrosion degradation was estimated to be 70 mils at the exterior and 48 mils at the interior, at the shaft bottom. Corrosion at welds or mechanical joints could be significant, dependent on design. After a final determination of corrosion allowance has been established by the project it will be added to the design criteria. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Variable volume combustor with a conical liner support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Keener, Chrisophter Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2017-06-27

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a conical liner support supporting the liner.

  8. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  9. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of three LINERs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, R. W.; Keel, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Three galaxies known to be LINERs were observed spectroscopically in the ultraviolet in an attempt to detect the presumed nonthermal continuum source thought to be the source of photoionization in the nuclei. NGC 4501 was found to be too faint for study with the IUE spectrographs, while NGC 5005 had an extended ultraviolet light profile. Comparison with the optical light profile of NGC 5005 indicates that the ultraviolet source is distributed spatially in the same manner as the optical starlight, probably indicating that the ultraviolet excess is due to a component of hot stars in the nucleus. These stars contribute detectable absorption features longward of 2500 A; together with optical data, the IUE spectra suggest a burst of star formation about 1 billion yr ago, with a lower rate continuing to produce a few OB stars. In NGC 4579, a point source contributing most of the ultraviolet excess is found that is much different than the optical light distribution. Furthermore, the ultraviolet to X-ray spectral index in NGC 4579 is 1.4, compatible with the UV to X-ray indices found for samples of Seyfert galaxies. This provides compelling evidence for the detection of the photoionizing continuum in NGC 4579 and draws the research fields of normal galaxies and active galactic nuclei closer together. The emission-line spectrum of NGC 4579 is compared with calculations from a photoionization code, CLOUDY, and several shock models. The photoionization code is found to give superior results, adding to the increasing weight of evidence that the LINER phenomenon is essentially a scaled-down version of the Seyfert phenomenon.

  10. Advantages of floating covers with LLDPE Liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Gomez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Using floating covers in irrigation pounds and waste dam gives many advantages. It is a very interesting investment for those place with a high evaporation ratio. this is an easy system which improves several aspects in irrigation or drinkable water reservoirs, mainly it saves water and it saves clean-works (time and cost). It is also used in waste dam to deodorization. Time ago this application was developed with PVC liners and TPO liners, now the innovation is LLDPE liners which improve mechanical properties, durability and an easier installation. This paper develops the state of art of this design technology, and the back ground of our experience. (Author)

  11. Experimental determination and evaluation of the friction behavior of geosynthetics; Experimentelle Ermittlung und Bewertung des Reibungsverhaltens von Geokunststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Maik

    2016-08-17

    In many fields of geotechnical engineering geosynthetics have established itself as an alternative to common used earth materials. Particularly in landfill sealing systems many different types of geosynthetics are used together. In embankments geosynthetics form inclined planes. The safety against sliding must be proved for all contact surfaces. For this purpose, the knowledge of the friction behavior of the geosynthetics is required. Normally, the friction behavior is modeled analytically with the Coulomb failure criterion. The Coulomb friction parameters usually must be determined experimentally. In spite of the good state of the art and numerous studies into geosynthetics, in detail, there are still issues relating to the determination of friction behavior of geosynthetics, to the application of the Coulomb failure criterion and to the assessment of the friction parameters with a view to the time- and temperature-dependent behavior of synthetics. The main objective of this work is to contribute to a reliable determination of the friction behavior and to a correct assessment of the evaluated test results as the basis for a reliable and economical dimensioning of structures with geosynthetics. For this, the measurement technique of a standard large direct shear box was upgraded by the author, so that the effective normal stress can be measured below the test surface. Also tests with very small normal stresses can be carried out with this modification. Furthermore, a force-controlled test device was designed for studies of the influences arising from long-term combined compressive and shear loads and temperature. Based on experimental investigations inadequacies in the current experimental procedure are identified. In addition, the impact of factors are quantified, which are often ignored or considered to be marginal in practice. With further experimental investigations it is demonstrated that the linear Coulomb failure criterion is valid for limited normal stress

  12. HOST liner cyclic facilities: Facility description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D.

    1982-01-01

    A quartz lamp box, a quartz lamp annular rig, and a low pressure liner cyclic can rig planned for liner cyclic tests are described. Special test instrumentation includes an IR-TV camera system for measuring liner cold side temperatures, thin film thermocouples for measuring liner hot side temperatures, and laser and high temperature strain gages for obtaining local strain measurements. A plate temperature of 2,000 F was obtained in an initial test of an apparatus with three quartz lamps. Lamp life, however, appeared to be limited for the standard commercial quartz lamps available. The design of vitiated and nonvitiated preheaters required for the quartz lamp annular rig and the cyclic can test rigs is underway.

  13. CANMET Gasifier Liner Coupon Material Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Fitzsimmons; Dave Grimmett; Bryan McEnerney

    2007-01-31

    This report provides detailed test results consisting of test data and post-test inspections from Task 1 ''Cooled Liner Coupon Development and Test'' of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources--Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The primary objective of this development and test program is to verify that ceramic matrix composite (CMC) liner materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will successfully withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) designed and fabricated the cooled liner test assembly article that was tested in a slagging gasifier at CANMET Energy Technology Center (CETC-O) in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The test program conducted in 2006 met the objective of operating the cooled liner test article at slagging conditions in a small scale coal gasifier at CETC-O for over the planned 100 hours. The test hardware was exposed to at least 30 high temperature excursions (including start-up and shut-down cycles) during the test program. The results of the testing has provided valuable information on gasifier startup and required cooling controls in steady state operation of future advanced gasifiers using similar liners. The test program also provided a significant amount of information in the areas of CMC materials and processing for improved capability in a gasifier environment and insight into CMC liner fabrication that will be essential for near-term advanced gasifier projects.

  14. Fusion power from fast imploding liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Moses, R.W.; Miller, R.L.; Germwin, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    An approach to fusion power is described which proposes magnetically driving a thin metal shell at high velocity (approximately 10 4 m/s) onto a warm (200 to 500 eV), dense (10 24 to 10 25 m -3 ) plasma. A description of the plasma/liner interaction by several analytic and numerical models is given. On the basis of theoretical scaling predictions, the advantages, disadvantages and uncertainties associated with a high-efficiency (recirculating power fraction less than or equal to 0.2) Fast-Liner Reactor (FLR) are described, quantified when possible, and summarized. The FLR approach is characterized by (1) a thin cylindrical nonrotating liner that would be magnetically accelerated by axial currents driven through the liner (no external coils or magnets), (2) axial and radial energy confinement would be provided by an azimuthal magnetic field associated either with axial currents driven through a hard core or through the plasma, (3) the plasma particle pressure would be supported directly by the liner surface and material end plugs, and (4) the liner and a portion of associated support structure would be destroyed at each implosion. A preliminary assessment of the technological implications of blast confinement, materials destruction and loss, energy transfer and storage requirements, and possible modes of FLR operation is presented

  15. Conceptual design of imploding liner fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchi, P.J.; Robson, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    The basic new ingredient is the concept of rotationally stabilized liquid metal liners accelerated with free pistons. The liner motion is constrained on its outer surface by the pistons, laterally by channel walls, during acceleration, and on its inner surface, where megagauss field levels are attained by the centrifugal motion of the liner material. In this way, stable, reversible motion of the liner should be possible, permitting repetitive, pulsed operation at interior pressures far greater than can be allowed in static conductor systems. Such higher operating pressures permit the use of simple plasma geometries, such as theta pinches, with greatly reduced dimensions. Furthermore, the implosion of thick, lithium-bearing liners with large radial compression ratios inherently provides the plasma with a surrounding blanket of neutron absorbing liquid metal, thereby substantially reducing the problems of induced radioactivity and first wall damage that haunt conventional fusion reactor designs. The following article discusses the basic operation of liner reactors and several important features influencing their design

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Retrieved Glenoid Liners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Childs

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Revision of orthopedic surgeries is often expensive and involves higher risk from complications. Since most total joint replacement devices use a polyethylene bearing, which serves as a weak link, the assessment of damage to the liner due to in vivo exposure is very important. The failures often are due to excessive polyethylene wear. The glenoid liners are complex and hemispherical in shape and present challenges while assessing the damage. Therefore, the study on the analysis of glenoid liners retrieved from revision surgery may lend insight into common wear patterns and improve future product designs. The purpose of this pilot study is to further develop the methods of segmenting a liner into four quadrants to quantify the damage in the liner. Different damage modes are identified and statistically analyzed. Multiple analysts were recruited to conduct the damage assessments. In this paper, four analysts evaluated nine glenoid liners, retrieved from revision surgery, two of whom had an engineering background and two of whom had a non-engineering background. Associated human factor mechanisms are reported in this paper. The wear patterns were quantified using the Hood/Gunther, Wasielewski, Brandt, and Lombardi methods. The quantitative assessments made by several observers were analyzed. A new, composite damage parameter was developed and applied to assess damage. Inter-observer reliability was assessed using a paired t-test. Data reported by four analysts showed a high standard deviation; however, only two analysts performed the tests in a significantly similar way and they had engineering backgrounds.

  17. Evaluation of liners for a uranium-mill tailings disposal site: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Hale, V.Q.; Barnes, S.M.; Silviera, D.J.

    1981-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy is conducting a program designed to reclaim or stabilize inactive uranium-mill tailings sites. This report presents the status of the Liner Evaluation Program. The purpose of the study was to identify eight prospective lining materials or composites for laboratory testing. The evaluation was performed by 1) reviewing proposed regulatory requirements to define the material performance criteria; 2) reviewing published literature and communicating with industrial and government experts experienced with lining materials and techniques; and 3) characterizing the tailings at three of the sites for calcium concentration, a selection of anions, radionuclides, organic solvents, and acidity levels. The eight materials selected for laboratory testing are: natural soil amended with sodium-saturated montmorillonite (Volclay); locally available clay in conjunction with an asphalt emulsion radon suppression cover; locally available clay in conjunction with a multibarrier radon suppression cover; rubberized asphalt membrane; hydraulic asphalt concrete; chlorosulfonated polyethylene (hypalon) or high-density polyethylene; bentonite, sand and gravel mixture; and catalytic airblown asphalt membrane. The materials will be exposed in test units now being constructed to conditions such as wet/dry cycles, temperature cycles, oxidative environments, ion-exchange elements, etc. The results of the tests will identify the best material for field study. The status report also presents the information gathered during the field studies at Grand Junction, Colorado. Two liners, a bentonite, sand and gravel mixture, and a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane, were installed in a prepared trench and covered with tailings. The liners were instrumented and are being monitored for migration of moisture, radionuclides, and hazardous chemicals. The two liner materials will also be subjected to accelerated laboratory tests for a comparative assessment

  18. Designing Indonesian Liner Shipping Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Omar Moeis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the largest archipelago nation in the world, Indonesia’s logistics system has not shown excellence according to the parameters of logistics performance index and based on logistics costs percentages from overall GDP. This is due to the imbalances of trading on the western and eastern regions in Indonesia, which impacts the transportation systems costs to and from the eastern regions. Therefore, it is imperative to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian maritime logistics through maritime logistics network design. This research will focus on three levels of decision making in logistics network design, which include type of ships in the strategic level, shipping routes in the tactical level, and container allocation in the operational level with implementing butterfly routes in Indonesia’s logistics networking problems. Furthermore, this research will analyze the impact of Pendulum Nusantara and Sea Toll routes against the company profits and percentages of containers shipped. This research will also foresee how demand uncertainties and multi-period planning should affect decision making in designing the Indonesian Liner Shipping Network.

  19. The effects of waste leachates on the hydraulic conductivity of natural clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, F

    1989-01-01

    Sanitary land filling remains a viable alternative for disposal of the ever increasing volumes of municipal solid waste. Current landfill design practice requires the presence of a clay barrier (liner) that may consist of either a natural stratum or compacted clay borrow. The liner acts as a hydraulic barrier to control the flux of contaminants from the waste into the adjacent groundwater. In order to do this clay liners are required to have low hydraulic conductivity, k (typically 10{sup {minus}8} cm/s) that shall not increase during exposure to waste leachate. This thesis reports the assessment of compatibility between natural clays from Sarnia, Ontario, and various leachates ranging from municipal solid waste leachate to concentrated organic solvents. The studies were performed using specially designed fixed-ring permeameters that allowed controlling confining effective stresses, volume changes in the soil specimen and chemistry of the influent and effluent permeants. The Sarnia clays appeared to be compatible with domestic waste leachate, showing slight reductions in k. Extensive retardation of potassium from the leachate required long testing periods (up to twelve pore volumes) before the soils were deemed to be in chemical equilibrium. Concentrated, water-soluble organics (ethanol and dioxane) increased the hydraulic conductivity of compacted clays by 100 to 1,000-fold, thus destroying their effectiveness as liners. Water-compacted clays appeared remarkably resistant to penetration by concentrated hydrophobic solvents such as cyclohexane. Large hydraulic gradients (up to {approximately}900) were required to produce breakthrough along compaction induced fractures. However, alcohols and surfactants can facilitate the entry of hydrophobic liquids into the double layers causing large increased in k.

  20. Behavior of granular rubber waste tire reinforced soil for application in geosynthetic reinforced soil wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. D. RAMIREZ

    Full Text Available AbstractLarge quantities of waste tires are released to the environment in an undesirable way. The potential use of this waste material in geotechnical applications can contribute to reducing the tire disposal problem and to improve strength and deformation characteristics of soils. This paper presents a laboratory study on the effect of granular rubber waste tire on the physical properties of a clayey soil. Compaction tests using standard effort and consolidated-drained triaxial tests were run on soil and mixtures. The results conveyed an improvement in the cohesion and the angle of internal friction the clayey soil-granular rubber mixture, depending on the level of confining stress. These mixtures can be used like backfill material in soil retaining walls replacing the clayey soil due to its better strength and shear behavior and low unit weight. A numerical simulation was conducted for geosynthetic reinforced soil wall using the clayey soil and mixture like backfill material to analyzing the influence in this structure.

  1. A geosynthetic reinforcement solution to prevent the formation of localized sinkholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villard, P.; Gourc, J. P.; Giraud, H. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LIRIGM, Grenoble (France)

    2000-10-01

    A research program to guard against the risk of accidents linked to the presence of small diameter cavities under both road and railway lines is described. The program involves study of the complex behaviour of the overlying fill in the event of sinkhole formation, given that the deformation of the geosynthetic membrane results from the progressive loading of the overlying soil layer and not from the collapse of the underlying soil. Full-scale tests were carried out on reinforced, instrumented road and railway structures subjected to localized collapse. Experimental work was accompanied by a numerical study of the mechanics involved in sinkhole formation. Experimental results were analyzed and compared with the results of the three-dimensional finite element modeling. Similarity of the results suggests that formation of a stable arch for two metre cavities and an unstable arch for four metre cavities, filled with 1.5 m thick fill consisting of large grain size granular material, is satisfactory for small diameter cavities at moderate depths. However, this solution is not suitable for large large diameter cavities at moderate depths. 18 refs., 22 figs.

  2. Temporary abandonment cement plug on the liner top; Tampao de abandono temporario na boca do liner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiss Filho, Paulo Henrique; Costa Junior, Pedro Americo da; Viana, Jose Luis Rodrigues [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Distrito de Pefuracao do Sudeste. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao

    1994-07-01

    In many instances wells are temporary abandoned just after cementing liner to be completed later or to have the BOP removed to change rams. In these cases, an additional volume of slurry is designed in order to bring the top of cement plug over the liner top, thus saving the time required for all full plugging operation. (author)

  3. Geotechnical Characterization of Mined Clay from Appalachian Ohio: Challenges and Implications for the Clay Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Anthony R.; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan

    2011-01-01

    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling. PMID:21845150

  4. Geotechnical Characterization of Mined Clay from Appalachian Ohio: Challenges and Implications for the Clay Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Moran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling.

  5. Diffusion through statically compacted clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.L.; Shebl, M.A.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents experimental work on the effect of compaction on contaminant flow through clay liners. The experimental program included evaluation of soil properties, compaction, permeability and solute diffusion. A permeameter was built of non reactive materials to test samples compacted at different water contents and compactive efforts. The flow of a permeating solute, LiCl, was monitored. Effluent samples were collected for solute concentration measurements. The concentrations were measured by performing atomic adsorption tests. The analyzed results showed different diffusion characteristics when compaction conditions changed. At each compactive effort, permeability decreased as molding water content increased. Consequently, transit time (measured at relative concentration 50%) increased and diffusivity decreased. As compactive effort increased for soils compacted dry of optimum, permeability and diffusion decreased. On the other hand, as compactive effort increased for soils compacted wet of optimum, permeability and diffusivity increased. Tortuosity factor was indirectly measured from the diffusion and retardation rate. Tortuosity factor also decreased as placement water content was increased from dry of optimum to wet of optimum. Then decreases were more pronounced for low compactive effort tests. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Simulation of LOCA and ageing effect with containment liner mockup for analysis of liner-concrete interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienand, B.; Fila, A.; Hermann, N.; Mueller, M.

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of the pre-stressed concrete wall behavior including the liner during LOCA conditions is important for the assessment of the structural integrity of the structure and the leak tightness of the liner. In the frame of the NUGENIA ACCEPPT project WP1 G4 'Structural interaction of liner with the concrete', a load test on a reactor containment liner mockup was carried out. The pre-stressed mockup represents a cylindrical part of the liner, embedded in the concrete wall, but without the wall curvature which is not test relevant. It correlates in material and geometrical properties to the EPR containment. The purpose of the test was to check the liners structural behavior and its integrity for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) load combination considering pre-stressing forces and ageing effects due to creep and shrinkage including liner buckling. The test was carried out at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in September 2013. This article presents the measurement technology, the results and the development of a calculation method for the embedded liner structure. It appears that the liner deformation results are exemplarily shown at the locations of the imperfections, where the liner buckling is anticipated. The measured liner surface strains ranged between +2 and -10 per thousand. The compressive strains are higher than the tensile strains due to the compressive membrane strains caused by pre-stressing and heating. Although the liner got plastic deformations, the liner strains are still far below the elongation at rupture, which indicates that the liner integrity is ensured. We can conclude that the liner mockup test proceeded as planned. The evaluation results show that the purpose of the liner mockup to simulate LOCA + ageing conditions and liner buckling has fully been achieved

  7. SDU6 Interior Liner Testing & Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidmore, T. E.

    2016-01-01

    Two liner materials (Marseal® M-3500 and REMA Chemoline® 4CN) proposed for use as a liner inside the Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6) were subjected to specific ASTM tests (tensile and lap-shear) after immersion in 50% and 100% simulant solutions for 1000 hours at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Both liner materials exhibited good resistance to the simulant chemistry, at least based on the tests performed and the test duration/conditions imposed. In lap-shear tests, both materials failed in the base material rather than peeling apart, confirming good adhesion. The REMA 4CN bromobutyl elastomer showed superior bonding characteristics and absence of warping or delamination at the conditions tested. The Marseal M-3500 material (PVC/EVA blend with polyester reinforcement) exhibited deformation and debonding in some locations. The cause of the deformation and delamination observed in the Marseal M-3500 material is not fully known, but possibly attributed to thermomechanical stress at immersion temperatures, and the thermoplastic nature of the material. The immersion temperature (68 °C) is slightly greater than the maximum use temperature limit quoted for the Marseal M- 3500 liner (65 °C), though the basis for the service limit is unknown. The testing performed was limited in scope and only for these two liner materials. These tests were primarily performed to screen for severe incompatibility or short-term degradation in Saltstone bleedwater simulants at bounding solution temperatures. Additional testing is recommended to assess long-term performance and the overall service life of the liner.

  8. SDU6 Interior Liner Testing & Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-14

    Two liner materials (Marseal® M-3500 and REMA Chemoline® 4CN) proposed for use as a liner inside the Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6) were subjected to specific ASTM tests (tensile and lap-shear) after immersion in 50% and 100% simulant solutions for 1000 hours at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Both liner materials exhibited good resistance to the simulant chemistry, at least based on the tests performed and the test duration/conditions imposed. In lap-shear tests, both materials failed in the base material rather than peeling apart, confirming good adhesion. The REMA 4CN bromobutyl elastomer showed superior bonding characteristics and absence of warping or delamination at the conditions tested. The Marseal M-3500 material (PVC/EVA blend with polyester reinforcement) exhibited deformation and debonding in some locations. The cause of the deformation and delamination observed in the Marseal M-3500 material is not fully known, but possibly attributed to thermomechanical stress at immersion temperatures, and the thermoplastic nature of the material. The immersion temperature (68 °C) is slightly greater than the maximum use temperature limit quoted for the Marseal M- 3500 liner (65 °C), though the basis for the service limit is unknown. The testing performed was limited in scope and only for these two liner materials. These tests were primarily performed to screen for severe incompatibility or short-term degradation in Saltstone bleedwater simulants at bounding solution temperatures. Additional testing is recommended to assess long-term performance and the overall service life of the liner.

  9. Acoustic Panel Liner for an Engine Nacelle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Nark, Douglas M. (Inventor); Ayle, Earl (Inventor); Ichihashi, Fumitaka (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An acoustic panel liner includes a face sheet, back plate, and liner core positioned there-between, which may be used in an engine nacelle. Elongated chambers contain variable amounts of septa at a calibrated depth or depths. The septa may have varying DC flow resistance. The chambers may have a hexagonal or other polygonal cross sections. The septa, such as mesh caps, may be bonded to an inner wall of a corresponding chamber. The insertion depths may be the same or different. If different, the pattern of distribution of the depths may be randomized.

  10. Time constrained liner shipping network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy

    2017-01-01

    We present a mathematical model and a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem. The model takes into account coordination between vessels and transit time restrictions on the cargo flow. The solution method is an improvement heuristic, where an integer program is solved...... iteratively to perform moves in a large neighborhood search. Our improvement heuristic is applicable as a real-time decision support tool for a liner shipping company. It can be used to find improvements to the network when evaluating changes in operating conditions or testing different scenarios...

  11. The critical thickness of liners of Cu interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Q; Zhang, S H; Li, J C

    2004-01-01

    A model for the size-dependence of activation energy is developed. With the model and Fick's second law, relationships among the liner thickness, the working life and the working temperature of a TaN liner for Cu interconnects are predicted. The predicted results of the TaN liner are in good agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, the critical thicknesses of liners of some elements are calculated

  12. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of a...

  13. Comparative evaluation of liner materials for inactive uranium-mill-tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Barnes, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    Under the funding of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has completed the initial accelerated testing phase of eight candidate liner materials. The tests were designed to comparatively evaluate the long term effectiveness of liner materials as a radionuclide and hazardous chemical leachate barrier. The eight materials tested were selected from a technical review of published literature and industrial specialists. Conditions were then identified that would accelerate the aging processes expected in a uranium tailings environment for 1000 years. High calcium leachates were forced through thin layers of clay liners to accelerate the ion exchange rate of sodium and calcium. Asphalt and synthetic materials were accelerated by exposure to elevate temperatures, high concentrations of oxygen, and increased strengths of aqueous oxidizing agents. By comparing the changes of permeability with time of exposure, the most acceptable materials were then identified. These materials are a catalytically airblown asphalt membrane and natural soil amended with sodium bentonite. Both materials showed an increased resistance to leachate penetration throughout the exposure period with final permeabilities less than 10 -7 cm/s. In addition, the asphalt membrane and sodium bentonite are among the least expensive materials to install at a disposal site. Therefore based on their economic and technical merits, these two materials are being evaluated further in field tests at Grand Junction, Colorado

  14. Diagnostics for the Plasma Liner Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, A. G.; Merritt, E.; Gilmore, M.; Hsu, S. C.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Cassibry, J. T.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of forming imploding spherical ''plasma liners'' via merging high Mach number plasma jets to reach peak liner pressures of ∼0.1 Mbar using ∼1.5 MJ of initial stored energy. Such a system would provide HED plasmas for a variety of fundamental HEDLP, laboratory astrophysics, and materials science studies, as well as a platform for experimental validation of rad-hydro and rad-MHD simulations. It could also prove attractive as a potential standoff driver for magnetoinertial fusion. Predicted parameters from jet formation to liner stagnation cover a large range of plasma density and temperature, varying from n i ∼10 16 cm -3 , T e ≅T i ∼1 eV at the plasma gun mouth to n i >10 19 cm -3 , T e ≅T i ∼0.5 keV at stagnation. This presents a challenging problem for the plasma diagnostics suite which will be discussed.

  15. Diagnostics for the plasma liner experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, A G; Merritt, E; Gilmore, M; Hsu, S C; Witherspoon, F D; Cassibry, J T

    2010-10-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of forming imploding spherical "plasma liners" via merging high Mach number plasma jets to reach peak liner pressures of ∼0.1 Mbar using ∼1.5 MJ of initial stored energy. Such a system would provide HED plasmas for a variety of fundamental HEDLP, laboratory astrophysics, and materials science studies, as well as a platform for experimental validation of rad-hydro and rad-MHD simulations. It could also prove attractive as a potential standoff driver for magnetoinertial fusion. Predicted parameters from jet formation to liner stagnation cover a large range of plasma density and temperature, varying from n(i)∼10(16) cm(-3), T(e)≈T(i)∼1 eV at the plasma gun mouth to n(i)>10(19) cm(-3), T(e)≈T(i)∼0.5 keV at stagnation. This presents a challenging problem for the plasma diagnostics suite which will be discussed.

  16. Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    In the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem (LSNDP) services sail at a given speed throughout a round trip. In reality most services operate with a speed differentiated head- and back-haul, or even individual speeds on every sailing between two ports. The speed of a service is decisive...

  17. Compression of toroidal plasma by imploding plasma-liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1979-07-01

    A new concept of compressing a plasma in a closed magnetic configuration by a version of liner implosion flux compression technique is considered. The liner consists of a dense plasma cylinder, i.e. the plasma-liner. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined just by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to the liner plasma because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A start-up senario of plasma-liner is also proposed with a possible application of this concept to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e. burning plasma vortex. (author)

  18. Engineered clay-shredded tyre mixtures as barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Tabbaa, A.; Aravinthan, T.

    1997-01-01

    An engineered clay consisting of kaolin and bentonite was mixed with shredded tyre in various weight percentages and examined for use as a constituent in a landfill liner. The clay-tyre mixtures properties in terms of compaction, unconfined compressive strength, permeability to water and paraffin, leachability, stress-strain behaviour, free swell behaviour and swelling pressure were investigated. The results show that the dry density and strength reduced with the addition of tyre and also with increased tyre content but that good interaction was developed between the clay and tyre. The strain at failure increased showing reinforcing effect of the tyre. The permeability to paraffin was considerably reduced compared to that to water due to the presence of the tyre which caused high swelling pressures to develop. The leachability results indicate initial high concentrations leaching out of the soil-tyre mixtures which will be subjected to dilution in the environment. This work adds evidence to the potential advantages of using soil-tyre mixtures as a landfill liner material

  19. Polybore : an innovative casing liner and patch technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, C. [Trican Well Service Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided several images on how to install a polybore tight fitting wellbore liner developed by Trican Well Service. The high density polyethylene liner is spooled and rolled into a reducer well where weights are maintained until the liner is in place. The liner offers corrosion protection, corrosion control, chemical resistance, and wear resistance. The liner helps to optimize water injection, well disposal, as well as carbon dioxide injection. It can be placed at depths up to 2,000 m and is well suited to repair pin hole leaks or plug off existing perforations that were previously cemented. The liner can be used to repair and control wellbore corrosion at specific intervals. This presentation provides a brief history of the development of the wellbore liner along with some installation case studies. The thermal velocity liner developed by Trican insulates fluids from heat loss. It prevents liquid dropout and paraffin formation in gas wells. The liner can be used as a replacement for tubing or a loose fit liner. Erosion rates were illustrated. The system, however, is limited because the wellbore casing must be round and scraped and it cannot be used in highly deviated wells. The economic benefits of injection and disposal well applications include power savings, quick payback, corrosion resistance, and lower repair costs. The liners are more cost effective than conventional steel patch. 1 tab., 14 figs.

  20. Liner Stability Experiments at Pegasus: Diagnostics and Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.A.; Morgan, D.V.; Rodriguez, G.

    1998-01-01

    A series of experiments to compare imploding liner performance with magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modeling has been performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus II pulse power machine. Liner instability growth originating from initial perturbations machined into the liner has been observed with high resolution. Three major diagnostics were used: radiography, Velocity Interferometer for a Surface of Any Reflector (VISAR), and fiber optic impact pins. For radiography, three flash x-ray units were mounted radially to observe liner shape at three different times during the implosion. Liner velocity was measured continuously with the VISAR for the entire distance traveled in two experiments. Optical impact pins provide a high-resolution measure of liner symmetry and shape near the end of travel. Liner performance has compared well with predictions

  1. Common clay and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. The clay and shale market in 1999 is reviewed. In the U.S., sales or use of clay and shale increased from 26.4 million st in 1998 to 27.3 million st in 1999, with an estimated 1999 value of production of $143 million. These materials were used to produce structural clay products, lightweight aggregates, cement, and ceramics and refractories. Production statistics for clays and shales and for their uses in 1999 are presented.

  2. Development of 1D Liner Compression Code for IDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    A 1D liner compression code is developed to model liner implosion dynamics in the Inductively Driven Liner Experiment (IDL) where FRC plasmoid is compressed via inductively-driven metal liners. The driver circuit, magnetic field, joule heating, and liner dynamics calculations are performed at each time step in sequence to couple these effects in the code. To obtain more realistic magnetic field results for a given drive coil geometry, 2D and 3D effects are incorporated into the 1D field calculation through use of correction factor table lookup approach. Commercial low-frequency electromagnetic fields solver, ANSYS Maxwell 3D, is used to solve the magnetic field profile for static liner condition at various liner radius in order to derive correction factors for the 1D field calculation in the code. The liner dynamics results from the code is verified to be in good agreement with the results from commercial explicit dynamics solver, ANSYS Explicit Dynamics, and previous liner experiment. The developed code is used to optimize the capacitor bank and driver coil design for better energy transfer and coupling. FRC gain calculations are also performed using the liner compression data from the code for the conceptual design of the reactor sized system for fusion energy gains.

  3. Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  4. Evaluation of corrosion attack of chimney liners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blahetová M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The case study of chimney liner corrosion addresses three specific cases of damage of chimney systems from of stainless steels. These systems were used for flue of gas arising from the combustion of brown coal in small automatic boilers, which are used for heating. Detailed analyzes implied that the cause of devastating corrosion of the steel AISI 316 and 304 steel (CSN 17349, 17241 was particularly high content of halides (chlorides and fluorides, which caused a severe pitting corrosion, which led up to the perforation of the liner material. Simultaneous reduction of the thickness of the used sheets was due to by the general corrosion, which was caused by the sulfur in the solid fuel. The condensation then led to acid environment and therefore the corrosion below the dew point of the sulfuric acid has occurred. All is documented by metallographic analysis and microanalysis of the corrosion products.

  5. Writing and Music: Album Liner Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Leonard Biron

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A deceptive aspect of the ‘writing about music is like dancing about architecture’ cliché is the function of the preposition ‘about’. Literature and music, dance and architecture, painting and film – all are discrete aesthetic forms that nonetheless simultaneously feed off and provide nourishment for each other as part of art’s perpetual drive toward diversity and innovation. Nowhere is the aptness of the association between writing and music more obvious than in the phenomenon of album liner notes. Rather than merely an attempt at describing or translating musical experience, liner notes contribute to the dialogue between composer and listener and are a significant part of the culture of contemporary music.

  6. Clay Portrait Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to incorporate sculptural elements into her ceramics program, the author decided to try direct plaster casting of the face to make a plaster mold for clay. In this article, the author shares an innovative ceramics lesson that teaches students in making plaster casts and casting the face in clay. This project gives students the…

  7. Columns in Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenhouts, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

  8. Modelling of the flow in the interface of a composite liner at the bottom of a municipal waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartaud, F.

    2004-11-01

    Composite liner at the bottom of waste landfill is based, in France, on a geo-membrane overlapping a compacted clay liner. Defects exist in geo-membranes and leachates, provided by water percolation through the waste, then flow in the interface between the two components of the lining system. The present work consisted in analysis, quantification and modelling of the leakage process in the interface. The experimental study has been carried out on a one-meter scale device in laboratory and allowed to assess the role of normal stress on the flow rate in interface. The case where a geo-textile is present beneath the geo-membrane has been also studied. The modelling allows to take into account more accurately the geometry of the interface and ensures a better quantification of leachate flow rates than using existing methods. (author)

  9. Design of the ZTH vacuum liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, P.P.; Dike, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The current status of the ZTH vacuum liner design is covered by this report. ZTH will be the first experiment to be installed in the CPRF (Confinement Physics Research Facility) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and is scheduled to be operational at the rated current of 4 MA in 1992. The vacuum vessel has a 2.4 m major radius and a 40 cm minor radius. Operating parameters which drive the vacuum vessel mechanical design include a 300 C bakeout temperature, an armour support system capable of withstanding 25 kV, a high toroidal resistance, 1250 kPa magnetic loading, a 10 minute cycle time, and high positional accuracy with respect to the conducting shell. The vacuum vessel design features which satisfy the operating parameters are defined. The liner is constructed of Inconel 625 and has a geometry which alternates sections of thin walled bellows with rigid ribs. These composite sections span between pairs of the 16 diagnostic stations to complete the torus. The thin bellows sections maximize the liner toroidal resistance and the ribs provide support and positional accuracy for the armour in relation to the conducting shell. Heat transfer from the vessel is controlled by a blanket wrap of ceramic fiber insulation and the heat flux is dissipated to a water cooling jacket in the conducting shell

  10. Design of the ZTH vacuum liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    The current status of the ZTH vacuum liner design is covered by this report. ZTH will be the first experiment to be installed in the CPRF (Confinement Physics Research Facility) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and is scheduled to be operational at 2 MA in 1990 and at the rated current of 4 MA in 1992. The vacuum vessel has a 2.4m major radius and a 40 cm minor radius. The vacuum vessel design features which satisfy the operating parameters are defined. The liner is constructed of Inconel 625 and has a geometry which alternates sections of thin walled bellows with rigid ribs. These composite sections span between pairs of the 16 diagnostic stations to complete the torus. The thin bellows sections maximize the liner toroidal resistance and the ribs provide support and positional accuracy for the armour in relation to the conducting shell. Heat transfer from the vessel is controlled by a blanket wrap of ceramic fiber insulation and the heat flux is dissipated to a water cooling jacket in the conducting shell. 7 figs., 1 tab

  11. Study of imploding liner-electrode wall interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshev, V K; Zharinov, E I; Mokhov, V N [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Acceleration of solid aluminium liners and their interaction with electrodes is studied experimentally. One of the main goal of the experiments is to find the method of improving the contact between the liner and the electrode during the acceleration process. Two independent liners connected in series in one discharge circuit are used. This arrangement makes it possible to record two different liner positions simultaneously at one discharge current. As an energy source, a helical explosive magnetic generator of the length of 0.7 m and 100 mm in diameter is used. The shape of liners at various stages of acceleration is recorded by using a flash radiographic facility. The measured liner flight velocity and the compression radius are compared with the results of MHD model calculations. (J.U.). 21 figs., 7 refs.

  12. Accelerated aging tests of liners for uranium mill tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.M.; Buelt, J.L.; Hale, V.Q.

    1981-11-01

    This document describes the results of accelerated aging tests to determine the long-term effectiveness of selected impoundment liner materials in a uranium mill tailings environment. The study was sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The study was designed to evaluate the need for, and the performance of, several candidate liners for isolating mill tailings leachate in conformance with proposed Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. The liners were subjected to conditions known to accelerate the degradation mechanisms of the various liners. Also, a test environment was maintained that modeled the expected conditions at a mill tailings impoundment, including ground subsidence and the weight loading of tailings on the liners. A comparison of installation costs was also performed for the candidate liners. The laboratory testing and cost information prompted the selection of a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane and a sodium bentonite-amended soil for fiscal year 1981 field testing

  13. Gas permeability of bentonite barriers: development, construction and testing of a measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo Nunes Pitanga

    Full Text Available Abstract This article proposes a testing device to quickly and reliably estimate the gas permeability of bentonite-based clay barriers used in landfill cover systems. The testing methodology is based on a transient gas flow regime that passes through the barrier, therefore not requiring the use of sophisticated equipment that aim to maintain constant differential pressure and measure the gas flow, common requirements for testing methods under a permanent flow regime. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed technique, tests were performed on a pure hydrated bentonite layer, which subsequently encompassed samples of geosynthetic clay liner (GCL at different moisture contents. Geosynthetic clay liners are often selected as a part of the barrier layer for cover systems in solid waste landfills to prevent infiltration of rainfall and migration of biogas into the atmosphere. The results confirmed the equipment reliability and differentiate the different responses of the gas flow barriers studied, considering their different compositions and different moistures.

  14. Manufacturing hollow obturator with resilient denture liner on post hemimaxillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Josef Kridanto Kamadjaja

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A resilient denture liner is placed in the part of the hollow obturator base that contacts to post hemimaxillectomy mucosa. Replacing the resilient denture liner can makes the hollow obturator has an intimate contact with the mucosa, so it can prevents the mouth liquid enter to the cavum nasi and sinus, also eliminates painful because of using the hollow obturator. Resilient denture liner is a soft and resilient material that applied to the fitting surface of a denture in order to allow a more distribution of load. A case was reported about using the hollow obturator with resilient denture liner on post hemimaxillectomy to overcome these problems.

  15. Design and modeling of precision solid liner experiments on Pegasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.; Lee, H.; McLenithan, K.D.; Scannapieco, A.J.; Shanahan, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    Pulsed power driven solid liners may be used for a variety of physics experiments involving materials at high stresses. These include shock formation and propagation, material strain-rate effects, material melt, instability growth, and ejecta from shocked surfaces. We describe the design and performance of a cylindrical solid liner that can attain velocities in the several mm/μs regime, and that can be used to drive high-stress experiments. An approximate theoretical analysis of solid liner implosions is used to establish the basic parameters (mass, materials, and initial radius) of the driver. We then present one-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations of magnetically driven, liner implosions which include resistive heating and elastic endash plastic behavior. The two-dimensional models are used to study the effects of electrode glide planes on the liner close-quote s performance, to examine sources of perturbations of the liner, and to assess possible effects of instability growth during the implosion. Finally, simulations are compared with experimental data to show that the solid liner performed as predicted computationally. Experimental data indicate that the liner imploded from an initial radius of 2.4 cm to a target radius of 1.5 cm, and that it was concentric and cylindrical to better than the experimental resolution (60 μm) at the target. The results demonstrate that a precision solid liner can be produced for high-stress, pulsed power applications experiments. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  16. Construction experience on PCRV liners at Fort St. Vrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliff, J.O.; Wunderlich, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The construction of the steel liners for the Fort St. Vrain prestressed concrete reactor vessel presented many unique problems for which techniques were developed to satisfy the rigid specification requirements. The PCRV cavity liner was fabricated from 1.9cm carbon steel plate. The liners were partially fabricated by Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Company at their Pittsburgh manufacturing facility. The liners were then shipped by rail to within approximately five miles of the jobsite and then trucked the remaining distance. The construction techniques, dimensional control, concrete support and testing utilized on the Fort St. Vrain project are presented in detail and demonstrate the flexibility of the PCRV for field construction. (author)

  17. Characterization of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz N, C.; Olguin, M.T.; Solache R, M.; Alarcon H, T.; Aguilar E, A.

