WorldWideScience

Sample records for geospatial surveillance pathogen

  1. Schistosomiasis: Geospatial Surveillance and Response Systems in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John; Bergquist, Robert; Rinaldi, Laura; Xiao-nong, Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  2. Building and Using Geospatial Ontology in the BioCaster Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Son Doan; Quoc-Hung Ngo; Ai Kawazoe; Nigel Collier

    2008-01-01

    This abstract presents an approach to building a geospatial ontology from Wikipedia and using it in BioCaster, a system for detecting and tracking infectious disease outbreaks from online news. Motivated by the need to interpret the geospatial dynamics of events we built a database containing the names of countries and major cities from Wikipedia. We started by automatically extracting country and dependent territory names and sub-country (subdivision and dependent area) names in the form of ...

  3. Dynamic intervention: pathogen disarmament of mitochondrial-based immune surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Robin L; Blanke, Steven R

    2014-11-12

    In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Suzuki et al. (2014) describe a Vibrio cholerae Type-III-secreted effector that targets mitochondrial dynamics to dampen host innate immune signaling. This suggests that mammalian hosts possess surveillance mechanisms to monitor pathogen-mediated alterations in the integrity of normal cellular processes and organelles.

  4. Development of methodology to prioritise wildlife pathogens for surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Joanna; Simpson, Helen; Langstaff, Ian

    2007-09-14

    We developed and evaluated a methodology to prioritise pathogens for a wildlife disease surveillance strategy in New Zealand. The methodology, termed 'rapid risk analysis' was based on the import risk analysis framework recommended by the Office Internationale des Epizooties (OIE), and involved: hazard identification, risk estimation, and ranking of 48 exotic and 34 endemic wildlife pathogens. The risk assessment was more rapid than a full quantitative assessment through the use of a semi-quantitative approach to score pathogens for probability of entry to NZ (release assessment), likelihood of spread (exposure assessment) and consequences in free-living wildlife, captive wildlife, humans, livestock and companion animals. Risk was estimated by multiplying the scores for the probability of entry to New Zealand by the likelihood of spread by the consequences for free-living wildlife, humans and livestock. The rapid risk analysis methodology produced scores that were sufficiently differentiated between pathogens to be useful for ranking them on the basis of risk. Ranking pathogens on the basis of the risk estimate for each population sector provided an opportunity to identify the priorities within each sector alone thus avoiding value-laden comparisons between sectors. Ranking pathogens across all three population sectors by summing the risk estimate for each sector provided a comparison of total risk which may be useful for resource allocation decisions at national level. Ranking pathogens within each wildlife taxonomic group using the total risk estimate was most useful for developing specific surveillance strategies for each group.

  5. An exploration of counterfeit medicine surveillance strategies guided by geospatial analysis: lessons learned from counterfeit Avastin detection in the US drug supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Raphael E; Mackey, Tim K

    2014-12-02

    To explore healthcare policy and system improvements that would more proactively respond to future penetration of counterfeit cancer medications in the USA drug supply chain using geospatial analysis. A statistical and geospatial analysis of areas that received notices from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) about the possibility of counterfeit Avastin penetrating the US drug supply chain. Data from FDA warning notices were compared to data from 44 demographic variables available from the US Census Bureau via correlation, means testing and geospatial visualisation. Results were interpreted in light of existing literature in order to recommend improvements to surveillance of counterfeit medicines. This study analysed 791 distinct healthcare provider addresses that received FDA warning notices across 30,431 zip codes in the USA. Statistical outputs were Pearson's correlation coefficients and t values. Geospatial outputs were cartographic visualisations. These data were used to generate the overarching study outcome, which was a recommendation for a strategy for drug safety surveillance congruent with existing literature on counterfeit medication. Zip codes with greater numbers of individuals age 65+ and greater numbers of ethnic white individuals were most correlated with receipt of a counterfeit Avastin notice. Geospatial visualisations designed in conjunction with statistical analysis of demographic variables appeared more capable of suggesting areas and populations that may be at risk for undetected counterfeit Avastin penetration. This study suggests that dual incorporation of statistical and geospatial analysis in surveillance of counterfeit medicine may be helpful in guiding efforts to prevent, detect and visualise counterfeit medicines penetrations in the US drug supply chain and other settings. Importantly, the information generated by these analyses could be utilised to identify at-risk populations associated with demographic characteristics

  6. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-06-20

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  7. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Pathogen Asset Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Wahl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA.

  8. Geospatial Technology in Disease Mapping, E- Surveillance and Health Care for Rural Population in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveenkumar, B. A.; Suresh, K.; Nikhil, A.; Rohan, M.; Nikhila, B. S.; Rohit, C. K.; Srinivas, A.

    2014-11-01

    Providing Healthcare to rural population has been a challenge to the medical service providers especially in developing countries. For this to be effective, scalable and sustainable, certain strategic decisions have to be taken during the planning phase. Also, there is a big gap between the services available and the availability of doctors and medical resources in rural areas. Use of Information Technology can aid this deficiency to a good extent. In this paper, a mobile application has been developed to gather data from the field. A cloud based interface has been developed to store the data in the cloud for effective usage and management of the data. A decision tree based solution developed in this paper helps in diagnosing a patient based on his health parameters. Interactive geospatial maps have been developed to provide effective data visualization facility. This will help both the user community as well as decision makers to carry out long term strategy planning.

  9. Injury surveillance in low-resource settings using Geospatial and Social Web technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuurman Nadine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive public health gains have benefited high-income countries in recent decades, however, citizens of low and middle-income countries (LMIC have largely not enjoyed the same advancements. This is in part due to the fact that public health data - the foundation for public health advances - are rarely collected in many LMIC. Injury data are particularly scarce in many low-resource settings, despite the huge associated burden of morbidity and mortality. Advances in freely-accessible and easy-to-use information and communication (ICT technology may provide the impetus for increased public health data collection in settings with limited financial and personnel resources. Methods and Results A pilot study was conducted at a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa to assess the utility and feasibility of using free (non-licensed, and easy-to-use Social Web and GeoWeb tools for injury surveillance in low-resource settings. Data entry, geocoding, data exploration, and data visualization were successfully conducted using these technologies, including Google Spreadsheet, Mapalist, BatchGeocode, and Google Earth. Conclusion This study examined the potential for Social Web and GeoWeb technologies to contribute to public health data collection and analysis in low-resource settings through an injury surveillance pilot study conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. The success of this study illustrates the great potential for these technologies to be leveraged for public health surveillance in resource-constrained environments, given their ease-of-use and low-cost, and the sharing and collaboration capabilities they afford. The possibilities and potential limitations of these technologies are discussed in relation to the study, and to the field of public health in general.

  10. A NoSQL–SQL Hybrid Organization and Management Approach for Real-Time Geospatial Data: A Case Study of Public Security Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread deployment of ground, air and space sensor sources (internet of things or IoT, social networks, sensor networks, the integrated applications of real-time geospatial data from ubiquitous sensors, especially in public security and smart city domains, are becoming challenging issues. The traditional geographic information system (GIS mostly manages time-discretized geospatial data by means of the Structured Query Language (SQL database management system (DBMS and emphasizes query and retrieval of massive historical geospatial data on disk. This limits its capability for on-the-fly access of real-time geospatial data for online analysis in real time. This paper proposes a hybrid database organization and management approach with SQL relational databases (RDB and not only SQL (NoSQL databases (including the main memory database, MMDB, and distributed files system, DFS. This hybrid approach makes full use of the advantages of NoSQL and SQL DBMS for the real-time access of input data and structured on-the-fly analysis results which can meet the requirements of increased spatio-temporal big data linking analysis. The MMDB facilitates real-time access of the latest input data such as the sensor web and IoT, and supports the real-time query for online geospatial analysis. The RDB stores change information such as multi-modal features and abnormal events extracted from real-time input data. The DFS on disk manages the massive geospatial data, and the extensible storage architecture and distributed scheduling of a NoSQL database satisfy the performance requirements of incremental storage and multi-user concurrent access. A case study of geographic video (GeoVideo surveillance of public security is presented to prove the feasibility of this hybrid organization and management approach.

  11. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of the...

  12. Host-pathogen interactions: A cholera surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Aaron T.

    2016-02-22

    Bacterial pathogen-secreted proteases may play a key role in inhibiting a potentially widespread host-pathogen interaction. Activity-based protein profiling enabled the identification of a major Vibrio cholerae serine protease that limits the ability of a host-derived intestinal lectin to bind to the bacterial pathogen in vivo.

  13. Mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) at Kulm Wetland Management District : 2008-2009 proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for 20082009 mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza HPAI at Kulm Wetland Management District in North Dakota. Surveillance will focus...

  14. Mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) at Kulm Wetland Management District : 2010-2011 proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for 20102011 mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza HPAI at Kulm Wetland Management District in North Dakota. Surveillance will focus...

  15. Mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) at Kulm Wetland Management District : 2008-2009 proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for 2008-2009 mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) at Kulm Wetland Management District in North Dakota. Surveillance will...

  16. Mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) at Kulm Wetland Management District : 2009-2010 proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for 2009-2010 mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) at Kulm Wetland Management District in North Dakota. Surveillance will...

  17. Mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) at Kulm Wetland Management District : 2010-2011 proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for 2010-2011 mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) at Kulm Wetland Management District in North Dakota. Surveillance will...

  18. Community incidence of pathogen-specific gastroenteritis: reconstructing the surveillance pyramid for seven pathogens in seven European Union member states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagsma, J. A.; Geenen, P. L.; Ethelberg, S.

    2013-01-01

    By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data on the hea......By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data...... on the healthcare system in seven European Union member states in relation to pathogen characteristics that influence healthcare seeking. Data on healthcare usage were obtained by harmonized cross-sectional surveys. The degree of under-diagnosis and underreporting varied by pathogen and country. Overall...... are adjusted for biases due to different surveillance systems and are therefore a better basis for international comparisons than reported data....

  19. Whole-Genome Sequencing for Routine Pathogen Surveillance in Public Health: a Population Snapshot of Invasive Staphylococcus aureus in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Aanensen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of routine whole-genome sequencing (WGS promises to transform our ability to monitor the emergence and spread of bacterial pathogens. Here we combined WGS data from 308 invasive Staphylococcus aureus isolates corresponding to a pan-European population snapshot, with epidemiological and resistance data. Geospatial visualization of the data is made possible by a generic software tool designed for public health purposes that is available at the project URL (http://www.microreact.org/project/EkUvg9uY?tt=rc. Our analysis demonstrates that high-risk clones can be identified on the basis of population level properties such as clonal relatedness, abundance, and spatial structuring and by inferring virulence and resistance properties on the basis of gene content. We also show that in silico predictions of antibiotic resistance profiles are at least as reliable as phenotypic testing. We argue that this work provides a comprehensive road map illustrating the three vital components for future molecular epidemiological surveillance: (i large-scale structured surveys, (ii WGS, and (iii community-oriented database infrastructure and analysis tools.

  20. Evaluating a surveillance system: live-bird market surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza, a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Nguku, Patrick; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ike; Kabir, Junaidu; Okolocha, Emmanuel; Tseggai, Tesfai; Joannis, Tony; Okewole, Phillip; Kumbish, Peterside; Ahmed, Mohammed; Lombin, Lami; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 was first reported in poultry in Nigeria in February 2006. The only human case that occurred was linked to contact with poultry in a live bird market (LBM). LBM surveillance was instituted to assess the degree of threat of human exposure to H5N1. The key indicator was detection of H5N1 in LBMs. We evaluated the surveillance system to assess its operations and attributes. We used the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. We reviewed and analyzed passive surveillance data for HPAI (January 2006-March 2009) from the Avian Influenza National Reference Laboratory, and live bird market surveillance data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nigeria. We interviewed key stakeholders and reviewed reports of live bird market surveillance to obtain additional information on the operations of the system. We assessed the key system attributes. A total of 299 cases occurred in 25 (72%) states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The system detected HPAI H5N1 virus in 7 (9.5%) LBMs; 2 (29%) of which were from 2 (18.2%) states with no previous case. A total of 17,852 (91.5%) of samples arrived at the laboratory within 24 hours but laboratory analysis took over 7 days. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were 15.4% and 66.7% respectively. The system is useful, flexible, complex and not timely, but appears to be meeting its objectives. The isolation of HPAI H5N1 virus in some of these markets is an indication that the markets are possible reservoirs of the virus in Nigeria. We recommend that the Federal Government of Nigeria should dedicate more funds for surveillance for HPAI as this will aid early warning and reduce the risk of a pandemic.

  1. Evaluating Surveillance Strategies for the Early Detection of Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Arianna; Stegeman, Arjan; Marangon, Stefano; Klinkenberg, Don

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the early detection of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in poultry has become increasingly important, given their potential to mutate into highly pathogenic viruses. However, evaluations of LPAI surveillance have mainly focused on prevalence and not on the ability to act as an early warning system. We used a simulation model based on data from Italian LPAI epidemics in turkeys to evaluate different surveillance strategies in terms of their performance as early warning systems. The strategies differed in terms of sample size, sampling frequency, diagnostic tests, and whether or not active surveillance (i.e., routine laboratory testing of farms) was performed, and were also tested under different epidemiological scenarios. We compared surveillance strategies by simulating within-farm outbreaks. The output measures were the proportion of infected farms that are detected and the farm reproduction number (Rh). The first one provides an indication of the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect within-farm infections, whereas Rh reflects the effectiveness of outbreak detection (i.e., if detection occurs soon enough to bring an epidemic under control). Increasing the sampling frequency was the most effective means of improving the timeliness of detection (i.e., it occurs earlier), whereas increasing the sample size increased the likelihood of detection. Surveillance was only effective in preventing an epidemic if actions were taken within two days of sampling. The strategies were not affected by the quality of the diagnostic test, although performing both serological and virological assays increased the sensitivity of active surveillance. Early detection of LPAI outbreaks in turkeys can be achieved by increasing the sampling frequency for active surveillance, though very frequent sampling may not be sustainable in the long term. We suggest that, when no LPAI virus is circulating yet and there is a low risk of virus introduction, a

  2. Community incidence of pathogen-specific gastroenteritis: reconstructing the surveillance pyramid for seven pathogens in seven European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagsma, J A; Geenen, P L; Ethelberg, S; Fetsch, A; Hansdotter, F; Jansen, A; Korsgaard, H; O'Brien, S J; Scavia, G; Spitznagel, H; Stefanoff, P; Tam, C C; Havelaar, A H

    2013-08-01

    By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data on the healthcare system in seven European Union member states in relation to pathogen characteristics that influence healthcare seeking. Data on healthcare usage were obtained by harmonized cross-sectional surveys. The degree of under-diagnosis and underreporting varied by pathogen and country. Overall, underreporting and under-diagnosis were estimated to be lowest for Germany and Sweden, followed by Denmark, The Netherlands, UK, Italy and Poland. Across all countries, the incidence rate was highest for Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Incidence estimates resulting from the pyramid reconstruction approach are adjusted for biases due to different surveillance systems and are therefore a better basis for international comparisons than reported data.

  3. Pathogen surveillance in wild bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaing, Crystal; Thissen, James B; Gardner, Shea; McLoughlin, Kevin; Slezak, Tom; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

    2015-10-16

    The number and prevalence of diseases is rapidly increasing in the marine ecosystem. Although there is an increase in the number of marine diseases observed world-wide, current understanding of the pathogens associated with marine mammals is limited. An important need exists to develop and apply platforms for rapid detection and characterization of pathogenic agents to assess, prevent and respond to disease outbreaks. In this study, a broad-spectrum molecular detection technology capable of detecting all sequenced microbial organisms, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array, was used to assess the microbial agents that could be associated with wild Atlantic dolphins. Blowhole, gastric, and fecal samples from 8 bottlenose dolphins were collected in Charleston, SC, as part of the dolphin assessment effort. The array detected various microbial agents from the dolphin samples. Clostridium perfringens was most prevalent in the samples surveyed using the microarray. This pathogen was also detected using microbiological culture techniques. Additionally, Campylobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., Erwinia amylovora, Helicobacter pylori, and Frankia sp. were also detected in more than one dolphin using the microarray, but not in culture. This study provides the first survey of pathogens associated with 3 tissue types in dolphins using a broad-spectrum microbial detection microarray and expands insight on the microbial community profile in dolphins.

  4. Prescription Surveillance and Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing to Identify Pathogens during Outbreaks of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Sugiura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Syndromic surveillance, including prescription surveillance, offers a rapid method for the early detection of agents of bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases. However, it has the disadvantage of not considering definitive diagnoses. Here, we attempted to definitively diagnose pathogens using polymerase chain reaction (PCR immediately after the prescription surveillance system detected an outbreak. Specimens were collected from 50 patients with respiratory infections. PCR was used to identify the pathogens, which included 14 types of common respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Infectious agents including M. pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, rhinovirus, enterovirus, and parainfluenza virus were detected in 54% of patients. For the rapid RSV diagnosis kit, sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 85%. For the rapid adenovirus diagnosis kit, no positive results were obtained; therefore, sensitivity could not be calculated and specificity was 100%. Many patients were found to be treated for upper respiratory tract infections without the diagnosis of a specific pathogen. In Japan, an outbreak of M. pneumoniae infection began in 2011, and our results suggested that this outbreak may have included false-positive cases. By combining syndromic surveillance and PCR, we were able to rapidly and accurately identify causative pathogens during a recent respiratory infection outbreak.

  5. Breaking Out of Surveillance Silos: Integrative Geospatial Data Collection for Child Injury Risk and Active School Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Laura; Curtis, Jacqueline W; Curtis, Andrew; Hudson, Courtney; Wuensch, Heather; Sampsell, Malinda; Wiles, Erika; Infantino, Mary; Davis, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    The preponderance of active school transport (AST) and child injury research has occurred independently, yet they are inherently related. This is particularly true in urban areas where the environmental context of AST may pose risks to safety. However, it can be difficult to make these connections due to the often segregated nature in which these veins of research operate. Spatial video presents a geospatial approach for simultaneous data collection related to both issues. This article reports on a multi-sector pilot project among researchers, a children's hospital, and a police department, using spatial video to map child AST behaviors; a geographic information system (GIS) is used to analyze these data in the environmental context of child pedestrian injury and community violence.

  6. 9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../H7 low pathogenic avian influenza. 146.14 Section 146.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of the...

  7. An exploration of counterfeit medicine surveillance strategies guided by geospatial analysis: lessons learned from counterfeit Avastin detection in the US drug supply chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cuomo, Raphael E; Mackey, Tim K

    2014-01-01

    To explore healthcare policy and system improvements that would more proactively respond to future penetration of counterfeit cancer medications in the USA drug supply chain using geospatial analysis...

  8. Geospatial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Philip A.; Ritz, John

    2004-01-01

    Geospatial technology refers to a system that is used to acquire, store, analyze, and output data in two or three dimensions. This data is referenced to the earth by some type of coordinate system, such as a map projection. Geospatial systems include thematic mapping, the Global Positioning System (GPS), remote sensing (RS), telemetry, and…

  9. The Need and New Tools for Surveillance of Escherichia coli Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asalapuram R. Pavankumar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Among foodborne pathogens, diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli is of major concern because of its commensal status, abundance in the natural environment, and ability to acquire virulence determinants by horizontal gene transfer from other microbes. From enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC strains to the more virulent enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, the mechanisms of pathogenicity within this species are intriguing. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics are providing novel tools for improved rapid detection and quantification of this and other pathogenic bacteria from clinical, food, and environmental specimens. These include simple and inexpensive colorimetric and immunological methods to more elaborate nucleic acid-based assays that combine extreme specificity to unparalleled sensitivity and high sample throughput. This review summarizes the current state of E. coli pathogenesis with emphasis on the need for incorporating detection and surveillance tools as part of pre- and post-harvest food safety ideals.

  10. Surveillance plan for the early detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in migratory birds in the United States: surveillance year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary: This Surveillance Plan (Plan) describes plans for conducting surveillance of wild birds in the United States and its Territories and Freely-Associated States to provide for early detection of the introduction of the H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype of the influenza A virus by migratory birds during the 2009 surveillance year, spanning the period of April 1, 2009 - March 31, 2010. The Plan represents a continuation of surveillance efforts begun in 2006 under the Interagency Strategic Plan for the Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of the Interior, 2006). The Plan sets forth sampling plans by: region, target species or species groups to be sampled, locations of sampling, sample sizes, and sampling approaches and methods. This Plan will be reviewed annually and modified as appropriate for subsequent surveillance years based on evaluation of information from previous years of surveillance, changing patterns and threats of H5N1 HPAI, and changes in funding availability for avian influenza surveillance. Specific sampling strategies will be developed accordingly within each of six regions, defined here as Alaska, Hawaiian/Pacific Islands, Lower Pacific Flyway (Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona), Central Flyway, Mississippi Flyway, and Atlantic Flyway.

  11. Surveillance plan for the early detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in migratory birds in the United States: surveillance year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary: This Surveillance Plan (Plan) describes plans for conducting surveillance of wild birds in the United States and its Territories and Freely-Associated States to provide for early detection of the introduction of the H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype of the influenza A virus by migratory birds during the 2009 surveillance year, spanning the period of April 1, 2009 - March 31, 2010. The Plan represents a continuation of surveillance efforts begun in 2006 under the Interagency Strategic Plan for the Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of the Interior, 2006). The Plan sets forth sampling plans by: region, target species or species groups to be sampled, locations of sampling, sample sizes, and sampling approaches and methods. This Plan will be reviewed annually and modified as appropriate for subsequent surveillance years based on evaluation of information from previous years of surveillance, changing patterns and threats of H5N1 HPAI, and changes in funding availability for avian influenza surveillance. Specific sampling strategies will be developed accordingly within each of six regions, defined here as Alaska, Hawaiian/Pacific Islands, Lower Pacific Flyway (Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona), Central Flyway, Mississippi Flyway, and Atlantic Flyway.

  12. Development and application of the active surveillance of pathogens microarray to monitor bacterial gene flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinds Jason

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human and animal health is constantly under threat by emerging pathogens that have recently acquired genetic determinants that enhance their survival, transmissibility and virulence. We describe the construction and development of an Active Surveillance of Pathogens (ASP oligonucleotide microarray, designed to 'actively survey' the genome of a given bacterial pathogen for virulence-associated genes. Results The microarray consists of 4958 reporters from 151 bacterial species and include genes for the identification of individual bacterial species as well as mobile genetic elements (transposons, plasmid and phage, virulence genes and antibiotic resistance genes. The ASP microarray was validated with nineteen bacterial pathogens species, including Francisella tularensis, Clostridium difficile, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The ASP microarray identified these bacteria, and provided information on potential antibiotic resistance (eg sufamethoxazole resistance and sulfonamide resistance and virulence determinants including genes likely to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer (e.g. an alpha-haemolysin. Conclusion The ASP microarray has potential in the clinic as a diagnostic tool, as a research tool for both known and emerging pathogens, and as an early warning system for pathogenic bacteria that have been recently modified either naturally or deliberately.

  13. GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Research on Lightning Monitoring System Based on the Geo-spatial Combined with the contemporary application of lightning monitoring, this paper aimed to analyze the structure, working principle, and functions of the Lightning Monitoring System based on the geo-spatial framework, which merged modern surveying and mapping of geographic information technologies, and also present the more ac- curate and more in-depth research about lightning disasters.

  14. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias;

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  15. Geospatial Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Stacey D.

    2009-01-01

    A software package that has been designed to allow authentication for determining if the rover(s) is/are within a set of boundaries or a specific area to access critical geospatial information by using GPS signal structures as a means to authenticate mobile devices into a network wirelessly and in real-time has been developed. The advantage lies in that the system only allows those with designated geospatial boundaries or areas into the server. The Geospatial Authentication software has two parts Server and Client. The server software is a virtual private network (VPN) developed in Linux operating system using Perl programming language. The server can be a stand-alone VPN server or can be combined with other applications and services. The client software is a GUI Windows CE software, or Mobile Graphical Software, that allows users to authenticate into a network. The purpose of the client software is to pass the needed satellite information to the server for authentication.

  16. Geospatial health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Rinaldi, Laura; Malone, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Geospatial Health is an international, peer-reviewed scientific journal produced by the Global Network for Geospatial Health (GnosisGIS). This network was founded in 2000 and the inaugural issue of its official journal was published in November 2006 with the aim to cover all aspects of geographical...... information system (GIS) applications, remote sensing and other spatial analytic tools focusing on human and veterinary health. The University of Naples Federico II is the publisher, producing two issues per year, both as hard copy and an open-access online version. The journal is referenced in major...... databases, including CABI, ISI Web of Knowledge and PubMed. In 2008, it was assigned its first impact factor (1.47), which has now reached 1.71. Geospatial Health is managed by an editor-in-chief and two associate editors, supported by five regional editors and a 23-member strong editorial board...

  17. GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed the problems of limited performance of servers and network in traditional C/S mode, analyzed the characteristic and combination between P2P and KML geospatial information services, and designed new cooperated architecture. The test from practical application in digital city project approved the model can improve date transmission,

  18. Geospatial Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    drinking , sanitation, food preparation, construction, and decontamination. Support activities (helicopter maintenance , operation of medical facilities...analyses to find water sources for wells and key infrastructure locations. There are additional missions performed by geospatial engineers during the...polygons). Each feature can include embedded information (attributes) (body- of- water bank heights, road surface type, road width, bridge load-bearing

  19. Use of wildlife rehabilitation centres in pathogen surveillance: A case study in white storks (Ciconia ciconia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, MariaCruz; Hernández, Jose Manuel; Lima-Barbero, Jose Francisco; Höfle, Ursula

    2016-08-01

    More than 70% of new human pathogens are zoonotic and many originate from the wildlife reservoir. Wildlife rehabilitation centres (WRC) are an easily accessible source for sample and data collection for preventive surveillance, but data collected this way may be biased. We use white storks (Ciconia ciconia) as a model to compare pathogen prevalence obtained in the field and WRC. We address factors that may affect disease prevalence data like origin, the age group and the "diseased" state of WRC admissions. In this study we compared prevalence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in the digestive tract; antibodies against West Nile virus, avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of E. coli between nestling and adult wild storks established in different habitats (n=90) and storks admitted to two different WRC (n=30) in the same region. When age groups and colonies of origin were disregarded, the mean enterobacteria (E. coli, Salmonella) and viral antibody prevalence of the wild population (n=90) were similar to prevalence observed in the individuals admitted to WRC (n=30). However, in fledgling juvenile storks admitted to WRC, the prevalence of Salmonella spp. (13.3%), E. coli showing resistance to cefotaxime (37.9%) and against two antimicrobials at once (41.4%) were more similar to the prevalence in stork nestlings from landfill-associated colonies (7.9%, 37.1% and 48.6%, respectively for prevalence of Salmonella spp. and E. coli displaying, cefotaxime resistance and resistance against two antimicrobials), and significantly higher than in colonies located in natural habitats (0%; 10.5% and 15.8%, respectively). Thus, pathogen surveillance in individuals from an abundant species admitted to WRC is useful to monitor overall mean prevalence, but for certain pathogens may not be sufficient to detect differences between local populations. In addition, the ecology of the tested species and the specific temporal, spatial and

  20. Surveillance for zoonotic and selected pathogens in harbor seals Phoca vitulina from central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Denise J.; Ip, Hon S.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Miller, Woutrina A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Field, Cara L.; Fleetwood, Michelle; Harvey, James T.; Jang, Spencer; Packham, Andrea; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Hall, Ailsa J.

    2014-01-01

    The infection status of harbor seals Phoca vitulina in central California, USA, was evaluated through broad surveillance for pathogens in stranded and wild-caught animals from 2001 to 2008, with most samples collected in 2007 and 2008. Stranded animals from Mendocino County to San Luis Obispo County were sampled at a rehabilitation facility: The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC, n = 175); wild-caught animals were sampled at 2 locations: San Francisco Bay (SF, n = 78) and Tomales Bay (TB, n = 97), that differed in degree of urbanization. Low prevalences of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium were detected in the feces of stranded and wild-caught seals. Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli were more prevalent in the feces of stranded (58% [78 out of 135] and 76% [102 out of 135]) than wild-caught (42% [45 out of 106] and 66% [68 out of 106]) seals, whereas Vibrio spp. were 16 times more likely to be cultured from the feces of seals from SF than TB or TMMC (p neurona, and type A influenza was only detected in the wild-caught harbor seals (post-weaning age classes), whereas antibody titers to Leptospira spp. were detected in stranded and wild-caught seals. No stranded (n = 109) or wild-caught (n = 217) harbor seals had antibodies to phocine distemper virus, although a single low titer to canine distemper virus was detected. These results highlight the role of harbor seals as sentinel species for zoonotic and terrestrial pathogens in the marine environment.

  1. Large-scale drivers of malaria and priority areas for prevention and control in the Brazilian Amazon region using a novel multi-pathogen geospatial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Denis; Lima, Joanna M Tucker

    2014-11-20

    Most of the malaria burden in the Americas is concentrated in the Brazilian Amazon but a detailed spatial characterization of malaria risk has yet to be undertaken. Utilizing 2004-2008 malaria incidence data collected from six Brazilian Amazon states, large-scale spatial patterns of malaria risk were characterized with a novel Bayesian multi-pathogen geospatial model. Data included 2.4 million malaria cases spread across 3.6 million sq km. Remotely sensed variables (deforestation rate, forest cover, rainfall, dry season length, and proximity to large water bodies), socio-economic variables (rural population size, income, and literacy rate, mortality rate for children age under five, and migration patterns), and GIS variables (proximity to roads, hydro-electric dams and gold mining operations) were incorporated as covariates. Borrowing information across pathogens allowed for better spatial predictions of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, as evidenced by a ten-fold cross-validation. Malaria incidence for both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum tended to be higher in areas with greater forest cover. Proximity to gold mining operations was another important risk factor, corroborated by a positive association between migration rates and malaria incidence. Finally, areas with a longer dry season and areas with higher average rural income tended to have higher malaria risk. Risk maps reveal striking spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk across the region, yet these mean disease risk surface maps can be misleading if uncertainty is ignored. By combining mean spatial predictions with their associated uncertainty, several sites were consistently classified as hotspots, suggesting their importance as priority areas for malaria prevention and control. This article provides several contributions. From a methodological perspective, the benefits of jointly modelling multiple pathogens for spatial predictions were illustrated. In addition, maps of mean disease risk were

  2. Implementing hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections caused by influenza and other respiratory pathogens in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q Sue Huang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent experience with pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 highlighted the importance of global surveillance for severe respiratory disease to support pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. Improved surveillance in the southern hemisphere is needed to provide critical data on influenza epidemiology, disease burden, circulating strains and effectiveness of influenza prevention and control measures. Hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI cases was established in New Zealand on 30 April 2012. The aims were to measure incidence, prevalence, risk factors, clinical spectrum and outcomes for SARI and associated influenza and other respiratory pathogen cases as well as to understand influenza contribution to patients not meeting SARI case definition. Methods/Design: All inpatients with suspected respiratory infections who were admitted overnight to the study hospitals were screened daily. If a patient met the World Health Organization’s SARI case definition, a respiratory specimen was tested for influenza and other respiratory pathogens. A case report form captured demographics, history of presenting illness, co-morbidities, disease course and outcome and risk factors. These data were supplemented from electronic clinical records and other linked data sources. Discussion: Hospital-based SARI surveillance has been implemented and is fully functioning in New Zealand. Active, prospective, continuous, hospital-based SARI surveillance is useful in supporting pandemic preparedness for emerging influenza A(H7N9 virus infections and seasonal influenza prevention and control.

  3. Geospatial Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: To process, store, and disseminate geospatial data to the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies.DESCRIPTION: The Geospatial Services Laboratory...

  4. Geospatial semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chuanrong; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers key issues related to Geospatial Semantic Web, including geospatial web services for spatial data interoperability; geospatial ontology for semantic interoperability; ontology creation, sharing, and integration; querying knowledge and information from heterogeneous data source; interfaces for Geospatial Semantic Web, VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) and Geospatial Semantic Web; challenges of Geospatial Semantic Web; and development of Geospatial Semantic Web applications. This book also describes state-of-the-art technologies that attempt to solve these problems such as WFS, WMS, RDF, OWL, and GeoSPARQL, and demonstrates how to use the Geospatial Semantic Web technologies to solve practical real-world problems such as spatial data interoperability.

  5. Geospatial Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: To process, store, and disseminate geospatial data to the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies. DESCRIPTION: The Geospatial Services Laboratory...

  6. Passive Surveillance of Ixodes scapularis (Say), Their Biting Activity, and Associated Pathogens in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang; Mather, Thomas N.; Hollingsworth, Craig S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A passive surveillance of tick-borne pathogens was conducted over a 7-year period (2006–2012), in which a total of 3551 ticks were submitted to the University of Massachusetts for PCR testing. The vast majority of these ticks were Ixodes scapularis from Massachusetts (N = 2088) and hence were the focus of further analysis. Two TaqMan duplex qPCR assays were developed to test I. scapularis ticks for the presence of three human pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti. I. scapularis submissions were concentrated from Cape Cod, the eastern half of the state outside of the Boston metropolitan area, parts of Franklin and Hampshire counties along the Quabbin Reservoir watershed, and southwestern Berkshire county. Differences in seasonal activity pattern were observed for different developmental stages of I. scapularis. The largest proportion of tick bite victims were age 9 years and under. Nymphal ticks were found more often on lower extremities of their hosts, while more adult ticks were found on the head. Overall infection rate of B. burgdorferi, A. phagocytophilum, and B. microti in human-biting ticks was 29.6%, 4.6%, and 1.8%, respectively. B. burgdorferi-infected ticks were widely distributed, but A. phagocytophilum- and B. microti-infected I. scapularis were found mainly in the eastern half of the state. We found that 1.8%, 1.0%, and 0.4% of ticks were coinfected by B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi and B. microti, and A. phagocytophilum and B. microti, respectively, and 0.3% of ticks had triple coinfection. PMID:27248292

  7. Evaluation of PCR based assays for the improvement of proportion estimation of bacterial and viral pathogens in diarrheal surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia eGuan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDiarrhea can be caused by a variety of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms. Laboratory diagnosis is essential in the pathogen-specific burden assessment. In the pathogen spectrum monitoring in the diarrheal surveillance, culture methods are commonly used for the bacterial pathogens’ detection whereas nucleic acid based amplification, the non-cultural methods are used for the viral pathogens. Different methodology may cause the inaccurate pathogen spectrum for the bacterial pathogens because of their different culture abilities with the different media, and for the comparison of bacterial vs. viral pathogens. The application of nucleic acid-based methods in the detection of viral and bacterial pathogens will likely increase the number of confirmed positive diagnoses, and will be comparable since all pathogens will be detected based on the same nucleic acid extracts from the same sample. In this study, bacterial pathogens, including diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae, were detected in 334 diarrheal samples by PCR-based methods using nucleic acid extracted from stool samples and associated enrichment cultures. A protocol was established to facilitate the consistent identification of bacterial pathogens in diarrheal patients. Five common enteric viruses were also detected by RT-PCR, including rotavirus, sapovirus, norovirus (I and II, human astrovirus, and enteric adenovirus. Higher positive rates were found for the bacterial pathogens, showing the lower proportion estimation if only using culture methods. This application will improve the quality of bacterial diarrheagenic pathogen survey, providing more accurate information pertaining to the pathogen spectrum associated with finding of food safety problems and disease burden evaluation.

  8. Nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of pathogens isolated from surgical site infections (SSI) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesue, Yoshio; Watanabe, Akira; Hanaki, Hideaki; Kusachi, Shinya; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Sato, Junko; Oguri, Toyoko; Nakanishi, Kunio; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Kitagawa, Yuko; Wakabayashi, Go; Koyama, Isamu; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Konishi, Toshiro; Fukushima, Ryoji; Seki, Shiko; Imai, Shun; Shintani, Tsunehiro; Tsukada, Hiroki; Tsukada, Kazuhiro; Omura, Kenji; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Kusunoki, Masato; Kubo, Shoji; Shimizu, Junzo; Hirai, Toshihiro; Ohge, Hiroki; Kadowaki, Akio; Okamoto, Kohji; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the trends of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens isolated from surgical site infections (SSI), a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide survey. Seven main organisms were collected from SSI at 27 medical centers in 2010 and were shipped to a central laboratory for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 702 isolates from 586 patients with SSI were included. Staphylococcus aureus (20.4 %) and Enterococcus faecalis (19.5 %) were the most common isolates, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4 %) and Bacteroides fragilis group (15.4 %). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus among S. aureus was 72.0 %. Vancomycin MIC 2 μg/ml strains accounted for 9.7 %. In Escherichia coli, 11 of 95 strains produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase (Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0/53 strains). Of E. coli strains, 8.4 % were resistant to ceftazidime (CAZ) and 26.3 % to ciprofloxacin (CPFX). No P. aeruginosa strains produced metallo-β-lactamase. In P. aeruginosa, the resistance rates were 7.4 % to tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), 10.2 % to imipenem (IPM), 2.8 % to meropenem, cefepime, and CPFX, and 0 % to gentamicin. In the B. fragilis group, the rates were 28.6 % to clindamycin, 5.7 % to cefmetazole, 2.9 % to TAZ/PIPC and IPM, and 0 % to metronidazole (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; 59.1, 36.4, 0, 0, 0 %). MIC₉₀ of P. aeruginosa isolated 15 days or later after surgery rose in TAZ/PIPC, CAZ, IPM, and CPFX. In patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥3, the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa to TAZ/PIPC and CAZ were higher than in patients with ASA ≤2. The data obtained in this study revealed the trend of the spread of resistance among common species that cause SSI. Timing of isolation from surgery and the patient's physical status affected the selection of resistant organisms.

  9. Optimization of a Novel Non-invasive Oral Sampling Technique for Zoonotic Pathogen Surveillance in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley Evans, Tierra; Barry, Peter A; Gilardi, Kirsten V; Goldstein, Tracey; Deere, Jesse D; Fike, Joseph; Yee, JoAnn; Ssebide, Benard J; Karmacharya, Dibesh; Cranfield, Michael R; Wolking, David; Smith, Brett; Mazet, Jonna A K; Johnson, Christine K

    2015-01-01

    Free-ranging nonhuman primates are frequent sources of zoonotic pathogens due to their physiologic similarity and in many tropical regions, close contact with humans. Many high-risk disease transmission interfaces have not been monitored for zoonotic pathogens due to difficulties inherent to invasive sampling of free-ranging wildlife. Non-invasive surveillance of nonhuman primates for pathogens with high potential for spillover into humans is therefore critical for understanding disease ecology of existing zoonotic pathogen burdens and identifying communities where zoonotic diseases are likely to emerge in the future. We developed a non-invasive oral sampling technique using ropes distributed to nonhuman primates to target viruses shed in the oral cavity, which through bite wounds and discarded food, could be transmitted to people. Optimization was performed by testing paired rope and oral swabs from laboratory colony rhesus macaques for rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) and simian foamy virus (SFV) and implementing the technique with free-ranging terrestrial and arboreal nonhuman primate species in Uganda and Nepal. Both ubiquitous DNA and RNA viruses, RhCMV and SFV, were detected in oral samples collected from ropes distributed to laboratory colony macaques and SFV was detected in free-ranging macaques and olive baboons. Our study describes a technique that can be used for disease surveillance in free-ranging nonhuman primates and, potentially, other wildlife species when invasive sampling techniques may not be feasible.

  10. Molecular surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds across the United States: inferences from the hemagglutinin gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette J Piaggio

    Full Text Available A United States interagency avian influenza surveillance plan was initiated in 2006 for early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV in wild birds. The plan included a variety of wild bird sampling strategies including the testing of fecal samples from aquatic areas throughout the United States from April 2006 through December 2007. Although HPAIV was not detected through this surveillance effort we were able to obtain 759 fecal samples that were positive for low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV. We used 136 DNA sequences obtained from these samples along with samples from a public influenza sequence database for a phylogenetic assessment of hemagglutinin (HA diversity in the United States. We analyzed sequences from all HA subtypes except H5, H7, H14 and H15 to examine genetic variation, exchange between Eurasia and North America, and geographic distribution of LPAIV in wild birds in the United States. This study confirms intercontinental exchange of some HA subtypes (including a newly documented H9 exchange event, as well as identifies subtypes that do not regularly experience intercontinental gene flow but have been circulating and evolving in North America for at least the past 20 years. These HA subtypes have high levels of genetic diversity with many lineages co-circulating within the wild birds of North America. The surveillance effort that provided these samples demonstrates that such efforts, albeit labor-intensive, provide important information about the ecology of LPAIV circulating in North America.

  11. Targeted surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza in migratory waterfowl across the conterminous United States: chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Kendall, William L.; Doherty, Paul F.; Miller, Ryan S.; White, Gary C.; Nichols, James D.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Franklin, Alan B.; Majumdar, S.; Brenner, F.J.; Huffman, J.E.; McLean, R.G.; Panah, A.I.; Pietrobon, P.J.; Keeler, S.P.; Shive, S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of Asian strain H5N1 Highly Pathogenic avian influenca via waterfowl migration is one potential route of entry into the United States. In conjunction with state, tribe, and laboratory partners, the United States Department of Agriculture collected and tested 124,603 wild bird samples in 2006 as part of a national surveillance effort. A sampling plan was devised to increase the probability fo detecting Asian strain H5N1 at a national scale. Band recovery data were used to identify and prioritize sampling for wild migratory waterfowl, resulting in spatially targeted sampling recommendations focused on reads with high numbers of recoveries. We also compared the spatial and temporal distribution of the 2006 cloacal and fecal waterfowl sampling effort to the bird banding recovery data and found concordance between the two .Finally, we present improvements made to the 2007 fecal sampling component of the surveillance plan and suggest further improvements for future sampling.

  12. Capacity building efforts and perceptions for wildlife surveillance to detect zoonotic pathogens: comparing stakeholder perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwind, Jessica S; Goldstein, Tracey; Thomas, Kate; Mazet, Jonna A K; Smith, Woutrina A

    2014-01-01

    .... The PREDICT project, a component of United States Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats program, has introduced capacity building efforts to increase zoonotic pathogen...

  13. Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Ellyn P; Cieslak, Paul R; Cronquist, Alicia B; Dunn, John; Lathrop, Sarah; Rabatsky-Ehr, Therese; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Vugia, Duc J; Zansky, Shelley; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Lynch, Michael; Tauxe, Robert; Geissler, Aimee L

    2017-04-21

    Foodborne diseases represent a substantial public health concern in the United States. CDC's Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors cases reported from 10 U.S. sites* of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine enteric pathogens commonly transmitted through food. This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2016 on the nine pathogens and changes in incidences compared with 2013-2015. In 2016, FoodNet identified 24,029 infections, 5,512 hospitalizations, and 98 deaths caused by these pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) by clinical laboratories to detect enteric pathogens has been steadily increasing since FoodNet began surveying clinical laboratories in 2010 (1). CIDTs complicate the interpretation of FoodNet surveillance data because pathogen detection could be affected by changes in health care provider behaviors or laboratory testing practices (2). Health care providers might be more likely to order CIDTs because these tests are quicker and easier to use than traditional culture methods, a circumstance that could increase pathogen detection (3). Similarly, pathogen detection could also be increasing as clinical laboratories adopt DNA-based syndromic panels, which include pathogens not often included in routine stool culture (4,5). In addition, CIDTs do not yield isolates, which public health officials rely on to distinguish pathogen subtypes, determine antimicrobial resistance, monitor trends, and detect outbreaks. To obtain isolates for infections identified by CIDTs, laboratories must perform reflex culture(†); if clinical laboratories do not, the burden of culturing falls to state public health laboratories, which might not be able to absorb that burden as the adoption of these tests increases (2). Strategies are needed to preserve access to bacterial isolates for further characterization and to determine the effect of changing trends in testing practices on surveillance.

  14. Surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza in layer chickens: risk factors, transmission and early detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales Rojas, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIv) of H5 and H7 subtypes are able to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIv), which are lethal for most poultry species, can cause large epidemics and are a serious threat to public health. Thus, circulation of these LPAIv in poultry is

  15. Risk based surveillance for early detection of low pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in layer chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales, J.L.; Boender, G.J.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Stegeman, J.A.; Koeijer, de A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge does not allow the prediction of when low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) of the H5 and H7 subtypes infecting poultry will mutate to their highly pathogenic phenotype (HPAIV). This mutation may already take place in the first infected flock; hence early detection of LPAIV

  16. [Surveillance reports on pathogens and their antibiotic resistance patterns - a recommendation for standardization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, P; Aepfelbacher, M; Fickenscher, H; Solbach, W; Steinmetz, I; Podbielski, A

    2014-06-01

    Surveillance reports on infectious agents and their antibiotic resistance patterns as well as on the usage of antibiotics are now enforced by law for many medical institutions in Germany. However, specific practice-oriented recommendations concerning the appropriate extent and informative mode of presentation are lacking. This consensus statement resulted from the experience from five German university hospitals in handling data from infection epidemiology and in the various possibilities for the presentation of surveillance reports. The consensus statement provides recommendations for the preparation of the legally demanded surveillance reports, extending the existing regulations. The relevance of statements on frequency and quality of microbiological tests is included. Furthermore, modes for the standardization of the data analysis are suggested in order to achieve a regional and national comparability of the results on a high quality level, similarly to the established standardized surveillance of nosocomial infections. This consensus statement describes the form in which the legally enforced reports can be presented in an informative and standardized way in order to facilitate the deduction and realization of preventive measurements.

  17. Genomic Epidemiology: Whole-Genome-Sequencing–Powered Surveillance and Outbreak Investigation of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiangyu; den Bakker, Henk C.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2016-01-01

    As we are approaching the twentieth anniversary of PulseNet, a network of public health and regulatory laboratories that has changed the landscape of foodborne illness surveillance through molecular subtyping, public health microbiology is undergoing another transformation brought about by so-cal...

  18. The Perceived Value of Passive Animal Health Surveillance: The Case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabouglise, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Phan, T D; Dao, D C; Nguyen, T T; Truong, B D; Nguyen, X N T; Vu, T D; Nguyen, K V; Le, H T; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2016-03-01

    Economic evaluations are critical for the assessment of the efficiency and sustainability of animal health surveillance systems and the improvement of their efficiency. Methods identifying and quantifying costs and benefits incurred by public and private actors of passive surveillance systems (i.e. actors of veterinary authorities and private actors who may report clinical signs) are needed. This study presents the evaluation of perceived costs and benefits of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) passive surveillance in Vietnam. Surveys based on participatory epidemiology methods were conducted in three provinces in Vietnam to collect data on costs and benefits resulting from the reporting of HPAI suspicions to veterinary authorities. A quantitative tool based on stated preference methods and participatory techniques was developed and applied to assess the non-monetary costs and benefits. The study showed that poultry farmers are facing several options regarding the management of HPAI suspicions, besides reporting the following: treatment, sale or destruction of animals. The option of reporting was associated with uncertain outcome and transaction costs. Besides, actors anticipated the release of health information to cause a drop of markets prices. This cost was relevant at all levels, including farmers, veterinary authorities and private actors of the upstream sector (feed, chicks and medicine supply). One benefit associated with passive surveillance was the intervention of public services to clean farms and the environment to limit the disease spread. Private actors of the poultry sector valued information on HPAI suspicions (perceived as a non-monetary benefit) which was mainly obtained from other private actors and media.

  19. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Falcone-Dias

    Full Text Available Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc. A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  20. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone-Dias, Maria Fernanda; Centrón, Daniela; Pavan, Fernando; Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza, Victor Costa; Farache Filho, Adalberto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  1. Geospatial Data Analysis Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Geospatial application development, location-based services, spatial modeling, and spatial analysis are examples of the many research applications that this facility...

  2. National Geospatial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Geospatial Program (NGP; http://www.usgs.gov/ngpo/) satisfies the needs of customers by providing geospatial products and services that customers incorporate into their decisionmaking and operational activities. These products and services provide geospatial data that are organized and maintained in cost-effective ways and developed by working with partners and organizations whose activities align with those of the program. To accomplish its mission, the NGP— organizes, maintains, publishes, and disseminates the geospatial baseline of the Nation's topography, natural landscape, and manmade environment through The National Map

  3. Surveillance for Enteric Pathogens in a Case-Control Study of Acute Diarrhea in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    parasites, two wet mounts were prepared for each specimen (one stained with iodine ) and analyzed by two laboratory technicians. For C. parvum identification...questionnaires completed at the time of study enrollment. However, a disproportionate amount of the Table 1. Enteric pathogens in patients and controls from

  4. Surveillance of Australian Hajj pilgrims for carriage of potentially pathogenic bacteria: Data from two pilot studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Mohammad Irfan; Tashani, Mohamed; Badahdah, Al-Mamoon; Heron, Leon; Pedersen, Kristen; Jeoffreys, Neisha; Kok, Jen; Haworth, Elizabeth; Dwyer, Dominic E; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert

    2017-01-01

    AIM To estimate the pharyngeal carriage rate of Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) among Australian Hajj pilgrims. METHODS In 2014, surveillance was conducted in two phases among Australian Hajj pilgrims: The first phase during Hajj in Mina, and the second phase soon after returning home to Australia. Nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swabs were taken from participants then tested, firstly by nucleic acid testing, and also by standard culture. RESULTS Of 183 participants recruited in the first phase, 26 (14.2%) tested positive for S. pneumoniae; 4 had received pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Only one tested positive for N. meningitidis (W). Of 93 2nd phase samples cultured, 17 (18.3%) grew S. aureus, all methicillin sensitive, 2 (2.2%) grew N. meningitidis (on subculture; one serotype B, one negative), and 1 (1%), from an unvaccinated pilgrim, grew S. pneumoniae. CONCLUSION Relatively high carriage of S. pneumoniae and little meningococcal carriage was found. This indicates the importance of a larger study for improved infection surveillance and possible vaccine evaluation. PMID:28352634

  5. Methods for Discovery and Surveillance of Pathogens in Hotspots of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Randi Holm

    Viruses are everywhere, and can infect all living things. They are constantly evolving, and new diseases are emerging as a result. Consequently, they have always been of interest to scientists and people in general. Several outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases transmitting from animals...... to humans have been recorded through time. At present time, zoonotic diseases account for more than 60% of all human diseases. Furthermore, viruses play a major role in many types of human cancers, accounting for 15-20% of all human cancers. Monitoring and describing novel viruses is therefore of high...... to virion enrichment compared to samples with no enrichment. We have used these methods to perform pathogen discovery in faecal samples collected from small mammals in Sierra Leone, to describe the presence of pathogenic viruses and bacteria in this area. From these data we were furthermore able to acquire...