    2002-01-01

    The natural clays are the more abundant minerals on the crust. They are used for making diverse industrial products. Due to the adsorption and ion exchange properties of these, a great interest for developing research directed toward the use of natural clays for the waste water treatment has been aroused. As part of such researches it is very important to carry out previously the characterization of the interest materials. In this work the results of the mineral and elemental chemical composition are presented as well as the morphological characteristics of clay minerals from different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  18. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.R.; Dudka, S.; Miller, W.P.; Johnson, D.O.

    1997-01-01

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10 -8 to 10 -1 cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems

  19. Effect of seawater on consistency, infiltration rate and swelling characteristics of montmorillonite clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohie Eldin Elmashad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation performed to quantify the effect of mixing clayey soils with saltwater on consistency and swelling characteristics of clays. Massive natural clay deposits and compacted clay backfills either exist or are used in certain important and sensitive applications such as dams, liners, barriers and buffers in waste disposal facilities. In many cases, the clay deposits in these applications are subjected to saltwater. However, in standard laboratory classification tests, distilled or potable water are usually used in mixing test samples. This may lead to faulty interpretation of the actual in-situ consistency and volume change behaviors. In this research, an attempt is made to quantify the changes in consistency and swelling of clay soils from various locations around the Nile valley and possessing a wide range of consistency, when mixed with natural seawater with different salt concentrations. The results showed that the increase of the salt concentration of the mixing water may result in major decrease in the liquid limit and swelling characteristics of high plasticity montmorillonite clays. The reduction in the swelling of the clay soils is also proportional to the rate of saltwater infiltration. In an attempt to correlate the swelling of clays to the rate of water infiltration, a new simplified laboratory apparatus is proposed where swelling and infiltration are measured in one simple test “the swelling infiltrometer”.

  20. Evaluation of Skin Friction Drag for Liner Applications in Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Brown, Martha C.; Jasinski, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    A parameter that is gaining significance in the evaluation of acoustic liner performance is the skin friction drag induced by air flow over the liner surface. Estimates vary widely regarding the amount of drag the liner induces relative to a smooth wall, from less than a 20% increase to nearly 100%, and parameters such as face sheet perforate hole diameter, percent open area, and sheet thickness are expected to figure prominently in the skin friction drag. Even a small increase in liner drag can impose an economic penalty, and current research is focused on developing 'low drag' liner concepts, with the goal being to approach the skin friction drag of a smooth wall. The issue of skin friction drag takes on greater significance as airframe designers investigate the feasibility of putting sound absorbing liners on the non-lifting surfaces of the wings and fuselage, for the purpose of reducing engine noise reflected and scattered toward observers on the ground. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have embarked on investigations of liner skin friction drag with the aims of: developing a systematic drag measurement capability, establishing the drag of current liners, and developing liners that produce reduced drag without compromising acoustic performance. This paper discusses the experimental procedures that have been developed to calculate the drag coefficient based on the change in momentum thickness and the companion research program being carried out to measure the drag directly using a force balance. Liner samples that are evaluated include a solid wall with known roughness and conventional liners with perforated facesheets of varying hole diameter and percent open area.

  1. Writing and Music: Album Liner Notes

    OpenAIRE

    Biron, Dean Leonard

    2011-01-01

    A deceptive aspect of the ‘writing about music is like dancing about architecture’ cliché is the function of the preposition ‘about’. Literature and music, dance and architecture, painting and film – all are discrete aesthetic forms that nonetheless simultaneously feed off and provide nourishment for each other as part of art’s perpetual drive toward diversity and innovation. Nowhere is the aptness of the association between writing and music more obvious than in the phenomenon of album liner...

  2. Thixotropic Properties of Latvian Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Lakevičs, Vitālijs; Stepanova, Valentīna; Ruplis, Augusts

    2015-01-01

    This research studies Latvia originated Devon (Tūja, Skaņkalne), quaternary (Ceplīši), Jurassic, (Strēļi) and Triassic (Vadakste) deposit clays as well as Lithuania originated Triassic (Akmene) deposit clays. Thixotropic properties of clay were researched by measuring relative viscosity of clay in water suspensions. Relative viscosity is measured with a hopper method. It was detected that, when concentration of suspension is increased, clay suspension’s viscosity also increases. It happens un...

  3. 49 CFR 193.2187 - Nonmetallic membrane liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Lng Storage Tanks § 193.2187 Nonmetallic membrane liner. A flammable nonmetallic membrane liner may not be used as an inner container in a storage tank...

  4. Development of a Multifidelity Approach to Acoustic Liner Impedance Eduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    The use of acoustic liners has proven to be extremely effective in reducing aircraft engine fan noise transmission/radiation. However, the introduction of advanced fan designs and shorter engine nacelles has highlighted a need for novel acoustic liner designs that provide increased fan noise reduction over a broader frequency range. To achieve aggressive noise reduction goals, advanced broadband liner designs, such as zone liners and variable impedance liners, will likely depart from conventional uniform impedance configurations. Therefore, educing the impedance of these axial- and/or spanwise-variable impedance liners will require models that account for three-dimensional effects, thereby increasing computational expense. Thus, it would seem advantageous to investigate the use of multifidelity modeling approaches to impedance eduction for these advanced designs. This paper describes an extension of the use of the CDUCT-LaRC code to acoustic liner impedance eduction. The proposed approach is applied to a hardwall insert and conventional liner using simulated data. Educed values compare well with those educed using two extensively tested and validated approaches. The results are very promising and provide justification to further pursue the complementary use of CDUCT-LaRC with the currently used finite element codes to increase the efficiency of the eduction process for configurations involving three-dimensional effects.

  5. Tissue Friendly Pendulum: Soft Liner to prevent Tissue Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palatal mucosal irritation is commonly encountered with the Pendulum appliance. The efficiency of soft liners in reducing tissue irritation has been well documented in the field of prosthodontics. The following article describes an innovative technique where soft liner can be used to reduce palatal mucosal irritation caused by pendulum appliance.

  6. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping...

  7. Pining for home: Studying crew homesickness aboard a cruise liner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research in Hospitality Management ... Crew homesickness should be seen as important by both shipboard and liner company management because it can ultimately impact on customer service experiences, and can be ameliorated by ... Keywords: homesickness, cruise-liner, crewmembers, shipboard hotel services ...

  8. Liquid metal liner implosion systems with blade lattice for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyuki; Fujiie, Yoichi

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the liquid liner implosion systems with the blade lattice is proposed for the rotational stabilization of the liner inner surface which is facing a plasma in a fusion reactor. The blades are electrically conducting and inclined to the radial direction. Its major function is either acceleration or deceleration of the liner in the azimuthal direction. This system enables us to exclude the rotary mechanism for the liner rotation. In this system, the liner is formed as an annular flow of a liquid metal (the waterfall concept). Results show that there is no significant difference of the energy cost for the stabilization compared with the earlier proposed system where a liner is rotated rigidly before implosion. Furthermore, the application of the rotating blade lattice makes it possible to reduce the rotational kinetic energy required for the stabilization at turnaround, where the lattice acts as an impeller in the initial liner rotation. There is an optimum blade angle to maximize the compressed magnetic field energy inside the liner for a given driving energy. (author)

  9. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics...

  10. Modular liquid-cooled helmet liner for thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B. A.; Shitzer, A.

    1974-01-01

    A modular liquid-cooled helmet liner made of eight form-fitting neoprene patches was constructed. The liner was integrated into the sweatband of an Army SPH-4 helicopter aircrew helmet. This assembly was tested on four subjects seated in a hot (47 C), humid (40%) environment. Results indicate a marked reduction in the rate of increase of physiological body functions. Rectal temperature, weight loss, heart rate, and strain indices are all reduced to approximately 50% of uncooled levels. The cooling liner removed from 10% to 30% of total metabolic heat produced. This study also demonstrated the technical feasilibity of using a cooling liner in conjunction with a standard hard helmet. Potential applications of the cooling liner in thermally stressful environments are numerous, notably for helicopter and other aircrews.

  11. Generation of a rotating liquid liner by tangential injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, R.L.; Turchi, P.J.; Jenkins, D.J.; Lanham, R.E.; Cameron, J.; Cooper, A.L.

    1979-01-01

    Efficient compression of low mass-density payloads by the implosion of higher mass-density liquid cylinders or liners, as in the NRL LINUS concept for controlled thermonuclear fusion, requires rotation of the liner material to avoid Rayleigh--Taylor instabilities at the liner-payload interface. Experimentally, such implosions have been demonstrated with liners formed within rotating implosion chambers. The present work uses a scale-model experimental apparatus to investigate the possibility of creating liner rotation by tangential injection of the liquid liner material. Different modes of behavior are obtained depending on the fluid exhaust procedures. Right-circular, cylindrical free surfaces are achieved with axial exhaust of fluid at radii interior to the injection nozzles, for which the liner exhibits a combination of solid-body and free vortex flows in different regions. Measurements allow estimates of power losses to viscous shear, turbulence, etc. A simple model based on open-channel flow is then derived, which is in good agreement with experiment, and is used to extrapolate results to the scale of a possible LINUS fusion reactor

  12. Thermographic inspection of pipes, tanks, and containment liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renshaw, Jeremy B., E-mail: jrenshaw@epri.com; Muthu, Nathan [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 West WT Harris Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States); Lhota, James R.; Shepard, Steven M., E-mail: sshepard@thermalwave.com [Thermal Wave Imaging, 845 Livernois St., Ferndale, MI 48220 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Nuclear power plants are required to operate at a high level of safety. Recent industry and license renewal commitments aim to further increase safety by requiring the inspection of components that have not traditionally undergone detailed inspected in the past, such as tanks and liners. NEI 09-14 requires the inspection of buried pipes and tanks while containment liner inspections are required as a part of license renewal commitments. Containment liner inspections must inspect the carbon steel liner for defects - such as corrosion - that could threaten the pressure boundary and ideally, should be able to inspect the surrounding concrete for foreign material that could be in contact with the steel liner and potentially initiate corrosion. Such an inspection requires a simultaneous evaluation of two materials with very different material properties. Rapid, yet detailed, inspection results are required due to the massive size of the tanks and containment liners to be inspected. For this reason, thermal NDE methods were evaluated to inspect tank and containment liner mockups with simulated defects. Thermographic Signal Reconstruction (TSR) was utilized to enhance the images and provide detailed information on the sizes and shapes of the observed defects. The results show that thermographic inspection is highly sensitive to the defects of interest and is capable of rapidly inspecting large areas.

  13. An Improved Lubrication Model between Piston Rings and Cylinder Liners with Consideration of Liner Dynamic Deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxing Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The friction pair of piston rings and cylinder liner is one of the most important friction couplings in an internal combustion engine. It influences engine efficiency and service life. Under the excitation of piston slaps, the dynamic deformation of cylinder liner is close to the surface roughness magnitudes, which can affect the friction and lubrication performance between the piston rings and cylinder assemblies. To investigate the potential influences of structural deformations to tribological behaviours of cylinder assemblies, the dynamic deformation of the inner surface due to pistons slaps is obtained by dynamic simulations, and then coupled into an improved lubrication model. Different from the traditional lubrication model which takes the pressure stress factor and shear stress factor to be constant, the model proposed in this paper calculated these factors in real time using numerical integration to achieve a more realistic simulation. Based on the improved piston rings and cylinder liner lubrication model, the minimum oil film thickness and friction force curves are obtained for an entire work cycle. It shows that the friction force obtained from the improved model manifests clear oscillations in each stoke, which is different from the smoothed profiles predicted traditionally. Moreover, the average amplitude of the friction forces also shows clear reduction.

  14. Rehabilitation of underwater pipeline with liner; Reabilitacao de aqueduto submarino com liner: multiplas vantagens e aplicacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Jose N. de; Urtiga, Rogerio L.; Witt, R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The system of water injection in XAREU oil production field has an water pipeline sizing 4'' of diameter, between the offshore platform PXA-1 and another PXA-2, that it transfers 165 m{sup 3}/d of salt water for pressurization of the reservoir through the injection well Xareu-23. This water pipeline always presented high degree of corrosion needing frequently installation of cramps to eliminate leakages. After evaluating the costs we conclude that the more attractive it would be the installation of a liner than the launching of a new water pipeline. For the installation of a new water pipeline we would need the approval of IBAMA and of a great number of resources for the substitution of that pipeline. In spite of treating of an unpublished service between two offshore platforms we chose for the installation of a liner, because we had a great technological domain in this service in onshore oil production facilities with many pipelines recovered with this technique. We had to revise all of the procedures so that there was not any surprise to make unfeasible this service. The installation of the system liner, consisted of an internal coating 'in situ' through the insert of plastic tubes(high density polyethylene-HDPE), that it forms a barrier between the pipeline and the transported fluid. (author)

  15. Design of the ZTH vacuum liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, P.P.; Dike, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The current status of the ZTh vacuum liner design is covered by this report. ZTH will be the first experiment to be installed in the CPRF (Confinement Physics Research Facility) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and is scheduled to be operational at the rated current of 4 MA in 1992. The vacuum vessel has a 2.4m major radius and a 40 cm minor radius. Operating parameters which drive the vacuum vessel mechanical design include a 300 C bakeout temperature, an armour support system capable of withstanding 25 kV, a high toroidal resistance, 1250 kPa magnetic loading, a 10 minute cycle time, and high positional accuracy with respect to the conducting shell. The vacuum vessel design features which satisfy the operating parameters are defined

  16. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Walker, Harold [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2005-07-15

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from January 3, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to investigate the long-term use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners for ponds and wetlands. The objective of the research program was to establish long-term field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD byproducts generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small-scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, mediumscale wetland experiments, and monitoring of a full-scale FGD-lined pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications especially in the design of daily covers and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches, and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small-scale laboratory tests and monitoring of the full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds. Actual long-term permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. The FGD wetland experiments indicated no significant differences in phosphorus retention between the clay and FGD

  17. Corrosion failure of a BWR embedded reactor containment liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegemar, B.

    2006-01-01

    Following sixteen fuel cycles, leakage through a BWR embedded reactor containment liner (carbon steel) was discovered. Leakage was located at a penetration for electrical conductors as a result of penetrating corrosion attack. During construction, porous cement structures and air pockets/cavities were formed due to erroneous injection of grout. Corrosion attacks on the CS steel liner were located at the relatively small, active surfaces in contact with the porous cement structure. The corrosion mechanism was supposed to be anodic dissolution of the steel liner in areas with insufficient passivation. The penetrations were restored according to original design requirements. (author)

  18. The magnetically driven imploding liner parameter space of the ATLAS capacitor bank

    CERN Document Server

    Lindemuth, I R; Faehl, R J; Reinovsky, R E

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. The Atlas capacitor bank (23 MJ, 30 MA) is now operational at Los Alamos. Atlas was designed primarily to magnetically drive imploding liners for use as impactors in shock and hydrodynamic experiments. We have conducted a computational "mapping" of the high-performance imploding liner parameter space accessible to Atlas. The effect of charge voltage, transmission inductance, liner thickness, liner initial radius, and liner length has been investigated. One conclusion is that Atlas is ideally suited to be a liner driver for liner-on-plasma experiments in a magnetized target fusion (MTF) context . The parameter space of possible Atlas reconfigurations has also been investigated.

  19. Clay and concrete brick

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, MN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brick is one of the most used and versatile building materials in use today. Bricks can be defined as modular units connected by mortar in the formation of a building system or product. Commonly the word brick is used to refer to clay bricks, which...

  20. Clay matrix voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdicakis, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In many countries, it is planned that the long life highly radioactive nuclear spent fuel will be stored in deep argillaceous rocks. The sites selected for this purpose are anoxic and satisfy several recommendations as mechanical stability, low permeability and low redox potential. Pyrite (FeS 2 ), iron(II) carbonate, iron(II) bearing clays and organic matter that are present in very small amounts (about 1% w:w) in soils play a major role in their reactivity and are considered today as responsible for the low redox potential values of these sites. In this communication, we describe an electrochemical technique derived from 'Salt matrix voltammetry' and allowing the almost in-situ voltammetric characterization of air-sensitive samples of soils after the only addition of the minimum humidity required for electrolytic conduction. Figure 1 shows the principle of the developed technique. It consists in the entrapment of the clay sample between a graphite working electrode and a silver counter/quasi-reference electrode. The sample was previously humidified by passing a water saturated inert gas through the electrochemical cell. The technique leads to well-defined voltammetric responses of the electro-active components of the clays. Figure 2 shows a typical voltammogram relative to a Callovo-Oxfordian argillite sample from Bure, the French place planned for the underground nuclear waste disposal. During the direct scan, one can clearly distinguish the anodic voltammetric signals for the oxidation of the iron (II) species associated with the clay and the oxidation of pyrite. The reverse scan displays a small cathodic signal for the reduction of iron (III) associated with the clay that demonstrates that the majority of the previously oxidized iron (II) species were transformed into iron (III) oxides reducible at lower potentials. When a second voltammetric cycle is performed, one can notice that the signal for iron (II

  1. Can the liner be landed on the well bottom?; Posso apoiar o liner no fundo do poco?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Carlos Fernando Humbert [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Perfuracao. Div. de Suporte Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    During the 7 in.liner run-in operation in well 1-BSS-65 with the shoe depth at 2400 m, the setting string broke and, as a result, the whole array fell from 2800 m high. Through a fishing operation, the liner (setting tool) was recovered and later a casing string sticking was detected. Full fluid circulation was obtained and the possibility was considered of cementing the liner in that position. At this point three questions were asked to assess the feasibility of such a cementing operation: were there significant damages inflicted on the liner string as a result of the fall?; if no damages resulted from the fall, would liner bucking prevent the running in of completion tools?; would the casing withstand the strains caused by buckling? This paper addresses the two latter questions through the theory of helical bucking of the tubing confined within a cylinder. Equations are introduced to calculate the helical pitch and the axial strain due to bending. A user-friendly computer program was developed to apply this theory to instances such as the above-mentioned one or to eliminate the use of hangers with short liners. The results of the analysis carried out on this particular well are presented and an assessment of the main parameters bearing on the issue is undertaken. These parameters are: well diameter and liner length. (author)

  2. Physical Properties of Latvian Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgelāne, I; Stepanova, V; Ločs, J; Mālers, J; Bērziņa-Cimdiņa, L

    2012-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of clays mostly depends on its mineral and chemical composition, particle size and pH value. The mutual influence of these parameters is complex. Illite is the most abundant clay mineral in Latvia and usually used in building materials and pottery. The viscosity and plasticity of Latvian clays from several deposits were investigated and correlated with mineral composition, particle size and pH value. Fractionated and crude clay samples were used. The p...

  3. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  4. Strength analyses of containment steel liner at the plasticity instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyashchitskij, V.I.; Golyakov, V.I.; Kostylev, V.I.; Margolin, B.Z.

    2003-01-01

    The steel liner of NPP containment plays the important role of a leak-tight contour preventing the possible releases of radioactive substances beyond the boundaries of the reactor building. However, so far in many cases an assessment of strain-stress state of the liner having initial imperfections of the shape was made with approximate methods. A new methodology for the analysis of the liner at the plasticity instability was developed at Atomenergoproekt institute in cooperation with specialists from other agencies. The methodology is based on code 'Termit'. Assessment of the critical strain was made taking into account possible presence of one or two defects: construction undercut or crack-like defect in a weld. On the base of the real structure analyses under any combinations of quasi-static loads the algorithm was developed for the computation of the liner. (author)

  5. The photoionization mechanism of LINERs - Stellar and nonstellar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Luis C.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    1993-01-01

    We present high quality spectroscopic observations of a sample of 14 LINERs. Starlight removal is achieved by the subtraction of a suitable absorption-line 'template' galaxy, allowing accurate measurements of emission lines. We use these line fluxes to examine the possible excitation mechanisms of LINERs. We suggest that LINERs with weak forbidden O I 6300-A emission may be H II regions photoionized by unusually hot O-type stars. LINERs with forbidden O I/H-alpha approximately greater than 1/6 may be powered by photoionization from a nonstellar continuum. This is supported by the detection of broad H-alpha emission, a correlation between line width and critical density, and pointlike X-ray emission in several of these objects.

  6. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/1996 - 3/31/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2000-12-31

    retention giving rise to the potential use of these materials as a liners for wastewater treatment wetlands. While plant growth was observed to be less vigorous for FGD lined wetland mesocosms compared to the control, the above and below ground biomass were not significantly different. Cost estimates for FGD liners compared favorably with clay liners for varying haul distances.

  7. Flap Side Edge Liners for Airframe Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhari, Meelan M. (Inventor); Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    One or more acoustic liners comprising internal chambers or passageways that absorb energy from a noise source on the aircraft are disclosed. The acoustic liners may be positioned at the ends of flaps of an aircraft wing to provide broadband noise absorption and/or dampen the noise producing unsteady flow features, and to reduce the amount of noise generated due to unsteady flow at the inboard and/or outboard end edges of a flap.

  8. The Logistical Challenges of the SpaceLiner Concept

    OpenAIRE

    van Foreest, Arnold; Sippel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The SpaceLiner concept developed at DLR combines extremely fast transport (90 minutes from Europe to Australia) with the experience of Space flight. As such it is different from the spaceflight which focuses exclusively on space tourism but it combines space tourism with for example business travel. The SpaceLiner is designed to carry 50 passengers in suborbital flight. The conceptual technical design presents some challenges which have already been partially investigated at DLR [1]. However,...

  9. Waste Handling Shaft concrete liner degradation conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The primary function of the Waste Handling Shaft (WHS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to permit the transfer of radioactive waste from the surface waste handling building to the underground storage area. It also serves as an intake shaft for small volumes of air during normal storage operations and as an emergency escape route. Part of the construction was the placement of a concrete liner and steel reinforced key in 1984. During a routine shaft inspection in May 1990, some degradation of the WHS concrete liner was observed between the depths of 800 and 900 feet below the ground surface. Detailed investigations of the liner had been carried out by Sandia National Laboratories and by Westinghouse Electric Corporation Waste Isolation Division (WID) through Lankard Materials Laboratory. Observations, reports, and data support the conclusion that the concrete degradation, resulting from attack by chemically aggressive brine, is a localized phenomena. It is the opinion of the WID that the degradation is not considered an immediate or near term concern; this is supported by technical experts. WID recommendations have been made which, when implemented, will ensure an extended liner life. Based on the current assessment of available data and the proposed shaft liner monitoring program described in this report, it is reasonable to assume that the operational life of the concrete shaft liner can safely support the 25-year life of the WIPP. Analysis of data indicates that degradation of the shaft's concrete liner is attributed to chemically aggressive brine seeping through construction joints and shrinkage cracks from behind the liner in and around the 834-foot depth. Chemical and mechanical components of concrete degradation have been identified. Chemical attack is comprised of several stages of concrete alteration. The other component, mechanical degradation, results from the expansive forces of crystals forming in the concrete pore space

  10. A new approach to the design of LMFBR liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polentz, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    An advance in the state-of-the-art of LMFBR liners which permits notable savings in construction costs without any sacrifice of safety is described. The application of the new design concept to the rework of the upper reactor vault liner of the FFTF is discussed. Factors which affect the application of the new design approach to other LMFBRs are delineated and discussed. (author)

  11. Landing Gear Door Liners for Airframe Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor); Van De Ven, Thomas (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A landing gear door for retractable landing gear of aircraft includes an acoustic liner. The acoustic liner includes one or more internal cavities or chambers having one or more openings that inhibit the generation of sound at the surface and/or absorb sound generated during operation of the aircraft. The landing gear door may include a plurality of internal chambers having different geometries to thereby absorb broadband noise.

  12. A Conventional Liner Acoustic/Drag Interaction Benchmark Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    The aerodynamic drag of acoustic liners has become a significant topic in the design of such for aircraft noise applications. In order to evaluate the benefits of concepts designed to reduce liner drag, it is necessary to establish the baseline performance of liners employing the typical design features of conventional configurations. This paper details a set of experiments in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of a number of perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations at flow speeds of M=0.3 and 0.5. These conventional liners are investigated to determine their resistance factors using a static pressure drop approach. Comparison of the resistance factors gives a relative measurement of liner drag. For these same flow conditions, acoustic measurements are performed with tonal excitation from 400 to 3000 Hz at source sound pressure levels of 140 and 150 dB. Educed impedance and attenuation spectra are used to determine the interaction between acoustic performance and drag.

  13. Composite Liner, Multi-Megabar Shock Driver Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, J.C. Jr.; Bartsch, R.R.; Clark, D.A.; Morgan, D.V.; Anderson, W.E.; Lee, H.; Bowers, R.L.; Atchison, W.L.; Oona, H.; Stokes, J.L.; Veeser, L.R.; Broste, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    The multi-megabar shock driver development is a series of experiments in support of the Los Alamos High Energy Density Physics Experimental Program. Its purpose is to develop techniques to impact a uniform, stable, composite liner upon a high Z target to produce a multi-megabar shock for EOS studies. To date, experiments have been done on the Pegasus II capacitor bank with a current of approximately12MA driving the impactor liner. The driving field is approximately200 T at the target radius of 1cm. Data will be presented on the impactor liner. The driving field is approximately200 T at the target radius of 1 cm. Data will be presented on the stability and uniformity of the impactor liner when it impacts the target cylinder. Three experiments have been done with emphasis on liner development. Shock pressures greater than a megabar have been done with emphasis on liner development. Shock pressures greater than a megabar have been produced with an Al target cylinder. A Pt target cylinder should produce shock pressures in th e 5-megabar range

  14. The probability of Mark-1 liner failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yan, H.; Ratnam, U.; Amarasooriya, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors are proposing a probabilistic methodology, the risk-oriented accident analysis methodology (ROAAM) as an overall systematic, disciplined approach for addressing the Mark-1 liner attack issue. The probabilistic framework encompasses the key features of the phenomenology, yet it is flexible enough to allow independent quantification of individual components as it may arise from independent research efforts. As a first step in this direction, the authors assembled, discussed, and took into consideration in the quantification proposed all relevant prior work. Furthermore, as an essential aspect of the overall methodology, most of those whose work has been referenced and/or used in this report have been asked to comment. The details of this work, the comments received, and the authors' responses are included in NUREG/CR-5423. As an even more important characteristic of the methodology, it is hoped that other quantifications (or information relevant to such) of independent components will become available in the future so that one can aim for convergence and closure

  15. Liner-converter experiment on AMBIORIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasque, A M; Grua, P; Romary, P [Commissariat a l` Energie Atomique, Centre d` Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d` Aquitaine, Le Barp (France); and others

    1997-12-31

    A new way to transform a quite large part of magnetic energy stored in a Z-pinch plasma into X-rays was first proposed by Rudakov: using an axial magnetic field B{sub z}, a large part of the energy is expected to be transferred by axial electron conductivity to a converter which is placed perpendicularly to the axis of the plasma in order to produce a bright soft X-ray source. In this paper, experimental results obtained on the `AMBIORIX` generator are presented. A hollow cylindrical liner of helium was driven by a current reaching 2 MA in 50 ns. The implosion was studied with and without axial magnetic field, a steady regime of implosion is observed using B{sub z} = 0.3 T. The plasma parameters and the heating of an aluminium converter were measured using various diagnostics. The experimental data were analyzed in detail and compared with the results of numerical simulation. (author). 2 tabs., 2 figs., 5 refs.

  16. A Study of Clay-Epoxy Nanocomposites Consisting of Unmodified Clay and Organo Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Edward

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Clay-epoxy nanocomposites were synthesized from DGEBA resin and montmorillonite clay with an in-situ polymerization. One type of untreated clay and two types of organo clay were used to produce the nanocompsoites. The aims of this study were to examine the nanocomposite structure using different tools and to compare the results between the unmodified clay and modified clays as nanofillers. Although diffractogram in reflection mode did not show any apparent peak of both types of materials, the transmitted XRD (X-Ray Difraction graphs, DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter analysis and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope images revealed that the modified clay-epoxy and unmodified clay-epoxy provides different results. Interestingly, the micrographs showed that some of the modified clay layers possessed non-exfoliated layers in the modified clay-epoxy nanocomposites. Clay aggregates and a hackle pattern were found from E-SEM images for both types of nanocomposite materials. It is shown that different tools should be used to determine the nanocomposite structure.

  17. Advanced Computational and Experimental Techniques for Nacelle Liner Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Jones, Michael G.; Brown, Martha C.; Nark, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Curved Duct Test Rig (CDTR) has been developed to investigate sound propagation through a duct of size comparable to the aft bypass duct of typical aircraft engines. The axial dimension of the bypass duct is often curved and this geometric characteristic is captured in the CDTR. The semiannular bypass duct is simulated by a rectangular test section in which the height corresponds to the circumferential dimension and the width corresponds to the radial dimension. The liner samples are perforate over honeycomb core and are installed on the side walls of the test section. The top and bottom surfaces of the test section are acoustically rigid to simulate a hard wall bifurcation or pylon. A unique feature of the CDTR is the control system that generates sound incident on the liner test section in specific modes. Uniform air flow, at ambient temperature and flow speed Mach 0.275, is introduced through the duct. Experiments to investigate configuration effects such as curvature along the flow path on the acoustic performance of a sample liner are performed in the CDTR and reported in this paper. Combinations of treated and acoustically rigid side walls are investigated. The scattering of modes of the incident wave, both by the curvature and by the asymmetry of wall treatment, is demonstrated in the experimental results. The effect that mode scattering has on total acoustic effectiveness of the liner treatment is also shown. Comparisons of measured liner attenuation with numerical results predicted by an analytic model based on the parabolic approximation to the convected Helmholtz equation are reported. The spectra of attenuation produced by the analytic model are similar to experimental results for both walls treated, straight and curved flow path, with plane wave and higher order modes incident. The numerical model is used to define the optimized resistance and reactance of a liner that significantly improves liner attenuation in the frequency range 1900-2400 Hz. A

  18. Dynamics of heterogeneous liners with prolonged plasma creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.V.; Branitskii, A.V.; Volkov, G.S.; Grabovskii, E.V.; Zurin, M.V.; Nedoseev, S.L.; Oleinik, G.M.; Samokhin, A.A.; Smirnov, V.P.; Fedulov, M.V.; Frolov, I.N.; Sasorov, P.V.

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged plasma creation in heterogeneous liners, in which the liner substance is separated into two phase states (a hot plasma and a cold skeleton), is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. This situation is typical of multiwire, foam, and even gas liners in high-current high-voltage facilities. The main mechanisms governing the rate at which the plasma is created are investigated, and the simplest estimates of the creation rate are presented. It is found that, during prolonged plasma creation, the electric current flows through the entire cross section of the produced plasma shell, whose thickness is comparable with the liner radius; in other words, a current skin layer does not form. During compression, such a shell is fairly stable because of its relatively high resilience. It is shown that, under certain conditions, even a thick plasma shell can be highly compressed toward the discharge axis. A simplified numerical simulation of the compression of a plasma shell in a liner with prolonged plasma creation is employed in order to determine the conditions for achieving regimes of fairly compact and relatively stable radial compression of the shell

  19. Generation of rotation and shear flow in an imploding liner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J H; Ryutov, D D [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    There exist several techniques that can set the liner into rotation and/or excite an embedded shear flow at any desired depth of the liner material. A common element of all these techniques is the use of properly used left-right asymmetric structures, situated either on the liner surface or embedded in the shell. Both rotation and shear flow get enhanced in the course of the liner implosion because of the angular momentum conservation. While fast enough rotation should stabilize the Rayleigh-Taylor instability near the turn-around point, the shear flow can also have a stabilizing effect on the interface. The specific model presented in the paper shows that a strong enough shear causes stabilization of a broad class of Rayleigh-Taylor perturbations. Thus, the use of left-right asymmetric structure for generation of rotation and shear flow is an interesting new option for improvement of the quality of the liner implosions. (J.U.). 4 figs., 12 refs.

  20. Research of Deformation of Clay Soil Mixtures Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Romas Girkontas; Tadas Tamošiūnas; Andrius Savickas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to determine clay soils and clay soils mixtures deformations during drying. Experiments consisted from: a) clay and clay mixtures bridges (height ~ 0,30 m, span ~ 1,00 m); b) tiles of clay and clay, sand and straw (height, length, wide); c) cylinders of clay; clay and straw; clay, straw and sand (diameter; height). According to the findings recommendations for clay and clay mixtures drying technology application were presented. During the experiment clay bridge bear...

  1. Creep in buffer clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Adey, R.

    1999-12-01

    The study involved characterization of the microstructural arrangement and molecular forcefields in the buffer clay for getting a basis for selecting suitable creep models. It is concluded that the number of particles and wide range of the particle bond spectrum require that stochastical mechanics and thermodynamics will be considered and they are basic to the creep model proposed for predicting creep settlement of the canisters. The influence of the stress level on creep strain of MX-80 clay is not well known but for the buffer creep is approximately proportional to stress. Theoretical considerations suggest a moderate impact for temperatures up to 90 deg C and this is supported by model experiments. It is believed that the assumption of strain being proportional to temperature is conservative. The general performance of the stochastic model can be illustrated in principle by use of visco-elastic rheological models implying a time-related increase in viscosity. The shear-induced creep settlement under constant volume conditions calculated by using the proposed creep model is on the order of 1 mm in ten thousand years and up to a couple of millimeters in one million years. It is much smaller than the consolidation settlement, which is believed to be on the order of 10 mm. The general conclusion is that creep settlement of the canisters is very small and of no significance to the integrity of the buffer itself or of the canisters

  2. Euroclay 95. Clays and clay materials sciences. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsen, A.; Grobet, P.; Keung, M.; Leeman, H.; Schoonheydt, R.; Toufar, H.

    1995-01-01

    The document contains the abstracts of the invited lecturers (18) and posters (247) presented at EUROCLAY '95. Clays and clay materials sciences. 13 items (4 from the invited lecturers and 12 from posters) have been considered within the INIS Subject Scope and indexed separately

  3. Euroclay 95. Clays and clay materials sciences. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsen, A; Grobet, P; Keung, M; Leeman, H; Schoonheydt, R; Toufar, H [eds.

    1995-08-20

    The document contains the abstracts of the invited lecturers (18) and posters (247) presented at EUROCLAY `95. Clays and clay materials sciences. 13 items (4 from the invited lecturers and 12 from posters) have been considered within the INIS Subject Scope and indexed separately.

  4. Progress In Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Francis Y. C.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Cassibry, Jason; Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Michael; Smith, James; Martin, Adam; Wu, S. T.; Schmidt, George; hide

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) attempts to combine the favorable attributes of magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) for energy confinement with the attributes of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for efficient compression heating and wall-free containment of the fusing plasma. It uses a material liner to compress and contain a magnetized plasma. For practical applications, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC).

  5. Acoustic Liner Drag: Measurements on Novel Facesheet Perforate Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in characterization of the aerodynamic drag of acoustic liners has increased in the past several years. This paper details experiments in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of several perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations at flow speeds of centerline flow Mach number equals 0.3 and 0.5. Various perforate geometries and orientations are investigated to determine their resistance factors using a static pressure drop approach. Comparison of these resistance factors gives a relative measurement of liner drag. For these same flow conditions, acoustic measurements are performed with tonal excitation from 400 to 3000 hertz at source sound pressure levels of 140 and 150 decibels. Educed impedance and attenuation spectra are used to determine the impact of variations in perforate geometry on acoustic performance.

  6. Development of laser cutting method for stainless steel liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Satoshi; Takahata, Masato; Wignarajah, Sivakumaran; Kamata, Hirofumi

    2007-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to develop a laser cutting method for cutting and removing stainless steel liners from concrete walls and floors in nuclear facilities. The effect of basic laser cutting parameters such as energy, cutting speed, assist gas flow etc. were first studied through cutting experiments on mock-up concrete specimens lined with 3mm thick stainless steel sheets using a 1kW Nd:YAG laser. These initial studies were followed by further studies on the effect of unevenness of the liner surface and on a new method of confining contamination during the cutting process using a sliding evacuation hood attached to the laser cutting head. The results showed that laser cutting is superior to other conventional cutting methods from the point of view of safety from radioactivity and work efficiency when cutting contaminated stainless steel liners. (author)

  7. Imploding-liner reactor nucleonic studies: the LINUS blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudziak, D.J.

    1977-09-01

    Scoping nucleonic studies have been performed for a small imploding-liner fusion reactor concept. Tritium breeding ratio and time-dependent energy deposition rates were the primary parameters of interest in the study. Alloys of Pb and LiPb were considered for the liquid liner (blanket), and tritium breeding was found to be more than adequate with blankets less than 1 m thick. However, neutron leakages into the solid cylinder block surrounding the liquid liner are generally quite high, so considerable effort was concentrated on minimizing these values. Time-dependent calculations reveal that 89% of the energy is deposited in the blanket within 2 μs. Thus, LINUS's blanket should remain intact for the requisite neutron and gamma-ray lifetimes

  8. The effect of surface roughness on the performances of liner-piston ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of surface roughness on the performances of liner-piston ring contact in internal combustion engine. ... The surface roughness between the liner and the piston rings, plays an ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. Helium High Pressure Tanks at EADS Space Transportation New Technology with Thermoplastic Liner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benedic, Fabien; Leard, Jean-Philippe; Lefloch, Christian

    2005-01-01

    .... In order to achieve the new target prices, a new disruptive technology has been performing for several years in using a thermoplastic liner instead the usual expensive concept of metallic forged liner...

  10. A three-dimensional rupture analysis of steel liners anchored to concrete pressure and containment vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Steel liners or plates are anchored to concrete pressure and containment vessels for nuclear and offshore facilities. Due to extreme loading conditions a liner may buckle due to the pull-out or shearing of anchors from the base metal and concrete. Under certain conditions attributed to loadings, liner metal deterioration and cracking of concrete behind the liner, the liner may fail by rupture. This paper presents a three-dimensional analysis of steel-concrete elements, using finite elements analysis in which a provision is made for liner instability, anchor strength and stiffness, concrete cracking and finally liner rupture. The analysis is tested first on an octagonal slab with and without an anchored steel liner. It is then extended to concrete pressure and containment vessels. The analytical results obtained are compared well with those available from the experimental tests and other sources. (author)

  11. Axial magnetic field injection in magnetized liner inertial fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Adams, M. B.; Davies, J. R.; Seyler, C. E.

    2017-10-01

    MagLIF is a fusion concept using a Z-pinch implosion to reach thermonuclear fusion. In current experiments, the implosion is driven by the Z-machine using 19 MA of electrical current with a rise time of 100 ns. MagLIF requires an initial axial magnetic field of 30 T to reduce heat losses to the liner wall during compression and to confine alpha particles during fusion burn. This field is generated well before the current ramp starts and needs to penetrate the transmission lines of the pulsed-power generator, as well as the liner itself. Consequently, the axial field rise time must exceed hundreds of microseconds. Any coil capable of being submitted to such a field for that length of time is inevitably bulky. The space required to fit the coil near the liner, increases the inductance of the load. In turn, the total current delivered to the load decreases since the voltage is limited by driver design. Yet, the large amount of current provided by the Z-machine can be used to produce the required 30 T field by tilting the return current posts surrounding the liner, eliminating the need for a separate coil. However, the problem now is the field penetration time, across the liner wall. This paper discusses why skin effect arguments do not hold in the presence of resistivity gradients. Numerical simulations show that fields larger than 30 T can diffuse across the liner wall in less than 60 ns, demonstrating that external coils can be replaced by return current posts with optimal helicity.

  12. Synergistic Integration of Liner Shipping and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvard Roškar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Liner shipping with all its specific features plays an importantrole in the economic development of a country whose portsare involved. In the strategic goals of maritime policy for the period2005-2009 the European Commission stresses the needfor a sustainable environmental development and economicgrowth. Besides, it points out the necessity for the fulfilment ofall maritime potentials. Yet, individual EU member states frequentlycreate the environment, which discourages the developmentof their own national maritime economy. Unfortunately,this applies also to the Republic of Slovenia. The current paperoffers a detailed analysis of the weaknesses and benefits of theclassical liner shipping in present day.

  13. A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy

    2012-01-01

    for revenue and transshipment of cargo along with in/decrease of vessel- and operational cost for the current solution. The evaluation functions may be used by heuristics in general to evaluate changes to a network design without solving a large scale multicommodity flow problem.......We present a matheuristic, an integer programming based heuristic, for the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem. The heuristic applies a greedy construction heuristic based on an interpretation of the liner shipping network design problem as a multiple quadratic knapsack problem. The construction...

  14. Contestability of Container Liner Shipping Market in Alliance Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enna Hirata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A cross section panel model is applied to estimate the effect that the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI has on container freight rates for a sample of six major container liner shipping routes during 2009 to 2011. The estimated coefficient of HHI is non-positive and statistically insignificant, indicating that higher concentration level does not lead to high price and the container liner shipping market is contestable for the period under consideration. The suggestion that efficiency can be achieved without actual competition in a contestable market is highly significant for policy makers.

  15. Shaping the Microstructure of Cast Iron Automobile Cylinder Liners Aimed at Providing High Service Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orłowicz A.W.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of factors affecting the wear of cylinder liners. The effect of the graphite precipitation morphology on the cylinder liner wear mechanism is presented. Materials used to cast cylinder liners mounted in a number of engines have been examined for their conformity with requirements set out in applicable Polish industrial standard. A casting for a prototype cylinder liner has been made with a microstructure guaranteeing good service properties of the part.

  16. Design of steel-liners and their anchorage with regard to non-linear behaviour of liner-material and anchorage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberpichler, R.

    1979-01-01

    The thin steel liner attached by studs or rib-type anchors to the interior wall of a Prestressed Concrete Reactor Pressure Vessel (PCRV) or a Concrete Containment Vessel (PCCV) has to provide the leak-tightness of the vessel. The liner also may serve as internal shuttering for placing concrete as well as a support for the cooling system or thermal isolation. Mainly strained by self-limited loads imposed on the liner by deformations of the vessel-wall or by heatup inside the vessel the liner predominantly will function in a compressive biaxially strained state like a membrane. The vessel-wall is assumed to be a rigid boundary without reactions caused by the liner-anchor-restraints. Furthermore it is assumed that the liner supported in a close-spaced pattern to the concrete with respect to self-limited loads and all effects of non-linear behaviour of liner-material and non-linear anchor-characteristics will not fail by instability, especially not by an effect of snapthrough. Only one essential mode of failure, the shear connector failure is assumed to be basis for all liner investigations. Design of the liner and its anchorage therefore is based on the analysis of large deformations with regard to elastic-plastic behaviour of liner-material and non-linear anchor characteristics. By this method both economical and safe sizing and spacing of the anchors can be calculated. (orig.)

  17. Influence of clay mineralogy on clay based ceramic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radzali Othman; Tuan Besar Tuan Sarif; Zainal Arifin Ahmad; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor; Abu Bakar Aramjat

    1996-01-01

    Clay-based ceramic products can either be produced directly from a suitable clay source without the need further addition or such products can be produced from a ceramic body formulated by additions of other raw materials such as feldspar and silica sand. In either case, the mineralogical make-up of the clay component plays a dominating role in the fabrication and properties of the ceramic product. This study was sparked off by a peculiar result observed in one of five local ball clay samples that were used to reformulate a ceramic body. Initial characterisation tests conducted on the clays indicated that these clays can be classified as kaolinitic. However, one of these clays produced a ceramic body that is distinctively different in terms of whiteness, smoothness and density as compared to the other four clays. Careful re-examination of other characterisation data, such as particle size distribution and chemical analysis, failed to offer any plausible explanation. Consequently, the mineralogical analysis by x-ray diffraction was repeated by paying meticulous attention to specimen preparation. Diffraction data for the clay with anomalous behaviour indicated the presence of a ∼ 10A peak that diminished when the same specimen was re-tested after heating in an oven at 12O degree C whilst the other four clays only exhibit the characteristic kaolinite (Al sub 2 O sub 3. 2SiO sub 2. 2H sub 2 0) and muscovite peaks at ∼ 7A and ∼ 10A before and after heat treatment. This suggests the presence of the mineral halloysite (A1 sub 2 0 sub 3. 2SiO sub 2.4H sub 2 0) in that particular clay. This difference in mineralogy can be attributed to account for the variations in physical properties of the final product. Consequently, this paper reviews in general the precautionary measures that must be adhered to during any mineralogical investigation of clay minerals or clay-based materials. The common pitfalls during specimen preparation, machine settings and interpretation of

  18. Encapsulation of Clay Platelets inside Latex Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, D.J.; Ming, W.; Herk, van A.M.; Fernando, R.H.; Sung, Li-Piin

    2009-01-01

    We present our recent attempts in encapsulating clay platelets inside latex particles by emulsion polymerization. Face modification of clay platelets by cationic exchange has been shown to be insufficient for clay encapsulation, leading to armored latex particles. Successful encapsulation of

  19. 75 FR 1596 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Reynolds Packaging LLC (Aluminum Foil Liner Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Status, Reynolds Packaging LLC (Aluminum Foil Liner Stock), Louisville, Kentucky Pursuant to its...-purpose subzone at the aluminum foil liner stock manufacturing and distribution facilities of Reynolds... manufacturing and distribution of aluminum foil liner stock and aluminum foil at the facilities of Reynolds...

  20. The effect of release liner materials on adhesive contaminants, paper recycling and recycled paper properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Venditti; Richard Gilbert; Andy Zhang; Said Abubakr

    2000-01-01

    Release liner waste material is found in post-consumer waste streams and is also a significant component of the preconsumer waste stream generated in the manufacturing of adhesive products. To date, very little has been reported pertaining to the behavior of release liner in paper recycling. In this study, the effect of the release liner material on the behavior of...

  1. Super-fast multi-wire liner implosion physics study at Angara-5-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrov, V V; Branitsky, A V; Volkov, G S; Fedulov, M V; Grabovsky, E V; Nedoseev, L; Oleinik, G M; Samokhin, A N; Sasorov, F P.V.; Smirnov, V P; Frolov, I N; Zaitzev, V I; Zurin, M V [GSC Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Troitsk, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Spielman, R B; Deeney, C [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The temporally dragged plasma production (TDPP) from dense substance of tungsten wire occurs during multi-wire-liner implosion. TDPP is the typical feature of wire liner implosion. In spite of plasma filling of the initial liner cavity, a narrow pulse (up to 6 ns) of X rays is radiated for an 0.3-mm inter-wire gap. (authors)

  2. Super-fast multi-wire liner implosion physics study at Angara-5-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, V.V.; Branitsky, A.V.; Volkov, G.S.; Fedulov, M.V.; Grabovsky, E.V.; Nedoseev, L.; Oleinik, G.M.; Samokhin, A.N.; Sasorov, F.P.V.; Smirnov, V.P.; Frolov, I.N.; Zaitzev, V.I.; Zurin, M.V.; Spielman, R.B.; Deeney, C.

    2000-01-01

    The temporally dragged plasma production (TDPP) from dense substance of tungsten wire occurs during multi-wire-liner implosion. TDPP is the typical feature of wire liner implosion. In spite of plasma filling of the initial liner cavity, a narrow pulse (up to 6 ns) of X rays is radiated for an 0.3-mm inter-wire gap. (authors)

  3. Thixotropic Properties of Latvian Illite Containing Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Lakevičs, Vitālijs; Stepanova, Valentīna; Niedra, Santa; Dušenkova, Inga; Ruplis, Augusts

    2015-01-01

    Thixotropic properties of Latvian Devonian and Quaternary clays were studied. Dynamic viscosity of the water clay suspensions were measured with a rotating viscometer. Influence of concentration, pH and modifiers on the thixotropic clay properties was analyzed. It was found that Latvian clays have thixotropic properties. Stability of clay suspensions is described with the thixotropy hysteresis loop. Increasing the speed of the viscometer rotation, dynamic viscosity of the clay suspension decr...

  4. Viscosity and Plasticity of Latvian Illite Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgelāne, I; Vecstaudža, J; Stepanova, V; Mālers, J; Bērziņa-Cimdiņa, L

    2012-01-01

    Due to viscosity and plasticity, clays and clay minerals are used in civil engineering, pottery and also in cosmetics and medicine as thickening agents and emulsion and suspension stabilizers. The rheological properties of clay suspensions are complex. Mostly it is an interaction between mineral composition, clay particle size and pH value and also depends on clay minerals. Clay-water suspension is non-Newtonian fluid showing thixotropic and pseudoplastic properties. Results showed that plast...

  5. Thermal volume changes in clays and clay-stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delage, P.; Sulem, J.; Mohajerani, M.; Tang, A.M.; Monfared, M.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The disposal of high activity exothermic radioactive waste at great depth in clay host rocks will induce a temperature elevation that has been investigated in various underground research laboratories in Belgium, France and Switzerland through in-situ tests. Thermal effects are better known in clays (in particular Boom clay) than in clay-stone (e.g. Opalinus clay and Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone). In terms of volume changes, Figure 1 confirms the findings of Hueckel and Baldi (1990) that volume changes depend on the over-consolidation ratio (OCR) of the clay. In drained conditions, normally consolidated clays exhibit plastic contraction when heated, whereas over-consolidated clay exhibit elastic dilation. The nature of thermal volume changes in heated clays obviously has a significant effect on thermally induced pore pressures, when drainage is not instantaneous like what occurs in-situ. Compared to clays, the thermal volume change behaviour of clay-stones is less well known than that of clays. clay-stone are a priori suspected to behave like over-consolidated clays. In this paper, a comparison of recent results obtained in the laboratory on the drained thermal volume changes of clay-stones is presented and discussed. It is difficult to run drained mechanical tests in clay-stones like the Opalinus clay and the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone because of their quite low permeability (10 -12 - 10 -13 m/s). This also holds true for thermal tests. Due to the significant difference in thermal expansion coefficient between minerals and water, it is necessary to adopt very slow heating rate (0.5 - 1 C/h) to avoid any thermal pressurization. To do so, a new hollow cylinder apparatus (100 mm external diameter, 60 mm internal diameter) with lateral drainages reducing the drainage length to half the sample thickness (10 mm) has been developed (Monfared et al. 2011). The results of a drained cyclic thermal test carried out on

  6. Symmetry of nonexploding cylindrical liner converging to the axis under magnetic field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyshev, V.K.; Grinevich, B.E.; Buzin, V.N.; Pogorelov, V.P.; Shertsov, V.A.; Petrukhin, A.A.; Demidov, V.A.; Zharinov, E.I.

    1990-01-01

    Liner acceleration, affected by magnetic pressure, is broadly used to yield megagauss magnetic fields and plasma compression. The progress of test conduction depends much on the state of liner subjected to Taylor instability while being accelerated. There is a number of methods permitting to reduce liner shape distortions, developing during its acceleration. The most simple method consists in that the aspect ratio (the ratio of liner placing radius to its thickness) is taken less than 10. To impart sufficient velocity to the liner of large thickness its density should be small. Therefore, liner is either a gas layer or explosion products of thin metal foil which passed to a vaporous state in early stage of acceleration. Acceleration of nonexploding liners may serve as the other method of asymmetry reduction. Strength and viscosity of liner will be used as stabilizing factors with respect to the development of Taylor instability. This will allow the aspect ratio increase, that is sometimes useful. Test results on acceleration of nonexploding aluminum liners 1 mm thick have been described. Aspect ratio amounted to 30-60 and the ratio of liner acceleration distance to its thickness (parameter, being of great importance when studying the development of Taylor instability) made up 20-40. Satisfactory azimuthal symmetry of liner convergence to the center was recorded. For more detailed investigation of Taylor instability influence on the symmetry of nonexploding liner, the experiments, when the ratio of liner acceleration length to its thickness would be increased up to 90-100 simultaneously with determination of azimuthal and axial symmetry of liner, are of interest. In this paper presents the results of experiments on acceleration of copper cylindrical liner 1.37 mm thick

  7. Contoured-gap coaxial guns for imploding plasma liner experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. D.; Case, A.; Brockington, S.; Cassibry, J. T.; Hsu, S. C.

    2014-10-01

    Arrays of supersonic, high momentum flux plasma jets can be used as standoff compression drivers for generating spherically imploding plasma liners for driving magneto-inertial fusion, hence the name plasma-jet-driven MIF (PJMIF). HyperV developed linear plasma jets for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL where two guns were successfully tested. Further development at HyperV resulted in achieving the PLX goal of 8000 μg at 50 km/s. Prior work on contoured-gap coaxial guns demonstrated an approach to control the blowby instability and achieved substantial performance improvements. For future plasma liner experiments we propose to use contoured-gap coaxial guns with small Minirailgun injectors. We will describe such a gun for a 60-gun plasma liner experiment. Discussion topics will include impurity control, plasma jet symmetry and topology (esp. related to uniformity and compactness), velocity capability, and techniques planned for achieving gun efficiency of >50% using tailored impedance matched pulse forming networks. Mach2 and UAH SPH code simulations will be included. Work supported by US DOE DE-FG02-05ER54810.

  8. FFTF in-containment cell liner design and installation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umek, A.M.; Swenson, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Design features and liner construction techniques are discussed. Cell leak-rate tests and the methods used to locate and repair leaks are described. A brief analysis of the overall experience at FFTF is provided, with recommendations for future plant designs

  9. A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    , while minimizing the cost of operating the network. Liner shipping companies publish a set of routes with a time schedule, and it is an industry standard to have a weekly departure at each port call on a route. A weekly frequency is achieved by deploying several vessels to a single route, respecting...

  10. Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, J.R.; Amin, J.A.; Porthouse, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950's, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F μ factor. The calculated value of F μ exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F μ value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ''Moment Reduction Factor'', R w or F μ for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects

  11. Applied algorithm in the liner inspection of solid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Luiz Felipe Simões; Bizarria, Francisco Carlos Parquet; Bizarria, José Walter Parquet

    2018-03-01

    In rocket motors, the bonding between the solid propellant and thermal insulation is accomplished by a thin adhesive layer, known as liner. The liner application method involves a complex sequence of tasks, which includes in its final stage, the surface integrity inspection. Nowadays in Brazil, an expert carries out a thorough visual inspection to detect defects on the liner surface that may compromise the propellant interface bonding. Therefore, this paper proposes an algorithm that uses the photometric stereo technique and the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier to assist the expert in the surface inspection. Photometric stereo allows the surface information recovery of the test images, while the KNN method enables image pixels classification into two classes: non-defect and defect. Tests performed on a computer vision based prototype validate the algorithm. The positive results suggest that the algorithm is feasible and when implemented in a real scenario, will be able to help the expert in detecting defective areas on the liner surface.

  12. The Liner Shipping Routing and Scheduling Problem Under Environmental Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dithmer, Philip; Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kontovas, Christos

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the Liner Shipping Routing and Scheduling Problem (LSRSP), which consists of designing the time schedule for a vessel to visit a fixed set of ports while minimizing costs. We extend the classical problem to include the external cost of ship air emissions and we present some...

  13. Risk assessment for the transportation of radioactive zeolite liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The risk is estimated for the shipment of radioactive zeolite liners in support of the Zeolite Vitrification Demonstration Program currently underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. This program will establish the feasibility of zeolite vitrification as an effective means of immobilizing high-specific-activity wastes. In this risk assessment, it is assumed that two zeolite liners, each loaded around July 1, 1981 to 60,000 Ci, will be shipped by truck around January 1, 1982. However, to provide a measure of conservatism, each liner is assumed to initially hole 70,000 Ci, with the major radioisotopes as follow: 90 Sr = 3000 Ci, 134 Cs = 7000 Ci, 137 Cs = 60,000 Ci. Should shipment take place with essentially no delay after initial loading (regardless of loading date), the shipment loading would be only 2.7% higher than that for the assumed six-month delay. This would negligibly affect the overall risk. As a result of this risk assessment, it is concluded that the transport of the radioactive zeolite liners from TMI to PNL by truck can be conducted at an insignificant level of risk to the public

  14. FORENSIC INVESTIGATION OF A GENERATION OLD CIPP LINER

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is limited information regarding the in-situ performance of rehabilitation methods used for prolonging the service life of buried municipal pipeline systems. With some CIPP liners nearly 30 years in service, municipalities are expressing a strong interest in the collection ...

  15. Liner shipping hub network design in a competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    A mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for hub-and-spoke network design in a competitive environment. It addresses the competition between a newcomer liner service provider and an existing dominating operator, both operating on hub-and-spoke networks. The newcomer company maximizes i...

  16. The liner shipping berth scheduling problem with transit times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Plum, Christian E.M.; Pisinger, David

    2016-01-01

    In this paper speed optimization of an existing liner shipping network is solved by adjusting the port berth times. The objective is to minimize fuel consumption while retaining the customer transit times including the transhipment times. To avoid too many changes to the time table, changes of port...

  17. Creep and stress relaxation behavior of two soft denture liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Alaa'a M

    2014-03-01

    Numerous investigators stated the indications of soft denture lining materials; but no one determined the indications of these materials according to their chemical structure. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of acrylic and silicon lining materials. This study investigated and compared viscoelastic properties of two resilient denture lining materials. Tested materials were laboratory processed; one of them was silicone-based liner product (Molloplast-B), and the other was plasticized acrylic resin (Vertex™ Soft). Twenty cylindrical specimens (10-20 mm in length, 11.55 mm in diameter) were fabricated in an aluminum mold from each material for creep and stress relaxation testing (the study of viscoelastic properties). Tests were performed by using the universal testing machine DY-34. Collected data were analyzed with t test statistics for statistically significant differences at the 95 % confidence level. There was a clear difference in creep and stress relaxation behavior between acrylic and silicone liners. Statistical study of Young's moduli illustrated that Vertex™ Soft was softer than Molloplast-B. On the other hand, the results explained that the recovery of silicone material was better than of acrylic one. The creep test revealed that the plasticized acrylic resin lining material exhibited considerable creep, whereas silicone-based liner exhibited elastic behavior. Besides, the stress relaxation test showed that relaxation of the plasticized acrylic resin material was bigger than of the silicone-based liner.

  18. Evaluation of flexible membrane liners as long-term barriers for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The National Uranium Tailings Program has commissioned a study to evaluate flexible membrane liners (geomembranes) as long-term barriers for Canadian uranium mill tailings. This study reviews the common liner type and addresses flexible liners (polymeric membranes and asphalt) in detail. Liner fabrication, design, installation, and performance are reviewed. Conceptual designs are presented for basins to accommodate 20 years accumulation of uranium tailings from mills in Elliot Lake and southeastern Athabasca. Nine polymeric and three asphalt liner types have been considered with respect to the physical and chemical environment in the uranium producing areas of Canada. All materials indicate good chemical resistance to uranium wastes but are subject to installation problems

  19. A Study of Market Structure in Liner Shipping Under the Influence of Government Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Peter Chi Chung; Bamford, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The peculiar operational mode and involvement of international carriers\\ud granted liner operators special exemption from Anti-trust regulations\\ud globally. The changes of policy from USA and EU in recent years forbidden\\ud liner operators to form Liner Conference (LC) which seems to possess\\ud oligopoly power in the trade. This paper use the freight rate to verified the\\ud change of Government policies cannot stop the liner operators to form in\\ud their natural formation - Liner Conference.

  20. Design and construction of the liner plate for the Arkansas and Midland containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedner, K.; Shah, G.H.; Chang-Lo, P.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents the design criteria and features of the containment liner plate systems utilized for the Arkansas and Midland Nuclear Power Plant. For the Arkansas project, the liner plate system was erected in circumferential rings approximately 3 m high, and the penetration assemblies were welded into the liner after erection. For the Midland project, the liner plate system was erected in vertical segments approximately 6 m wide x 24 m high, and the penetration assemblies were welded into the liner prior to erection. The differences between the schemes are discussed. (author)

  1. Strength Properties of Aalborg Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    glacial time are characterised by the absence of this mussel. These deposits are named Aalborg Clay and Aalborg Sand. In the city of Aalborg, a fill layer superposes Aalborg Clay. This layer is at some places found to be 6m thick. This fill layer does not provide sufficient bearing capacity, which has...... resulted in many damaged buildings in Aalborg. To provide sufficient bearing capacity it is therefore necessary either to remove the fill or to construct the building on piles. Both methods imply that the strength of Aalborg Clay is important for the construction. This paper evaluates the strength...

  2. Geochemical of clay formations : study of Spanish clay REFERENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrero, M. J.; Pena, J.

    2003-01-01

    Clay rocks are investigated in different international research programs in order to assess its feasibility for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes. This is because different sepcific aspects: they have low hydraulic conductivity (10''-11-10''-15 m/s), a high sorption capacity, self-sealing capacity of facults and discontinuities and mechanical resistance. Several research programs on clay formations are aimed to study the chemistry of the groundwater and the water-rock reactions that control it: e. g. Boom Clay (Mol, Belgium), Oxford Clay /Harwell, United Kingdom), Toarcian Clay (Tournemire, France), Palfris formation (Wellenberg, Switzerland), Opalinus Clay (Bure, France). Based on these studies, considerable progress in the development of techniques for hydrologic, geochemical and hydrogeochemical characterization of mudstones has been accomplished (e. g. Beaufais et al. 1994, De Windt el al. 1998. Thury and Bossart 1999, Sacchi and Michelot 2000) with important advances in the knowledge of geochemical process in these materials (e. g. Reeder et al. 1993, Baeyens and Brandbury 1994, Beaucaire et al. 2000, Pearson et al., 2003).Furtermore, geochemical modeling is commonly used to simulate the evolution of water chemistry and to understand quantitatively the processes controlling the groundwater chemistry (e. g. Pearson et al. 1998, Tempel and Harrison 2000, Arcos et al., 2001). The work presented here is part of a research program funded by Enresa in the context of its R and D program. It is focused on the characterization of a clay formation (reference Argillaceous Formation, RAF) located within the Duero Basin (north-centralSpain). The characterisation of th ephysical properties,, fluid composition, mineralogy, water-rock reaction processes, geochemical modelling and sorption properties of the clays from the mentioned wells is the main purpose of this work. (Author)

  3. Liner velocity, current, and symmetry measurements on the 32 MA flux compression generator experiment ALT-1

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, D A; Rodríguez, G; Tabaka, L J

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. A flux compression generator based pulse power system, designed, built, and fielded by a Russian team at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), was used to successfully drive an aluminum liner to velocities greater than 10 km/sec. The experiment objective was to demonstrate performance of a precision liner implosion at Atlas current of 30 MA or greater. Diagnostics to measure liner performance were an essential part of the experiment. An experimental team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) provided a suite of diagnostics to measure liner performance. Three diagnostics were fielded. 1. a velocity interferometer (VISAR) to continuously measure the liner inner surface velocity from throughout the entire range of travel. 2. Two Faraday rotation devices to measure liner current during the implosion. 3. Sixteen fiber optic impact pins to record liner impact time and provide axial and azimuthal symmetry information. All diagnostics...

  4. La durabilité des géosynthétiques dans les installations de stockage de déchets : le projet Durageos DURAGEOS. Durability of geosynthetics used in landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARCAS, Fabienne ; PONS, Carlos ; BOUCHEZ, Théodore ; MAZÉAS, Laurent ; MÉRY, Jacques ; TOUZE-FOLTZ, Nathalie ; DURRIEU, Claude ; FAYOLLE, Bruno ; RICHAUD, Emmanuel ; LANOË, Marie ; MARTINS, Jean ; PIERSON, Patrick ; SALDI, Fethi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Les géosynthétiques sont de plus en plus utilisés pour renforcer les barrières d'étanchéité des installations de stockage des déchets non dangereux. Afin de réduire l'impact environnemental des installations, les utilisateurs de ces matériaux ont donc besoin de guides et de recommandations sur leur mise en œuvre délicate, mais également d'estimations sur leur durée de vie. Cet article nous présente les moyens mis en œuvre par le projet Durageos pour mieux connaître et prédire les processus de vieillissement des géomembranes en polyéthylène haute densité et des géosynthétiques bentonitiques.The DURAGEOS project studies geosynthetics (HDPE geomembranes and GCLs ageing mechanisms under combined action of mechanical stresses, microorganisms and/or oxygen in connection with mass transfer. Physico-chemical and mechanical features of model and commercial geosynthetics aged in laboratory allow the development of a kinetic model of prediction of the lifetime coupled to a model of mass transfer. The models will be validated by geosynthetics sampled on landfill sites. Ecotoxicological risks and environmental external costs of transfers are to be assessed.

  5. Wave liquefaction in soils with clay content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, Özgür; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the influence of clay content (in silt-clay and sand-clay mixtures) on liquefaction beneath progressive waves. The experiments showed that the influence of clay content is very significant. Susceptibility of silt to liquefaction is increa...

  6. What makes a natural clay antibacterial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynda B.; Metge, David W.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Turner, Amanda G.; Prapaipong, Panjai; Port-Peterson, Amisha T.

    2011-01-01

    Natural clays have been used in ancient and modern medicine, but the mechanism(s) that make certain clays lethal against bacterial pathogens has not been identified. We have compared the depositional environments, mineralogies, and chemistries of clays that exhibit antibacterial effects on a broad spectrum of human pathogens including antibiotic resistant strains. Natural antibacterial clays contain nanoscale (2+ solubility.

  7. Consideration of liners and covers in performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Seitz, Robert R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [USDOE Enviromental Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-09-18

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several United States Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These disposal cells are typically regulated by States and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in addition to having to comply with requirements in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management due to the radioactive waste. The USDOE-Environmental Management Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these CERCLA disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to CERCLA risk assessments and DOE Order 435.1 performance assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement, respectively. One of the issues considered by the working group, which is addressed in this report, was how to appropriately consider the performance of covers and liners/leachate collections systems in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 performance assessment (PA). This same information may be appropriate for consideration within CERCLA risk assessments for these facilities. These OSDCs are generally developed to meet hazardous waste (HW) disposal design standards under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as the DOE Order 435.1 performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. To meet the standards for HW, the facilities typically include engineered covers and liner/leachate collection systems. Thus, when considering such facilities in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 PA, there is a need to address the evolution of performance of covers and liner/leachate collection systems in the context of meeting a performance standard considering time

  8. SBR Brazilian organophilic/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Thiago R.; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco R.; Morales, Ana Rita; Paiva, Lucilene B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is the obtaining of SBR composites using a Brazilian raw bentonite and the same bentonite treated with an organic salt. The clays were characterized by XRD. The clay addition in the composites was 10 pcr. The composites were characterized by XRD and had measured theirs tension strength (TS). The composite with Brazilian treated clay showed TS 233% higher than a composite with no clay, 133% higher than a composite with Cloisite 30B organophilic clay and 17% lower than a composite with Cloisite 20 A organophilic clay. XRD and TS data evidence that the composite with Brazilian treated clay is an intercalated nanocomposite. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the attenuating properties of selected Greek clays for toxic inorganic elements in landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimides, T; Perraki, T

    2000-05-15

    Heavy metal attenuation properties of selected clay material collected from miscellaneous Greek sites is investigated and tested in the laboratory for their suitability, either as liners in hydrologically unsafe sites or as earth covers for sanitary landfill sites. Eleven potentially hazardous elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn) generated by a co-disposal landfill leachate have been considered. Experimental column and static equilibrium methods for the determination of dispersion and adsorption are described. Molecular diffusion dominates the migration phenomena with a velocity range between 1.3 x 10(-5) and 3.5 x 10(-4) cm/s throughout the experiments. A simple way to evaluate dispersion coefficients from breakthrough curves gave values of between 3.90 x 10(-6) and 3.5 x 10(-4) cm2/s, with a mean value of 1.5 x 10(-5). Static adsorption equilibrium studies supported by column runs showed that Freundlich (F = kCn) isotherms express in a better way the assimilative capacities of the tested clays, with k and n values ranging from 0.06 to 1.99 and 0.55 to 1.48 correspondingly. Mathematical models involving non-linear parabolic equations are involved. The experimental data, together with finite difference techniques and some physical clay characteristics, produced trilinear textural diagrams and predictive flow transport convection-dispersion breakthrough curves for a quick estimation of the attenuating properties of clays for heavy metals.

  10. Degradation rate of sludge/fly ash mixture used as landfill liner; Nedbrytningshastigheten foer taetskikt uppbyggda av slam och aska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Malin; Ecke, Holger [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    permeability is low enough (<1x10{sup -9} m/s) the results indicate that the leaching of TOC will be of less importance for the function of the barrier layer. The hydraulic conductivity was independent of the change in TOC, i.e. even though the organic material was reduced through chemical degradation and leaching the permeability was not negatively affected. Instead, the permeability was reduced in time and affected mainly by the compaction grade. Therefore, it is important to compact the landfill liner material and to mix the ash and sludge to a homogeneous mixture. Drying of the material increased the hydraulic conductivity: the barrier layer should therefore be kept moist. Freezing through cycles did not affect the permeability. Calculations on the basis of results from experiments with columns with an initial hydraulic conductivity of <1x10{sup -9} m/s show that the leaching of TOC stops after 38 years (NSR-Oeresundskraft) and 14 years (Bromma-Maelarenergi). The combination of reduced percolation and more immobilized TOC is expected to lead to very low leaching rates for organic material after this time. On basis of this study it is recommended to change the landfill liner material at Filborna in Helsingborg from clay to ash/sludge on a test area. During such large-scale tests it is suitable to control changes in the material to verify the results from the experiments.

  11. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane. They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also used like paper mill sludge or discarded swelling clay.

  12. The high pH chemical and radiation compatibility of various liner materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, G.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a flexible membrane liner that has been proposed to line a concrete vault in which liquid low-level radioactive waste will be solidified. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene liners were tested at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in an EPA method 9090 format to determine their chemical compatibility with the waste. Radiation effects were also investigated. The liners were immersed in a highly caustic (pH>14), primarily inorganic solution at 90 degrees C. The liners were subjected to radiation doses up to 38.9 Mrad, which was the expected dose the liner would receive over a 30-year life inside the vault. Recent changes have placed the liner outside the vault. The acceptance criteria for judging the compatibility of the liner with radiation would be different that those used for judging chemical compatibility. The radiation damage over the life of the liner can be simulated in a short-term test. Both HDPE and polypropylene liners were judged to be acceptable from a chemical and radiation standpoint when placed outside of the vault, while several other liners were not compatible. Radiation did not have a significant effect on chemical degradation rates

  13. The high pH chemical and radiation compatibility of various liner materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, G.; Farnsworth, R.

    1990-01-01

    A flexible membrane liner has been proposed to line a concrete vault in which liquid low-level radioactive waste will be solidified. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene liners were tested at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in an EPA method 9090 format to determine their chemical compatibility with the waste. Radiation effects were also investigated. The liners were immersed in a highly caustic (pH>14), primarily inorganic solution at 90 degrees C. The liners were subjected to radiation doses up to 38.9 Mrad, which was the expected dose the liner would receive over a 30-year life inside the vault. Recent changes have placed the liner outside the vault. The acceptance criteria for judging the compatibility of the liner with radiation should be different than those used for judging chemical compatibility. The radiation damage over the life of the liner can be simulated in a short-term test. Both HDPE and polypropylene liners were judged to be acceptable from a chemical and radiation standpoint when placed outside of the vault, while several other liners were not compatible. Radiation did not have a significant effect on chemical degradation rates

  14. Sodium leak and combustion experiment-II report. Evaluation result of damage of mild steel liner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoto, K.; Hirakawa, Y.; Kuroda, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1996-09-01

    Several material analyses on damage of the floor liner made of a mild steel which was in the test cell of the second sodium leak and combustion experiment (Test-2) performed in OEC/PNC on June 7 in 1996 were carried out to clarify the following issues. (1) Difference of the corrosion mechanism of Test-2 liner to that of the first sodium leak and combustion experiment (Test-1) liner. (2) The vital factor which can desides corrosion mechanism and damage location. The following analyses were accomplished. (1) Microstructure observation, (2) EPMA for cross-section of vicinity of corroded area, (3) X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the interface between corrosion product-liner (mild steel). The differences between the corrosion mechanism of Test-1 liner which is seemed to be the same that of `MONJU` liner and that of Test-2 liner is discussed based on the results of these material analyses. As the result, the Na-Fe double oxidization with mechanical/chemical removal of reaction product can be occurred on the Test-1 and `MONJU` liner. On the other hand, a hot-corrosion, that is the molten salt type corrosion is subject to be thinning of the Test-2 liner. All failures of Test-2 liner surround at the halfway up a convex. Considering the above corrosion mechanism, that fact leads that significant damage is occurred at the molten salt level. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Novel Liner Concepts for Fan and Airframe Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. G.; Howerton, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review of four novel liner concepts: soft vanes, over-the-rotor liners, external liners, and flap side-edge liners. A number of similarities in the design and evaluation of these concepts emerged during these investigations. Since these were the first attempts to study these particular liner concepts, there was limited information to guide the design process. In all cases, the target frequencies (or frequency range) were known, but the optimum acoustic impedance and optimum liner placement were typically not known. For these cases, the maximum available surface was used and a c-impedance was targeted based on the assumption the sound field impinges on the surface at normal incidence. This choice proved fruitful for every application. An impedance prediction model was used to design variable-depth liner configurations, and a graphical design code (ILIAD) was developed to aid in this process. The ability to build increasingly complex liner configurations via additive manufacturing was key, such that multiple designs could quickly be tested in a normal incidence impedance tube. The Two-Thickness Method was used to evaluate available bulk materials, such that bulk liners could also be considered for each application. These novel liner concepts provide sufficient noise reduction to warrant further investigations.

  16. Atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe in clay minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Anke; Wu, Lingling; Li, Weiqiang; Beard, Brian L; Johnson, Clark M; Rosso, Kevin M; Frierdich, Andrew J; Scherer, Michelle M

    2015-03-03

    Due to their stability toward reductive dissolution, Fe-bearing clay minerals are viewed as a renewable source of Fe redox activity in diverse environments. Recent findings of interfacial electron transfer between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe in clay minerals and electron conduction in octahedral sheets of nontronite, however, raise the question whether Fe interaction with clay minerals is more dynamic than previously thought. Here, we use an enriched isotope tracer approach to simultaneously trace Fe atom movement from the aqueous phase to the solid ((57)Fe) and from the solid into the aqueous phase ((56)Fe). Over 6 months, we observed a significant decrease in aqueous (57)Fe isotope fraction, with a fast initial decrease which slowed after 3 days and stabilized after about 50 days. For the aqueous (56)Fe isotope fraction, we observed a similar but opposite trend, indicating that Fe atom movement had occurred in both directions: from the aqueous phase into the solid and from the solid into aqueous phase. We calculated that 5-20% of structural Fe in clay minerals NAu-1, NAu-2, and SWa-1 exchanged with aqueous Fe(II), which significantly exceeds the Fe atom layer exposed directly to solution. Calculations based on electron-hopping rates in nontronite suggest that the bulk conduction mechanism previously demonstrated for hematite1 and suggested as an explanation for the significant Fe atom exchange observed in goethite2 may be a plausible mechanism for Fe atom exchange in Fe-bearing clay minerals. Our finding of 5-20% Fe atom exchange in clay minerals indicates that we need to rethink how Fe mobility affects the macroscopic properties of Fe-bearing phyllosilicates and its role in Fe biogeochemical cycling, as well as its use in a variety of engineered applications, such as landfill liners and nuclear repositories.

  17. Thermal Behaviour of clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassoni, E.

    1985-01-01

    The programme carried out by ENEA to model the thermal-hydraulic-mechanical behaviour of the clay formations and to measure, in situ and in laboratory, the thermal properties of these rocks, is presented. An in situ heating experiment has been carried out in an open clay quarry in the area of Monterotondo, near Rome. The main goal of the experiment was to know the temperature field and the thermal effects caused by the high level radioactive waste disposed of in a clayey geological formation. The conclusions are as follows: - the thermal conduction codes are sufficiently accurate to forecast the temperature increases caused in the clay by the dissipation of the heat generated by high level radioactive waste; - the thermal conductivity deduced by means of the ''curve fitting'' method ranges from 0.015 to 0.017 W.cm -1 . 0 C -1 - the temperature variation associated with the transport of clay interstitial water caused by temperature gradient is negligible. A laboratory automated method has been designed to measure the thermal conductivity and diffusivity in clay samples. A review of experimental data concerning thermomechanical effects in rocks as well as results of thermal experiments performed at ISMES on clays are presented. Negative thermal dilation has been found both in the elastic and plastic range under constant stress. Thermoplastic deformation appears ten times greater than the thermoelastic one. A mathematical model is proposed in order to simulate the above and other effects that encompass thermal-elastic-plastic-pore water pressure response of clays at high temperature and effective pressure with undrained and transient drainage conditions. Implementation of the two versions into a finite element computer code is described

  18. Skin friction on a flat perforated acoustic liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldman, D. R.; Brinich, P. F.

    1976-01-01

    The report concerns the measurement of friction coefficients of a typical perforated acoustic liner installed in the side of a wind tunnel. The results are compared with measured friction coefficients of a smooth hard wall for the same mean flow velocities in a wind tunnel. At a velocity of 61 m/sec, an increase in the local skin coefficient of only a few percent was observed, but at the highest velocity of 213 m/sec an increase of about 20% was obtained. This velocity is a realistic velocity for turbo-machinery components utilizing such liners, so a loss in performance is to be expected. Some tests were also performed to see if changes in the mean boundary layer induced by imposed noise would result in friction increase, but only at low velocity levels was such an increase in friction noted.