  6. Methods for Discovery and Surveillance of Pathogens in Hotspots of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Randi Holm

    importance, in order to better prevent and treat diseases with a viral aetiology. Highthroughput sequencing (HTS) is an excellent tool for such discoveries. Here we have characterised the sensitivity of HTS for virus discovery, using a complex sample material containing different types of viruses exposed...... to virion enrichment compared to samples with no enrichment. We have used these methods to perform pathogen discovery in faecal samples collected from small mammals in Sierra Leone, to describe the presence of pathogenic viruses and bacteria in this area. From these data we were furthermore able to acquire......Viruses are everywhere, and can infect all living things. They are constantly evolving, and new diseases are emerging as a result. Consequently, they have always been of interest to scientists and people in general. Several outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases transmitting from animals...

  7. Experiences in the epidemiological surveillance of foodborne pathogens by Pulsed field Gel Electophoresis (PFGE) in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Zamudio, María Luz; Laboratorio de Referencia Nacional de Enteropatógenos, Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú. Bióloga.; Meza, Ana; Laboratorio de Referencia Nacional de Enteropatógenos, Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú. Técnico Especializado en Laboratorio.; Bailón, Henri; Laboratorio de Biotecnología y Biología Molecular, Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú. Bióloga.; Martínez-Urtaza, Jaime; Instituto de Acuicultura, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, España. Doctor en Ciencias Biológicas.; Campos, Josefina; Servicio de Enterobacteria. ANLIS. Instituto “Carlos G. Malbrán”, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Bioquímica.

    2011-01-01

    Foodborne diseases and other enteric infections often occur as outbreaks and cause morbidity and mortality all over the world. In Perú, they represent a serious public health problem, and are caused by a great variety of infectious agents. For epidemiological research, a wide array of typification methods are used. One of the most important tools for the molecular subtyping of bacterial pathogens is the Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), which is a highly precise method that allows ...

  8. Geospatial Information Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    26 Spring - 2012 By MAJ Christopher Blais, CW2 Joshua Stratton and MSG Moise Danjoint The fact that Geospatial information can be codified and...Operation Iraqi Freedom V (2007-2008, and Operation New Dawn (2011). MSG Moise Danjoint is the noncommissioned officer in charge, Geospatial

  9. Epidemiological surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV from poultry in Guangxi Province, Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Peng

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. However, some LPAIV strains can be transmitted to humans and cause severe infection. Genetic rearrangement and recombination of even low pathogenic influenza may generate a novel virus with increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to public health. Southern China is regarded as the world "influenza epicenter", due to a rash of outbreaks of influenza in recent years. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of LPAIV at different live bird markets (LBMs in Guangxi province, Southern China. From January 2009 to December 2011, we collected 3,121 cotton swab samples of larynx, trachea and cloaca from the poultry at LBMs in Guangxi. Virus isolation, hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, and RT-PCR were used to detect and subtype LPAIV in the collected samples. Of the 3,121 samples, 336 samples (10.8% were LPAIV positive, including 54 (1.7% in chicken and 282 (9.1% in duck. The identified LPAIV were H3N1, H3N2, H6N1, H6N2, H6N5, H6N6, H6N8, and H9N2, which are combinations of seven HA subtypes (H1, H3, H4, H6, H9, H10 and H11 and five NA subtypes (N1, N2, N5, N6 and N8. The H3 and H9 subtypes are predominant in the identified LPAIVs. Among the 336 cases, 29 types of mixed infection of different HA subtypes were identified in 87 of the cases (25.9%. The mixed infections may provide opportunities for genetic recombination. Our results suggest that the LPAIV epidemiology in poultry in the Guangxi province in southern China is complicated and highlights the need for further epidemiological and genetic studies of LPAIV in this area.

  10. Python geospatial development

    CERN Document Server

    Westra, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This is a tutorial style book that will teach usage of Python tools for GIS using simple practical examples and then show you how to build a complete mapping application from scratch. The book assumes basic knowledge of Python. No knowledge of Open Source GIS is required.Experienced Python developers who want to learn about geospatial concepts, work with geospatial data, solve spatial problems, and build mapbased applications.This book will be useful those who want to get up to speed with Open Source GIS in order to build GIS applications or integrate GeoSpatial features into their existing ap

  11. Prevalence of the main food-borne pathogens in retail food under the national food surveillance system in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara-Kudo, Y; Konuma, H; Kamata, Y; Miyahara, M; Takatori, K; Onoue, Y; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Ohnishi, T

    2013-01-01

    The National Food Surveillance System in Japan was formed in 1998 to monitor the contamination of retail foods with bacterial pathogens. Approximately 2000-3000 samples were tested annually, and the data from food categories that had more than 400 samples collected during 1998-2008 were analysed. With regard to meat, the frequency of positive samples for Salmonella in chicken for raw consumption and ground chicken was 12.7% and 33.5%, respectively. Moreover, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 was found in ground meat, organ meat and processed meat, although at a low frequency (0.1%). The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni/coli was 13.3% and 20.9% in chicken for raw consumption and ground chicken, respectively. In vegetables and fruit, Salmonella was detected in cucumber, lettuce, sprout and tomato samples at a frequency of around 0.1-0.2%. With regard to seafood, Salmonella was found in 0.5% of oysters for raw consumption. Seafood was not contaminated with STEC O157 or Shigella. Serotype Infantis was the most frequently detected serotype of Salmonella in seafood, followed by the serotypes Typhimurium, Schwarzengrund and Manhattan. In ground chicken, 72.2% of the strains were identified as the serotype Infantis. E. coli, as an indicator of food hygiene, was detected in all food categories. The results show the prevalence of the above-mentioned pathogens in the retail food supplied in Japan; further, they indicate that consumption of raw food carries the risk of contracting food-borne infections.

  12. The Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure and health mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Yi, Xiaolun

    2008-01-01

    Due to the recent outbreak of SARS and the danger of pandemic Bird Flu, the ability to strengthen health surveillance and disease control is a growing need among governments. The development of the Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) has shown great potential in many industries...

  13. The Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure and health mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Yi, Xiaolun

    2008-01-01

    Due to the recent outbreak of SARS and the danger of pandemic Bird Flu, the ability to strengthen health surveillance and disease control is a growing need among governments. The development of the Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) has shown great potential in many industries...

  14. A Detailed Protocol to Enable Safe-Handling, Preemptive Detection, and Systematic Surveillance of Rat-Vectored Pathogens in the Urban Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Michael H; Sarno, Ronald J; Deutsch, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We detail a five-stage protocol to address physical barriers and experimental limitations that have hindered routine pathogen monitoring of wild rats in urban settings. New York City potentially harbors from 2 to 32 million rats among its 8-million people. However, at a time, when people are most vulnerable to disease from over-crowdedness brought on by increased urbanization of society, the difficulty of studying wild rats has led to a paucity of ecological and epidemiological research. Challenges of safely handling animals and the difficulties of identifying individual animals and the emergence of their respective pathogen loads (timing of infection) have impeded progress. We previously reported a method using radio frequency identification paired with load cell and camera traps to enable the identification of individual animals and subsequent monitoring of the animals' weights (an indicator of health). However, efficient pathogen surveillance requires repeated captures of the same individual in order to isolate and document the emergence of new pathogens, or variations in pathogen load, over time. Most of these barriers are now addressed in our protocol, which is aided by the use of a mobile, outdoor laboratory, followed by incorporation of pheromone-based lures to attract individuals back to active sensors, within a camera trap. This approach allows for the assessment of individual animal health, behaviors under camera, and changing pathogen loads and weights in most urban environments (e.g., financial district, docks, sewers, and residential). Five phases are described and presented: (1) site selection and urban trapping, (2) anesthetization, (3) serological and ectoparasite collection, (4) microchip implantation, and (5) retrapping and luring animals back to active remote sensors. In order to fulfill the unmet call for preemptive pathogen surveillance, public health officials and researchers may wish to adapt, or modify, similar protocols to ensure early

  15. A detailed protocol to enable safe-handling, preemptive detection, and systematic surveillance of rat-vectored pathogens in the urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Parsons

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We detail a five-stage protocol to address physical barriers and experimental limitations that have hindered routine pathogen monitoring of wild rats in urban settings. New York City potentially harbors from 2 to 32 million rats among its 8 million people. However, at a time when people are most vulnerable to disease from over-crowdedness brought on by increased urbanization of society, the difficulty of studying wild rats has led to a paucity of ecological and epidemiological research. Challenges of safely handling animals and the difficulties of identifying individual animals and the emergence of their respective pathogen loads (timing of infection, has impeded progress. We previously reported a method using radio frequency identification (RFID paired with load-cell and camera-traps to enable the identification of individual animals and subsequent monitoring of the animals’ weights (an indicator of health. However, efficient pathogen surveillance requires repeated captures of the same individual in order to isolate and document the emergence of new pathogens, or variations in pathogen load, over time. Most of these barriers are now addressed in our protocol, which is aided by the use of a mobile, outdoor laboratory, followed by incorporation of pheromone-based lures to attract individuals back to active sensors within a camera-trap. This approach allows for the assessment of individual animal health, behaviors under camera, and changing pathogen loads and weights in most urban environments (e.g., financial district, docks, sewers, residential. Five phases are described and presented: 1 site selection and urban trapping; 2 anesthetization; 3 serological and ectoparasite collection; 4 microchip implantation; and 5 re-trapping and luring animals back to active remote sensors. In order to fulfill the unmet call for preemptive pathogen surveillance, public health officials and researchers may wish to adapt, or modify, similar protocols to ensure

  16. Intelligent geospatial data retrieval based on the geospatial grid portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jie; Yue, Peng; Gong, Jianya

    2008-12-01

    The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard-compliant services define a set of standard interfaces for geospatial Web services to achieve the interoperability in an open distributed computing environment. Grid technology is a distributed computing infrastructure to allow distributed resources sharing and coordinated problem solving. Based on the OGC standards for geospatial services and grid technology, we propose the geospatial grid portal to integrate and interoperate grid-enabled geospatial services. The implementation of the geospatial grid portal is based on a three-tier architecture which consists of grid-enabled geospatial services tier, grid service portal tier and application tier. The OGC standard-compliant services are deployed in a grid environment, the so-called grid-enabled geospatial services. Grid service portals for each type of geospatial services, including WFS, WMS, WCS and CSW, provide a single point of Web entry to discover and access different types of geospatial information. A resource optimization mechanism is incorporated into these service portals to optimize the selection of grid nodes. At the top tier, i.e. the application tier, the client interacts with a semantic middleware for the grid CSW portal, thus allows the semantics-enabled search. The proposed approach can not only optimize the grid resource selection among multiple grid nodes, but also incorporate the power of Semantic Web technology into geospatial grid portal to allow the precise discovery of geospatial data.

  17. HRSA Geospatial Data Warehouse (HGDW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — HRSA Geospatial Data Warehouse (HGDW): The HRSA Geospatial Data Warehouse (HGDW) provides a single point of access to current HRSA information, health resources,...

  18. Borderless Geospatial Web (bolegweb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetl, V.; Kliment, T.; Kliment, M.

    2016-06-01

    The effective access and use of geospatial information (GI) resources acquires a critical value of importance in modern knowledge based society. Standard web services defined by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) are frequently used within the implementations of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) to facilitate discovery and use of geospatial data. This data is stored in databases located in a layer, called the invisible web, thus are ignored by search engines. SDI uses a catalogue (discovery) service for the web as a gateway to the GI world through the metadata defined by ISO standards, which are structurally diverse to OGC metadata. Therefore, a crosswalk needs to be implemented to bridge the OGC resources discovered on mainstream web with those documented by metadata in an SDI to enrich its information extent. A public global wide and user friendly portal of OGC resources available on the web ensures and enhances the use of GI within a multidisciplinary context and bridges the geospatial web from the end-user perspective, thus opens its borders to everybody. Project "Crosswalking the layers of geospatial information resources to enable a borderless geospatial web" with the acronym BOLEGWEB is ongoing as a postdoctoral research project at the Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb in Croatia (http://bolegweb.geof.unizg.hr/). The research leading to the results of the project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7 2007-2013) under Marie Curie FP7-PEOPLE-2011-COFUND. The project started in the November 2014 and is planned to be finished by the end of 2016. This paper provides an overview of the project, research questions and methodology, so far achieved results and future steps.

  19. BORDERLESS GEOSPATIAL WEB (BOLEGWEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cetl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effective access and use of geospatial information (GI resources acquires a critical value of importance in modern knowledge based society. Standard web services defined by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC are frequently used within the implementations of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs to facilitate discovery and use of geospatial data. This data is stored in databases located in a layer, called the invisible web, thus are ignored by search engines. SDI uses a catalogue (discovery service for the web as a gateway to the GI world through the metadata defined by ISO standards, which are structurally diverse to OGC metadata. Therefore, a crosswalk needs to be implemented to bridge the OGC resources discovered on mainstream web with those documented by metadata in an SDI to enrich its information extent. A public global wide and user friendly portal of OGC resources available on the web ensures and enhances the use of GI within a multidisciplinary context and bridges the geospatial web from the end-user perspective, thus opens its borders to everybody. Project “Crosswalking the layers of geospatial information resources to enable a borderless geospatial web” with the acronym BOLEGWEB is ongoing as a postdoctoral research project at the Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb in Croatia (http://bolegweb.geof.unizg.hr/. The research leading to the results of the project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7 2007-2013 under Marie Curie FP7-PEOPLE-2011-COFUND. The project started in the November 2014 and is planned to be finished by the end of 2016. This paper provides an overview of the project, research questions and methodology, so far achieved results and future steps.

  20. Geospatial Thinking of Information Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Bradley Wade; Johnston, Melissa P.

    2013-01-01

    Geospatial thinking skills inform a host of library decisions including planning and managing facilities, analyzing service area populations, facility site location, library outlet and service point closures, as well as assisting users with their own geospatial needs. Geospatial thinking includes spatial cognition, spatial reasoning, and knowledge…

  1. Adversarial Geospatial Abduction Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    methods; I.2.1 [Artificial Intelligence]: Ap- plications and Expert Systems— Cartography Additional Key Words and Phrases: Abduction, Spatial...most geospatial information systems ( GIS ). We use 2S to denote the power set of S. We assume that S has an associated distance function d which

  2. 动物源性病原细菌的危害、监测与控制%Animal Origin Pathogenic Bacteria:Hazard,Surveillance and Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君玮

    2015-01-01

    Animal origin pathogenic bacteria are those isolated from animal samples,damaging animals and human by bacteria invasion or ingestion of their toxin. Not only can it bring economic loss and biosafety problem by causing animal diseases,but also do harm to consumers. This paper briefly introduced the main pathogenic bacteria species that impact animal health and its product safety,as well as their harm to both animals and human. Furthermore,new advance on these bacteria surveillance status was analyzed both at home and abroad. Suggestions on their control were proposed in combination with risk surveillance of pathogenic bacteria.%动物源性病原细菌,不仅引起动物发病带来经济损失和生物安全问题,而且通过污染动物源性产品,给消费者带来致病性危害。本文梳理了影响动物健康和动物源性产品安全的主要病原细菌种类及其危害,对此分析了目前国际、国内对该类病原细菌的监测管理状况,并提出了控制建议。

  3. Cultural Practices Shaping Zoonotic Diseases Surveillance: The Case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and Thailand Native Chicken Farmers.

    OpenAIRE

    Delabouglise, Alexis; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Tatong, D.; Chumkaeo, A.; Binot, Aurélie; Fournié, Guillaume; Pilot, Eva; Phimpraphi, W.; Kasemsuwan, S.; Paul, Mathilde; Duboz, Raphael; Salem, Gérard; Peyre, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Effectiveness of current passive zoonotic disease surveillance systems is limited by the under-reporting of disease outbreaks in the domestic animal population. Eval- uating the acceptability of passive surveillance and its economic, social and cul- tural determinants appears a critical step for improving it. A participatory rural appraisal was implemented in a rural subdistrict of Thailand. Focus group inter- views were used to identify sanitary risks perceived by native chicken farmers and ...

  4. Geospatial Modeling and Disease Insect Vector Management at the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geospatial modeling at the Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) is used assist in the surveillance of insect vectors and in the management of insect transmitted diseases. The most recent Geospatial Modeling/Technology Transfer success involves the prediction of Rift Val...

  5. Surveillance of Food- and Smear-Transmitted Pathogens in European Soldiers with Diarrhea on Deployment in the Tropics: Experience from the European Union Training Mission (EUTM) Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, Hagen; Warnke, Philipp; Frey, Claudia; Schmidt, Salvatore; Janke, Christian; Erkens, Kay; Schotte, Ulrich; Köller, Thomas; Maaßen, Winfried; Podbielski, Andreas; Binder, Alfred; Hinz, Rebecca; Queyriaux, Benjamin; Wiemer, Dorothea; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Hagen, Ralf Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Since 2013, European soldiers have been deployed on the European Union Training Mission (EUTM) in Mali. From the beginning, diarrhea has been among the most "urgent" concerns. Diarrhea surveillance based on deployable real-time PCR equipment was conducted between December 2013 and August 2014. Material and Methods. In total, 53 stool samples were obtained from 51 soldiers with acute diarrhea. Multiplex PCR panels comprised enteroinvasive bacteria, diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC, and EIEC), enteropathogenic viruses, and protozoa. Noroviruses were characterized by sequencing. Cultural screening for Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) with subsequent repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) typing was performed. Clinical information was assessed. Results. Positive PCR results for diarrhea-associated pathogens were detected in 43/53 samples, comprising EPEC (n = 21), ETEC (n = 19), EAEC (n = 15), Norovirus (n = 10), Shigella spp./EIEC (n = 6), Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 3), Giardia duodenalis (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 1), Astrovirus (n = 1), Rotavirus (n = 1), and Sapovirus (n = 1). ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae were grown from 13 out of 48 samples. Simultaneous infections with several enteropathogenic agents were observed in 23 instances. Symptoms were mild to moderate. There were hints of autochthonous transmission. Conclusions. Multiplex real-time PCR proved to be suitable for diarrhea surveillance on deployment. Etiological attribution is challenging in cases of detection of multiple pathogens.

  6. Surveillance for high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway of the United States, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, R.J.; Bortner, J.B.; DeLiberto, T.J.; Hoskins, J.; Franson, J. Christian; Bales, B.D.; Yparraguirre, D.; Swafford, S.R.; Ip, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 the U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Interior, and cooperating state fish and wildlife agencies began surveillance for high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway of the United States. This surveillance effort was highly integrated in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, and western Montana, with collection of samples coordinated with state agencies. Sampling focused on live wild birds, hunterkilled waterfowl during state hunting seasons, and wild bird mortality events. Of 20,888 samples collected, 18,139 were from order Anseriformes (waterfowl) and 2010 were from order Charadriiformes (shorebirds), representing the two groups of birds regarded to be the primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses. Although 83 birds were positive by H5 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), no HPAI H5N1 virus was found. Thirty-two virus isolates were obtained from the H5- positive samples, including low-pathogenicity H5 viruses identified as H5N2, H5N3, and H5N9.

  7. Surveillance of Food- and Smear-Transmitted Pathogens in European Soldiers with Diarrhea on Deployment in the Tropics: Experience from the European Union Training Mission (EUTM Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Frickmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since 2013, European soldiers have been deployed on the European Union Training Mission (EUTM in Mali. From the beginning, diarrhea has been among the most “urgent” concerns. Diarrhea surveillance based on deployable real-time PCR equipment was conducted between December 2013 and August 2014. Material and Methods. In total, 53 stool samples were obtained from 51 soldiers with acute diarrhea. Multiplex PCR panels comprised enteroinvasive bacteria, diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC, and EIEC, enteropathogenic viruses, and protozoa. Noroviruses were characterized by sequencing. Cultural screening for Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL with subsequent repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR typing was performed. Clinical information was assessed. Results. Positive PCR results for diarrhea-associated pathogens were detected in 43/53 samples, comprising EPEC (n=21, ETEC (n=19, EAEC (n=15, Norovirus (n=10, Shigella spp./EIEC (n=6, Cryptosporidium parvum (n=3, Giardia duodenalis (n=2, Salmonella spp. (n=1, Astrovirus (n=1, Rotavirus (n=1, and Sapovirus (n=1. ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae were grown from 13 out of 48 samples. Simultaneous infections with several enteropathogenic agents were observed in 23 instances. Symptoms were mild to moderate. There were hints of autochthonous transmission. Conclusions. Multiplex real-time PCR proved to be suitable for diarrhea surveillance on deployment. Etiological attribution is challenging in cases of detection of multiple pathogens.

  8. Lessons from emergence of A/goose/Guangdong/1996-like H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and recent influenza surveillance efforts in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, X F

    2012-09-01

    Southern China is proposed as an influenza epicentre. At least two of the three pandemics in the last century, including 1957 and 1968 influenza pandemics, originated from this area. In 1996, A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (H5N1), the precursor of currently circulating highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) was identified in farmed geese in southern China. These H5N1 HPAIVs have been spread across Asia, Europe and Africa and poses a continuous threat to both animal and human health. However, how and where this H5N1 HPAIV emerged are not fully understood. In the past decade, many influenza surveillance efforts have been carried out in southern China, and our understanding of the genetic diversity of non-human influenza A viruses in this area has been much better than ever. Here, the historical and first-hand experimental data on A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996(H5N1)-like HPAIVs are reviewed within the context of the findings from recent surveillance efforts on H5N1 HPAIVs and other non-human influenza A viruses. Such a retrospective recapitulation suggests that long-term and systematic surveillance programmes should continue to be implemented in southern China that the wet markets on the animal-human interface shall be the priority area and that the surveillance on the animal species bridging the interface between wildlife and domestic animal populations and the interface between the aquatics and territories shall be the strengthened.

  9. Considerations on Geospatial Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Zhen; GUO, Huadong; WANG, Changlin

    2016-11-01

    Geospatial data, as a significant portion of big data, has recently gained the full attention of researchers. However, few researchers focus on the evolution of geospatial data and its scientific research methodologies. When entering into the big data era, fully understanding the changing research paradigm associated with geospatial data will definitely benefit future research on big data. In this paper, we look deep into these issues by examining the components and features of geospatial big data, reviewing relevant scientific research methodologies, and examining the evolving pattern of geospatial data in the scope of the four ‘science paradigms’. This paper proposes that geospatial big data has significantly shifted the scientific research methodology from ‘hypothesis to data’ to ‘data to questions’ and it is important to explore the generality of growing geospatial data ‘from bottom to top’. Particularly, four research areas that mostly reflect data-driven geospatial research are proposed: spatial correlation, spatial analytics, spatial visualization, and scientific knowledge discovery. It is also pointed out that privacy and quality issues of geospatial data may require more attention in the future. Also, some challenges and thoughts are raised for future discussion.

  10. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fernanda Falcone-Dias; Daniela Centrón; Fernando Pavan; Adriana Candido da Silva Moura; Felipe Gomes Naveca; Victor Costa de Souza; Adalberto Farache Filho; Clarice Queico Fujimura Leite

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were r...

  11. Global Assessment of the Activity of Tigecycline against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Pathogens between 2004 and 2014 as Part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammanco, Anna; Calà, Cinzia; Fasciana, Teresa; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative organisms are a burden on the global health care system. The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST) is an ongoing global study designed to monitor the in vitro activities of tigecycline and a panel of marketed antimicrobials against a range of clinically significant pathogens. In this study, in vitro data are presented for MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae isolates collected from 2004 to 2014. In total, 13% (21,967/170,759) of isolates displayed multidrug resistance globally, with the highest rates recorded among A. baumannii (overall rate, 44% [8,294/18,741], increasing from 23% [309/1,323] in 2004 to 63% [447/712] in 2014). Other multidrug resistance rates ranged from 2.5% for K. oxytoca (203/8,000) to 12% for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae (3,951/32,786 and 3,895/32,888, respectively), and rates among these pathogens remained stable during the study period. Against MDR E. coli, Klebsiella spp., and E. aerogenes, the lowest rates of resistance were to tigecycline (0.2%, 6%, and 12%, respectively), and the lowest MIC90 value against A. baumannii was observed for tigecycline (2 mg/liter; MIC range, ≤0.008 to ≥32 mg/liter). The only significant change in resistance to tigecycline during the study period was for MDR E. coli (P negative organisms presented here, but the rising rates of MDR A. baumannii highlight the need for the continued monitoring of global multidrug resistance. IMPORTANCE Multidrug resistance among bacterial pathogens is an ongoing global problem and renders antimicrobial agents ineffective at treating bacterial infections. In the health care setting, infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria can cause increased mortality, longer hospital stays, and higher treatments costs. The aim of the Tigecycline Evaluation and

  12. Surveillance of pathogens in outpatients with gastroenteritis and characterization of sapovirus strains between 2002 and 2007 in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Seiya; Okada, Mineyuki; Yahiro, Shunsuke; Nishimura, Koichi; Matsuo, Shigeru; Miyasaka, Jiro; Nakashima, Ryuichi; Shimada, Yasushi; Ueno, Takehiko; Ikezawa, Shigeru; Shinozaki, Kuniko; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Wakita, Takaji; Takeda, Naokazu; Oka, Tomoichiro

    2009-06-01

    Infectious acute gastroenteritis is an important public health problem worldwide. A total of 639 stool specimens were tested for the presence of diarrhea pathogens. The specimens were from outpatients with acute gastroenteritis who consulted the pediatric clinic in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan, from June 2002 to December 2007. Of these, 421 (65.9%) were positive for diarrhea pathogens. Among them were norovirus (NoV) in 260 (61.8%), sapovirus (SaV) in 81 (19.2%), rotavirus in 49 (11.6%), adenovirus in 19 (4.5%), enterovirus in 13 (3.1%), astrovirus in 9 (2.1%), kobuvirus in 1 (0.2%), and bacterial pathogens in 11 (2.6%). Mixed infection (co-infection of viruses) was found in 22 (5.2%) of the 421 pathogen-positive stool samples. NoV was the most prevalent pathogen throughout the study period; however, the SaV detection rate was unexpectedly high and was found to be the secondary pathogen from 2005 to 2007. Genetic analysis of SaV with 81 strains demonstrated that SaV strains belonging to genogroup IV emerged in 2007, and dynamic genogroup changes occurred in a restricted geographic area. This study showed that SaV infection is not as rare as thought previously.

  13. Geospatial Technology in Geography Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniz Solari, Osvaldo; Demirci, A.; van der Schee, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The book is presented as an important starting point for new research in Geography Education (GE) related to the use and application of geospatial technologies (GSTs). For this purpose, the selection of topics was based on central ideas to GE in its relationship with GSTs. The process of geospatial

  14. Geospatial Technology in Geography Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniz Solari, Osvaldo; Demirci, A.; van der Schee, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The book is presented as an important starting point for new research in Geography Education (GE) related to the use and application of geospatial technologies (GSTs). For this purpose, the selection of topics was based on central ideas to GE in its relationship with GSTs. The process of geospatial

  15. Cultural Practices Shaping Zoonotic Diseases Surveillance: The Case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and Thailand Native Chicken Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabouglise, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Tatong, D; Chumkaeo, A; Binot, A; Fournié, G; Pilot, E; Phimpraphi, W; Kasemsuwan, S; Paul, M C; Duboz, R; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2016-04-17

    Effectiveness of current passive zoonotic disease surveillance systems is limited by the under-reporting of disease outbreaks in the domestic animal population. Evaluating the acceptability of passive surveillance and its economic, social and cultural determinants appears a critical step for improving it. A participatory rural appraisal was implemented in a rural subdistrict of Thailand. Focus group interviews were used to identify sanitary risks perceived by native chicken farmers and describe the structure of their value chain. Qualitative individual interviews with a large diversity of actors enabled to identify perceived costs and benefits associated with the reporting of HPAI suspicions to sanitary authorities. Besides, flows of information on HPAI suspected cases were assessed using network analysis, based on data collected through individual questionnaires. Results show that the presence of cockfighting activities in the area negatively affected the willingness of all chicken farmers and other actors to report suspected HPAI cases. The high financial and affective value of fighting cocks contradicted the HPAI control policy based on mass culling. However, the importance of product quality in the native chicken meat value chain and the free veterinary services and products delivered by veterinary officers had a positive impact on suspected case reporting. Besides, cockfighting practitioners had a significantly higher centrality than other actors in the information network and they facilitated the spatial diffusion of information. Social ties built in cockfighting activities and the shared purpose of protecting valuable cocks were at the basis of the diffusion of information and the informal collective management of diseases. Building bridges with this informal network would greatly improve the effectiveness of passive surveillance.

  16. Surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry, Minnesota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, Christopher S.; Carstensen, Michelle; Hildebrand, Erik C.; Cornicelli, Louis; Wolf, Paul C.; Grear, Daniel; Ip, Hon S.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Minicucci, Larissa A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To clarify the role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9–June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Cooper’s hawk but not from waterfowl.

  17. Whole-Genome Sequencing for Routine Pathogen Surveillance in Public Health : a Population Snapshot of Invasive Staphylococcus aureus in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanensen, David M; Feil, Edward J; Holden, Matthew T G; Dordel, Janina; Yeats, Corin A; Fedosejev, Artemij; Goater, Richard; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago; Corander, Jukka; Colijn, Caroline; Chlebowicz, Monika A; Schouls, Leo; Heck, Max; Pluister, Gerlinde; Ruimy, Raymond; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Åhman, Jenny; Matuschek, Erika; Friedrich, Alexander W; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D; Spratt, Brian G; Grundmann, Hajo

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of routine whole-genome sequencing (WGS) promises to transform our ability to monitor the emergence and spread of bacterial pathogens. Here we combined WGS data from 308 invasive Staphylococcus aureus isolates corresponding to a pan-European population snapshot, with

  18. Surveillance for highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza virus in synanthropic wildlife associated with poultry farms during an acute outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    In November 2014, a Eurasian strain H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in poultry in Canada. Introduced viruses were soon detected in the United States and within six months had spread to 21 states with more than 48 million poultry affected. In an effort to study potential mec...

  19. Deep sequencing of H7N8 avian influenza viruses from surveillance zone supports H7N8 high pathogenicity avian influenza was limited to a single outbreak farm in Indiana during 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mid-January 2016, an outbreak of H7N8 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus in commercial turkeys occurred in Indiana. The outbreak was first detected by an increase in mortality followed by laboratory confirmation of H7N8 HPAI virus. Surveillance within the 10 km Control Zone detected...

  20. Activity of ceftaroline and comparators against pathogens isolated from skin and soft tissue infections in Latin America - results of AWARE surveillance 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Hoban

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As part of the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE surveillance program in 2012 the in vitro activity of ceftaroline and relevant comparator antimicrobials was evaluated in six Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela against pathogens isolated from patients with hospital associated skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs. The study documented that ceftaroline was highly active (MIC90 0.25 mg/L/% susceptible 100% against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MIC90 2 mg/L/% susceptible 83.3% and ß-hemolytic streptococci (MIC90 0.008-0.015 mg/L/% susceptible 100%. The activity of ceftaroline against selected species of Enterobacteriaceae was dependent upon the presence or absence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs. Against ESBL screen-negativeEscherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, andKlebsiella oxytoca the MIC90 and percent susceptible for ceftaroline were (0.5 mg/L/94.1%, (0.5 mg/L/99.0% and (0.5 mg/L/91.5%, respectively. Ceftaroline demonstrated potent activity against a recent collection of pathogens associated with SSTI in six Latin American countries in 2012.

  1. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Ashish, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

  2. Avian influenza surveillance reveals presence of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in poultry during 2009-2011 in the West Bengal State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawar Shailesh D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction More than 70 outbreaks of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 have been reported in poultry in the western and north-eastern parts of India. Therefore, in view of the recent HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry, active AI surveillance encompassing wild, resident, migratory birds and poultry was undertaken during 2009–2011 in the State of West Bengal. Methods A total of 5722 samples were collected from West Bengal; 3522 samples (2906 fecal droppings + 616 other environmental samples were from migratory birds and 2200 samples [1604 tracheal, cloacal swabs, environmental samples, tissue samples + 596 blood (serum] were from domestic ducks and poultry. All tracheal, cloacal and environmental samples were processed for virus isolation. Virus isolates were detected using hemagglutination assay and identified using hemagglutination inhibition (HI and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial region of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes was done. Intravenous pathogenicity index assays were performed in chickens to assess pathogenicity of AI virus isolates. Serum samples were tested for detection of antibodies against AI viruses using HI assay. Results A total of 57 AI H9N2, 15 AI H4N6 and 15 Newcastle Disease (NDV viruses were isolated from chickens, from both backyard and wet poultry markets; AI H4N6 viruses were isolated from backyard chickens and domestic ducks. Characterization of AI H9N2 and H4N6 viruses revealed that they were of low pathogenicity. Domestic ducks were positive for antibodies against H5 and H7 viruses while chickens were positive for presence of antibodies against AI H9N2 and NDV. Conclusions In the current scenario of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in West Bengal, this report shows presence of low pathogenic AI H9N2 and H4N6 viruses in chickens and domestic ducks during the period 2009–2011. This is the first report of

  3. Global Assessment of the Activity of Tigecycline against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Pathogens between 2004 and 2014 as Part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calà, Cinzia; Fasciana, Teresa; Dowzicky, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative organisms are a burden on the global health care system. The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST) is an ongoing global study designed to monitor the in vitro activities of tigecycline and a panel of marketed antimicrobials against a range of clinically significant pathogens. In this study, in vitro data are presented for MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae isolates collected from 2004 to 2014. In total, 13% (21,967/170,759) of isolates displayed multidrug resistance globally, with the highest rates recorded among A. baumannii (overall rate, 44% [8,294/18,741], increasing from 23% [309/1,323] in 2004 to 63% [447/712] in 2014). Other multidrug resistance rates ranged from 2.5% for K. oxytoca (203/8,000) to 12% for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae (3,951/32,786 and 3,895/32,888, respectively), and rates among these pathogens remained stable during the study period. Against MDR E. coli, Klebsiella spp., and E. aerogenes, the lowest rates of resistance were to tigecycline (0.2%, 6%, and 12%, respectively), and the lowest MIC90 value against A. baumannii was observed for tigecycline (2 mg/liter; MIC range, ≤0.008 to ≥32 mg/liter). The only significant change in resistance to tigecycline during the study period was for MDR E. coli (P < 0.01), among which eight resistant isolates were identified globally from 2009 to 2013. In summary, these results show that tigecycline retained in vitro activity against the majority of MDR Gram-negative organisms presented here, but the rising rates of MDR A. baumannii highlight the need for the continued monitoring of global multidrug resistance. IMPORTANCE Multidrug resistance among bacterial pathogens is an ongoing global problem and renders antimicrobial agents ineffective at treating bacterial infections. In the health care setting

  4. The Use of Spatial and Spatiotemporal Modeling for Surveillance of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Poultry in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamis, Mohammad; Hijmans, Robert J; Al-Enezi, Abdullah; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Perea, Andres M

    2016-05-01

    Since 2005, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has severely impacted the economy and public health in the Middle East (ME) with Egypt as the most affected country. Understanding the high-risk areas and spatiotemporal distribution of the H5N1 HPAIV in poultry is prerequisite for establishing risk-based surveillance activities at a regional level in the ME. Here, we aimed to predict the geographic range of H5N1 HPAIV outbreaks in poultry in the ME using a set of environmental variables and to investigate the spatiotemporal clustering of outbreaks in the region. Data from the ME for the period 2005-14 were analyzed using maximum entropy ecological niche modeling and the permutation model of the scan statistics. The predicted range of high-risk areas (P > 0.60) for H5N1 HPAIV in poultry included parts of the ME northeastern countries, whereas the Egyptian Nile delta and valley were estimated to be the most suitable locations for occurrence of H5N1 HPAIV outbreaks. The most important environmental predictor that contributed to risk for H5N1 HPAIV was the precipitation of the warmest quarter (47.2%), followed by the type of global livestock production system (18.1%). Most significant spatiotemporal clusters (P < 0.001) were detected in Egypt, Turkey, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan. Results suggest that more information related to poultry holding demographics is needed to further improve prediction of risk for H5N1 HPAIV in the ME, whereas the methodology presented here may be useful in guiding the design of surveillance programs and in identifying areas in which underreporting may have occurred.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of ceftobiprole, a novel anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cephalosporin, tested against contemporary pathogens: results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2005-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Thomas R; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2008-05-01

    Ceftobiprole is a 1st-in-class anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) extended-spectrum cephalosporin currently in clinical trials for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) and nosocomial pneumonia. This agent is also active against other prominent Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, making it an attractive candidate for broad-spectrum therapy. We evaluated the in vitro potency of ceftobiprole tested against the most commonly occurring bacterial pathogens as part of a global surveillance study for the years 2005 to 2006 (>60 medical centers in North America, Latin America, and Europe). All isolates (40 675) were susceptibility tested using reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftobiprole inhibited 100% and >99% of tested S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci at Ceftobiprole was also broadly active against Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic and viridans group streptococci, inhibiting >98% of isolates at ceftobiprole was generally inactive against Enterococcus faecium, the majority of Enterococcus faecalis strains (95.7%) were inhibited at ceftobiprole and ceftazidime), ceftobiprole and cefepime were superior to ceftazidime against Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ceftobiprole was equal in potency to ceftazidime (MIC50, 2 microg/mL) and 2-fold more potent than cefepime. None of these agents inhibited >45% of Acinetobacter spp. at 8 mug/mL. Ceftobiprole is a new anti-MRSA beta-lactam with recognized activity against the most commonly occurring Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa, similar to that of extended-spectrum cephems. These characteristics warrant continued evaluation of the agent as empiric therapy for cSSSIs, and in pneumonia, especially in those institutions/regions where MRSA and P. aeruginosa may be prevalent.

  6. Phylodynamics of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Europe, 2005–2010: Potential for Molecular Surveillance of New Outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Alkhamis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous Bayesian phylogeographic studies of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs explored the origin and spread of the epidemic from China into Russia, indicating that HPAIV circulated in Russia prior to its detection there in 2005. In this study, we extend this research to explore the evolution and spread of HPAIV within Europe during the 2005–2010 epidemic, using all available sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA gene regions that were collected in Europe and Russia during the outbreak. We use discrete-trait phylodynamic models within a Bayesian statistical framework to explore the evolution of HPAIV. Our results indicate that the genetic diversity and effective population size of HPAIV peaked between mid-2005 and early 2006, followed by drastic decline in 2007, which coincides with the end of the epidemic in Europe. Our results also suggest that domestic birds were the most likely source of the spread of the virus from Russia into Europe. Additionally, estimates of viral dispersal routes indicate that Russia, Romania, and Germany were key epicenters of these outbreaks. Our study quantifies the dynamics of a major European HPAIV pandemic and substantiates the ability of phylodynamic models to improve molecular surveillance of novel AIVs.

  7. Towards a geospatial wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, S.; McCallum, I.; Schill, C.; Perger, C.; Kraxner, F.; Obersteiner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Based on the Google Earth (http://earth.google.com) platform we have developed a geospatial Wikipedia (geo-wiki.org). The tool allows everybody in the world to contribute to spatial validation and is made available to the internet community interested in that task. We illustrate how this tool can be used for different applications. In our first application we combine uncertainty hotspot information from three global land cover datasets (GLC, MODIS, GlobCover). With an ever increasing amount of high resolution images available on Google Earth, it is becoming increasingly possible to distinguish land cover features with a high degree of accuracy. We first direct the land cover validation community to certain hotspots of land cover uncertainty and then ask them to fill in a small popup menu on type of land cover, possibly a picture at that location with the different cardinal points as well as date and what type of validation was chosen (google earth imagery/panoramio or if the person has ground truth data). We have implemented the tool via a land cover validation community at FACEBOOK which is based on a snowball system which allows the tracking of individuals and the possibility to ignore users which misuse the system. In a second application we illustrate how the tool could possibly be used for mapping malaria occurrence and small water bodies as well as overall malaria risk. For this application we have implemented a polygon as well as attribute function using Google maps as along with virtual earth using openlayers. The third application deals with illegal logging and how an alert system for illegal logging detection within a certain land tenure system could be implemented. Here we show how the tool can be used to document illegal logging via a YouTube video.

  8. High prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing pathogens: results of a surveillance study in two hospitals in Ujjain, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ashish Pathak1,2, Yogyata Marothi3, Vandana Kekre4, Kalpana Mahadik5, Ragini Macaden6, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Department of Microbiology, 4Department of Medicine, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, RD Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India; 6St Johns Research Institute, Bangalore, IndiaBackground: Recent reports of the rapid evolution of bacterial resistance in India require urgent antibiotic stewardship programs. This study aimed to define the magnitude and pattern of resistance of bacterial pathogens to guide empirical therapy.Methods: We prospectively collected consecutive, clinically significant, and nonduplicate bacterial isolates from each patient from two hospitals in Ujjain, India. The antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria was tested using a disc diffusion method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.Results: A total of 716 pathogens were isolated from 2568 patients (median age, 25 years; range, 0 days to 92 years. Gram-negative infections were predominant (62%. The isolated pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus (n = 221; 31%, Escherichia coli (n = 149; 21%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 127; 18%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 107; 15%. Common diagnoses included abscesses (56%, urinary tract infections (14%, blood stream infections (10%, pneumonia (10%, and vaginal infections (10%. In E. coli isolates, 69% (95% confidence interval [CI] 61.6–76.6 were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producers and 41% (95% CI 31.6–50.5 of K. pneumoniae isolates were ESBL producers. These isolates had a high resistance to fluoroquinolones and β-lactams, except for imipenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. Salmonella typhi remained sensitive to third-generation cephalosporins. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA constituted 30% of all S. aureus isolates and showed resistance

  9. Emerging resistance among bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit – a European and North American Surveillance study (2000–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornsberry Clyde

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally ICUs are encountering emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and for some pathogens there are few therapeutic options available. Methods Antibiotic in vitro susceptibility data of predominant ICU pathogens during 2000–2 were analyzed using data from The Surveillance Network (TSN Databases in Europe (France, Germany and Italy, Canada, and the United States (US. Results Oxacillin resistance rates among Staphylococcus aureus isolates ranged from 19.7% to 59.4%. Penicillin resistance rates among Streptococcus pneumoniae varied from 2.0% in Germany to as high as 20.2% in the US; however, ceftriaxone resistance rates were comparably lower, ranging from 0% in Germany to 3.4% in Italy. Vancomycin resistance rates among Enterococcus faecalis were ≤ 4.5%; however, among Enterococcus faecium vancomycin resistance rates were more frequent ranging from 0.8% in France to 76.3% in the United States. Putative rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL production among Enterobacteriaceae were low, Escherichia coli in the five countries studied. Ceftriaxone resistance rates were generally lower than or similar to piperacillin-tazobactam for most of the Enterobacteriaceae species examined. Fluoroquinolone resistance rates were generally higher for E. coli (6.5% – 13.9%, Proteus mirabilis (0–34.7%, and Morganella morganii (1.6–20.7% than other Enterobacteriaceae spp (1.5–21.3%. P. aeruginosa demonstrated marked variation in β-lactam resistance rates among countries. Imipenem was the most active compound tested against Acinetobacter spp., based on resistance rates. Conclusion There was a wide distribution in resistance patterns among the five countries. Compared with other countries, Italy showed the highest resistance rates to all the organisms with the exception of Enterococcus spp., which were highest in the US. This data highlights the differences in resistance encountered in intensive care units in

  10. Use of M2e ELISAs for longitudinal surveillance of commercial poultry in Indonesia vaccinated against highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Michael Haryadi; Tarigan, Simson; Sumarningsih; Artanto, Sidna; Indriani, Risa; Anggoro, Dito; Putra, Cahyaditya Pratama; Idris, Syafrison; Untari, Tri; Asmara, Widya; Tabbu, Charles Rangga; Ignjatovic, Jagoda

    2017-11-01

    In countries where highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is endemic and controlled by vaccination, post-vaccination serological monitoring is essential to differentiate vaccinated poultry from those that are infected. The objectives of this study were to validate two experimental ELISAs that detect antibodies raised against the M2e protein of avian influenza virus that can be used for DIVA purposes. Results from the sM2e and tM2e ELISAs were compared with other conventional tests for the detection of H5N1influenza virus (virus isolation and RT-PCR) using samples collected from 16 commercial flocks in Indonesia. These comprised vaccinated layers aged between 18 and 68 weeks old that were sampled at ten-weekly intervals. A small number of sera were positive in sM2e and tM2e ELISA, 14 (0.6%) and 17 (0.7%) respectively, with low OD420 (0.1-0.3), but only 4 sera were positive in both tests. At the flock level, the incidence of M2e positive sera was low (4%), well below previously established minimum of 40% for an HPAIV H5N1-infected flock. Conventional M and H5 gene RT-PCRs indicated that none of 16 flocks were infected at any time during the study. No virus was isolated from any of the 480 pooled swab samples, except from one, for which the combined data analysis suggest to be the result of a laboratory cross-contamination. Clinical disease, mortalities or reduction in production performance, indicative of field H5N1 challenge, were not observed either in any of the flocks. Birds from two surveyed flocks, challenged in the laboratory with an Indonesian HPAIV H5N1 developed M2e antibodies in 50% and 55% of surviving birds with OD420 in the range of 0.35-1.47 in tM2e ELISA, confirming the validity of the criteria established for use of M2e ELISA for DIVA purposes. Overall these results showed that the tM2e ELISA could be a useful monitoring tool to ascertain freedom from H5N1 infections in vaccinated commercial poultry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Surveillance of pathogens causing gastroenteritis and characterization of norovirus and sapovirus strains in Shenzhen, China, during 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Hai-long; Xian, Hui-Xia; Yao, Xiang-Jie; Zhao, De-Jian; Chen, Long; Shu, Bai-hua; Zhou, Yi-kai; He, Ya-Qing

    2014-08-01

    Viral gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in humans, and it is primarily caused by rotaviruses (RVs), astroviruses (AstVs), adenoviruses (AdVs), noroviruses (NoVs), and sapoviruses (SaVs). In this study, we determined the distribution of viral gastroenteritis and human calicivirus (HuCVs) in acute gastroenteritis patients in Shenzhen, China, during 2011. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect norovirus (NoV), group A rotavirus (RV), adenovirus (AdV), and astrovirus (AstV). From a total of 983 fecal samples, NoV was detected in 210 (21.4 %); RoV in 173 (17.6 %); AstV in 10 (1.0 %); and AdV in 15 (1.5 %). Mixed infections involving two NoVs were found in 21 of the 387 pathogen-positive stool specimens. NoV and SaV genotypes were further tested using RT-PCRs and molecular typing and phylogenetic analysis were then performed based on the ORF1-ORF2 region for NoV and a conserved nucleotide sequence in the capsid gene for SaV. Of the 68 typed strains that were sequenced and genotyped, five were NoV G1 (7.5 %) and 63 were NoV GII (96.6 %). GII strains were clustered into five genotypes, including GII.4 (65.1 %; 36 GII.4 2006b and five GII.4 New Orleans), GII.3 (28.6 %), GII.2 (3.2 %), GII.6 (1.6 %), and GII.1 (1.6 %). While all fecal specimens were tested for SaVs, 15 (1.5 %) were positive, and of these, 12 isolates belonged to G1.2, and the remaining three SaV strains belonged to the SaV GII genogroup. Although various HuCVs were detected in acute gastroenteritis patients, NoV GII.4 2006b was more prevalent than the other HuCVs.

  12. Geospatial abduction principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shakarian, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Provides the mathematics underlying geospatial abduction and the algorithms to solve them in practice Offers wide applicability in many different fields for practitioners and researchers Includes several lively, real-world examples that will explain the material very clearly to a reader Includes a web site dedicated to geospatial abduction, hosted at University of Maryland. In addition, the authors will record video lectures (30-60 minutes each) devoted to each chapter, as well as slides on each. These materials will supplement the book

  13. Geospatial Absorption and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN MAC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The geospatial absorptions are characterized by a specific complexity both in content and in their phenomenological and spatial manifestation fields. Such processes are differentiated according to their specificity to pre-absorption, absorption or post-absorption. The mechanisms that contribute to absorption are extremely numerous: aggregation, extension, diffusion, substitution, resistivity (resilience, stratification, borrowings, etc. Between these mechanisms frequent relations are established determining an amplification of the process and of its regional effects. The installation of the geographic osmosis phenomenon in a given territory (a place for example leads to a homogenization of the geospatial state and to the installation of the regional homogeneity.