  19. Investigation of a Bio-Inspired Liner Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Four samples of natural reeds, Phragmites australis, were tested in the NASA Langley and Glenn Normal Incidence Impedance Tubes in order to experimentally determine the acoustic absorption coefficients as a function of frequency from 400 to 3000 Hz. Six samples that mimicked the geometry of the assemblies of natural reeds were also designed and additively manufactured from ASA thermoplastic and tested. Results indicate that structures can be manufactured of synthetic materials that mimic the geometry and the low frequency acoustic absorption of natural reeds. This accomplishment demonstrates that a new class of structures can now be considered for a wide range of industrial products that need thin, lightweight, broadband acoustic absorption effective at frequencies below 1000 Hz. Aircraft engine acoustic liners and aircraft cabin acoustic liners, in particular, are two aviation applications that might benefit from further development of this concept.

  20. A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy; Pisinger, David

    We present a matheuristic, an integer programming based heuristic, for the liner shipping network design problem. This problem consists of finding a set of container shipping routes defining a capacitated network for cargo transport. The objective is to maximize the revenue of cargo transport...... the available fleet of container vessels. The cargo transports make extensive use of transshipments between routes and the number of transshipments of the cargo flow is decisive for network profitability. Computational results are reported for the benchmark suite LINER-LIB 2012 following the industry standard...... of weekly departures on every schedule. The heuristic shows overall good performance and is able to find high quality solutions within competitive execution times. The matheuristic can also be applied as a decision support tool to improve an existing network by optimizing on a designated subset...

  1. Ageing of structural materials in tokamaks: TEXTOR liner study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckmann, A.; Petersson, P.; Rubel, M.; Fortuna-Zaleśna, E.; Zielinski, W.; Romelczyk-Baishya, B.; Grigore, E.; Ruset, C.; Kreter, A.

    2017-12-01

    After the final shut-down of the tokamak TEXTOR, all of its machine parts became accessible for comprehensive studies. This unique opportunity enabled the study of the Inconel 625 liner by a wide range of methods. The aim was to evaluate eventual alteration of surface and bulk characteristics from recessed wall elements that may influence the machine performance. The surface was covered with stratified layers consisting mainly of boron, carbon, oxygen, and in some cases also silicon. Wall conditioning and limiter materials hence predominantly define deposition on the liner. Deposited layers on recessed wall elements reach micrometre thickness within decades, peel off and may contribute to the dust inventory in tokamaks. Deuterium content was about 4,7 at% on average most probably due to wall conditioning with deuterated gas, and very low concentration in the Inconel substrate. Inconel 625 retained its mechanical strength despite 26 years of cyclic heating, stresses and particle bombardment.

  2. Modeling and Solving the Liner Shipping Service Selection Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Balakrishnan, Anant

    We address a tactical planning problem, the Liner Shipping Service Selection Problem (LSSSP), facing container shipping companies. Given estimated demand between various ports, the LSSSP entails selecting the best subset of non-simple cyclic sailing routes from a given pool of candidate routes...... to accurately model transshipment costs and incorporate routing policies such as maximum transit time, maritime cabotage rules, and operational alliances. Our hop-indexed arc flow model is smaller and easier to solve than path flow models. We outline a preprocessing procedure that exploits both the routing...... requirements and the hop limits to reduce problem size, and describe techniques to accelerate the solution procedure. We present computational results for realistic problem instances from the benchmark suite LINER-LIB....

  3. The construction of a PWR power station reactor building liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skirving, N.; Goulding, J.S.; Gibson, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Cleveland Bridge and Engineering Co Ltd (CBE) are constructing the Reactor Building Liner Plate containment of the Sizewell 'B' Power Station for Nuclear Electric Ltd. This has entailed extensive offsite prefabrication of components and their subsequent erection at Sizewell. It has been necessary to engineer temporary supporting mechanisms to enable manufacture and erection to proceed, yet also to withstand wet concrete forces during the progressive construction. The Reactor Building Liner Plate is a safety related system and as such, in addition to strict compliance with the ASME code, the Quality Assurance (QA) requirements of BS 5882 are applicable. A dedicated Project Team was established by CBE to control and direct the work. Equally important as satisfying the rigorous Q.A. requirements has been the need to meet programme and budget. This paper details CBE execution of the Project. (author)

  4. Composite-Material Tanks with Chemically Resistant Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight composite-material tanks with chemically resistant liners have been developed for storage of chemically reactive and/or unstable fluids . especially hydrogen peroxide. These tanks are similar, in some respects, to the ones described in gLightweight Composite-Material Tanks for Cryogenic Liquids h (MFS-31379), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January, 2001), page 58; however, the present tanks are fabricated by a different procedure and they do not incorporate insulation that would be needed to prevent boil-off of cryogenic fluids. The manufacture of a tank of this type begins with the fabrication of a reusable multisegmented aluminum mandrel in the shape and size of the desired interior volume. One or more segments of the mandrel can be aluminum bosses that will be incorporated into the tank as end fittings. The mandrel is coated with a mold-release material. The mandrel is then heated to a temperature of about 400 F (approximately equal to 200 C) and coated with a thermoplastic liner material to the desired thickness [typically approxiamtely equal to 15 mils (approximately equal to 0.38 mm)] by thermal spraying. In the thermal-spraying process, the liner material in powder form is sprayed and heated to the melting temperature by a propane torch and the molten particles land on the mandrel. The sprayed liner and mandrel are allowed to cool, then the outer surface of the liner is chemically and/or mechanically etched to enhance bonding of a composite overwrap. The etched liner is wrapped with multiple layers of an epoxy resin reinforced with graphite fibers; the wrapping can be done either by manual application of epoxy-impregnated graphite cloth or by winding of epoxy-impregnated filaments. The entire assembly is heated in an autoclave to cure the epoxy. After the curing process, the multisegmented mandrel is disassembled and removed from inside, leaving the finished tank. If the tank is to be used for storing hydrogen peroxide, then the liner material

  5. Risk assessment for the transportation of radioactive zeolite liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1982-01-01

    The accident risk is estimated for the shipment of two zeolite liners containing radioactive cesium and strontium. Each liner, assumed to hold 68,200 Ci and sealed inside a CNS 1 to 13C, type-B shipping cask, is transported by truck over a 4200-km route. The risk to the population along the route is calculated for potential transportation accidents involving fire, impact, and puncture forces. The total risk is 5.3E-7 man-rem (50-year inhalation dose) and the maximum dose (from the least-likely accident) is 0.7 man-rem. Both estimates are less than 0.1% of comparable risk measures for natural background radiation and spent fuel shipment accidents

  6. Extended liner performance for hydrodynamics and material properties experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Reinovsky, R E

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Over the last few years a new application for high performance pulsed power, the production of high energy density environments for the study of material properties under extreme conditions and hydrodynamics in complex geometries has joined the traditional family of radiation source applications. The newly commissioned Atlas pulsed power system at Los Alamos has replaced its predecessor, Pegasus, and joined the Shiva Star system at AFRL, Albuquerque and a variety of flux compression systems, principally at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) as ultra high current drivers for the high precision, magnetically imploded, near-solid density liner that is used to create the needed environments. Three families of experiments: the production of ultra strong shocks (>10 Mbar), the production of strongly coupled plasmas by liner compression of an initially dense plasma of a few eV temperature, and the compression of a magnetized plasma for ...

  7. Reliability-based condition assessment of steel containment and liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.; Bhattacharya, B.; Zheng, R.

    1996-11-01

    Steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environments that may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease during the plant service life. Among the factors recognized as having the potential to cause structural deterioration are uniform, pitting or crevice corrosion; fatigue, including crack initiation and propagation to fracture; elevated temperature; and irradiation. The evaluation of steel containments and liners for continued service must provide assurance that they are able to withstand future extreme loads during the service period with a level of reliability that is sufficient for public safety. Rational methodologies to provide such assurances can be developed using modern structural reliability analysis principles that take uncertainties in loading, strength, and degradation resulting from environmental factors into account. The research described in this report is in support of the Steel Containments and Liners Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using reliability analysis as a tool for performing condition assessments and service life predictions of steel containments and liners. Mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in steel due to aggressive environmental factors are identified, and statistical data supporting the use of these models in time-dependent reliability analysis are summarized. The analysis of steel containment fragility is described, and simple illustrations of the impact on reliability of structural degradation are provided. The role of nondestructive evaluation in time-dependent reliability analysis, both in terms of defect detection and sizing, is examined. A Markov model provides a tool for accounting for time-dependent changes in damage condition of a structural component or system. 151 refs

  8. NEW APPROACHES: A hot air balloon from dustbin liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Nicholas

    1998-07-01

    This article describes how a simple hot air balloon, inflated by a hair dryer, can be made out of household bin liners and Sellotape. It can be used at sixth-form level as an application of the ideal gas equation, = constant, and is rather more exciting than heated pistons. It gives a taste of a simple engineering design process, although the students do have to be reasonably adept at geometry and algebra.

  9. Modelling of the flow in the interface of a composite liner at the bottom of a municipal waste landfill; Modelisation des ecoulements dans les interfaces des barrieres d'etancheite composites des installations de stockage de dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartaud, F

    2004-11-15

    Composite liner at the bottom of waste landfill is based, in France, on a geo-membrane overlapping a compacted clay liner. Defects exist in geo-membranes and leachates, provided by water percolation through the waste, then flow in the interface between the two components of the lining system. The present work consisted in analysis, quantification and modelling of the leakage process in the interface. The experimental study has been carried out on a one-meter scale device in laboratory and allowed to assess the role of normal stress on the flow rate in interface. The case where a geo-textile is present beneath the geo-membrane has been also studied. The modelling allows to take into account more accurately the geometry of the interface and ensures a better quantification of leachate flow rates than using existing methods. (author)

  10. Radioactive wear tests of four cylinder liner materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylte, G.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation on the wear properties of various liner materials, financed by a research grant from NTNF (Royal Norwegian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), is reported. The investigation was carried out by the Division of Internal Combustion Engines, Trondheim, Univ.,Norway, on a two-stroke, turbocharged, medium speed diesel engine (Wichmann 2ACAT, 280 by 420 mm). Thin pearlitic cast iron inserts of various compositions were pressed into the upper part of a specially machined cylinder liner. These inserts were activated in a nuclear reactor, and tracer techniques employed to measure the wear rate. Gas oil was used as a fuel throughout all tests. The insert technique employed, and the handling methods devised, were satisfactory. This part of the project must be characterised as being very successful. Originally, six different liner materials were specified, but due to misunderstandings duplications resulted in only four different materials finally being received at the laboratory. The engine tests disclosed that the wear rates of all four materials were low under laboratory conditions, and therefore difficult to measure accurately. Nevertheless, the wear properties of the inserts clearly fell into two distinct classes, which may be termed good and excellent. The relative values inside each group are, however, more uncertain due to the cumulative effects of errors, instrument drift, measurement statistics, etc. (Auth.)

  11. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primary fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized α-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original MagLIF paper [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. We also discuss some important physics insights gained as a result of developing this model, such as the dependence of radiative loss rates on the radial fraction of the fuel that is preheated.

  12. A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

  13. Magnetic pressure effects in a plasma-liner interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rubio, F.; Sanz, J.

    2018-04-01

    A theoretical analysis of magnetic pressure effects in a magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma is presented. In previous publications [F. García-Rubio and J. Sanz, Phys. Plasmas 24, 072710 (2017)], the evolution of a hot magnetized plasma in contact with a cold unmagnetized plasma, aiming to represent the hot spot and liner, respectively, was investigated in planar geometry. The analysis was made in a double limit low Mach and high thermal to magnetic pressure ratio β. In this paper, the analysis is extended to an arbitrary pressure ratio. Nernst, Ettingshausen, and Joule effects come into play in the energy balance. The region close to the liner is governed by thermal conduction, while the Joule dissipation becomes predominant far from it when the pressure ratio is low. Mass ablation, thermal energy, and magnetic flux losses are reduced with plasma magnetization, characterized by the electron Hall parameter ω e τ e , until β values of order unity are reached. From this point forward, increasing the electron Hall parameter no longer improves the magnetic flux conservation, and mass ablation is enhanced due to the magnetic pressure gradients. A thoughtful simplification of the problem that allows to reduce the order of the system of governing equations while still retaining the finite β effects is presented and compared to the exact case.

  14. Image flows and one-liner graphical image representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhervaks, Vadim; Barequet, Gill; Bruckstein, Alfred

    2002-10-01

    This paper introduces a novel graphical image representation consisting of a single curve-the one-liner. The first step of the algorithm involves the detection and ranking of image edges. A new edge exploration technique is used to perform both tasks simultaneously. This process is based on image flows. It uses a gradient vector field and a new operator to explore image edges. Estimation of the derivatives of the image is performed by using local Taylor expansions in conjunction with a weighted least-squares method. This process finds all the possible image edges without any pruning, and collects information that allows the edges found to be prioritized. This enables the most important edges to be selected to form a skeleton of the representation sought. The next step connects the selected edges into one continuous curve-the one-liner. It orders the selected edges and determines the curves connecting them. These two problems are solved separately. Since the abstract graph setting of the first problem is NP-complete, we reduce it to a variant of the traveling salesman problem and compute an approximate solution to it. We solve the second problem by using Dijkstra's shortest-path algorithm. The full software implementation for the entire one-liner determination process is available.

  15. Method for baking a liner in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Keiichi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To attain effective baking for liners in a tokamak device by connecting the narrow portions and the wide portions of the liners with dielectric materials and supplying a constant current to these portions. Method: Split type liners disposed in the vacuum vessel of a thermonuclear device are connected with dielectric materials at their wide portions and narrow portions and they are baked by supplying a constant current at a same density to the wide and narrow portions to rise their temperature uniformly. The wide portions are formed in such a way that the sum of their cross sectional areas is equal to the sum of the cross sectional areas of the narrow portions, and they form a parallel circuit. The parallel circuit consisting of the wide portions and the parallel circuit consisting of the narrow portions are connected in series to each other and connected to the constant current supply circuit, by which a constant current is supplied to the wide and the narrow portions. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. Aging test results of an asphalt membrane liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Barnes, S.M.

    1983-07-01

    The objective of the asphalt aging study described in this report was to determine the expected performance lifetime of a catalytically airblown asphalt membrane as a seepage barrier for inactive uranium mill tailings. The study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, showed through chemical compatibility tests that the asphalt membrane is well suited for this purpose. The chemical compatibility tests were designed to accelerate the aging reactions in the asphalt and to determine the accelerated aging effect. Higher temperatures and oxygen concentrations proved to be effective acceleration parameters. By infrared spectral analysis, the asphalt was determined to have undergone 7 years of equivalent aging in a 3-month period when exposed to 40 0 C and 1.7 atm oxygen pressure. However, the extent of aging was limited to a maximum penetration of 0.5% of the total liner thickness. It was concluded that the liner could be expected to be effective as a seepage barrier for at least 1000 years before the entire thickness of the liner would be degraded

  17. Elastic Plastic Fracture Analysis of an Aluminum COPV Liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forth, Scott; Gregg, Bradley; Bailey, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Onboard any space-launch vehicle, composite over-wrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) may be utilized by propulsion or environmental control systems. The failure of a COPV has the potential to be catastrophic, resulting in the loss of vehicle, crew or mission. The latest COPV designs have reduced the wall-thickness of the metallic liner to the point where the material strains plastically during operation. At this time, the only method to determine the damage tolerance lifetime (safe-life) of a plastically responding metallic liner is through full-scale COPV testing. Conducting tests costs substantially more and can be far more time consuming than performing an analysis. As a result of this cost, there is a need to establish a qualifying process through the use of a crack growth analysis tool. This paper will discuss fracture analyses of plastically responding metallic liners in COPVs. Uni-axial strain tests have been completed on laboratory specimens to collect elastic-plastic crack growth data. This data has been modeled with the crack growth analysis tool, NASGRO 6.20 to predict the response of laboratory specimens and subsequently the complexity of a COPV.

  18. Manufacturing and testing of ITER divertor gas box liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazul, I.; Giniatulin, R.; Komarov, V.L.; Krylov, V.; Kuzmin, Ye.; Makhankov, A.; Odintsov, V.; Zhuk, A.

    1998-01-01

    Among a variety of R and D works performed by different ITER parties there are seven large projects which deal with the development, manufacturing and testing of most important complex reactor components. One of the projects is directed to produce a prototype of divertor cassette. In according with integration plan two full size liners with dummy armour are manufactured by RF Home Team. Except for liners with dummy armors the large - scale mock-up with real armour have to be manufactured in order to demonstrate the semi-industrial possibilities for joining of Be and W to CuCrZr heat - sink structure. The design of this liners, technological approaches to their manufacturing are presented. The description of brazing facility and joining technology which use a fast ohmic heating by 15 kA current is made. A mock-up of 800 mm in length and 90 mm in width was armored by 18 Be tiles (44 x 44 mm 2 in plane, 10 mm - thick) and 16 W-Cu tiles (44 x 44 mm 2 in plane, 3 mm - thick W). The preliminary results of high heat flux testing of the armored mock-ups are also presented. (author)

  19. The effect of liner hydraulic conductivity on disposal cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Chia, Y.P.

    1988-01-01

    Multilayered disposal cells are frequently used for the disposal of radioactive and hazardous wastes. These disposal cells consist of materials with different permeabilities that are placed in various thicknesses at the bottom as well as in the cover of the cell. Typically, a layer of permeable material is placed above a layer with low permeability; the permeable layer functions as a drainage/leachate collection system and the low-permeability layer functions as a migration barrier/liner. This paper analyzes the effects of infiltration through unsaturated soil liners on the long-term performance of the disposal cell. Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that the long-term performance of a disposal cell is dependent on a well-designed cell cover. The design should emphasize a cap with less permeable material to prevent water from infiltrating the disposal cell. An impermeable bottom liner is effective only in the short term; however, it can eventually result in saturation of the wastes and cause the bathtub effect over the long term

  20. Self-similar compression of a magnetized plasma filled liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, F.S.; Liberman, M.A.; Velikovich, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    New analytic, one-dimensional, self-similar solutions of magnetohydrodynamic equations describing the compression of a magnetized plasma by a thin cylindrical liner are presented. The solutions include several features that have not been included in an earlier self-similar solution of the equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. These features are the effects of finite plasma electrical conductivity, induction heating, thermal conductivity and related thermogalvanomagnetic effects, plasma turbulence, and plasma boundary effects. These solutions have been motivated by recent suggestions for production of ultrahigh magnetic fields by new methods. The methods involve radially imploding plasmas in which axial magnetic fields have been entrained. These methods may be capable of producing controlled magnetic fields up to approx. = 100 MG. Specific methods of implosion suggested were by ablative radial acceleration of a liner by a laser and by a gas-puff Z pinch. The model presented here addresses the first of these methods. The solutions derived here are used to estimate magnetic flux losses out of the compression volume, and to indicate conditions under which an impulsively-accelerated, plasma-filled liner may compress an axial magnetic field to large magnitude

  1. Instability behavior of stiffened dome liners under construction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefts, A.R.; Guha-Majumdar, S.; Wanchoo, M.K.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present techniques related to stability analysis, design concepts and behavior of dome liners. Various stiffening systems are examined from economy, schedule and constructablity point of view. The various failure modes can be classified as either buckling due to local instability or to an overall instability of the shell. Local instability may occur due to buckling of liner panel between a pair of rings and stringers or torsional and lateral buckling of the stiffeners. Methods are developed for proportioning stiffening system to preclude local buckling. Overall stability is a function of concrete pour height and thickness, loading distribution, time elapse between successive placements, rate of concrete placement, arrangement of stiffeners and other external supports. A computer program based on system energy minimization is used to study the overall instability of stiffened domes. Modelling techniques, effect of temperature and lack of bond, and their influence on results are discussed. Results for a self-standing stiffened hemispherical dome are presented in the form of mode shapes and buckling loads. Based on the results, a pouring scheme is recommended for an economical stiffening system. Recommendations are made to select the stiffening system and predict the buckling loads for preliminary analysis and design of the dome liner. Existing methods and code provisions related to tolerance, design criteria etc. are examined and recommendations made from practical considerations

  2. Cracking investigation of Monju emergency generator C unit cylinder liner. Cylinder liner soundness confirmation by a fall cause of the materials strength of the cylinder liner and the supersonic wave speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Sakon, Miyoji; Takada, Osamu; Hatori, Masakazu; Sakamoto, Tsutomu; Sato, Toshiyuki; Kazama, Akihito; Ishizawa, Yoshihiro; Igawa, Katsuhisa; Nakae, Hideo

    2012-02-01

    I confirmed a leak of the effluent gas from cylinder part during a load examination after the check of the emergency generator C unit on December 28, 2010 of the facilities check average and confirmed crack in No.8 cylinder liner part. As a result, because it was not performed oil pressure management properly without attaching an oil pressure gauge when I removed cylinder liner about the cause, crack occurred by having been able to write excessive stress for the cylinder liner and reached damage. By a process of this investigation, a fall of the materials strength of some cylinder liner was confirmed, but because a lead ingredient got mixed with materials by a casting process at the time of the production of the cylinder liner, as for this, Widmannstaetten graphite occurred, and it became clear that materials strength fell. In addition, I performed inspection by the supersonic wave velocity measurement as technique to distinguish this Widmannstaetten graphite easily and confirmed that I was effective. Because this report was the knowledge that there were little inspection contents which modified soundness confirmation technique of the cylinder liner with the possibility of materials strength fall of the cylinder liner by the Widmannstaetten graphite outbreak and the mixture of lead for a report example in the field of cast iron, I gathered it in this report. (author)

  3. Clay dispersibility and soil friability – testing the soil clay-to-carbon saturation concept

    OpenAIRE

    Schjønning, P.; de Jonge, L.W.; Munkholm, L.J.; Moldrup, P.; Christensen, B.T.; Olesen, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (OC) influences clay dispersibility, which affects soil tilth conditions and the risk of vertical migration of clay colloids. No universal lower threshold of OC has been identified for satisfactory stabilization of soil structure. We tested the concept of clay saturation with OC as a predictor of clay dispersibility and soil friability. Soil was sampled three years in a field varying in clay content (~100 to ~220 g kg-1 soil) and grown with different crop rotations. Clay ...

  4. Effects of tacky mat contamination on bond degradation for Chemlok/liner and NBR/liner bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, A. M.

    1989-01-01

    Tacky mats are placed by the rubber lay-up areas for the solid rocket motor segments. These mats dust off the shoes prior to entering the platform where the lay-up work is performed. The possibility exists that a tacky mat could be touched with gloved hands prior to handling the uncured nitride butadiene rubber (NBR). Tests were run to determine if NBR were accidentally touched would there be any degradation of the liner/NBR bond. The tacky mats were judged solely on the basis of bond degradation caused by either direct or indirect contamination. Test results all indicate that there was no notable NBR/Chemlok or liner/NBR bond degradation on samples that came into contact with the tacky mat material. Testing procedures are described. The tacky mat adhesive composition does not contain fluorocarbons or release agents that would affect bonding.

  5. Evaluation of inactive uranium mill tailings sites for liner requirements: Characterization and interaction of tailings, soil, and liner materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relyea, J.F.; Martin, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of laboratory experiments using soils from Clive, Utah and tailings samples from three inactive uranium processing sites. The results are to be used to predict contaminant behavior for comparison with the regulatory criteria to decide whether a liner is needed. The interactions of leachates with soils and liner material were studied using both batch and column methods. It is determined that batch leaching tests are suitable for screening a large number of tailings samples for relative contaminant concentrations between samples but not for determining contaminant concentrations and release rates in tailings leachate. The results of column leaching tests on samples of tailings from inactive sites indicate that contaminant concentrations are highest in initial leachate from the columns and that concentrations decrease by an order of magnitude or more after one pore volume

  6. A Base Integer Programming Model and Benchmark Suite for Liner-Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Alvarez, Fernando; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    2014-01-01

    . The potential for making cost-effective and energy-efficient liner-shipping networks using operations research (OR) is huge and neglected. The implementation of logistic planning tools based upon OR has enhanced performance of airlines, railways, and general transportation companies, but within the field......The liner-shipping network design problem is to create a set of nonsimple cyclic sailing routes for a designated fleet of container vessels that jointly transports multiple commodities. The objective is to maximize the revenue of cargo transport while minimizing the costs of operation...... sources of liner shipping for OR researchers in general. We describe and analyze the liner-shipping domain applied to network design and present a rich integer programming model based on services that constitute the fixed schedule of a liner shipping company. We prove the liner-shipping network design...

  7. Metallographic examination of EPICOR-II liners from Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Spaletta, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Materials from selected EPICOR-II prefilter liners were collected and examined as part of the EPICOR and Waste Research and Disposition Program sponsored by the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The intent of that examination was to define the internal condition of liners and ensure that liners could be stored at INEL for ten years. This paper discusses the liner-integrity examination and presents the results of these examinations. Metallurgical examination of sections removed from the liners revealed no evidence of pitting or pitting-type corrosion. Measurements of wall thickness indicate that material was missing from the wall of PF-3 in an area where the protective coating had been removed to form a conductivity patch. If it is assumed that all thinning of the wall in that area is caused by corrosion, the liners will have a lifetime of approximately 50 years. 12 figures

  8. Comparative evaluation of 2% sodium fluoride iontophoresis and other cavity liners beneath silver amalgam restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to compare 2% sodium fluoride (NaF iontophoresis with other cavity liners. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 30 patients in the age group 10-14 years with bilateral carious permanent first molars. The study evaluated the use of 2% NaF iontophoresis as a cavity liner and also compared its desensitizing effect with varnish and an adhesive bonded liner. Sensitivity gradings were done on a subjective verbal rating scale. Results: All the liner treatments decreased the sensitivity following liner application. However, decrease of sensitivity in the case of 2% NaF iontophoresis was more compared with that of varnish and adhesive bonded liner. The results were statistically significant. Conclusions: It was found that 2% NaF iontophoresis was more effective in reducing the postoperative sensitivity compared with that of varnish and scotchbond multipurpose.

  9. Assessment of structural integrity of Monju steel liner against sodium leakage and combustion. Strain criterion of the liner material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asayama, T.; Koi, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In a postulated condition of sodium leakage and combustion in the secondary heat transfer system of the prototype Japanese fast breeder reactor Monju, thermal stresses raise in steel liners installed to prevent sodium from contacting to concrete. Excessive strain due to the thermal stresses leads to failure of the liner. This paper proposes a strain criterion below that the mechanical integrity of liner is assured. In-plane thermal expansion causes membrane strain and out-of-plane expansion causes bending strain. Therefore, failure modes to be taken into account are tensile fracture and bending fracture. The strain criterion can be determined based on tensile and bending tests. Tensile tests and three-point bending tests were performed at the temperature range from room temperature to 1000 C. Fracture elongation was measured in both tests. Uniform elongation was also measured in tensile tests. Various factors that can affect the above experimental results, multi-axiality, environmental effects, and creep were examined. Based on the above results, the strain criterion was determined. The criterion is 10% for membrane strain and 30% for membrane plus bending strain in the temperature range of 350 C to 1000 C. For the temperatures less than 350 C, the half of those values is used. (author)

  10. AREVA NP Liner Repair Strategy with Adhesive Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, Kraemer; Revoirard, Sebastien; McCann, James-E.

    2012-09-01

    AREVA has developed a repair method for sealing leakages in austenitic stainless steel liners, especially in nuclear power plants. This technology is either a repair, when applied after failures already occurred, or a prophylaxis, when applied before failures occurred. Leakages of stainless steel pool liners can be classified into basically four mechanisms: Mechanical impact, mechanical stress, weld failures and corrosion. Damage from mechanical impact like dropping tools or equipment can be usually recognized and localized immediately. In such situations no extensive leak detection needs to be performed. Contrary to the mechanical damage, it is more difficult to localize damages due to mechanical stress, such as load changes or thermal stress. Load changes occur when a stainless steel pool is repeatedly filled and drained, thermal stress occurs when a pool is exposed to temperature gradients. Those two preconditions are given in reactor cavities (RC). Mechanical stress usually promotes other pre-existing defects. According to the experience of AREVA the weld failures are not a common root cause for leakages, found after several years of operation. They are due to the standard testing procedure in which all weld seams are checked (with e.g. Penetrate Testing (PT) for example). If failures are detected, they are repaired during the commissioning. The main root cause for leakages found after several years of operation is corrosion. Corrosion failures themselves are mainly caused by stress corrosion cracking (SCC). SCC needs certain preconditions to initiate: Mechanical stress must exist; a corrosion initiating element (e.g. chlorine) above a limiting concentration is necessary as well as a heat affected zone (HAZ). In the HAZ, which is exists near weld seams, the microstructure of the stainless steel has changed. This leads to a higher susceptibility to SCC. Those preconditions for SCC cannot be found at the front side of the liner (water side), because the water

  11. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Stephenson

    Full Text Available We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration.

  12. Above-cutoff impedance measurements of pumping holes for the Collider Liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, L.; Barts, T.; Ruiz, E.; Turner, W.; Spayd, N.

    1994-04-01

    A holed liner was considered for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Collider Ring because of vacuum problems caused by photon-induced desorption. The liner would serve to shield the cold surface of the beam tube from the synchrotron radiation and the holes (or slots) would allow distributed pumping by gas-absorption material that could be placed between the liner and the beam tube. The impedance of holes and slots in a liner were studied by means of simulations using both MAFIA and HFSS, analytical modelling, wire measurements and electron beam measurements

  13. Aerogel Use as a Skin Protective Liner In Space Suits and Prosthetic Limbs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Existing materials for prosthetic liners tend to be thick and airtight, causing perspiration to accumulate inside the liner and potentially causing infection and injury. The purpose of this project was to examine the suitability of aerogel for prosthetic liner applications for use in space suits and orthopedics. Three tests were performed on several types of aerogel to assess the properties of each material, and our initial findings demonstrated that these materrials would be excellent candidates for liner applications for prosthetics and space suits. The project is currently on hold until additional funding is obtained for application testing at the VH Hospitals in Tampa

  14. Stress analysis of liners for prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessels with regard to non-linear behaviour of liner material and of anchor-characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberpichler, R.; Schnellenbach, G.

    1975-01-01

    The thin liner attached by anchors like a membrane to the interior wall of a prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessel (PCRV) has to provide the leak-tightness of the vessel. Furthermore the liner may serve as internal shuttering for placing of concrete as well as a support for the cooling system. The two-dimensional behaviour of the liner is investigated with regard to non-linear anchor-characteristics and non-linear material behaviour of the liner. The analysis is based on a plane stress model under the assumption of a membrane state of the liner. Calculations are performed by the dynamic relaxation method. With the aid of available non-linear stress-strain diagrams, describing the post-buckling behaviour, individual panels are considered as buckled ones. The adjacent unbuckled panels are calculated on other non-linear diagrams. Strains and stresses in the liner and additional shear loads in the anchors can be calculated with arbitrary sizing and spacing of the anchors. With respect to the parameters they are easily controlled. Since actual loads on the liner are defined by the PCRV-behaviour, an economical and safe design is possible. Finally an extreme case is calculated to assess the maximum value of the shear-forces assuming zero post-buckling capacity for the buckled panel. (Auth.)

  15. Stools - pale or clay-colored

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003129.htm Stools - pale or clay-colored To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stools that are pale, clay, or putty-colored may be due to problems ...

  16. Phosphonium modified clay/polyimide nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceylan, Hatice; Çakmakçi, Emrah; Beyler-Çiǧil, Asli; Kahraman, Memet Vezir

    2014-01-01

    In this study, octyltriphenylphosphonium bromide [OTPP-Br] was prepared from the reaction of triphenylphosphine and 1 -bromooctane. The modification of clay was done by ion exchange reaction using OTPP-Br in water medium. Poly(amic acid) was prepared from the reaction of 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-Oxydianiline (ODA). Polyimide(PI)/clay hybrids were prepared by blending of poly(amic acid) and organically modified clay as a type of layered clays. The morphology of the Polyimide/ phosphonium modified clay hybrids was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structures of polyimide and Polyimide/ phosphonium modified clay hybrids were characterized by FTIR. SEM and FTIR results showed that the Polyimide/ phosphonium modified clay hybrids were successfully prepared. Thermal properties of the Polyimide/ phosphonium modified clay hybrids were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  17. Geotechnical properties of Karwar marine clay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.T.; Nayak, B.U.; Naik, R.L.

    Karwar marine clay possesses high plasticity characteristics with natural water content higher than the liquid limit. Liquidity index was as high as 1.7. Predominant clay mineral was kaolinite. Undrained shear strength showed an increasing trend...

  18. Additive to clay drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytenko, V.S.; Nekrasova, V.B.; Nikitinskiy, E.L.; Ponomarev, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to improve the lubricating and strengthening properties of clay drilling muds. This goal is achieved because the lubricating and strengthening additive used is waste from the pulp and paper industry at the stage of reprocessing crude sulfate soap into phytosterol.

  19. Picasso Masks: Cubism in Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an art project developed by the author which provides a way to further the children's understanding of Picasso's Cubism style in 3-D. Through this project, upper-elementary students learn a bit about the life and art of Picasso as they gain a firm understanding of the style of art known as Cubism, and apply clay techniques…

  20. ADSORPTION OF SURFACTANT ON CLAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. Neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this papere, adsorption prope...

  1. Organic Synthesis using Clay Catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cept, though not new, has received enormous attention in recent times. The desire to make ... which they are divided into four main groups such as, illite, smectite .... acid or driving out NH3 by heating the NH4 + ion treated clay. It is clear from ...

  2. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin) contain...

  3. generalized constitutive model for stabilized quick clay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QUICK CLAY. PANCRAS MUGISHAGWE BUJULU AND GUSTAV GRIMSTAD. ABSTRACT. An experimentally-based two yield surface constitutive model for cemented quick clay has been ... Clay Model, the Koiter Rule and two Mapping Rules. .... models, where a mobilization formulation is used, this is independent of q.

  4. Clay Cuffman: A Cool, Calm, Relaxed Guy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Gina

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Clay Cuffman, a simple clay-sculpture project that requires two or three sessions, and works for students from the upper-elementary level through high school. It takes about 1.5 pounds of clay per student--about the size of a small grapefruit. The Cuffman project is a great way for upper-elementary through high-school…

  5. Emission and Absorption in the M87 LINER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, Bassem M.; Shields, Joseph C.; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2003-02-01

    The nucleus of M87 displays a LINER spectrum at optical wavelengths, with a nuclear disk of nebulosity that is resolved by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We present new results from optical and ultraviolet spectra of the central ~40 pc as measured by HST. In contrast with previous results for the extended disk, the emission-line spectrum of the central region is best reproduced by a multicomponent photoionization scenario, rather than shock heating. The nebular properties as well as energetic considerations suggest a transition on scales of several tens of parsecs, from predominantly photoionization by a central accretion source to shock ionization within the disk. If this source is at all representative, it suggests that many LINERs may be composite in terms of the energetic processes that give rise to the emission spectrum. We also report measurements of resonance-line absorption for the nucleus. The absorption spectrum, like the emission lines, is characterized by low ionization. The absorption-line measurements coupled with independent constraints suggest a total hydrogen column density of 1019-1020 cm-2, outflowing from the galaxy center with a velocity of ~126 km s-1. The kinematic signature of an outflow, along with evidence that the absorber covers the power-law continuum source but not the emission-line clouds, suggests that the absorbing matter is related to accretion phenomena in the nucleus. The presence of such an outflow resembles similar behavior in luminous active galactic nuclei, although the low ionization that characterizes LINERs is probably indicative of a different mode of accretion in these sources. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  6. Containment liner plate anchors and steel embedments test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Lo, P.L.; Johnson, T.E.; Pfeifer, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper summarizes test data on shear load and deformation capabilities for liner plate line anchors and structural steel embedments in reinforced and prestressed concrete nuclear containments. Reinforced and prestressed nuclear containments designed and constructed in the United States are lined with a minimum of 0.64 cm steel plate. The liner plates are anchored by the use of either studs or structural members (line anchors) which usually run in the vertical direction. This paper will only address line anchors. Static load versus displacement test data is necessary to assure that the design is adequate for the maximum loads. The test program for the liner anchors had the following major objectives: determine load versus displacement data for a variety of anchors considering structural tees and small beams with different weld configurations, from the preceding tests, determine which anchors would lead to an economical and extremely safe design and test these anchors for cyclic loads resulting from thermal fluctuations. Various concrete embeds in the containment and other structures are subjected to loads such as pipe rupture which results in shear. Since many of the loads are transient by nature, it is necessary to know the load-displacement relationship so that the energy absorption can be determined. The test program for the embeds had the following objectives: determine load-displacement relationship for various size anchors from 6.5 cm 2 to 26 cm 2 with maximum capacities of approximately 650 kN; determine the effect of various anchor width-to-thickness ratios for the same shear area

  7. Development testing of grouting and liner technology for humid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, N.D.

    1981-01-01

    Shallow land burial, although practiced for many years, has not always secured radionuclides from the biosphere in humid environments. To develop and demonstrate improved burial technology the Engineered Test Facility was implemented. An integral part of this experiment was site characterization, with geologic and hydrologic factors as major the components. Improved techniques for burial of low-level waste were developed and tested in the laboratory before being applied in the field. The two techniques studied were membrane trench liner and grouting void spaces

  8. Key enabling design features of the ITER HNB Duct Liner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuilon, Ben, E-mail: ben.chuilon@ccfe.ac.uk; Mistry, Sanjay; Andrews, Rodney; Verhoeven, Roel; Xue, Yongkuan

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Key engineering design details of the ITER HND Duct Liner are presented. • A standardised CuCrZr water cooled panel that can be remotely handled is detailed. • Bolts are protected from beam power by means of a tungsten cap to radiate heat away. • Water connections placed coaxially are protected from beam power by a tungsten ring. • Explosion-bonded CuCrZr-316L panels result in a tenfold disruption torque reduction. - Abstract: The Duct Liner (DL) for the ITER Heating Neutral Beam (HNB) is a key component in the beam transport system. Duct Liners installed into equatorial ports 4 and 5 of the Vacuum Vessel (VV) will protect the port extension from power deposition due to re-ionisation and direct interception of the HNB. Furthermore, the DL contributes towards the shielding of the VV and superconducting coils from plasma photons and neutrons. The DL incorporates a 316L(N)-IG, deep-drilled and water cooled Neutron Shield (NS) whose internal walls are lined with actively cooled CuCrZr Duct Liner Modules (DLMs). These Remote Handling Class 2 and 3 panels provide protection from neutral beam power. This paper provides an overview of the preliminary design for the ITER HNB DL and focusses on critical features that ensure compatibility with: high heat flux requirements, remote maintenance procedures, and transient magnetic fields arising from major plasma disruptions. The power deposited on a single DLM can reach 300 kW with a peak power density of 2.4 MW/m{sup 2}. Feeding coolant to the DLMs is accomplished via welded connections to the internal coolant network of the NS. These are placed coaxially to allow for thermal expansion of the DLMs without the use of deformable connections. Critically, the remote maintenance of individual DLMs necessitates access to water connections and bolts from the beam facing surface, thus subjecting them to high heat flux loads. This design challenge will become more prevalent as fusion devices become more powerful

  9. Heat transfers through diesel-engine cylinder liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R T; Jambunathan, K; Probert, S D

    1983-01-01

    A computer package has been developed, using a finite-element technique, to predict the steady-state rate of heat transfer radially through the cylinder liner, or other axisymmetric components, of a medium-speed diesel engine. Comparisons between experimentally measured and computer predicted results have been made: better corroboration occurs for engine loads above 1034 k N m/sup -2/ BMEP. The predictive computer package DIESHT needs only a simple 'user input' and produces a complete graphical output of generated mesh and computed isotherms. Computational storage requirements are modest so that the program can be used with a CAD system, if required, in order to facilitate an interactive design procedure.