  14. 门诊急性腹泻儿童的肠道病原监测%Surveillance of enteric pathogens in outpatient children with acute diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常海岭; 曾玫; 黄峥; 蔡洁皓; 郭家胤; 许学斌; 王相诗; 葛艳玲; 王中林

    2016-01-01

    目的监测门诊急性腹泻儿童的临床流行特征及肠道病原分布特点。方法2013年8月至2014年7月对复旦大学附属儿科医院门诊临床诊断为急性腹泻的儿童进行主动监测,对患儿的粪便标本进行包括诺如病毒、致泻大肠埃希菌、非伤寒沙门菌、弯曲菌、志贺菌、致病性弧菌和小肠结肠炎耶尔森菌在内的病原进行检测。统计分析采用卡方检验。结果881例急性腹泻患儿粪便中有246例(27.92%)检出病原体,其中诺如病毒、致泻大肠埃希菌、非伤寒沙门菌、弯曲菌和志贺菌分别检出98株(11.12%)、74株(8.40%)、61株(6.92%)、34株(3.86%)和2株(0.23%),未检出致病性弧菌及小肠结肠炎耶尔森菌。<36月龄(3.27%,26/794)儿童较>36月龄(9.20%,8/87)儿童感染弯曲菌的风险低(χ2=7.41,P=0.006)。感染诺如病毒的患儿呕吐比较常见(37.76%),且水样便比例高(21.34%);感染非伤寒沙门菌和弯曲菌的患儿发热(40.98%和29.41%)及粪便含黏液(21.31%和26.47%)多见。结论肠道病原感染在本次研究的急性腹泻患儿中占有重要地位,对肠道病原的持续性监测有助于儿童急性腹泻的防治。%Objective To monitor the clinical epidemiology and etiology of acute diarrhea in children in the outpatient setting in Shanghai .Methods An active surveillance study in Children′s Hospital of Fudan University between August 2013 and July 2014 was conducted .Outpatient children with acute diarrhea were enrolled in this study and stool samples were collected .Pathogens including norovirus ,diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) , nontyphoidal Salmonella spp .(NTS),Campylobacter,Shigella,pathogenic vibrio and Yersinia enterocolitica were identified and typed .The χ2 test was used for statistical analysis .Results Of the 881 stool samples from enrolled

  15. Grid Enabled Geospatial Catalogue Web Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ai-Jun; Di, Li-Ping; Wei, Ya-Xing; Liu, Yang; Bui, Yu-Qi; Hu, Chau-Min; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    Geospatial Catalogue Web Service is a vital service for sharing and interoperating volumes of distributed heterogeneous geospatial resources, such as data, services, applications, and their replicas over the web. Based on the Grid technology and the Open Geospatial Consortium (0GC) s Catalogue Service - Web Information Model, this paper proposes a new information model for Geospatial Catalogue Web Service, named as GCWS which can securely provides Grid-based publishing, managing and querying geospatial data and services, and the transparent access to the replica data and related services under the Grid environment. This information model integrates the information model of the Grid Replica Location Service (RLS)/Monitoring & Discovery Service (MDS) with the information model of OGC Catalogue Service (CSW), and refers to the geospatial data metadata standards from IS0 19115, FGDC and NASA EOS Core System and service metadata standards from IS0 191 19 to extend itself for expressing geospatial resources. Using GCWS, any valid geospatial user, who belongs to an authorized Virtual Organization (VO), can securely publish and manage geospatial resources, especially query on-demand data in the virtual community and get back it through the data-related services which provide functions such as subsetting, reformatting, reprojection etc. This work facilitates the geospatial resources sharing and interoperating under the Grid environment, and implements geospatial resources Grid enabled and Grid technologies geospatial enabled. It 2!so makes researcher to focus on science, 2nd not cn issues with computing ability, data locztic, processir,g and management. GCWS also is a key component for workflow-based virtual geospatial data producing.

  16. NCI's Distributed Geospatial Data Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraondo, P. R.; Evans, B. J. K.; Antony, J.

    2016-12-01

    Earth systems, environmental and geophysics datasets are an extremely valuable source of information about the state and evolution of the Earth. However, different disciplines and applications require this data to be post-processed in different ways before it can be used. For researchers experimenting with algorithms across large datasets or combining multiple data sets, the traditional approach to batch data processing and storing all the output for later analysis rapidly becomes unfeasible, and often requires additional work to publish for others to use. Recent developments on distributed computing using interactive access to significant cloud infrastructure opens the door for new ways of processing data on demand, hence alleviating the need for storage space for each individual copy of each product. The Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) has developed a highly distributed geospatial data server which supports interactive processing of large geospatial data products, including satellite Earth Observation data and global model data, using flexible user-defined functions. This system dynamically and efficiently distributes the required computations among cloud nodes and thus provides a scalable analysis capability. In many cases this completely alleviates the need to preprocess and store the data as products. This system presents a standards-compliant interface, allowing ready accessibility for users of the data. Typical data wrangling problems such as handling different file formats and data types, or harmonising the coordinate projections or temporal and spatial resolutions, can now be handled automatically by this service. The geospatial data server exposes functionality for specifying how the data should be aggregated and transformed. The resulting products can be served using several standards such as the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) or Web Feature Service (WFS), Open Street Map tiles, or raw binary arrays under

  17. SWING - A Semantic Framework for Geospatial Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Dumitru; Klien, Eva

    The ability to represent geospatial semantics is of great importance when building geospatial applications for the Web. The Semantic Web Service (SWS) technology provides solutions for intelligent service annotation, discovery, composition and invocation in distributed environments. Deploying this technology into geospatial Web applications has the potential to enhance discovery, retrieval and integration of geographic information, as well as its reuse in various contexts. This chapter gives an overview of the SWING research framework, which is aimed at investigating the applicability of semantic technologies in the area of geo-spatial services. The goal is to provide a semantic framework that facilitates the employment of geospatial services to solve a specific task in geo-spatial decision making. In this chapter, we emphasize the motivation and the challenges for such a framework, point out the main components and highlight its potential impact.

  18. 广东省2005-2007年麻疹病原学监测%Measles pathogenic surveillance from 2005 to 2007 in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冷; 郑焕英; 郭雪; 朱建琼; 姬弈欣; 许文波

    2008-01-01

    目的 开展有效的麻疹病原学监测,分离麻疹病毒,了解广东省2005-2007年流行的麻疹野病毒分离株基因特征,为控制、消除麻疹提供科学依据.方法 用Veto/Slam细胞从暴发和散发麻疹疑似病例的咽拭子和尿液标本中分离麻疹病毒,并对所有分离到的麻疹病毒通过逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)方法,扩增出核蛋白(N)基因碳末端450个核苷酸片段,对其产物测定基因序列以定型.结果 2005-2007年共收到380份标本,包括咽拭子或尿液标本.共分离到82株麻疹野病毒.2005年病毒分离率为23.58%,2006年病毒分离率为17.11%,2007年病毒分离率为39.13%.病毒分离成功率与病例出疹天数和标本的采集质量有密切关系.结论 我省已经掌握了麻疹病毒的分离和分子生物学鉴定技术,分离率较高;我省多年来流行的麻疹毒株均为H1基因型,与国内流行的优势基因型一致.%Objective To develop pathogenic surveillance on measles and to effectively isolate measles virus. To know the genetic characterizations and molecular epidemiology of wildtype measles viruses from 2005 to 2007 in Guangdong Province,and provide the scientific basis for measles control and eradication. Methods Vero/ Slam cell line were used,measles viruses were isolated from throat swabs or urine specimens collected from uspected measles patients in outbreaks and sporadic patienta. A 450 nucleotides fragment of the C-terminal of the nucleoprotoin (N) gene was amplified and by RT-PCR and subjected to scquenee and phylngenetie analysis using Bio-Edit software. Results 82 wild-type measels virus were obtained from 377 throat swabs and urine specimens from 2005 to 2007 in Guangdong Province measles lab. The measles isolation rate was 23.58 % in 2005,17.11% in 2006,39.13% in 2007.The succeed rate of virus isolation is related to the quality of specimens collected and the days after rash occurrence. Conclusions We have grasped the

  19. Learning R for geospatial analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for anyone who wants to learn how to efficiently analyze geospatial data with R, including GIS analysts, researchers, educators, and students who work with spatial data and who are interested in expanding their capabilities through programming. The book assumes familiarity with the basic geographic information concepts (such as spatial coordinates), but no prior experience with R and/or programming is required. By focusing on R exclusively, you will not need to depend on any external software-a working installation of R is all that is necessary to begin.

  20. Incorporating Geospatial Technology into Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproles, E. A.; Songer, L.

    2009-12-01

    The need for students to think spatially and use geospatial technologies is becoming more critical as these tools and concepts are increasingly incorporated into a broad range of occupations and academic disciplines. Geospatial Teaching Across the Curriculum (Geo-STAC) is a collaborative program that provides high school teachers with mentored professional development workshops in geospatial thought and technology. The seminars, led by community college faculty, give high school teachers the ability to incorporate geospatial technology into coursework across the curriculum — in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) and non-STEM disciplines. Students participating in the hands-on lessons gain experience in web-based and desktop Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The goals of the workshop are for teachers to: (1) understand the importance of geospatial thinking; (2) learn how to employ geospatial thinking in each discipline; (3) learn about geospatial technologies; (4) develop a Web-based GIS lesson; and, (5) implement a Web-based GIS lesson. Additionally, Geo-STAC works with high school students so that they: (1) understand the importance of geospatial technologies and careers in future job markets; (2) learn how to use Web-based GIS to solve problems; and, (3) visit the community college GIS lab and experience using desktop GIS. Geo-STAC actively disseminates this collaborative model to colleges to community colleges and high schools across the country.

  1. 2013年医院病原菌耐药性监测分析%Surveillance of drug resistance of pathogens in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑春华; 李春红; 奚伟星; 金燕; 陈洁

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the drug resistance of clinical isolates to the commonly used antibiotics in a three A hospital of Zhejiang province in 2013 so as to provide guidance for reasonable clinical use of antibiotics . METHODS A total of 2 329 non‐repetitive clinical pathogens were isolated ,then the drug susceptibility testing was performed by using disk diffusion method (K‐B) ,and the results were interpreted on the basis of criteria of CLSI 2011.RESULTSTheEscherichiacoli(440strains),Acinetobacterspp(307strains),Klebsiellapneumoniae(294 strains) ,Staphylococcus aureus (224 strains) , Pseudomonas aeruginosa (221 strains) ,and coagulase‐negative Staphylococcus (183 strains ) ranked the top six species of pathogens , accounting for 18 .89% , 13 .18% , 12 .62% ,9 .62% ,9 .49% ,and 7 .86% ,respectively .The drug resistance rate of the MRSA and MRCNS to the commonly used antibiotics were respectively higher than those of the MSSA and MSCNS ;no strain of nitrofuran‐toin‐or vancomycin‐resistant Staphylococcus was found ,and the drug resistance rate to penicillin was as high as 92 .31% ;the ESBLs‐producing E .coli and K .pneumoniae strains were highly resistant to the commonly used anti‐biotics such as penicillins ,cephalosporins ,quinolones ,and aminoglycosides ,while the drug resistance rates to amikacin and carbapenems were low ;the drug resistance rates of the P .aeruginosa to imipenem and meropenem were 31 .22% and 22 .62% ,respectively .CONCLUSION The regular surveillance of bacterial resistance is condu‐cive to the understanding of the change of the drug resistance and can provide scientific basis for clinical empirical medication ,it plays an important role in strengthening the supervision and management of reasonable use of antibiotics .%目的:了解2013年浙江省某三甲医院临床分离菌株对常用抗菌药物的耐药性,为临床合理用药提供参考依据。方法共收集2013年1-12月医院临

  2. A Simulation-Based Evaluation of Premovement Active Surveillance Protocol Options for the Managed Movement of Turkeys to Slaughter During an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd Weaver, J; Malladi, Sasidhar; Bonney, Peter J; Patyk, Kelly A; Bergeron, Justin G; Middleton, Jamie L; Alexander, Catherine Y; Goldsmith, Timothy J; Halvorson, David A

    2016-05-01

    Risk management decisions associated with live poultry movement during a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak should be carefully considered. Live turkey movements may pose a risk for disease spread. On the other hand, interruptions in scheduled movements can disrupt business continuity. The Secure Turkey Supply (STS) Plan was developed through an industry-government-academic collaboration to address business continuity concerns that might arise during a HPAI outbreak. STS stakeholders proposed outbreak response measure options that were evaluated through risk assessment. The developed approach relies on 1) diagnostic testing of two pooled samples of swabs taken from dead turkeys immediately before movement via the influenza A matrix gene real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) test; 2) enhanced biosecurity measures in combination with a premovement isolation period (PMIP), restricting movement onto the premises for a few days before movement to slaughter; and 3) incorporation of a distance factor from known infected flocks such that exposure via local area spread is unlikely. Daily exposure likelihood estimates from spatial kernels from past HPAI outbreaks were coupled with simulation models of disease spread and active surveillance to evaluate active surveillance protocol options that differ with respect to the number of swabs per pooled sample and the timing of the tests in relation to movement. Simulation model results indicate that active surveillance testing, in combination with strict biosecurity, substantially increased HPAI virus detection probability. When distance from a known infected flock was considered, the overall combined likelihood of moving an infected, undetected turkey flock to slaughter was predicted to be lower at 3 and 5 km. The analysis of different active surveillance protocol options is designed to incorporate flexibility into HPAI emergency response plans.

  3. Modeling and formal representation of geospatial knowledge for the Geospatial Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong; Gong, Jianya

    2008-12-01

    GML can only achieve geospatial interoperation at syntactic level. However, it is necessary to resolve difference of spatial cognition in the first place in most occasions, so ontology was introduced to describe geospatial information and services. But it is obviously difficult and improper to let users to find, match and compose services, especially in some occasions there are complicated business logics. Currently, with the gradual introduction of Semantic Web technology (e.g., OWL, SWRL), the focus of the interoperation of geospatial information has shifted from syntactic level to Semantic and even automatic, intelligent level. In this way, Geospatial Semantic Web (GSM) can be put forward as an augmentation to the Semantic Web that additionally includes geospatial abstractions as well as related reasoning, representation and query mechanisms. To advance the implementation of GSM, we first attempt to construct the mechanism of modeling and formal representation of geospatial knowledge, which are also two mostly foundational phases in knowledge engineering (KE). Our attitude in this paper is quite pragmatical: we argue that geospatial context is a formal model of the discriminate environment characters of geospatial knowledge, and the derivation, understanding and using of geospatial knowledge are located in geospatial context. Therefore, first, we put forward a primitive hierarchy of geospatial knowledge referencing first order logic, formal ontologies, rules and GML. Second, a metamodel of geospatial context is proposed and we use the modeling methods and representation languages of formal ontologies to process geospatial context. Thirdly, we extend Web Process Service (WPS) to be compatible with local DLL for geoprocessing and possess inference capability based on OWL.

  4. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial pathogens from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis conducted by the Japanese surveillance committee during 2009 and 2010: antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Shingo; Uehara, Shinya; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Minamitani, Shinichi; Watanabe, Akira; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Kadota, Junichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Naito, Seiji; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Ito, Shin; Kanokogi, Mototsugu; Narita, Harunori; Kawano, Hiromi; Hosobe, Takahide; Takayama, Kazuo; Sumii, Toru; Fujii, Akira; Sato, Takashi; Yamauchi, Takamine; Izumitani, Masanobu; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Ihara, Hideari; Akiyama, Kikuo; Yoshioka, Masaru; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Kano, Motonori; Kaji, Shinichi; Kawai, Shuichi; Ito, Kenji; Inatomi, Hisato; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Ikuyama, Toshihiro; Nishi, Shohei; Takahashi, Koichi; Kawano, Yukihiro; Ishihara, Satoshi; Tsuneyoshi, Kengo; Matsushita, Shinji; Yamane, Takashi; Hirose, Takaoki; Fujihiro, Shigeru; Endo, Katsuhisa; Oka, Yasuhiko; Takeyama, Koh; Kimura, Takahiro; Uemura, Tetsuji

    2013-06-01

    The Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens responsible for female acute uncomplicated cystitis at 43 hospitals throughout Japan from April 2009 to November 2010. In this study, the causative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus) and their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents were investigated by isolation and culturing of bacteria from urine samples. In total, 387 strains were isolated from 461 patients, including E. coli (n = 301, 77.8 %), S. saprophyticus (n = 20, 5.2 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 13, 3.4 %), and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 11, 2.8 %). S. saprophyticus was significantly more common in premenopausal women (P = 0.00095). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 19 antibacterial agents used for these strains were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute manual. At least 87 % of E. coli isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, and 100 % of S. saprophyticus isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. The proportions of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains were 13.3 % and 4.7 %, respectively. It is important to confirm the susceptibility of causative bacteria for optimal antimicrobial therapy, and empiric antimicrobial agents should be selected by considering patient characteristics and other factors. However, the number of isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant or ESBL-producing strains in gram-negative bacilli may be increasing in patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Japan. Therefore, these data present important information for the proper treatment of UTIs and will serve as a useful reference for future surveillance studies.

  5. The Future of Geospatial Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, L. E.; Simonis, I.

    2016-12-01

    The OGC is an international not-for-profit standards development organization (SDO) committed to making quality standards for the geospatial community. A community of more than 500 member organizations with more than 6,000 people registered at the OGC communication platform drives the development of standards that are freely available for anyone to use and to improve sharing of the world's geospatial data. OGC standards are applied in a variety of application domains including Environment, Defense and Intelligence, Smart Cities, Aviation, Disaster Management, Agriculture, Business Development and Decision Support, and Meteorology. Profiles help to apply information models to different communities, thus adapting to particular needs of that community while ensuring interoperability by using common base models and appropriate support services. Other standards address orthogonal aspects such as handling of Big Data, Crowd-sourced information, Geosemantics, or container for offline data usage. Like most SDOs, the OGC develops and maintains standards through a formal consensus process under the OGC Standards Program (OGC-SP) wherein requirements and use cases are discussed in forums generally open to the public (Domain Working Groups, or DWGs), and Standards Working Groups (SWGs) are established to create standards. However, OGC is unique among SDOs in that it also operates the OGC Interoperability Program (OGC-IP) to provide real-world testing of existing and proposed standards. The OGC-IP is considered the experimental playground, where new technologies are researched and developed in a user-driven process. Its goal is to prototype, test, demonstrate, and promote OGC Standards in a structured environment. Results from the OGC-IP often become requirements for new OGC standards or identify deficiencies in existing OGC standards that can be addressed. This presentation will provide an analysis of the work advanced in the OGC consortium including standards and testbeds

  6. In vitro activity of ceftobiprole against key pathogens associated with pneumonia in hospitalized patients: results from the PEG surveillance study, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kresken, Michael; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara; Kaase, Martin; Layer, Franziska; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Werner, Guido; Hafner, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Empirical treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) has increasingly been threatened by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug resistant Gram-negative pathogens. In contrast, empirical treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is primarily impeded by antimicrobial-resistant pneumococci. Ceftobiprole, recently approved for the treatment of HAP and CAP in Europe, is active against a broad-spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including MRSA ...

  7. Visualization and Ontology of Geospatial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yupo

    Recent events have deepened our conviction that many human endeavors are best described in a geospatial context. This is evidenced in the prevalence of location-based services, as afforded by the ubiquitous cell phone usage. It is also manifested by the popularity of such internet engines as Google Earth. As we commute to work, travel on business or pleasure, we make decisions based on the geospatial information provided by such location-based services. When corporations devise their business plans, they also rely heavily on such geospatial data. By definition, local, state and federal governments provide services according to geographic boundaries. One estimate suggests that 85 percent of data contain spatial attributes.

  8. Gamification and geospatial health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, David

    2014-06-01

    Sensor and Measurement technologies are rapidly developing for many consumer applications which have the potential to make a major impact on business and society. One of the most important areas for building a sustainable future is in health management. This opportunity arises because of the growing popularity of lifestyle monitoring devices such as the Jawbone UP bracelet, Nike Fuelband and Samsung Galaxy GEAR. These devices measure physical activity and calorie consumption and, when visualised on mobile and portable devices, enable users to take more responsibility for their personal health. This presentation looks at how the process of gamification can be applied to develop important geospatial health management applications that could not only improve the health of nations but also significantly address some of the issues in global health such as the ageing society and obesity.

  9. The geo-spatial information infrastructure at the Centre for Control and Prevention of Zoonoses, University of Ibadan, Nigeria: an emerging sustainable One-Health pavilion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugasa, B O

    2014-12-01

    The World-Wide-Web as a contemporary means of information sharing offers a platform for geo-spatial information dissemination to improve education about spatio-temporal patterns of disease spread at the human-animal-environment interface in developing countries of West Africa. In assessing the quality of exposure to geospatial information applications among students in five purposively selected institutions in West Africa, this study reviewed course contents and postgraduate programmes in zoonoses surveillance. Geospatial information content and associated practical exercises in zoonoses surveillance were scored.. Seven criteria were used to categorize and score capability, namely, spatial data capture; thematic map design and interpretation; spatio-temporal analysis; remote sensing of data; statistical modelling; the management of spatial data-profile; and web-based map sharing operation within an organization. These criteria were used to compute weighted exposure during training at the institutions. A categorical description of institution with highest-scoring of computed Cumulative Exposure Point Average (CEPA) was based on an illustration with retrospective records of rabies cases, using data from humans, animals and the environment, that were sourced from Grand Bassa County, Liberia to create and share maps and information with faculty, staff, students and the neighbourhood about animal bite injury surveillance and spatial distribution of rabies-like illness. Uniformly low CEPA values (0-1.3) were observed across academic departments. The highest (3.8) was observed at the Centre for Control and Prevention of Zoonoses (CCPZ), University of Ibadan, Nigeria, where geospatial techniques were systematically taught, and thematic and predictive maps were produced and shared online with other institutions in West Africa. In addition, a short course in zoonosis surveillance, which offers inclusive learning in geospatial applications, is taught at CCPZ. The paper

  10. INTEGRATING GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES AND SECONDARY STUDENT PROJECTS: THE GEOSPATIAL SEMESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Kolvoord

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El Semestre Geoespacial es una actividad de educación geográfica centrada en que los estudiantes del último curso de secundaria en los institutos norteamericanos, adquieran competencias y habilidades específicas en sistemas de información geográfica, GPS y teledetección. A través de una metodología de aprendizaje basado en proyectos, los alumnos se motivan e implican en la realización de trabajos de investigación en los que analizan, e incluso proponen soluciones, diferentes procesos, problemas o cuestiones de naturaleza espacial. El proyecto está coordinado por la Universidad James Madison y lleva siete años implantándose en diferentes institutos del Estado de Virginia, implicando a más de 20 centros educativos y 1.500 alumnos. Los alumnos que superan esta asignatura de la enseñanza secundaria obtienen la convalidación de determinados créditos académicos de la Universidad de referencia.Palabras clave:Sistemas de información geográfica, enseñanza, didáctica de la geografía, semestre geoespacial.Abstract:The Geospatial Semester is a geographical education activity focused on students in their final year of secondary schools in the U.S., acquiring specific skills in GIS, GPS and remote sensing. Through a methodology for project-based learning, students are motivated and involved in conducting research using geographic information systems and analyze, and even propose solutions, different processes, problems or issues spatial in nature. The Geospatial Semester university management not only ensures proper coaching, guidance and GIS training for teachers of colleges, but has established a system whereby students who pass this course of secondary education gain the recognition of certain credits from the University.Key words:Geographic information system, teaching, geographic education, geospatial semester. Résumé:Le semestre géospatial est une activité axée sur l'éducation géographique des étudiants en derni

  11. GIBS Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GDAL is an open source translator library for raster geospatial data formats that presents a single abstract data model to the calling application for all supported...

  12. A Geospatial Decision Support System Toolkit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design a working prototype Geospatial Decision Support Toolkit (GeoKit) that will enable scientists, agencies, and stakeholders to configure and deploy...

  13. Geospatial Technology: A Tool to Aid in the Elimination of Malaria in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Kirk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a malaria endemic country. There are 13 districts in the country bordering India and Myanmar that are at risk of malaria. The majority of malaria morbidity and mortality cases are in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, the mountainous southeastern region of Bangladesh. In recent years, malaria burden has declined in the country. In this study, we reviewed and summarized published data (through 2014 on the use of geospatial technologies on malaria epidemiology in Bangladesh and outlined potential contributions of geospatial technologies for eliminating malaria in the country. We completed a literature review using “malaria, Bangladesh” search terms and found 218 articles published in peer-reviewed journals listed in PubMed. After a detailed review, 201 articles were excluded because they did not meet our inclusion criteria, 17 articles were selected for final evaluation. Published studies indicated geospatial technologies tools (Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing were used to determine vector-breeding sites, land cover classification, accessibility to health facility, treatment seeking behaviors, and risk mapping at the household, regional, and national levels in Bangladesh. To achieve the goal of malaria elimination in Bangladesh, we concluded that further research using geospatial technologies should be integrated into the country’s ongoing surveillance system to identify and better assess progress towards malaria elimination.

  14. Microbial profiling, neural network and semantic web: an integrated information system for human pathogen risk management, prevention and surveillance in food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is estimated that food-borne pathogens cause approximately 76 million cases of gastrointestinal illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths in the United States annually. Genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic studies, particularly, genome sequencing projects are providing valuable inform...

  15. Wild bird surveillance in the Netherlands around outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 virus in 2014 within the context of global flyways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.H.; Van der Jeugd, Henk; Nolet, Bart A.; Slaterus, R.; Kharitonov, S.P.; De Vries, Peter; Vuong, O.; Majoor, F.; Kuiken, T.; Fouchier, R.A.M

    2015-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) viruses that emerged in poultry in east Asia since 2010 spread to Europe and North America by late 2014. Despite detections in migrating birds, the role of free-living wild birds in the global dispersal of H5N8 virus is unclear. Here, wild bird sampli

  16. Wild bird surveillance around outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus in the Netherlands, 2014, within the context of global flyways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Verhagen (Josanne); H.P. van der Jeugd; B.A. Nolet (Bart); R. Slaterus (Roy); S.P. Kharitonov; P.P. de Vries; O. Vuong (Spronken); F. Majoor (Frank); T. Kuiken (Thijs); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHighly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) viruses that emerged in poultry in east Asia since 2010 spread to Europe and North America by late 2014. Despite detections in migrating birds, the role of free-living wild birds in the global dispersal of H5N8 virus is unclear. Here, wild

  17. Environmental surveillance and molecular epidemiology of waterborne pathogen Legionella pneumophila in health-care facilities of Northeastern Greece: a 4-year survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandropoulou, Ioanna G; Ntougias, Spyridon; Konstantinidis, Theocharis G; Parasidis, Theodoros A; Panopoulou, Maria; Constantinidis, Theodoros C

    2015-05-01

    A 4-year proactive environmental surveillance of Legionella spp. in the water distribution and cooling systems of five health-care facilities was carried out as part of the strategy for the prevention of hospital-acquired Legionnaires' disease in Northeastern Greece. Legionella spp. were detected in 71 out of 458 collected samples. The majority of strains belonged to Legionella pneumophila serogroups 2-15 (75.0%), while all L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains (23.6%) were isolated from a single hospital. The highest percentage of positive samples was found in distal sites (19.4%), while no Legionella strains were detected in cooling systems. Each hospital was colonized at least once with L. pneumophila, while remedial actions resulted in significant reduction of Legionella concentration. The molecular epidemiology of environmental L. pneumophila strains was also investigated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and multi-gene sequence-based analysis. Based on RAPD patterns, L. pneumophila serogroups 2-15 and serogroup 1 strains were classified into 24 and 9 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), respectively. Sequencing of housekeeping and diversifying pressure-related genes recommended by European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) revealed not only a high intraspecies variability but also the circulation and persistence of one specific genotyping profile in the majority of hospitals. This study highlights the necessity for diachronic surveillance of Legionella in health-care facilities by adopting both cultural and molecular methods.

  18. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  19. A geospatial search engine for discovering multi-format geospatial data across the web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Bone; Alan Ager; Ken Bunzel; Lauren Tierney

    2014-01-01

    The volume of publically available geospatial data on the web is rapidly increasing due to advances in server-based technologies and the ease at which data can now be created. However, challenges remain with connecting individuals searching for geospatial data with servers and websites where such data exist. The objective of this paper is to present a publically...

  20. Comparative in vitro activity of carbapenems against major Gram-negative pathogens: results of Asia-Pacific surveillance from the COMPACT II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Chongthaleong, Anan; Tan, Thean Yen; Lagamayo, Evelina; Roberts, Sally; Garcia, Jemelyn; Davies, Todd

    2012-04-01

    Resistance rates amongst Gram-negative pathogens are increasing in the Asia-Pacific region. The Comparative Activity of Carbapenem Testing (COMPACT) II study surveyed the carbapenem susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem against 1260 major Gram-negative pathogens isolated from hospitalised patients at 20 centres in five Asia-Pacific countries (New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) during 2010. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=625), Enterobacteriaceae (n=500), and other Gram-negative pathogens including Acinetobacter baumannii (n=135) were collected from patients with bloodstream infection (32.2%), nosocomial pneumonia including ventilator-associated pneumonia (58.1%), and complicated intra-abdominal infection (9.7%), with 36.7% being isolated from patients in an Intensive Care Unit. As high as 29.8% of P. aeruginosa and 73.0% of A. baumannii isolates were not susceptible to at least a carbapenem, whereas the majority of Enterobacteriaceae (97.2%) were susceptible to all carbapenems. Respective MIC(50)/MIC(90) values (MICs for 50% and 90% of the organisms, respectively) of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem were: 0.38/8, 1.5/32 and 0.38/16 mg/L for P. aeruginosa; 0.023/0.094, 0.25/0.5 and 0.032/0.094 mg/L for Enterobacteriaceae; and 32/64, 32/128 and 32/64 mg/L for A. baumannii. Doripenem and meropenem had comparable activity against P. aeruginosa, both being more active than imipenem. All carbapenems were highly potent against Enterobacteriaceae, although imipenem demonstrated higher MIC values than doripenem and meropenem. The three carbapenems showed less activity against A. baumannii. The high prevalence of carbapenem resistance amongst important nosocomial pathogens (P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii) warrants rigorous infection control measures and appropriate antimicrobial use in the Asia-Pacific region.

  1. A Detailed Protocol to Enable Safe-Handling, Preemptive Detection, and Systematic Surveillance of Rat-Vectored Pathogens in the Urban Environment

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We detail a five-stage protocol to address physical barriers and experimental limitations that have hindered routine pathogen monitoring of wild rats in urban settings. New York City potentially harbors from 2 to 32 million rats among its 8-million people. However, at a time, when people are most vulnerable to disease from over-crowdedness brought on by increased urbanization of society, the difficulty of studying wild rats has led to a paucity of ecological and epidemiological research. Chal...

  2. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance...

  3. Citing geospatial feature inventories with XML manifests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, R.; McGarva, G.

    2006-12-01

    Today published scientific papers include a growing number of citations for online information sources that either complement or replace printed journals and books. We anticipate this same trend for cartographic citations used in the geosciences, following advances in web mapping and geographic feature-based services. Instead of using traditional libraries to resolve citations for print material, the geospatial citation life cycle will include requesting inventories of objects or geographic features from distributed geospatial data repositories. Using a case study from the UK Ordnance Survey MasterMap database, which is illustrative of geographic object-based products in general, we propose citing inventories of geographic objects using XML feature manifests. These manifests: (1) serve as a portable listing of sets of versioned features; (2) could be used as citations within the identification portion of an international geospatial metadata standard; (3) could be incorporated into geospatial data transfer formats such as GML; but (4) can be resolved only with comprehensive, curated repositories of current and historic data. This work has implications for any researcher who foresees the need to make or resolve references to online geospatial databases.

  4. Vector-borne disease surveillance in puerto rico: pathogen prevalence rates in canines ? Implications for public health and the u.s. Military ? Applying the one health concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Michael E; Opel, Taylor; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) make up a large number of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases. Vectors such as ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes parasitize dogs, thus making canine populations adequate reservoirs for infectious disease and zoonoses. The U.S. military deploys its personnel and Military Working Dogs (MWDs) throughout the world with possible risk of exposure to VBDs. Canine VBDs continue to have veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for deployed U.S. personnel and MWDs. Thus, ongoing and consistent disease surveillance is an essential component to preserve health. The purpose of this study was to survey dogs from multiple cities and varying regions throughout Puerto Rico to determine the prevalence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) from May to July 2012. Canine blood samples (1?3 ml) from the cities of San Juan (n = 629), Guaynabo (n = 50), Ponce (n = 20) and Vieques Island (n = 53) were obtained and tested on-site using an IDEXX SNAP? 4Dx? (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test kit. Prevalence for single or multiple disease status was calculated for each site. The overall period prevalence of VBD in Puerto Rico in the shelter population was 57.7% (71/123). In Guaynabo, the VBD prevalence was 30% (15/50); 2 (13%) of these positive dogs had VBD co-infection. In the coastal port city of Ponce, it was 60% (12/20); 6 (50%) dogs were infected by two or more VBDs. On Vieques Island, it was 83% (44/53); 27 (61%) dogs were coinfected. Conversely, samples collected at the Fort Buchanan Veterinary Clinic in the capitol city of San Juan resulted in a VBD prevalence of 8.9% (56/629). Lyme disease was not detected in any sample. This study showed the presence of D. immitis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in all four sites of Puerto Rico, emphasizing the value of surveillance for VBDs to determine disease

  5. GAGES-II: Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset, termed "GAGES II", an acronym for Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow, version II, provides geospatial data and classifications...

  6. U.S. EPAs Public Geospatial Metadata Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPAs public geospatial metadata service provides external parties (Data.gov, GeoPlatform.gov, and the general public) with access to EPA's geospatial metadata...

  7. Surveillance of tedizolid activity and resistance: In vitro susceptibility of Gram-positive pathogens collected over 5 years from the United States and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaci, Mekki; Sahm, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    In vitro activity of tedizolid and comparators against 11,231 Gram-positive clinical isolates from the United States (84 centers) and Europe (115 centers) were summarized as part of the Surveillance of Tedizolid Activity and Resistance program between 2009 and 2013. Susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretations were based on CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing criteria. Tedizolid inhibited 99.7% of all isolates at MIC ≤0.5 mg/L; activity was similar regardless of methicillin or vancomycin resistance phenotypes of Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci, respectively. Tedizolid MIC >1 mg/L was reported for 3 S. aureus, 4 coagulase-negative staphylococci, and 2 enterococcal isolates; all streptococci were inhibited at MIC ≤0.5 mg/L. Tedizolid was ≥4-fold more potent than linezolid against all groups, including resistant phenotypes. Tedizolid had potent/stable activity against a large, contemporary collection of Gram-positive clinical isolates, with low rates of resistance.

  8. Antimicrobial activity against a global collection of skin and skin structure pathogens: results from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.), 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tärnberg, Maria; Nilsson, Lennart E; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    As part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) we report antimicrobial resistance among Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates collected globally from integumentary sources between 2010 and 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations and antimicrobial resistance were determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines (US Food and Drug Administration breakpoints against tigecycline). The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to identify statistically significant changes in resistance. Global rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were 38% and 43%, respectively. No S. aureus isolates were resistant to linezolid or vancomycin; all isolates were susceptible to tigecycline. Two percent of Enterococcus faecalis and 28% of Enterococcus faecium were vancomycin-resistant. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers accounted for 22% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 16% of Escherichia coli. Resistance to minocycline among E. faecalis, E. faecium, K. pneumoniae, and E. coli decreased significantly (pintegumentary sources, rates of MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are stabilizing. Carbapenems and tigecycline have retained their in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Few agents were active against A. baumannii; its increasing resistance is cause for concern. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Pathogenic surveillance and analysis of bacterial diarrhea in Karamay%克拉玛依市细菌性腹泻病病原学监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏玛丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解克拉玛依市细菌性腹泻病病原学特点及流行病学特征,为细菌性腹泻病的防治提供理论依据.方法 采集克拉玛依市第一人民医院门急诊腹泻病患者肛拭子,常规增菌、分离、纯化,根据国标应用生化鉴定法鉴定病原菌.结果 该市112例腹泻病患者,致病菌检出29例,阳性检出率为25.89%;铜绿假单胞菌检出9例,检出率为8.04%.5岁以下婴幼儿为细菌性腹泻病高发人群.8月份为腹泻病高发期.致病菌构成中,铜绿假单胞菌占首位(31.03%),其次为沙门菌(24.14%)和志贺菌(24.14%).沙门菌亚型主要以肠炎沙门菌和鼠伤寒沙门菌为主;而志贺菌只检测到福氏(B群)这一个亚型,痢疾(A群)、鲍氏(C群)以及宋内(D群)亚型均未检出,福氏志贺氏2a为优势菌株.结论 该市细菌性腹泻病主要以婴幼儿高发,病原菌主要为铜绿假胞菌、沙门菌、志贺菌.铜绿假单胞菌引起的腹泻病应引起重视,避免滥用抗生素.%[Objective]To understand the pathogenic feature and epidemiological characteristics of bacterial diarrhea in Karamay, provide the theoretical basis for prevention and control of bacterial diarrhea. [ Methods ] The anus swab samples were collected from diarrhea patients in Outpatient and Emergency Department of Karamay First Peoples Hospital. After conventional enrichment, separation and purification, the pathogens were identified by biochemical identification according to national standards. [Results] Among 112 diarrhea patients, pathogenic bacteria were found in 29 cases with the positive rate of 25. 89% , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in 9 cases with the detection rate of 8.04% . Children under 5 years old had the highest incidence rate of bacterial diarrhea, and the peak reason was August. In pathogenic bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ranked at the first place (31.03% ) , followed by Salmonella (24.14% ) and Shigella spp (24. 14% ). The subtypes of

  10. Donning and doffing PPE for HPAI surveillance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions describing the proper donning and doffing personal protective equipment (PPE) for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) surveillance. This protocol...

  11. A 16-year retrospective surveillance report on the pathogenic features and antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from FAHJU in Guangzhou representative of Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jinhong; Yang, Ling; Peters, Brian M; Chen, Lequn; Chen, Dingqiang; Li, Bing; Li, Lin; Yu, Guangchao; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2017-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections. A 16-year retrospective report from 2000 to 2015 was conducted to assess the antimicrobial resistance of P. aeruginosa in Southern China. A total of 1387 P. aeruginosa were collected from inpatients and outpatients. Susceptibility testing results were interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2015). Piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, aminoglycosides and carbapenems remained to be active against P. aeruginosa, with resistance rates ranging from 5.6% to 29.7%. Generally, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, ceftriaxone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole nearly lost the effect on P. aeruginosa, as the resistance rates increase up to 90%. Notably, sputum and blood specimen showed higher resistance rates than other sources in carbapenems, suggesting more caution should be paid on the choice of antibiotic against infections associated with respiratory tract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Food-borne pathogens Surveillance in Dalian city during 2011-2013%2011-2013年大连市食源性致病菌监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖冰; 徐丹; 陈玉凤; 吕秋月; 于蕾

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解大连市各类食品中食源性致病菌的污染情况,为有效预防和降低食源性疾病的发生提供科学依据.方法 2011-2013年采集大连市市售15类样品,共计758份,进行9种食源性致病菌的分离与鉴定.结果 758件样品中共检测出致病菌42株,总检出率为5.5%.检出食源性致病菌的食品包括:肉及肉制品(5.0%)、生食动物性水产品(9.4%)、即食非发酵豆制品(5.0%)、婴幼儿配方食品(2.9%)、鲜榨果蔬汁(10.0%)、米线凉皮盒饭冷面类(9.1%)、荤素烧烤类食品(3.3%)、冷冻饮品(4.0%)、焙烤食品(4.5%).其中,生食动物性水产品中的副溶血性弧菌检出率为8.9%;米线凉皮盒饭冷面类、即食非发酵豆制品和鲜榨果蔬汁中金黄色葡萄球菌的检出率分别为7.3%、5.0%、5.0%;鲜榨果蔬汁中沙门氏菌的检出率为5.0%,是大连市食源性致病菌风险来源的主要食品品种和项目.结论 大连市市售食品的现状不容乐观,存在不同程度的食源性致病菌污染,特别是部分生食品污染较为严重.应加强市售食品的监督管理,食品加工过程仍应采取烧熟煮透、防止交叉污染等针对性措施,减少由此引起的食源性疾病的发生.%Objective To investigate the situations and levels of main food-borne pathogens bacteria in food in Dalian city,and to provide scientific evidence for controlling and reducing food-borne diseases.Methods 9 kinds of food-borne pathogens were isolated and identified from 758 food samples of 15 types from 2011 to 2013.Results A total of 42 food-borne pathogens were isolated from 758 samples with relevance ratio of S.5%.The mainly food categories polluted by pathogenic bacteria are:meat and cooked meat products (5.0%),raw sea food (9.4%),non-fermented bean products (5.0%),infant formula food (2.9%),fresh fruit and vegetable juice (10.0%),rice noodle/cold noodle/boxed lunch/chilled noodle (9.1

  13. Examining the Effect of Enactment of a Geospatial Curriculum on Students' Geospatial Thinking and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong; Kulo, Violet; Peffer, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    A potential method for teaching geospatial thinking and reasoning (GTR) is through geospatially enabled learning technologies. We developed an energy resources geospatial curriculum that included learning activities with geographic information systems and virtual globes. This study investigated how 13 urban middle school teachers implemented and…

  14. Impacts of Geospatial Information for Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, F.; Coote, A.; Friedl, L.; Stewart, M.

    2012-12-01

    Geospatial information contributes to decisions by both societal and individual decision-makers. More effective use of this information is essential as issues are increasingly complex and consequences can be critical for future economic and social development. To address this, a workshop brought together analysts, communicators, officials, and researchers from academia, government, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector. A range of policy issues, management needs, and resource requirements were discussed and a wide array of analyses, geospatial data, methods of analysis, and metrics were presented for assessing and communicating the value of geospatial information. It is clear that there are many opportunities for integrating science and engineering disciplines with the social sciences for addressing societal issues that would benefit from using geospatial information and earth observations. However, these collaborations must have outcomes that can be easily communicated to decision makers. This generally requires either succinct quantitative statements of value based on rigorous models and/or user testimonials of actual applications that save real money. An outcome of the workshop is to pursue the development of a community of practice or society that encompasses a wide range of scientific, social, management, and communication disciplines and fosters collaboration across specialties, helping to build trust across social and science aspects. A resource base is also necessary. This presentation will address approaches for creating a shared knowledge database, containing a glossary of terms, reference materials and examples of case studies and the potential applications for benefit analyses.

  15. Machine learning on geospatial big data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, T

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available learning, a model may be trained so as to do automated classification of new unlabelled observations, to forecast future observations of some system or automatically spot anomalous events (Vatsavai et al. 2012). Geospatial big data present two opportunities...

  16. Strategic Model for Future Geospatial Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    successful collaboration between NCGIA and CITC/CGITC could lead to the next discussion point of " franchising " educational programs. 4. Development...which would all be designed to run in a PC environment. Thus is the initial set-up for geospatial education franchising -creation of a core curriculum

  17. Geospatial Technologies and Higher Education in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguizamon, Saturnino

    2010-01-01

    The term "geospatial technologies" encompasses a large area of fields involving cartography, spatial analysis, geographic information system, remote sensing, global positioning systems and many others. These technologies should be expected to be available (as "natural tools") for a country with a large surface and a variety of climates, such as…

  18. Geospatial Technologies: Real Projects in Real Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvoord, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Geospatial technologies of geographic information systems, global positioning systems, and remote sensing are just a few of the projects that evoke an unexpected drive and devotion from high school students in Virginia. Their integration into different curricular areas lets students focus on understanding their community and the many issues that…

  19. Geospatial Technologies and Higher Education in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguizamon, Saturnino

    2010-01-01

    The term "geospatial technologies" encompasses a large area of fields involving cartography, spatial analysis, geographic information system, remote sensing, global positioning systems and many others. These technologies should be expected to be available (as "natural tools") for a country with a large surface and a variety of…

  20. Examining the Effect of Enactment of a Geospatial Curriculum on Students' Geospatial Thinking and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong; Kulo, Violet; Peffer, Tamara

    2014-08-01

    A potential method for teaching geospatial thinking and reasoning (GTR) is through geospatially enabled learning technologies. We developed an energy resources geospatial curriculum that included learning activities with geographic information systems and virtual globes. This study investigated how 13 urban middle school teachers implemented and varied the enactment of the curriculum with their students and investigated which teacher- and student-level factors accounted for students' GTR posttest achievement. Data included biweekly implementation surveys from teachers and energy resources content and GTR pre- and posttest achievement measures from 1,049 students. Students significantly increased both their energy resources content knowledge and their GTR skills related to energy resources at the end of the curriculum enactment. Both multiple regression and hierarchical linear modeling found that students' initial GTR abilities and gain in energy content knowledge were significantly explanatory variables for their geospatial achievement at the end of curriculum enactment, p < .001. Teacher enactment factors, including adherence to implementing the critical components of the curriculum or the number of years the teachers had taught the curriculum, did not have significant effects on students' geospatial posttest achievement. The findings from this study provide support that learning with geospatially enabled learning technologies can support GTR with urban middle-level learners.

  1. The East Jakarta Project: surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) and seasonal influenza viruses in patients seeking care for respiratory disease, Jakarta, Indonesia, October 2011-September 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, A D; Kusriastuti, R; Misriyah, S; Praptiningsih, C Y; Amalya, M; Lafond, K E; Samaan, G; Triada, R; Iuliano, A D; Ester, M; Sidjabat, R; Chittenden, K; Vogel, R; Widdowson, M A; Mahoney, F; Uyeki, T M

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia has reported the most human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus worldwide. We implemented enhanced surveillance in four outpatient clinics and six hospitals for HPAI H5N1 and seasonal influenza viruses in East Jakarta district to assess the public health impact of influenza in Indonesia. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI); respiratory specimens were obtained for influenza testing by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. During October 2011-September 2012, 1131/3278 specimens from ILI cases (34·5%) and 276/1787 specimens from SARI cases (15·4%) tested positive for seasonal influenza viruses. The prevalence of influenza virus infections was highest during December-May and the proportion testing positive was 76% for ILI and 36% for SARI during their respective weeks of peak activity. No HPAI H5N1 virus infections were identified, including hundreds of ILI and SARI patients with recent poultry exposures, whereas seasonal influenza was an important contributor to acute respiratory disease in East Jakarta. Overall, 668 (47%) of influenza viruses were influenza B, 384 (27%) were A(H1N1)pdm09, and 359 (25%) were H3. While additional data over multiple years are needed, our findings suggest that seasonal influenza prevention efforts, including influenza vaccination, should target the months preceding the rainy season.

  2. 2011年上海市浦东新区社区居民急性腹泻病病原谱监测分析%Analysis of pathogen spectrum surveillance of diarrheal patients in Pudong New Area, Shanghai, 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅益飞; 孙乔; 朱渭萍; 朱林英; 费怡; 叶楚楚; 薛曹怡; 王闻卿; 潘丽峰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the epidemiological and pathogen features of diarrheal patients in Pudong new area, then put forward preventive and treatment work of enteric infectious disease. Methods Syndromic surveillance was conducted in 12 sentinels' outpatients. Pathogen detection was adopted for the samples from diarrheal clinic outpatients. Strains of pathogenic bacteria ( salmonella, vibrio parahaemolyticus and shigella) of stool positive culture were tested a-gainst 12 antimicrobial agents. Results There was a peak during June to September according to outpatients' syndromic surveillance. Of the 1 935 cases, 321 cases (16. 59% ) were positive for bacteria pathogens including 97 (5.01%) cases vibrio parahaemolyticus, 96 cases (4. 96% ) salmonella and 86 cases (4.44% ) campylobacter. Of the 1 327 cases, 188 cases (14. 17% ) were positive for virus pathogens including 110 cases (8. 29% ) norovirus and 37 cases (2. 79% ) rota-virus. Salmonella had the highest susceptibility (99. 0% ) to cefepime and was resistant to nalidixic acid, tetracycline, am-picillin and streptomycin. Shigella had the highest susceptibility (100. 0% ) to chloramphenicol and ofloxacin, meanwhile it had the highest resistant rate (100. 0% ) to amoxicillin, vibrio parahaemolyticus was susceptible to amoxicillin, ceftazi-dime, cefepime and co-trimoxazolewith resistance to gentamicin, amikacin and ciprofloxacin. Conclusions The prevalent months of acute infectious diarrhea are July, August and September. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, salmonella and campylobacter were the main bacteria pathogens while norovirus and rotavirus were the main virus pathogens in Pudong new area. Salmonella, vibrio parahaemolyticus, shigella have varying degrees of resistance to common antibiotics.%目的 了解上海市浦东新区腹泻病的疫情动态、流行规律,掌握上海市浦东新区腹泻病病原谱、菌型分布等特征,为制定防治对策、措施提供科学依据.方法 确定监测病例定义及12个

  3. Surveillance results of food-borne pathogens in Dalian City in 2011%2011年大连市食源性致病菌监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖冰; 侯君; 徐丹

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解大连市食品中食源性致病菌的污染状况,为食源性疾病的监测和预警提供科学依据.方法 按照《全国食源性致病菌监测工作手册》的要求,对大连市区农贸市场、大型超市、宾馆酒店及个体摊贩销售点的10类食品进行沙门菌、单核细胞增生李斯特菌、大肠埃希菌O157:H7、志贺菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、副溶血性弧菌和蜡样芽孢杆菌7种食源性致病菌进行监测分析.结果 10类共296份样品检出致病菌19株,总检出率为6.4%.其中沙门菌2株,金黄色葡萄球菌5株,副溶血性弧菌12株.结论 大连市市售食品不同程度受到多种食源性致病菌的污染,水产品、鲜榨果蔬汁、即食非发酵性豆制品和熟肉制品为主要受污染食品,应加强市售食品监督管理,减少由此引起食源性疾病的发生.%[Objective] To know the contamination status of food-borne pathogens in food in Dalian City, provide scientific basis for surveillance and early-warning of food-borne diseases. [Methods] According to the requirements of the Food-borne Pathogen Monitoring Manual, 7 food-borne pathogens, including Salmonella, listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Bacillus cereus, in the samples of 10 kinds of food which collected from farmers'markets, shopping mall, hotels and retail outlets were monitored and analyzed. [Results] A total of 19 food-bome pathogens were isolated from 296 samples with the total detection of 6. 4% . There were 2 strains of Salmonella, 5 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 12 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. [Conclusion]The food in Dalian markets are contaminated by food-bome pathogens at different degrees, and the main contaminated food include aquatic food, fruit and vegetable juice, instant- non-fermented bean products and cooked meat products. It is necessary to strengthen the supervision and management to reduce the

  4. Surveillance of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Coleen A.; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the autism surveillance activities of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It considers why surveillance to track prevalence of autistic disorders is needed, how such surveillance is conducted, and the special challenges of autism surveillance. (DB)

  5. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  6. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data

  7. An Effective Framework for Distributed Geospatial Query Processing in Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN, B.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Internet has greatly revolutionized the way that geospatial information is collected, managed, processed and integrated. There are several important research issues to be addressed for distributed geospatial applications. First, the performance of geospatial applications is needed to be considered in the Internet environment. In this regard, the Grid as an effective distributed computing paradigm is a good choice. The Grid uses a series of middleware to interconnect and merge various distributed resources into a super-computer with capability of high performance computation. Secondly, it is necessary to ensure the secure use of independent geospatial applications in the Internet environment. The Grid just provides the utility of secure access to distributed geospatial resources. Additionally, it makes good sense to overcome the heterogeneity between individual geospatial information systems in Internet. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC proposes a number of generalized geospatial standards e.g. OGC Web Services (OWS to achieve interoperable access to geospatial applications. The OWS solution is feasible and widely adopted by both the academic community and the industry community. Therefore, we propose an integrated framework by incorporating OWS standards into Grids. Upon the framework distributed geospatial queries can be performed in an interoperable, high-performance and secure Grid environment.

  8. A Semantic Approach to Describe Geospatial Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Sidney Roberto

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly using geospatial data from the Web to produce geographic information. One big challenge is to find the relevant data, which often is based on keywords or even file names. However, these approaches lack semantics. Thus, it is necessary to provide mechanisms to prepare data to help retrieval of semantically relevant data. This paper proposes an approach to attack this problem. This approach is based on semantic annotations that use geographic metadata and ontologies to describe heterogeneous geospatial data. Semantic annotations are RDF/XML files that rely on a FGDC metadata schema, filled with appropriate ontology terms, and stored in a XML database. The proposal is illustrated by a case study of semantic annotations of agricultural resources, using domain ontologies.

  9. Research and Practical Trends in Geospatial Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpik, A. P.; Musikhin, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years professional societies have been undergoing fundamental restructuring brought on by extensive technological change and rapid evolution of geospatial science. Almost all professional communities have been affected. Communities are embracing digital techniques, modern equipment, software and new technological solutions at a staggering pace. In this situation, when planning financial investments and intellectual resource management, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of those trends that will be in great demand in 3-7 years. This paper reviews current scientific and practical activities of such non-governmental international organizations as International Federation of Surveyors, International Cartographic Association, and International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, analyzes and groups most relevant topics brought up at their scientific events, forecasts most probable research and practical trends in geospatial sciences, outlines topmost leading countries and emerging markets for further detailed analysis of their activities, types of scientific cooperation and joint implementation projects.

  10. RESEARCH AND PRACTICAL TRENDS IN GEOSPATIAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Karpik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years professional societies have been undergoing fundamental restructuring brought on by extensive technological change and rapid evolution of geospatial science. Almost all professional communities have been affected. Communities are embracing digital techniques, modern equipment, software and new technological solutions at a staggering pace. In this situation, when planning financial investments and intellectual resource management, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of those trends that will be in great demand in 3-7 years. This paper reviews current scientific and practical activities of such non-governmental international organizations as International Federation of Surveyors, International Cartographic Association, and International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, analyzes and groups most relevant topics brought up at their scientific events, forecasts most probable research and practical trends in geospatial sciences, outlines topmost leading countries and emerging markets for further detailed analysis of their activities, types of scientific cooperation and joint implementation projects.

  11. Recovery geospatial objects using semantic similarity measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neili Machado-García

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a methodology based on the semantic processing of geographic objects for the classification of soils according to the New Version of Genetic Classification of soils of Cuba. The method consists of five stages: conceptualization, synthesis, queries processing, retrieval and management. The result is a system of geospatial information management applying semantic similarity measure of Resnik. As a case study considering the region of San Jose de las Lajas located in the province of Mayabeque.

  12. Towards One Health disease surveillance: The Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esron D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for ‘fit-for- purpose’ approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  13. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  14. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  15. Evidence for the Convergence Model: The Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksena, Sumeet; Fox, Jefferson; Epprecht, Michael; Tran, Chinh C; Nong, Duong H; Spencer, James H; Nguyen, Lam; Finucane, Melissa L; Tran, Vien D; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Building on a series of ground breaking reviews that first defined and drew attention to emerging infectious diseases (EID), the 'convergence model' was proposed to explain the multifactorial causality of disease emergence. The model broadly hypothesizes disease emergence is driven by the co-incidence of genetic, physical environmental, ecological, and social factors. We developed and tested a model of the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 based on suspected convergence factors that are mainly associated with land-use change. Building on previous geospatial statistical studies that identified natural and human risk factors associated with urbanization, we added new factors to test whether causal mechanisms and pathogenic landscapes could be more specifically identified. Our findings suggest that urbanization spatially combines risk factors to produce particular types of peri-urban landscapes with significantly higher HPAI H5N1 emergence risk. The work highlights that peri-urban areas of Viet Nam have higher levels of chicken densities, duck and geese flock size diversities, and fraction of land under rice or aquaculture than rural and urban areas. We also found that land-use diversity, a surrogate measure for potential mixing of host populations and other factors that likely influence viral transmission, significantly improves the model's predictability. Similarly, landscapes where intensive and extensive forms of poultry production overlap were found at greater risk. These results support the convergence hypothesis in general and demonstrate the potential to improve EID prevention and control by combing geospatial monitoring of these factors along with pathogen surveillance programs.

  16. Evidence for the Convergence Model: The Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1 in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Saksena

    Full Text Available Building on a series of ground breaking reviews that first defined and drew attention to emerging infectious diseases (EID, the 'convergence model' was proposed to explain the multifactorial causality of disease emergence. The model broadly hypothesizes disease emergence is driven by the co-incidence of genetic, physical environmental, ecological, and social factors. We developed and tested a model of the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 based on suspected convergence factors that are mainly associated with land-use change. Building on previous geospatial statistical studies that identified natural and human risk factors associated with urbanization, we added new factors to test whether causal mechanisms and pathogenic landscapes could be more specifically identified. Our findings suggest that urbanization spatially combines risk factors to produce particular types of peri-urban landscapes with significantly higher HPAI H5N1 emergence risk. The work highlights that peri-urban areas of Viet Nam have higher levels of chicken densities, duck and geese flock size diversities, and fraction of land under rice or aquaculture than rural and urban areas. We also found that land-use diversity, a surrogate measure for potential mixing of host populations and other factors that likely influence viral transmission, significantly improves the model's predictability. Similarly, landscapes where intensive and extensive forms of poultry production overlap were found at greater risk. These results support the convergence hypothesis in general and demonstrate the potential to improve EID prevention and control by combing geospatial monitoring of these factors along with pathogen surveillance programs.

  17. 125例糖尿病足感染患者病原菌分布及耐药性分析%Distribution and resistance surveillance of pathogens causing diabetic foot infections in 125 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 陈卫红; 何亮军

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogens causing diabetic foot infections in order to provide the basis for clinical rational choice of antibiotics.Methods: A total of 125 cases of diabetic foot infection were chosen from January 2011 to September 2014. hTe clinical data were retrospective analysed. The antimicrobial susceptibility test to isolated pathogens was performed by agar dilution method. hTe results were judged according to the criteria recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2013.Results:Of 125 cases of diabetic foot infection, 132 strains were isolated, in which 62 were Gram-positive bacteria (47.0%), 55 Gram-negative bacteria (41.7%), and 15 fungi (11.4%). hTe results of antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that Gram-negative bacteria were highly susceptible to the carbapenem and β-lactamaseinhibitor; Gram-positive bacteria were highly susceptible to the glycopeptide, carbapenem and aminoglycoside; fungus was susceptible to amphotericin B and caspofungin.Conclusion: For patients with diabetic foot infections, repeated detection of pathogens in secretions is very important. hTe surveillance of antimicrobial resistance should be strengthened for purpose of preventing the transmission of multidrug resistant strains.%目的:分析糖尿病足部感染临床分离病原菌的分布及其抗菌药物敏感性特点,为临床医务工作者合理应用抗菌药物提供理论依据。方法:选取2011年1月至2014年9月,来本院治疗的糖尿病足合并感染患者125例,采集糖尿病足部溃疡分泌物,并保存培养分离出的病原菌,采用琼脂倍比稀释法进行药物敏感试验,药敏结果依据美国临床实验室标准化委员会2013年推荐的标准进行判读。结果:125例糖尿病足感染患者溃疡分泌物共培养分离出病原菌132株,其中,革兰阳性菌62株(47.0%),革兰阴性菌55株(41.7%),真菌15株(11

  18. Streamlining geospatial metadata in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, Cristiano; Pepe, Monica; Oggioni, Alessandro; Tagliolato, Paolo; Carrara, Paola

    2016-04-01

    In the geospatial realm, data annotation and discovery rely on a number of ad-hoc formats and protocols. These have been created to enable domain-specific use cases generalized search is not feasible for. Metadata are at the heart of the discovery process and nevertheless they are often neglected or encoded in formats that either are not aimed at efficient retrieval of resources or are plainly outdated. Particularly, the quantum leap represented by the Linked Open Data (LOD) movement did not induce so far a consistent, interlinked baseline in the geospatial domain. In a nutshell, datasets, scientific literature related to them, and ultimately the researchers behind these products are only loosely connected; the corresponding metadata intelligible only to humans, duplicated on different systems, seldom consistently. Instead, our workflow for metadata management envisages i) editing via customizable web- based forms, ii) encoding of records in any XML application profile, iii) translation into RDF (involving the semantic lift of metadata records), and finally iv) storage of the metadata as RDF and back-translation into the original XML format with added semantics-aware features. Phase iii) hinges on relating resource metadata to RDF data structures that represent keywords from code lists and controlled vocabularies, toponyms, researchers, institutes, and virtually any description one can retrieve (or directly publish) in the LOD Cloud. In the context of a distributed Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) built on free and open-source software, we detail phases iii) and iv) of our workflow for the semantics-aware management of geospatial metadata.

  19. Development of Geospatial Map Based Election Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A. Kumar Chandra; Kumar, P.; Vasanth Kumar, N.

    2014-11-01

    The Geospatial Delhi Limited (GSDL), a Govt. of NCT of Delhi Company formed in order to provide the geospatial information of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD) to the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) and its organs such as DDA, MCD, DJB, State Election Department, DMRC etc., for the benefit of all citizens of Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD). This paper describes the development of Geospatial Map based Election portal (GMEP) of NCT of Delhi. The portal has been developed as a map based spatial decision support system (SDSS) for pertain to planning and management of Department of Chief Electoral Officer, and as an election related information searching tools (Polling Station, Assembly and parliamentary constituency etc.,) for the citizens of NCTD. The GMEP is based on Client-Server architecture model. It has been developed using ArcGIS Server 10.0 with J2EE front-end on Microsoft Windows environment. The GMEP is scalable to enterprise SDSS with enterprise Geo Database & Virtual Private Network (VPN) connectivity. Spatial data to GMEP includes delimited precinct area boundaries of Voters Area of Polling stations, Assembly Constituency, Parliamentary Constituency, Election District, Landmark locations of Polling Stations & basic amenities (Police Stations, Hospitals, Schools and Fire Stations etc.). GMEP could help achieve not only the desired transparency and easiness in planning process but also facilitates through efficient & effective tools for management of elections. It enables a faster response to the changing ground realities in the development planning, owing to its in-built scientific approach and open-ended design.

  20. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Pei; Ning Li; Yunchang Guo; Xiumei Liu; Lin Yan; Ying Li; Shuran Yang; Jing Hu; Jianghui Zhu; Dajin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the na...

  1. Open Geospatial Analytics with PySAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio J. Rey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the range of delivery platforms that have been developed for the PySAL open source Python library for spatial analysis. This includes traditional desktop software (with a graphical user interface, command line or embedded in a computational notebook, open spatial analytics middleware, and web, cloud and distributed open geospatial analytics for decision support. A common thread throughout the discussion is the emphasis on openness, interoperability, and provenance management in a scientific workflow. The code base of the PySAL library provides the common computing framework underlying all delivery mechanisms.

  2. Open Source Testing Capability for Geospatial Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geospatial Software enables scientists to discover, access and process information for better understanding of the Earth. Hundreds, if not thousands, of geospatial software packages exist today. Many of these implement open standards. The OGC Implementation Statistics page [1] reports, for example, more than 450 software products that implement the OGC Web Map Service (WMS) 1.1.1 standard. Even though organizations voluntarily report their products as implementing the WMS standard, not all of these implementations can interoperate with each other. For example, a WMS client may not interact with all these WMS servers in the same functional way. Making the software work with other software, even when implementing the same standard, still remains a challenge, and the main reason is that not all implementations implement the standard correctly. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Compliance Program provides a testing infrastructure to test for the correct implementation of OGC standards in interfaces and encodings that enable communication between geospatial clients and servers. The OGC testing tool and the tests are all freely available, including the source code and access to the testing facility. The Test, Evaluation, And Measurement (TEAM) Engine is a test harness that executes test suites written using the OGC Compliance Testing Language (CTL) or the TestNG framework. TEAM Engine is available in Sourceforge. OGC hosts an official stable [2] deployment of TEAM Engine with the approved test suites. OGC also hosts a Beta TEAM Engine [3] with the tests in Beta and with new TEAM Engine functionality. Both deployments are freely available to everybody. The OGC testing infrastructure not only enables developers to test OGC standards, but it can be configured to test profiles of OGC standards and community-developed application agreements. These agreements can be any interface and encoding agreement, not only OGC based. The OGC Compliance Program is thus an important

  3. Open Technology Approaches to Geospatial Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevensten, B.; Simmons, D.; Alaska Satellite Facility

    2011-12-01

    What problems do you not want your software developers to be solving? Choosing open technologies across the entire stack of software development-from low-level shared libraries to high-level user interaction implementations-is a way to help ensure that customized software yields innovative and valuable tools for Earth Scientists. This demonstration will review developments in web application technologies and the recurring patterns of interaction design regarding exploration and discovery of geospatial data through the Vertex: ASF's Dataportal interface, a project utilizing current open web application standards and technologies including HTML5, jQueryUI, Backbone.js and the Jasmine unit testing framework.

  4. Incidental Learning of Geospatial Concepts across Grade Levels: Map Overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Sarah E.; Golledge, Reginald G.; Marsh, Meredith J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors evaluate map overlay, a concept central to geospatial thinking, to determine how it is naively and technically understood, as well as to identify when it is leaner innately. The evaluation is supported by results from studies at three grade levels to show the progression of incidentally learned geospatial knowledge as…

  5. Incidental Learning of Geospatial Concepts across Grade Levels: Map Overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Sarah E.; Golledge, Reginald G.; Marsh, Meredith J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors evaluate map overlay, a concept central to geospatial thinking, to determine how it is naively and technically understood, as well as to identify when it is leaner innately. The evaluation is supported by results from studies at three grade levels to show the progression of incidentally learned geospatial knowledge as…

  6. NASA Consortium awards funding to Virginia Tech's geospatial program

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    NASA has selected a partnership between the Virginia Space Grant Consortium (VSGC) and Virginia Tech to receive a $100,000 grant for geospatial education and work force development. The grant, awarded through the NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship program, allows the partners to continue the already successful Virginia Geospatial Extension Program that was established in July 2003.

  7. Capacity Building through Geospatial Education in Planning and School Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Siddiqui, A.; Gupta, K.; Jain, S.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    Geospatial technology has widespread usage in development planning and resource management. It offers pragmatic tools to help urban and regional planners to realize their goals. On the request of Ministry of Urban Development, Govt. of India, the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), Dehradun has taken an initiative to study the model syllabi of All India Council for Technical Education for planning curricula of Bachelor and Master (five disciplines) programmes. It is inferred that geospatial content across the semesters in various planning fields needs revision. It is also realized that students pursuing planning curricula are invariably exposed to spatial mapping tools but the popular digital drafting software have limitations on geospatial analysis of planning phenomena. Therefore, students need exposure on geospatial technologies to understand various real world phenomena. Inputs were given to seamlessly merge and incorporate geospatial components throughout the semesters wherever seems relevant. Another initiative by IIRS was taken to enhance the understanding and essence of space and geospatial technologies amongst the young minds at 10+2 level. The content was proposed in a manner such that youngsters start realizing the innumerable contributions made by space and geospatial technologies in their day-to-day life. This effort both at school and college level would help in not only enhancing job opportunities for young generation but also utilizing the untapped human resource potential. In the era of smart cities, higher economic growth and aspirations for a better tomorrow, integration of Geospatial technologies with conventional wisdom can no longer be ignored.

  8. Geospatial Services in Special Libraries: A Needs Assessment Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    Once limited to geographers and mapmakers, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has taken a growing central role in information management and visualization. Geospatial services run a gamut of different products and services from Google maps to ArcGIS servers to Mobile development. Geospatial services are not new. Libraries have been writing about…

  9. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Pei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  10. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-08-28

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  11. Graduate Ethics Curricula for Future Geospatial Technology Professionals (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. J.; Dibiase, D.; Harvey, F.; Solem, M.

    2009-12-01

    Professionalism in today's rapidly-growing, multidisciplinary geographic information science field (e.g., geographic information systems or GIS, remote sensing, cartography, quantitative spatial analysis), now involves a commitment to ethical practice as informed by a more sophisticated understanding of the ethical implications of geographic technologies. The lack of privacy introduced by mobile mapping devices, the use of GIS for military and surveillance purposes, the appropriate use of data collected using these technologies for policy decisions (especially for conservation and sustainability) and general consequences of inequities that arise through biased access to geospatial tools and derived data all continue to be challenging issues and topics of deep concern for many. Students and professionals working with GIS and related technologies should develop a sound grasp of these issues and a thorough comprehension of the concerns impacting their use and development in today's world. However, while most people agree that ethics matters for GIS, we often have difficulty putting ethical issues into practice. An ongoing project supported by NSF seeks to bridge this gap by providing a sound basis for future ethical consideration of a variety of issues. A model seminar curriculum is under development by a team of geographic information science and technology (GIS&T) researchers and professional ethicists, along with protocols for course evaluations. In the curricula students first investigate the nature of professions in general and the characteristics of a GIS&T profession in particular. They hone moral reasoning skills through methodical analyses of case studies in relation to various GIS Code of Ethics and Rules of Conduct. They learn to unveil the "moral ecologies" of a profession through actual interviews with real practitioners in the field. Assignments thus far include readings, class discussions, practitioner interviews, and preparations of original case

  12. Grid computing enhances standards-compatible geospatial catalogue service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aijun; Di, Liping; Bai, Yuqi; Wei, Yaxing; Liu, Yang

    2010-04-01

    A catalogue service facilitates sharing, discovery, retrieval, management of, and access to large volumes of distributed geospatial resources, for example data, services, applications, and their replicas on the Internet. Grid computing provides an infrastructure for effective use of computing, storage, and other resources available online. The Open Geospatial Consortium has proposed a catalogue service specification and a series of profiles for promoting the interoperability of geospatial resources. By referring to the profile of the catalogue service for Web, an innovative information model of a catalogue service is proposed to offer Grid-enabled registry, management, retrieval of and access to geospatial resources and their replicas. This information model extends the e-business registry information model by adopting several geospatial data and service metadata standards—the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)'s 19115/19119 standards and the US Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) metadata standards for describing and indexing geospatial resources. In order to select the optimal geospatial resources and their replicas managed by the Grid, the Grid data management service and information service from the Globus Toolkits are closely integrated with the extended catalogue information model. Based on this new model, a catalogue service is implemented first as a Web service. Then, the catalogue service is further developed as a Grid service conforming to Grid service specifications. The catalogue service can be deployed in both the Web and Grid environments and accessed by standard Web services or authorized Grid services, respectively. The catalogue service has been implemented at the George Mason University/Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems (GMU/CSISS), managing more than 17 TB of geospatial data and geospatial Grid services. This service makes it easy to share and

  13. Geospatial Brokering - Challenges and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    An important feature of many brokers is to facilitate straightforward human access to scientific data while maintaining programmatic access to it for system solutions. Standards-based protocols are critical for this, and there are a number of protocols to choose from. In this discussion, we will present a web application solution that leverages certain protocols - e.g., OGC CSW, REST, and OpenSearch - to provide programmatic as well as human access to geospatial resources. We will also discuss managing resources to reduce duplication yet increase discoverability, federated search solutions, and architectures that combine human-friendly interfaces with powerful underlying data management. The changing requirements witnessed in brokering solutions over time, our recent experience participating in the EarthCube brokering hack-a-thon, and evolving interoperability standards provide insight to future technological and philosophical directions planned for geospatial broker solutions. There has been much change over the past decade, but with the unprecedented data collaboration of recent years, in many ways the challenges and opportunities are just beginning.

  14. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  15. Geospatial Data Management Platform for Urban Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitanaru, D.; Priceputu, A.; Gogu, C. R.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the large amount of civil work projects and research studies, large quantities of geo-data are produced for the urban environments. These data are usually redundant as well as they are spread in different institutions or private companies. Time consuming operations like data processing and information harmonisation represents the main reason to systematically avoid the re-use of data. The urban groundwater data shows the same complex situation. The underground structures (subway lines, deep foundations, underground parkings, and others), the urban facility networks (sewer systems, water supply networks, heating conduits, etc), the drainage systems, the surface water works and many others modify continuously. As consequence, their influence on groundwater changes systematically. However, these activities provide a large quantity of data, aquifers modelling and then behaviour prediction can be done using monitored quantitative and qualitative parameters. Due to the rapid evolution of technology in the past few years, transferring large amounts of information through internet has now become a feasible solution for sharing geoscience data. Furthermore, standard platform-independent means to do this have been developed (specific mark-up languages like: GML, GeoSciML, WaterML, GWML, CityML). They allow easily large geospatial databases updating and sharing through internet, even between different companies or between research centres that do not necessarily use the same database structures. For Bucharest City (Romania) an integrated platform for groundwater geospatial data management is developed under the framework of a national research project - "Sedimentary media modeling platform for groundwater management in urban areas" (SIMPA) financed by the National Authority for Scientific Research of Romania. The platform architecture is based on three components: a geospatial database, a desktop application (a complex set of hydrogeological and geological analysis

  16. Geospatial Health: the first five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Utzinger

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial Health is an international, peer-reviewed scientific journal produced by the Global Network for Geospatial Health (GnosisGIS. This network was founded in 2000 and the inaugural issue of its official journal was published in November 2006 with the aim to cover all aspects of geographical information system (GIS applications, remote sensing and other spatial analytic tools focusing on human and veterinary health. The University of Naples Federico II is the publisher, producing two issues per year, both as hard copy and an open-access online version. The journal is referenced in major databases, including CABI, ISI Web of Knowledge and PubMed. In 2008, it was assigned its first impact factor (1.47, which has now reached 1.71. Geospatial Health is managed by an editor-in-chief and two associate editors, supported by five regional editors and a 23-member strong editorial board. This overview takes stock of the first five years of publishing: 133 contributions have been published so far, primarily original research (79.7%, followed by reviews (7.5%, announcements (6.0%, editorials and meeting reports (3.0% each and a preface in the first issue. A content analysis of all the original research articles and reviews reveals that three quarters of the publications focus on human health with the remainder dealing with veterinary health. Two thirds of the papers come from Africa, Asia and Europe with similar numbers of contributions from each continent. Studies of more than 35 different diseases, injuries and risk factors have been presented. Malaria and schistosomiasis were identified as the two most important diseases (11.2% each. Almost half the contributions were based on GIS, one third on spatial analysis, often using advanced Bayesian geostatistics (13.8%, and one quarter on remote sensing. The 120 original research articles, reviews and editorials were produced by 505 authors based at institutions and universities in 52 countries

  17. A flexible integration framework for a Semantic Geospatial Web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Mei, Kun; Bian, Fuling

    2008-10-01

    With the growth of the World Wide Web technologies, the access to and use of geospatial information changed in the past decade radically. Previously, the data processed by a GIS as well as its methods had resided locally and contained information that was sufficiently unambiguous in the respective information community. Now, both data and methods may be retrieved and combined from anywhere in the world, escaping their local contexts. The last few years have seen a growing interest in the field of semantic geospatial web. With the development of semantic web technologies, we have seen the possibility of solving the heterogeneity/interoperation problem in the GIS community. The semantic geospatial web application can support a wide variety of tasks including data integration, interoperability, knowledge reuse, spatial reasoning and many others. This paper proposes a flexible framework called GeoSWF (short for Geospatial Semantic Web Framework), which supports the semantic integration of the distributed and heterogeneous geospatial information resources and also supports the semantic query and spatial relationship reasoning. We design the architecture of GeoSWF by extending the MVC Pattern. The GeoSWF use the geo-2007.owl proposed by W3C as the reference ontology of the geospatial information and design different application ontologies according to the situation of heterogeneous geospatial information resources. A Geospatial Ontology Creating Algorithm (GOCA) is designed for convert the geospatial information to the ontology instances represented by RDF/OWL. On the top of these ontology instances, the GeoSWF carry out the semantic reasoning by the rule set stored in the knowledge base to generate new system query. The query result will be ranking by ordering the Euclidean distance of each ontology instances. At last, the paper gives the conclusion and future work.

  18. Introduction to geospatial semantics and technology workshop handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2012-01-01

    The workshop is a tutorial on introductory geospatial semantics with hands-on exercises using standard Web browsers. The workshop is divided into two sections, general semantics on the Web and specific examples of geospatial semantics using data from The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Open Ontology Repository. The general semantics section includes information and access to publicly available semantic archives. The specific session includes information on geospatial semantics with access to semantically enhanced data for hydrography, transportation, boundaries, and names. The Open Ontology Repository offers open-source ontologies for public use.

  19. Extracting Geospatial Preferences Using Relational Neighbors

    CERN Document Server

    Marinho, Leandro Balby; Sandholm, Thomas; Nunes, Iury; Nóbrega, Caio; Araújo, Jordão

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of location-based social media applications and devices that automatically tag generated content with locations, large repositories of collaborative geo-referenced data are appearing on-line. Efficiently extracting user preferences from these data to determine what information to recommend is challenging because of the sheer volume of data as well as the frequency of updates. Traditional recommender systems focus on the interplay between users and items, but ignore contextual parameters such as location. In this paper we take a geospatial approach to determine locational preferences and similarities between users. We propose to capture the geographic context of user preferences for items using a relational graph, through which we are able to derive many new and state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms, including combinations of them, requiring changes only in the definition of the edge weights. Furthermore, we discuss several solutions for cold-start scenarios. Finally, we con...

  20. Integrated spatial sampling modeling of geospatial data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lianfa; WANG Jinfeng

    2004-01-01

    Spatial sampling is a necessary and important method for extracting geospatial data and its methodology directly affects the geo-analysis results. Counter to the deficiency of separate models of spatial sampling, this article analyzes three crucial elements of spatial sampling (frame, correlation and decision diagram) and induces its general integrated model. The program of Spatial Sampling Integration (SSI) has been developed with Component Object Model (COM) to realize the general integrated model. In two practical applications, i.e. design of the monitoring network of natural disasters and sampling survey of the areas of non-cultivated land, SSI has produced accurate results at less cost, better realizing the cost-effective goal of sampling toward the geo-objects with spatial correlation. The two cases exemplify expanded application and convenient implementation of the general integrated model with inset components in an integrated environment, which can also be extended to other modeling of spatial analysis.

  1. The Challenges to Coupling Dynamic Geospatial Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N

    2006-06-23

    Many applications of modeling spatial dynamic systems focus on a single system and a single process, ignoring the geographic and systemic context of the processes being modeled. A solution to this problem is the coupled modeling of spatial dynamic systems. Coupled modeling is challenging for both technical reasons, as well as conceptual reasons. This paper explores the benefits and challenges to coupling or linking spatial dynamic models, from loose coupling, where information transfer between models is done by hand, to tight coupling, where two (or more) models are merged as one. To illustrate the challenges, a coupled model of Urbanization and Wildfire Risk is presented. This model, called Vesta, was applied to the Santa Barbara, California region (using real geospatial data), where Urbanization and Wildfires occur and recur, respectively. The preliminary results of the model coupling illustrate that coupled modeling can lead to insight into the consequences of processes acting on their own.

  2. GPU based framework for geospatial analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmin Sandric, Ionut; Ionita, Cristian; Dardala, Marian; Furtuna, Titus

    2017-04-01

    Parallel processing on multiple CPU cores is already used at large scale in geocomputing, but parallel processing on graphics cards is just at the beginning. Being able to use an simple laptop with a dedicated graphics card for advanced and very fast geocomputation is an advantage that each scientist wants to have. The necessity to have high speed computation in geosciences has increased in the last 10 years, mostly due to the increase in the available datasets. These datasets are becoming more and more detailed and hence they require more space to store and more time to process. Distributed computation on multicore CPU's and GPU's plays an important role by processing one by one small parts from these big datasets. These way of computations allows to speed up the process, because instead of using just one process for each dataset, the user can use all the cores from a CPU or up to hundreds of cores from GPU The framework provide to the end user a standalone tools for morphometry analyses at multiscale level. An important part of the framework is dedicated to uncertainty propagation in geospatial analyses. The uncertainty may come from the data collection or may be induced by the model or may have an infinite sources. These uncertainties plays important roles when a spatial delineation of the phenomena is modelled. Uncertainty propagation is implemented inside the GPU framework using Monte Carlo simulations. The GPU framework with the standalone tools proved to be a reliable tool for modelling complex natural phenomena The framework is based on NVidia Cuda technology and is written in C++ programming language. The code source will be available on github at https://github.com/sandricionut/GeoRsGPU Acknowledgement: GPU framework for geospatial analysis, Young Researchers Grant (ICUB-University of Bucharest) 2016, director Ionut Sandric

  3. The surveillant assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  4. FOSS geospatial libraries in scientific workflow environments: experiences and directions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McFerren, G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available and simplification), data export and spatial overlay operations commonly are required. We find a relative lack of support for geospatial data, services and these functions within several Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) scientific workflow packages. Furthermore...

  5. A FRAMEWORK FOR AN OPEN SOURCE GEOSPATIAL CERTIFICATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. U. R. Khan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The geospatial industry is forecasted to have an enormous growth in the forthcoming years and an extended need for well-educated workforce. Hence ongoing education and training play an important role in the professional life. Parallel, in the geospatial and IT arena as well in the political discussion and legislation Open Source solutions, open data proliferation, and the use of open standards have an increasing significance. Based on the Memorandum of Understanding between International Cartographic Association, OSGeo Foundation, and ISPRS this development led to the implementation of the ICA-OSGeo-Lab imitative with its mission “Making geospatial education and opportunities accessible to all”. Discussions in this initiative and the growth and maturity of geospatial Open Source software initiated the idea to develop a framework for a worldwide applicable Open Source certification approach. Generic and geospatial certification approaches are already offered by numerous organisations, i.e., GIS Certification Institute, GeoAcademy, ASPRS, and software vendors, i. e., Esri, Oracle, and RedHat. They focus different fields of expertise and have different levels and ways of examination which are offered for a wide range of fees. The development of the certification framework presented here is based on the analysis of diverse bodies of knowledge concepts, i.e., NCGIA Core Curriculum, URISA Body Of Knowledge, USGIF Essential Body Of Knowledge, the “Geographic Information: Need to Know", currently under development, and the Geospatial Technology Competency Model (GTCM. The latter provides a US American oriented list of the knowledge, skills, and abilities required of workers in the geospatial technology industry and influenced essentially the framework of certification. In addition to the theoretical analysis of existing resources the geospatial community was integrated twofold. An online survey about the relevance of Open Source was performed and

  6. Second leader named at Center for Geospatial Information Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Stephen Prisley of Blacksburg, associate professor of forestry in the College of Natural Resources at Virginia Tech, will become the director of the university's Center for Geospatial Information Technology (CGIT) as of May 15.

  7. Five-Year Action Plan to Improve NWRS Geospatial Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) geospatial plan and the associated memo (Date: 20160304; FWS/ANRS/ITM/062385) from Cynthia Martinez (Chief, NWRS) to the NWRS...

  8. Dhaka megacity geospatial perspectives on urbanisation, environment and health

    CERN Document Server

    Dewan, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Focused on Dhaka, and applicable to other cities, this book uses geospatial techniques to explore land use, climate variability, urban sprawl, population density modeling, flooding, water quality, urban growth modeling, infectious disease and quality of life.

  9. a Framework for AN Open Source Geospatial Certification Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, T. U. R.; Davis, P.; Behr, F.-J.

    2016-06-01

    The geospatial industry is forecasted to have an enormous growth in the forthcoming years and an extended need for well-educated workforce. Hence ongoing education and training play an important role in the professional life. Parallel, in the geospatial and IT arena as well in the political discussion and legislation Open Source solutions, open data proliferation, and the use of open standards have an increasing significance. Based on the Memorandum of Understanding between International Cartographic Association, OSGeo Foundation, and ISPRS this development led to the implementation of the ICA-OSGeo-Lab imitative with its mission "Making geospatial education and opportunities accessible to all". Discussions in this initiative and the growth and maturity of geospatial Open Source software initiated the idea to develop a framework for a worldwide applicable Open Source certification approach. Generic and geospatial certification approaches are already offered by numerous organisations, i.e., GIS Certification Institute, GeoAcademy, ASPRS, and software vendors, i. e., Esri, Oracle, and RedHat. They focus different fields of expertise and have different levels and ways of examination which are offered for a wide range of fees. The development of the certification framework presented here is based on the analysis of diverse bodies of knowledge concepts, i.e., NCGIA Core Curriculum, URISA Body Of Knowledge, USGIF Essential Body Of Knowledge, the "Geographic Information: Need to Know", currently under development, and the Geospatial Technology Competency Model (GTCM). The latter provides a US American oriented list of the knowledge, skills, and abilities required of workers in the geospatial technology industry and influenced essentially the framework of certification. In addition to the theoretical analysis of existing resources the geospatial community was integrated twofold. An online survey about the relevance of Open Source was performed and evaluated with 105

  10. Geospatial Information is the Cornerstone of Effective Hazards Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Every day there are hundreds of natural disasters world-wide. Some are dramatic, whereas others are barely noticeable. A natural disaster is commonly defined as a natural event with catastrophic consequences for living things in the vicinity. Those events include earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, volcanoes, and wildfires. Man-made disasters are events that are caused by man either intentionally or by accident, and that directly or indirectly threaten public health and well-being. These occurrences span the spectrum from terrorist attacks to accidental oil spills. To assist in responding to natural and potential man-made disasters, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has established the Geospatial Information Response Team (GIRT) (http://www.usgs.gov/emergency/). The primary purpose of the GIRT is to ensure rapid coordination and availability of geospatial information for effective response by emergency responders, and land and resource managers, and for scientific analysis. The GIRT is responsible for establishing monitoring procedures for geospatial data acquisition, processing, and archiving; discovery, access, and delivery of data; anticipating geospatial needs; and providing relevant geospatial products and services. The GIRT is focused on supporting programs, offices, other agencies, and the public in mission response to hazards. The GIRT will leverage the USGS Geospatial Liaison Network and partnerships with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), and Northern Command (NORTHCOM) to coordinate the provisioning and deployment of USGS geospatial data, products, services, and equipment. The USGS geospatial liaisons will coordinate geospatial information sharing with State, local, and tribal governments, and ensure geospatial liaison back-up support procedures are in place. The GIRT will coordinate disposition of USGS staff in support of DHS response center activities as requested by DHS. The GIRT

  11. GISpark: A Geospatial Distributed Computing Platform for Spatiotemporal Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhong, E.; Wang, E.; Zhong, Y.; Cai, W.; Li, S.; Gao, S.

    2016-12-01

    Geospatial data are growing exponentially because of the proliferation of cost effective and ubiquitous positioning technologies such as global remote-sensing satellites and location-based devices. Analyzing large amounts of geospatial data can provide great value for both industrial and scientific applications. Data- and compute- intensive characteristics inherent in geospatial big data increasingly pose great challenges to technologies of data storing, computing and analyzing. Such challenges require a scalable and efficient architecture that can store, query, analyze, and visualize large-scale spatiotemporal data. Therefore, we developed GISpark - a geospatial distributed computing platform for processing large-scale vector, raster and stream data. GISpark is constructed based on the latest virtualized computing infrastructures and distributed computing architecture. OpenStack and Docker are used to build multi-user hosting cloud computing infrastructure for GISpark. The virtual storage systems such as HDFS, Ceph, MongoDB are combined and adopted for spatiotemporal data storage management. Spark-based algorithm framework is developed for efficient parallel computing. Within this framework, SuperMap GIScript and various open-source GIS libraries can be integrated into GISpark. GISpark can also integrated with scientific computing environment (e.g., Anaconda), interactive computing web applications (e.g., Jupyter notebook), and machine learning tools (e.g., TensorFlow/Orange). The associated geospatial facilities of GISpark in conjunction with the scientific computing environment, exploratory spatial data analysis tools, temporal data management and analysis systems make up a powerful geospatial computing tool. GISpark not only provides spatiotemporal big data processing capacity in the geospatial field, but also provides spatiotemporal computational model and advanced geospatial visualization tools that deals with other domains related with spatial property. We

  12. Domestic Disasters and Geospatial Technology for the Defense Logistics Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    the public closer to geospatial information (Carpenter & Snell , 2013). Individuals create geospatial data at low cost and identify patterns within...is often customized to meet the needs of a specific government agency (Carpenter & Snell , 2013) 17 Using cloud computing for a GIS has also...alternative solutions to data collection. Three trends seem to drive the acceptance of cloud computing in GIS (Carpenter & Snell , 2013). The first is

  13. A FRAMEWORK FOR AN OPEN SOURCE GEOSPATIAL CERTIFICATION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, T. U. R.; Davis, P.; Behr, F.-J.

    2016-01-01

    The geospatial industry is forecasted to have an enormous growth in the forthcoming years and an extended need for well-educated workforce. Hence ongoing education and training play an important role in the professional life. Parallel, in the geospatial and IT arena as well in the political discussion and legislation Open Source solutions, open data proliferation, and the use of open standards have an increasing significance. Based on the Memorandum of Understanding between International Cart...

  14. Global Geospatial Information Management: un'iniziativa delle Nazioni Unite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Salvemini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available What is Global Geospatial Information ManagementThere is general agreement of an urgent need for an inter-government consultative mechanism that can play a leadershiprole in setting the agenda for the development of global geospatial information and to promote its use to address key global challenges; to liaise and coordinate among Member States, and between Member States and international organizations.

  15. FogGIS: Fog Computing for Geospatial Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Barik, Rabindra K.; Dubey, Harishchandra; Samaddar, Arun B.; Gupta, Rajan D.; Ray, Prakash K.

    2016-01-01

    Cloud Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has emerged as a tool for analysis, processing and transmission of geospatial data. The Fog computing is a paradigm where Fog devices help to increase throughput and reduce latency at the edge of the client. This paper developed a Fog-based framework named Fog GIS for mining analytics from geospatial data. We built a prototype using Intel Edison, an embedded microprocessor. We validated the FogGIS by doing preliminary analysis. including compression,...

  16. RSS as a distribution medium for geo-spatial hypermedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan; Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how the XML based RSS syndication formats used in weblogs can be utilized as the distribution medium for geo-spatial hypermedia, and how this approach can be used to create a highly distributed multi-user annotation system for geo-spatial hypermedia. It is demonstrated, how...... the HyCon annotation model [2] can be formulated as a RSS 2.0 feed and how such feeds allow annotation threads to be distributed across multiple weblogs and servers....

  17. DIGI-vis: Distributed interactive geospatial information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Ponto, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    Geospatial information systems provide an abundance of information for researchers and scientists. Unfortunately this type of data can usually only be analyzed a few megapixels at a time, giving researchers a very narrow view into these voluminous data sets. We propose a distributed data gathering and visualization system that allows researchers to view these data at hundreds of megapixels simultaneously. This system allows scientists to view real-time geospatial information at unprecedented levels expediting analysis, interrogation, and discovery. ©2010 IEEE.

  18. Web GIS in practice IX: a demonstration of geospatial visual analytics using Microsoft Live Labs Pivot technology and WHO mortality data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ra Nagisetty Venkateswara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of visual analytics is to facilitate the discourse between the user and the data by providing dynamic displays and versatile visual interaction opportunities with the data that can support analytical reasoning and the exploration of data from multiple user-customisable aspects. This paper introduces geospatial visual analytics, a specialised subtype of visual analytics, and provides pointers to a number of learning resources about the subject, as well as some examples of human health, surveillance, emergency management and epidemiology-related geospatial visual analytics applications and examples of free software tools that readers can experiment with, such as Google Public Data Explorer. The authors also present a practical demonstration of geospatial visual analytics using partial data for 35 countries from a publicly available World Health Organization (WHO mortality dataset and Microsoft Live Labs Pivot technology, a free, general purpose visual analytics tool that offers a fresh way to visually browse and arrange massive amounts of data and images online and also supports geographic and temporal classifications of datasets featuring geospatial and temporal components. Interested readers can download a Zip archive (included with the manuscript as an additional file containing all files, modules and library functions used to deploy the WHO mortality data Pivot collection described in this paper.

  19. Web GIS in practice IX: a demonstration of geospatial visual analytics using Microsoft Live Labs Pivot technology and WHO mortality data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Viangteeravat, Teeradache; Anyanwu, Matthew N; Ra Nagisetty, Venkateswara; Kuscu, Emin

    2011-03-16

    The goal of visual analytics is to facilitate the discourse between the user and the data by providing dynamic displays and versatile visual interaction opportunities with the data that can support analytical reasoning and the exploration of data from multiple user-customisable aspects. This paper introduces geospatial visual analytics, a specialised subtype of visual analytics, and provides pointers to a number of learning resources about the subject, as well as some examples of human health, surveillance, emergency management and epidemiology-related geospatial visual analytics applications and examples of free software tools that readers can experiment with, such as Google Public Data Explorer. The authors also present a practical demonstration of geospatial visual analytics using partial data for 35 countries from a publicly available World Health Organization (WHO) mortality dataset and Microsoft Live Labs Pivot technology, a free, general purpose visual analytics tool that offers a fresh way to visually browse and arrange massive amounts of data and images online and also supports geographic and temporal classifications of datasets featuring geospatial and temporal components. Interested readers can download a Zip archive (included with the manuscript as an additional file) containing all files, modules and library functions used to deploy the WHO mortality data Pivot collection described in this paper.

  20. Mapping a Difference: The Power of Geospatial Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvoord, B.

    2015-12-01

    Geospatial Technologies (GST), such as GIS, GPS and remote sensing, offer students and teachers the opportunity to study the "why" of where. By making maps and collecting location-based data, students can pursue authentic problems using sophisticated tools. The proliferation of web- and cloud-based tools has made these technologies broadly accessible to schools. In addition, strong spatial thinking skills have been shown to be a key factor in supporting students that want to study science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines (Wai, Lubinski and Benbow) and pursue STEM careers. Geospatial technologies strongly scaffold the development of these spatial thinking skills. For the last ten years, the Geospatial Semester, a unique dual-enrollment partnership between James Madison University and Virginia high schools, has provided students with the opportunity to use GST's to hone their spatial thinking skills and to do extended projects of local interest, including environmental, geological and ecological studies. Along with strong spatial thinking skills, these students have also shown strong problem solving skills, often beyond those of fellow students in AP classes. Programs like the Geospatial Semester are scalable and within the reach of many college and university departments, allowing strong engagement with K-12 schools. In this presentation, we'll share details of the Geospatial Semester and research results on the impact of the use of these technologies on students' spatial thinking skills, and discuss the success and challenges of developing K-12 partnerships centered on geospatial visualization.

  1. Integrating Free and Open Source Solutions into Geospatial Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Petras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While free and open source software becomes increasingly important in geospatial research and industry, open science perspectives are generally less reflected in universities’ educational programs. We present an example of how free and open source software can be incorporated into geospatial education to promote open and reproducible science. Since 2008 graduate students at North Carolina State University have the opportunity to take a course on geospatial modeling and analysis that is taught with both proprietary and free and open source software. In this course, students perform geospatial tasks simultaneously in the proprietary package ArcGIS and the free and open source package GRASS GIS. By ensuring that students learn to distinguish between geospatial concepts and software specifics, students become more flexible and stronger spatial thinkers when choosing solutions for their independent work in the future. We also discuss ways to continually update and improve our publicly available teaching materials for reuse by teachers, self-learners and other members of the GIS community. Only when free and open source software is fully integrated into geospatial education, we will be able to encourage a culture of openness and, thus, enable greater reproducibility in research and development applications.

  2. Economic Assessment of the Use Value of Geospatial Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bernknopf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial data inform decision makers. An economic model that involves application of spatial and temporal scientific, technical, and economic data in decision making is described. The value of information (VOI contained in geospatial data is the difference between the net benefits (in present value terms of a decision with and without the information. A range of technologies is used to collect and distribute geospatial data. These technical activities are linked to examples that show how the data can be applied in decision making, which is a cultural activity. The economic model for assessing the VOI in geospatial data for decision making is applied to three examples: (1 a retrospective model about environmental regulation of agrochemicals; (2 a prospective model about the impact and mitigation of earthquakes in urban areas; and (3 a prospective model about developing private–public geospatial information for an ecosystem services market. Each example demonstrates the potential value of geospatial information in a decision with uncertain information.

  3. The Value of Information - Accounting for a New Geospatial Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, J.; Coote, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    A new frontier in consideration of socio-economic benefit is valuing information as an asset, often referred to as Infonomics. Conventional financial practice does not easily provide a mechanism for valuing information and yet clearly for many of the largest corporations, such as Google and Facebook, it is their principal asset. This is exacerbated for public sector organizations, as those that information-centric rather than information-enabled are relatively few - statistics, archiving and mapping agencies are perhaps the only examples - so it's not at the top of the agenda for Government. However, it is a hugely important issue when valuing Geospatial data and information. Geospatial data allows public institutions to operate, and facilitates the provision of essential services for emergency response and national defense. In this respect, geospatial data is strongly analogous to other types of public infrastructure, such as utilities and roads. The use of Geospatial data is widespread from companies in the transportation or construction sectors to individual planning for daily events. The categorization of geospatial data as infrastructure is critical to decisions related to investment in its management, maintenance and upgrade over time. Geospatial data depreciates in the same way that physical infrastructure depreciates. It needs to be maintained otherwise its functionality and value in use declines. We have coined the term geo-infonomics to encapsulate the concept. This presentation will develop the arguments around its importance and current avenues of research.

  4. The Evolution of Foodborne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ali, Galeb S.; Manning, Shannon D.

    Despite continuous advances in food safety and disease surveillance, control, and prevention, foodborne bacterial infections remain a major public health concern. Because foodborne pathogens are commonly exposed to multiple environmental stressors, such as low pH and antibiotics, most have evolved specific mechanisms to facilitate survival in adverse environments.

  5. Deductive Coordination of Multiple Geospatial Knowledge Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, R.; Reddy, M.; Culy, C.; Hobbs, J.; Jarvis, P.; Dungan, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    Deductive inference is applied to choreograph the cooperation of multiple knowledge sources to respond to geospatial queries. When no one source can provide an answer, the response may be deduced from pieces of the answer provided by many sources. Examples of sources include (1) The Alexandria Digital Library Gazetteer, a repository that gives the locations for almost six million place names, (2) The Cia World Factbook, an online almanac with basic information about more than 200 countries. (3) The SRI TerraVision 3D Terrain Visualization System, which displays a flight-simulator-like interactive display of geographic data held in a database, (4) The NASA GDACC WebGIS client for searching satellite and other geographic data available through OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Map Servers, and (5) The Northern Arizona University Latitude/Longitude Distance Calculator. Queries are phrased in English and are translated into logical theorems by the Gemini Natural Language Parser. The theorems are proved by SNARK, a first-order-logic theorem prover, in the context of an axiomatic geospatial theory. The theory embodies a representational scheme that takes into account the fact that the same place may have many names, and the same name may refer to many places. SNARK has built-in procedures (RCC8 and the Allen calculus, respectively) for reasoning about spatial and temporal concepts. External knowledge sources may be consulted by SNARK as the proof is in progress, so that most knowledge need not be stored axiomatically. The Open Agent Architecture (OAA) facilitates communication between sources that may be implemented on different machines in different computer languages. An answer to the query, in the form of text or an image, is extracted from the proof. Currently, three-dimensional images are displayed by TerraVision but other displays are possible. The combined system is called Geo-Logica. Some example queries that can be handled by Geo-Logica include: (1) show the

  6. With Geospatial in Path of Smart City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homainejad, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    With growth of urbanisation, there is a requirement for using the leverage of smart city in city management. The core of smart city is Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), and one of its elements is smart transport which includes sustainable transport and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). Cities and especially megacities are facing urgent transport challenge in traffic management. Geospatial can provide reliable tools for monitoring and coordinating traffic. In this paper a method for monitoring and managing the ongoing traffic in roads using aerial images and CCTV will be addressed. In this method, the road network was initially extracted and geo-referenced and captured in a 3D model. The aim is to detect and geo-referenced any vehicles on the road from images in order to assess the density and the volume of vehicles on the roads. If a traffic jam was recognised from the images, an alternative route would be suggested for easing the traffic jam. In a separate test, a road network was replicated in the computer and a simulated traffic was implemented in order to assess the traffic management during a pick time using this method.

  7. Dynamic object-oriented geospatial modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Richta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Published literature about moving objects (MO simplifies the problem to the representation and storage of moving points, moving lines, or moving regions. The main insufficiency of this approach is lack of MO inner structure and dynamics modeling – the autonomy of moving agent. This paper describes basics of the object-oriented geospatial methodology for modeling complex systems consisting of agents, which move within spatial environment. The main idea is that during the agent movement, different kinds of connections with other moving or stationary objects are established or disposed, based on some spatial constraint satisfaction or nonfulfilment respectively. The methodology is constructed with regard to following two main conditions – 1 the inner behavior of agents should be represented by any formalism, e.g.  Petri net, finite state machine, etc., and 2 the spatial characteristic of environment should be supplied by any information system, that is able to store defined set of spatial types, and support defined set of spatial operations. Finally, the methodology is demonstrated on simple simulation model of tram transportation system.