  10. Liner Shipping Hub Network Design in a Competitive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    A new mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for hub-and-spoke network design in a competitive environment. It addresses competition between a newcomer liner service provider and an alliance, both operating on hub-and-spoke networks. The newcomer company maximizes its market share...... — proportional to service time and transportation cost —by locating a predefined number of hubs at candidate ports and designing its network. While general-purpose solvers do not solve instances of even small size, an accelerated lagrangian method coupled with a primal heuristic obtains very good bounds. Our...

  11. Simultaneous Fleet Deployment and Network Design of Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a liner service providers for deep-sea shipping. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub...... location problem which are known for their tightness. The demand is considered to be elastic in the sense that the service provider can accept any fraction of the origin-destination demand. We then propose a primal decomposition method to solve instances of the problem to optimality. Numerical results...... confirm superiority of our approach in comparison with a general-purpose mixed integer programming solver....

  12. The systems containing clays and clay minerals from modified drug release: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luís Alberto de Sousa; Figueiras, Ana; Veiga, Francisco; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes; Nunes, Lívio César Cunha; da Silva Filho, Edson Cavalcanti; da Silva Leite, Cleide Maria

    2013-03-01

    Clays are materials commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry, either as ingredients or as active ingredients. It was observed that when they are administered concurrently, they may interact with drugs reducing their absorption. Therefore, such interactions can be used to achieve technological and biopharmaceutical advantages, regarding the control of release. This review summarizes bibliographic (articles) and technological (patents) information on the use of systems containing clays and clay minerals in modified drug delivery. In this area, formulations such natural clay, commercial clay, synthetic clay, composites clay-polymers, nanocomposites clay-polymers, films and hidrogels composites clay-polymers are used to slow/extend or vectorize the release of drugs and consequently they increase their bioavailability. Finally, this review summarizes the fields of technology and biopharmaceutical applications, where clays are applied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Technetium migration in natural clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luebke, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The present work was performed within the joint research project ''Retention of repository relevant radionuclides in argillaceous rocks and saline systems'' (contract no.: 02E10981), funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi). The aim was to obtain first insights into the interaction of the long-lived fission product technetium and natural clay with regard to a repository for high-level nuclear waste. For this purpose Opalinus Clay from Mont Terri (northern Switzerland) was used as a reference material. The nuclide technetium-99 will contribute to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel for more than thousand years due to its long half-live. In case of a leakage of the storage vessels, the geochemistry of technetium is determined by its oxidation state, at which only the oxidation states +IV and +VII are relevant. Because of the high solubility and low affinity to sorption on surfaces of minerals, Tc(VII) is considered to be very mobile and thus the most hazardous species. The focuses of this study therefore are diffusion experiments with this mobile species and investigations of the effect of ferrous iron on the mobility and speciation of technetium.rnThe interaction of technetium and Opalinus Clay was studied in sorption and diffusion experiments varying several parameters (pH value, addition of reducing agents, effect of oxygen, diffusion pathways). In the course of this study spatially resolved investigations of the speciation have been performed on Opalinus Clay thin sections and bore cores for the first time. In addition to the speciation, further information regarding elemental distributions and crystalline phases near technetium enrichments were obtained. Supplementary investigations of powder samples allowed determining the molecular structure of technetium on the clay surface.rnBoth the combination of sorption experiments with spectroscopic investigations and the diffusion experiment exhibit a reduction of Tc

  14. Mineral acquisition from clay by budongo forest chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W.; English, Christopher J.; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke; Fallon, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay

  15. Preparation and characterization of bentonite organo clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagnolli, C.; Almeida Neto, A.F.; Silva, M.G.C.

    2009-01-01

    Bentonite clays organically modified have great potential use for environmental remediation, especially in the separation of organic compounds from the water. The aim of this work was the preparation of organophilic clays from 'Verde-Lodo' bentonite clay with the quaternary ammonium salts cetyl-pyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride. The materials obtained were characterized by XRD, thermogravimetric analyses, Helium picnometry, SEM and energy dispersive X-ray techniques. The results show consistently successful synthesis of the organoclay through the increase in the basal spacing, as well as salt elimination picks and presence of carbon and chlorine in the modified clays; they are inexistent elements in the natural clay. (author)

  16. Metallurgical examination of, and resin transfer from, Three Mile Island prefilter liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Jr, J W; Spaletta, H W

    1984-08-01

    Metallurgical examinations were performed on two EPICOR-II prefilter liners at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to determine conditions of the liners and identify the minimum expected lifetime of those and other liners stored at INEL. The research work was accomplished by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the EPICOR-II Research and Disposition Program, which is funded by the US Department of Energy. The EPICOR-II prefilter liners were used to filter radionuclides from contaminated water during cleanup of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The liners were constructed of carbon steel with a phenolic protective coating and contained organic and inorganic ion-exchange filtration media. Program plans call for interim storage of EPICOR-II prefilters at INEL for up to ten years, before final disposal in high integrity containers at the Hanford, Washington commercial disposal site. This report describes the (a) resin transfer process used to empty liners for examination, (b) removal of metallographic sections from those liners, (c) specimen preparation, and (d) findings from metallographic examination of those specimens. A minimum lifetime for the liners is determined and recommendations are given for storage of wastes from future TMI-2 activities.

  17. Optimization of Variable-Depth Liner Configurations for Increased Broadband Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.; Nark, D. M.; Schiller, N. H.; Born, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs three acoustic propagation codes to explore variable-depth liner configurations for the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube (GFIT). The initial study demonstrates that a variable impedance can acceptably be treated as a uniform impedance if the spatial extent over which this variable impedance occurs is less than one-third of a wavelength of the incident sound. A constrained optimization study is used to design a variable-depth liner and to select an optimization metric. It also provides insight regarding how much attenuation can be achieved with variable-depth liners. Another optimization study is used to design a liner with much finer chamber depth resolution for the Mach 0.0 and 0.3 test conditions. Two liners are designed based on spatial rearrangement of chambers from this liner to determine whether the order is critical. Propagation code predictions suggest this is not the case. Both liners are fabricated via additive manufacturing and tested in the GFIT for the Mach 0.0 condition. Predicted and measured attenuations compare favorably across the full frequency range. These results clearly suggest that the chambers can be arranged in any order, thus offering the potential for innovative liner designs to minimize depth and weight.

  18. [Comparative study of the antimicrobial effect of various cavity liners used in conservative dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumarola Suñé, J; Espias Gómez, A; Canalda Sahli, C

    1989-01-01

    We have compared the microbiological activity of the following cavity liners: Life, Dycal II, Calcipulpe, Pure calcium hydroxide and Cavitec; against five different bacterial strains: Veillonella parvula, Bacteroides fragilis, Peptococcus s.p., Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus beta hemolytic: The results demonstrate the higher antimicrobial activity of the manufactured cavity liners with calcium hydroxide base in comparison with the pure calcium hydroxide.

  19. Performance evaluation of a newly developed variable rate sprayer for nursery liner applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experimental variable-rate sprayer designed for liner applications was tested by comparing its spray deposit, coverage, and droplet density inside canopies of six nursery liner varieties with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including water sensitive papers (WSP) and nylon screens, wer...

  20. Effect of radiation losses on the compression of hydrogen by imploding solid liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussey, T.W.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Degnan, J.H.; Peterkin, R.E.; Smith, G.A.; Turchi, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Quasispherical solid liner implosions with little or no instability growth have been achieved experimentally. Applications for such implosions include the uniform, shock-free compression of some sort of on-axis target. One proposed means of obtaining such compression is to inject a 1 eV hydrogen plasma working fluid between the liner and the target, and imploding the liner around it. the high initial temperature assures that the sound speed within the liner is always greater than the inner surface implosion velocity of the liner, and the initial density is chosen so that the volume of the working fluid at peak compression is sufficiently large so that perfectly spherical convergence of the liner is not required. One concern with such an approach is that energy losses associated with ionization and radiation will degrade the effective gamma of the compression. To isolate and, therefore, understand these effects the authors have developed a simple zero-dimensional model for the liner implosion that accurately accounts for the shape and thickness of the liner as it implodes and compresses the working fluid. Based on simple considerations they make a crude estimate of the range of initial densities of interest for this technique. They then observe that within this density rage, for the temperatures of interest, the lines are strongly self-absorbed so that the transport of radiation is dominated by bound-free and free-free processes

  1. Metallurgical examination of, and resin transfer from, Three Mile Island prefilter liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Spaletta, H.W.

    1984-08-01

    Metallurgical examinations were performed on two EPICOR-II prefilter liners at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to determine conditions of the liners and identify the minimum expected lifetime of those and other liners stored at INEL. The research work was accomplished by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the EPICOR-II Research and Disposition Program, which is funded by the US Department of Energy. The EPICOR-II prefilter liners were used to filter radionuclides from contaminated water during cleanup of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The liners were constructed of carbon steel with a phenolic protective coating and contained organic and inorganic ion-exchange filtration media. Program plans call for interim storage of EPICOR-II prefilters at INEL for up to ten years, before final disposal in high integrity containers at the Hanford, Washington commercial disposal site. This report describes the (a) resin transfer process used to empty liners for examination, (b) removal of metallographic sections from those liners, (c) specimen preparation, and (d) findings from metallographic examination of those specimens. A minimum lifetime for the liners is determined and recommendations are given for storage of wastes from future TMI-2 activities

  2. Modeling of Broadband Liners Applied to the Advanced Noise Control Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with an increase in bypass ratio and incorporation of advanced fan designs. Therefore, while the attenuation of fan tones remains a major factor in engine nacelle acoustic liner design, the simultaneous reduction of broadband fan noise levels has received increased interest. As such, a previous investigation focused on improvements to an established broadband acoustic liner optimization process using the Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) rig as a demonstrator. Constant-depth, double-degree of freedom and variable-depth, multi-degree of freedom liner designs were carried through design, fabrication, and testing. This paper addresses a number of areas for further research identified in the initial assessment of the ANCF study. Specifically, incident source specification and uncertainty in some aspects of the predicted liner impedances are addressed. This information is incorporated in updated predictions of the liner performance and comparisons with measurement are greatly improved. Results illustrate the value of the design process in concurrently evaluating the relative costs/benefits of various liner designs. This study also provides further confidence in the integrated use of duct acoustic propagation/radiation and liner modeling tools in the design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  3. Single string planning problem arising in liner shipping industries: A heuristic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Neamatian Monemi, Rahimeh; Mahey, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We propose an efficient heuristic approach for solving instances of the Single String Planning Problem (SSPP) arising in the liner shipping industry. In the SSPP a Liner Service Provider (LSP) only revises one of its many operational strings, and it is assumed that the other strings are unchangea...

  4. Recyclability of mixed office waste papers containing pressure sensitive adhesives and silicone release liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie Hess; Roberta Sena-Gomes; Lisa Davie; Marguerite Sykes

    2001-01-01

    Increased use of pressure sensitive adhesives for labels and stamps has introduced another contaminant into the office paper stream: silicone- coated release liners. This study examines methods and conditions for removal of contaminants, including these liners, from a typical batch of discarded office papers. Removal of contaminants contained in the furnish were...

  5. Tendency of spherically imploding plasma liners formed by merging plasma jets to evolve toward spherical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassibry, J. T.; Stanic, M.; Hsu, S. C.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Abarzhi, S. I.

    2012-01-01

    We have performed three-dimensional (3D) simulations using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) in order to study the effects of discrete plasma jets on the processes of plasma liner formation, implosion on vacuum, and expansion. It was found that the pressure histories of the inner portion of the liner from 3D SPH simulations with a uniform liner and with 30 discrete plasma jets were qualitatively and quantitatively similar from peak compression through the complete stagnation of the liner. The 3D simulations with a uniform liner were first benchmarked against results from one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations [T. J. Awe et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 072705 (2011)]. Two-dimensional plots of the pressure field show that the discrete jet SPH case evolves towards a profile that is almost indistinguishable from the SPH case with a uniform liner, thus indicating that non-uniformities due to discrete jets are smeared out by late stages of the implosion. The processes of plasma liner formation and implosion on vacuum were shown to be robust against Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth. Finally, interparticle mixing for a liner imploding on vacuum was investigated. The mixing rate was found to be very small until after the peak compression for the 30 jet simulations.

  6. Calculation of anchor forces on penetration liners for the reactor vessel Schmehausen (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roennert, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Penetrations through the walls of the single cavity PCPV Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessel for the 300 MW(e) reactor are lined with steel penetration liners welded to the liner of the cavity. For gas-tightness of the system the penetrations are closed by covers. To secure their integration with the concrete, the liners are anchored to it by means of shear studs and/or angles. Being embedded in concrete, over the full width of the walls, the liners are exposed to lateral and longitudinal concrete deformations causing forces on the anchors. The axial blow-out force due to the pressure of the coolant on the closures must also be transferred through the anchors to the concrete. In the design of anchored penetration liners stress analyses are performed to determine anchor forces under different loading conditions and at several ages of the PCPV. The present paper deals with the mathematical estimation of the anchor forces on the basis of given concrete deformations, temperature of liners, and pressure in the vessel by the method of replacing the penetration liners and their anchors by a spring model with linear stiffness characteristics for both the liner and the anchors. An example of the computations on a digital computer is shown. (author)

  7. A three-scale model for ionic solute transport in swelling clays incorporating ion-ion correlation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tien Dung; Moyne, Christian; Murad, Marcio A.

    2015-01-01

    attractive forces between particles for bivalent ions for particular ranges of bulk concentrations. The three-scale model is applied to numerically simulate ion diffusion in a compacted clay liner underneath a sanitary landfill. Owing to the distinct constitutive behavior of the swelling pressure and partition coefficient for each ionic species, different compaction regimes and diffusion/adsorption patterns, with totally different characteristic time scales, are observed for sodium and calcium migration in the clay liner.

  8. An integer programming model and benchmark suite for liner shipping network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfstedt, Berit; Alvarez, Jose Fernando; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    effective and energy efficient liner shipping networks using operations research is huge and neglected. The implementation of logistic planning tools based upon operations research has enhanced performance of both airlines, railways and general transportation companies, but within the field of liner......Maritime transportation is accountable for 2.7% of the worlds CO2 emissions and the liner shipping industry is committed to a slow steaming policy to provide low cost and environmentally conscious global transport of goods without compromising the level of service. The potential for making cost...... along with a rich integer programming model based on the services, that constitute the fixed schedule of a liner shipping company. The model may be relaxed as well as decomposed. The design of a benchmark suite of data instances to reflect the business structure of a global liner shipping network...

  9. A realistic structural analysis of the integrity of the liner of reinforced and prestressed concrete containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchhardt, F.; Brandl, P.

    1979-01-01

    The BWR Gundremmingen II is the first German nuclear power plant with a concrete containment having a thin steel plate liner directly attached to the interior concrete surface to provide an air-tight seal. Due to this monolithic way of anchorage a bonded system of concrete and metal liner membrane is obtained so that the same deformations of the loading or strain conditions are induced to the very stiff concrete hull as well as to the liner. Because of the complex structural behaviour of the bonded system the evaluation is carried out by the finite element method. The overall system is decoupled in several steps. Due to its considerable stiffness the concrete structure can be regarded as the liner supporting basis. The liner system itself might be subdivided into perfect and imperfect sections discretized by plain or curved elements which are supported by point-wise spring elements representing the stud anchors. (orig.)

  10. Field performance assessment of synthetic liners for uranium tailings ponds: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.H.; Spanner, G.E.

    1984-03-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a database to support US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing of uranium tailings leachate isolation impoundments. This objective is being accomplished by determining the effectiveness of design, installation, and quality assurance practices associated with uranium mill tailings impoundments with flexible membrane liners. The program includes testing of chemical resistance and physical performance of liners, leak detection systems, and seam inspection techniques. This report presents the status of the program through September 1983. The report addresses impoundment design, installation, and inspection techniques used by the uranium milling industry. To determine the relative successes of these techniques, information has been collected from consultants, mill operators, and the synthetic liner industry. Progress in experimental tasks on chemical resistance of liners, physical properties of liners, and nondestructive examination of seams is reported. 25 references, 9 figures, 13 tables

  11. Stagnation morphology in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, M. R.; Harding, E. C.; Ampleford, D. J.; Jennings, C. A.; Awe, T. J.; Chandler, G. A.; Glinsky, M. E.; Hahn, K. D.; Hansen, S. B.; Jones, B.; Knapp, P. F.; Martin, M. R.; Peterson, K. J.; Rochau, G. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Schmit, P. F.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Weis, M. R.; Yu, E. P.

    2017-10-01

    In Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments on the Z facility, an axial current of 15-20 MA is driven through a thick metal cylinder containing axially-magnetized, laser-heated deuterium fuel. The cylinder implodes, further heating the fuel and amplifying the axial B-field. Instabilities, such as magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor, develop on the exterior of the liner and may feed through to the inner surface during the implosion. Monochromatic x-ray emission at stagnation shows the stagnation column is quasi-helical with axial variations in intensity. Recent experiments demonstrated that the stagnation emission structure changed with modifications to the target wall thickness. Additionally, applying a thick dielectric coating to the exterior of the target modified the stagnation column. A new version of the x-ray self-emission diagnostic has been developed to investigate stagnation with higher resolution. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  12. Wheel liner design for improved sound and structural performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Alexandru; Diaconescu, Claudiu; Tabacu, Ştefan

    2017-10-01

    Vehicle noise is composed mainly of wheel-road noise and noise from the power unit. At low speeds power unit noise dominates while at high speeds wheel-road noise dominates as wheel-road noise level increases approximately logarithmically with speed. The wheel liner is designed as a component of the vehicle that has a multiple role. It has to prevent the dirt or water from the road surface that are engaged by the wheel to access the engine/front bay. Same time it has the important role to reduce perceived noised in the passenger’s compartment that comes from the wheel-road interaction. Progress in plastic injection moulding technology allowed for new structures to be developed - nonwoven materials in combination with a PP based carrier structure which benefits from a cell structure caused by MuCell injection moulding. The results are light parts with increased sound absorption performances. An adapted combination of materials and production processes can provide the solution for stiff yet soundproofing structures valued for modern vehicles. Sound absorption characteristics of materials used for wheel liners applications were reported in this study. Different polypropylene and polyester fibre-based thermally bonded nonwovens varying in weight and thickness were investigated. Having as a background the performances of the nonwoven material the microcellular structure was part of the analysis. Acoustical absorptive behaviour was explained by analysing the results obtained using the impedance tube and correlating with the knowledge of materials structure.

  13. Tank 241-AY-102 Secondary Liner Corrosion Evaluation - 14191

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    In October 2012, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) determined that the primary tank of 241-AY-102 (AY-102) was leaking. A number of evaluations were performed after discovery of the leak which identified corrosion from storage of waste at the high waste temperatures as one of the major contributing factors in the failure of the tank. The propensity for corrosion of the waste on the annulus floor will be investigated to determine if it is corrosive and must be promptly removed or if it is benign and may remain in the annulus. The chemical composition of waste, the temperature and the character of the steel are important factors in assessing the propensity for corrosion. Unfortunately, the temperatures of the wastes in contact with the secondary steel liner are not known; they are estimated to range from 45 deg C to 60 deg C. It is also notable that most corrosion tests have been carried out with un-welded, stress-relieved steels, but the secondary liner in tank AY-102 was not stress-relieved. In addition, the cold weather fabrication and welding led to many problems, which required repeated softening of the metal to flatten secondary bottom during its construction. This flame treatment may have altered the microstructure of the steel

  14. Liner of a thermonuclear pulse THETA-pinch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, G.A.; Izotov, E.N.; Karasev, B.G.; Komin, A.V.; Krivosheev, M.V.; Levashov, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    Some possible constructive solutions to the problem of fabrication of the theta-pinch reactor liner by the method of centrifugal casting in a casting mould are considered. A scheme for liner manufacturing is presented, which includes the following elements: 1) a casting mould of dielectric material presenting a hollow cylinder of 4 m in diam., 3 m in length and 12 t in weight, which rotates at 8 rps in the reactor chamber; 2) a system for heat protection of the casting mould; the volume heat of the mould is suggested to remove by gaseous helium flowing under pressure along axial cooling channels of 5 mm in diam.; the channels are evenly distributed throughout the thickness of the mould shell; 3) a system for preparation and supply of a liquid metal to the casting mould, the metal is being supplied into the casting mould from its both ends at a rate of 1.7 t of the melt per second; 4) a system for rotation of the mould, which comprises two gas turbines mounted on both ends of the mould and two main stop-radial slip supports with gas lubrication

  15. Liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    The Liner Evaluation for Uranium Mill Tailings Program was conducted to evaluate the need for and performance of prospective lining materials for the long-term management of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. On the basis of program results, two materials have been identified: natural foundation soil amended with 10% sodium bentonite; catalytic airblown asphalt membrane. The study showed that, for most situations, calcareous soils typical of Western US sites adequately buffer tailings leachates and prevent groundwater contamination without additional liner materials or amendments. Although mathematical modeling of disposal sites is recommended on a site-specific basis, there appears to be no reason to expect significant infiltration through the cover for most Western sites. The major water source through the tailings would be groundwater movement at sites with shallow groundwater tables. Even so column leaching studies showed that contaminant source terms were reduced to near maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water within one or two pore volumes; thus, a limited source term for groundwater contamination exists. At sites where significant groundwater movement or infiltration is expected and the tailings leachates are alkaline, however, the sodium bentonite or asphalt membrane may be necessary

  16. FHILs in Seyferts and Liners in the optical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, R. J. C.; Rodriguez, A. M.; Portilla, J. G.

    2014-10-01

    We present the main results from a selection of optical spectra of Seyfert and LINER galaxies taken from the 9^{th} release of the SDSS with detectable emission of forbidden high ionization lines (FHILs), better known as coronal lines. A catalog of 345 Seyfert 1 (Sy1) and Seyfert 2 (Sy2) galaxies with FHILs emission is presented. By analyzing their spectra and utilizing data from the literature we found the following results: (1) The flux ratios between FHILs suggests anisotropy of emission between Sy1 and Sy2 galaxies, which agrees with the results found by Nagao et al. (2002) and Portilla (2012). Sy1 seems to emit more FHILs than Sy2. (2) This anisotropy suggests the idea that an important, but not the majority, of the emission of FHILs comes from the inner part of the obscuring torus. (3) We present diagnostic diagrams between FHILs lines which indicate clear correlations between the flux ratios. (4) It is observed that the ratio of Ne V/Fe VII is of the order of 3 to 10, while the ratios between iron lines (i.e., Fe VII, Fe X, Fe XI) are roughly around the unity. (5) At least in the optical spectra, the present study continues to support the general idea that LINERs are not energetic enough to present FHILs. A complete version of this study including the catalog with the objects of study, and diagnosis diagrams using only this kind of lines can be found in Vera & Portilla (in prep).

  17. Thermomechanical behaviour of boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, N.; Delage, P.; Cui, Y.J.

    2000-01-01

    Special attention has been recently paid on temperature effects on the behaviour of deep saturated clays, in relation with nuclear deep waste storage. However, few experimental data are presently available, and existing constitutive models need to be completed. This note is aimed at completing, both experimentally and theoretically, the understanding of the effects of the over-consolidation ration on the thermal volume changes of Boom clay (Belgium). The experimental data obtained here are in a good agreement with existing data. As a complement to existing data, they are used to develop a new elastoplastic model. The adoption of a second coupled plastic mechanism provides good simulations on a complex thermo-mechanical path. (authors)

  18. Hyperspectral analysis of clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaki Rama Suresh, G.; Sreenivas, K.; Sivasamy, R.

    2014-11-01

    A study was carried out by collecting soil samples from parts of Gwalior and Shivpuri district, Madhya Pradesh in order to assess the dominant clay mineral of these soils using hyperspectral data, as 0.4 to 2.5 μm spectral range provides abundant and unique information about many important earth-surface minerals. Understanding the spectral response along with the soil chemical properties can provide important clues for retrieval of mineralogical soil properties. The soil samples were collected based on stratified random sampling approach and dominant clay minerals were identified through XRD analysis. The absorption feature parameters like depth, width, area and asymmetry of the absorption peaks were derived from spectral profile of soil samples through DISPEC tool. The derived absorption feature parameters were used as inputs for modelling the dominant soil clay mineral present in the unknown samples using Random forest approach which resulted in kappa accuracy of 0.795. Besides, an attempt was made to classify the Hyperion data using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm with an overall accuracy of 68.43 %. Results showed that kaolinite was the dominant mineral present in the soils followed by montmorillonite in the study area.

  19. Survivorship of Total Hip Joint Replacements Following Isolated Liner Exchange for Wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadei, Leone; Kieser, David C; Frampton, Chris; Hooper, Gary

    2017-11-01

    Liner exchange for articular component wear in total hip joint replacements (THJRs) is a common procedure, often thought to be benign with reliable outcomes. Recent studies, however, suggest high failure rates of liner exchange revisions with significant complications. The primary aim of this study was, therefore, to analyze the survivorship of isolated liner exchange for articular component wear, and secondarily to assess the influence of patient demographics (gender, age, and American Society of Anaesthesiologists [ASA] ratings) on rerevisions following isolated liner exchange for wear. A retrospective review of the 15-year New Zealand Joint Registry (1999-2014) was performed, analyzing the outcomes of isolated liner exchange for articular component wear. The survivorship as defined as rerevision with component exchange was determined and 10-year Kaplan-Meier survivorship curves were constructed. These revision rates were compared to age, gender, and ASA rating groups using a log-rank test. The 10-year survivorship of THJR following liner exchange revision for liner wear was 75.3%. If a rerevision was required, the median time to rerevision was 1.33 years with a rerevision rate of 3.33 per 100 component years (95% confidence interval 2.68-4.08/100 component years). The principle reasons for rerevision were dislocation (48.4%) and acetabular component loosening (20.9%). There was no statistically significant difference in rerevision rates based on gender, age categories, or ASA scores. THJR isolated liner exchange for liner wear is not a benign procedure with a survivorship of 75.3% at 10 years. Surgeons contemplating liner exchange revisions should be cognisant of this risk and should adequately assess component position and stability preoperatively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Formation of imploding plasma liners for fundamental HEDP studies and MIF Standoff Driver Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassibry, Jason [Univ. of AL in Huntsville; Hatcher, Richard [Univ. of AL in Huntsville; Stanic, Milos [Univ. of AL in Huntsville

    2013-08-17

    The disciplines of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are characterized by hypervelocity implosions and strong shocks. The Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is focused on reaching HEDP and/or ICF relevant regimes in excess of 1 Mbar peak pressure by the merging and implosion of discrete plasma jets, as a potentially efficient path towards these extreme conditions in a laboratory. In this work we have presented the first 3D simulations of plasma liner, formation, and implosion by the merging of discrete plasma jets in which ionization, thermal conduction, and radiation are all included in the physics model. The study was conducted by utilizing a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHC) and was a part of the plasma liner experiment (PLX). The salient physics processes of liner formation and implosion are studied, namely vacuum propagation of plasma jets, merging of the jets (liner forming), implosion (liner collapsing), stagnation (peak pressure), and expansion (rarefaction wave disassembling the target). Radiative transport was found to significantly reduce the temperature of the liner during implosion, thus reducing the thermal leaving more pronounced gradients in the plasma liner during the implosion compared with ideal hydrodynamic simulations. These pronounced gradients lead to a greater sensitivity of initial jet geometry and symmetry on peak pressures obtained. Accounting for ionization and transport, many cases gave higher peak pressures than the ideal hydrodynamic simulations. Scaling laws were developed accordingly, creating a non-dimensional parameter space in which performance of an imploding plasma jet liner can be estimated. It is shown that HEDP regimes could be reached with ~ 5 MJ of liner energy, which would translate to roughly 10 to 20 MJ of stored (capacitor) energy. This is a potentially significant improvement over the currently available means via ICF of achieving HEDP and nuclear fusion relevant parameters.

  1. Analysis of Dual Mobility Liner Rim Damage Using Retrieved Components and Cadaver Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebergall, Audrey K; Freiberg, Andrew A; Greene, Meridith E; Malchau, Henrik; Muratoglu, Orhun; Rowell, Shannon; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Varadarajan, Kartik M

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the retentive rim of retrieved dual mobility liners for visible evidence of deformation from femoral neck contact and to use cadaver models to determine if anterior soft tissue impingement could contribute to such deformation. Fifteen surgically retrieved polyethylene liners were assessed for evidence of rim deformation. The average time in vivo was 31.4 months, and all patients were revised for reasons other than intraprosthetic dislocation. Liner interaction with the iliopsoas was studied visually and with fluoroscopy in cadaver specimens using a dual mobility system different than the retrieval study. For fluoroscopic visualization, a metal wire was sutured to the iliopsoas and wires were also embedded into grooves on the outer surface of the liner and the inner head. All retrievals showed evidence of femoral neck contact. The cadaver experiments showed that liner motion was impeded by impingement with the iliopsoas tendon in low flexion angles. When observing the hip during maximum hyperextension, 0°, 15°, and 30° of flexion, there was noticeable tenting of the iliopsoas caused by impingement with the liner. Liner rim deformation resulting from contact with the femoral neck likely begins during early in vivo function. The presence of deformation is indicative of a mechanism inhibiting mobility of the liner. The cadaver studies showed that liner motion could be impeded because of its impingement with the iliopsoas. Such soft tissue impingement may be one mechanism by which liner motion is routinely inhibited, which can result in load transfer from the neck to the rim. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of tunneling on groundwater flow and swelling of clay-sulfate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butscher, Christoph; Einstein, Herbert H.; Huggenberger, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Swelling of clay-sulfate rocks is a major threat in tunneling. It is triggered by the transformation of the sulfate mineral anhydrite into gypsum as a result of water inflow in anhydrite-containing layers after tunnel excavation. The present study investigates the hydraulic effects of tunneling on groundwater flow and analyzes how hydraulic changes caused by excavation lead to water inflow into anhydrite-containing layers in the tunnel area. Numerical groundwater models are used to conduct scenario simulations that allow one to relate hydrogeological conditions to rock swelling. The influence of the topographic setting, the excavation-damaged zone around the tunnel, the sealing effect of the tunnel liner, and the geological configuration are analyzed separately. The analysis is performed for synthetic situations and is complemented by a case study from a tunnel in Switzerland. The results illustrate the importance of geological and hydraulic information when assessing the risk of swelling at an actual site.

  3. Improved isolation of cadmium from paddy soil by novel technology based on pore water drainage with graphite-contained electro-kinetic geosynthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianqiang; Li, Qingyun; Wang, Zhenhua; Hu, Yanping; Hu, Yuan; Scholz, Miklas

    2018-03-10

    Novel soil remediation equipment based on electro-kinetic geosynthetics (EKG) was developed for in situ isolation of metals from paddy soil. Two mutually independent field plot experiments A and B (with and without electric current applied) were conducted. After saturation using ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ) and calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), soil water drainage capacity, soil cadmium (Cd) removal performance, energy consumption as well as soil residual of iron (Fe) and chloride (Cl) were assessed. Cadmium dissolved in the soil matrix and resulted in a 100% increase of diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extracted phyto-available Cd. The total soil Cd content reductions were 15.20% and 26.58% for groups A and B, respectively, and electric field applications resulted in a 74.87% increase of soil total Cd removal. The electric energy consumption was only 2.17 kWh/m 3 for group B. Drainage by gravity contributed to > 90% of the overall soil dewatering capacity. Compared to conventional electro-kinetic technology, excellent and fast soil water drainage resulted in negligible hydrogen ion (H + ) and hydroxide ion (OH - ) accumulation at nearby electrode zones, which addressed the challenge of anode corrosion and cathode precipitation of soil metals. External addition of FeCl 3 and CaCl 2 caused soil Fe and Cl residuals and led to 4.33-7.59% and 139-172% acceptable augments in soil total Fe and Cl content, correspondingly, if compared to original untreated soils. Therefore, the novel soil remediation equipment developed based on EKG can be regarded as a promising new in situ technology for thoroughly isolating metals from large-scale paddy soil fields.

  4. The basic design of the Krupp heat-insulating system with hot liner for PCPVs of HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spandick, W.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is the design of a heat-insulating system incorporating a so called ''hot'' liner for use with high temperature reactors. The liner is in direct contact with the coolant, has a thickness of between 10 and 15 mm and is arc welded to anchors embedded in the concrete. Thermal cyclic tests were performed and incipient cracks were detected after about 5000 cycles; the liner is to be designed for between 800 and 1400 cycles. The liner design allows for internal inspection and, if necessary, repair at all times. Tests have shown the advantages of the design provided liner temperatures do not rise above 300 0 C

  5. One-dimensional MHD simulations of MTF systems with compact toroid targets and spherical liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalzov, Ivan; Zindler, Ryan; Barsky, Sandra; Delage, Michael; Laberge, Michel

    2017-10-01

    One-dimensional (1D) MHD code is developed in General Fusion (GF) for coupled plasma-liner simulations in magnetized target fusion (MTF) systems. The main goal of these simulations is to search for optimal parameters of MTF reactor, in which spherical liquid metal liner compresses compact toroid plasma. The code uses Lagrangian description for both liner and plasma. The liner is represented as a set of spherical shells with fixed masses while plasma is discretized as a set of nested tori with circular cross sections and fixed number of particles between them. All physical fields are 1D functions of either spherical (liner) or small toroidal (plasma) radius. Motion of liner and plasma shells is calculated self-consistently based on applied forces and equations of state. Magnetic field is determined by 1D profiles of poloidal and toroidal fluxes - they are advected with shells and diffuse according to local resistivity, this also accounts for flux leakage into the liner. Different plasma transport models are implemented, this allows for comparison with ongoing GF experiments. Fusion power calculation is included into the code. We performed a series of parameter scans in order to establish the underlying dependencies of the MTF system and find the optimal reactor design point.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Acoustic Engine Liner Models Developed with COMSOL Multiphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Jones, Michael G.; Bertolucci, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    Accurate modeling tools are needed to design new engine liners capable of reducing aircraft noise. The purpose of this study is to determine if a commercially-available finite element package, COMSOL Multiphysics, can be used to accurately model a range of different acoustic engine liner designs, and in the process, collect and document a benchmark dataset that can be used in both current and future code evaluation activities. To achieve these goals, a variety of liner samples, ranging from conventional perforate-over-honeycomb to extended-reaction designs, were installed in one wall of the grazing flow impedance tube at the NASA Langley Research Center. The liners were exposed to high sound pressure levels and grazing flow, and the effect of the liner on the sound field in the flow duct was measured. These measurements were then compared with predictions. While this report only includes comparisons for a subset of the configurations, the full database of all measurements and predictions is available in electronic format upon request. The results demonstrate that both conventional perforate-over-honeycomb and extended-reaction liners can be accurately modeled using COMSOL. Therefore, this modeling tool can be used with confidence to supplement the current suite of acoustic propagation codes, and ultimately develop new acoustic engine liners designed to reduce aircraft noise.

  7. Construction and performance of a long-term earthen liner experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Keros; Krapac, Ivan G.; Bonaparte, Rudolph

    1990-01-01

    In land burial schemes, compacted soil barriers with low hydraulic conductivity are commonly used in cover and liner systems to control the movement of liquids and prevent groundwater contamination. An experimental liner measuring 8 x 15 x 0.9 m was constructed with design criteria and equipment to simulate construction of soil liners built at waste disposal facilities. The surface of the liner was flooded with a 29.5 cm deep pond on April 12, 1988. Infiltration of water into the liner has been monitored for two years using 4 large-ring (1.5 m OD) and 32 small-ring (0.28 m OD) infiltrometers, and a water-balance that accounts for total infiltration and evaporation. Average long-term infiltration fluxes based on two years of monitoring are 5.8 x 10-9 cm/s, 6.0 x 10-8 cm/s and 5.6 x 10-8 for the large-ring, small-ring, and water-balance data, respectively. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the liner based on small-ring data, estimated using Darcy's Law and the Green-Ampt Approximation, is 3 x 10-8 and 4 x 10-8 cm/s, respectively. All sets of data indicate that the liner's performance exceed that which is required by the U.S. EPA.

  8. A Finite Element Theory for Predicting the Attenuation of Extended-Reacting Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, W. R.; Jones, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    A non-modal finite element theory for predicting the attenuation of an extended-reacting liner containing a porous facesheet and located in a no-flow duct is presented. The mathematical approach is to solve separate wave equations in the liner and duct airway and to couple these two solutions by invoking kinematic constraints at the facesheet that are consistent with a continuum theory of fluid motion. Given the liner intrinsic properties, a weak Galerkin finite element formulation with cubic polynomial basis functions is used as the basis for generating a discrete system of acoustic equations that are solved to obtain the coupled acoustic field. A state-of-the-art, asymmetric, parallel, sparse equation solver is implemented that allows tens of thousands of grid points to be analyzed. A grid refinement study is presented to show that the predicted attenuation converges. Excellent comparison of the numerically predicted attenuation to that of a mode theory (using a Haynes 25 metal foam liner) is used to validate the computational approach. Simulations are also presented for fifteen porous plate, extended-reacting liners. The construction of some of the porous plate liners suggest that they should behave as resonant liners while the construction of others suggest that they should behave as broadband attenuators. In each case the finite element theory is observed to predict the proper attenuation trend.

  9. Optimization of deformations and hoop stresses in TSV liners to boost interconnect reliability in electronic appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Mary Atieno; Zhang, Xuliang; He, Song Bai; Abusabah, Ahmed I. A.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, there has been a lot of research with electronic products because more and different functions are integrated into devices and the final product sizes have to be small to meet the market demand. A lot of research has been done on the (TSVs) Through Silicon Vias. In this paper, through silicon via liners are investigated. The liners: silicon dioxide, polystyrene and polypropylene carbonate are exposed to pressure on their inner surfaces and this yielded hoop stresses within their thickness. Deflections too occurred and this is a proof that deformation really took place. In one of our papers, hoop stresses for the same materials were investigated. The values were a little higher but different for each material used. In this paper, we use global cylindrical, partial cylinder model with different theta in Analysis system 14 to model the through silicon via liners. The values are lower meaning the reliability of the liners have been optimized and boosted. However, silicon dioxide liner had the lowest hoop stress around its circumference and lowest deflection value meaning that it's still one of the most reliable materials in the manufacture of through silicon via liners in the industry; but overdependence can be avoided if the other liners are used too.