  8. GEOSPATIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BIODIVERSITY: NEED AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Roy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Explaining the distribution of species and understanding their abundance and spatial distribution at multiple scales using remote sensing and ground based observation have been the central aspect of the meeting of COP10 for achieving CBD 2020 targets. In this respect the Biodiveristy Characterization at Landscape Level for India is a milestone in biodiversity study in this country. Satellite remote sensing has been used to derive the spatial extent and vegetation composition patterns. Sensitivity of different multi-scale landscape metrics, species composition, ecosystem uniqueness and diversity in distribution of biological diversity is assessed through customized landscape analysis software to generate the biological richness surface. The uniqueness of the study lies in the creation of baseline geo-spatial data on vegetation types using multi-temporal satellite remote sensing data (IRS LISS III, deriving biological richness based on spatial landscape analysis and inventory of location specific information about 7964 unique plant species recorded in 20,000 sample plots in India and their status with respect to endemic, threatened and economic/medicinal importance. The results generated will serve as a baseline database for various assessment of the biodiversity for addressing CBD 2020 targets.

  9. Geospatial database for heritage building conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir, W. N. F. W. A.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A.

    2014-02-01

    Heritage buildings are icons from the past that exist in present time. Through heritage architecture, we can learn about economic issues and social activities of the past. Nowadays, heritage buildings are under threat from natural disaster, uncertain weather, pollution and others. In order to preserve this heritage for the future generation, recording and documenting of heritage buildings are required. With the development of information system and data collection technique, it is possible to create a 3D digital model. This 3D information plays an important role in recording and documenting heritage buildings. 3D modeling and virtual reality techniques have demonstrated the ability to visualize the real world in 3D. It can provide a better platform for communication and understanding of heritage building. Combining 3D modelling with technology of Geographic Information System (GIS) will create a database that can make various analyses about spatial data in the form of a 3D model. Objectives of this research are to determine the reliability of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) technique for data acquisition of heritage building and to develop a geospatial database for heritage building conservation purposes. The result from data acquisition will become a guideline for 3D model development. This 3D model will be exported to the GIS format in order to develop a database for heritage building conservation. In this database, requirements for heritage building conservation process are included. Through this research, a proper database for storing and documenting of the heritage building conservation data will be developed.

  10. A review of zoonotic disease surveillance supported by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R L; Kronmann, K C; Daniels, C C; Meyers, M; Byarugaba, D K; Dueger, E; Klein, T A; Evans, B P; Vest, K G

    2012-05-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System conducts disease surveillance through a global network of US Department of Defense research laboratories and partnerships with foreign ministries of agriculture, health and livestock development in over 90 countries worldwide. In 2010, AFHSC supported zoonosis survey efforts were organized into four main categories: (i) development of field assays for animal disease surveillance during deployments and in resource limited environments, (ii) determining zoonotic disease prevalence in high-contact species which may serve as important reservoirs of diseases and sources of transmission, (iii) surveillance in high-risk human populations which are more likely to become exposed and subsequently infected with zoonotic pathogens and (iv) surveillance at the human-animal interface examining zoonotic disease prevalence and transmission within and between human and animal populations. These efforts have aided in the detection, identification and quantification of the burden of zoonotic diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Hantaan virus, influenza, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, Q fever, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus, tuberculosis and West Nile virus, which are of military and public health importance. Future zoonotic surveillance efforts will seek to develop local capacity for zoonotic surveillance focusing on high risk populations at the human-animal interface.

  11. An updated geospatial liquefaction model for global application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Baise, Laurie G.; Thompson, Eric

    2017-01-01

    We present an updated geospatial approach to estimation of earthquake-induced liquefaction from globally available geospatial proxies. Our previous iteration of the geospatial liquefaction model was based on mapped liquefaction surface effects from four earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand, and Kobe, Japan, paired with geospatial explanatory variables including slope-derived VS30, compound topographic index, and magnitude-adjusted peak ground acceleration from ShakeMap. The updated geospatial liquefaction model presented herein improves the performance and the generality of the model. The updates include (1) expanding the liquefaction database to 27 earthquake events across 6 countries, (2) addressing the sampling of nonliquefaction for incomplete liquefaction inventories, (3) testing interaction effects between explanatory variables, and (4) overall improving model performance. While we test 14 geospatial proxies for soil density and soil saturation, the most promising geospatial parameters are slope-derived VS30, modeled water table depth, distance to coast, distance to river, distance to closest water body, and precipitation. We found that peak ground velocity (PGV) performs better than peak ground acceleration (PGA) as the shaking intensity parameter. We present two models which offer improved performance over prior models. We evaluate model performance using the area under the curve under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) and the Brier score. The best-performing model in a coastal setting uses distance to coast but is problematic for regions away from the coast. The second best model, using PGV, VS30, water table depth, distance to closest water body, and precipitation, performs better in noncoastal regions and thus is the model we recommend for global implementation.

  12. An operative dengue risk stratification system in Argentina based on geospatial technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Porcasi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on an agreement between the Ministry of Health and the National Space Activities Commission in Argentina, an integrated informatics platform for dengue risk using geospatial technology for the surveillance and prediction of risk areas for dengue fever has been designed. The task was focused on developing stratification based on environmental (historical and current, viral, social and entomological situation for >3,000 cities as part of a system. The platform, developed with open-source software with pattern design, following the European Space Agency standards for space informatics, delivers two products: a national risk map consisting of point vectors for each city/town/locality and an approximate 50 m resolution urban risk map modelling the risk inside selected high-risk cities. The operative system, architecture and tools used in the development are described, including a detailed list of end users’ requirements. Additionally, an algorithm based on bibliography and landscape epidemiology concepts is presented and discussed. The system, in operation since September 2011, is capable of continuously improving the algorithms producing improved risk stratifications without a complete set of inputs. The platform was specifically developed for surveillance of dengue fever as this disease has reemerged in Argentina but the aim is to widen the scope to include also other relevant vector-borne diseases such as chagas, malaria and leishmaniasis as well as other countries belonging to south region of Latin America.

  13. GeoSpatial Workforce Development: enhancing the traditional learning environment in geospatial information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhead, Pamela B.; Aten, Michelle L.

    2003-04-01

    The Center for GeoSpatial Workforce Development is embarking on a new era in education by developing a repository of dynamic online courseware authored by the foremost industry experts within the remote sensing and GIS industries. Virtual classrooms equipped with the most advanced instructions, computations, communications, course evaluation, and management facilities amplify these courses to enhance the learning environment and provide rapid feedback between instructors and students. The launch of this program included the objective development of the Model Curriculum by an independent consortium of remote sensing industry leaders. The Center's research and development focus on recruiting additional industry experts to develop the technical content of the courseware and then utilize state-of-the-art technology to enhance their material with visually stimulating animations, compelling audio clips and entertaining, interactive exercises intended to reach the broadest audience possible by targeting various learning styles. The courseware will be delivered via various media: Internet, CD-ROM, DVD, and compressed video, that translates into anywhere, anytime delivery of GeoSpatial Information Technology education.

  14. Evaluation of multivariate surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Frisén,Marianne; Andersson, Eva; Schiöler, Linus

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate surveillance is of interest in many areas such as industrial production, bioterrorism detection, spatial surveillance, and financial transaction strategies. Some of the suggested approaches to multivariate surveillance have been multivariate counterparts to the univariate Shewhart, EWMA, and CUSUM methods. Our emphasis is on the special challenges of evaluating multivariate surveillance methods. Some new measures are suggested and the properties of several measures are demonstrat...

  15. GEIS Surveillance Network Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    resistance surveillance, diarrhea etiology and antimicrobial resistance surveillance, sexually transmitted illness surveillance, and capacity building...vomiting, diarrhea , joint pains, general malaise. Of the samples analyzed, only 53.7% had an associated etiology: Malaria (47.0%, EBV (39.7...immunity to the disease. Many adults in those situations are reservoirs, facilitating continuing disease transmission to those without immunity. In Kenya

  16. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence an

  17. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  18. Surveillance of rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Widowati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Rotavirus is a major cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children worldwide. Data on the burden of disease in Indonesia is limited. Objective To provide an epidemiological profile of rotavirus infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. Methods In January - December 2006, a prospective, hospital-based surveillance was carried out in children aged less than five years, presenting with diarrhea. Stool samples were examined for rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. G- and P-typing were performed on specimens confirmed to be positive by EIA. Results A total of 513 fecal specimens from 534 children were tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of the specimens, mostly of the G9 type (62.5%. Incidence of rotavirus diarrhea was highest in the 6 month to 2 years age group (60.4%. Children with rotavirus diarrhea were more likely to present with dehydration, compared to those with non-rotavirus diarrhea (94% vs 70%, respectively, P=0.03. Conclusion Rotavirus was the most common pathogen found in children with diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of pediatric diarrheal specimens tested in our study. This finding warrants the use of a large-scale program to prevent disease, such as vaccination against rotavirus. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:22-7].

  19. Finding geospatial pattern of unstructured data by clustering routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustani, M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Burke, W.

    2016-12-01

    Today the majority of data generated has a geospatial context to it. Either in attribute form as a latitude or longitude, or name of location or cross referenceable using other means such as an external gazetteer or location service. Our research is interested in exploiting geospatial location and context in unstructured data such as that found on the web in HTML pages, images, videos, documents, and other areas, and in structured information repositories found on intranets, in scientific environments, and otherwise. We are working together on the DARPA MEMEX project to exploit open source software tools such as the Lucene Geo Gazetteer, Apache Tika, Apache Lucene, and Apache OpenNLP, to automatically extract, and make meaning out of geospatial information. In particular, we are interested in unstructured descriptors e.g., a phone number, or a named entity, and the ability to automatically learn geospatial paths related to these descriptors. For example, a particular phone number may represent an entity that travels on a monthly basis, according to easily identifiable and somes more difficult to track patterns. We will present a set of automatic techniques to extract descriptors, and then to geospatially infer their paths across unstructured data.

  20. Restful Implementation of Catalogue Service for Geospatial Data Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L. C.; Yue, P.; Lu, X. C.

    2013-10-01

    Provenance, also known as lineage, is important in understanding the derivation history of data products. Geospatial data provenance helps data consumers to evaluate the quality and reliability of geospatial data. In a service-oriented environment, where data are often consumed or produced by distributed services, provenance could be managed by following the same service-oriented paradigm. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is used for the registration and query of geospatial data provenance by extending ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM). Recent advance of the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) paradigm has shown great promise for the easy integration of distributed resources. RESTful Web Service aims to provide a standard way for Web clients to communicate with servers based on REST principles. The existing approach for provenance catalogue service could be improved by adopting the RESTful design. This paper presents the design and implementation of a catalogue service for geospatial data provenance following RESTful architecture style. A middleware named REST Converter is added on the top of the legacy catalogue service to support a RESTful style interface. The REST Converter is composed of a resource request dispatcher and six resource handlers. A prototype service is developed to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  1. A Geospatial Semantic Enrichment and Query Service for Geotagged Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Andrew; Nugent, Chris; Morrow, Philip; Chen, Liming; Ioannidis, George; Stan, Alexandru; Rachev, Preslav

    2015-07-20

    With the increasing abundance of technologies and smart devices, equipped with a multitude of sensors for sensing the environment around them, information creation and consumption has now become effortless. This, in particular, is the case for photographs with vast amounts being created and shared every day. For example, at the time of this writing, Instagram users upload 70 million photographs a day. Nevertheless, it still remains a challenge to discover the "right" information for the appropriate purpose. This paper describes an approach to create semantic geospatial metadata for photographs, which can facilitate photograph search and discovery. To achieve this we have developed and implemented a semantic geospatial data model by which a photograph can be enrich with geospatial metadata extracted from several geospatial data sources based on the raw low-level geo-metadata from a smartphone photograph. We present the details of our method and implementation for searching and querying the semantic geospatial metadata repository to enable a user or third party system to find the information they are looking for.

  2. A Geospatial Semantic Enrichment and Query Service for Geotagged Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ennis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing abundance of technologies and smart devices, equipped with a multitude of sensors for sensing the environment around them, information creation and consumption has now become effortless. This, in particular, is the case for photographs with vast amounts being created and shared every day. For example, at the time of this writing, Instagram users upload 70 million photographs a day. Nevertheless, it still remains a challenge to discover the “right” information for the appropriate purpose. This paper describes an approach to create semantic geospatial metadata for photographs, which can facilitate photograph search and discovery. To achieve this we have developed and implemented a semantic geospatial data model by which a photograph can be enrich with geospatial metadata extracted from several geospatial data sources based on the raw low-level geo-metadata from a smartphone photograph. We present the details of our method and implementation for searching and querying the semantic geospatial metadata repository to enable a user or third party system to find the information they are looking for.

  3. Geospatial Technologies to Improve Urban Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharanidharan Hemachandran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The HEAT (Home Energy Assessment Technologies pilot project is a FREE Geoweb mapping service, designed to empower the urban energy efficiency movement by allowing residents to visualize the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT incorporates Geospatial solutions for residential waste heat monitoring using Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA and Canadian built Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager technology (TABI-320 to provide users with timely, in-depth, easy to use, location-specific waste-heat information; as well as opportunities to save their money and reduce their green-house-gas emissions. We first report on the HEAT Phase I pilot project which evaluates 368 residences in the Brentwood community of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and describe the development and implementation of interactive waste heat maps, energy use models, a Hot Spot tool able to view the 6+ hottest locations on each home and a new HEAT Score for inter-city waste heat comparisons. We then describe current challenges, lessons learned and new solutions as we begin Phase II and scale from 368 to 300,000+ homes with the newly developed TABI-1800. Specifically, we introduce a new object-based mosaicing strategy, an adaptation of Emissivity Modulation to correct for emissivity differences, a new Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN technique to correct for scene-wide microclimatic variation. We also describe a new Carbon Score and opportunities to update city cadastral errors with automatically defined thermal house objects.

  4. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  5. Geospatial data stream processing in Python using FOSS4G components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McFerren, Graeme

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available (CDM) standards. We illustrate how the geospatial software components are integrated with the Swordfish framework. Furthermore, we describe the tight temporal constraints under which geospatial functionality can be invoked when processing high velocity...

  6. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Geospatial Information Infrastructure - AN Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsultan, S. H.; Rahman, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al.) implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.

  7. Open Source Web Based Geospatial Processing with OMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lucas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of geospatial data sets is exploding. New satellites, aerial platforms, video feeds, global positioning system tagged digital photos, and traditional GIS information are dramatically increasing across the globe. These raw materials need to be dynamically processed, combined and correlated to generate value added information products to answer a wide range of questions. This article provides an overview of OMAR web based geospatial processing. OMAR is part of the Open Source Software Image Map project under the Open Source Geospatial Foundation. The primary contributors of OSSIM make their livings by providing professional services to US Government agencies and programs. OMAR provides one example that open source software solutions are increasingly being deployed in US government agencies. We will also summarize the capabilities of OMAR and its plans for near term development.

  8. A novel Bayesian geospatial method for estimating tuberculosis incidence reveals many missed TB cases in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaweno, Debebe; Trauer, James M; Denholm, Justin T; McBryde, Emma S

    2017-10-02

    Reported tuberculosis (TB) incidence globally continues to be heavily influenced by expert opinion of case detection rates and ecological estimates of disease duration. Both approaches are recognised as having substantial variability and inaccuracy, leading to uncertainty in true TB incidence and other such derived statistics. We developed Bayesian binomial mixture geospatial models to estimate TB incidence and case detection rate (CDR) in Ethiopia. In these models the underlying true incidence was formulated as a partially observed Markovian process following a mixed Poisson distribution and the detected (observed) TB cases as a binomial distribution, conditional on CDR and true incidence. The models use notification data from multiple areas over several years and account for the existence of undetected TB cases and variability in true underlying incidence and CDR. Deviance information criteria (DIC) were used to select the best performing model. A geospatial model was the best fitting approach. This model estimated that TB incidence in Sheka Zone increased from 198 (95% Credible Interval (CrI) 187, 233) per 100,000 population in 2010 to 232 (95% CrI 212, 253) per 100,000 population in 2014. The model revealed a wide discrepancy between the estimated incidence rate and notification rate, with the estimated incidence ranging from 1.4 (in 2014) to 1.7 (in 2010) times the notification rate (CDR of 71% and 60% respectively). Population density and TB incidence in neighbouring locations (spatial lag) predicted the underlying TB incidence, while health facility availability predicted higher CDR. Our model estimated trends in underlying TB incidence while accounting for undetected cases and revealed significant discrepancies between incidence and notification rates in rural Ethiopia. This approach provides an alternative approach to estimating incidence, entirely independent of the methods involved in current estimates and is feasible to perform from routinely collected

  9. Assessing the socioeconomic impact and value of open geospatial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Francoise; Pearlman, Jay; Bernknopf, Richard; Coote, Andrew; Craglia, Massimo; Friedl, Lawrence; Gallo, Jason; Hertzfeld, Henry; Jolly, Claire; Macauley, Molly; Shapiro, Carl; Smart, Alan

    2016-03-10

    The production and accessibility of geospatial information including Earth observation is changing greatly both technically and in terms of human participation. Advances in technology have changed the way that geospatial data are produced and accessed, resulting in more efficient processes and greater accessibility than ever before. Improved technology has also created opportunities for increased participation in the gathering and interpretation of data through crowdsourcing and citizen science efforts. Increased accessibility has resulted in greater participation in the use of data as prices for Government-produced data have fallen and barriers to access have been reduced.

  10. Technologies Connotation and Developing Characteristics of Open Geospatial Information Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Renzhong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the background of developments of surveying,mapping and geoinformation,aimed at the demands of data fusion,real-time sharing,in-depth processing and personalization,this paper analyzes significant features of geo-spatial service in digital city,focuses on theory,method and key techniques of open environment of cloud computing,multi-path data updating,full-scale urban geocoding,multi-source spatial data integration,adaptive geo-processing and adaptive Web mapping.As the basis for it,the Open Geospatial information platform is developed,and successfully implicated in digital Shenzhen.

  11. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ferrer Dufol; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Olivia Castillo Soria; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  12. Evaluation of groundwater potential using geospatial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Abdul-Aziz; Govindu, Vanum; Nigusse, Amare Gebre Medhin

    2017-09-01

    The issue of unsustainable groundwater utilization is becoming increasingly an evident problem and the key concern for many developing countries. One of the problems is the absence of updated spatial information on the quantity and distribution of groundwater resource. Like the other developing countries, groundwater evaluation in Ethiopia has been usually conducted using field survey which is not feasible in terms of time and resource. This study was conducted in Northern Ethiopia, Wollo Zone, in Gerardo River Catchment district to spatially delineate the groundwater potential areas using geospatial and MCDA tools. To do so, eight major biophysical and environmental factors like geomorphology, lithology, slope, rainfall, land use land cover (LULC), soil, lineament density and drainage density were considered. The sources of these data were satellite image, digital elevation model (DEM), existing thematic maps and metrological station data. Landsat image was used in ERDAS Imagine to drive the LULC of the area, while the geomorphology, soil, and lithology of the area were identified and classified through field survey and digitized from existing maps using the ArcGIS software. The slope, lineament and drainage density of the area were derived from DEM using spatial analysis tools. The rainfall surface map was generated using the thissen polygon interpolation. Finally, after all these thematic maps were organized, weighted value determination for each factor and its field value was computed using IDRSI software. At last, all the factors were integrated together and computed the model using the weighted overlay so that potential groundwater areas were mapped. The findings depicted that the most potential groundwater areas are found in the central and eastern parts of the study area, while the northern and western parts of the Gerado River Catchment have poor potential of groundwater availability. This is mainly due to the cumulative effect of steep topographic and

  13. Evaluation of groundwater potential using geospatial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Abdul-Aziz; Govindu, Vanum; Nigusse, Amare Gebre Medhin

    2016-06-01

    The issue of unsustainable groundwater utilization is becoming increasingly an evident problem and the key concern for many developing countries. One of the problems is the absence of updated spatial information on the quantity and distribution of groundwater resource. Like the other developing countries, groundwater evaluation in Ethiopia has been usually conducted using field survey which is not feasible in terms of time and resource. This study was conducted in Northern Ethiopia, Wollo Zone, in Gerardo River Catchment district to spatially delineate the groundwater potential areas using geospatial and MCDA tools. To do so, eight major biophysical and environmental factors like geomorphology, lithology, slope, rainfall, land use land cover (LULC), soil, lineament density and drainage density were considered. The sources of these data were satellite image, digital elevation model (DEM), existing thematic maps and metrological station data. Landsat image was used in ERDAS Imagine to drive the LULC of the area, while the geomorphology, soil, and lithology of the area were identified and classified through field survey and digitized from existing maps using the ArcGIS software. The slope, lineament and drainage density of the area were derived from DEM using spatial analysis tools. The rainfall surface map was generated using the thissen polygon interpolation. Finally, after all these thematic maps were organized, weighted value determination for each factor and its field value was computed using IDRSI software. At last, all the factors were integrated together and computed the model using the weighted overlay so that potential groundwater areas were mapped. The findings depicted that the most potential groundwater areas are found in the central and eastern parts of the study area, while the northern and western parts of the Gerado River Catchment have poor potential of groundwater availability. This is mainly due to the cumulative effect of steep topographic and

  14. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  15. A resource-oriented architecture for a Geospatial Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    In this presentation we discuss some architectural issues on the design of an architecture for a Geospatial Web, that is an information system for sharing geospatial resources according to the Web paradigm. The success of the Web in building a multi-purpose information space, has raised questions about the possibility of adopting the same approach for systems dedicated to the sharing of more specific resources, such as the geospatial information, that is information characterized by spatial/temporal reference. To this aim an investigation on the nature of the Web and on the validity of its paradigm for geospatial resources is required. The Web was born in the early 90's to provide "a shared information space through which people and machines could communicate" [Berners-Lee 1996]. It was originally built around a small set of specifications (e.g. URI, HTTP, HTML, etc.); however, in the last two decades several other technologies and specifications have been introduced in order to extend its capabilities. Most of them (e.g. the SOAP family) actually aimed to transform the Web in a generic Distributed Computing Infrastructure. While these efforts were definitely successful enabling the adoption of service-oriented approaches for machine-to-machine interactions supporting complex business processes (e.g. for e-Government and e-Business applications), they do not fit in the original concept of the Web. In the year 2000, R. T. Fielding, one of the designers of the original Web specifications, proposes a new architectural style for distributed systems, called REST (Representational State Transfer), aiming to capture the fundamental characteristics of the Web as it was originally conceived [Fielding 2000]. In this view, the nature of the Web lies not so much in the technologies, as in the way they are used. Maintaining the Web architecture conform to the REST style would then assure the scalability, extensibility and low entry barrier of the original Web. On the contrary

  16. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  17. Redefining syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Baker, Julia; Test, Elisa

    2011-12-01

    With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field's capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2011 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Alan P

    2015-01-01

    .... Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation...

  19. Geospatial Representation, Analysis and Computing Using Bandlimited Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    approach 1 PROGRESS ON “GEOSPATIAL REPRESENTATION AND COMPUTING” 2 for modeling gravity of irregular shaped bodies, e.g. asteroids . The work in this...iteration to solve (11). Let Nit denote the number of iterations, which can either be set to a fixed number or deter- mined adaptively. Labeling the

  20. Theoretical multi-tier trust framework for the geospatial domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Umuhoza, D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available chain or workflow from data acquisition to knowledge discovery. The author’s present work in progress of a theoretical multi-tier trust framework for processing chain from data acquisition to knowledge discovery in geospatial domain. Holistic trust...

  1. Shared Geospatial Metadata Repository for Ontario University Libraries: Collaborative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forward, Erin; Leahey, Amber; Trimble, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Successfully providing access to special collections of digital geospatial data in academic libraries relies upon complete and accurate metadata. Creating and maintaining metadata using specialized standards is a formidable challenge for libraries. The Ontario Council of University Libraries' Scholars GeoPortal project, which created a shared…

  2. A Research Agenda for Geospatial Technologies and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tom R.; Battersby, Sarah; Bednarz, Sarah W.; Bodzin, Alec M.; Kolvoord, Bob; Moore, Steven; Sinton, Diana; Uttal, David

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge around geospatial technologies and learning remains sparse, inconsistent, and overly anecdotal. Studies are needed that are better structured; more systematic and replicable; attentive to progress and findings in the cognate fields of science, technology, engineering, and math education; and coordinated for multidisciplinary approaches.…

  3. Sextant: Visualizing time-evolving linked geospatial data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolaou, C.; Dogani, K.; Bereta, K.; Garbis, G.; Karpathiotakis, M.; Kyzirakos, K.; Koubarakis, M.

    2015-01-01

    The linked open data cloud is constantly evolving as datasets get continuously updated with newer versions. As a result, representing, querying, and visualizing the temporal dimension of linked data is crucial. This is especially important for geospatial datasets that form the backbone of large scal

  4. What Lives Where & Why? Understanding Biodiversity through Geospatial Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Nancy M.; Makinster, James G.; Batek, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Using an interactive map-based PDF, students learn key concepts related to biodiversity while developing data-analysis and critical-thinking skills. The Bird Island lesson provides students with experience in translating geospatial data into bar graphs, then interpreting these graphs to compare biodiversity across ecoregions on a fictional island.…

  5. 75 FR 10309 - Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Circle Hotel, 1 Washington Circle, NW., Washington, DC 20037. The meeting will be held in the Meridian... management of Federal geospatial programs, the development of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure, and the implementation of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-16. Topics to be addressed at...

  6. Big Data analytics in the Geo-Spatial Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncalves, R.A.; Ivanova, M.G.; Kersten, M.L.; Scholten, H.; Zlatanova, S.; Alvanaki, F.; Nourian, P.; Dias, E.

    2014-01-01

    Big data collections in many scientific domains have inherently rich spatial and geo-spatial features. Spatial location is among the core aspects of data in Earth observation sciences, astronomy, and seismology to name a few. The goal of our project is to design an efficient data management layer fo

  7. A study on state of Geospatial courses in Indian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, S.

    2014-12-01

    Today the world is dominated by three technologies such as Nano technology, Bio technology and Geospatial technology. This increases the huge demand for experts in the respective field for disseminating the knowledge as well as for an innovative research. Therefore, the prime need is to train the existing fraternity to gain progressive knowledge in these technologies and impart the same to student community. The geospatial technology faces some peculiar problem than other two technologies because of its interdisciplinary, multi-disciplinary nature. It attracts students and mid career professionals from various disciplines including Physics, Computer science, Engineering, Geography, Geology, Agriculture, Forestry, Town Planning and so on. Hence there is always competition to crab and stabilize their position. The students of Master's degree in Geospatial science are facing two types of problem. The first one is no unique identity in the academic field. Neither they are exempted for National eligibility Test for Lecturer ship nor given an opportunity to have the exam in geospatial science. The second one is differential treatment by the industrial world. The students are either given low grade jobs or poorly paid for their job. Thus, it is a serious issue about the future of this course in the Universities and its recognition in the academic and industrial world. The universities should make this course towards more job oriented in consultation with the Industries and Industries should come forward to share their demands and requirements to the Universities, so that necessary changes in the curriculum can be made to meet the industrial requirements.

  8. Geospatial Analysis of Renewable Energy Technical Potential on Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Lopez, A.; Beckley, D.

    2013-02-01

    This technical report uses an established geospatial methodology to estimate the technical potential for renewable energy on tribal lands for the purpose of allowing Tribes to prioritize the development of renewable energy resources either for community scale on-tribal land use or for revenue generating electricity sales.

  9. Crisp Clustering Algorithm for 3D Geospatial Vector Data Quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azri, Suhaibah; Anton, François; Ujang, Uznir

    2015-01-01

    In the next few years, 3D data is expected to be an intrinsic part of geospatial data. However, issues on 3D spatial data management are still in the research stage. One of the issues is performance deterioration during 3D data retrieval. Thus, a practical 3D index structure is required for effic...

  10. Virtual globes and geospatial health: the potential of new tools in the management and control of vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Sofie Stensgaard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing field of three-dimensional software modeling of the Earth holds promise for applications in the geospatial health sciences. Easy-to-use, intuitive virtual globe technologies such as Google Earth™ enable scientists around the world to share their data and research results in a visually attractive and readily understandable fashion without the need for highly sophisticated geographical information systems (GIS or much technical assistance. This paper discusses the utility of the rapid and simultaneous visualization of how the agents of parasitic diseases are distributed, as well as that of their vectors and/or intermediate hosts together with other spatially-explicit information. The resulting better understanding of the epidemiology of infectious diseases, and the multidimensional environment in which they occur, are highlighted. In particular, the value of Google Earth™, and its web-based pendant Google Maps™, are reviewed from a public health view point, combining results from literature searches and experiences gained thus far from a multidisciplinary project aimed at optimizing schistosomiasis control and transmission surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the basic analytical capabilities of virtual globe applications are limited, we conclude that they have considerable potential in the support and promotion of the geospatial health sciences as a userfriendly, straightforward GIS tool for the improvement of data collation, visualization and exploration. The potential of these systems for data sharing and broad dissemination of scientific research and results is emphasized.

  11. Global polar geospatial information service retrieval based on search engine and ontology reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nengcheng; E, Dongcheng; Di, Liping; Gong, Jianya; Chen, Zeqiang

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the access precision of polar geospatial information service on web, a new methodology for retrieving global spatial information services based on geospatial service search and ontology reasoning is proposed, the geospatial service search is implemented to find the coarse service from web, the ontology reasoning is designed to find the refined service from the coarse service. The proposed framework includes standardized distributed geospatial web services, a geospatial service search engine, an extended UDDI registry, and a multi-protocol geospatial information service client. Some key technologies addressed include service discovery based on search engine and service ontology modeling and reasoning in the Antarctic geospatial context. Finally, an Antarctica multi protocol OWS portal prototype based on the proposed methodology is introduced.

  12. Towards Geo-spatial Information Science in Big Data Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Deren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, with the advent of worldwide information revolution and the development of internet, geospatial information science have also come of age, which pushed forward the building of digital Earth and cyber city. As we entered the 21st century, with the development and integration of global information technology and industrialization, internet of things and cloud computing came into being, human society enters into the big data era. This article covers the key features (ubiquitous, multi-dimension and dynamics, internet+networking, full automation and real-time, from sensing to recognition, crowdsourcing and VGI, and service-oriented of geospatial information science in the big data era and addresses the key technical issues (non-linear four dimensional Earth reference frame system, space based enhanced GNSS, space-air and land unified network communication techniques, on board processing techniques for multi-sources image data, smart interface service techniques for space-borne information, space based resource scheduling and network security, design and developing of a payloads based multi-functional satellite platform. That needs to be resolved to provide a new definition of geospatial information science in big data era. Based on the discussion in this paper, the author finally proposes a new definition of geospatial information science (geomatics, i.e. Geomatics is a multiple discipline science and technology which, using a systematic approach, integrates all the means for spatio-temporal data acquisition, information extraction, networked management, knowledge discovering, spatial sensing and recognition, as well as intelligent location based services of any physical objects and human activities around the earth and its environment. Starting from this new definition, geospatial information science will get much more chances and find much more tasks in big data era for generation of smart earth and smart city . Our profession

  13. Modeling photovoltaic diffusion: an analysis of geospatial datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Carolyn; Drury, Easan; Lopez, Anthony; Elmore, Ryan; Margolis, Robert

    2014-07-01

    This study combines address-level residential photovoltaic (PV) adoption trends in California with several types of geospatial information—population demographics, housing characteristics, foreclosure rates, solar irradiance, vehicle ownership preferences, and others—to identify which subsets of geospatial information are the best predictors of historical PV adoption. Number of rooms, heating source and house age were key variables that had not been previously explored in the literature, but are consistent with the expected profile of a PV adopter. The strong relationship provided by foreclosure indicators and mortgage status have less of an intuitive connection to PV adoption, but may be highly correlated with characteristics inherent in PV adopters. Next, we explore how these predictive factors and model performance varies between different Investor Owned Utility (IOU) regions in California, and at different spatial scales. Results suggest that models trained with small subsets of geospatial information (five to eight variables) may provide similar explanatory power as models using hundreds of geospatial variables. Further, the predictive performance of models generally decreases at higher resolution, i.e., below ZIP code level since several geospatial variables with coarse native resolution become less useful for representing high resolution variations in PV adoption trends. However, for California we find that model performance improves if parameters are trained at the regional IOU level rather than the state-wide level. We also find that models trained within one IOU region are generally representative for other IOU regions in CA, suggesting that a model trained with data from one state may be applicable in another state.

  14. Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    Full Text Available A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance.

  15. Surveillance and persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagenborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is as much about surveillance as about persuasive technologies (PTs). With regard to PTs it raises the question about the ethical limits of persuasion. It will be argued that even some forms of self-imposed persuasive soft surveillance technologies may be considered unethical. Therefore,

  16. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  17. Food safety trends in the U.S. and update on pathogenic E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet): FoodNet is a main part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Emerging Pathogens Program and was established in 1995 as a population-based sentinel surveillance system to monitor changes in the incidence of nine pathogens ...

  18. 潜江市2010年-2011年食源性致病菌监测分析%Surveillance analysis of food - pathogenic bacteria in Qianjiang in 2010 and 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓勇; 黄先慧; 邓琴; 陈梅

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解潜江市售食品中食源性致病菌的污染状况及分布.方法:按照湖北省食源性致病菌监测方案的要求,2010和2011两年在潜江市6个监测点内采集十六类市售食品共计331份,对其进行沙门菌、单核细胞增生李斯特氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌O157∶H7、副溶血性弧菌、蜡样芽胞杆菌、阪崎肠杆菌七种食源性致病的监测分析.结果:331份食品样品中,分离出目的菌14株,其中沙门菌4株,单核细胞增生李斯特氏菌2株,蜡样芽胞杆菌2株,金黄色葡萄球菌6株,总检出率4.23%.结论:通过主动监测,掌握食源性致病菌的分布情况,及早发现食品的安全隐患,有助于进一步确立风险管理决策,降低人群食源性疾病的发病率.%Objective:To understand the pollution status and distribution of food - borne pathogens in commercial food in Qianjiang city. Methods; In accordance with "Hubei provincial monitoring program on food -borne pathogens" ,331 food samples in 16 kinds collected from 6 monitoring places were detected and analyzed for salmonella bacillus, listeria monocytogenes, staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli O157;H7, vibrio parahaemolyticus, bacillus cereus and enterobacter sakazakii in 2010 and 2011. Results; 14 aim bacteria strains were isolated from 331 food samples (4.23% ) , 4 salmonella strains, 2 listeria monocytogenes strains, 2 bacillus cereus strains and 6 staphylococcus aureus strains. Conclusion j Active monitoring on distribution of food - borne pathogens contributed to find potential safety hazard early, so as to set risk management plan and reduce the incidence of food - borne diseases.

  19. A Flexible Spatial Framework for Modeling Spread of Pathogens in Animals with Biosurveillance and Disease Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montiago X. LaBute

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosurveillance activities focus on acquiring and analyzing epidemiological and biological data to interpret unfolding events and predict outcomes in infectious disease outbreaks. We describe a mathematical modeling framework based on geographically aligned data sources and with appropriate flexibility that partitions the modeling of disease spread into two distinct but coupled levels. A top-level stochastic simulation is defined on a network with nodes representing user-configurable geospatial “patches”. Intra-patch disease spread is treated with differential equations that assume uniform mixing within the patch. We use U.S. county-level aggregated data on animal populations and parameters from the literature to simulate epidemic spread of two strikingly different animal diseases agents: foot-and-mouth disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza. Results demonstrate the capability of this framework to leverage low-fidelity data while producing meaningful output to inform biosurveillance and disease control measures. For example, we show that the possible magnitude of an outbreak is sensitive to the starting location of the outbreak, highlighting the strong geographic dependence of livestock and poultry infectious disease epidemics and the usefulness of effective biosurveillance policy. The ability to compare different diseases and host populations across the geographic landscape is important for decision support applications and for assessing the impact of surveillance, detection, and mitigation protocols.

  20. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Summary Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Chancroid Selected STDs Appendix Appendix Interpreting STD Surveillance Data Appendix Tables A1 - A4 STD Surveillance Case Definitions Contributors ...

  1. GSKY: A scalable distributed geospatial data server on the cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas Larraondo, Pablo; Pringle, Sean; Antony, Joseph; Evans, Ben

    2017-04-01

    Earth systems, environmental and geophysical datasets are an extremely valuable sources of information about the state and evolution of the Earth. Being able to combine information coming from different geospatial collections is in increasing demand by the scientific community, and requires managing and manipulating data with different formats and performing operations such as map reprojections, resampling and other transformations. Due to the large data volume inherent in these collections, storing multiple copies of them is unfeasible and so such data manipulation must be performed on-the-fly using efficient, high performance techniques. Ideally this should be performed using a trusted data service and common system libraries to ensure wide use and reproducibility. Recent developments in distributed computing based on dynamic access to significant cloud infrastructure opens the door for such new ways of processing geospatial data on demand. The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI), hosted at the Australian National University (ANU), has over 10 Petabytes of nationally significant research data collections. Some of these collections, which comprise a variety of observed and modelled geospatial data, are now made available via a highly distributed geospatial data server, called GSKY (pronounced [jee-skee]). GSKY supports on demand processing of large geospatial data products such as satellite earth observation data as well as numerical weather products, allowing interactive exploration and analysis of the data. It dynamically and efficiently distributes the required computations among cloud nodes providing a scalable analysis framework that can adapt to serve large number of concurrent users. Typical geospatial workflows handling different file formats and data types, or blending data in different coordinate projections and spatio-temporal resolutions, is handled transparently by GSKY. This is achieved by decoupling the data ingestion and indexing process as

  2. Contribution of respiratory pathogens to influenza-like illness consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollaerts, K; Antoine, J; Van Casteren, V; Ducoffre, G; Hens, N; Quoilin, S

    2013-10-01

    Influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) are caused by several respiratory pathogens. These pathogens show weak to strong seasonal activity implying seasonality in ILI consultations. In this paper, the contribution of pathogens to seasonality of ILI consultations was statistically modelled. Virological count data were first smoothed using modulation models for seasonal time series. Second, Poisson regression was used regressing ILI consultation counts on the smoothed time series. Using ratios of the estimated regression parameters, relative measures of the underreporting of pathogens were obtained. Influenza viruses A and B, parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) significantly contributed to explain the seasonal variation in ILI consultations. We also found that RSV was the least and influenza virus A is the most underreported pathogen in Belgian laboratory surveillance. The proposed methods and results are helpful in interpreting the data of clinical and laboratory surveillance, which are the essential parts of influenza surveillance.

  3. 南京市2007年-2010年食源性致病菌监测分析%Surveillance on food-borne pathogens in food in Nanjing city from 2007 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶艳华; 江晓; 王炜; 丁洁

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解南京市食品中食源性致病菌的污染状况,为食源性疾病的监测和预警提供科学依据.方法:2007年-2010年采集南京市售食品共计459份,对沙门菌、单核细胞增生李斯特菌、大肠埃希菌0157:H7、金黄色葡萄球菌、空肠弯曲菌和副溶血性弧菌6种食源性致病菌进行监测分析.结果:459份食品样品中,检出致病菌61株,总检出率13.3%.2007年-2010年食源性致病菌检出率分别为25.3%、21.3%、7.9%和6.9%.生肉的污染情况最为严重,检出率为45.8 %,其次是生速食米面制品,检出率为24%,水产品、熟肉制品和凉拌菜的检出率分别为14.1%、13.3%和5.9%.结论:沙门菌和单核细胞增生李斯特菌对南京市食品的污染普遍存在.生肉、生速食米面制品和熟肉制品是可能导致食源性疾病的高危食品.%Objective:To investigate the situations and levels ol main food - borne pathogens bacteria in food in Nanjing city and to provide scientific basis for prevention and control of food - borne diseases. Methods; From 2007 to 2010, 459 retail food samples were collected and analyzed for the occurrence of Salmonella ,Listeria monocytogenes ,Escherichia coli 0157: H7 ,Staphy-lococcus aureus,Campylobacter and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Results.- Among all samples, 61 pathogenic strains were isolated and the overall positive rate were 13. 3%. The positive rate of food - borne pathogens bacteria from 2007 to 2010 were 25. 3% , 21.3% ,7.9% and 6.9% respectively. The positive rate in raw meat, quick -frozen flour and rice products, aquatic products, cooked meat and Chinese cold dishes were 45. 8% , 24% , 14. 1% , 13. 3% and 5. 9% respectively. Conclusion; The results showed that Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes widely existed in foods in Nanjing city. Raw meat, quick - frozen flour and rice products and cooked meats were the higher risk foods to cause food - borne diseases.

  4. Societal Impact of Improved Environment and Geospatial Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, J.; Andrzejewska, M.; Stonor, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geospatial projects are often dogged by the inability to establish a strong quantitative value proposition and are unable to sustain the attention of senior decision makers. In a tough economic climate, it is particularly important that any project that requires a significant investment can show a clear Return on Investment (ROI). In the case of commerce, benefit can be quantified through increase in sales/profit or reduction of risk. In the case of societal impact, quantification is more challenging. At the Geospatial World Forum (GWF) 2013 in Rotterdam, a number of case studies were presented on social impacts which used differing approaches to impact assessment. Some of the cases discussed projects with community issues and explained alternative means of conflict resolution. However, a comparison of the different case studies was not made at the GWF meeting. This presentation will take the next step and address the commonalities and differences in the approaches.

  5. Emerging Geospatial Sharing Technologies in Earth and Space Science Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Bermudez, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    Emerging Geospatial Sharing Technologies in Earth and Space Science Informatics The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) mission is to serve as a global forum for the collaboration of developers and users of spatial data products and services, and to advance the development of international standards for geospatial interoperability. The OGC coordinates with over 400 institutions in the development of geospatial standards. In the last years two main trends are making disruptions in geospatial applications: mobile and context sharing. People now have more and more mobile devices to support their work and personal life. Mobile devices are intermittently connected to the internet and have smaller computing capacity than a desktop computer. Based on this trend a new OGC file format standard called GeoPackage will enable greater geospatial data sharing on mobile devices. GeoPackage is perhaps best understood as the natural evolution of Shapefiles, which have been the predominant lightweight geodata sharing format for two decades. However the format is extremely limited. Four major shortcomings are that only vector points, lines, and polygons are supported; property names are constrained by the dBASE format; multiple files are required to encode a single data set; and multiple Shapefiles are required to encode multiple data sets. A more modern lingua franca for geospatial data is long overdue. GeoPackage fills this need with support for vector data, image tile matrices, and raster data. And it builds upon a database container - SQLite - that's self-contained, single-file, cross-platform, serverless, transactional, and open source. A GeoPackage, in essence, is a set of SQLite database tables whose content and layout is described in the candidate GeoPackage Implementation Specification available at https://portal.opengeospatial.org/files/?artifact_id=54838&version=1. The second trend is sharing client 'contexts'. When a user is looking into an article or a product on the web

  6. Creating 3D models of historical buildings using geospatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alionescu, Adrian; Bǎlǎ, Alina Corina; Brebu, Floarea Maria; Moscovici, Anca-Maria

    2017-07-01

    Recently, a lot of interest has been shown to understand a real world object by acquiring its 3D images of using laser scanning technology and panoramic images. A realistic impression of geometric 3D data can be generated by draping real colour textures simultaneously captured by a colour camera images. In this context, a new concept of geospatial data acquisition has rapidly revolutionized the method of determining the spatial position of objects, which is based on panoramic images. This article describes an approach that comprises inusing terrestrial laser scanning and panoramic images captured with Trimble V10 Imaging Rover technology to enlarge the details and realism of the geospatial data set, in order to obtain 3D urban plans and virtual reality applications.

  7. River predisposition to ice jams: a simplified geospatial model

    OpenAIRE

    Munck, Stéphane; Gauthier, Yves; Bernier, Monique; Chokmani, Karem; Légaré, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a simplified geospatial model to estimate the predisposition of any river channel to ice jams. Rather than predicting river ice break up, the main question here was to predict where the broken up ice is susceptible to jam based on the river’s geomorphological characteristics. Thus, six parameters referred to potential causes for ice jams in the literature were selected: presence of an island, narrowing of the channel, high sinuosity, presence of a bridge, ...

  8. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattling Leaf, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the spirit of collaboration and reciprocity, James Rattling Leaf of Sinte Gleska University on the Rosebud Reservation of South Dakota will present recent developments, experiences, insights and a vision for education in Indian Country. As a thirty-year young institution, Sinte Gleska University is founded by a strong vision of ancestral leadership and the values of the Lakota Way of Life. Sinte Gleska University (SGU) has initiated the development of a Geospatial Education Curriculum project. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building is a two-year project that entails a disciplined approach towards the development of a relevant Geospatial academic curriculum. This project is designed to meet the educational and land management needs of the Rosebud Lakota Tribe through the utilization of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). In conjunction with the strategy and progress of this academic project, a formal presentation and demonstration of the SGU based Geospatial software RezMapper software will exemplify an innovative example of state of the art information technology. RezMapper is an interactive CD software package focused toward the 21 Lakota communities on the Rosebud Reservation that utilizes an ingenious concept of multimedia mapping and state of the art data compression and presentation. This ongoing development utilizes geographic data, imagery from space, historical aerial photography and cultural features such as historic Lakota documents, language, song, video and historical photographs in a multimedia fashion. As a tangible product, RezMapper will be a project deliverable tool for use in the classroom and to a broad range of learners.

  9. Adoption of Geospatial Systems towards evolving Sustainable Himalayan Mountain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, M. S. R.; Bajracharya, B.; Pradhan, S.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; Ali, M.; Bajracharya, S.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-11-01

    Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near real-time data, in-situ measurements and in combination of information and communication technology have transformed the way we collect, process, and generate information and how we use such information for societal benefits. Glacier dynamics, land cover changes, disaster risk reduction systems, food security and ecosystem conservation are a few thematic areas where geospatial information and knowledge have significantly contributed to informed decision making systems over the region. The emergence and adoption of near-real time systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), board-scale citizen science (crowd-sourcing), mobile services and mapping, and cloud computing have paved the way towards developing automated environmental monitoring systems, enhanced scientific understanding of geophysical and biophysical processes, coupled management of socio-ecological systems and community based adaptation models tailored to mountain specific environment. There are differentiated capacities among the ICIMOD regional member countries with regard to utilization of earth observation and geospatial technologies. The region can greatly benefit from a coordinated and collaborative approach to capture the opportunities offered by earth observation and geospatial technologies. The regional level data sharing, knowledge exchange, and Himalayan GEO supporting geospatial platforms, spatial data infrastructure, unique region specific satellite systems to address trans-boundary challenges would go a long way in

  10. Progress of Interoperability in Planetary Research for Geospatial Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, T. M.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    For nearly a decade there has been a push in the planetary science community to support interoperable methods of accessing and working with geospatial data. Common geospatial data products for planetary research include image mosaics, digital elevation or terrain models, geologic maps, geographic location databases (i.e., craters, volcanoes) or any data that can be tied to the surface of a planetary body (including moons, comets or asteroids). Several U.S. and international cartographic research institutions have converged on mapping standards that embrace standardized image formats that retain geographic information (e.g., GeoTiff, GeoJpeg2000), digital geologic mapping conventions, planetary extensions for symbols that comply with U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee cartographic and geospatial metadata standards, and notably on-line mapping services as defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The latter includes defined standards such as the OGC Web Mapping Services (simple image maps), Web Feature Services (feature streaming), Web Coverage Services (rich scientific data streaming), and Catalog Services for the Web (data searching and discoverability). While these standards were developed for application to Earth-based data, they have been modified to support the planetary domain. The motivation to support common, interoperable data format and delivery standards is not only to improve access for higher-level products but also to address the increasingly distributed nature of the rapidly growing volumes of data. The strength of using an OGC approach is that it provides consistent access to data that are distributed across many facilities. While data-steaming standards are well-supported by both the more sophisticated tools used in Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing industries, they are also supported by many light-weight browsers which facilitates large and small focused science applications and public use. Here we provide an

  11. The new geospatial tools: global transparency enhancing safeguards verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabian, Frank Vincent [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-16

    This paper focuses on the importance and potential role of the new, freely available, geospatial tools for enhancing IAEA safeguards and how, together with commercial satellite imagery, they can be used to promote 'all-source synergy'. As additional 'open sources', these new geospatial tools have heralded a new era of 'global transparency' and they can be used to substantially augment existing information-driven safeguards gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection of undeclared facilities, as well as support ongoing monitoring and verification of various treaty (e.g., NPT, FMCT) relevant activities and programs. As an illustration of how these new geospatial tools may be applied, an original exemplar case study provides how it is possible to derive value-added follow-up information on some recent public media reporting of a former clandestine underground plutonium production complex (now being converted to a 'Tourist Attraction' given the site's abandonment by China in the early 1980s). That open source media reporting, when combined with subsequent commentary found in various Internet-based Blogs and Wikis, led to independent verification of the reporting with additional ground truth via 'crowdsourcing' (tourist photos as found on 'social networking' venues like Google Earth's Panoramio layer and Twitter). Confirmation of the precise geospatial location of the site (along with a more complete facility characterization incorporating 3-D Modeling and visualization) was only made possible following the acquisition of higher resolution commercial satellite imagery that could be correlated with the reporting, ground photos, and an interior diagram, through original imagery analysis of the overhead imagery.

  12. Analysis on surveillance results of food borne pathogens in Longyan city in 2014%2014年龙岩市食源性致病菌监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖亦红; 何云; 林伟; 张彦锋; 曹春远

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the situation of food hygiene in Longyan. To determine the distribution of food borne pathogens in food, and provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of food borne diseases. Methods According to the GB method, we separated food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus,etc.) from all samples. We tested biochemical reaction (VITEK), serology identification to strains.Results 20 strains of pathogens were separated from 189 various samples, including Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Cerea spore bacilli, enterobacter sakazaii and pseudomonas aeruginosa. The overall detectable rate is 10.6%. No diarrheogenic E.coli and vibrio parahaemolyticus were detected. In all 9 kinds of food, the detectable rate of processed meat products is the highest(52.4%), infant formula is the second(33.3%) and take-away meals is the third(16.7%). Conclusion The major contaminated foods are processed meat products and infant formula. The major contaminated bacterium in processed meat products is Staphylococcus aureus (33.3%). The major contaminated bacterium in infant formula is enterobacter sakazaii (16.7%). Our study demonstrated that the pathogens contamination is existing in the food of Longyan city,stronger measures should be taken to prevent the happening of food safety incidents.%目的:了解食品卫生状况,确定食品中食源性病原菌分布情况,为预防和控制食源性疾病提供科学依据。方法依据《2014年国家食品污染物和有害因素风险监测工作手册》,对龙岩市肉制品和婴幼儿配方奶粉等分别进行金黄色葡萄球菌等食源性病原菌的分离培养、生化及血清学鉴定。结果共检测包括预制水产品,即食藻类加工食品,婴幼儿配方奶粉,调理肉制品,熟制动物性水产品等九类样品共189件,共检出致病菌20株,总检出率10.6%。金黄色葡萄球菌、沙门菌、单核细胞增生李斯特菌、蜡样

  13. Surveillance and analysis on the pathogenic features of Salmonella in Guangdong province in 2010%2010年广东省沙门菌监测及其病原学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冬梅; 柯碧霞; 邓小玲; 柯昌文; 梁兆铭; 谭海玲; 李柏生; 刘美真; 陈经雕

    2012-01-01

    Objective In order to better understand the nature of Salmonella infection in diarrheal patients in Guangdong province,the study analyzed the serum types,antibiotic resistance and molecular determinants of the isolated Salmonella strains.Methods In year 2010,8405 diarrhea patients from 16 surveillant hospital in Guangzhou,Zhongshan,Dongguan,Zhuhai,Maoming,Yangjiang and Jiangmen cities in Guangdong province,were recruited in the study.A total of 8405 fecal specimen were collected and subjected to Solmonella isolation and culture.The isolated Salmonella strains were further analyzed via serotyping,antimicrobial susceptibility testing,and PFGE.The χ2 test was applied to compare the differences between the isolated Salmonella strains in different seasons and districts.BioNumerics software was used to analyze the PFGE results in order to determine the correlation between different Salmonella strains.Results The positive rate of the surveillant Salmonella in Guangdong province was 3.58% (301/8405) in 2010; with the gender ratio at 1.34:1 (166/124).Salmonella infection was found in all age groups,and most in infants,accounting for 57.48% ( 173/301 ).The isolated rates of Salmonella were separately 3.48% (61/1751),4.97% ( 134/2695),3.08% (73/2370) and 2.08% (33/1589) in the four seasons; and the difference was statistically significant (χ2 =27.29,P < 0.01 ).The isolated rates of Salmonella in different regions were as follows:Zhuhai 15.43% ( 25/162 ),Maoming 7.53% ( 18/239 ),Dongguan 6.51% ( 39/599 ),Yangjiang 3.64% ( 14/385 ),Zhongshan 3.03% ( 70/2309 ),Guangzhou 2.90% ( 126/4349 ) and Jiangmen 2.49% (9/362).The difference between regions was statistically significant ( χ2 =100.75,P < 0.01 ).Except one strain of the isolated Salmonella cannot be serotyped,the other 300 strains were divided into 42 serotypes,of which Salmonella typhimurium and Salnumella enteritidis were dominant,account for 45.18% ( 136/301 ) ani 10.96% (33

  14. Validation of a Previously Developed Geospatial Model That Predicts the Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in New York State Produce Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Shiwakoti, Suvash; Bergholz, Peter; Grohn, Yrjo; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Technological advancements, particularly in the field of geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to predict the likelihood of foodborne pathogen contamination in produce production environments using geospatial models. Yet, few studies have examined the validity and robustness of such models. This study was performed to test and refine the rules associated with a previously developed geospatial model that predicts the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in produce farms in New York State (NYS). Produce fields for each of four enrolled produce farms were categorized into areas of high or low predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence using rules based on a field's available water storage (AWS) and its proximity to water, impervious cover, and pastures. Drag swabs (n = 1,056) were collected from plots assigned to each risk category. Logistic regression, which tested the ability of each rule to accurately predict the prevalence of L. monocytogenes, validated the rules based on water and pasture. Samples collected near water (odds ratio [OR], 3.0) and pasture (OR, 2.9) showed a significantly increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation compared to that for samples collected far from water and pasture. Generalized linear mixed models identified additional land cover factors associated with an increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation, such as proximity to wetlands. These findings validated a subset of previously developed rules that predict L. monocytogenes prevalence in produce production environments. This suggests that GIS and geospatial models can be used to accurately predict L. monocytogenes prevalence on farms and can be used prospectively to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination of produce. PMID:26590280

  15. Wetland assessment, monitoring and management in India using geospatial techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, J K

    2015-01-15

    Satellite remote sensing and GIS have emerged as the most powerful tools for inventorying, monitoring and management of natural resources and environment. In the special context of wetland ecosystems, remotely sensed data from orbital platforms have been extensively used in India for the inventory, monitoring and preparation of action plans for conservation and management. First scientific inventory of wetlands in India was carried out in 1998 by Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad using indigenous IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) data of 1992-93 timeframe, which stimulated extensive use of geospatial techniques for wetland conservation and management. Subsequently, with advances in GIS, studies were carried out for development of Wetland Information System for a state (West Bengal) and for Loktak lake wetland (a Ramsar site) as a prelude to National Wetland Information System. Research has also been carried out for preparation of action plans especially for Ramsar sites in the country. In a novel research, use of the geospatial technology has also been demonstrated for biodiversity conservation using landscape ecological metrics. A country-wide estimate of emission of methane, a Green House Gas, from wetlands has also been made using MODIS data. Present article critically reviews the work carried out in India for wetland conservation and management using geospatial techniques.

  16. Enhancing climate literacy by melding the atmospheric and geospatial sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupigny-Giroux, L.; Toolin, R.; Morrissey, L.; Fortney, M. D.; Hogan, S.; Pontius, J.; Berryman, B.; Shafer, J.; Atkins, N.; Shepherd, M.; Mote, T. L.; Raphael, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Climate literacy involves an understanding of the interconnectedness of various components of the climate system over space and time, as well as the influence of humans on that system and the ability to use that understanding to "act accordingly". Understanding the climate system relies on techniques that include statistics, modelling, visualization and geospatial technologies such as remote sensing and geographic information science (GIS). The melding of these geospatial technologies with the atmospheric and climate sciences has become increasingly common and ubiquitous from the nightly weather presentations to the weekly U.S. Drought Monitor. This presentation will delve into the successes and ongoing challenges for a climate literate society that exist at the transdisciplinary border of the atmospheric and geospatial sciences. Two National Science Foundation (NSF) funded programs will be highlighted. The first is the Satellites, Weather and Climate (SWAC) professional development program for K-12 teachers and the second is the Diversity Climate Network (D-ClimNet) for high school to graduate students.

  17. Temporal geospatial analysis of secondary school students’ examination performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik Abd Kadir, ND; Adnan, NA

    2016-06-01

    Malaysia's Ministry of Education has improved the organization of the data to have the geographical information system (GIS) school database. However, no further analysis is done using geospatial analysis tool. Mapping has emerged as a communication tool and becomes effective way to publish the digital and statistical data such as school performance results. The objective of this study is to analyse secondary school student performance of science and mathematics scores of the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia Examination result in the year 2010 to 2014 for the Kelantan's state schools with the aid of GIS software and geospatial analysis. The school performance according to school grade point average (GPA) from Grade A to Grade G were interpolated and mapped and query analysis using geospatial tools able to be done. This study will be beneficial to the education sector to analyse student performance not only in Kelantan but to the whole Malaysia and this will be a good method to publish in map towards better planning and decision making to prepare young Malaysians for the challenges of education system and performance.

  18. Exploring a Hybrid of Geospatial Semantic Information in Ubiquitous Computing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghda Fouad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, geospatial information plays a critical role. Searching and obtaining geospatial information, however, is a difficult and time-consuming task. The Semantic Web promises to facilitate this by improving the capability to search for information by better expressing the meaning of search queries. Combining the two approaches to create a Geospatial Semantic Web is an idea that is gaining acceptance in both areas. Here, we present a prototype that promises to prove that the meshing of these two areas is a promising field in conjunction with information retrieval and ubiquitous computing. The aim of this prototype is to exploit geospatial semantic information retrieved from multiple data sources ina mobile environment. Our prototype uses three geospatial data sources: GeoNames, LinkedGeoData, and DBpedia. Experimental results show how the merging of the geospatial data sources and the use ofmore than one level of indexing is more effective in terms of recall and precision.

  19. Exploring a Hybrid of Geospatial Semantic Information in Ubiquitous Computing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghda A. Fouad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, geospatial information plays a critical role. Searching and obtaining geospatial information, however, is a difficult and time-consuming task. The Semantic Web promises to facilitate this by improving the capability to search for information by better expressing the meaning of search queries. Combining the two approaches to create a Geospatial Semantic Web is an idea that is gaining acceptance in both areas. Here, we present a prototype that promises to prove that the meshing of these two areas is a promising field in conjunction with information retrieval and ubiquitous computing. The aim of this prototype is to exploit geospatial semantic information retrieved from multiple data sources in a mobile environment. Our prototype uses three geospatial data sources: GeoNames, LinkedGeoData, and DBpedia. Experimental results show how the merging of the geospatial data sources and the use of more than one level of indexing is more effective in terms of recall and precision.

  20. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can ... is the impact of mental disorders in children? Mental health is important to overall health. Mental disorders are ...

  1. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  2. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  4. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  5. 2009-2011年梧州市食品中食源性致病菌监测结果%Surveillance results of food-borne pathogens in food in Wuzhou City from 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼桂江; 彭美薇; 盘珍梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解梧州市食品中食源性致病菌污染状况,为食源性疾病监测和预防控制提供科学依据.方法 按照GB/T 4789 - 2010和2011年国家食源性疾病监测工作手册进行检测和鉴定.结果 2009年120份食品中副溶血性弧菌检出率为35.00%,沙门菌检出率为14.17%,金黄色葡萄球菌检出率为10.00%,单增李斯特菌和大肠杆菌0157∶H7未检出.2010年150份食品中副溶血性弧菌检出率为48.00%,沙门菌检出率为9.33%.金黄色葡萄球菌检出率为2.53%,单增李斯特菌检出率为2.41%,大肠杆菌0157∶H7和阪崎肠杆菌未检出.2011年175份食品中副溶血性弧菌检出率为17.39%,阪崎肠杆菌的检出率为5.26%,金黄色葡萄球菌的检出率为4.61%,单增李斯特菌的检出率为2.92%,沙门菌和大肠杆菌0157:H7未检出.结论 该市食品存在安全隐患,重点食物中致病菌检出率都很高,食品安全执法部门应采取有效监管措施,减少和避免食源性中毒的发生.%[ Objective] To know the pollution condition of food-borne pathogens in food in Wuzhou City, provide a scientific basis for prevention and monitoring of food-borne diseases. [ Methods ] The detection and identification was performed according to GB/T 4789-2010 and the National food-borne disease monitoring handbook. [Results] Among 120 food samples collected in 2009, the detection rate of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus was 35.00% , 14. 17% and 10.00% respectively. Iisteria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157: H7 were not found. Among 150 samples collected in 2010, the detection rate of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Iisteria monocytogenes respectively was 48.00% ,9. 33% , 2. 53% and 2.41%. Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Enterobacter sakazakii were not found. Among 175 samples collected in 2011, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Enterobacter sakazakii, Staphylococcus aureus and Iisteria monocytogenes

  6. Geospatial Information from Satellite Imagery for Geovisualisation of Smart Cities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, M.

    2016-06-01

    In the recent past, there have been large emphasis on extraction of geospatial information from satellite imagery. The Geospatial information are being processed through geospatial technologies which are playing important roles in developing of smart cities, particularly in developing countries of the world like India. The study is based on the latest geospatial satellite imagery available for the multi-date, multi-stage, multi-sensor, and multi-resolution. In addition to this, the latest geospatial technologies have been used for digital image processing of remote sensing satellite imagery and the latest geographic information systems as 3-D GeoVisualisation, geospatial digital mapping and geospatial analysis for developing of smart cities in India. The Geospatial information obtained from RS and GPS systems have complex structure involving space, time and presentation. Such information helps in 3-Dimensional digital modelling for smart cities which involves of spatial and non-spatial information integration for geographic visualisation of smart cites in context to the real world. In other words, the geospatial database provides platform for the information visualisation which is also known as geovisualisation. So, as a result there have been an increasing research interest which are being directed to geospatial analysis, digital mapping, geovisualisation, monitoring and developing of smart cities using geospatial technologies. However, the present research has made an attempt for development of cities in real world scenario particulary to help local, regional and state level planners and policy makers to better understand and address issues attributed to cities using the geospatial information from satellite imagery for geovisualisation of Smart Cities in emerging and developing country, India.

  7. GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION FROM SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR GEOVISUALISATION OF SMART CITIES IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, there have been large emphasis on extraction of geospatial information from satellite imagery. The Geospatial information are being processed through geospatial technologies which are playing important roles in developing of smart cities, particularly in developing countries of the world like India. The study is based on the latest geospatial satellite imagery available for the multi-date, multi-stage, multi-sensor, and multi-resolution. In addition to this, the latest geospatial technologies have been used for digital image processing of remote sensing satellite imagery and the latest geographic information systems as 3-D GeoVisualisation, geospatial digital mapping and geospatial analysis for developing of smart cities in India. The Geospatial information obtained from RS and GPS systems have complex structure involving space, time and presentation. Such information helps in 3-Dimensional digital modelling for smart cities which involves of spatial and non-spatial information integration for geographic visualisation of smart cites in context to the real world. In other words, the geospatial database provides platform for the information visualisation which is also known as geovisualisation. So, as a result there have been an increasing research interest which are being directed to geospatial analysis, digital mapping, geovisualisation, monitoring and developing of smart cities using geospatial technologies. However, the present research has made an attempt for development of cities in real world scenario particulary to help local, regional and state level planners and policy makers to better understand and address issues attributed to cities using the geospatial information from satellite imagery for geovisualisation of Smart Cities in emerging and developing country, India.

  8. Nebhydro: Sharing Geospatial Data to Supportwater Management in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, B.; Irmak, A.; Hubbard, K.; Deogun, J.; Dvorak, B.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in web-enabled geographical technologies have the potential to make a dramatic impact on development of highly interactive spatial applications on the web for visualization of large-scale geospatial data by water resources and irrigation scientists. Spatial and point scale water resources data visualization are an emerging and challenging application domain. Query based visual explorations of geospatial hydrological data can play an important role in stimulating scientific hypotheses and seeking causal relationships among hydro variables. The Nebraska Hydrological Information System (NebHydro) utilizes ESRI's ArcGIS server technology to increase technological awareness among farmers, irrigation managers and policy makers. Web-based geospatial applications are an effective way to expose scientific hydrological datasets to the research community and the public. NebHydro uses Adobe Flex technology to offer an online visualization and data analysis system for presentation of social and economic data. Internet mapping services is an integrated product of GIS and Internet technologies; it is a favored solution to achieve the interoperability of GIS. The development of Internet based GIS services in the state of Nebraska showcases the benefits of sharing geospatial hydrological data among agencies, resource managers and policy makers. Geospatial hydrological Information (Evapotranspiration from Remote Sensing, vegetation indices (NDVI), USGS Stream gauge data, Climatic data etc.) is generally generated through model simulation (METRIC, SWAP, Linux, Python based scripting etc). Information is compiled into and stored within object oriented relational spatial databases using a geodatabase information model that supports the key data types needed by applications including features, relationships, networks, imagery, terrains, maps and layers. The system provides online access, querying, visualization, and analysis of the hydrological data from several sources

  9. Public Health Surveillance Strategies for Mass Gatherings: Super Bowl XLIX and Related Events, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Aurimar; Berisha, Vjollca; Goodin, Kate; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Levy, Craig; McKinney, Benita; Koski, Lia; Imholte, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Super Bowl XLIX took place on February 1, 2015, in Glendale, Arizona. In preparation for this event and associated activities, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) developed methods for enhanced surveillance, situational awareness, and early detection of public health emergencies. Surveillance strategies implemented from January 22 to February 6, 2015, included enhanced surveillance alerts; animal disease surveillance; review of NFL clinic visits; syndromic surveillance for emergency room visits, urgent care facilities, and hotels; real-time onsite syndromic surveillance; all-hazards mortality surveillance; emergency medical services surveillance, review of poison control center reports; media surveillance; and aberration detection algorithms for notifiable diseases. Surveillance results included increased influenzalike illness activity reported from urgent care centers and a few influenza cases reported in the NFL clinic. A cyanide single event exposure was investigated and determined not to be a public health threat. Real-time field syndromic surveillance documented minor injuries at all events and sporadic cases of gastrointestinal and neurological (mostly headaches) disease. Animal surveillance reports included a cat suspected of carrying plague and tularemia and an investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in a backyard chicken flock. Laboratory results in both instances were negative. Aberration detection and syndromic surveillance detected an increase in measles reports associated with a Disneyland exposure, and syndromic surveillance was used successfully during this investigation. Coordinated enhanced epidemiologic surveillance during Super Bowl XLIX increased the response capacity and preparedness of MCDPH to make informed decisions and take public health actions in a timely manner during these mass gathering events.

  10. Description and validation of a new automated surveillance system for Clostridium difficile in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaine, Manon; Gubbels, S; Voldstedlund, M

    2017-01-01

    The surveillance of Clostridium difficile (CD) in Denmark consists of laboratory based data from Departments of Clinical Microbiology (DCMs) sent to the National Registry of Enteric Pathogens (NREP). We validated a new surveillance system for CD based on the Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa). Mi......Ba-based surveillance. Surveillance based on MiBa was superior to the current surveillance system, and the findings show that the number of CD cases in Denmark hitherto has been under-reported. There were only minor differences between local data and the MiBa-based surveillance, showing the completeness and validity...... of CD data in MiBa. This nationwide electronic system can greatly strengthen surveillance and research in various applications....

  11. Disease burden of foodborne pathogens in the Netherlands, 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, Arie H.; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Mangen, Marie-Josee J.; Kemmeren, Jeanet M.; Verhoef, Linda P. B.; Vijgen, Sylvia M. C.; Wilson, Margaret; Friesema, Ingrid H. M.; Kortbeek, Laetitia M.; van Duynhoven, Yvonne T. H. P.; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2012-01-01

    To inform risk management decisions on control, prevention and surveillance of foodborne disease, the disease burden of foodborne pathogens is estimated using Disability Adjusted Life Years as a summary metric of public health. Fourteen pathogens that can be transmitted by food are included in the s

  12. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.

  13. Geospatial considerations for a multi-organization landscape-scale program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael S.; Assal, Timothy J.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2013-01-01

    Geospatial data play an increasingly important role in natural resources management, conservation, and science-based projects. The management and effective use of spatial data becomes significantly more complex when the efforts involve a myriad of landscape-scale projects combined with a multiorganizational collaboration. There is sparse literature to guide users on this daunting subject; therefore, we present a framework of considerations for working with geospatial data that will provide direction to data stewards, scientists, collaborators, and managers for developing geospatial management plans. The concepts we present apply to a variety of geospatial programs or projects, which we describe as a “scalable framework” of processes for integrating geospatial efforts with management, science, and conservation initiatives. Our framework includes five tenets of geospatial data management: (1) the importance of investing in data management and standardization, (2) the scalability of content/efforts addressed in geospatial management plans, (3) the lifecycle of a geospatial effort, (4) a framework for the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) in a landscape-scale conservation or management program, and (5) the major geospatial considerations prior to data acquisition. We conclude with a discussion of future considerations and challenges.

  14. 重症监护病房医院感染病原菌监测及耐药性分析%Surveillance of pathogens from patients with hospital infection and analysis of drug resistance in intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘于红; 邹剑峰; 郝秀红; 邹曰坤; 张志成

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解综合性重症监护病房(ICU)获得性感染的流行病学及细菌耐药性情况,为临床治疗提供依据.方法 对我院2010年1月1日至2011年12月31日ICU所有分离的细菌菌株、真菌菌株的耐药性进行回顾性调查.结果 医院获得性感染中仍以G-菌为主,占73.3%;其次为G+菌17.9%,真菌8.7%.在细菌感染中,G-菌占80.3%,G+菌占19.7%.G-菌仍以铜绿假单胞菌为主,占21.7%.G+菌以金黄色葡萄球菌为主,占31.4%.耐药性方面,细菌耐药性严重,真菌耐药性较轻.结论 细菌对常用抗生素的耐药严重,且呈多重耐药.应严格掌握抗生素使用原则,根据药敏试验结果选用抗生素.%Objective To review the prevalence of nosocomial infection and the change of drug resistance in a comprehensive intensive care unit (ICU) and to provide theoretical basis for clinical prevention and treatment.Methods The strains of bacteria and fungi were isolated from ICU and their drug resistance was retrospectively analyzed from Jan.1st,2010 to Dec.31th,2011.Results The main pathogen of nosocomial infection were Gram-negative bacteria ( 73.3% ),Gram-positive bacteria ( 17.9% ) and fungi ( 8.7% ).In bacterial infection,Gram-negative and G-positive bacteria accounted for 80.3% and 19.7% respectively.In Gram-negative bacteria,pseudomonas aeruginosa was the major type (21.7%).In Gram-positive bacteria,staphylococcus aureus (31.4%) was most prominent.Drug resistance of bacteria was severe,while that of fungi was mild.Conclusion Bacteria has severe drug resistance and exhibits multi-drug resistance for commonly used antibiotics.The principle of antibiotics application should be mastered and antibiotics should be chosen according to drug-sensitivity tests.

  15. GEODATA: Information System Based on Geospatial for Early Warning Tracking and Analysis Agricultural Plant Diseases in Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, S. Y. J.; Agus, Y. H.; Dewi, C.; Simanjuntak, B. H.; Hartomo, K. D.

    2017-03-01

    The Government of Indonesia is currently faced with the problems of food, especially rice. It needs in large numbers that have to import from neighboring countries. Actually, the Indonesian government has the ability to produce rice to meet national needs but is still faced with the problem of pest attack rice annually increasing extent. One of the factors is that geographically Indonesia located on the migration path of world rice insect pests (called BPH or Brown Planthoppers) (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.) It leads endemic status annually. One proposed strategy to be applied is to use an early warning system based on a specific region of the main pest population. The proposed information system called GEODATA. GEODATA is Geospatial Outbreak of Disease Tracking and Analysis. The system works using a library ESSA (Exponential Smoothing - Spatial Autocorrelation) developed in previous studies in Satya Wacana Christian University. GEODATA built to meet the qualifications required surveillance device by BMKG (Indonesian Agency of Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics’ Central Java Provinces), BPTPH (Indonesian Agency of Plant Protection and Horticulture) Central Java Provinces, BKP-KP District Boyolali, Central Java, (Indonesian Agency of Food Security and Agriculture Field Supervisor, District Boyolali, Central Java Provinces) and farmer groups. GIS GEODATA meets the needs of surveillance devices that include: (1) mapping of the disease, (2) analysis of the dynamics of the disease, and (3) prediction of attacks / disease outbreaks in a particular region. GIS GEODATA is currently under implementation in the laboratory field observations of plant pest in Central Java province, Indonesia.

  16. Efficient surveillance for healthcare-associated infections spreading between hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciccolini, Mariano; Donker, Tjibbe; Grundmann, Hajo; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of new or novel variants of nosocomial pathogens is a public health priority. We show that, for healthcare-associated infections that spread between hospitals as a result of patient movements, it is possible to design an effective surveillance system based on a relatively small numbe

  17. Efficient surveillance for healthcare-associated infections spreading between hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciccolini, Mariano; Donker, Tjibbe; Grundmann, Hajo; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of new or novel variants of nosocomial pathogens is a public health priority. We show that, for healthcare-associated infections that spread between hospitals as a result of patient movements, it is possible to design an effective surveillance system based on a relatively small

  18. Surveillance of influenza in Iceland during the 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsdottir, G; Gudnason, T; Ólafsson, Ö; Baldvinsdottir, G E; Atladottir, A; Löve, A; Danon, L; Briem, H

    2010-12-09

    In a pandemic setting, surveillance is essential to monitor the spread of the disease and assess its impact. Appropriate mitigation and healthcare preparedness strategies depend on fast and accurate epidemic surveillance data. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, rapid improvements in influenza surveillance were made in Iceland. Here, we describe the improvements made in influenza surveillance during the pandemic , which could also be of great value in outbreaks caused by other pathogens. Following the raised level of pandemic influenza alert in April 2009, influenza surveillance was intensified. A comprehensive automatic surveillance system for influenza-like illness was developed, surveillance of influenza-related deaths was established and laboratory surveillance for influenza was strengthened. School absenteeism reports were also collected and compared with results from the automatic surveillance system. The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) was diagnosed in Iceland in May 2009, but sustained community transmission was not confirmed until mid-August. The pandemic virus circulated during the summer and early autumn before an abrupt increase in the number of cases was observed in October. There were large outbreaks in elementary schools for children aged 6–15 years throughout the country that peaked in late October. School absenteeism reports from all elementary schools in Iceland gave a similar epidemiological curve as that from data from the healthcare system. Estimates of the proportion of the population infected with the pandemic virus ranged from 10% to 22%. This study shows how the sudden need for improved surveillance in the pandemic led to rapid improvements in data collection in Iceland. This reporting system will be improved upon and expanded to include other notifiable diseases, to ensure accurate and timely collection of epidemiological data.

  19. Infectious Disease Surveillance in the Big Data Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lone; Gog, Julia R.; Olson, Don

    2016-01-01

    While big data have proven immensely useful in fields such as marketing and earth sciences, public health is still relying on more traditional surveillance systems and awaiting the fruits of a big data revolution. A new generation of big data surveillance systems is needed to achieve rapid......, flexible, and local tracking of infectious diseases, especially for emerging pathogens. In this opinion piece, we reflect on the long and distinguished history of disease surveillance and discuss recent developments related to use of big data. We start with a brief review of traditional systems relying...... of Google Flu Trends. We conclude by advocating for increased use of hybrid systems combining information from traditional surveillance and big data sources, which seems the most promising option moving forward. Throughout the article, we use influenza as an exemplar of an emerging and reemerging infection...

  20. 海南省2005~2009年急性弛缓性麻痹病例病原学监测分析%Results of pathogenic surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis cases in Hainan Province in 2005~2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海云; 潘正帆; 潘婷婷; 林春燕; 陈少明; 马焱

    2011-01-01

    Aim To analyze the results of pathogenic surveillance acute flaccid paralysis cases in Hainan province in 2005~2009. Methods Polio virus strains were isolated from AFP cases by using RDa and L20B cell lines and differentiated. Results There 33 polio virus strains including 8 type Ⅰ strains,6 type Ⅱ strains,5 type Ⅲ stains,13 mixed virus stains and 1 mixed stains with polio virus and NPEV,and 196 non-polio enterovirus. (NPEV) strains were isolated from 966 stool samples in 2005~2009. All of the polio viruses were identified by national polio laboratory. All of the 33 polio viruses were vaccine-associated polio virus strains. Conclusion No vaccine-derived polio virus (VDPV) strain was found in Hainan province. All the surveillance indexes reached the demand of WHO.%目的 分析海南省2005~2009年急性弛缓性麻痹(Acute Flaccid Paralysis,FP)病例及其密切接触者病原学监测结果,为维持无脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)状态提供病原学依据.方法 按照世界卫生组织(WHO)规定的方法,用RDa和L20B细胞对AFP病例及其密切接触者的粪便进行病毒分离和鉴定.结果 2005~2009年从AFP病例及其密切接触者966份粪便标本中分离到33株脊髓友质炎病毒(PV)毒株,非脊灰肠道病毒(NPEV)196株;33株PV毒株中PVⅠ型8株、PVⅡ型6株、PVⅢ型5株、PⅤ混合型(Pmix)13株、PV+NPEV混合株1株.所有PV毒株经中国疾病预防控制中心国家脊灰实验室进行型内鉴定,均为脊友疫苗相关株.结论 海南省2005~2009年AFP病例及其密切接触者中未发现脊灰疫苗衍生毒株(VDPV),且脊灰实验室监测系统各项监测指标都达到WHO的标准,表明海南省AFP病例的病原学监测敏感、高效.

  1. Pathogen intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behavior, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behavior, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies. PMID:24551600

  2. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  3. Surveillance of antibiotics resistance of pathogenic bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients in 2011%2011年住院患者分离病原菌对抗菌药物耐药监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆惠荣; 王继美

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the species and the drug resistance to common antibacterials of the pathogenic bacteria isolated from inpatients of Dongying People's Hospital, so as to provide reference for the clinical selection of antibiotics. METHODS The species of the kinds of microorganisms isolated during year 2011 and their antibacterial-resistance were analyzed by software WHONET5. 4. RESULTS A total of 1272 clinical isolates of non-repeated bacteria were isolated, including 868(68. 23%) strains of gram-negative bacteria, 284 (22. 32%)strains of gram-positive bacteria, and 120(9. 43%)strains of fungi. The drug resistance rates of methi-cillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA)to all the antibiotics except vancomycin, teicoplanin,fusidic acid,and quinupristin/dalfopristin were higher than 60. 0%. The positive rates of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella and Esche-richia coli were 50. 8% and 59. 1% , Except carbopenems, the drug resistance rate of the ESBLs-producing strains to all the antibiotics except carbapenems was significantly higher than that of the non-ESBLs-producing strains,and no strains of carbopenems-resistant strains were found. The detection rate and drug resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa varied little, the drug susceptibility rates to piperacillin/tazobactam,amikacin and cefoxitin were higher than 70. 0%. The detection rate and drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii increased significantly, the drug susceptibility rate was less than 35. 0% to all the tested antibiotics except carbopenems, four strains of A. baumannii strains simultaneously resistant to carbapenems were first reported. CONCLUSION The drug resistance of clinical isolates of bacteria to common antibacterials shows an upward tendency during the year 2011, the multidrug- resistant A. baumannii isolates are first detected, thus it is necessary to strengthen the clinical application management of antibiotics so as to control the nosocomial infections .%目的 了解东营市人民医院

  4. Development of a National Digital Geospatial Data Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    This proposal of a data framework to organize and enhance the activities of the geospatial data community to meet needs for basic themes of data was developed in response to a request in Executive Order 12906, Coordinating Geographic Data Acquisition and Access: The National Spatial Data Infrastructure (U.S. Executive Office of the President, 1994). The request stated: in consultation with State, local, and tribal governments and within 9 months of the date of this order, the FGDC shall submit a plan and schedule to OMB [U.S. Office of Management and Budget] for completing the initial implementation of a national digital geospatial data framework ("framework") by January 2000 and for establishing a process of ongoing data maintenance. The framework shall include geospatial data that are significant, in the determination of the FGDC, to a broad variety of users within any geographic area or nationwide. At a minimum, the plan shall address how the initial transportation, hydrology, and boundary elements of the framework might be completed by January 1998 in order to support the decennial census of 2000. The proposal was developed by representatives of local, regional, State, and Federal agencies under the auspices of the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC). The individuals are listed in the appendix of this report. This Framework Working Group identified the purpose and goals for the framework; identified incentives for participation; defined the information content; developed preliminary technical, operational, and business contexts; specified the institutional roles needed; and developed a strategy for a phased implementation of the framework.Members of the working group presented the concepts of the framework for discussion at several national and regional public meetings. The draft of the report also was provided for public, written review. These discussions and reviews were the source of many improvements to the report.The FGDC approved the report for

  5. Geospatial Modeling of Asthma Population in Relation to Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kethireddy, Swatantra R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Young, John H.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Current observations indicate that asthma is growing every year in the United States, specific reasons for this are not well understood. This study stems from an ongoing research effort to investigate the spatio-temporal behavior of asthma and its relatedness to air pollution. The association between environmental variables such as air quality and asthma related health issues over Mississippi State are investigated using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and applications. Health data concerning asthma obtained from Mississippi State Department of Health (MSDH) for 9-year period of 2003-2011, and data of air pollutant concentrations (PM2.5) collected from USEPA web resources, and are analyzed geospatially to establish the impacts of air quality on human health specifically related to asthma. Disease mapping using geospatial techniques provides valuable insights into the spatial nature, variability, and association of asthma to air pollution. Asthma patient hospitalization data of Mississippi has been analyzed and mapped using quantitative Choropleth techniques in ArcGIS. Patients have been geocoded to their respective zip codes. Potential air pollutant sources of Interstate highways, Industries, and other land use data have been integrated in common geospatial platform to understand their adverse contribution on human health. Existing hospitals and emergency clinics are being injected into analysis to further understand their proximity and easy access to patient locations. At the current level of analysis and understanding, spatial distribution of Asthma is observed in the populations of Zip code regions in gulf coast, along the interstates of south, and in counties of Northeast Mississippi. It is also found that asthma is prevalent in most of the urban population. This GIS based project would be useful to make health risk assessment and provide information support to the administrators and decision makers for establishing satellite clinics in future.

  6. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  7. Ontology for vector surveillance and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Bandyopadhyay, Aritra; Cowell, Lindsay G; Goldfain, Albert; Eisen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Ontologies, which are made up by standardized and defined controlled vocabulary terms and their interrelationships, are comprehensive and readily searchable repositories for knowledge in a given domain. The Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry was initiated in 2001 with the aims of becoming an "umbrella" for life-science ontologies and promoting the use of ontology development best practices. A software application (OBO-Edit; *.obo file format) was developed to facilitate ontology development and editing. The OBO Foundry now comprises over 100 ontologies and candidate ontologies, including the NCBI organismal classification ontology (NCBITaxon), the Mosquito Insecticide Resistance Ontology (MIRO), the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO), the IDOMAL malaria ontology, and ontologies for mosquito gross anatomy and tick gross anatomy. We previously developed a disease data management system for dengue and malaria control programs, which incorporated a set of information trees built upon ontological principles, including a "term tree" to promote the use of standardized terms. In the course of doing so, we realized that there were substantial gaps in existing ontologies with regards to concepts, processes, and, especially, physical entities (e.g., vector species, pathogen species, and vector surveillance and management equipment) in the domain of surveillance and management of vectors and vector-borne pathogens. We therefore produced an ontology for vector surveillance and management, focusing on arthropod vectors and vector-borne pathogens with relevance to humans or domestic animals, and with special emphasis on content to support operational activities through inclusion in databases, data management systems, or decision support systems. The Vector Surveillance and Management Ontology (VSMO) includes >2,200 unique terms, of which the vast majority (>80%) were newly generated during the development of this ontology. One core feature of the VSMO is the linkage, through

  8. Virtual Observatory Integration of OGC geospatial data and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minin, M.; Rossi, A. P.; Marmo, C.; Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Erard, S.

    2016-12-01

    Planetary exploration missions produce a wealth of geospatial data, largely from imaging experiments. Data discovery and access can rely on Terrestrial geospatial standards [1], or Virtual Observatory (VO) approach of EuroPlanet-RI H2020 VESPA [2]. Integrating the two is the aim of VESPA Surface Task. VO-GIS interoperability facilitates discovery, display, access and use of geospatial data. In combination with non-surface imaging datasets, it has a potential for interdisciplinary science. We provide geospatial data through VO (Virtual Observatory) TAP (Table Access Protocol) on a dedicated server. Our service runs GAVO DaCHS (Data Center Helper Suite) and is registered with the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance). Currently exposed tables are: (a) usgs_wms - VO/GIS access to USGS-served WMS (Web Map Service) [3]; (b) crism - CRISM data on [4], with a JavaScript viewer where a spectrum selected on a preview can be visualized in a browser or broadcasted to VO tools; (c) mars_craters - Mars Crater Catalog [5]. Footprint polygons in crism and mars_craters can be sent to the VO viewing tool Aladin. Support from the latter for complex polygons will allow for improved, GIS-like search and data access capabilities. The exposure of additional planetary OGC services is planned. Current work involves the development of a Desktop GIS (QGIS) plugin to enable VO-access and expanding the range of datasets suitable for surface mapping and analysis. All of our developments are Open Source and our code and tools are available on the VESPA GitHub organization page and repositories therein [6]. References[1] Hare et al. (2015) LPSC XLVI, #2476. [2] Erard, S., et al., (2014), Astronomy and Computing 7, 52-61. [3] Hare, T. M., et al. (2014) LPSC 45. MTSTC4-2014-135. [4] Rossi A. P., et al., (2016) Geophysical Research Abstracts, 18, EGU2016-3996 [5] Robbins, S.J., and B.M. Hynek (2012) JGR 117, E06001. [6] https://github.com/epn-vespa/DaCHS-for-VESPA

  9. Non-Spatial and Geospatial Semantic Query of Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S.; Anton, F.; Mioc, D.; Boley, H.

    2012-08-01

    With the growing amount of health information and frequent outbreaks of diseases, the retrieval of health information is given more concern. Machine understanding of spatial information can improve the interpretation of health data semantics. Most of the current research focused on the non-spatial semantics of health data, using ontologies and rules. Utilizing the spatial component of health data can assist in the understanding of health phenomena. This research proposes a semantic health information query architecture that allows the incorporation of both non-spatial semantics and geospatial semantics in health information integration and retrieval.

  10. Geospatial Analysis and Technical Assistance for Power Plant Siting Interagency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neher, L A

    2002-03-07

    The focus of this contract (in the summer and fall of 2001) was originally to help the California Energy Commission (CEC) locate and evaluate potential sites for electric power generation facilities and to assist the CEC in addressing areas of congestion on transmission lines and natural gas supply line corridors. Subsequent events have reduced the immediate urgency, although not the ultimate need for such analyses. Software technology for deploying interactive geographic information systems (GIS) accessible over the Internet have developed to the point that it is now practical to develop and publish GIS web sites that have substantial viewing, movement, query, and even map-making capabilities. As part of a separate project not funded by the CEC, the GIS Center at LLNL, on an experimental basis, has developed a web site to explore the technical difficulties as well as the interest in such a web site by agencies and others concerned with energy research. This exploratory effort offers the potential or developing an interactive GIS web site for use by the CEC for energy research, policy analysis, site evaluation, and permit and regulatory matters. To help ground the geospatial capabilities in the realistic requirements and needs of the CEC staff, the CEC requested that the GIS Center conduct interviews of several CEC staff persons to establish their current and envisioned use of spatial data and requirements for geospatial analyses. This survey will help define a web-accessible central GIS database for the CEC, which will augment the well-received work of the CEC Cartography Unit. Individuals within each siting discipline have been contacted and their responses to three question areas have been summarized. The web-based geospatial data and analytical tools developed within this project will be available to CEC staff for initial area studies, queries, and informal, small-format maps. It is not designed for fine cartography or for large-format posters such as the

  11. Geospatial semantics: beyond ontologies, towards an enactive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Di Donato, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Current approaches to semantics in the geospatial domain are mainly based on ontologies, but ontologies, since continue to build entirely on the symbolic methodology, suffers from the classical problems, e.g. the symbol grounding problem, affecting representational theories. We claim for an enactive approach to semantics, where meaning is considered to be an emergent feature arising context-dependently in action. Since representational theories are unable to deal with context, a new formalism is required toward a contextual theory of concepts. SCOP is considered a promising formalism in this sense and is briefly described.

  12. Towards Geo-spatial Hypermedia: Concepts and Prototype Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Vestergaard, Peter Posselt; Ørbæk, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This paper combines spatial hypermedia with techniques from Geographical Information Systems and location based services. We describe the Topos 3D Spatial Hypermedia system and how it has been developed to support geo-spatial hypermedia coupling hypermedia information to model representations...... of real world buildings and landscapes. The prototype experiments are primarily aimed at supporting architects and landscape architects in their work on site. Here it is useful to be able to superimpose and add different layers of information to, e.g. a landscape depending on the task being worked on. We...

  13. The Impact of a Geospatial Technology-Supported Energy Curriculum on Middle School Students' Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulo, Violet; Bodzin, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Geospatial technologies are increasingly being integrated in science classrooms to foster learning. This study examined whether a Web-enhanced science inquiry curriculum supported by geospatial technologies promoted urban middle school students' understanding of energy concepts. The participants included one science teacher and 108 eighth-grade…

  14. Examining the Enactment of Web GIS on Students' Geospatial Thinking and Reasoning and Tectonics Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong; Bressler, Denise; Vallera, Farah L.

    2015-01-01

    Geospatially enabled learning technologies may enhance Earth science learning by placing emphasis on geographic space, visualization, scale, representation, and geospatial thinking and reasoning (GTR) skills. This study examined if and how a series of Web geographic information system investigations that the researchers developed improved urban…

  15. The Sky's the Limit: Integrating Geospatial Tools with Pre-College Youth Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, John; Kirwan, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Geospatial tools, which include global positioning systems (GPS), geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing, are increasingly driving a variety of applications. Local governments and private industry are embracing these tools, and the public is beginning to demand geospatial services. The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) reported that…

  16. Mapping the Future Today: The Community College of Baltimore County Geospatial Applications Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Scott; Alvarez, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    The Geospatial Applications Program at the Community College of Baltimore County (CCBC), located five miles west of downtown Baltimore, Maryland, provides comprehensive instruction in geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing and global positioning systems (GPS). Geospatial techniques, which include computer-based mapping and remote…

  17. The Impact of Professional Development in Natural Resource Investigations Using Geospatial Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Carol D.; Davis, Hilarie B.; Davey, Bradford T.

    2012-01-01

    As use of geospatial technologies has increased in the workplace, so has interest in using these technologies in the K-12 classroom. Prior research has identified several reasons for using geospatial technologies in the classroom, such as developing spatial thinking, supporting local investigations, analyzing changes in the environment, and…

  18. 75 FR 39272 - Call for Nominations to the National Geospatial Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ....S. Geological Survey Call for Nominations to the National Geospatial Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Call for Nominations, National Geospatial Advisory Committee. SUMMARY...: Nominations to participate on this Committee must be received by August 24, 2010. ADDRESSES: Send...

  19. Measuring the Impact of a Pilot Geospatial Technology Apprenticeship Program for the Department of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Cyndi; Annulis, Heather; Kmiec, John

    2010-01-01

    The Geospatial Technology Apprenticeship Program (GTAP) pilot was designed as a replicable and sustainable program to enhance workforce skills in geospatial technologies to best leverage a $30 billion market potential. The purpose of evaluating GTAP was to ensure that investment in this high-growth industry was adding value. Findings from this…

  20. The Efficacy of Educative Curriculum Materials to Support Geospatial Science Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec; Peffer, Tamara; Kulo, Violet

    2012-01-01

    Teaching and learning about geospatial aspects of energy resource issues requires that science teachers apply effective science pedagogical approaches to implement geospatial technologies into classroom instruction. To address this need, we designed educative curriculum materials as an integral part of a comprehensive middle school energy…

  1. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  2. Multi-source geospatial information integration and sharing in Virtual Globes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Massive volumes of global geospatial information are being collected by newly designed acquisition devices and generated by various geospatial applications.This poses a critical challenge to efficiently organize and effectively integrate global multi-source geospatial information.This paper introduces a global seamless data model for the organization of huge multi-source,multi-resolution and multi-temporal geospatial data.Based on this data model,the management of the global multi-resolution pyramid is discussed in detail.To integrate geospatial data and processing functions from various GIS systems,a service-oriented framework is presented through the technology of Virtual Globe.Finally,a Virtual Globe system,GeoGlobe,is developed and illustrated.

  3. Geospatial Big Data Handling Theory and Methods: A Review and Research Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Li, S; Anton, F; Sester, M; Winter, S; Coltekin, A; Pettit, C; Jiang, B; Haworth, J; Stein, A; Cheng, T

    2015-01-01

    Big data has now become a strong focus of global interest that is increasingly attracting the attention of academia, industry, government and other organizations. Big data can be situated in the disciplinary area of traditional geospatial data handling theory and methods. The increasing volume and varying format of collected geospatial big data presents challenges in storing, managing, processing, analyzing, visualizing and verifying the quality of data. This has implications for the quality of decisions made with big data. Consequently, this position paper of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) Technical Commission II (TC II) revisits the existing geospatial data handling methods and theories to determine if they are still capable of handling emerging geospatial big data. Further, the paper synthesises problems, major issues and challenges with current developments as well as recommending what needs to be developed further in the near future. Keywords: Big data, Geospatial...

  4. Geospatial big data handling theory and methods: A review and research challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songnian; Dragicevic, Suzana; Castro, Francesc Antón; Sester, Monika; Winter, Stephan; Coltekin, Arzu; Pettit, Christopher; Jiang, Bin; Haworth, James; Stein, Alfred; Cheng, Tao

    2016-05-01

    Big data has now become a strong focus of global interest that is increasingly attracting the attention of academia, industry, government and other organizations. Big data can be situated in the disciplinary area of traditional geospatial data handling theory and methods. The increasing volume and varying format of collected geospatial big data presents challenges in storing, managing, processing, analyzing, visualizing and verifying the quality of data. This has implications for the quality of decisions made with big data. Consequently, this position paper of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) Technical Commission II (TC II) revisits the existing geospatial data handling methods and theories to determine if they are still capable of handling emerging geospatial big data. Further, the paper synthesises problems, major issues and challenges with current developments as well as recommending what needs to be developed further in the near future. Keywords: Big data, Geospatial, Data handling, Analytics, Spatial Modeling, Review

  5. Towards the Geospatial Web: Media Platforms for Managing Geotagged Knowledge Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharl, Arno

    International media have recognized the visual appeal of geo-browsers such as NASA World Wind and Google Earth, for example, when Web and television coverage on Hurricane Katrina used interactive geospatial projections to illustrate its path and the scale of destruction in August 2005. Yet these early applications only hint at the true potential of geospatial technology to build and maintain virtual communities and to revolutionize the production, distribution and consumption of media products. This chapter investigates this potential by reviewing the literature and discussing the integration of geospatial and semantic reference systems, with an emphasis on extracting geospatial context from unstructured text. A content analysis of news coverage based on a suite of text mining tools (webLyzard) sheds light on the popularity and adoption of geospatial platforms.

  6. Geospatial Data Combined With The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) Tool For Rapid Post-Fire Watershed Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Clifford, T. J.; Guertin, D. P.; Sheppard, B. S.; Barlow, J. E.; Korgaonkar, Y.; Burns, I. S.; Unkrich, C. C.

    2016-12-01

    Wildfires disasters are common throughout the western US. While many feel fire suppression is the largest cost of wildfires, case studies note rehabilitation costs often equal or greatly exceed suppression costs. Using geospatial data sets, and post-fire burn severity products, coupled with the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA - www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa), the Dept. of Interior, Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams can rapidly analyze and identify at-risk areas to target rehabilitation efforts. AGWA employs nationally available geospatial elevation, soils, and land cover data to parameterize the KINEROS2 hydrology and erosion model. A pre-fire watershed simulation can be done prior to BAER deployment using design storms. As soon as the satellite-derived Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) map is obtained, a post-fire watershed simulation using the same storm is conducted. The pre- and post-fire simulations can be spatially differenced in the GIS for rapid identification of high at-risk areas of erosion or flooding. This difference map is used by BAER teams to prioritize field observations and in-turn produce a final burn severity map that is used in AGWA/KINEROS2 simulations to provide report ready results. The 2013 Elk Wildfire Complex that burned over 52,600 ha east of Boise, Idaho provides a tangible example of how BAER experts combined AGWA and geospatial data that resulted in substantial rehabilitation cost savings. The BAER team initially, they identified approximately 6,500 burned ha for rehabilitation. The team then used the AGWA pre- and post-fire watershed simulation results, accessibility constraints, and land slope conditions in an interactive process to locate burned areas that posed the greatest threat to downstream values-at-risk. The group combined the treatable area, field observations, and the spatial results from AGWA to target seed and mulch treatments that most effectively reduced the threats. Using this

  7. The National 3-D Geospatial Information Web-Based Service of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. T.; Kim, C. W.; Kang, I. G.

    2013-09-01

    3D geospatial information systems should provide efficient spatial analysis tools and able to use all capabilities of the third dimension, and a visualization. Currently, many human activities make steps toward the third dimension like land use, urban and landscape planning, cadastre, environmental monitoring, transportation monitoring, real estate market, military applications, etc. To reflect this trend, the Korean government has been started to construct the 3D geospatial data and service platform. Since the geospatial information was introduced in Korea, the construction of geospatial information (3D geospatial information, digital maps, aerial photographs, ortho photographs, etc.) has been led by the central government. The purpose of this study is to introduce the Korean government-lead 3D geospatial information web-based service for the people who interested in this industry and we would like to introduce not only the present conditions of constructed 3D geospatial data but methodologies and applications of 3D geospatial information. About 15% (about 3,278.74 km2) of the total urban area's 3D geospatial data have been constructed by the national geographic information institute (NGII) of Korea from 2005 to 2012. Especially in six metropolitan cities and Dokdo (island belongs to Korea) on level of detail (LOD) 4 which is photo-realistic textured 3D models including corresponding ortho photographs were constructed in 2012. In this paper, we represented web-based 3D map service system composition and infrastructure and comparison of V-world with Google Earth service will be presented. We also represented Open API based service cases and discussed about the protection of location privacy when we construct 3D indoor building models. In order to prevent an invasion of privacy, we processed image blurring, elimination and camouflage. The importance of public-private cooperation and advanced geospatial information policy is emphasized in Korea. Thus, the progress of

  8. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  9. Active surveillance: Oncologic outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); C.H. Bangma (Chris); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give insight into recent literature (during the past 12-18 months) reporting on oncologic outcomes of men on active surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent published trials comparing radical prostatectomy vs. watchful waiting, we learn that radical treatment only

  10. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System is a useful tool in monitoring Healthy People 2010 objectives and is intended to provide a framework for analyzing data on the nutritional status and behavioral risk factors of pregnant women and the association to birth outcome. The data are useful to health professionals in providing prenatal care and developing programs to reduce pregnancy-related health risks.