  10. Skin-Inspired Hydrogel-Elastomer Composite with Application in a Moisture Permeable Prosthetic Limb Liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Esteban

    Recent advances in fields such as 3D printing, and biomaterials, have enabled the development of a moisture permeable prosthetic liner. This project demonstrates the feasibility of the invention by addressing the three primary areas of risk including the mechanical strength, the permeability, and the ability to manufacture. The key enabling technology which allows the liner to operate is the skin inspired hydrogel elastomer composite. The skin inspiration is reflected in the molecular arrangement of the double network of polymers which mimics collagen-elastin toughening in the natural epidermis. A custom formulation for a novel tough double network nanocomposite reinforced hydrogel was developed to improve manufacturability of the liner. The liner features this double network nanocomposite reinforced hydrogel as a permeable membrane which is reinforced on either side by perforated silicone layers manufactured by 3d printing assisted casting. Uniaxial compression tests were conducted on the individual hydrogels, as well as a representative sample of off the shelf prosthetic liners for comparison. Permeability testing was also done on the same set of materials and compared to literature values for traditional hydrogels. This work led to the manufacture of three generations of liner prototypes, with the second and third liner prototype being tested with human participants.

  11. A competing risk model for the reliability of cylinder liners in marine Diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocchetti, D. [Grimaldi Group, Naples (Italy); Giorgio, M. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Second University of Naples, Aversa (Italy); Guida, M. [Department of Information Engineering and Electrical Engineering, University of Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); Pulcini, G. [Istituto Motori, National Research Council-CNR, Naples (Italy)], E-mail: g.pulcini@im.cnr.it

    2009-08-15

    In this paper, a competing risk model is proposed to describe the reliability of the cylinder liners of a marine Diesel engine. Cylinder liners presents two dominant failure modes: wear degradation and thermal cracking. The wear process is described through a stochastic process, whereas the failure time due to the thermal cracking is described by the Weibull distribution. The use of the proposed model allows performing goodness-of-fit test and parameters estimation on the basis of both wear and failure data. Moreover, it enables reliability estimates of the state of the liners to be obtained and the hierarchy of the failure mechanisms to be determined for any given age and wear level of the liner. The model has been applied to a real data set: 33 cylinder liners of Sulzer RTA 58 engines, which equip twin ships of the Grimaldi Group. Estimates of the liner reliability and of other quantities of interest under the competing risk model are obtained, as well as the conditional failure probability and mean residual lifetime, given the survival age and the accumulated wear. Furthermore, the model has been used to estimate the probability that a liner fails due to one of the failure modes when both of these modes act.

  12. Reuse of dredged marine soils as landfill liner: Effect of pH on Escherichia coli growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, N. M.; Chan, C. M.

    2017-11-01

    A potential reuse area yet to be explored is the utilization of dredged marine soils (DMS) as geosorbent to retain pathogenic bacteria in landfill leachate. The use of DMS as geosorbent in landfill site could be considered as a new way of environmental friendly solid waste management. By laying DMS at the base of landfill like conventional clay liners, the geowaste could be simultaneously disposed of and act as passive geosorbent for microbes in leachate. DMS are known to serve as a hospitable environment for bacteria growth. Environmental factors such as soil’s pH, salinity and particle size could affect the bacteria growth rate. This study investigated the effect range of pH value on the growth of indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from landfill leachate. The results showed that the number of E. coli grew higher in alkaline compared to acidic condition. Findings from this study will serve as a base for future studies for removing bacteria in leachate using DMS as geosorbent in a landfill site.

  13. From clay bricks to deep underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    This booklet issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at the use of clay strata for the storage of radioactive wastes in deep-lying repositories. First of all, a geological foray is made concerning the history of the use of clay and its multifarious uses. The characteristics of clay and its composition are examined and its formation in the geological past is explained. In particular Opalinus clay is looked at and the structures to be found are discussed. The clay's various properties and industrial uses are examined and its sealing properties are examined. Also, Bentonite clay is mentioned and work done by Nagra and co-researchers is noted

  14. Organophilization and characterization of commercial bentonite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, B.B. da; Lima, J.C.C.; Alves, A.M.; Araujo, E.M.; Melo, T.J.A. de

    2012-01-01

    Bentonite clay is a plastic changes resulting from volcanic ash, consisting mostly of montmorillonite. The state of Paraiba is a major source of bentonite clay from Brazil, where the main oil fields are located in Boa Vista and represents the largest national production of raw and beneficiated bentonite. Aimed at the commercial value of this type of clay and its high applicability in the polls, this article aims to make a comparison between two kinds of clay, a national (Brasgel) and other imported (Cloisite) from organophilization of two commercial bentonite, ionic surfactant with Praepagem WB, and characterize them by XRD, FTIR and TG / DTG. We observe that despite getting inferior properties, the clay presents national values very similar to those presented by imported clay. (author)

  15. Polyethylene liners in radioactive mixed waste packages: An engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, G.A.

    1991-05-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office under contract AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document is 1 in a series of 25 reports or actions identified in a Solid Waste Management Event Fact Sheet and critique report (Appendix E) to address the problem of stored, leaking 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin waste drums. It specifically addresses the adequacy of polyethylene liners used as internal packaging of radioactive mixed waste. This document is to be used by solid waste generators preparing solid waste for storage at Hanford Site facilities. This document is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved with approval and acceptance of radioactive solid waste

  16. Aging of steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-02-01

    Aging of the containment pressure boundary in light water reactor plants is being addressed to understand the significant factors relating occurrence of corrosion efficacy of inspection and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and liners of concrete containments. and to make recommendations on use of risk models in regulatory decisions. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of containment related degradation experience is presented. Current and emerging nondestructive examination techniques and a degradation assessment methodology for characterizing and quantifying the amount of damage present are described. Quantitative tools for condition assessment of aging structures using time dependent structural reliability analysis methods are summarized. Such methods provide a framework for addressing the uncertainties attendant to aging in the decision process. Results of this research provide a means for establishing current and estimating future structural capacity margins of containments, and to address the significance of incidences of reported containment degradation

  17. High rate deformation of metallic liner and its dislocation description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prut, V.V.; Shybaev, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of deformation in cylindrical liners are studied experimentally and theoretically in Z-pinch geometry, where the cylinders are deformed by a magnetic field created by a current flowing along the axis. This method allows one to obtain one-dimensional deformation and a reliable recording of magnetic field and cylinder deformation. The experiments are performed with a current amplitude of 0.8-3 MA and a current rise time of 2.5-4 μs. Aluminium and copper tubes, from 4 to 6 mm in diameter and 0.25-1 mm wall thick, are compressed. The deformation rates under study are in the range of 10 5 -10 6 s -1 . The time dependence of the radii of the copper and aluminium tubes are measured with a streak camera and by the pulsed x-ray technique. The time resolution of the streak and x-ray photographs is 10-15 ns, their spatial resolution is 10-15 μm. A rheological model describing the dynamics of compression is developed. The model includes the description of the metal as a plastic medium with moving dislocations in the solid state, and as a viscous medium in the liquid state. The one-dimensional solution to magneto-hydrodynamical equations of the liner dynamics is compared with the experimental results and thus the following rheological parameters of the metal are obtained: β, the probability of dislocation generation in plastic deformation; and σ d , the drag stress, the parameter which characterizes a drag force acting on the dislocation. (Author)

  18. Mars, clays and the origins of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Hyman

    1989-01-01

    To detect life in the Martian soil, tests were designed to look for respiration and photosynthesis. Both tests (labeled release, LR, and pyrolytic release, PR) for life in the Martian soils were positive. However, when the measurement for organic molecules in the soil of Mars was made, none were found. The interpretation given is that the inorganic constituents of the soil of Mars were responsible for these observations. The inorganic analysis of the soil was best fitted by a mixture of minerals: 60 to 80 percent clay, iron oxide, quartz, and soluble salts such as halite (NaCl). The minerals most successful in simulating the PR and LR experiments are iron-rich clays. There is a theory that considers clays as the first organisms capable of replication, mutation, and catalysis, and hence of evolving. Clays are formed when liquid water causes the weathering of rocks. The distribution of ions such as aluminum, magnesium, and iron play the role of bases in the DNA. The information was stored in the distribution of ions in the octahedral and tetrahedral molecules, but that they could, like RNA and DNA, replicate. When the clays replicated, each sheet of clay would be a template for a new sheet. The ion substitutions in one clay sheet would give rise to a complementary or similar pattern on the clay synthesized on its surface. It was theorized that it was on the surface of replicating iron-rich clays that carbon dioxide would be fixed in the light into organic acids such as formic or oxalic acid. If Mars had liquid water during a warm period in its past, clay formation would have been abundant. These clays would have replicated and evolved until the liquid water was removed due to cooling of Mars. It is entirely possible that the Viking mission detected life on Mars, but it was clay life that awaits the return of water to continue its evolution into life based on organic molecules.

  19. Fracture behavior of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Wang, Ke; Kotaki, Masaya; Hu, Charmaine; He, Chaobin

    2006-12-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/clay nanocomposites have been prepared via a reactive compounding approach with an epoxy based masterbatch. Compared with PP and common PP/organoclay nanocomposites, the PP/clay nanocomposites based on epoxy/clay masterbatch have higher impact strength. The phenomenon can be attributed to the epoxy phase dispersed uniformly in the PP matrix, which may act as impact energy absorber and helps to form a large damage zone, thus a higher impact strength value is achieved.

  20. Multifaceted role of clay minerals in pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana, Inderpreet Singh; Kaur, Satvinder; Kaur, Harpreet; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The desirable physical and physiochemical properties of clay minerals have led them to play a substantial role in pharmaceutical formulations. Clay minerals like kaolin, smectite and palygorskite-sepiolite are among the world's most valuable industrial minerals and of considerable importance. The elemental features of clay minerals which caused them to be used in pharmaceutical formulations are high specific area, sorption capacity, favorable rheological properties, chemical inertness, swelli...

  1. Selective Clay Placement Within a Silicate-Clay Epoxy Blend Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A clay-epoxy nanocomposite may be prepared by dispersing a layered clay in an alkoxy epoxy, such as a polypropylene oxide based epoxide before combining the mixture with an aromatic epoxy to improve the nanocomposite's thermal and mechanical properties.

  2. In the zone - first rotary steerable liner-while-drilling system; Drilling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Statoil recently successfully tested the world's first rotary steerable liner-while-drilling system from its Brage platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. This innovative technology - with applications in new and mature fields - was jointly developed by Statoil and Baker Hughes Incorporated. The concept of a rotary steerable system that gives operators the ability to accurately drill and log three-dimensional well profiles with a liner attached directly to the drillstring is entirely new. The system is designed to withstand high circulation rates and high torque loads while providing liner connect and disconnect capabilities. (Author)

  3. Fabrication techniques of metal liner used for pressure vessels made by composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, W.K.; Al-Qureshi, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    Different viable techniques for the manufacturing of metal liner used for pressure vessels are presented. The aim of these metal liner is to avoid the fluid leakage from the pressurized vessel and to serve as a mandreal to be wound by composite material. The studied techniques are described and the practical results are illustrated. Finally a comparative study of the manufacturing techniques is made in order to define the process that furnishes the metal liner with the best characteristics. The advantages offered by these type of pressure vessels when compared with the conventional metallic vessels, are also presented. (Author) [pt

  4. Filament wound pressure vessels with load sharing liners for space shuttle orbiter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecord, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Early in the development of orbiter propulsion and environmental control subsystems it was recognized that use of overwrapped pressure vessels with load sharing liners may provide significant weight savings for high pressure gas containment. A program is described which was undertaken by Rockwell International to assess the utility for orbiter applications of titanium 6Al--4V and Inconel 718 liners overwrapped with Kevlar fibers. Also briefly described are programs administered by the NASA Lewis Research Center to evaluate cryoformed steel liners overwrapped with Kevlar fibers and to establish a method that can guarantee cyclic life of the vessels

  5. Advantages of floating covers with LLDPE Liners; Ventajas del uso de geomembranas LLDPE en cubiertas flotantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Gomez, J. M.

    2014-02-01

    Using floating covers in irrigation pounds and waste dam gives many advantages. It is a very interesting investment for those place with a high evaporation ratio. this is an easy system which improves several aspects in irrigation or drinkable water reservoirs, mainly it saves water and it saves clean-works (time and cost). It is also used in waste dam to deodorization. Time ago this application was developed with PVC liners and TPO liners, now the innovation is LLDPE liners which improve mechanical properties, durability and an easier installation. This paper develops the state of art of this design technology, and the back ground of our experience. (Author)

  6. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI(aq)) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of structural integrity of Monju steel liner against sodium leakage and combustion. Modeling of thinning process of liner due to corrosion in structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukimori, K.; Kato, T.; Furuhashi, I.; Iwata, K.; Akatsu, M.

    2001-01-01

    The lining structure of LMFBR (Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactor) has an important role to prohibit leaking sodium from touching a concrete floor in a sodium leakage incident. JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) experienced a sodium leakage incident in 1995 in the secondary heat transport system room of the prototype LMFBR MONJU. In this incident, a part of the liner was covered with a certain amount of high temperature leaked sodium and its compounds. Visible but small distortion and thinning of the liner were detected, which were due to heating by sodium fire and chemical corrosion, respectively. To simulate the MONJU incident, JNC conducted a series of sodium leakage tests, in one of which severer corrosion (molten salt type corrosion) than that in the MONJU incident was observed. In order to secure the conservativeness in the integrity assessment of the liner, consideration of a severest corrosion process was demanded. This means that the loss of parts of the structure with time should be considered in the structural analyses. In this study a modeling of thinning process of the liner was developed in order to realize reasonable analysis from the point of view of actual phenomena. The concept of the method is to release the stress of the lost region by using artificial creep and reducing Young's modulus. The necessity of this kind of model and the validity was verified through an application analysis of the liner in the secondary heat transport system room of MONJU. (authors)

  8. Concrete-Opalinus clay interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenni, A.; Maeder, U.; Lerouge, C.; Gaboreau, S.; Schwyn, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Designs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste foresee cementitious materials as structural elements, backfill or waste matrix. Therefore, studies of interactions between cement and all other materials involved are important. Interactions are mostly driven by chemical gradients in pore water and might lead to mineralogical alterations in the barrier system, which in turn influence properties like swelling pressure, permeability, or specific retention in case of clay materials. Existing laboratory and in-situ studies using clay-stone revealed significant alteration in both cement and clay-stone. Phase dissolution, precipitation, and carbonation, were found to cause an overall porosity increase in the cement with a possible decrease close to the interface, and clogging in the clay-stone [2]. Most of the work was done on cement pastes rather than concretes to avoid analytical complications caused by aggregates, and the scale of investigation was chosen in the range of centimetres rather than micrometers. The Cement-Clay Interaction (CI) experiment at the Mont Terri Underground Laboratory (St. Ursanne, Switzerland) aims at replicating some of the processes at interfaces to be expected.For this purpose, two vertical cylindrical boreholes (384 mm diameter, up to 10 m length) in Opalinus Clay (OPA) were filled with layers of three different concretes and bentonite. The concrete formulations are based on common aggregate content and grain size distributions, combined with three different cements: Portland cement (OPC), ESDRED cement especially designed for repository applications (40% of cement substituted with silica fume), and low alkali cement (LAC, containing slag and nano-silica).In this study, we present a characterisation of the three concrete-OPA interfaces after two years of alteration and deduce possible mechanisms. Backscattered electron (BE) imaging and energy dispersive spectrum (EDX) element mapping

  9. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-01-01

    The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay) or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane). They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also ...

  10. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI (aq) ) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. - Highlights: • Iodide sorption experiments were completed with a diverse array of clay minerals. • Iodide uptake trended with CEC and swamping electrolyte identity and concentration. • Results can be explained by considering the formation of ion pairs in clay interlayers

  11. Thermal asymmetry model of single slope single basin solar still with sponge liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugan Sengottain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to propose a thermal asymmetry model for single slope basin type solar still with sponge liner of different thickness (3cm, 5cm, and 10cm in the basin. Two different color sponge liners have been used i.e., yellow and black. In the proposed design, a suitable dripping arrangement has been designed and used to pour water drop by drop over the sponge liner instead of sponge liner in stagnant saline water in the basin. The special arrangement overcomes the dryness of the sponge during peak sunny hours. The performance of the system with black color sponge of 3cm thickness shows better result with an output of 5.3 kg/m2 day and the proposed model have used to find the thermal asymmetries during the working hours of the still.

  12. Simulation Study of Structure and Properties of Plasma Liners for the PLX- α Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samulyak, Roman; Shih, Wen; Hsu, Scott; PLX-Alpha Team

    2017-10-01

    Detailed numerical studies of the propagation and merger of high-Mach-number plasma jets and the formation and implosion of plasma liners have been performed using the FronTier code in support of the Plasma Liner Experiment-ALPHA (PLX- α) project. Physics models include radiation, physical diffusion, plasma-EOS models, and an anisotropic diffusion model that mimics deviations from fully collisional hydrodynamics in outer layers of plasma jets. Detailed structure and non-uniformity of plasma liners of due to primary and secondary shock waves have been studies as well as averaged quantities of ram pressure and Mach number. Synthetic data from simulations have been compared with available experimental data from a multi-chord interferometer and survey and high-resolution spectrometers. Numerical studies of the sensitivity of liner properties to experimental errors in the initial masses of jets and the synchronization of plasma gun valves have also been performed. Supported by the ARPA-E ALPHA program.

  13. Successful application and research of modularized scheme of containment liner of CPR1000+ reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qinwu; Zhang Shuxia; Guo Junying

    2012-01-01

    Research of modularized scheme in design, special grid structure spreader, crane, and successful applied in Yangjiang NPP project 3 will instruct and promote modularized construction of containment liner in construction projects. (authors)

  14. Failure mechanisms and closed reduction of a constrained tripolar acetabular liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William J; Mattern, Christopher J; Hur, John; Su, Edwin P; Pellicci, Paul M

    2009-02-01

    Unlike traditional bipolar constrained liners, the Osteonics Omnifit constrained acetabular insert is a tripolar device, consisting of an inner bipolar bearing articulating within an outer, true liner. Every reported failure of the Omnifit tripolar implant has been by failure at the shell-bone interface (Type I failure), failure at the shell-liner interface (Type II failure), or failure of the locking mechanism resulting in dislocation of the bipolar-liner interface (Type III failure). In this report we present two cases of failure of the Omnifit tripolar at the bipolar-femoral head interface. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of failure at the bipolar-femoral head interface (Type IV failure). In addition, we described the first successful closed reduction of a Type IV failure.

  15. Conceptual design of the Purdue compact torus/passive liner fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, W.K.

    1981-01-01

    This proposal describes a program for the conceptual development of a novel fusion reactor design, the Purdue Compact Torus/Passive Liner Reactor. The key features of the concept are described and a comparison is made with a conventional tokamak

  16. Water quality implications of culvert repair options : cementitious and polyurea spray-on liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Many commonly used culvert rehabilitation technologies entail the use of a resin or coating that cures to form a rigid : liner within the damaged culvert. However, the potential environmental impacts of leaching or release of contaminants during : no...

  17. Formation of metal and dielectric liners using a solution process for deep trench capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Park, Kun-Sik; Kim, Moonkeun; Kwon, Kwang-Ho; Shin, Hong-Sik; Lee, Kijun; Do, Lee-Mi

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of metal and dielectric liners using a solution process for deep trench capacitor application. The deep Si trench via with size of 10.3 microm and depth of 71 microm were fabricated by Bosch process in deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) system. The aspect ratio was about 7. Then, nano-Ag ink and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh) were used to form metal and dielectric liners, respectively. The thicknesses of the Ag and PVPh liners were about 144 and 830 nm, respectively. When the curing temperature of Ag film increased from 120 to 150 degrees C, the sheet resistance decreased rapidly from 2.47 to 0.72 Omega/sq and then slightly decreased to 0.6 Omega/sq with further increasing the curing temperature beyond 150 degrees C. The proposed liner formation method using solution process is a simple and cost effective process for the high capacity of deep trench capacitor.

  18. Some features of liners convergence accelerated with the help of powerful EMGs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinevich, B E; Chernyshev, V K; Buzin, V N; Petrukhin, A A; Zarionov, E I [All-Russian Science and Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Described are experiments devoted to the convergence of condensed liners, non-exploding during the flight, under the influence of current. To feed the liners with a power of not less than 25 MJ, powerful explosive magnetic 1000 mm diameter generators were used. Interesting effects arising during the liners flight were observed. A comparison of experimental results and calculations carried out using the SMOG program, showed that the calculated current was 20% higher than the observed current. At the same time, the experimental speed exceeded the rated speed calculated according to the known current curve. The asymmetry of current distribution along the liners was defined depending on time. Some conclusions concerning the current spread symmetry are made. (author). 4 figs., 1 ref.

  19. A path based model for a green liner shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping networks are the backbone of international trade providing low transportation cost, which is a major driver of globalization. These networks are under constant pressure to deliver capacity, cost effectiveness and environmentally conscious transport solutions. This article proposes...

  20. Experimental plans for LMFBR cavity liner sodium spill test LT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Newell, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Reinforced concrete is an important material of construction in LMFBR cavities and cells. Steel liners are often installed on the concrete surfaces to provide a gastight seal for minimizing air inleakage to inerted cell atmospheres and to protect the concrete from direct contact with sodium in the event of a sodium spill. In making safety assessment analyses, it is of interest to determine the adequacy of the liners to maintain their leaktightness during postulated accidents involving large sodium spills. However, data for basing analytical assessments of cell liners are very meager and an experimental program is underway at HEDL to provide some of the needed information. The HEDL cell liner evaluation program consists of both bench-scale feature tests and large-scale sodium spill demonstration tests. The plans for the first large-scale sodium spill test (LT-1) are the subject of this paper

  1. Formation of Imploding Plasma Liners for HEDP and MIF Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, VA (United States); Case, Andrew [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, VA (United States); Brockington, Samuel [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, VA (United States); Messer, Sarah [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, VA (United States); Bomgardner, Richard [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, VA (United States); Phillips, Mike [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, VA (United States); Wu, Linchun [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, VA (United States); Elton, Ray [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2014-11-11

    Plasma jets with high density and velocity have a number of important applications in fusion energy and elsewhere, including plasma refueling, disruption mitigation in tokamaks, magnetized target fusion, injection of momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, plasma thrusters, and high energy density plasmas (HEDP). In Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF), for example, an imploding material liner is used to compress a magnetized plasma to fusion conditions and to confine the resulting burning plasma inertially to obtain the necessary energy gain. The imploding shell may be solid, liquid, gaseous, or a combination of these states. The presence of the magnetic field in the target plasma suppresses thermal transport to the plasma shell, thus lowering the imploding power needed to compress the target to fusion conditions. This allows the required imploding momentum flux to be generated electromagnetically using off-the-shelf pulsed power technology. Practical schemes for standoff delivery of the imploding momentum flux are required and are open topics for research. One approach for accomplishing this, called plasma jet driven magneto-inertial fusion (PJMIF), uses a spherical array of pulsed plasma guns to create a spherically imploding shell of very high velocity, high momentum flux plasma. This approach requires development of plasma jet accelerators capable of achieving velocities of 50-200 km/s with very precise timing and density profiles, and with high total mass and density. Low-Z plasma jets would require the higher velocities, whereas very dense high-Z plasma shells could achieve the goal at velocities of only 50-100 km/s. In this report, we describe our work to develop the pulsed plasma gun technology needed for an experimental scientific exploration of the PJMIF concept, and also for the other applications mentioned earlier. The initial goal of a few hundred of hydrogen at 200 km/s was eventually replaced with accelerating 8000 μg of argon or xenon to 50 km

  2. Sectioning Clay Models Makes Anatomy & Development Tangible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Carina Endres; Howell, James Endres

    2010-01-01

    Clay models have proved to be useful teaching aids for many topics in biology that depend on three-dimensional reasoning. Students studying embryonic development struggle to mentally reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of embryos and larvae by observing prepared slides of cross-sectional slices. Students who build clay models of embryos…

  3. Clay as Thermoluminescence Dosemeter in diagnostic Radiology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the investigation of the basic thermoluminescence properties of clay at x-rays in the diagnostic radiology range, including dose monitoring in abdominal radiography. Clay sourced from Calabar, Nigeria, was tested for thermoluminescence response after irradiation at diagnostic radiology doses, including ...

  4. Climatic control on clay mineral formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many physico-chemical variables like rock-type,climate,topography and exposure age affect weathering environments.In the present study,an attempt is made to understand how the nature of clay minerals formed due to weathering differs in tropical regions receiving high and low rainfall. Clay mineralogy of weathering pro ...

  5. clay nanocomposite by solution intercalation technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymer–clay nanocomposites of commercial polystyrene (PS) and clay laponite were prepared via solution intercalation technique. Laponite was modified suitably with the well known cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide by ion-exchange reaction to render laponite miscible with hydrophobic PS.

  6. The many ways of making anionic clays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Together with hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides, bivalent and trivalent metal hydroxides and their hydroxy salts are actually anionic clays consisting of positively charged hydroxide layers with anions intercalated in the interlayer region. The anionic clays exhibit anion sorption, anion diffusion and exchange ...

  7. Investigations of salt mortar containing saliferous clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.

    1992-01-01

    Saliferous clay mortar might be considered for combining individual salt bricks into a dense and tight long-term seal. A specific laboratory program was started to test mortars consisting of halite powder and grey saliferous clay of the Stassfurt from the Bleicherode salt mine. Clay fractions between 0 and 45% were used. The interest focused upon obtaining good workabilities of the mixtures as well as upon the permeability and compression strength of the dried mortar samples. Test results: 1) Without loss of quality the mortar can be mixed using fresh water. Apprx. 18 to 20 weight-% of the solids must be added as mixing water. 2) The porosity and the permeability of the mortar samples increases distinctly when equally coarse-grained salt power is used for mixing. 3) The mean grain size and the grain size distribution of the saliferous clay and the salt powder should be very similar to form a useful mortar. 4) The permeability of the mortar samples decreases with increasing clay fraction from 2 10 -12 m 2 to 2 10 -14 m 2 . The investigated samples, however, were large and dried at 100degC. 5) The uniaxial compressive strength of the clay mortar equals, at an average, only 4 MPa and decreases clearly with increasing clay fraction. Moist mortar samples did not show any measurable compressive strength. 6) Moistened saliferous clay mortar may show little temporary swelling. (orig./HP)

  8. Hygrothermal behavior for a clay brick wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, R.; Issaadi, N.; Belarbi, R.; El-Meligy, M.; Altahrany, A.

    2018-06-01

    In Egypt, the clay brick is the common building materials which are used. By studying clay brick walls behavior for the heat and moisture transfer, the efficient use of the clay brick can be reached. So, this research studies the hygrothermal transfer in this material by measuring the hygrothermal properties and performing experimental tests for a constructed clay brick wall. We present the model for the hygrothermal transfer in the clay brick which takes the temperature and the vapor pressure as driving potentials. In addition, this research compares the presented model with previous models. By constructing the clay brick wall between two climates chambers with different boundary conditions, we can validate the numerical model and analyze the hygrothermal transfer in the wall. The temperature and relative humidity profiles within the material are measured experimentally and determined numerically. The numerical and experimental results have a good convergence with 3.5% difference. The surface boundary conditions, the ground effect, the infiltration from the closed chambers and the material heterogeneity affects the results. Thermal transfer of the clay brick walls reaches the steady state very rapidly than the moisture transfer. That means the effect of using only the external brick wall in the building in hot climate without increase the thermal resistance for the wall, will add more energy losses in the clay brick walls buildings. Also, the behavior of the wall at the heat and mass transfer calls the three-dimensional analysis for the whole building to reach the real behavior.

  9. Hygrothermal behavior for a clay brick wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, R.; Issaadi, N.; Belarbi, R.; El-Meligy, M.; Altahrany, A.

    2018-01-01

    In Egypt, the clay brick is the common building materials which are used. By studying clay brick walls behavior for the heat and moisture transfer, the efficient use of the clay brick can be reached. So, this research studies the hygrothermal transfer in this material by measuring the hygrothermal properties and performing experimental tests for a constructed clay brick wall. We present the model for the hygrothermal transfer in the clay brick which takes the temperature and the vapor pressure as driving potentials. In addition, this research compares the presented model with previous models. By constructing the clay brick wall between two climates chambers with different boundary conditions, we can validate the numerical model and analyze the hygrothermal transfer in the wall. The temperature and relative humidity profiles within the material are measured experimentally and determined numerically. The numerical and experimental results have a good convergence with 3.5% difference. The surface boundary conditions, the ground effect, the infiltration from the closed chambers and the material heterogeneity affects the results. Thermal transfer of the clay brick walls reaches the steady state very rapidly than the moisture transfer. That means the effect of using only the external brick wall in the building in hot climate without increase the thermal resistance for the wall, will add more energy losses in the clay brick walls buildings. Also, the behavior of the wall at the heat and mass transfer calls the three-dimensional analysis for the whole building to reach the real behavior.

  10. Geomechanics of clays for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.

    1989-01-01

    Clay formations have been studied for many years in the European Community as potential disposal media for radioactive waste. This document brings together results of on-going research about the geomechanical behaviour of natural clay bodies, at normal and elevated temperatures. The work is carried out within the third Community R and D programme on Management and storage of radioactive waste

  11. Quick clay and landslides of clayey soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaldoun, A.; Moller, P.; Fall, A.; Wegdam, G.; de Leeuw, B.; Méheust, Y.; Fossum, J.O.; Bonn, D.

    2009-01-01

    We study the rheology of quick clay, an unstable soil responsible for many landslides. We show that above a critical stress the material starts flowing abruptly with a very large viscosity decrease caused by the flow. This leads to avalanche behavior that accounts for the instability of quick clay

  12. Synthesis of templated carbons starting from clay and clay-derived zeolites for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 57 58 59 60 For Peer Review 1 Synthesis of templated carbons starting from clay and clay-derived zeolites for hydrogen storage applications N. M. Musyoka1*, J. Ren1, H. W. Langmi1, D. E. C. Rogers1, B. C. North1, M. Mathe1 and D. Bessarabov2... clear (filtered) extract of cloisite clay, SNC for zeolite from unfiltered cloisite clay extract and SBC for zeolite from unfiltered South African bentonite clay extract. Furfuryl alcohol (Sigma Aldrich, C5H6O2, 98%) and Ethylene gas were used...

  13. Assessment of the slowly-imploding liner (LINUS) fusion reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Prospects for the slowly-imploding liner (LINUS) fusion reactor concept are reviewed. The concept envisages the nondestructive, repetitive and reversible implosion of a liquid-metal cylindrical annulus (liner) onto field-reversed DT plasmoids. Adiabatic heating of the plasmoid to ignition at ultra-high magnetic fields results in a compact, high power density fusion reactor with unique solutions to several technological problems and potentially favorable economics

  14. Inorganic material candidates to replace a metallic or non-metallic concrete containment liner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seni, C [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Mills, R H [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Internal liners for concrete containments are generally organic or metals. They have to be able to inhibit radioactive leakage into the environment, but both types have shortcomings. The results of research to develop a better liner are published in this paper. The best material found was fibre-reinforced mortar. Of the fibres considered, steel, kevlar and glass were the best, each showing advantages and disadvantages. 1 ref., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  15. The effect of selected parameters of the honing process on cylinder liner surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlus, P; Dzierwa, A; Michalski, J; Reizer, R; Wieczorowski, M; Majchrowski, R

    2014-01-01

    Many truck cylinder liners made from gray cast iron were machined. Ceramic and diamond honing stones were used in the last stages of operation: coarse honing and plateau honing. The effect of honing parameters on the cylinder liner surface topography was studied. Selected surface topography parameters were response variables. It was found that parameters from the Sq group were sensitive to honing parameter change. When plateau honing time varied, the Smq parameter increased, while the other parameters, Spq and Svq, were stable. (papers)

  16. Inorganic material candidates to replace a metallic or non-metallic concrete containment liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seni, C.; Mills, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Internal liners for concrete containments are generally organic or metals. They have to be able to inhibit radioactive leakage into the environment, but both types have shortcomings. The results of research to develop a better liner are published in this paper. The best material found was fibre-reinforced mortar. Of the fibres considered, steel, kevlar and glass were the best, each showing advantages and disadvantages. 1 ref., 9 tabs., 12 figs

  17. 1st International Conference on Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete

    CERN Document Server

    Favier, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues linked to Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete. The main subjects are geology of clays, hydration and performance of blended systems with calcined clays, alkali activated binders, economic and environmental impacts of the use of calcined clays in cement based materials. Topics addressed in this book include the influence of processing on reactivity of calcined clays, influence of clay mineralogy on reactivity, geology of clay deposits, Portland-calcined clay systems, hydration, durability, performance, Portland-calcined clay-limestone systems, hydration, durability, performance, calcined clay-alkali systems, life cycle analysis, economics and environmental impact of use of calcined clays in cement and concrete, and field applications. This book compiles the different contributions of the 1st International Conference on Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete, which took place in Lausanne, Switzerland, June, 23-25, 2015.The papers present the latest  res...

  18. Single clay sheets inside electrospun polymer nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaohui

    2005-03-01

    Nanofibers were prepared from polymer solution with clay sheets by electrospinning. Plasma etching, as a well controlled process, was used to supply electrically excited gas molecules from a glow discharge. To reveal the structure and arrangement of clay layers in the polymer matrix, plasma etching was used to remove the polymer by controlled gasification to expose the clay sheets due to the difference in reactivity. The shape, flexibility, and orientation of clay sheets were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Additional quantitative information on size distribution and degree of exfoliation of clay sheets were obtained by analyzing electron micrograph of sample after plasma etching. Samples in various forms including fiber, film and bulk, were thinned by plasma etching. Morphology and dispersion of inorganic fillers were studied by electron microscopy.

  19. Treatment for cracked and permeable Houston clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Leung, M.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, the treatability of a field clay (obtained from Houston, Texas) and a clay-sand mixture to reduce their hydraulic conductivity was evaluated. Remolded field clay and clay-sand mixture with and without methanol contamination were treated to reduce their hydraulic conductivity by permeating very dilute grout solutions. The concentration of sodium silicate in the grout solution was 8%, while the solid content in the cement grout was 0.3%. The hydraulic conductivity of permeable Houston clay (hydraulic conductivity >10 -5 cm/sec) could be reduced to less than 10 -7 cm/sec (U.S. EPA limit for soil barriers) by permeating with a selected combination of grout solutions

  20. Some Tests on Heather Field Moraine Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Jacobsen, Moust

    This report deals with oedometer tests on three samples of moraine clay from the Heather Field in the English part of the North Sea. The tests have been carried out in the very unelastic apparatus used in Denmark and with special test procedures differing from the ones used elsewhere. In Denmark...... Moraine Clay covers a large part of the surface, and it has therefore been investigated extensively in the field and in the laboratories during the last 25 years. It is to day - from a geotechnical point of view - the best known clay in Denmark. It could therefore be of some interest to compare...... the English North Sea moraine clays with the corresponding Danish Moraine Clays. The Danish test procedures are explained in details and some comments are given in the hope that they may not be banalities all of them....

  1. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundie, P.; McLeod, N.

    1997-01-01

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation

  2. Nuclear containment steel liner corrosion workshop : final summary and recommendation report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, Bryan A. (Erler Engineering Ltd., Chicago, IL); Weyers, Richard E. (Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, VA); Sagues, Alberto (University of South Florida, Tampa, FL); Petti, Jason P.; Berke, Neal Steven (Tourney Consulting Group, LLC, Kalamazoo, MI); Naus, Dan J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-07-01

    This report documents the proceedings of an expert panel workshop conducted to evaluate the mechanisms of corrosion for the steel liner in nuclear containment buildings. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored this work which was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. A workshop was conducted at the NRC Headquarters in Rockville, Maryland on September 2 and 3, 2010. Due to the safety function performed by the liner, the expert panel was assembled in order to address the full range of issues that may contribute to liner corrosion. This report is focused on corrosion that initiates from the outer surface of the liner, the surface that is in contact with the concrete containment building wall. Liner corrosion initiating on the outer diameter (OD) surface has been identified at several nuclear power plants, always associated with foreign material left embedded in the concrete. The potential contributing factors to liner corrosion were broken into five areas for discussion during the workshop. Those include nuclear power plant design and operation, corrosion of steel in contact with concrete, concrete aging and degradation, concrete/steel non-destructive examination (NDE), and concrete repair and corrosion mitigation. This report also includes the expert panel member's recommendations for future research.

  3. Numerical study on the lubrication performance of compression ring-cylinder liner system with spherical dimples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Liu

    Full Text Available The effects of surface texture on the lubrication performance of a compression ring-cylinder liner system are studied in this paper. By considering the surface roughness of the compression ring and cylinder liner, a mixed lubrication model is presented to investigate the tribological behaviors of a barrel-shaped compression ring-cylinder liner system with spherical dimples on the liner. In order to determine the rupture and reformulation positions of fluid film accurately, the Jacoboson-Floberg-Olsson (JFO cavitation boundary condition is applied to the mixed lubrication model for ensuring the mass-conservative law. On this basis, the minimum oil film thickness and average friction forces in the compression ring-cylinder liner system are investigated under the engine-like conditions by changing the dimple area density, radius, and depth. The wear load, average friction forces, and power loss of the compression ring-cylinder liner system with and without dimples are also compared for different compression ring face profiles. The results show that the spherical dimples can produce a larger reduction of friction in mixed lubrication region, and reduce power loss significantly in the middle of the strokes. In addition, higher reduction percentages of average friction forces and wear are obtained for smaller crown height or larger axial width.