  11. Ontology-based geospatial data query and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T.; Zhang, C.; Wei, M.; Peng, Z.-R.

    2008-01-01

    Geospatial data sharing is an increasingly important subject as large amount of data is produced by a variety of sources, stored in incompatible formats, and accessible through different GIS applications. Past efforts to enable sharing have produced standardized data format such as GML and data access protocols such as Web Feature Service (WFS). While these standards help enabling client applications to gain access to heterogeneous data stored in different formats from diverse sources, the usability of the access is limited due to the lack of data semantics encoded in the WFS feature types. Past research has used ontology languages to describe the semantics of geospatial data but ontology-based queries cannot be applied directly to legacy data stored in databases or shapefiles, or to feature data in WFS services. This paper presents a method to enable ontology query on spatial data available from WFS services and on data stored in databases. We do not create ontology instances explicitly and thus avoid the problems of data replication. Instead, user queries are rewritten to WFS getFeature requests and SQL queries to database. The method also has the benefits of being able to utilize existing tools of databases, WFS, and GML while enabling query based on ontology semantics. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  12. Geospatial Visualization of Global Satellite Images with Vis-EROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standart, G. D.; Stulken, K. R.; Zhang, Xuesong; Zong, Ziliang

    2011-04-13

    The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center of U.S. Geological Survey is currently managing and maintaining the world largest satellite images distribution system, which provides 24/7 free download service for researchers all over the globe in many areas such as Geology, Hydrology, Climate Modeling, and Earth Sciences. A large amount of geospatial data contained in satellite images maintained by EROS is generated every day. However, this data is not well utilized due to the lack of efficient data visualization tools. This software implements a method for visualizing various characteristics of the global satellite image download requests. More specifically, Keyhole Markup Language (KML) files are generated which can be loaded into an earth browser such as Google Earth. Colored rectangles associated with stored satellite scenes are painted onto the earth browser; and the color and opacity of each rectangle is varied as a function of the popularity of the corresponding satellite image. An analysis of the geospatial information obtained relative to specified time constraints provides an ability to relate image download requests to environmental, political, and social events.

  13. Geospatial Data Standards for Indian Water Resources Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, A.; Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.

    2016-12-01

    Sustainable management of water resources is fundamental to the socio-economic development of any nation. There is an increasing degree of dependency on digital geographical data for monitoring, planning, managing and preserving the water resources and environmental quality. But the rising sophistication associated with the sharing of geospatial data among organizations or users, demands development of data standards for seamless information exchange among collaborators. Therefore, due to the realization that these datasets are vital for efficient use of Geographical Information Systems, there is a growing emphasis on data standards for modeling, encoding and communicating spatial data. Real world hydrologic interactions represented in a digital framework requires geospatial standards that may vary in contexts like: governance, resource inventory, cultural diversity, identifiers, role and scale. Though the prevalent standards for the hydrology data facilitate a particular need in a particular context but they lack a holistic approach. However, several worldwide initiatives such as Consortium for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences Inc. (USA), Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (Europe), Australian Water Resources Information System, etc., endeavour to address this issue of hydrology specific spatial data standards in a wholesome manner. But unfortunately there is no such provision for hydrology data exchange within the Indian community. Moreover, these standards somehow fail in providing powerful communication of the spatial hydrologic data. This study thus investigates the shortcomings of the existing industry standards for the hydrologic data models and then demonstrates a set of requirements for effective exchange of the hydrologic information in the Indian scenario.

  14. River predisposition to ice jams: a simplified geospatial model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munck, Stéphane; Gauthier, Yves; Bernier, Monique; Chokmani, Karem; Légaré, Serge

    2017-07-01

    Floods resulting from river ice jams pose a great risk to many riverside municipalities in Canada. The location of an ice jam is mainly influenced by channel morphology. The goal of this work was therefore to develop a simplified geospatial model to estimate the predisposition of a river channel to ice jams. Rather than predicting the timing of river ice breakup, the main question here was to predict where the broken ice is susceptible to jam based on the river's geomorphological characteristics. Thus, six parameters referred to potential causes for ice jams in the literature were initially selected: presence of an island, narrowing of the channel, high sinuosity, presence of a bridge, confluence of rivers, and slope break. A GIS-based tool was used to generate the aforementioned factors over regular-spaced segments along the entire channel using available geospatial data. An ice jam predisposition index (IJPI) was calculated by combining the weighted optimal factors. Three Canadian rivers (province of Québec) were chosen as test sites. The resulting maps were assessed from historical observations and local knowledge. Results show that 77 % of the observed ice jam sites on record occurred in river sections that the model considered as having high or medium predisposition. This leaves 23 % of false negative errors (missed occurrence). Between 7 and 11 % of the highly predisposed river sections did not have an ice jam on record (false-positive cases). Results, limitations, and potential improvements are discussed.

  15. Assessing Hydrological Extreme Events with Geospatial Data and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivoni, Enrique R.; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Nardi, Fernando; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Castelli, Fabio; Bras, Rafael L.; Ubertini, Lucio

    2004-09-01

    Prediction of river basin hydrological response to extreme meteorological events is a primary concern in areas with frequent flooding, landslides, and debris flows. Natural hydrogeological disasters in many regions lead to extensive property damage, impact on societal activities, and loss of life. Hydrologists have a long history of assessing and predicting hydrologic hazards through the combined use of field observations, monitoring networks, remote sensing, and numerical modeling. Nevertheless, the integration of field data and computer models has yet to result in prediction systems that capture space-time interactions between meteorological forcing, land surface characteristics, and the internal hydrological response in river basins. Capabilities for assessing hydrologic extreme events are greatly enhanced via the use of geospatial data sets describing watershed properties such as topography, channel structure, soils, vegetation, and geological features. Recent advances in managing, processing, and visualizing cartographic data with geographic information systems (GIS) have enabled their direct use in spatially distributed hydrological models. In a distributed model application, geospatial data sets can be used to establish the model domain, specify boundary and initial conditions, determine the spatial variation of parameter values, and provide the spatial model forcing. By representing a watershed through a set of discrete elements, distributed models simulate water, energy, and mass transport in a landscape and provide estimates of the spatial pattern of hydrologic states, fluxes, and pathways.

  16. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Proactive Geospatial Information Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The advances in sensor network, linked data, and service-oriented computing has indicated a trend of information technology, i.e., toward an open, flexible, and distributed architecture. However, the existing information technologies show a lack of effective sharing, aggregation, and cooperation services to handle the sensors, data, and processing resources to fulfill user’s complicated tasks in near real-time. This paper presents a service-orientated architecture for proactive geospatial information services (PGIS, which integrates the sensors, data, processing, and human services. PGIS is designed to organize, aggregate, and co-operate services by composing small scale services into service chains to meet the complicated user requirements. It is a platform to provide real-time or near real-time data collection, storage, and processing capabilities. It is a flexible, reusable, and scalable system to share and interoperate geospatial data, information, and services. The developed PGIS framework has been implemented and preliminary experiments have been performed to verify its performance. The results show that the basic functions such as task analysis, managing sensors for data acquisition, service composition, service chain construction and execution are validated, and the important properties of PGIS, including interoperability, flexibility, and reusability, are achieved.

  17. Geopackage Data Format for Collaborativemapping of Geospatial Datain Limited Networkenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidan, M. H.; Musliman, I. A.; Rahman, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    With the growth of technology in earth and space science informatics has led to the revolution in a wide range of geospatial practice. Nowadays collaborative mapping has become a new hot spot, following mobile and web GIS. This paper explores the potential use of GeoPackage for collaborative mapping of geospatial data in limited network environments. GeoPackage is a data format that open-standard, platform-independent, portable, and self-describing. This paper focus on the implementation of GeoPackage in mobile application for field data collection. A mobile application was developed that implements the GeoPackage data format as an internal database to provide support for offline mapping. The developed mobile application demonstrates that vector and raster data can be stored in a single data format, which reduces the device storage consumption. The details of how GeoPackage data contribute to mobile GIS to achieve collaborative mapping in limited network environments are discussed. The findings show that the GeoPackage data format has great potential to improve existing mobile GIS applications.

  18. GEOPACKAGE DATA FORMAT FOR COLLABORATIVEMAPPING OF GEOSPATIAL DATAIN LIMITED NETWORKENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Rashidan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of technology in earth and space science informatics has led to the revolution in a wide range of geospatial practice. Nowadays collaborative mapping has become a new hot spot, following mobile and web GIS. This paper explores the potential use of GeoPackage for collaborative mapping of geospatial data in limited network environments. GeoPackage is a data format that open-standard, platform-independent, portable, and self-describing. This paper focus on the implementation of GeoPackage in mobile application for field data collection. A mobile application was developed that implements the GeoPackage data format as an internal database to provide support for offline mapping. The developed mobile application demonstrates that vector and raster data can be stored in a single data format, which reduces the device storage consumption. The details of how GeoPackage data contribute to mobile GIS to achieve collaborative mapping in limited network environments are discussed. The findings show that the GeoPackage data format has great potential to improve existing mobile GIS applications.

  19. A Novel Divisive Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm for Geospatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoning Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of geographic information systems (GIS and remote sensing (RS, the clustering algorithm has been widely used for image segmentation, pattern recognition, and cartographic generalization. Although clustering analysis plays a key role in geospatial modelling, traditional clustering methods are limited due to computational complexity, noise resistant ability and robustness. Furthermore, traditional methods are more focused on the adjacent spatial context, which makes it hard for the clustering methods to be applied to multi-density discrete objects. In this paper, a new method, cell-dividing hierarchical clustering (CDHC, is proposed based on convex hull retraction. The main steps are as follows. First, a convex hull structure is constructed to describe the global spatial context of geospatial objects. Then, the retracting structure of each borderline is established in sequence by setting the initial parameter. The objects are split into two clusters (i.e., “sub-clusters” if the retracting structure intersects with the borderlines. Finally, clusters are repeatedly split and the initial parameter is updated until the terminate condition is satisfied. The experimental results show that CDHC separates the multi-density objects from noise sufficiently and also reduces complexity compared to the traditional agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm.

  20. Pathogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Irudayaraj

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of sensors for detecting foodborne pathogens has been motivated by the need to produce safe foods and to provide better healthcare. However, in the more recent times, these needs have been expanded to encompass issues relating to biosecurity, detection of plant and soil pathogens, microbial communities, and the environment. The range of technologies that currently flood the sensor market encompass PCR and microarray-based methods, an assortment of optical sensors (including bioluminescence and fluorescence, in addition to biosensor-based approaches that include piezoelectric, potentiometric, amperometric, and conductometric sensors to name a few. More recently, nanosensors have come into limelight, as a more sensitive and portable alternative, with some commercial success. However, key issues affecting the sensor community is the lack of standardization of the testing protocols and portability, among other desirable elements, which include timeliness, cost-effectiveness, user-friendliness, sensitivity and specificity. [...

  1. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  2. Distributed Multi-interface Catalogue for Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.; Bigagli, L.; Mazzetti, P.; Mattia, U.; Boldrini, E.

    2007-12-01

    Several geosciences communities (e.g. atmospheric science, oceanography, hydrology) have developed tailored data and metadata models and service protocol specifications for enabling online data discovery, inventory, evaluation, access and download. These specifications are conceived either profiling geospatial information standards or extending the well-accepted geosciences data models and protocols in order to capture more semantics. These artifacts have generated a set of related catalog -and inventory services- characterizing different communities, initiatives and projects. In fact, these geospatial data catalogs are discovery and access systems that use metadata as the target for query on geospatial information. The indexed and searchable metadata provide a disciplined vocabulary against which intelligent geospatial search can be performed within or among communities. There exists a clear need to conceive and achieve solutions to implement interoperability among geosciences communities, in the context of the more general geospatial information interoperability framework. Such solutions should provide search and access capabilities across catalogs, inventory lists and their registered resources. Thus, the development of catalog clearinghouse solutions is a near-term challenge in support of fully functional and useful infrastructures for spatial data (e.g. INSPIRE, GMES, NSDI, GEOSS). This implies the implementation of components for query distribution and virtual resource aggregation. These solutions must implement distributed discovery functionalities in an heterogeneous environment, requiring metadata profiles harmonization as well as protocol adaptation and mediation. We present a catalog clearinghouse solution for the interoperability of several well-known cataloguing systems (e.g. OGC CSW, THREDDS catalog and data services). The solution implements consistent resource discovery and evaluation over a dynamic federation of several well-known cataloguing and

  3. Pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance surveillance for elderly Alzheimer's disease combined with hospital-acquired pulmonary infection%老年阿尔茨海默病合并院内肺部感染的病原菌分布及耐药性监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    streptococcus and staphylococcus epidermidis. There were 13 fungi strains ,accounting for 9.9% . Drug sensitivity test results showed that G - bacteria were the most sensitive to Tienam and highly resistant to cefotaxime ,am‐picillin ,gentamicin ,piperacillin and ciprofloxacin. G + bacteria were the most sensitive to vancomycin and highly resistant to Penicillin G and tetracycline. Conclusion Pathogenic bacteria for hospital‐acquired pulmonary infection among AD patients are mainly G - bacteria and mostly multi‐drug resistant. Drug resistance surveillance for bacteria is of great significance for the ra‐tional use of drugs clinically.

  4. The economics of counterfeit Avastin: a geospatial and statistical analysis of demographic correlates to FDA warning letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Raphael E; Mackey, Tim K; Stigler, Paula

    2015-07-01

    In 2012, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sent warning notices to clinics and medical practitioners that may have purchased or administered counterfeited versions of the angiogenesis cancer drug Avastin Genentech, South San Francisco, California, USA. The purpose of this study was to explore potential differences in demographic, economic, and healthcare coverage characteristics between areas that received these counterfeit warning notices and those that did not receive notices. The aims of this study are to improve future counterfeit drug surveillance and better assess potential risk factors associated with counterfeit cancer drugs. Addresses for warning notices sent to healthcare practitioners were obtained from the FDA and then geocoded using arcgis. Variables chosen for statistical and geospatial analyses were then identified and assessed based on their potential association with Avastin access and affordability. These variables included demographic and economic factors (percent below the poverty line, percent uninsured, and median household income) and healthcare coverage data (percent Medicare enrollees) available from the US Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. All variables were analyzed at the US county level. Our analysis uncovered 401 distinct US counties where the FDA sent at least one counterfeit Avastin warning notice. A hot spot analysis of notices and variables was carried out using arcgis software to identify and visualize risk features with high and low values of clustering. In a multiple logistic regression model reassessing visually observed geospatial associations, the receipt of a notice was not significantly associated with percent uninsured (p = 0.3121), but was significantly associated with percent Medicare enrollees (OR = 0.874 per 10% increase; p = 0.0121), individuals below federal poverty line (OR = 2.990 per 10% increase; p economic and demographic factors are potentially associated with counterfeit Avastin

  5. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-05

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in the AFHSC-GEIS network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William G; Pavlin, Julie A; Hospenthal, Duane; Murray, Clinton K; Jerke, Kurt; Hawksworth, Anthony; Metzgar, David; Myers, Todd; Walsh, Douglas; Wu, Max; Ergas, Rosa; Chukwuma, Uzo; Tobias, Steven; Klena, John; Nakhla, Isabelle; Talaat, Maha; Maves, Ryan; Ellis, Michael; Wortmann, Glenn; Blazes, David L; Lindler, Luther

    2011-03-04

    International infectious disease surveillance has been conducted by the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) for many years and has been consolidated within the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) since 1998. This includes activities that monitor the presence of antimicrobial resistance among pathogens. AFHSC-GEIS partners work within DoD military treatment facilities and collaborate with host-nation civilian and military clinics, hospitals and university systems. The goals of these activities are to foster military force health protection and medical diplomacy. Surveillance activities include both community-acquired and health care-associated infections and have promoted the development of surveillance networks, centers of excellence and referral laboratories. Information technology applications have been utilized increasingly to aid in DoD-wide global surveillance for diseases significant to force health protection and global public health. This section documents the accomplishments and activities of the network through AFHSC-GEIS partners in 2009.

  7. Generation of Multiple Metadata Formats from a Geospatial Data Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspeth, W. B.; Benedict, K. K.; Scott, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth Data Analysis Center (EDAC) at the University of New Mexico is partnering with the CYBERShARE and Environmental Health Group from the Center for Environmental Resource Management (CERM), located at the University of Texas, El Paso (UTEP), the Biodiversity Institute at the University of Kansas (KU), and the New Mexico Geo- Epidemiology Research Network (GERN) to provide a technical infrastructure that enables investigation of a variety of climate-driven human/environmental systems. Two significant goals of this NASA-funded project are: a) to increase the use of NASA Earth observational data at EDAC by various modeling communities through enabling better discovery, access, and use of relevant information, and b) to expose these communities to the benefits of provenance for improving understanding and usability of heterogeneous data sources and derived model products. To realize these goals, EDAC has leveraged the core capabilities of its Geographic Storage, Transformation, and Retrieval Engine (Gstore) platform, developed with support of the NSF EPSCoR Program. The Gstore geospatial services platform provides general purpose web services based upon the REST service model, and is capable of data discovery, access, and publication functions, metadata delivery functions, data transformation, and auto-generated OGC services for those data products that can support those services. Central to the NASA ACCESS project is the delivery of geospatial metadata in a variety of formats, including ISO 19115-2/19139, FGDC CSDGM, and the Proof Markup Language (PML). This presentation details the extraction and persistence of relevant metadata in the Gstore data store, and their transformation into multiple metadata formats that are increasingly utilized by the geospatial community to document not only core library catalog elements (e.g. title, abstract, publication data, geographic extent, projection information, and database elements), but also the processing steps used to

  8. An Institutional Community-Driven effort to Curate and Preserve Geospatial Data using GeoBlacklight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petters, J.; Coleman, S.; Andrea, O.

    2016-12-01

    A variety of geospatial data is produced or collected by both academic researchers and non-academic groups in the Virginia Tech community. In an effort to preserve, curate and make this geospatial data discoverable, the University Libraries have been building a local implementation of GeoBlacklight, a multi-institutional open-source collaborative project to improve the discoverability and sharing of geospatial data. We will discuss the local implementation of Geoblacklight at Virginia Tech, focusing on the efforts necessary to make it a sustainable resource for the institution and local community going forward. This includes technical challenges such as the development of uniform workflows for geospatial data produced within and outside the course of research, but organizational and economic barriers must be overcome as well. In spearheading this GeoBlacklight effort the Libraries have partnered with University Facilities and University IT. The IT group manages the storage and backup of geospatial data, allowing our group to focus on geospatial data collection and curation. Both IT and University Facilities are in possession of localized geospatial data of interest to Viriginia Tech researchers that all parties agreed should be made discoverable and accessible. The interest and involvement of these and other university stakeholders is key to establishing the sustainability of the infrastructure and the capabilities it can provide to the Virginia Tech community and beyond.

  9. SWOT analysis on National Common Geospatial Information Service Platform of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; He, Biao

    2010-11-01

    Currently, the trend of International Surveying and Mapping is shifting from map production to integrated service of geospatial information, such as GOS of U.S. etc. Under this circumstance, the Surveying and Mapping of China is inevitably shifting from 4D product service to NCGISPC (National Common Geospatial Information Service Platform of China)-centered service. Although State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping of China has already provided a great quantity of geospatial information service to various lines of business, such as emergency and disaster management, transportation, water resource, agriculture etc. The shortcomings of the traditional service mode are more and more obvious, due to the highly emerging requirement of e-government construction, the remarkable development of IT technology and emerging online geospatial service demands of various lines of business. NCGISPC, which aimed to provide multiple authoritative online one-stop geospatial information service and API for further development to government, business and public, is now the strategic core of SBSM (State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping of China). This paper focuses on the paradigm shift that NCGISPC brings up by using SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat) analysis, compared to the service mode that based on 4D product. Though NCGISPC is still at its early stage, it represents the future service mode of geospatial information of China, and surely will have great impact not only on the construction of digital China, but also on the way that everyone uses geospatial information service.

  10. Bridging the Gap Between Surveyors and the Geo-Spatial Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H.

    2016-06-01

    For many years FIG, the International Association of Surveyors, has been trying to bridge the gap between surveyors and the geospatial society as a whole, with the geospatial industries in particular. Traditionally the surveying profession contributed to the good of society by creating and maintaining highly precise and accurate geospatial data bases, based on an in-depth knowledge of spatial reference frameworks. Furthermore in many countries surveyors may be entitled to make decisions about land divisions and boundaries. By managing information spatially surveyors today develop into the role of geo-data managers, the longer the more. Job assignments in this context include data entry management, data and process quality management, design of formal and informal systems, information management, consultancy, land management, all that in close cooperation with many different stakeholders. Future tasks will include the integration of geospatial information into e-government and e-commerce systems. The list of professional tasks underpins the capabilities of surveyors to contribute to a high quality geospatial data and information management. In that way modern surveyors support the needs of a geo-spatial society. The paper discusses several approaches to define the role of the surveyor within the modern geospatial society.

  11. A hybrid matching method for geospatial services in a composition-oriented environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With the development of Internet and GIS,large volumes of spatial data,powerful computing resources and many spatial data processing functions are published in the form of Web services.Finding suitable geospatial services in the composition-oriented environment is a crucial task.The semantic Web provides a kind of technology to find and compose various service resources automatically through the Web.This paper proposes a hybrid method for the semantic matching of geospatial services.The method includes two parts.Part 1 puts forward a multi-level semantic matching approach,which matches single geospatial service at four levels:classification,input/output,precondition/effect and the quality of service(QoS).This multi-level matching approach makes single service matching quicker and more accurate.Part 2 puts forward a matching algorithm for a geospatial service chain based on the context.The algorithm adopts a trace algorithm,taking account of the effect of the context.It restricts the input/output parameters of the current service by the input/output parameters of service chain,pre-service and sub-service.It matches the atomic service dynamically in a composition-oriented environment,and accurately converts the abstract model of geospatial services into an executable geospatial service chain.A case study of the flood analysis for the Poyang Lake illustrates the effectiveness of our context-based matching method for geospatial services.

  12. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  13. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  14. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  15. Ocean surveillance satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  16. History of trichinellosis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blancou J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The origin of trichinellosis, which existed in ancient times as testified by the discovery of parasite larvae on an Egyptian mummy, unfolded in several stages: discovery of encapsulated larvae (in the 1820s, identification and scientific description of these larvae (Paget Owen, 1835, followed by experimental infestations of animals (dogs, pigs, rabbits, mice or of humans as from 1850.The main occurrences of trichinellosis were followed with particular attention in Europe (Germany, Denmark, France, etc. and in the United States of America at the end of the XIXth century. They affected numerous domestic animal species (pigs, horses, etc. or wildlife and humans. Germany paid the heaviest toll with regard to the disease in humans, between 1860 and 1880, with several thousands of patients and more than 500 deaths.Different trichinellosis surveillance systems were set up in the relevant countries in the 1860s. In humans, this surveillance was carried out on affected living patients by a biopsy of the biceps muscles and subsequently by an analysis of eosinophilia (1895. In animals, surveillance was for a long time solely based on postmortem examination of the muscles of the affected animals. This method was used for the first time in 863 in Germany, and from the 1 890s, on several hundreds of thousands of pigs in Europe or in the United States of America.

  17. Geospatial-Enabled RuleML in a Study on Querying Respiratory Disease Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Boley, Harold; Mioc, Darka;

    2009-01-01

    health data query and representation framework is proposed through the formalization of spatial information. We include the geometric representation in RuleML deduction, and apply ontologies and rules for querying and representing health information. Corresponding geospatial built-ins were implemented...... as an extension to OO jDREW. Case studies were carried out using geospatial-enabled RuleML queries for respiratory disease information. The paper thus demonstrates the use of RuleML for geospatial-semantic querying and representing of health information....

  18. Geospatial Big Data Handling Theory and Methods: A Review and Research Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Songnian; Dragicevic, Suzana; Anton, François

    2016-01-01

    and varying format of collected geospatial big data presents challenges in storing, managing, processing, analyzing, visualizing and verifying the quality of data. This has implications for the quality of decisions made with big data. Consequently, this position paper of the International Society...... for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) Technical Commission II (TC II) revisits the existing geospatial data handling methods and theories to determine if they are still capable of handling emerging geospatial big data. Further, the paper synthesises problems, major issues and challenges with current...

  19. Geospatial Analysis of Oil and Gas Wells in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riqueros, N. S.; Kang, M.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    California currently ranks third in oil production by U.S. state and more than 200,000 wells have been drilled in the state. Oil and gas wells provide a potential pathway for subsurface migration, leading to groundwater contamination and emissions of methane and other fluids to the atmosphere. Here we compile available public databases on oil and gas wells from the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other state and federal sources. We perform geospatial analysis at the county and field levels to characterize depths, producing formations, spud/completion/abandonment dates, land cover, population, and land ownership of active, idle, buried, abandoned, and plugged wells in California. The compiled database is designed to serve as a quantitative platform for developing field-based groundwater and air emission monitoring plans.

  20. Establishment of the Northeast Coastal Watershed Geospatial Data Network (NECWGDN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannigan, Robyn [University of Massachusetts Boston

    2014-02-17

    The goals of NECWGDN were to establish integrated geospatial databases that interfaced with existing open-source (water.html) environmental data server technologies (e.g., HydroDesktop) and included ecological and human data to enable evaluation, prediction, and adaptation in coastal environments to climate- and human-induced threats to the coastal marine resources within the Gulf of Maine. We have completed the development and testing of a "test bed" architecture that is compatible with HydroDesktop and have identified key metadata structures that will enable seamless integration and delivery of environmental, ecological, and human data as well as models to predict threats to end-users. Uniquely this database integrates point as well as model data and so offers capacities to end-users that are unique among databases. Future efforts will focus on the development of integrated environmental-human dimension models that can serve, in near real time, visualizations of threats to coastal resources and habitats.

  1. Advancing Collaborative Climate Studies through Globally Distributed Geospatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Percivall, G.

    2009-12-01

    (note: acronym glossary at end of abstract) For scientists to have confidence in the veracity of data sets and computational processes not under their control, operational transparency must be much greater than previously required. Being able to have a universally understood and machine-readable language for describing such things as the completeness of metadata, data provenance and uncertainty, and the discrete computational steps in a complex process take on increased importance. OGC has been involved with technological issues associated with climate change since 2005 when we, along with the IEEE Committee on Earth Observation, began a close working relationship with GEO and GEOSS (http://earthobservations.org). GEO/GEOS provide the technology platform to GCOS who in turn represents the earth observation community to UNFCCC. OGC and IEEE are the organizers of the GEO/GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot (see http://www.ogcnetwork.net/AIpilot). This continuing work involves closely working with GOOS (Global Ocean Observing System) and WMO (World Meteorological Organization). This session reports on the findings of recent work within the OGC’s community of software developers and users to apply geospatial web services to the climate studies domain. The value of this work is to evolve OGC web services, moving from data access and query to geo-processing and workflows. Two projects will be described, the GEOSS API-2 and the CCIP. AIP is a task of the GEOSS Architecture and Data Committee. During its duration, two GEO Tasks defined the project: AIP-2 began as GEO Task AR-07-02, to lead the incorporation of contributed components consistent with the GEOSS Architecture using a GEO Web Portal and a Clearinghouse search facility to access services through GEOSS Interoperability Arrangements in support of the GEOSS Societal Benefit Areas. AIP-2 concluded as GEOS Task AR-09-01b, to develop and pilot new process and infrastructure components for the GEOSS Common

  2. GIS information organization based on the Semantic Geospatial Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxia; Su, Xuming; Li, Ke

    2008-10-01

    People typically use geographic names instead of coordinates to find geographic information on the web through a search engine. But the current keyword-based web search engines are poorly adapted to help people find information that relates to a particular geographic name, because they don't incorporate the geospatial semantic during the search process. The Semantic Web is a new semantic-based information-retrieval environment. We propose the information organization framework of the GIS semantic data according to the architecture of the Semantic Web, that is, the ontology, the metadata and the data source. Then we deal with the organization of the semantic data based on the three-layered framework respectively. As a focus, we present a novel method to disambiguate geographical name based on the ontology of the place.

  3. Efficient Extraction of Content from Enriched Geospatial and Networked Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Qiang

    Social network services such as Google Places and Twitter have led to a proliferation of user-generated web content that is constantly shared among users. These services enable access to various types of content, covering geospatial locations, textual descriptions, social relationships, and so...... of compressing weighted networks. Such networks are weighted graphs that model objects and their relationships and where weights indicate, for instance, importance. Methods are introduced that extract implicit structure in a weighted graph, representing this structure as a smaller generalized graph obtained....... First, the dissertation investigates the extraction of relevant sets of objects from collections of geo-tagged web objects, such as business directory entries. The increasing availability of such objects gives prominence to location-based queries that consider both spatial and textual properties...

  4. Large geospatial images discovery: metadata model and technological framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Brůha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The advancements in geospatial web technology triggered efforts for disclosure of valuable resources of historical collections. This paper focuses on the role of spatial data infrastructures (SDI in such efforts. The work describes the interplay between SDI technologies and potential use cases in libraries such as cartographic heritage. The metadata model is introduced to link up the sources from these two distinct fields. To enhance the data search capabilities, the work focuses on the representation of the content-based metadata of raster images, which is the crucial prerequisite to target the search in a more effective way. The architecture of the prototype system for automatic raster data processing, storage, analysis and distribution is introduced. The architecture responds to the characteristics of input datasets, namely to the continuous flow of very large raster data and related metadata. Proposed solutions are illustrated on the case study of cartometric analysis of digitised early maps and related metadata encoding.

  5. Geospatial Analysis Application to Forecast Wildfire Occurrences in South Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Sperry

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire occurrence and intensity have increased over the last few decades and, at times, have been national news. Wildfire occurrence is somewhat predictable based on physical factors like meteorological conditions, fuel loads, and vegetation dynamics. Socioeconomic factors have been not been widely used in wildfire occurrence models. We used a geospatial (or geographical information system analysis approach to identify socioeconomic variables that contribute to wildfire occurrence. Key variables considered were population change, population density, poverty rate, educational level, geographic mobility, and road density (transportation network. Hot spot analysis was the primary research tool. Wildfire occurrence seemed to be positively related to low population densities, low levels of population change, high poverty rate, low educational attainment level, and low road density. Obviously, some of these variables are correlated and this is a complex problem. However, socioeconomic variables appeared to contribute to wildfire occurrence and should be considered in development of wildfire occurrence forecasting models.

  6. Assessing and Valuing Historical Geospatial Data for Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylak-Glassman, E.; Gallo, J.

    2016-12-01

    We will present a method for assessing the use and valuation of historical geospatial data and information products derived from Earth observations (EO). Historical data is widely used in the establishment of baseline reference cases, time-series analysis, and Earth system modeling. Historical geospatial data is used in diverse application areas, such as risk assessment in the insurance and reinsurance industry, disaster preparedness and response planning, historical demography, land-use change analysis, and paleoclimate research, among others. Establishing the current value of previously collected data, often from EO systems that are no longer operating, is difficult since the costs associated with their preservation, maintenance, and dissemination are current, while the costs associated with their original collection are sunk. Understanding their current use and value can aid in funding decisions about the data management infrastructure and workforce allocation required to maintain their availability. Using a value-tree framework to trace the application of data from EO systems, sensors, networks, and surveys, to weighted key Federal objectives, we are able to estimate relative contribution of individual EO systems, sensors, networks, and surveys to meeting those objectives. The analysis relies on a modified Delphi method to elicit relative levels of reliance on individual EO data inputs, including historical data, from subject matter experts. This results in the identification of a representative portfolio of all EO data used to meet key Federal objectives. Because historical data is collected in conjunction with all other EO data within a weighted framework, its contribution to meeting key Federal objectives can be specifically identified and evaluated in relationship to other EO data. The results of this method could be applied better understanding and projecting the long-term value of data from current and future EO systems.

  7. River channel's predisposition to ice jams: a geospatial model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munck, S.; Gauthier, Y.; Bernier, M.; Légaré, S.

    2012-04-01

    When dynamic breakup occurs on rivers, ice moving downstream may eventually stop at an obstacle when the volume of moving ice exceeds the transport capacity of the river, resulting into an ice jam. The suddenness and unpredictability of these ice jams are a constant danger to local population. Therefore forecasting methods are necessary to provide an early warning to these population. Nonetheless the morphological and hydrological factors controlling where and how the ice will jam are numerous and complex. Existing studies which exist on this topic are highly site specific. Therefore, the goal of this work is to develop a simplified geospatial model that would estimate the predisposition of any river channel to ice jams. The question here is not to predict when the ice will break up but rather to know where the released ice would be susceptible to jam. This paper presents the developments and preliminary results of the proposed approach. The initial step was to document the main factors identified in the literature, as potential cause for an ice jam. First, several main factors identified in the literature as potential cause for an ice jam have been selected: presence of an island, narrowing of the channel, sinuosity, presence of a bridge, confluence of rivers and slope break. The second step was to spatially represent, in 2D, the physical characteristics of the channel and to translate these characteristics into potential ice jamming factors. The Chaudiere River, south of Quebec City (Canada), was chosen as a test site. Tools from the GIS-based FRAZIL system have been used to generate these factors from readily available geospatial data and calcutate an "ice jam predisposition index" over regular-spaced segments along the entire channel. The resulting map was validated upon historical observations and local knowledge, collected in relationship with the Minister of Public Security.

  8. Experiencias en la vigilancia epidemiológica de agentes patógenos transmitidos por alimentos a través de electroforesis en campo pulsado (PFGE en el Perú Experiences in the epidemiological surveillance of foodborne pathogens by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luz Zamudio

    2011-03-01

    allows the discrimination between different bacterial isolates which are epidemiologically related. The Instituto Nacional de Salud del Perú (INS is part of the WHO Global Foodborne Infections Network (WHO-GFN and of the PulseNet Latin American and Caribbean Net (PN-AL & C, with whom it shares the genetic profiles of the isolated pathogenic strains, so that it is possible to compare de genotypes of similar strains found in different countries and to identify the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks in the region, strengthening the regional system of epidemiological surveillance and generating a rapid, coordinated response between the countries. We present the two last years´ experience including the advances in the use of these strategic tools that have allowed us to characterize genotype patterns implicated in foodborne diseases from isolates recovered in the laboratory network of Peru.

  9. Efficient surveillance for healthcare-associated infections spreading between hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccolini, Mariano; Donker, Tjibbe; Grundmann, Hajo; Bonten, Marc J M; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-02-11

    Early detection of new or novel variants of nosocomial pathogens is a public health priority. We show that, for healthcare-associated infections that spread between hospitals as a result of patient movements, it is possible to design an effective surveillance system based on a relatively small number of sentinel hospitals. We apply recently developed mathematical models to patient admission data from the national healthcare systems of England and The Netherlands. Relatively short detection times are achieved once 10-20% hospitals are recruited as sentinels and only modest reductions are seen as more hospitals are recruited thereafter. Using a heuristic optimization approach to sentinel selection, the same expected time to detection can be achieved by recruiting approximately half as many hospitals. Our study provides a robust evidence base to underpin the design of an efficient sentinel hospital surveillance system for novel nosocomial pathogens, delivering early detection times for reduced expenditure and effort.

  10. A Constraint-Based Geospatial Data Integration System for Wildfire Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a constraint-based system for automatically integrating online, heterogeneous data sources with geospatial data produced by NASA in order to...

  11. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Water Body Data - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The SRTM Water Body Data files are a by-product of the data editing performed by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) to produce the finished SRTM...

  12. A CLOUD-BASED PLATFORM SUPPORTING GEOSPATIAL COLLABORATION FOR GIS EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available GIS-related education needs support of geo-data and geospatial software. Although there are large amount of geographic information resources distributed on the web, the discovery, process and integration of these resources are still unsolved. Researchers and teachers always searched geo-data by common search engines but results were not satisfied. They also spent much money and energy on purchase and maintenance of various kinds of geospatial software. Aimed at these problems, a cloud-based geospatial collaboration platform called GeoSquare was designed and implemented. The platform serves as a geoportal encouraging geospatial data, information, and knowledge sharing through highly interactive and expressive graphic interfaces. Researchers and teachers can solve their problems effectively in this one-stop solution. Functions, specific design and implementation details are presented in this paper. Site of GeoSquare is: http://geosquare.tianditu.com/

  13. Loose architecture of multi-level massive geospatial data based on virtual quadtree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposed a virtual quadtree (VQT) based loose architecture of multi-level massive geospatial data for integrating massive geospatial data dispersed in the departments of different hierarchies in the same sector into a unified GIS (Geographic Information System) platform. By virtualizing the nodes of the quad-tree,the VQT separates the structure of data organization from data storage,and screens the difference between the data storage in local computer and in the re-mote computers in network environment. And by mounting,VQT easily integrates the data from the remote computers into the local VQT so as to implement seam-less integration of distributed multi-level massive geospatial data. Based on that mode,the paper built an application system with geospatial data over 1200 GB distributed in 12 servers deployed in 12 cities. The experiment showed that all data can be seamlessly rapidly traveled and performed zooming in and zooming out smoothly.

  14. A brief history of geospatial science in the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a rich history of significant contributions to geospatial science spanning the past four decades. In the early years, work focused on basic research, such as development of algorithms for processing geographic data and early use of LANDSAT imagery. The emphasis shifted in the mid-1970s to development of geographic information system (GIS) applications to support programs such as the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE), and later to issue-oriented GIS applications supporting programs such as environmental restoration and management (mid-1980s through present). Throughout this period, the DOE national laboratories represented a strong chorus of voices advocating the importance of geospatial science and technology in the decades to come. The establishment of a Geospatial Science Program by the DOE Office of the Chief Information Officer in 2005 reflects the continued potential of geospatial science to enhance DOE's science, projects, and operations, as is well demonstrated by historical analysis.

  15. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Water Body Data - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The SRTM Water Body Data files are a by-product of the data editing performed by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) to produce the finished SRTM...

  16. Perspectives on geospatial information science education: an example of urban planners in Southern Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Musakwa, Walter

    2017-01-01

    .... In these days of the New Urban Agenda 2030, smart cities are even more required from planners in using geospatial information to face urban challenges such as sustainable urban development and climate change...

  17. The Antarctic Geospatial Information Center: Three Years of Supporting Antarctic Science and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herried, B.; Morin, P. J.; Larue, M.; Porter, C.; Niebuhr, S.; Antarctic Geospatial Information Center

    2010-12-01

    Founded in 2007, the Antarctic Geospatial Information Center (AGIC) is dedicated to supporting and promoting the United States Antarctic Program (USAP) by providing geospatial information to Antarctic science, operations, and education communities. Since its inception, AGIC contributes to Antarctic science in four significant ways: 1) by direct geospatial support of research groups to advance science, 2) by authoring maps and creating applications to facilitate better logistical support, 3) by serving as a data repository and clearinghouse for Antarctic geospatial data, 4) by providing expertise, analysis, and education to researchers, support staff, and students. This poster will showcase several products, tools, and services developed by AGIC in the past three years, including a collection of 150 ground control points in the McMurdo Dry Valleys and Ross Island, highly accurate maps in the McMurdo Sound region using satellite imagery, and an archive of historical USGS aerial photography accessed through a web-based search application.

  18. A geospatial modelling approach to predict seagrass habitat recovery under multiple stressor regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of estuarine seagrass habitats requires a clear understanding of the modes of action of multiple interacting stressors including nutrients, climate change, coastal land-use change, and habitat modification. We have developed and demonstrated a geospatial modeling a...

  19. Integrating land cover and terrain characteristics to explain plague risks in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania: a geospatial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronimo, Proches; Meliyo, Joel; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Mulungu, Loth S; Kihupi, Nganga I; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Literature suggests that higher resolution remote sensing data integrated in Geographic Information System (GIS) can provide greater possibility to refine the analysis of land cover and terrain characteristics for explanation of abundance and distribution of plague hosts and vectors and hence of health risk hazards to humans. These technologies are not widely used in East Africa for studies on diseases including plague. The objective of this study was to refine the analysis of single and combined land cover and terrain characteristics in order to gain an insight into localized plague infection risks in the West Usambara Mountains in north-eastern Tanzania. The study used a geospatial approach to assess the influence of land cover and terrain factors on the abundance and spatial distribution of plague hosts (small mammals) and plague vectors (fleas). It considered different levels of scale and resolution. Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) statistical method was used to clarify the relationships between land cover and terrain variables with small mammals and fleas. Results indicate that elevation positively influenced the presence of small mammals. The presence of fleas was clearly influenced by land management features such as miraba. Medium to high resolution remotely sensed data integrated in a GIS have been found to be quite useful in this type of analysis. These findings contribute to efforts on plague surveillance and awareness creation among communities on the probable risks associated with various landscape factors during epidemics.

  20. AIDS-case surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S; Khodakevich, L; Sengupta, D

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 in India, the Ministry of Health realized that the diagnostic and reporting network for AIDS cases was inadequate as AIDS cases grew and that the establishment of specialized AIDS units in hospitals was not the best strategy. It decided to integrate AIDS diagnostic and management facilities into primary health services. It would arrange training for 1 physician from each district and peripheral hospital, private hospital, and inpatient service of other medical institutions in AIDS diagnosis and management. These physicians would then train others in the clinical diagnosis and management of AIDS cases. The physicians would use the World Health Organization [WHO] case definition of AIDS supported by HIV serological test results. All AIDS cases would be transferred to the Medical College Hospitals of the States and Union Territories (UTs), regional hospitals, and perhaps some private hospitals. Between May 1986 and October 1993, India had 459 AIDS cases reported from 19 States and UTs, especially the States of Tamil Nadul and Maharashtra. This AIDS case surveillance system should motivate political will, describe the underlying and preceding HIV epidemic, and contribute to the understanding of current and future course of the epidemic. Thus, it will guide decision makers to develop sound preventive strategies, to plan health care, and to evaluate interventions. The surveillance system's target population is all outpatients and inpatients at medical institutions. During 1993-1994, 1000 hospitals should make up the network of referral institutions. AIDS case surveillance coordinators (ASCs) at each institution form the basis of the network. The individual case record of each suspected AIDS case will have details on his/her life and medical history. Records of confirmed cases will be sent to State ASCs who will compile them for the National AIDS Control Organisation. After 3-4 year of training and practice in AIDS diagnosis and reporting, AIDS reporting will be

  1. Exotic mosquito threats require strategic surveillance and response planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Cameron E; Doggett, Stephen L

    2016-12-14

    Mosquito-borne diseases caused by endemic pathogens such as Ross River, Barmah Forest and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses are an annual concern in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. More than a dozen mosquito species have been implicated in the transmission of these pathogens, with each mosquito occupying a specialised ecological niche that influences their habitat associations, host feeding preferences and the environmental drivers of their abundance. The NSW Arbovirus Surveillance and Mosquito Monitoring Program provides an early warning system for potential outbreaks of mosquito-borne disease by tracking annual activity of these mosquitoes and their associated pathogens. Although the program will effectively track changes in local mosquito populations that may increase with a changing climate, urbanisation and wetland rehabilitation, it will be less effective with current surveillance methodologies at detecting or monitoring changes in exotic mosquito threats, where different surveillance strategies need to be used. Exotic container-inhabiting mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus pose a threat to NSW because they are nuisance-biting pests and vectors of pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. International movement of humans and their belongings have spread these mosquitoes to many regions of the world. In recent years, these two mosquitoes have been detected by the Australian Government Department of Agriculture and Water Resources at local airports and seaports. To target the detection of these exotic mosquitoes, new trapping technologies and networks of surveillance locations are required. Additionally, incursions of these mosquitoes into urban areas of the state will require strategic responses to minimise substantial public health and economic burdens to local communities.

  2. GABBs: Cyberinfrastructure for Self-Service Geospatial Data Exploration, Computation, and Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C. X.; Zhao, L.; Biehl, L. L.; Merwade, V.; Villoria, N.

    2016-12-01

    Geospatial data are present everywhere today with the proliferation of location-aware computing devices. This is especially true in the scientific community where large amounts of data are driving research and education activities in many domains. Collaboration over geospatial data, for example, in modeling, data analysis and visualization, must still overcome the barriers of specialized software and expertise among other challenges. In addressing these needs, the Geospatial data Analysis Building Blocks (GABBs) project aims at building geospatial modeling, data analysis and visualization capabilities in an open source web platform, HUBzero. Funded by NSF's Data Infrastructure Building Blocks initiative, GABBs is creating a geospatial data architecture that integrates spatial data management, mapping and visualization, and interfaces in the HUBzero platform for scientific collaborations. The geo-rendering enabled Rappture toolkit, a generic Python mapping library, geospatial data exploration and publication tools, and an integrated online geospatial data management solution are among the software building blocks from the project. The GABBS software will be available through Amazon's AWS Marketplace VM images and open source. Hosting services are also available to the user community. The outcome of the project will enable researchers and educators to self-manage their scientific data, rapidly create GIS-enable tools, share geospatial data and tools on the web, and build dynamic workflows connecting data and tools, all without requiring significant software development skills, GIS expertise or IT administrative privileges. This presentation will describe the GABBs architecture, toolkits and libraries, and showcase the scientific use cases that utilize GABBs capabilities, as well as the challenges and solutions for GABBs to interoperate with other cyberinfrastructure platforms.

  3. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  4. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  5. Development of an electronic emergency department-based geo-information injury surveillance system in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C B; Leung, M; Lai, Adela; Chow, Y H; Chung, Joanne; Tong, K M; Lit, Albert

    2012-06-01

    To describe the experience in the development of an electronic emergency department (ED)-based injury surveillance (IS) system in Hong Kong using data-mining and geo-spatial information technology (IT) for a Safe Community setup. This paper described the phased development of an emergency department-based IS system based on World Health Organization (WHO) injury surveillance Guideline to support safety promotion and injury prevention in a Safe Community in Hong Kong starting 2002. The initial ED data-based only collected data on name, sex, age, address, eight general categories of injury types (traffic, domestic, common assault, indecent assault, batter, industrial, self-harm and sports) and disposal from ED. Phase 1--manual data collection on International Classification of External Causes of Injury pre-event data; Phase 2--manual form was converted to electronic format using web-based data mining technology with built in data quality monitoring mechanism; Phase 3--integration of injury surveillance-data with in-patient hospital information; and Phase 4--geo-spatial information and body mapping were introduced to geo-code exact place of injury in an electronic map and site of injury on body map. It was feasible to develop a geo-spatial IS system at busy ED to collect valuable information for safety promotion and injury prevention at Safe Community setting. The keys for successful development and implementation involves engagement of all stakeholders at design and implementation of the system with injury prevention as ultimate goal, detail workflow planning at front end, support from the management, building on exiting system and appropriate utilisation of modern technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Projectbeschrijving Surveillance Ziekenhuisinfecties 1996-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg JMJ van den; Boer AS de; Mintjes-de Groot AJ; Sprenger MJW; Cucic S; Pelt W van; Centraal Begeleidingsorgaan; CIE

    1996-01-01

    In the Project Surveillance Hospital Acquired Infections a surveillance system in a national network of hospitals is being developed and implemented. In the project surveillance of hospital acquired infections is implemented in components: surveillance of surgical wound infections, surveillance of i

  7. Large-Scale Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds throughout the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bevins, Sarah N.; Pedersen, Kerri; Lutman, Mark W.; Baroch, John A.; Schmit, Brandon S.; Kohler, Dennis; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nolte, Dale L.; Swafford, Seth R.; DeLiberto, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza is a viral disease that primarily infects wild and domestic birds, but it also can be transmitted to a variety of mammals. In 2006, the United States of America Departments of Agriculture and Interior designed a large-scale, interagency surveillance effort that sought to determine if highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were present in wild bird populations within the United States of America. This program, combined with the Canadian and Mexican surveillance programs, rep...

  8. Advancements in Open Geospatial Standards for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing from Ogc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percivall, George; Simonis, Ingo

    2016-06-01

    The necessity of open standards for effective sharing and use of remote sensing continues to receive increasing emphasis in policies of agencies and projects around the world. Coordination on the development of open standards for geospatial information is a vital step to insure that the technical standards are ready to support the policy objectives. The mission of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is to advance development and use of international standards and supporting services that promote geospatial interoperability. To accomplish this mission, OGC serves as the global forum for the collaboration of geospatial data / solution providers and users. Photogrammetry and remote sensing are sources of the largest and most complex geospatial information. Some of the most mature OGC standards for remote sensing include the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards, the Web Coverage Service (WCS) suite of standards, encodings such as NetCDF, GMLJP2 and GeoPackage, and the soon to be approved Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGS) standard. In collaboration with ISPRS, OGC working with government, research and industrial organizations continue to advance the state of geospatial standards for full use of photogrammetry and remote sensing.

  9. GAGES-II: Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, James A.

    2011-01-01

    This dataset, termed "GAGES II", an acronym for Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow, version II, provides geospatial data and classifications for 9,322 stream gages maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). It is an update to the original GAGES, which was published as a Data Paper on the journal Ecology's website (Falcone and others, 2010b) in 2010. The GAGES II dataset consists of gages which have had either 20+ complete years (not necessarily continuous) of discharge record since 1950, or are currently active, as of water year 2009, and whose watersheds lie within the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Reference gages were identified based on indicators that they were the least-disturbed watersheds within the framework of broad regions, based on 12 major ecoregions across the United States. Of the 9,322 total sites, 2,057 are classified as reference, and 7,265 as non-reference. Of the 2,057 reference sites, 1,633 have (through 2009) 20+ years of record since 1950. Some sites have very long flow records: a number of gages have been in continuous service since 1900 (at least), and have 110 years of complete record (1900-2009) to date. The geospatial data include several hundred watershed characteristics compiled from national data sources, including environmental features (e.g. climate – including historical precipitation, geology, soils, topography) and anthropogenic influences (e.g. land use, road density, presence of dams, canals, or power plants). The dataset also includes comments from local USGS Water Science Centers, based on Annual Data Reports, pertinent to hydrologic modifications and influences. The data posted also include watershed boundaries in GIS format. This overall dataset is different in nature to the USGS Hydro-Climatic Data Network (HCDN; Slack and Landwehr 1992), whose data evaluation ended with water year 1988. The HCDN identifies stream gages which at some point in their history had

  10. A web service for service composition to aid geospatial modelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigagli, L.; Santoro, M.; Roncella, R.; Mazzetti, P.