  4. One-and-Two-Dimensional Simulations of Liner Performance at Atlas Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keinigs, R.K.; Atchison, W.L.; Faehl, R.J.; Mclenithan, K.D.; Trainor, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The authors report results of one-and-two-dimensional MHD simulations of an imploding heavy liner in Z-pinch geometry. The driving current has a pulse shape and peak current characteristic of the Atlas pulsed-power facility being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. One-dimensional simulations of heavy composite liners driven by 30 MA currents can achieve velocities on the order of 14 km/sec. Used to impact a tungsten target, the liner produces shock pressures of ∼ fourteen megabars. The first 2-D simulations of imploding liners driven at Atlas current parameters are also described. These simulations have focused on the interaction of the liner with the glide planes, and the effect of realistic surface perturbations on the dynamics of the pinch. It is found that the former interaction does not seriously affect the inner liner surface. Results from the second problem indicate that a surface perturbation having amplitude as small as 0.2 microm can have a significant effect on the implosion dynamics

  5. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Improved Broadband Liner Optimization Applied to the Advanced Noise Control Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Ayle, Earl; Ichihashi, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more desirable. This paper describes improvements to a previously established broadband acoustic liner optimization process using the Advanced Noise Control Fan rig as a demonstrator. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over the conditions of interest. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Constant-depth, double-degree of freedom and variable-depth, multi-degree of freedom designs are carried through design, fabrication, and testing to validate the efficacy of the design process. Results illustrate the value of the design process in concurrently evaluating the relative costs/benefits of these liner designs. This study also provides an application for demonstrating the integrated use of duct acoustic propagation/radiation and liner modeling tools in the design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  7. Deuterium Liner and Multiparameter Investigation of the Inverse Z-Pinch Formation Process

    CERN Document Server

    Bystritskii, Vyach M; Grebenyuk, V M; Parzhitsky, S S; Penkov, F M; Stolupin, V A; Boznyak, J; Gula, E; Dudkin, G N; Nechaev, B A; Padalko, V M; Mesyats, G A; Ratakhin, N A; Sorokin, S A

    2001-01-01

    A description of the methods and results of the measurements of the ion energy distribution of the deuterium liner accelerated in the inverse Z-pinch configuration are presented - the liner plasma is radially accelerated from the outward small radius. The knowledge of the experiment deuteron energy distribution is crucially important for correct interpretation of the results on the study of the dd-reaction at infralow collision energies using the liner plasma. Experiments were fulfilled in the HCEI (Tomsk, Russia) at a nanosecond pulsed high current generator (I=950 kA, pulse duration \\tau=80 ns). The hollow deuterium liner of 20 mm length was accelerated from the initial radius of \\sim 15 mm to 45 mm. Measurement of the liner characteristics was produced by means of the light detectors (detection of H_\\alpha and H_\\beta deuterium lines) and magnetic B-dot probes, placed on the various radii of the expanding liner. Besides, the measurement of the neutron radiation intensity due to reaction d+d\\to^{3}He+n was ...

  8. Impact of landfill liner time-temperature history on the service life of HDPE geomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, R Kerry; Islam, M Z

    2009-10-01

    The observed temperatures in different landfills are used to establish a number of idealized time-temperature histories for geomembrane liners in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. These are then used for estimating the service life of different HDPE geomembranes. The predicted antioxidant depletion times (Stage I) are between 7 and 750 years with the large variation depending on the specific HDPE geomembrane product, exposure conditions, and most importantly, the magnitude and duration of the peak liner temperature. The higher end of the range corresponds to data from geomembranes aged in simulated landfill liner tests and a maximum liner temperature of 37 degrees C. The lower end of the range corresponds to a testing condition where geomembranes were immersed in a synthetic leachate and a maximum liner temperature of 60 degrees C. The total service life of the geomembranes was estimated to be between 20 and 3300 years depending on the time-temperature history examined. The range illustrates the important role that time-temperature history could play in terms of geomembrane service life. The need for long-term monitoring of landfill liner temperature and for geomembrane ageing studies that will provide improved data for assessing the likely long-term performance of geomembranes in MSW landfills are highlighted.

  9. Synthesis of new aluminum nano hybrid composite liner for energy saving in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiruvenkadam, N.; Thyla, P.R.; Senthilkumar, M.; Bharathiraja, M.; Murugesan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano hybrid composite cylinder liner (NL) was developed to replace cast iron liner. • NL improved engine performance, combustion and reduced emissions except NO x . • Teardown analysis provides the suitability of NL for diesel engine. • The developed aluminum NL saved 43.75% of weight than cast iron cylinder liner. - Abstract: This work aims to replace the conventional cast iron cylinder liner (CL) in diesel engine by introducing lightweight aluminum (Al) 6061 nano hybrid composite cylinder liner (NL) by analyzing the performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of an engine. NL was fabricated by bottom pouring stir casting technique with nano- and micro-reinforcement materials. Experimental results proved that the use of NL increased brake thermal efficiency, in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, and reduced carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and smoke emission in comparison with CL. However, oxides of nitrogen slightly increased with the use of the new liner. No differences in wear or other issues were noted during the engine teardown after 1 year of operation and 2000 h of running. Thus, NL has been recommended to replace the CL to save the energy and to reap environmental benefits

  10. Formation of Imploding Plasma Liners for HEDP and MIF Applications - Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Mark [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Hsu, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Witherspoon, F. Douglas [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, VA (United States); Cassibry, Jason [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States); Bauer, Bruno S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-04-27

    The goal of the plasma liner experiment (PLX) was to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of forming imploding spherical plasma liners that can reach High Energy Density (HED)-relevant (~ 0.1 Mbar) pressures upon stagnation. The plasma liners were to be formed by a spherical array of 30 – 36 railgun-driven hypervelocity plasma jets (Mach 10 – 50). Due to funding and project scope reductions in year two of the project, this initial goal was revised to focus on studies of individual jet propagation, and on two jet merging physics. PLX was a collaboration between a number of partners including Los Alamos National Laboratory, HyperV Technologies, University of New Mexico (UNM), University of Alabama, Huntsville, and University of Nevada, Reno. UNM’s part in the collaboration was primary responsibility for plasma diagnostics. Though full plasma liner experiments could not be performed, the results of single and two jet experiments nevertheless laid important groundwork for future plasma liner investigations. Though challenges were encountered, the results obtained with one and two jets were overwhelmingly positive from a liner formation point of view, and were largely in agreement with predictions of hydrodynamic models.

  11. Clay Dispersibility and Soil Friability-Testing the Soil Clay-to-Carbon Saturation Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2012-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (OC) influences clay dispersibility, which affects soil tilth conditions and the risk of vertical migration of clay colloids. No universal lower threshold of OC has been identified for satisfactory stabilization of soil structure. We tested the concept of clay saturation with OC...... as a predictor of clay dispersibility and soil friability. Soil was sampled 3 yr in a field varying in clay content (∼100 to ∼220 g kg−1 soil) and grown with different crop rotations. Clay dispersibility was measured after end-over-end shaking of field-moist soil and 1- to 2-mm sized aggregates either air......-dried or rewetted to −100 hPa matric potential. Tensile strength of 1- to 2-, 2- to 4-, 4- to 8-, and 8- to 16-mm air-dried aggregates was calculated from their compressive strength, and soil friability estimated from the strength–volume relation. Crop rotation characteristics gave only minor effects on clay...

  12. Liner Shipping Fleet Deployment with Sustainable Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing sharp competition in the market for shipping companies, it is necessary to make reasonable and efficient decisions to optimize the container shipping line network so as to improve the shipping efficiency and reduce the transportation cost, as well as to realize the transportation sustainability. Therefore, the liner ship fleet deployment problem with collaborative transportation is proposed in this paper. This problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model that takes collaborative transportation into consideration. The model includes fixed cost, variable cost, berth cost, transport cost, penalty, compensation cost, and so on. To achieve the sustainable development of collaborative transportation, the shipping companies could make a selection between the internal routes and the external routes to serve each task by comparing the distance between the above routes. A real Asia-Europe-Oceania numerical experiment shows that the proposed sustainable collaborative transportation model can be efficiently solved by C++ calling ILOG CPLEX. Results demonstrate that the optimized shipping line network with sustainable collaborative transportation can improve the service efficiency, as well as the service level of shipping companies.

  13. Effect of gravel on hydraulic conductivity of compacted soil liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, T.L.; Daniel, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    How much gravel should be allowed in low-hydraulic-conductivity, compacted soil liners? To address this question, two clayey soils are uniformly mixed with varying percentages of gravel that, by itself, has a hydraulic conductivity of 170 cm/s. Soil/gravel mixtures are compacted and then permeated. Hydraulic conductivity of the compacted gravel/soil mixtures is less than 1 x 10 -7 cm/s for gravel contents as high as 50-60%. For gravel contents ≤ 60%, gravel content is not important: all test specimens have a low hydraulic conductivity. For gravel contents > 50-60%, the clayey soils does not fill voids between gravel particles, and high hydraulic conductivity results. The water content of the nongravel fraction is found to be a useful indicator of proper moisture conditions during compaction. From these experiments in which molding water content and compactive energy are carefully controlled, and gravel is uniformly mixed with the soil, it is concluded that the maximum allowable gravel content is approximately 50%

  14. IUE and Einstein observations of the LINER galaxy NGC 4579

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, G. A.; Puchnarewicz, E. M.; Mason, K. O.

    1990-01-01

    Results of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and Einstein observations of the LINER galaxy NGC 4579 are reported. Spatial profiles of the long wavelength IUE emission show a two component structure, with an unresolved core superimposed on broader underlying emission. The core spectrum shows strong C II lambda 2326 and broad Mg II lambda 2800 emission, and perhaps emission due to blends of Fe II multiplets (2300 to 23600 angstrom). The short wavelength emission is spatially unresolved, and shows C II lambda 1335, C III lambda 1909 broad C IV lambda 1550 emission, and a broad feature at approximately 1360 angstrom which may be due to 0.1 lambda 1356. Contrary to previous reports no evidence for He II lambda 1640 is found in the spectrum. An unresolved x ray source is detected at the location of the nucleus; its spectrum is well fitted by a power law of energy slope alpha approximately -0.5. These results further support the idea that NGC 4579 may contain a dwarf Seyfert nucleus.

  15. DT ignition in a Z pinch compressed by an imploding liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, L.; Bernal, L.; Linhart, J.G.; Verri, G.

    2001-01-01

    It has been shown that an m=0 instability of a Z pinch carrying a current of the order of 10 MA with a rise time of less than 10 ns can generate a spark capable of igniting a fusion detonation in the adjacent DT plasma channel. A possible method for generating such currents, necessary for the implosion of an initial large radius, low temperature Z pinch, can be a radial implosion of a cylindrical fast liner. The problem has been addressed in previous publications without considering the role played by an initially impressed m=0 perturbation, a mechanism indispensable for the generation of a spark. The liner-Z pinch dynamics can be solved at several levels of physical model completeness. The first corresponds to a zero dimensional model in which the liner has a given mass per unit length and a zero thickness, the plasma is compressed adiabatically and is isotropic, and there are no energy losses or Joule heating. The second level is one dimensional. The Z pinch plasma is described by the full set of MHD, two-fluid equations. The liner is treated first as thin and incompressible, and subsequently it is assumed that it has a finite thickness and is composed of a heavy ion plasma, having an artificial but realistic equation of state. Both plasma and liner are considered uniform in the Z direction and only DT reactions are considered. It is shown that, given sufficient energy and speed of the liner, the Z pinch can reach a volume ignition. The third level is two dimensional. Plasma and liner are treated as in the second level but either the Z pinch or the liner is perturbed by an m=0 non-uniformity. Provided the liner energy is high enough and the initial m=0 perturbation is correctly chosen, the final neck plasma can act as a spark for DT ignition. It is also shown that the liner energy required for generating a spark and the subsequent detonation propagation are considerably less than in the case of volume ignition. (author)

  16. Evaluation Of Liner Back-pressure Due To Concrete Pore Pressure At Elevated Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.J.; Rashid, Y.R.; Liu, A.S.; Gou, B.

    2006-01-01

    GE's latest evolution of the boiling water reactor, the ESBWR, has innovative passive design features that reduce the number and complexity of active systems, which in turn provide economic advantages while also increasing safety. These passive systems used for emergency cooling also mean that the primary containment system will experience elevated temperatures with longer durations than conventional plants in the event of design basis accidents. During a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the drywell in the primary containment structure for the ESBWR will be exposed to saturated steam conditions for up to 72 hours following the accident. A containment spray system may be activated that sprays the drywell area with water to condense the steam as part of the recovery operations. The liner back-pressure will build up gradually over the 72 hours as the concrete temperatures increase, and a sudden cool down could cause excessive differential pressure on the liner to develop. For this analysis, it is assumed that the containment spray is activated at the end of the 72-hour period. A back-pressure, acting between the liner and the concrete wall of the containment, can occur as a result of elevated temperatures in the concrete causing steam and saturated vapor pressures to develop from the free water remaining in the pores of the concrete. Additional pore pressure also develops under the elevated temperatures from the non-condensable gases trapped in the concrete pores during the concrete curing process. Any buildup of this pore pressure next to the liner, in excess of the drywell internal pressure, will act to push the liner away from the concrete with a potential for tearing at the liner anchorages. This paper describes the methods and analyses used to quantify this liner back-pressure so that appropriate measures are included in the design of the liner and anchorage system. A pore pressure model is developed that calculates the pressure distribution across the concrete

  17. Comparative parametric numerical simulations of materials used as liners in the explosively formed projectiles (EFPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, G.; Sanaullah, K.

    2009-01-01

    A conventional shaped charge comprises a conical metal liner projecting a hyper velocity jet of metal that is able to penetrate to great depths into steel armour. However, misalignment problems exist in tandem with jet break up and spewing particles that greatly diminish its penetration power. An EFP, on the other hand, has a liner in the shape of a geometrical recess. The force of the blast molds the liner into a number of configurations, depending on the geometry and the explosive detonation characteristics. This paper presents comparative parametric numerical simulations of materials used as liners in the explosively formed projectiles EFPs. Numerical simulations are carried out using AUTODYN 2D hydrocode to study effects of liner's materials on the shape, velocity, traveled distance, time, pressure, internal energy, temperature, yield stress, divergence or stability, density, compression, and length to diameter (L/D) ratio of EFPs. These parameters are estimated at the instants of maximum as well as at stable velocities. The parametric study reveals that aluminum has maximum velocity in shortest time among the liner materials. From this reason, it was concluded effective standoff was greater for aluminum than more denser metals. Maximum velocity and traveled distance of Tantalum EFP is found to be minimum which may be due to low thermal softening exponent and larger hardening exponent. The simulated yield stress and pressure developed in the Fe EFP reaches at maximum. The L/D ratio for Copper is found to be maximum which supports maximum penetration. From the stability point of view, 1006 MS is found to be the most reliable liner material due to minimum divergence. Generally all liner materials have similar effects of all parameters like pressure, internal energy, temperature, yield stress, divergence or stability, density, compression at the instants of maximum as well as at stable velocities except L/D ratio of EFPs. At the instant of maximum velocity, L

  18. Fabrication Process for Machined and Shrink-Fitted Impactor-Type Liners for the LOS Alamos Hedp Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, B.

    2004-11-01

    Composite liners have been fabricated for the Los Alamos liner-driven High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments using impactors formed by physical vapor deposition, and by machining and shrink fitting. Chemical vapor deposition has been proposed for some ATLAS liner applications. This paper describes the processes used to fabricate machined and shrink-fitted impactors; these processes have been used for copper impactors in 1100 aluminum liners and for 6061 T-6 aluminum impactors in 1100 aluminum liners. The most successful processes have been largely empirically developed and rely upon a combination of shrink-fitting and light press fitting. The processes used to date will be described along with some considerations for future composite liners for the HEDP Program.

  19. Current state of knowledge on the behavior of steel liners in concrete containments subjected to overpressurization loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Riesemann, W.A.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    In the United States, concrete containment buildings for commercial nuclear power plants have steel liners that act as the intemal pressure boundary. The liner abuts the concrete, acting as the interior concrete form. The liner is attached to the concrete by either studs or by a continuous structural shape (such as a T-section or channel) that is either continuously or intermittently welded to the liner. Studs are commonly used in reinforced concrete containments, while prestressed containments utilize a structural element as the anchorage. The practice in some countries follows the US practice, while in other countries the containment does not have a steel liner. In this latter case, there is a true double containment, and the annular region between the two containments is vented. This paper will review the practice of design of the liner system prior to the consideration of severe accident loads (overpressurization loads beyond the design conditions)

  20. Compressibility characteristics of Sabak Bernam Marine Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lat, D. C.; Ali, N.; Jais, I. B. M.; Baharom, B.; Yunus, N. Z. M.; Salleh, S. M.; Azmi, N. A. C.

    2018-04-01

    This study is carried out to determine the geotechnical properties and compressibility characteristics of marine clay collected at Sabak Bernam. The compressibility characteristics of this soil are determined from 1-D consolidation test and verified by existing correlations by other researchers. No literature has been found on the compressibility characteristics of Sabak Bernam Marine Clay. It is important to carry out this study since this type of marine clay covers large coastal area of west coast Malaysia. This type of marine clay was found on the main road connecting Klang to Perak and the road keeps experiencing undulation and uneven settlement which jeopardise the safety of the road users. The soil is indicated in the Generalised Soil Map of Peninsular Malaysia as a CLAY with alluvial soil on recent marine and riverine alluvium. Based on the British Standard Soil Classification and Plasticity Chart, the soil is classified as a CLAY with very high plasticity (CV). Results from laboratory test on physical properties and compressibility parameters show that Sabak Bernam Marine Clay (SBMC) is highly compressible, has low permeability and poor drainage characteristics. The compressibility parameters obtained for SBMC is in a good agreement with other researchers in the same field.

  1. Sorption of radionuclides by tertiary clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.; Czurda, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    The sorption capacity of different clay types for some metals (Co, Cs, Sr and Zn), occurring as common radionuclides in radioactive waste deposits, had been analysed by a static (batch technique) and a dynamic method (percolation tests, in which the driving force is a hydraulic gradient). Sorption capacity generally increased with an increasing pH of solution. A decrease of sorption capacity had been observed in the order Zn > Cs ≥ Co > Sr for the batch and Cs > Zn > Sr > Co for the percolation tests. Clay marls showed a distinctly higher sorption respectively retention capacity as pure clays. Sorption capacity depends on solution parameters like type and concentration of radionuclide, pH, salt concentration, etc., and on rock parameters like mineral content (e.g. swelling clay minerals and carbonates), organic material, rock pH, micro fabric, etc. A third parameter of great influence is the contact time between clay and solution. The adsorption isotherms reflect two different adsorption mechanisms: a very rapid adsorption (a few minutes) on the external surfaces of clay minerals and a slow adsorption process (weeks and longer), due to the diffusion of metal ions into the interlayer space of clay minerals. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  2. Material Characterization and Real-Time Wear Evaluation of Pistons and Cylinder Liners of the Tiger 131 Military Tank

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Adil; Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Hadfield, Mark; Davies, S.

    2013-01-01

    Material characterisation and wear evaluation of the original and replacement pistons and cylinder-liners of Tiger 131 is reported. Original piston and cylinder-liner were operative in the Tigers’ engine during WWII. The replacement piston and cylinder-liner were used as substitutes and were obtained after failure in two hours of operation in the actual engine. Material characterisation revealed that the original piston was aluminium silicon hypereutectic alloy whereas the replacement piston ...

  3. Deformation and Fabric in Compacted Clay Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensrich, C. M.; Pineda, J.; Luzin, V.; Suwal, L.; Kisi, E. H.; Allameh-Haery, H.

    2018-05-01

    Hydromechanical anisotropy of clay soils in response to deformation or deposition history is related to the micromechanics of platelike clay particles and their orientations. In this article, we examine the relationship between microstructure, deformation, and moisture content in kaolin clay using a technique based on neutron scattering. This technique allows for the direct characterization of microstructure within representative samples using traditional measures such as orientation density and soil fabric tensor. From this information, evidence for a simple relationship between components of the deviatoric strain tensor and the deviatoric fabric tensor emerge. This relationship may provide a physical basis for future anisotropic constitutive models based on the micromechanics of these materials.

  4. Synthetic mullite fabrication from smectite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, L.N. de; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The technological importance of mullite is mostly due to its refractory properties. Mullite in native form is very rare, and therefore it may be necessary to produced it by synthetic means. Brazil has a large reserve of smectite clays. In this work the process to produce synthetic mullite from these clays by treatment with aluminum sulphate was studied. X-ray analyses has shown the presence of mullite crystals in treated smectite clays of several colours, sinterized at 1100 0 C. By sintering at 1300 0 C, pure mullite was obtained in some colours. (author) [pt

  5. Mass ablation and magnetic flux losses through a magnetized plasma-liner wall interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rubio, F.; Sanz, J.

    2017-07-01

    The understanding of energy and magnetic flux losses in a magnetized plasma medium confined by a cold wall is of great interest in the success of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). In a MagLIF scheme, the fuel is magnetized and subsonically compressed by a cylindrical liner. Magnetic flux conservation is degraded by the presence of gradient-driven transport processes such as thermoelectric effects (Nernst) and magnetic field diffusion. In previous publications [Velikovich et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 042702 (2015)], the evolution of a hot magnetized plasma in contact with a cold solid wall (liner) was studied using the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension. The Nernst term degraded the magnetic flux conservation, while both thermal energy and magnetic flux losses were reduced with the electron Hall parameter ωeτe with a power-law asymptotic scaling (ωeτe)-1/2. In the analysis made in the present paper, we consider a similar situation, but with the liner being treated differently. Instead of a cold solid wall acting as a heat sink, we model the liner as a cold dense plasma with low thermal conduction (that could represent the cryogenic fuel layer added on the inner surface of the liner in a high-gain MagLIF configuration). Mass ablation comes into play, which adds notably differences to the previous analysis. The direction of the plasma motion is inverted, but the Nernst term still convects the magnetic field towards the liner. Magnetization suppresses the Nernst velocity and improves the magnetic flux conservation. Thermal energy in the hot plasma is lost in heating the ablated material. When the electron Hall parameter is large, mass ablation scales as (ωeτe)-3/10, while both the energy and magnetic flux losses are reduced with a power-law asymptotic scaling (ωeτe)-7/10.

  6. A review of bias flow liners for acoustic damping in gas turbine combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, C.; Bake, F.

    2017-07-01

    The optimized design of bias flow liner is a key element for the development of low emission combustion systems in modern gas turbines and aero-engines. The research of bias flow liners has a fairly long history concerning both the parameter dependencies as well as the methods to model the acoustic behaviour of bias flow liners under the variety of different bias and grazing flow conditions. In order to establish an overview over the state of the art, this paper provides a comprehensive review about the published research on bias flow liners and modelling approaches with an extensive study of the most relevant parameters determining the acoustic behaviour of these liners. The paper starts with a historical description of available investigations aiming on the characterization of the bias flow absorption principle. This chronological compendium is extended by the recent and ongoing developments in this field. In a next step the fundamental acoustic property of bias flow liner in terms of the wall impedance is introduced and the different derivations and formulations of this impedance yielding the different published model descriptions are explained and compared. Finally, a parametric study reveals the most relevant parameters for the acoustic damping behaviour of bias flow liners and how this is reflected by the various model representations. Although the general trend of the investigated acoustic behaviour is captured by the different models fairly well for a certain range of parameters, in the transition region between the resonance dominated and the purely bias flow related regime all models lack the correct damping prediction. This seems to be connected to the proper implementation of the reactance as a function of bias flow Mach number.

  7. Engineering and innovative erection concept for the containment liner for an EPR trademark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehring, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The determination of the optimal design of the containment liner considering amount of material, manufacturing and erection was the challenge for the engineering team of Babcock Noell GmbH. The construction costs of a Nuclear Power Plant are also impacted by the erection time of components. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the erection times and consequently essentially to shorten. One possibility has been demonstrated by Babcock Noell GmbH with the erection concept of a containment liner. The liner is preassembled on the pre-assembly place in rings of up to 12 meter height, with the nominal diameter of 47 meter and a weight of approximately up to 200 tonnes. These rings, as well as the containment cup and the dome, are lifted with a heavy load crane into the reactor building. Several load cases for normal operation and accidental conditions as well as severe accidents have been analysed. The special load cases in the vicinity of penetrations and anchor plates have been calculated. The results of theses analyses have been considered in the actual design of the liner. This is the topic of the speech '' Computational Concept for the Containment Liner for EPR trademark '', given by Mr. Franz Nagelstutz, Abt. Planning, Babcock Noell GmbH und Mr. Nils Anders, Babcock Noell GmbH, Abt. Planning. With this concept, the construction activities on the inner containment wall are only five times disrupted by the welding and coating of the circumferential weld (approx. 25 calendar days). In comparison with the common known erection concept of welding of liner shells in situ, at least 20 weeks are saved on the schedule. An integrated concept from planning, manufacturing and erection of this large component has been implemented. It could be demonstrated that within the given time frame, with the required quality and within the required tolerances the containment liner for the Nuclear Power Plant can be delivered to the Client. (orig.)

  8. High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Liner for Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar; Greene, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    NARloy-Z (Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr) alloy is state-of-the-art combustion chamber liner material used in liquid propulsion engines such as the RS-68 and RS-25. The performance of future liquid propulsion systems can be improved significantly by increasing the heat transfer through the combustion chamber liner. Prior work1 done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has shown that the thermal conductivity of NARloy-Z alloy can be improved significantly by embedding high thermal conductivity diamond particles in the alloy matrix to form NARloy-Z-diamond composite (fig. 1). NARloy-Z-diamond composite containing 40vol% diamond showed 69% higher thermal conductivity than NARloy-Z. It is 24% lighter than NARloy-Z and hence the density normalized thermal conductivity is 120% better. These attributes will improve the performance and life of the advanced rocket engines significantly. The research work consists of (a) developing design properties (thermal and mechanical) of NARloy-Z-D composite, (b) fabrication of net shape subscale combustion chamber liner, and (c) hot-fire testing of the liner to test performance. Initially, NARloy-Z-D composite slabs were made using the Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) for the purpose of determining design properties. In the next step, a cylindrical shape was fabricated to demonstrate feasibility (fig. 3). The liner consists of six cylinders which are sintered separately and then stacked and diffusion bonded to make the liner (fig. 4). The liner will be heat treated, finish-machined, and assembled into a combustion chamber and hot-fire tested in the MSFC test facility (TF 115) to determine perform.

  9. High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner For Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Ellis, David; Singh, Jogender

    2014-01-01

    Advanced high thermal conductivity materials research conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with state of the art combustion chamber liner material NARloy-Z showed that its thermal conductivity can be increased significantly by adding diamond particles and sintering it at high temperatures. For instance, NARloy-Z containing 40 vol. percent diamond particles, sintered at 975C to full density by using the Field assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) showed 69 percent higher thermal conductivity than baseline NARloy-Z. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40vol. percent D is 30 percent lighter than NARloy-Z and hence the density normalized thermal conductivity is 140 percent better. These attributes will improve the performance and life of the advanced rocket engines significantly. By one estimate, increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power up to 2X and increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and ISP, resulting in an expected 20 percent improvement in engine performance. Follow on research is now being conducted to demonstrate the benefits of this high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite for combustion chamber liner applications in advanced rocket engines. The work consists of a) Optimizing the chemistry and heat treatment for NARloy-Z-D composite, b) Developing design properties (thermal and mechanical) for the optimized NARloy-Z-D, c) Fabrication of net shape subscale combustion chamber liner, and d) Hot fire testing of the liner for performance. FAST is used for consolidating and sintering NARlo-Z-D. The subscale cylindrical liner with built in channels for coolant flow is also fabricated near net shape using the FAST process. The liner will be assembled into a test rig and hot fire tested in the MSFC test facility to determine performance. This paper describes the development of this novel high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite material, and the advanced net shape technology to fabricate the combustion

  10. Candida albicans biofilms and MMA surface treatment influence the adhesion of soft denture liners to PMMA resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinna de Mendonça e Bertolini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Candida albicans biofilms and methyl methacrylate (MMA pretreatment on the bond strength between soft denture liners and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA resin was analyzed. Specimens were prepared and randomly divided with respect to PMMA pretreatment, soft liner type (silicone-based or PMMA-based, and presence or absence of a C. albicans biofilm. Samples were composed of a soft denture liner bonded between two PMMA bars. Specimens (n = 10 were incubated to produce a C. albicans biofilm or stored in sterile PBS for 12 days. The tensile bond strength test was performed and failure type was determined using a stereomicroscope. Surface roughness (SR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis were performed on denture liners (n = 8. Highest bond strength was observed in samples containing a silicone-based soft liner and stored in PBS, regardless of pretreatment (p < 0.01. Silicone-based specimens mostly underwent adhesive failures, while samples containing PMMA-based liners predominantly underwent cohesive failures. The silicone-based specimens SR decreased after 12 days of biofilm accumulation or PBS storage, while the SR of PMMA-based soft liners increased (p < 0.01. The PMMA-based soft liners surfaces presented sharp valleys and depressions, while silicone-based specimens surfaces exhibited more gentle features. In vitro exposure to C. albicans biofilms reduced the adhesion of denture liners to PMMA resin, and MMA pretreatment is recommended during relining procedures.

  11. Elastic-plastic cyclic deformation of the TEXTOR 94 modified liner under conditions of heating and plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, F.H.; Czymek, G.; Giesen, B.; Bondarchuk, E.; Doinikov, N.; Kozhukhovskaja, N.; Panin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present liner of the TEXTOR 94 tokamak installed inside the vacuum vessel represents the thin toroidal shell that is rested on the vessel inner surface. In order to integrate the dynamic ergodic divertor into the tokamak the liner design has been drastically changed. The 120 deg. sector of the liner shell facing the ergodic coils system is removed and some additional holes in the liner are provisioned. This demands a new liner supporting system allowing for the liner thermal expansion and taking the electromagnetic load occurring in the liner during plasma disruption. The cyclic elasto-plastic deformations of the liner caused by the electromagnetic forces and temperature rise have been studied. It is shown that the local plastic deformations occur in the liner elements after the first heating and electromagnetic loading. The most thermal stresses take place in the reinforcing structures around the holes because of the thermal expansion difference of the inconel shell and the steel reinforcements. These stresses are coupled with the bending stress due to the electromagnetic loading. Subsequent repetitive loading does not lead to any significant increment of the plastic deformation. After the materials' hardening the structure cyclically works mostly in the elastic range

  12. Clay nanoparticles for regenerative medicine and biomaterial design: A review of clay bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Mohamed; Evans, Nicholas D; Oreffo, Richard O C; Dawson, Jonathan I

    2018-03-01

    Clay nanoparticles, composites and hydrogels are emerging as a new class of biomaterial with exciting potential for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Clay particles have been extensively explored in polymeric nanocomposites for self-assembly and enhanced mechanical properties as well as for their potential as drug delivery modifiers. In recent years, a cluster of studies have explored cellular interactions with clay nanoparticles alone or in combination with polymeric matrices. These pioneering studies have suggested new and unforeseen utility for certain clays as bioactive additives able to enhance cellular functions including adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, most notably for osteogenesis. This review examines the recent literature describing the potential effects of clay-based nanomaterials on cell function and examines the potential role of key clay physicochemical properties in influencing such interactions and their exciting possibilities for regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fracture in Kaolinite clay suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosgodagan Acharige, Sebastien; Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Arratia, Paulo E.

    2017-11-01

    Clay minerals are involved in many natural (landslides, river channels) and industrial processes (ceramics, cosmetics, oil recovery). They are plate shaped charged colloids and exhibit different flow properties than simpler colloids when suspended in a liquid such as thixotropy and shear-banding. kaolinite platelets are non-swelling, meaning that the stacks formed by the platelets do not have water layers, and thus the suspension does not have a sol-gel transition. However, it has been shown that kaolinite suspensions possesses a non-zero yield stress even at low concentrations, indicating that the particles arrange themselves in a structure through attractive interactions. Here, we experimentally investigate the sedimentation of kaolinite suspensions in a Hele-Shaw cell. The sedimentation of these dilute suspensions can display solid behavior like fracture, revealed in cross-polarized light, which is linked to the failure of the weakly-bonded structure (typical yield stress 10-2 Pa). By changing the interaction potential of the particles (by sonication or introducing salts), we show through these sedimentation experiments, how the fracture pattern can be avoided. Research was sponsored by the Army Research Laboratory and was accomplished under Grant Number 569074.

  14. Clay-free drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmadeyev, R G; Panov, V B; Simonenkov, O I

    1982-01-01

    A clay-free drilling mud is proposed which contains humate-containing substance, alkali electrolyte, gel-former, inhibitor and water. In order to reduce viscosity of the static shear stress and water output under conditions of polyvalent aggression, it additionally contains organic stabilizer with the following ratio of components, % by mass: humate-containing substance 4.0-8.0; alkali electrolyte 0.2-1.5; gel-former 1.0-3.0; organic stabilizer 0.1-1.0; inhibitor 1.0-40.0; water--the rest. The solution is also distinguished by the fact that the gel-former used is magnesium chloride or magnesium sulfate, or calcium chloride or aluminum sulfate, or iron chloride (III) or iron sulfate (II) or waste of chlorides of titanium production with average chemical composition, % by mass: Ti 1.5-7.0; Fe 5.0-15.0; Al 1.5-10.0; Na 5.0-16.0; Mg 0.5-3.0; Cl 30.0-60.0; Ca 0.2-2.0; Cr 0.2-2.0; Cu 0.2-1.5.

  15. Radionuclides sorption in clay soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siraky, G.; Lewis, C.; Hamlat, S.; Nollmann, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The sorption behaviour of clay soils is examined through a parametric study of the distribution coefficient (Kd) for the radionuclides of interest, Cs and Sr. This work is a preliminary stage of the migration studies of these nuclides in a porous medium (ground of Ezeiza, Argentina) and the evaluation of radiologic impact of the removal of low and intermediate activity wastes in shallow trenches. The determination of Kd is performed by a static technique or batch. The phases are separated by centrifugation at 20000 g during 1 hour. The activity of supernatant solution of Cs-137 and Sr-85 is measured in a detecting system of I Na(Tl) well-type. Two types of parameters were changed: a) those related to the determination method: phase separation (centrifugation vs. centrifugation plus filtration); equilibrium period, ratio solid/liquid; b) those related to the geochemical system: pH of contact solution, carrier concentration, competitive ions, ionic strength, desorption. It was observed that the modification of parameters in the Kd-measurement does not change the order of magnitude of results. (Author)

  16. Thermally modified bentonite clay for copper removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagnolli, C.; Kleinübing, S.J.; Silva, M.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Bentonite clay coming from Pernambuco was thermally modified in order to increase its affinity and capacity in the copper removal in porous bed. The application of this procedure is justified by the low cost of clay, their abundance and affinity for various metal ions. Thermally treatment modifies the clay adsorption properties enables its use in porous bed system, with the increase in surface area and mechanical strength. The material was characterized by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and N_2 physisorption. Then tests were carried out for adsorption of copper in various experimental conditions and evaluated the mass transfer zone, useful and total adsorbed removal amounts and total copper removal percentage. The results showed that the clay treated at higher temperature showed higher copper removal. (author)

  17. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of Lithomargic clay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of Lithomargic clay. GEOCHEMICAL AND .... tries, as filling material in the pulp and paper, toothpaste and paint industries as well ..... tions very vital to human health and other ac- tivities of man.

  18. Study of radionuclide migration in clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonioli, F.; Bocola, W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports the studies on the migration of Cs, Sr and I in clay formations, which are presently considered for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The distribution and diffusion coefficients were evaluated by means of experimental techniques and computer procedures, which are presented in this report. The natural clays tested in the laboratory experiments were sampled from the most representative italian basins and from the zone of Mol (Belgium). In addition tests were performed on monomineral clays artificially remade in edometer. The experimental results are in accordance with data found in the literature and show the existence of a good correlation between the observed migration properties and the granulometric and mineralogic characteristics of the natural clays

  19. pillared and un-pillared bentonite clays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    2011-07-29

    Jul 29, 2011 ... A pseudo-second order kinetic model was used to characterize the metal ion transport ... may endanger human health through consumption of sea food and ... widely reported. The pillared clays are two – dimensional zeolite.

  20. experimental characterization of clay soils behavior stabilized

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Rehab Bekkouche, G. Boukhatem

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... California Bearing Ratio (CBR) ... the globe. Clay soils have the curious property of seeing their consistency changes according ... The use of building materials had been popularly applied to soil stabilization, such as cement.

  1. Creep behaviour of a polymer-based underground support liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Dogukan; Ozturk, Hasan

    2017-09-01

    All underground excavations (tunnels, mines, caverns, etc.) need a form of support to ensure that excavations remain safe and stable for the designed service lifetime. In the last decade, a new support material, thin spray-on liner (TSL) has started to take place of traditional underground surface supports of bolts and shotcrete. TSLs are generally cement, latex, polymer-based and also reactive or non-reactive, multi-component materials applied to the rock surface with a layer of few millimeter thickness. They have the advantages of low volume, logistics, rapid application and low operating cost. The majority of current TSLs are two-part products that are mixed on site before spraying onto excavation rock surfaces. Contrary to the traditional brittle supports, the high plastic behaviour of TSLs make them to distribute the loads on larger lining area. In literature, there is a very limited information exist on the creep behavior of TSLs. In this study, the creep behavior of a polymer-based TSL was investigated. For this purpose, 7-day cured dogbone TSL specimens were tested under room temperature and humidity conditions according to ASTM-D2990 creep testing standard. A range of dead weights (80, 60, 40, and 20 % of the tensile strength) were applied up to 1500 hours. As a result of this study, the time-dependent strain behavior of a TSL was presented for different constant load conditions. Moreover, a new equation was derived to estimate tensile failure time of the TSL for a given loading condition. If the tensile stress acting on the TSL is known, the effective permanent support time of the TSL can be estimated by the proposed relationship.

  2. Aspects of clay/concrete interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscarson, D.W.; Dixon, D.A.; Onofrei, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste management, both clay-based materials and concrete are proposed for use as barriers, seals or supporting structures. The main concern when clays and concrete are in proximity is the generation of a high-pH environment by concrete since clay minerals are relatively unstable at high pH. Here we examine the OH - -generating capacity of two high-performance concretes when in contact with several solutions. We also investigate various aspects of claylconcrete interactions. They are: (1) the alkalimetric titration of clay suspensions, (2) the effect of Ca(OH) 2 (portlandite) on the swelling and hydraulic properties of compacted bentonite, and (3) the influence of cement grout on a backfill clay retrieved from the 900-d Buffer/Container Experiment at the Underground Research Laboratory of AECL. The results indicate that although high-performance concretes establish significantly lower poresolution pH (9 to 10) than does ordinary portland cement, the pH is still somewhat higher than that of clay/groundwater systems of about pH 8. Hence, even if high-performance concrete is used in a disposal vault, the potential still exists for clay minerals to alter over long periods of time if in contact with this concrete. The data show, however, that clays have a substantial buffering capacity, and clay-based barriers can thus neutralize much of the OH - potentially released from concrete in a vault. Moreover, even after reacting for 120 d at 85 o C with up to 5 wt.% Ca(OH) 2 , compacted bentonite (dry density = 1.2 Mg/m 3 ) retains much of its swelling capacity and has a permeability low enough (hydraulic conductivity ≤ 10 -11 m/s) to ensure that molecular diffusion will be the main transport mechanism through compacted clay-based barriers. Furthermore, according to X-ray diffractometry, the clay mineral component of backfill was not altered by contact with a cement grout for 900 d in the Buffer/Container Experiment

  3. Development of Lightweight, Compact, Structurally-Integrated Acoustic Liners for Broadband Low-Frequency Noise Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Andrew T.

    Airborne noise with a low dominant frequency content (scope of conventional acoustic noise mitigation techniques using liners, foams or claddings owing to mass and volume considerations. Its low evanescence contributes significantly to environmental noise pollution, and unwanted structural vibrations causing diminished efficiency, comfort, payload integrity and mission capabilities. An alternative approach using liner configurations with realistic mass and volume constraints having innovative 'folded' core geometries is investigated to ascertain its low-frequency noise absorption characteristics. In contrast to mass-driven approaches, the folded core approach relies on tailoring interactions between acoustic resonances to tune the liner's impedance to suit the dominant low-frequency content of the source. This allows to keep non-structural mass-addition to a minimum, while retaining an overall thickness comparable to conventional liners for these low-frequency liner designs. The relative acoustic performance of various candidate folded core designs is evaluated by means of a new composite metric termed the Low-Frequency Performance (LFP) factor, which is educed from the absorption coefficient spectrum obtained using Zwikker-Kosten Transmission Line (ZKTL) theory-based numerical studies. An LFP-based software tool is developed to determine optimal 3D cavity packing for a prescribed liner volume and target frequency range. ZKTL-based parametric studies on core dimensions and face sheet porosity are utilized for detailed design of test articles. Experimental verification of absorption coefficient spectra conducted using 3D printed test articles in a normal incidence acoustic impedance tube yield good correlation with simulations. More than 100 Hz of continuous bandwidth with an absorption coefficient greater than 0.6 is shown to be possible in the 300 to 400 Hz range with a 38.1-mm (1.5-inch) thick liner. Further, the influence of face sheet type, Mach number, and

  4. Estimation of transport parameters of phenolic compounds and inorganic contaminants through composite landfill liners using one-dimensional mass transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varank, Gamze; Demir, Ahmet; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Bilgili, M. Sinan; Top, Selin; Sekman, Elif

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We conduct 1D advection-dispersion modeling to estimate transport parameters. → We examine fourteen phenolic compounds and three inorganic contaminants. → 2-MP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP have the highest coefficients. → Dispersion coefficients of Cu are determined to be higher than Zn and Fe. → Transport of phenolics can be prevented by zeolite and bentonite in landfill liners. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) advection-dispersion transport modeling was conducted as a conceptual approach for the estimation of the transport parameters of fourteen different phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and three different inorganic contaminants (Cu, Zn, Fe) migrating downward through the several liner systems. Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors (0.25 m 3 ) with different composite liners (R1: 0.10 + 0.10 m of compacted clay liner (CCL), L e = 0.20 m, k e = 1 x 10 -8 m/s, R2: 0.002-m-thick damaged high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane overlying 0.10 + 0.10 m of CCL, L e = 0.20 m, k e = 1 x 10 -8 m/s, R3: 0.002-m-thick damaged HDPE geomembrane overlying a 0.02-m-thick bentonite layer encapsulated between 0.10 + 0.10 m CCL, L e = 0.22 m, k e = 1 x 10 -8 m/s, R4: 0.002-m-thick damaged HDPE geomembrane overlying a 0.02-m-thick zeolite layer encapsulated between 0.10 + 0.10 m CCL, L e = 0.22 m, k e = 4.24 x 10 -7 m/s) were simultaneously run for a period of about 540 days to investigate the nature of diffusive and advective transport of the selected organic and inorganic contaminants. The results of 1D transport model showed that the highest molecular diffusion coefficients, ranging from 4.77 x 10 -10 to 10.67 x 10 -10 m 2 /s, were estimated for phenol (R4), 2-MP (R1), 2,4-DNP (R2), 2,4-DCP (R1), 2,6-DCP (R2), 2,4,5-TCP (R2) and 2,3,4,6-TeCP (R1). For all reactors, dispersion coefficients of Cu, ranging from 3.47 x 10 -6 m 2 /s to 5

  5. Quantifying the effect of squirt flow dispersion from compliant clay porosity in clay bearing sandstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kanne; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Compliant porosity in the form of cracks is known to cause significant attenuation and velocity dispersion through pore pressure gradients and consequent relaxation, dubbed squirt flow. Squirt flow from cracks vanish at high confining stress due to crack closing. Studies on clay bearing sandstones......-squirt flow on the bulk modulus of a clay bearing sandstone. The predicted magnitude of the clay-squirt effect on the bulk modulus is compared with experimental data. The clay-squirt effect is found to possibly account for a significant portion of the deviances from Gassmann fluid substitution in claybearing...... sandstones....

  6. Pedological ~cterization, Clay Mine:at~ and .~cation of,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    namely, very deep, well drained, dark reddish brown to dark brown, sandy clay loams and sandy clays on the steep convex slopes; very deep, well drained, dark brown to dark red, sandy clay loams and; sandy clays on the linear slopes; and very ...

  7. Utilization of Nkpuma-Akpatakpa clay in ceramics: characterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nkpuma – Akpatakpa clay was analysed for its ceramics suitability. Chemical, mechanical and spectral characterization of the clay was carried out to obtain more information from this clay found in commercial quantity at Ebonyi State Nigeria. The XRD analysis showed that the principal minerals in the clay are quartz, ...

  8. Preparation and properties of recycled HDPE/clay hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong Lei; Qinglin Wu; Craig M. Clemons

    2007-01-01

    Hybrids based on recycled high density polyethylene (RHDPE) and organic clay were made by melt compounding. The influence of blending method, compatibilizers, and clay content on clay intercalation and exfoliation, RHDPE crystallization behavior, and the mechanical properties of RHDPE/clay hybrids were investigated. Both maleated polyethylene (MAPE) and titanate could...

  9. The Composition and Physical Properties of Some Clays of Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and quartz as the main subsidiary non-clay mineral. The high plasticity index of the clays corresponds to the more transported clays of the tertiary- to –recent environment. The percentage of linear shrinkage varied from 11-16% with the lowest shrinkage (11%), having the coarsest features. Silica (SiO2) content of the clays ...

  10. Growth of Rayleigh-Taylor and bulk convective instabilities in dynamics of plasma liners and pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bud'ko, A.B.; Velikovich, A.L.; Liberman, M.A.; Felber, F.S.

    1989-01-01

    Perturbation growth is studied for the initial, linear stage of an instability development in the course of a cylindrically-symmetric compression and expansion of plasma liners and Z-pinches with a sharp boundary. The hydrodynamic instabilities are Rayleigh-Taylor and bulk convective ones, the former being the most dengerous. Classification of the instability modes developing in accelerated plasmas, inclusing the local and global Rayleigh-Taylor modes, is given. The spectra of the instability growth rates are calculated for plasma liners and Z-pinches. The properties of the spectra appear to explain the filamentation and stratification of plasmas observed in the experiments with liners and Z-pinches. An axial magnetic field is shown to create a window of stability in the space of the flow parameters, where th Rayleigh-Taylor modes are fully suppressed by the magnetic shear, and the bulk convective ones - to a considerable extent. The axial magnetic field required to stabilize the implosion of a liner is estimated as B z0 =(10-30 kG)I(MA)/R 0 (cm), where I is the average current, R 0 - the initial radius of the liner

  11. The PLX- α project: demonstrating the viability of spherically imploding plasma liners as an MIF driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S. C.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Cassibry, J. T.; Gilmore, M.; Samulyak, R.; Stoltz, P.; the PLX-α Team

    2015-11-01

    Under ARPA-E's ALPHA program, the Plasma Liner Experiment-ALPHA (PLX- α) project aims to demonstrate the viability and scalability of spherically imploding plasma liners as a standoff, high-implosion-velocity magneto-inertial-fusion (MIF) driver that is potentially compatible with both low- and high- β targets. The project has three major objectives: (a) advancing existing contoured-gap coaxial-gun technology to achieve higher operational reliability/precision and better control/reproducibility of plasma-jet properties and profiles; (2) conducting ~ π / 2 -solid-angle plasma-liner experiments with 9 guns to demonstrate (along with extrapolations from modeling) that the jet-merging process leads to Mach-number degradation and liner uniformity that are acceptable for MIF; and (3) conducting 4 π experiments with up to 60 guns to demonstrate the formation of an imploding spherical plasma liner for the first time, and to provide empirical ram-pressure and uniformity scaling data for benchmarking our codes and informing us whether the scalings justify further development beyond ALPHA. This talk will provide an overview of the PLX- α project as well as key research results to date. Supported by ARPA-E's ALPHA program; original PLX construction supported by DOE Fusion Energy Sciences.

  12. Compact, Lightweight, Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Based Acoustic Liners for Reducing Subsonic Jet Aircraft Engine Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, J. Douglas; Grady, Joseph E.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hultgren, Lennart S.; Jones, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments have reduced fan and jet noise contributions to overall subsonic aircraft jet-engine noise. Now, aircraft designers are turning their attention toward reducing engine core noise. The NASA Glenn Research Center and NASA Langley Research Center have teamed to investigate the development of a compact, lightweight acoustic liner based on oxide/oxide ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials. The NASA team has built upon an existing oxide/oxide CMC sandwich structure concept that provides monotonal noise reduction. Oxide/oxide composites have good high temperature strength and oxidation resistance, which could allow them to perform as core liners at temperatures up to 1000C (1832F), and even higher depending on the selection of the composite constituents. NASA has initiated the evaluation of CMC-based liners that use cells of different lengths (variable-depth channels) or effective lengths to achieve broadband noise reduction. Reducing the overall liner thickness is also a major goal, to minimize the volume occupied by the liner. As a first step toward demonstrating the feasibility of our concepts, an oxide/oxide CMC acoustic testing article with different channel lengths was tested. Our approach, summary of test results, current status, and goals for the future are reported.

  13. Effect of long-time immersion of soft denture liners in water on viscoelastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Naohiko; Yamaki, Chisato; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Oki, Meiko; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2017-09-26

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-time immersion of soft denture liners in 37°C water on viscoelastic properties. Six silicone-based and two acrylic resin-based soft denture liners were selected. Cylindrical specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 6 months. Viscoelastic properties, which were instantaneous and delayed elastic displacements, viscous flow, and residual displacement, were determined using a creep meter, and analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's comparison (α=0.05). Viscoelastic properties and their time-dependent changes were varied among materials examined. The observed viscoelastic properties of three from six silicone-based liners did not significantly change after 6-month immersion, but those of two acrylic resin-based liners significantly changed with the increase of immersion time. However, the sum of initial instantaneous elastic displacement and delayed elastic displacement of two acrylic resin-based liners during 6-month immersion changed less than 10%, which might indicate clinically sufficient elastic performance.

  14. Development of imploding liners with kinetic energies > 100 MJ and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinovsky, R.E.; Ekdahl, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Los Alamos program in High Energy Density Physics is developing high performance imploding liners as sources of high energy density environments for experimental physics applications. High performance liners are, for these purposes, liners with high velocity, 100 MJ or more kinetic energy at 20-50 MJ/cm of height. They must have sufficient azimuthal symmetry, axial uniformity and density to perform as high quality impactors on central, cylindrical targets. Scientific applications of such liners are numerous and varied. For example, the properties of materials at extreme energy densities can be assessed in such an experimental environment. The physics of plasmas near solid density can be studied and hydrodynamics experiments at high Mach number (above 5?) in materials that are near solid density and significantly ionized can be conducted. In addition, liners with substantial kinetic energy and good integrity at velocities of one to a few cm/microsec make good implosion drivers for fusion plasmas in the context of magnetized target fusion and MAGO

  15. Evaluation of the structural integrity of LMFBR equipment cell liners: results of preliminary investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, W.J.; Sartory, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of a plane wall segment of a prototype liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) cell under conditions of a postulated massive sodium spill was studied. Sodium-concrete reaction calculations were performed assuming an initial flaw existed in the liner such that high-temperature sodium could penetrate to the concrete underneath. Based on existing sodium-concrete reaction rate data, bounding values were established for the maximum energy release per unit volume of concrete. The potential effect of this energy release on the deformation of the liner material was determined. The temperature buildup in the liner and the pressure differential across the flaw in the liner were also studied. The transient thermal and structural responses of the steel liner and backup concrete were analyzed in detail using the inelastic computer code ANSYS. The literature on the mechanical, physical, and general behavior properties of concrete at high temperature was reviewed. This review emphasized the structural behavior of concrete and did not cover the sodium-concrete reaction

  16. Experimental Study of Magnetic Field Production and Dielectric Breakdown of Auto-Magnetizing Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Gabriel; Awe, Thomas; Hutchinson, Trevor; Hutsel, Brian; Slutz, Stephen; Lamppa, Derek

    2017-10-01

    AutoMag liners premagnetize the fuel in MagLIF targets and provide enhanced x-ray diagnostic access and increased current delivery without requiring external field coils. AutoMag liners are composite liners made with discrete metallic helical conduction paths separated by insulating material. First, a low dI/dt ``foot'' current pulse (1 MA in 100 ns) premagnetizes the fuel. Next, a higher dI/dt pulse with larger induced electric field initiates breakdown on the composite liner's; surface, switching the current from helical to axial to implode the liner. Experiments on MYKONOS have tested the premagnetization and breakdown phases of AutoMag and demonstrate axial magnetic fields above 90 Tesla for a 550 kA peak current pulse. Electric fields of 17 MV/m have been generated before breakdown. AutoMag may enhance MagLIF performance by increasing the premagnetization strength significantly above 30 T, thus reducing thermal-conduction losses and mitigating anomalous diffusion of magnetic field out of hotter fuel regions, by, for example, the Nernst thermoelectric effect. This project was funded in part by Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (Projects No. 200169 and 195306).

  17. Inductively Driven, 3D Liner Compression of a Magnetized Plasma to Megabar Energy Densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slough, John [MSNW LLC, Redmond, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    To take advantage of the smaller scale, higher density regime of fusion an efficient method for achieving the compressional heating required to reach fusion gain conditions must be found. What is proposed is a more flexible metallic liner compression scheme that minimizes the kinetic energy required to reach fusion. It is believed that it is possible to accomplish this at sub-megajoule energies. This however will require operation at very small scale. To have a realistic hope of inexpensive, repetitive operation, it is essential to have the liner kinetic energy under a megajoule which allows for the survivability of the vacuum and power systems. At small scale the implosion speed must be reasonably fast to maintain the magnetized plasma (FRC) equilibrium during compression. For limited liner kinetic energy, it becomes clear that the thinnest liner imploded to the smallest radius consistent with the requirements for FRC equilibrium lifetime is desired. The proposed work is directed toward accomplishing this goal. Typically an axial (Z) current is employed for liner compression. There are however several advantages to using a θ-pinch coil. With the θ-pinch the liner currents are inductively driven which greatly simplifies the apparatus and vacuum system, and avoids difficulties with the post implosion vacuum integrity. With fractional flux leakage, the foil liner automatically provides for the seed axial compression field. To achieve it with optimal switching techniques, and at an accelerated pace however will require additional funding. This extra expense is well justified as the compression technique that will be enabled by this funding is unique in the ability to implode individual segments of the liner at different times. This is highly advantageous as the liner can be imploded in a manner that maximizes the energy transfer to the FRC. Production of shaped liner implosions for additional axial compression can thus be readily accomplished with the modified power

  18. Design, engineering and evaluation of refractory liners for slagging gasifiers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    deTineo, B J; Booth, G; Firestone, R F; Greaves, M J; Hales, C; Lamoureux, J P; Ledford, R R

    1982-08-01

    The contract for this program was awarded at the end of September 1978. Work was started on 1 October 1978, on Tasks A, B, and E. Task A, Conceptual Liner Designs, and Task B, Test System Design and Construction, were completed. Task C, Liner Tests, and Task D, Liner Design Evaluation, were to begin upon completion of Task B. Task E, Liner Model Development, is inactive after an initial data compilation and theoretical model development effort. It was to be activated as soon as data were available from Task D. Task F, Liner Design Handbook, was active along with Task A since the reports of both tasks were to use the same format. At this time, Tasks C, D, and F are not to be completed since funding of this project was phased out by DOE directive. The refractory text facility, which was constructed, was tested and found to perform satisfactorily. It is described in detail, including a hazard analysis which was performed. (LTN)

  19. Influence of electric current intensity on the performance of electroformed copper liner for shaped charge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Elshenawy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrolytic Copper used in the shaped charge liner manufacturing can be produced from acid solution using electro-deposition technique. The intensity of the applied electric current controls the quality of the produced copper grade. The electric current intensity within the electrolytic acidic solution cell with the minimum oxygen and sulfur elements in the produced copper was optimized and found to be 30–40 A/Ft2. The elemental composition of the obtained electrolytic copper was determined using high-end stationary vacuum spectrometer, while the oxygen was determined precisely using ELTRA ONH-2000 apparatus. Besides, SEM was used to investigate the shape of the copper texture inside the deposited layers and to determine the average grain size. New relations have been obtained between the applied current intensity and both the oxygen and sulfur contents and the average grain size of the produced copper. Experimental result showed that when the applied current density increases to a certain limit, the oxygen and sulfur content in the electrolytic copper decreases. Performance of the produced copper liner was investigated by the static firing of a small caliber shaped charge containing an electro-formed copper liners, where the penetration depth of the optimized electrolytic liner was enhanced by 22.7% compared to that of baseline non-optimized liner.

  20. What Makes a Natural Clay Antibacterial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynda B.; Metge, David W.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Turner, Amanda G.; Prapaipong, Panjai; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T.

    2011-01-01

    Natural clays have been used in ancient and modern medicine, but the mechanism(s) that make certain clays lethal against bacterial pathogens has not been identified. We have compared the depositional environments, mineralogies, and chemistries of clays that exhibit antibacterial effects on a broad spectrum of human pathogens including antibiotic resistant strains. Natural antibacterial clays contain nanoscale (clay minerals in the bactericidal process is to buffer the aqueous pH and oxidation state to conditions that promote Fe2+ solubility. Chemical analyses of E. coli killed by aqueous leachates of an antibacterial clay show that intracellular concentrations of Fe and P are elevated relative to controls. Phosphorus uptake by the cells supports a regulatory role of polyphosphate or phospholipids in controlling Fe2+. Fenton reaction products can degrade critical cell components, but we deduce that extracellular processes do not cause cell death. Rather, Fe2+ overwhelms outer membrane regulatory proteins and is oxidized when it enters the cell, precipitating Fe3+ and producing lethal hydroxyl radicals. PMID:21413758

  1. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Harrison, Obed Akwaa; Vuvor, Frederick; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was processed clay soil samples. Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms including Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Shigella and Enterobacterspp were isolated from the clay samples. Samples from the Kaneshie market in Accra recorded the highest total viable counts 6.5 Log cfu/g and Staphylococcal count 5.8 Log cfu/g. For fecal coliforms, Madina market samples had the highest count 6.5 Log cfu/g and also recorded the highest levels of yeast and mould. For Koforidua, total viable count was highest in the samples from the Zongo market 6.3 Log cfu/g. Central market samples had the highest count of fecal coliforms 4.6 Log cfu/g and yeasts and moulds 6.5 Log cfu/g. "Small" market recorded the highest staphylococcal count 6.2 Log cfu/g. The water activity of the clay samples were low, and ranged between 0.65±0.01 and 0.66±0.00 for samples collected from Koforidua and Accra respectively. The clay samples were found to contain Klebsiella spp. Escherichia, Enterobacter, Shigella spp. staphylococcus spp., yeast and mould. These have health implications when consumed.

  2. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of clay used for red ceramic fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, P.S.; Morais, A.S.C.; Caldas, T.C.C.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to characterize a clay used in the red ceramics fabrication, from Campos dos Goytacazes north of the State of Rio de Janeiro. The clay was submitted for physical, chemical and mineralogical tests. The results showed that the clay has a high content of clay minerals with kaolinitic predominance, high loss on ignition and low flux oxides. It is recommended that this clay is mixed with non-plastic materials. (author)

  4. Effects of modified Clay on the morphology and thermal stability of PMMA/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Tsung-Yen; Lin, Mei-Ju; Chuang, Yi-Chen; Chou, Po-Chiang

    2013-01-01

    The potential to improve the mechanical, thermal, and optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/clay nanocomposites prepared with clay containing an organic modifier was investigated. Pristine sodium montmorillonite clay was modified using cocoamphodipropionate, which absorbs UVB in the 280–320 nm range, via ion exchange to enhance the compatibility between the clay platelets and the methyl methacrylate polymer matrix. PMMA/clay nanocomposites were synthesized via in situ free-radical polymerization. Three types of clay with various cation-exchange capacities (CEC) were used as inorganic layered materials in these organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites: CL42, CL120, and CL88 with CEC values of 116, 168, and 200 meq/100 g of clay, respectively. We characterized the effects of the organoclay dispersion on UV resistance, effectiveness as an O 2 gas barrier, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of PMMA/clay nanocomposites. Gas permeability analysis demonstrated the excellent gas barrier properties of the nanocomposites, consistent with the intercalated or exfoliated morphologies observed. The optical properties were assessed using UV–Visible spectroscopy, which revealed that these materials have good optical clarity, UV resistance, and scratch resistance. The effect of the dispersion capability of organoclay on the thermal properties of PMMA/clay nanocomposites was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry; these analyses revealed excellent thermal stability of some of the modified clay nanocomposites. - Highlights: ► We control the dispersion morphology by protonation of K2 into the clay. ► The CL120 and CL88, with the higher CEC, are more random intercalated by K2. ► We report these materials have good optical clarity, and UV resistance

  5. Passive afterheat removal in the HTGR with the liner cooling system as a heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehm, W.; Jahn, W.; Verfondern, K.

    1984-09-01

    The report deals with the transients of temperature and system pressure and the fission product behaviour in the primary circuit of an HTGR during passive afterheat removal, where the liner cooling system of the PCRV serves as a heat sink. The analysis has been made for the PNP-500-reactor representing nuclear plants with medium thermal power. The investigations show that the liner cooling system is able to control a core heatup. High temperature loads are encountered in the upper core region. In the case of a reactor under pressure the fuel elements and the primary circuit remain intact as the first and second barriers for fission products. In the case of a depressurized primary circuit the liner cooling system also keeps the PCRV at normal operating temperatures. The effects of a core heatup on component damage and release of fission products are thus limited. (orig.) [de

  6. Milking performance and udder health of cows milked with two different liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten D.; Frimer, Erik S.; Kaartinen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of milking cows with two different liners were measured for a period of 8 months with 115 Danish Holstein cows divided into two groups. G-roup H and L animals were milked with liners with mouthpiece cavity]heights of 30 and 18 mm respectively (other dimensions also differed between...... the two liners). Aver age teat lengths of first lactation cows were 45 and 40 mm for front and rear teats. Older cows had teats similar to 10 min longer. There was no difference in milk yield or milk flow rates between the two groups. Average machine-on time was shorter for group L, and first lactation...... cows of group L were less restive. The frequency of red and blue discoloured teats immediately after milking was higher for group H, and teat length increased on average 5 mm during lactation with no increase for group L. The small overall differences in udder health between the two groups were...

  7. Hydrodynamic model experiments for stabilized liquid liners with annular piston drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, R.L.; Turchi, P.J.; Jenkins, D.J.; Cooper, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    The achievement of megagauss-level magnetic fields by flux compression using controlled liquid liner implosions will be studied in the LINUS-O experiments. This paper reports on experimental studies of the rotating liquid liner at lower energy density, using a one-third scale model with water as the liner material. Radial implosion of the free inside surface of the liquid is achieved by axial displacement of an annular piston, driven by helium. Azimuthally symmetric, repetitive implosion-reexpansion cycles have been demonstrated, with area compressions of over a hundred. The apparatus has also been used to investigate other problems inherent in the annular piston geometry, including piston guidance, seals, z-dependence of the imploding free surface trajectory, and Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the free surface. Methods for r-z plane tailoring of the free surface to provide three-dimensional payload compression are considered

  8. Progress in the Design of the Stabilized Liner Compressor for MTF/MIF Plasma Target Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Sherry; Frese, Michael; Turchi, Peter; Gale, Don

    2016-10-01

    The Stabilized Liner Compressor (SLC) seeks to extend concepts for repetitive, rotationally stabilized, liquid-metal liners driven by free-pistons to much higher drive pressures (25 vs 5 kpsi) and faster implosion speeds (2000 vs 100 m/s) than previously demonstrated. Such extension is needed to enable experiments with magnetized-plasma targets presently offering sizes and lifetimes of 10's cm diam and 10's microsec. SLC represents the confluence of several difficult technologies, including pulsed high pressures, high-speed rotating machinery and alkali-metal (Na, NaK) handling. Solution of the two-dimensional, unsteady, compressible flow of a rotating liquid-metal liner requires advanced numerical techniques. We report the use of the 2-1/2 dimensional MHD code MACH2 to explore flow options, including magnetic flux compression, and to provide pulsed pressure distributions for mechanical design. Supported by ARPA-E ALPHA Program.

  9. Comparative study of multistage cemented liner and openhole system completion technologies in the Montney resource play

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Brad; Lui, David; Klim, James [Murphy Oil Company Ltd (United States); Kenyon, Mike [Society of Petroleum Engineers (Canada); McCaffrey, Matt [Packers Plus Energy Services (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This work highlights hydraulic fracturing technologies implemented in the Lower Montney formation. The goal of the study is to compare two multistage hydraulic fracturing techniques: the cemented liner and the open hole multistage system (OHMS) and to investigate the effects each has on production rates and performance in general. The overall field was separated into two geographical areas and a total of 15 wells were investigated, some of which were subjected to cemented liner fracturing and others to OHMS. Various physical, mechanical, and financial data were collected. These data included: oil production rates, well spacing, pumping rates, stage times, and operational costs. In general, it was shown that OHMS proved to be the more suitable fracturing technique for the Montney formation, yielding higher initial and cumulative production rates. Moreover, average fracturing costs per stage were lower and time to complete was less than with the cemented liner technique.

  10. Vertical and horizontal liners. Expert seminar; Vertikale und horizontale Abdichtungssysteme. Fachseminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, M.; Schulz, T. [comps.

    2000-07-01

    The seminar presented new findings in the fields of surface coverings and alternative liners, vertical liners (with a contribution on developments in Great Britain), and basic constructive problems of liner systems. Another session discussed problems, experience and developments of sealing walls, especially quality assurance measures during sealing wall construction. Apart from presenting a status report, the seminar also intended to provide a basis for an exchange of experience between the attendants. [German] Ein Schwerpunkt des diesjaehrigen Deponieseminars ist die Darstellung von neuen Erkenntnissen und Erfahrungen mit Oberflaechenabdichtungen und mit alternativen Dichtungssystemen fuer Deponien. Weiterhin werden vertikale Abdichtungen behandelt, fuer die ein Beitrag ueber Entwicklungen in Grossbritannien vorliegt sowie grundsaetzliche konstruktive Fragen zu Abdichtungssystemen. Der weitere Seminarschwerpunkt behandelt Problemstellungen, Erfahrungen und Entwicklungen der Dichtwandtechnologie, insbesondere Qualitaetssicherungsmassnahmen waehrend des Dichtwandbaus. Das Ziel des Seminars ist es, einerseits den Stand der Technik und der Forschung darzustellen, andererseits aber die Moeglichkeit zu bieten, Erfahrungen und Informationen auszutauschen. (orig.)

  11. Estimation of exposure to sunlight of the liner under a tiled roof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ole; Rosenfeld, J.L.J.

    2005-01-01

    One construction for a pitched roof is to use tiles on battens, with a liner attached below the battens. The shape of some types of tiles is such that, at each corner where four tiles overlap, a small gap is formed. At certain positions of the sun solar radiation can penetrate through these gaps....... Simulations were carried out for a roof tilted at 25degrees, 35degrees or 45degrees, facing SE, S, SW or W. For the particular roof construction and gap studied, the maximum annual exposure of a 25 mm(2) piece of the liner placed 150 mm below the gap (corresponding to about 100 mm below the base of the tiles...... to the roof. Analytic expressions for the size of the illuminated area are obtained using a thick slit model. The accuracy of the model was assessed by some experimental measurements. The exposure over one year of the roof liner was calculated using the Design Reference Year for Copenhagen, Denmark...

  12. Development of ultrasonic testing technique to inspect containment liners embedded in concrete on nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, H.; Kurozumi, Y. [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System, Incorporated, Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Kaneshima, Y. [The Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study is development of ultrasonic testing technique to inspect containment liners embedded in concrete on nuclear power plants. Integrity of containment liners on nuclear power plants can be secured by suitable present operation and maintenance. Furthermore, non-destructive testing technique to inspect embedded liners will ensure the integrity of the containment further. In order to develop the non-destructive testing technique, ultrasonic transducers were made newly and ultrasonic testing data acquisition and evaluation were carried out by using a mock-up. We adopted the surface shear horizontal (SH) wave, low frequency (0.3-0.5MHz), to be able to detect an echo from a defect against attenuation of ultrasonic waves due to long propagation in the liners and dispersion into concrete. We made transducers with three large active elements (40mm x 40mm) in a line which were equivalent to a 120mm width active element. Artificial hollows, {phi}200mm - 19mm depth (1/2thickness) and {phi}200mm - 9.5mm depth (1/4thickness), were made on a surface of a mock-up: carbon steel plate, 38mm thickness, 2,000mm length, 1000mm width. The surfaces of the plate were covered with concrete in order to simulate liners embedded in concrete. As a result of the examinations, the surface SH transducers could detect clearly the echo from the hollows at a distance of 1500mm. We evaluate that the newly made surface SH transducers with three elements have ability of detection of defects such as corrosion on the liners embedded in concrete. (author)

  13. Engineering and innovative erection concept for the containment liner for a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, Rainer [Babcock Noell GmbH, Wuerzburg (Germany). Abt. Nukleare Projekte; Anders, Nils; Nagelstutz, Franz [Babcock Noell GmbH, Wuerzburg (Germany). Abt. Berechnung

    2010-04-15

    The determination of the optimal design of the containment liner considering amount of material, manufacturing and erection was the challenge for the engineering team of Babcock Noell GmbH. Several load cases for normal operation and accidental conditions as well as severe accidents have been analysed. The special load cases in the vicinity of penetrations and anchor plates have been calculated. The results of theses analyses have been considered in the actual design of the liner. The construction costs of a Nuclear Power Plant are also impacted by the erection time of components. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the erection times and consequently essentially to shorten. One possibility has been demonstrated by Babcock Noell GmbH with the erection concept of a containment liner. The liner is preassembled on the pre-assembly place in rings of up to 12 meter height, with the nominal diameter of 47 meter and a weight of approximately up to 200 tonnes. These rings, as well as the containment cup and the dome, are lifted with a heavy load crane into the reactor building. With this concept, the construction activities on the inner containment wall are only five times disrupted by the welding and coating of the circumferential weld (approx. 25 calendar days). In comparison with the common known erection concept of welding of liner shells in situ, at least 20 weeks are saved on the schedule. An integrated concept from planning, manufacturing and erection of this large component has been implemented. It could be demonstrated that within the given time frame, with the required quality and within the required tolerances the containment liner for the Nuclear Power Plant can be delivered to the Client. (orig.)

  14. Design report on the SSCL prototype 80 K Synchrotron Radiation Liner System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Q.S.; Barts, T.; Chou, W. [and others

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the effort to develop a viable design for an SSC prototype 80 K Synchrotron Radiation Liner System. This liner is designed to be tested in the Superconducting Super Collider Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) facility. The liner is one method under consideration to minimize the presence of photodesorbed gases in the particle beam line vacuum environment. Secondly, the liner is aimed at improving the Collider cryogenic thermal efficiency which would allow a potential luminosity upgrade. The SSC Collider is the first proton superconducting accelerator designed to operate at an energy of 20 TeV (each beam) and a beam current of 72 mA. The Collider will produce a synchrotron power of 0.14 W/m and a total of 18 kW into 4.2 K for the two rings. This radiated power may trigger a serious impact of photodesorbed gases on the operational availability of the Collider. The interaction between beam particle and photodesorbed gases may greatly reduce the beam lifetime and the scattered beam power may lead to quenching of the superconducting magnets. Collider availability may be unacceptable if this concern is not properly addressed. The liner is one method under consideration to minimize the presence of photodesorbed gases in the particle beam line vacuum. Secondly, the liner is aimed improving the Collider`s cryogenic thermal efficiency which would allow a potential luminosity upgrade. The ultimate goal is to require no more than one machine warm up per year for vacuum maintenance during operation of the SSC Collider.

  15. Engineering and innovative erection concept for the containment liner for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehring, Rainer; Anders, Nils; Nagelstutz, Franz

    2010-01-01

    The determination of the optimal design of the containment liner considering amount of material, manufacturing and erection was the challenge for the engineering team of Babcock Noell GmbH. Several load cases for normal operation and accidental conditions as well as severe accidents have been analysed. The special load cases in the vicinity of penetrations and anchor plates have been calculated. The results of theses analyses have been considered in the actual design of the liner. The construction costs of a Nuclear Power Plant are also impacted by the erection time of components. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the erection times and consequently essentially to shorten. One possibility has been demonstrated by Babcock Noell GmbH with the erection concept of a containment liner. The liner is preassembled on the pre-assembly place in rings of up to 12 meter height, with the nominal diameter of 47 meter and a weight of approximately up to 200 tonnes. These rings, as well as the containment cup and the dome, are lifted with a heavy load crane into the reactor building. With this concept, the construction activities on the inner containment wall are only five times disrupted by the welding and coating of the circumferential weld (approx. 25 calendar days). In comparison with the common known erection concept of welding of liner shells in situ, at least 20 weeks are saved on the schedule. An integrated concept from planning, manufacturing and erection of this large component has been implemented. It could be demonstrated that within the given time frame, with the required quality and within the required tolerances the containment liner for the Nuclear Power Plant can be delivered to the Client. (orig.)

  16. Development and application of a packer-type drilling-free liner hanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In liner cementing, the upper cement plug and inner components of a common hanger needs to be drilled out after cementing, which will result in a poor cementing quality or even gas leakage at the flare opening. Therefore, a new packer-type drilling-free liner hanger has been developed, and a hydraulic setting-control packer, a flexible drilling-free seal box, and an auxiliary bearing back-off mechanism that go with the line hanger have been designed at the same time. Specific operation procedures include: (1 run in the liner string to the designed depth, then fully circulate the drilling fluid, finally drop the ball. When the tripping ball gets into the seat, the pressure will go up to cut off the hanging control pin and set the hanger; (2 continue to hold the pressure and cut off the ball seat pin to form circulation; (3 trip in the drill pipe to exert pressure on the hanger, back off to release the hanger from the running tool; (4 lower the drill pipe plug upon the completion of cement injection, cut off the releasing control pin of hollow casing plug, and run down further to bump with the bumping assembly; (5 remove the cementing head and connect the kelly driver, hold pressure again, then slowly pull up the drill tools, exert hydraulic pressure on the setting hydraulic cylinder of the packer assembly to cut off the setting control pin and set the packer; and (6 pull up the tools to the flare opening and wash out excessive cement slurry by circulating to realize free drilling of the whole hole. The successful application of the liner hanger in 127 mm diameter liner in Well BQ203-H1 indicates that the packer-type liner hanger has such advantages as easy hanging and back-off, accurate bumping, simple setting, and sound sealing performance.

  17. Design report on the SSCL prototype 80 K Synchrotron Radiation Liner System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Q.S.; Barts, T.; Chou, W.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the effort to develop a viable design for an SSC prototype 80 K Synchrotron Radiation Liner System. This liner is designed to be tested in the Superconducting Super Collider Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) facility. The liner is one method under consideration to minimize the presence of photodesorbed gases in the particle beam line vacuum environment. Secondly, the liner is aimed at improving the Collider cryogenic thermal efficiency which would allow a potential luminosity upgrade. The SSC Collider is the first proton superconducting accelerator designed to operate at an energy of 20 TeV (each beam) and a beam current of 72 mA. The Collider will produce a synchrotron power of 0.14 W/m and a total of 18 kW into 4.2 K for the two rings. This radiated power may trigger a serious impact of photodesorbed gases on the operational availability of the Collider. The interaction between beam particle and photodesorbed gases may greatly reduce the beam lifetime and the scattered beam power may lead to quenching of the superconducting magnets. Collider availability may be unacceptable if this concern is not properly addressed. The liner is one method under consideration to minimize the presence of photodesorbed gases in the particle beam line vacuum. Secondly, the liner is aimed improving the Collider's cryogenic thermal efficiency which would allow a potential luminosity upgrade. The ultimate goal is to require no more than one machine warm up per year for vacuum maintenance during operation of the SSC Collider

  18. Elevated lip liner positions improving stability in total hip arthroplasty. An experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleman Qurashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of elevated lip polyethylene liners with the acetabular component is relatively common in Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA. Elevated lip liners increase stability of the THA by increasing the jump distance in one direction. However, the elevated lip, conversely, also reduces the primary arc in the opposite direction and leads to early impingement of the neck on the elevated lip, potentially causing instability. The aim of the present study is to determine the total range of motion of the femoral head component within the acetabular component with the elevated lip liner in different orientations within the acetabular cup. Methods: We introduce a novel experimental (ex-vivo framework for studying the effects lip liner orientation on the range of motion of the femoral component. For constant acetabular cup orientation, the elevated lip liner was positioned superiorly and inferiorly. The femoral component range of motion in the coronal, sagittal and axial plane was measured. To avoid any confounding influences of out of plane motion, the femoral component was constrained to move in the tested plane. Results: This experimental set up introduces a rigorous framework in which to test the effects of elevated lip liner orientations on the range of motion of the femoral head component in abduction, adduction, flexion, extension and rotation. The movements of this experimental set-up are directly informative of patient’s maximum potential post-operative range of motion. Initial results show that an inferior placement of the elevated lip increases the effective superior lateral range of motion (abduction for the femoral component, whilst the anatomy of the patient (i.e. their other leg prevents the point of femoral component – acetabular lip impingement being reached (in adduction.

  19. Development of a model capable of predicting the performance of piston ring-cylinder liner-like tribological interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felter, C.L.; Vølund, A.; Imran, Tajammal

    2010-01-01

    Friction in the piston ring package (piston, piston rings, and liner) is a major source of power consumption in large two-stroke marine diesel engines. In order to improve the frictional and wear performance, knowledge about the tribological interface between piston rings and liner is needed...

  20. The Aerodynamic Performance of an Over-the-Rotor Liner With Circumferential Grooves on a High Bypass Ratio Turbofan Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Richard F.; Hughes, Christopher E.; Buckley, James

    2013-01-01

    While liners have been utilized throughout turbofan ducts to attenuate fan noise, additional attenuation is obtainable by placing an acoustic liner over-the-rotor. Previous experiments have shown significant fan performance losses when acoustic liners are installed over-the-rotor. The fan blades induce an oscillating flow in the acoustic liners which results in a performance loss near the blade tip. An over-the-rotor liner was designed with circumferential grooves between the fan blade tips and the acoustic liner to reduce the oscillating flow in the acoustic liner. An experiment was conducted in the W-8 Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center on a 1.5 pressure ratio fan to evaluate the impact of this over-the-rotor treatment design on fan aerodynamic performance. The addition of a circumferentially grooved over-the-rotor design between the fan blades and the acoustic liner reduced the performance loss, in terms of fan adiabatic efficiency, to less than 1 percent which is within the repeatability of this experiment.