    2012-04-01

    The identification of appropriate mechanisms for process reuse, chaining and composition is considered a key enabler for the effective uptake of a global Earth Observation infrastructure, currently pursued by the international geospatial research community. In the Earth and Space Sciences, such a facility could primarily enable integrated and interoperable modeling, for what several approaches have been proposed and developed, over the last years. In fact, GEOSS is specifically tasked with the development of the so-called "Model Web". At increasing levels of abstraction and generalization, the initial stove-pipe software tools have evolved to community-wide modeling frameworks, to Component-Based Architecture solution, and, more recently, started to embrace Service-Oriented Architectures technologies, such as the OGC WPS specification and the WS-* stack of W3C standards for service composition. However, so far, the level of abstraction seems too low for implementing the Model Web vision, and far too complex technological aspects must still be addressed by both providers and users, resulting in limited usability and, eventually, difficult uptake. As by the recent ICT trend of resource virtualization, it has been suggested that users in need of a particular processing capability, required by a given modeling workflow, may benefit from outsourcing the composition activities into an external first-class service, according to the Composition as a Service (CaaS) approach. A CaaS system provides the necessary interoperability service framework for adaptation, reuse and complementation of existing processing resources (including models and geospatial services in general) in the form of executable workflows. This work introduces the architecture of a CaaS system, as a distributed information system for creating, validating, editing, storing, publishing, and executing geospatial workflows. This way, the users can be freed from the need of a composition infrastructure and

  11. Waterborne Pathogens: Detection Methods and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Yazmín Ramírez-Castillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems’ infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health.

  12. Waterborne Pathogens: Detection Methods and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Castillo, Flor Yazmín; Loera-Muro, Abraham; Jacques, Mario; Garneau, Philippe; Avelar-González, Francisco Javier; Harel, Josée; Guerrero-Barrera, Alma Lilián

    2015-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems’ infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health. PMID:26011827

  13. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  14. Surveillance theory and its implications for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk; Galic, Masa; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Yeung, Karen; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of key surveillance theories and their implications for law and regulation. It presents three stages of theories that characterise changes in thinking about surveillance in society and the disciplining, controlling, and entertaining functions of surveillance.

  15. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and pathogen of clinical isolates in third-grade class A hospitals of Hebei Antibacterial Resistance Investigation Net in 2013%2013年河北省细菌耐药监测网三级甲等医院细菌耐药性监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    cocci accounted for 76.5%,23.5%,respectively.The most common pathogen in gram-negative rod was E.coli,P. aeruginosa,K.pneumoniae,A.baumanii and E.cloacae respectively.The most common pathogen in gram-positive cocci was S.aureus,S.pneumoniae,E.facium,S.E.pidermidis and E.faecalis.The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)rate of E.coli and K.pneumoniae were 62.4% and 7.8% respectively.The resistant rate of E.coli and K.pneumoniae to imipenem were 0.8% and 2.6%,but the resistant rateto meropenem was 0.6% and 3.7%,respectively.The resistant rate of P.aeruginosa to imipenem and meropenem were 35% and 39.2% respectively.The resistant rate of A.baumanii to imipenem and meropenem were 70.9% and 78.2%.Methicillin-resistant strains accounted for an average of 50.5% in S. aureus.No staphylococcal strains were found resistant to vancomycin and linezolid.Resistant rate of streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin was 11.1%.The positive rates of beta lactamase of Haemophilus influenzae was 29.6%.Conclusion As bacterial resistance is changing constantly,surveillance of antimicrobial agents has important significance in mastering drug resistance trend and evolution for guiding reasonable clinical prescription.

  16. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  17. Integrated web system of geospatial data services for climate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okladnikov, Igor; Gordov, Evgeny; Titov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Georeferenced datasets are currently actively used for modeling, interpretation and forecasting of climatic and ecosystem changes on different spatial and temporal scales. Due to inherent heterogeneity of environmental datasets as well as their huge size (up to tens terabytes for a single dataset) a special software supporting studies in the climate and environmental change areas is required. An approach for integrated analysis of georefernced climatological data sets based on combination of web and GIS technologies in the framework of spatial data infrastructure paradigm is presented. According to this approach a dedicated data-processing web system for integrated analysis of heterogeneous georeferenced climatological and meteorological data is being developed. It is based on Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards and involves many modern solutions such as object-oriented programming model, modular composition, and JavaScript libraries based on GeoExt library, ExtJS Framework and OpenLayers software. This work is supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Agreement #14.613.21.0037.

  18. SDGs and Geospatial Frameworks: Data Integration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, T.

    2016-12-01

    Responding to the need to monitor a nation's progress towards meeting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) outlined in the 2030 U.N. Agenda requires the integration of earth observations with statistical information. The urban agenda proposed in SDG 11 challenges the global community to find a geospatial approach to monitor and measure inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable cities and communities. Target 11.7 identifies public safety, accessibility to green and public spaces, and the most vulnerable populations (i.e., women and children, older persons, and persons with disabilities) as the most important priorities of this goal. A challenge for both national statistical organizations and earth observation agencies in addressing SDG 11 is the requirement for detailed statistics at a sufficient spatial resolution to provide the basis for meaningful analysis of the urban population and city environments. Using an example for the city of Pittsburgh, this presentation proposes data and methods to illustrate how earth science and statistical data can be integrated to respond to Target 11.7. Finally, a preliminary series of data initiatives are proposed for extending this method to other global cities.

  19. Geospatial Techniques for Improved Water Management in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad T. Al-Bakri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research shows a case from Jordan where geospatial techniques were utilized for irrigation water auditing. The work was based on assessing records of groundwater abstraction in relation to irrigated areas and estimated crop water consumption in three water basins: Yarmouk, Amman-Zarqa and Azraq. Mapping of irrigated areas and crop water requirements was carried out using remote sensing data of Landsat 8 and daily weather records. The methodology was based on visual interpretation and the unsupervised classification for remote sensing data, supported by ground surveys. Net (NCWR and gross (GCWR crop water requirements were calculated by merging crop evapotranspiration (ETc, calculated from daily weather records, with maps of irrigated crops. Gross water requirements were compared with groundwater abstractions recorded at a farm level to assess the levels of abstraction in relation to groundwater safe yield. Results showed that irrigated area and GCWR were higher than officially recorded cropped area and abstracted groundwater. The over abstraction of groundwater was estimated to range from 144% to 360% of the safe yield in the three basins. Overlaying the maps of irrigation and groundwater wells enabled the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI to detect and uncover violations and illegal practices of irrigation, in the form of unlicensed wells, incorrect metering of pumped water and water conveyance for long distances. Results from the work were utilized at s high level of decision-making and changes to the water law were made, with remote sensing data being accredited for monitoring water resources in Jordan.

  20. Geospatial analysis identifies critical mineral-resource potential in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Susan; Labay, Keith; Jacques, Katherine; Landowski, Claire

    2017-03-03

    Alaska consists of more than 663,000 square miles (1,717,000 square kilometers) of land—more than a sixth of the total area of the United States—and large tracts of it have not been systematically studied or sampled for mineral-resource potential. Many regions of the State are known to have significant mineral-resource potential, and there are currently six operating mines in the State along with numerous active mineral exploration projects. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys have developed a new geospatial tool that integrates and analyzes publicly available databases of geologic information and estimates the mineral-resource potential for critical minerals, which was recently used to evaluate Alaska. The results of the analyses highlight areas that have known mineral deposits and also reveal areas that were not previously considered to be prospective for these deposit types. These results will inform land management decisions by Federal, State, and private landholders, and will also help guide future exploration activities and scientific investigations in Alaska.

  1. Geospatial Analysis of Photovoltaic Mini-Grid System Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Huld

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a geographic information system (GIS-based tool for estimating the performance of photovoltaic (PV mini-grid system over large geographical areas. The methodology consists of geospatial analysis and mapping of the energy output and reliability of PV mini-grid system. The algorithm uses a combination of hourly solar radiation data from satellites combined with measured data on PV module and battery performance and estimated electricity consumption data. The methods also make it possible to optimize the PV array and battery storage size for a given location. Results are presented for an area covering Africa and most of Southern and Central Asia. We also investigate the effects of using Li-ion batteries instead of the traditional lead-acid batteries. The use of our spatial analysis as decision support tool could help governments, local authorities and non-governmental organizations to investigate the suitability of PV mini-grids for electrification of regions where access to electricity is lacking. In this way it is possible to identify areas where PV mini-grids are most suitable.

  2. A Metadata Schema for Geospatial Resource Discovery Use Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Hardy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a metadata schema that focuses on GIS discovery use cases for patrons in a research library setting. Text search, faceted refinement, and spatial search and relevancy are among GeoBlacklight's primary use cases for federated geospatial holdings. The schema supports a variety of GIS data types and enables contextual, collection-oriented discovery applications as well as traditional portal applications. One key limitation of GIS resource discovery is the general lack of normative metadata practices, which has led to a proliferation of metadata schemas and duplicate records. The ISO 19115/19139 and FGDC standards specify metadata formats, but are intricate, lengthy, and not focused on discovery. Moreover, they require sophisticated authoring environments and cataloging expertise. Geographic metadata standards target preservation and quality measure use cases, but they do not provide for simple inter-institutional sharing of metadata for discovery use cases. To this end, our schema reuses elements from Dublin Core and GeoRSS to leverage their normative semantics, community best practices, open-source software implementations, and extensive examples already deployed in discovery contexts such as web search and mapping. Finally, we discuss a Solr implementation of the schema using a "geo" extension to MODS.

  3. Quantitative, Qualitative and Geospatial Methods to Characterize HIV Risk Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Conners

    Full Text Available Increasingly, 'place', including physical and geographical characteristics as well as social meanings, is recognized as an important factor driving individual and community health risks. This is especially true among marginalized populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC, whose environments may also be more difficult to study using traditional methods. In the NIH-funded longitudinal study Mapa de Salud, we employed a novel approach to exploring the risk environment of female sex workers (FSWs in two Mexico/U.S. border cities, Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez. In this paper we describe the development, implementation, and feasibility of a mix of quantitative and qualitative tools used to capture the HIV risk environments of FSWs in an LMIC setting. The methods were: 1 Participatory mapping; 2 Quantitative interviews; 3 Sex work venue field observation; 4 Time-location-activity diaries; 5 In-depth interviews about daily activity spaces. We found that the mixed-methodology outlined was both feasible to implement and acceptable to participants. These methods can generate geospatial data to assess the role of the environment on drug and sexual risk behaviors among high risk populations. Additionally, the adaptation of existing methods for marginalized populations in resource constrained contexts provides new opportunities for informing public health interventions.

  4. Geospatial Habitat Analysis in Pacific Northwest Coastal Estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thom, Ronald M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Rumrill, Steven (South Slough Estuarine Research Reserve); Miller, L M.(GEORGE A GRANT INC)

    2003-08-01

    We assessed historical changes in the location and amount of estuarine habitat in three of the four largest coastal estuaries in the Pacific Northwest (Grays Harbor, Willapa Bay, and Coos Bay) as part of the Pacific Northwest Coastal Ecosystem Regional Study (PNCERS). To accomplish this, navigation charts, hydrographic survey data, maps, and published descriptions were used to gain information on the location of the shoreline, bathymetry, and vegetated habitats, which was then digitized and subjected to geospatial analysis using a geographic information system. In addition, we used present-day elevational boundaries for marshes, flats, and eelgrass meadows to help define habitat areas where they were not indicated on historical maps. The analysis showed that tidal flats have decreased in all study areas; potential eelgrass habitat has increased in Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay and decreased slightly in Coos Bay; tidal wetland area has declined in all three coastal estuaries, with increases in localized areas due to filling and sedimentation; and dramatic changes have occurred at the mouths of Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay. As has been shown before, these data illustrate that direct physical alteration (filling and diking) has resulted in large changes to habitats. However, indirect impacts from forest practices in the watershed, as well as variation in climatic factors and oceanographic processes, may also have contributed to changes. The information provides more evidence for managing estuarine habitats in the region and a employing a historical template to plan habitat restoration in the future.

  5. Quantitative, Qualitative and Geospatial Methods to Characterize HIV Risk Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Erin E.; West, Brooke S.; Roth, Alexis M.; Meckel-Parker, Kristen G.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Clapp, John D.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, ‘place’, including physical and geographical characteristics as well as social meanings, is recognized as an important factor driving individual and community health risks. This is especially true among marginalized populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC), whose environments may also be more difficult to study using traditional methods. In the NIH-funded longitudinal study Mapa de Salud, we employed a novel approach to exploring the risk environment of female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico/U.S. border cities, Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez. In this paper we describe the development, implementation, and feasibility of a mix of quantitative and qualitative tools used to capture the HIV risk environments of FSWs in an LMIC setting. The methods were: 1) Participatory mapping; 2) Quantitative interviews; 3) Sex work venue field observation; 4) Time-location-activity diaries; 5) In-depth interviews about daily activity spaces. We found that the mixed-methodology outlined was both feasible to implement and acceptable to participants. These methods can generate geospatial data to assess the role of the environment on drug and sexual risk behaviors among high risk populations. Additionally, the adaptation of existing methods for marginalized populations in resource constrained contexts provides new opportunities for informing public health interventions. PMID:27191846

  6. GEOSPATIAL MODELLING APPROACH FOR 3D URBAN DENSIFICATION DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Koziatek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With growing populations, economic pressures, and the need for sustainable practices, many urban regions are rapidly densifying developments in the vertical built dimension with mid- and high-rise buildings. The location of these buildings can be projected based on key factors that are attractive to urban planners, developers, and potential buyers. Current research in this area includes various modelling approaches, such as cellular automata and agent-based modelling, but the results are mostly linked to raster grids as the smallest spatial units that operate in two spatial dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a geospatial model that operates on irregular spatial tessellations to model mid- and high-rise buildings in three spatial dimensions (3D. The proposed model is based on the integration of GIS, fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (MCE, and 3D GIS-based procedural modelling. Part of the City of Surrey, within the Metro Vancouver Region, Canada, has been used to present the simulations of the generated 3D building objects. The proposed 3D modelling approach was developed using ESRI’s CityEngine software and the Computer Generated Architecture (CGA language.

  7. Geospatial Modelling Approach for 3d Urban Densification Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziatek, O.; Dragićević, S.; Li, S.

    2016-06-01

    With growing populations, economic pressures, and the need for sustainable practices, many urban regions are rapidly densifying developments in the vertical built dimension with mid- and high-rise buildings. The location of these buildings can be projected based on key factors that are attractive to urban planners, developers, and potential buyers. Current research in this area includes various modelling approaches, such as cellular automata and agent-based modelling, but the results are mostly linked to raster grids as the smallest spatial units that operate in two spatial dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a geospatial model that operates on irregular spatial tessellations to model mid- and high-rise buildings in three spatial dimensions (3D). The proposed model is based on the integration of GIS, fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), and 3D GIS-based procedural modelling. Part of the City of Surrey, within the Metro Vancouver Region, Canada, has been used to present the simulations of the generated 3D building objects. The proposed 3D modelling approach was developed using ESRI's CityEngine software and the Computer Generated Architecture (CGA) language.

  8. Contextual object understanding through geospatial analysis and reasoning (COUGAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Joel; Antone, Matthew; Coggins, James; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Sobel, Erik; Stolle, Frank; Vinciguerra, Lori; Zandipour, Majid; Zhong, Yu

    2009-05-01

    Military operations in urban areas often require detailed knowledge of the location and identity of commonly occurring objects and spatial features. The ability to rapidly acquire and reason over urban scenes is critically important to such tasks as mission and route planning, visibility prediction, communications simulation, target recognition, and inference of higher-level form and function. Under DARPA's Urban Reasoning and Geospatial ExploitatioN Technology (URGENT) Program, the BAE Systems team has developed a system that combines a suite of complementary feature extraction and matching algorithms with higher-level inference and contextual reasoning to detect, segment, and classify urban entities of interest in a fully automated fashion. Our system operates solely on colored 3D point clouds, and considers object categories with a wide range of specificity (fire hydrants, windows, parking lots), scale (street lights, roads, buildings, forests), and shape (compact shapes, extended regions, terrain). As no single method can recognize the diverse set of categories under consideration, we have integrated multiple state-of-the-art technologies that couple hierarchical associative reasoning with robust computer vision and machine learning techniques. Our solution leverages contextual cues and evidence propagation from features to objects to scenes in order to exploit the combined descriptive power of 3D shape, appearance, and learned inter-object spatial relationships. The result is a set of tools designed to significantly enhance the productivity of analysts in exploiting emerging 3D data sources.

  9. Geospatial tools for landscape character assessment in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, N. P.; Vogiatzakis, I. N.; Griffiths, G. H.; Warnock, S.; Vassou, V.; Zomeni, M.; Trigkas, V.

    2013-08-01

    The development of Landscape Typologies in Europe relies upon advances in geospatial tools and increasing availability of digital datasets. Landscape Character Assessment (LCA) is a technique used to classify, describe and understand the combined physical, ecological and cultural characteristics of a landscape. LCA uses a range of data sources to identify and describe areas of common character and can operate at a range of scales i.e.national and regional and local. The paper describes the steps taken to develop an island wide landscape typology for Cyprus, based on the use of GIS and remote sensing tools. The methodology involved integrating physiographical, ecological and cultural information about the Cypriot landscape. Datasets on the cultural attributes (e.g. settlement and field patterns) were not available, so they were created de novo based on information from topographical maps (for settlement dispersion and density) and medium resolution satellite imagery from Google Earth, from which a number of distinctive field patterns could be distinguished. The mapping work is carried out on two levels using a hierarchical approach. The first level at a 1:100, 000 scale has been completed resulting in a map with 17 distinct landscape types. The second level is under way with the view of producing a more detailed landscape typology at 1:50, 000 scale which will incorporate the cultural aspects of the island. This is the first time that such a typology has been produced for Cyprus and it is expected to provide an invaluable tool for landscape planning and management.

  10. Geodata fusion study by the Open Geospatial Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percivall, George

    2013-05-01

    Making new connections in existing data is a powerful method to gain understanding of the world. Data fusion is not a new topic, but new approaches provide opportunities to enhance this ubiquitous process. Interoperability based on open standards is radically changing the classical domains of data fusion while inventing entirely new ways to discern relationships in data with little structure. Associations based on locations and times are of the most primary type. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) conducted a Fusion Standards study with recommendations implemented in testbeds. In the context of this study, Data Fusion was defined as: "the act or process of combining or associating data or information regarding one or more entities considered in an explicit or implicit knowledge framework to improve one's capability (or provide a new capability) for detection, identification, or characterization of that entity". Three categories were used to organize this study: Observation Fusion, Feature fusion, and Decision fusion. The study considered classical fusion as exemplified by the JDL and OODA models as well as how fusion is achieved by new technology such as web-based mash-ups and mobile Internet. The study considers both OGC standards as well open standards from other standards organizations. These technologies and standards aid in bringing structure to unstructured data as well as enabling a major new thrust in Decision Fusion.

  11. Encoding and analyzing aerial imagery using geospatial semantic graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Jean-Paul; Strip, David R.; McLendon, William Clarence,; Parekh, Ojas D.; Diegert, Carl F.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Rintoul, Mark Daniel

    2014-02-01

    While collection capabilities have yielded an ever-increasing volume of aerial imagery, analytic techniques for identifying patterns in and extracting relevant information from this data have seriously lagged. The vast majority of imagery is never examined, due to a combination of the limited bandwidth of human analysts and limitations of existing analysis tools. In this report, we describe an alternative, novel approach to both encoding and analyzing aerial imagery, using the concept of a geospatial semantic graph. The advantages of our approach are twofold. First, intuitive templates can be easily specified in terms of the domain language in which an analyst converses. These templates can be used to automatically and efficiently search large graph databases, for specific patterns of interest. Second, unsupervised machine learning techniques can be applied to automatically identify patterns in the graph databases, exposing recurring motifs in imagery. We illustrate our approach using real-world data for Anne Arundel County, Maryland, and compare the performance of our approach to that of an expert human analyst.

  12. A geospatial suitability model for drought-tolerant switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S. M.; Kelly, M.

    2011-12-01

    A perennial grass native to the North America, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been targeted by the USDA as a model mass bioenergy crop to replace petroleum energy products and meet policy demands. Although highly water use efficient, as a warm-season crop, switchgrass requires a significant amount of water during the growing season (April -September). However, locations that have highly reliable water availability are also ideal for profitable food crops (e.g. corn and soy growing regions) and food competition is a significant concern in regards to biofuel crops being grown on productive agricultural lands. Drier, marginal lands (lands on which normal agricultural crops are difficult to cultivate) are therefore potentially ideal locations to grow biofuel crops to ensure that food competition is not an issue. Genetics scientists at UC Davis are in the process of developing a modified variety of switchgrass that can withstand extended periods of drought while not substantially affecting overall yield. As this product is being developed, it is important to identify the potential geographical niche for this new drought-tolerant variety of switchgrass. This project introduces a geospatial approach that utilizes both physical and economic variables to identify ideal geographic locations for this innovative crop.

  13. Defining 'surveillance' in drug safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Hauben, Manfred; Bate, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The concept of surveillance in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology has evolved from the concept of surveillance in epidemiology, particularly of infectious diseases. We have surveyed the etymology, usages, and previous definitions of 'surveillance' and its modifiers, such as 'active' and 'passive'. The following essential definitional features of surveillance emerge: (i) surveillance and monitoring are different--surveillance involves populations, while monitoring involves individuals; (ii) surveillance can be performed repeatedly and at any time during the lifetime of a medicinal product or device; (iii) although itself non-interventional, it can adduce any types of evidence (interventional, observational, or anecdotal, potentially at different times); (iv) it encompasses data collection, management, analysis, and interpretation; (v) it includes actions to be taken after signal detection, including initial evaluation and communication; and (vi) it should contribute to the classification of adverse reactions and their prevention or mitigation and/or to the harnessing of beneficial effects. We conclude that qualifiers add ambiguity and uncertainty without enhancing the idea of surveillance. We propose the following definition of surveillance of health-care products, which embraces all the surveyed ideas and reflects real-world pharmacovigilance processes: 'a form of non-interventional public health research, consisting of a set of processes for the continued systematic collection, compilation, interrogation, analysis, and interpretation of data on benefits and harms (including relevant spontaneous reports, electronic medical records, and experimental data).' As a codicil, we note that the purposes of surveillance are to identify, evaluate, understand, and communicate previously unknown effects of health-care products, or new aspects of known effects, in order to harness such effects (if beneficial) or prevent or mitigate them (if harmful).

  14. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    coupled with social interaction and sometimes framed as entertainment or games. Facilitated by online community and social networking sites, the possibility of collecting and sharing data is a significant feature of these self-monitoring technologies. They all include sharing features where weight, blood...... pressure, fitness activities, sleep cycles, etc. can be broadcasted, e.g. as tweets on Twitter or status updates on Facebook. Such quantification practices with monitoring technologies become co-producing when individuals constitute themselves as subjects engaging in self-tracking, self-care, and self......, and gamification modulate the enactment of selfhood? How does self-surveillance contribute to corresponding notions of self-optimization and self-cultivation such as “the good life”, “sustainable lifestyle”, “healthy living”, “good learning” and “work productivity”?...

  15. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance.

  16. Secure surveillance videotapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olsen, R.; Chitumbo, K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pepper, S. [International Safeguards Project Office, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    With assistance from the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), Aquila Technologies Group developed the Tamper-Resistant Analog Media (TRAM-1000) system to provide standard VHS surveillance video tapes with an enhanced tamper-indicating capability. This project represents further implementation of the partnership approach in facilities including light water reactors with MOX facilities. These facilities use Uniplex Digiquad system video tapes. The partnership approach ensures that one organization can exchange the tapes in a machine without the presence of the other, without losing continuity of information. The TRAM-1000 system development project was accomplished in two stages. In the first stage of the project, the original system delivered to the IAEA, consists of three parts: (1) the tamper detection unit, (2) a specially augmented VHS video tape, and (3) an HP-95 reader. The tamper detection unit houses a VACOSS active fiber-optic seal and an electronic identification tag (E-TAG) reader. In the second stage of the project, the original TRAM-1000 was modified to its current design based on agency input. After delivery of the original TRAM-1000 system to the IAEA, it was reviewed by inspectors. The inspectors felt that the initial system`s tape storage/transport method could be simplified. Rather than threading the fiber through the tape spindles, the inspectors suggested that the tape be placed in a bag capable of being sealed. Also, a more flexible fiber-optic cable was recommended. As a result of these suggestions, Aquila developed a tamper-proof bag specifically for holding a surveillance video tape and sealable with a VACOSS fiber optical seal.

  17. Next Generation Syndromic Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadan, Raul; Calman MD, Neil; Hripcsak, George

    2009-01-01

    In the early phase of the 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic a marked increase in severity and a shift in the age distribution toward younger persons was found, with higher severity reported in patients with pre-existing medical conditions and pregnant women. Consistent with previous pandemics, the age and clinical history of the patients play a critical role in the morbidity and mortality associated with the pandemic virus. This is the first influenza pandemic in the information era, where enormous amounts of information will be available from the pathogen and the patient. Recent advances in molecular techniques have provided an enormous amount of information about pathogens in near real time and at relatively low cost. Electronic Health Records (EHRs) provide another enormously rich set of information about patients, which include patient preconditions, previous exposures, immunization history, presenting complaints, duration and severity of illness, treatment history, and geographic location. An infectious disease is a complex interplay between host and pathogen. The morbidity and mortality of a virus depend on the virus, the patient, and the environment. To evaluate and understand the severity of the pandemic virus and to identify the populations at risk of mild or severe, life-threatening illness, it is compulsory to integrate viral and patient information in a fast and accurate way. Both advances in biomedical informatics with the creation of EHRs and molecular techniques provide the framework to achieve these aims. PMID:20025193

  18. Discover, Visualize, and Deliver Geospatial Data through OGC Standards-based WebGIS System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; SanthanaVannan, Suresh K [ORNL; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial data are important to understand the Earth - ecosystem dynamics, land cover changes, resource management, and human interactions with the Earth to name a few. One of the biggest difficulties users face is to discover, access, and assemble distributed, large volume, heterogeneous geospatial data to conduct geo-analysis. Traditional methods of geospatial data discovery, visualization, and delivery lack the capabilities of resource sharing and automation across systems or organizational boundaries. They require users to download the data ldquoas-isrdquo in their original file format, projection, and extent. Also, discovering data served by traditional methods requires prior knowledge of data location, and processing requires specialized expertise. These drawbacks of traditional methods create additional burden to users, introduce too much overhead to research, and also reduce the potential usage of the data. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), researchers working on NASA-sponsored projects: Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) and Modeling and Synthesis Thematic Data Center (MAST-DC) have tapped into the benefits of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards to overcome the drawbacks of traditional methods of geospatial data discovery, visualization, and delivery. The OGC standards-based approach facilitates data sharing and interoperability across network, organizational, and geopolitical boundaries. Tools and services based on OGC standards deliver the data in many user defined formats and allow users to visualize the data prior to download. This paper introduces an approach taken to visualize and deliver ORNL DAAC, MAST-DC, and other relevant geospatial data through OGC standards-based Web Services, including Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Feature Service (WFS). It also introduces a WebGIS system built on top of OGC services that helps users discover, visualize, and access geospatial data.

  19. A Practice Approach of Multi-source Geospatial Data Integration for Web-based Geoinformation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; Jiang, J.; Zha, Z.; Zhang, H.; Wang, C.; Zhang, J.

    2014-04-01

    Geospatial data resources are the foundation of the construction of geo portal which is designed to provide online geoinformation services for the government, enterprise and public. It is vital to keep geospatial data fresh, accurate and comprehensive in order to satisfy the requirements of application and development of geographic location, route navigation, geo search and so on. One of the major problems we are facing is data acquisition. For us, integrating multi-sources geospatial data is the mainly means of data acquisition. This paper introduced a practice integration approach of multi-source geospatial data with different data model, structure and format, which provided the construction of National Geospatial Information Service Platform of China (NGISP) with effective technical supports. NGISP is the China's official geo portal which provides online geoinformation services based on internet, e-government network and classified network. Within the NGISP architecture, there are three kinds of nodes: national, provincial and municipal. Therefore, the geospatial data is from these nodes and the different datasets are heterogeneous. According to the results of analysis of the heterogeneous datasets, the first thing we do is to define the basic principles of data fusion, including following aspects: 1. location precision; 2.geometric representation; 3. up-to-date state; 4. attribute values; and 5. spatial relationship. Then the technical procedure is researched and the method that used to process different categories of features such as road, railway, boundary, river, settlement and building is proposed based on the principles. A case study in Jiangsu province demonstrated the applicability of the principle, procedure and method of multi-source geospatial data integration.

  20. Free-grazing ducks and highly pathogenic avian influenza, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Marius; Chaitaweesup, P.; Parakamawongsa, T.; Premashthira, S.; Tiensin, T.; Kalpravidh, W.; Wagner, H.; Slingenbergh, J.

    2006-01-01

    Thailand has recently had 3 epidemic waves of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); virus was again detected in July 2005. Risk factors need to be identified to better understand disease ecology and assist HPAI surveillance and detection. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of HPAI outb

  1. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  2. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-30

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.

  3. A rationale to unify measurements of effectiveness for animal health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbois, Vladimir; Häsler, Barbara; Peyre, Marisa; Hiep, Dao Thi; Vergne, Timothée

    2015-06-01

    Surveillance systems produce data which, once analysed and interpreted, support decisions regarding disease management. While several performance measures for surveillance are in use, no theoretical framework has been proposed yet with a rationale for defining and estimating effectiveness measures of surveillance systems in a generic way. An effective surveillance system is a system whose data collection, analysis and interpretation processes lead to decisions that are appropriate given the true disease status of the target population. Accordingly, we developed a framework accounting for sampling, testing and data interpretation processes, to depict in a probabilistic way the direction and magnitude of the discrepancy between "decisions that would be made if the true state of a population was known" and the "decisions that are actually made upon the analysis and interpretation of surveillance data". The proposed framework provides a theoretical basis for standardised quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of surveillance systems. We illustrate such approaches using hypothetical surveillance systems aimed at monitoring the prevalence of an endemic disease and at detecting an emerging disease as early as possible and with an empirical case study on a passive surveillance system aiming at detecting cases of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza cases in Vietnamese poultry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards the Development of a Taxonomy for Visualisation of Streamed Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibolla, B. H.; Van Zyl, T.; Coetzee, S.

    2016-06-01

    Geospatial data has very specific characteristics that need to be carefully captured in its visualisation, in order for the user and the viewer to gain knowledge from it. The science of visualisation has gained much traction over the last decade as a response to various visualisation challenges. During the development of an open source based, dynamic two-dimensional visualisation library, that caters for geospatial streaming data, it was found necessary to conduct a review of existing geospatial visualisation taxonomies. The review was done in order to inform the design phase of the library development, such that either an existing taxonomy can be adopted or extended to fit the needs at hand. The major challenge in this case is to develop dynamic two dimensional visualisations that enable human interaction in order to assist the user to understand the data streams that are continuously being updated. This paper reviews the existing geospatial data visualisation taxonomies that have been developed over the years. Based on the review, an adopted taxonomy for visualisation of geospatial streaming data is presented. Example applications of this taxonomy are also provided. The adopted taxonomy will then be used to develop the information model for the visualisation library in a further study.

  5. Imprementation of Vgi-Based Geoportal for Empowering Citizen's Geospatial Observatories Related to Urban Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghoon

    2016-06-01

    The volunteered geospatial information (VGI) will be efficient and cost-effective method for generating and sharing large disasterrelated geospatial data. The national mapping organizations have played the role of major geospatial collector have been moving toward the considering public participation data collecting method. Due to VGI can conduct to encourage public participation and empower citizens, mapping agency could make a partnership with members of the VGI community to help to provide well-structured geospatial data. In order to effectively be understood and sharing the public semantics, datasets and action model of the public participation GeoPortal, the implemented VGI-GeoPortal designated as the basis of ISO 19154, ISO 19101 and OGC Reference Model. The proof of concepts of VGI-GeoPortal has been implemented urban flooding use-case in Republic of Korea to collect from the public, and analyze disaster-related geospatial data including high-disaster potential information such as the location of poor drainage sewer, small signs of occurring landslide, flooding vulnerability of urban structure, and etc.

  6. Geospatial Information Service System Based on GeoSOT Grid & Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Shizhong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the space and earth observation technology, it is important to establish a multi-source, multi-scale and unified cross-platform reference for global data. In practice, the production and maintenance of geospatial data are scattered in different units, and the standard of the data grid varies between departments and systems. All these bring out the disunity of standards among different historical periods or orgnizations. Aiming at geospatial information security library for the national high resolution earth observation, there are some demands for global display, associated retrieval and template applications and other integrated services for geospatial data. Based on GeoSOT grid and encoding theory system, "geospatial information security library information of globally unified grid encoding management" data subdivision organization solutions have been proposed; system-level analyses, researches and designs have been carried out. The experimental results show that the data organization and management method based on GeoSOT can significantly improve the overall efficiency of the geospatial information security service system.

  7. ISSUES ON BUILDING KAZAKHSTAN GEOSPATIAL PORTAL TO IMPLEMENT E-GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sagadiyev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A main issue in developing e-government is about how to integrate and organize many complicated processes and different stakeholders. Interestingly geospatial information provides an efficient framework to integrate and organized them. In particular, it is very useful to integrate the process of land management in e-government with geospatial information framework, since most of land management tasks are related with geospatial properties. In this paper, we present a use-case on the e-government project in Kazakhstan for land management. We develop a geoportal to connect many tasks and different users via geospatial information framework. This geoportal is based on open source geospatial software including GeoServer, PostGIS, and OpenLayers. With this geoportal, we expect three achievements as follows. First we establish a transparent governmental process, which is one of main goal of e-government. Every stakeholder monitors what is happening in land management process. Second, we can significantly reduce the time and efforts in the government process. For example, a grant procedure for a building construction has taken more than one year with more than 50 steps. It is expected that this procedure would be reduced to 2 weeks by the geoportal framework. Third we provide a collaborative environment between different governmental structures via the geoportal, while many conflicts and mismatches have been a critical issue of governmental administration processes.

  8. TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A TAXONOMY FOR VISUALISATION OF STREAMED GEOSPATIAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Sibolla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial data has very specific characteristics that need to be carefully captured in its visualisation, in order for the user and the viewer to gain knowledge from it. The science of visualisation has gained much traction over the last decade as a response to various visualisation challenges. During the development of an open source based, dynamic two-dimensional visualisation library, that caters for geospatial streaming data, it was found necessary to conduct a review of existing geospatial visualisation taxonomies. The review was done in order to inform the design phase of the library development, such that either an existing taxonomy can be adopted or extended to fit the needs at hand. The major challenge in this case is to develop dynamic two dimensional visualisations that enable human interaction in order to assist the user to understand the data streams that are continuously being updated. This paper reviews the existing geospatial data visualisation taxonomies that have been developed over the years. Based on the review, an adopted taxonomy for visualisation of geospatial streaming data is presented. Example applications of this taxonomy are also provided. The adopted taxonomy will then be used to develop the information model for the visualisation library in a further study.

  9. Digital Watermark-based Security Technology for Geo-spatial Graphics Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Peihong; CHEN Yunzhen; MA Jinsong; ZHU Dakui

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a set of techniques of digital watermarking by which copyright and user rights messages are hidden into geo-spatial graphics data, as well as techniques of compressing and encrypting the watermarked geo-spatial graphics data. The technology aims at tracing and resisting the illegal distribution and duplication of the geo-spatial graphics data product, so as to effectively protect the data producer's rights as well as to facilitate the secure sharing of geo-spatial graphics data. So far in the GIS field throughout the world, few researches have been made on digital watermarking. The research is a novel exploration both in the field of security management of geo-spatial graphics data and in the applications of digital watermarking technique. An application software employing the proposed technology has been developed. A number of experimental tests on the 1:500,000 digital bathymetric chart of the South China Sea and 1:10,000 digital topographic map of Jiangsu Province have been conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed technology.

  10. Improving pest risk assessment and management through the aid of geospatial information technology standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Rafoss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of geospatial information over the Internet for the management of risks from invasive alien species is an increasingly important service. The evolution of information technology standards for geospatial data is a key factor to simplify network publishing and exchange of maps and data. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C-geolocation specification is a recent addition that may prove useful for pest risk management. In this article we implement the W3C-geolocation specification and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC mapping standards in a Web browser application for smartphones and tablet computers to improve field surveys for alien invasive species. We report our first season field experiences using this tool for online mapping of plant disease outbreaks and host plant occurrence. It is expected that the improved field data collection tools will result in increased data availability and thereby new opportunities for risk assessment, because data-needs and availability are crucial for species distribution modelling and model-based forecasts of pest establishment potential. Finally, we close with a comment on the future potential of geospatial information standards to enhance the translation from data to decisions regarding pest risks, which should enable earlier detection of emerging risks as well as more robust projections of pest risks in novel areas. The forthcoming standard for processing of geospatial information, the Web Processing Standard (WPS, should open new technological capabilities both for automatic initiation and updating of risk assessment models based on new incoming data, and subsequent early warning.

  11. Issues on Building Kazakhstan Geospatial Portal to Implement E-Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagadiyev, K.; Kang, H. K.; Li, K. J.

    2016-06-01

    A main issue in developing e-government is about how to integrate and organize many complicated processes and different stakeholders. Interestingly geospatial information provides an efficient framework to integrate and organized them. In particular, it is very useful to integrate the process of land management in e-government with geospatial information framework, since most of land management tasks are related with geospatial properties. In this paper, we present a use-case on the e-government project in Kazakhstan for land management. We develop a geoportal to connect many tasks and different users via geospatial information framework. This geoportal is based on open source geospatial software including GeoServer, PostGIS, and OpenLayers. With this geoportal, we expect three achievements as follows. First we establish a transparent governmental process, which is one of main goal of e-government. Every stakeholder monitors what is happening in land management process. Second, we can significantly reduce the time and efforts in the government process. For example, a grant procedure for a building construction has taken more than one year with more than 50 steps. It is expected that this procedure would be reduced to 2 weeks by the geoportal framework. Third we provide a collaborative environment between different governmental structures via the geoportal, while many conflicts and mismatches have been a critical issue of governmental administration processes.

  12. Geospatial Technology Applications and Infrastructure in the Biological Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Erchia, Frank; Getter, James; D'Erchia, Terry D.; Root, Ralph; Stitt, Susan; White, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Executive Summary -- Automated spatial processing technology such as geographic information systems (GIS), telemetry, and satellite-based remote sensing are some of the more recent developments in the long history of geographic inquiry. For millennia, humankind has endeavored to map the Earth's surface and identify spatial relationships. But the precision with which we can locate geographic features has increased exponentially with satellite positioning systems. Remote sensing, GIS, thematic mapping, telemetry, and satellite positioning systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) are tools that greatly enhance the quality and rapidity of analysis of biological resources. These technologies allow researchers, planners, and managers to more quickly and accurately determine appropriate strategies and actions. Researchers and managers can view information from new and varying perspectives using GIS and remote sensing, and GPS receivers allow the researcher or manager to identify the exact location of interest. These geospatial technologies support the mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biological Resources Division (BRD) and the Strategic Science Plan (BRD 1996) by providing a cost-effective and efficient method for collection, analysis, and display of information. The BRD mission is 'to work with others to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources.' A major responsibility of the BRD is to develop and employ advanced technologies needed to synthesize, analyze, and disseminate biological and ecological information. As the Strategic Science Plan (BRD 1996) states, 'fulfilling this mission depends on effectively balancing the immediate need for information to guide management of biological resources with the need for technical assistance and long-range, strategic information to understand and predict emerging patterns and trends in ecological systems

  13. Identification of phreatophytic groundwater dependent ecosystems using geospatial technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Hoyos, Isabel Cristina

    The protection of groundwater dependent ecosystems (GDEs) is increasingly being recognized as an essential aspect for the sustainable management and allocation of water resources. Ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and for a variety of flora and fauna. However, the conservation of GDEs is only possible if knowledge about their location and extent is available. Several studies have focused on the identification of GDEs at specific locations using ground-based measurements. However, recent progress in technologies such as remote sensing and their integration with geographic information systems (GIS) has provided alternative ways to map GDEs at much larger spatial extents. This study is concerned with the discovery of patterns in geospatial data sets using data mining techniques for mapping phreatophytic GDEs in the United States at 1 km spatial resolution. A methodology to identify the probability of an ecosystem to be groundwater dependent is developed. Probabilities are obtained by modeling the relationship between the known locations of GDEs and main factors influencing groundwater dependency, namely water table depth (WTD) and aridity index (AI). A methodology is proposed to predict WTD at 1 km spatial resolution using relevant geospatial data sets calibrated with WTD observations. An ensemble learning algorithm called random forest (RF) is used in order to model the distribution of groundwater in three study areas: Nevada, California, and Washington, as well as in the entire United States. RF regression performance is compared with a single regression tree (RT). The comparison is based on contrasting training error, true prediction error, and variable importance estimates of both methods. Additionally, remote sensing variables are omitted from the process of fitting the RF model to the data to evaluate the deterioration in the model performance when these variables are not used as an input. Research results suggest that although the prediction

  14. Geospatial Data Integration for Assessing Landslide Hazard on Engineered Slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P. E.; Mills, J. P.; Barr, S. L.; Birkinshaw, S. J.

    2012-07-01

    Road and rail networks are essential components of national infrastructures, underpinning the economy, and facilitating the mobility of goods and the human workforce. Earthwork slopes such as cuttings and embankments are primary components, and their reliability is of fundamental importance. However, instability and failure can occur, through processes such as landslides. Monitoring the condition of earthworks is a costly and continuous process for network operators, and currently, geospatial data is largely underutilised. The research presented here addresses this by combining airborne laser scanning and multispectral aerial imagery to develop a methodology for assessing landslide hazard. This is based on the extraction of key slope stability variables from the remotely sensed data. The methodology is implemented through numerical modelling, which is parameterised with the slope stability information, simulated climate conditions, and geotechnical properties. This allows determination of slope stability (expressed through the factor of safety) for a range of simulated scenarios. Regression analysis is then performed in order to develop a functional model relating slope stability to the input variables. The remotely sensed raster datasets are robustly re-sampled to two-dimensional cross-sections to facilitate meaningful interpretation of slope behaviour and mapping of landslide hazard. Results are stored in a geodatabase for spatial analysis within a GIS environment. For a test site located in England, UK, results have shown the utility of the approach in deriving practical hazard assessment information. Outcomes were compared to the network operator's hazard grading data, and show general agreement. The utility of the slope information was also assessed with respect to auto-population of slope geometry, and found to deliver significant improvements over the network operator's existing field-based approaches.

  15. Smart sensor-based geospatial architecture for dike monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herle, S.; Becker, R.; Blankenbach, J.

    2016-04-01

    Artificial hydraulic structures like dams or dikes used for water level regulations or flood prevention are continuously under the influence of the weather and variable river regimes. Thus, ongoing monitoring and simulation is crucial in order to determine the inner condition. Potentially life-threatening situations, in extreme case a failure, must be counteracted by all available means. Nowadays flood warning systems rely exclusively on water level forecast without considering the state of the structure itself. Area-covering continuous knowledge of the inner state including time dependent changes increases the capability of recognizing and locating vulnerable spots for early treatment. In case of a predicted breach, advance warning time for alerting affected citizens can be extended. Our approach is composed of smart sensors integrated in a service-oriented geospatial architecture to monitor and simulate artificial hydraulic structures continuously. The sensors observe the inner state of the construction like the soil moisture or the stress and deformation over time but also various external influences like water levels or wind speed. They are interconnected in distributed network architecture by a so-called sensor bus system based on lightweight protocols like Message Queue Telemetry Transport for Sensor Networks (MQTT-SN). These sensor data streams are transferred into an OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) data structure providing high-level geo web services to end users. Bundled with 3rd party geo web services (WMS etc.) powerful processing and simulation tools can be invoked using the Web Processing Service (WPS) standard. Results will be visualized in a geoportal allowing user access to all information.

  16. Quantifying environmental limiting factors on tree cover using geospatial data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Greenberg

    Full Text Available Environmental limiting factors (ELFs are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1 Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2 How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3 To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET and PET minus precipitation (PET-P as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4 environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25% were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60% were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range.

  17. Effective Management of Trans boundary Landscapes - Geospatial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotru, R.; Rawal, R. S.; Mathur, P. K.; Chettri, N.; Chaudhari, S. A.; Uddin, K.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Singh, S.

    2014-11-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity advocates the use of landscape and ecosystem approaches for managing biodiversity, in recognition of the need for increased regional cooperation. In this context, ICIMOD and regional partners have evolved Transboundary Landscape concept to address the issues of conservation and sustainable use of natural resources and systems (e.g., biodiversity, rangelands, farming systems, forests, wetlands, and watersheds, etc.). This concept defines the landscapes by ecosystems rather than political/administrative boundaries. The Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is extremely heterogeneous, with complex inter linkages of biomes and habitats as well as strong upstream-downstream linkages related to the provisioning of ecosystem services. Seven such transboundary landscapes, identified across west to east extent of HKH, have been considered for programmatic cooperation, include: Wakhan, Karakoram-Pamir, Kailash, Everest, Kangchenjunga, Brahmaputra-Salween, and Cherrapunjee- Chittagong. The approach is people centered and considers the cultural conservation as an essential first step towards resource conservation efforts in the region. Considering the multi-scale requirements of study, the geospatial technology has been effectively adopted towards: (i) understanding temporal changes in landscapes, (ii) long term ecological and social monitoring, (ii) identifying potential bio corridors, (iii) assessing landscape level vulnerability due to climatic and non-climatic drivers, and (iv) developing local plans on extractions of high value economic species supporting livelihoods, agroforestry system and ecotourism, etc. We present here our recent experiences across different landscapes on assessment of three decadal changes, vegetation type mapping, assessment of socio-ecological drivers, corridor assessment, ecosystem services assessment, models for optimal natural resource use systems and long term socio-ecological monitoring.

  18. Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the

  19. Validation techniques of agent based modelling for geospatial simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, M.; Ahmadi, G.

    2014-10-01

    One of the most interesting aspects of modelling and simulation study is to describe the real world phenomena that have specific properties; especially those that are in large scales and have dynamic and complex behaviours. Studying these phenomena in the laboratory is costly and in most cases it is impossible. Therefore, Miniaturization of world phenomena in the framework of a model in order to simulate the real phenomena is a reasonable and scientific approach to understand the world. Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) is a new modelling method comprising of multiple interacting agent. They have been used in the different areas; for instance, geographic information system (GIS), biology, economics, social science and computer science. The emergence of ABM toolkits in GIS software libraries (e.g. ESRI's ArcGIS, OpenMap, GeoTools, etc) for geospatial modelling is an indication of the growing interest of users to use of special capabilities of ABMS. Since ABMS is inherently similar to human cognition, therefore it could be built easily and applicable to wide range applications than a traditional simulation. But a key challenge about ABMS is difficulty in their validation and verification. Because of frequent emergence patterns, strong dynamics in the system and the complex nature of ABMS, it is hard to validate and verify ABMS by conventional validation methods. Therefore, attempt to find appropriate validation techniques for ABM seems to be necessary. In this paper, after reviewing on Principles and Concepts of ABM for and its applications, the validation techniques and challenges of ABM validation are discussed.

  20. Validation techniques of agent based modelling for geospatial simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Darvishi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting aspects of modelling and simulation study is to describe the real world phenomena that have specific properties; especially those that are in large scales and have dynamic and complex behaviours. Studying these phenomena in the laboratory is costly and in most cases it is impossible. Therefore, Miniaturization of world phenomena in the framework of a model in order to simulate the real phenomena is a reasonable and scientific approach to understand the world. Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS is a new modelling method comprising of multiple interacting agent. They have been used in the different areas; for instance, geographic information system (GIS, biology, economics, social science and computer science. The emergence of ABM toolkits in GIS software libraries (e.g. ESRI’s ArcGIS, OpenMap, GeoTools, etc for geospatial modelling is an indication of the growing interest of users to use of special capabilities of ABMS. Since ABMS is inherently similar to human cognition, therefore it could be built easily and applicable to wide range applications than a traditional simulation. But a key challenge about ABMS is difficulty in their validation and verification. Because of frequent emergence patterns, strong dynamics in the system and the complex nature of ABMS, it is hard to validate and verify ABMS by conventional validation methods. Therefore, attempt to find appropriate validation techniques for ABM seems to be necessary. In this paper, after reviewing on Principles and Concepts of ABM for and its applications, the validation techniques and challenges of ABM validation are discussed.

  1. SRST2: Rapid genomic surveillance for public health and hospital microbiology labs

    OpenAIRE

    Inouye, Michael; Dashnow, Harriet; Raven, Lesley-Ann; Schultz, Mark B.; Pope, Bernard J; Tomita, Takehiro; Zobel, Justin; Holt, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid molecular typing of bacterial pathogens is critical for public health epidemiology, surveillance and infection control, yet routine use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for these purposes poses significant challenges. Here we present SRST2, a read mapping-based tool for fast and accurate detection of genes, alleles and multi-locus sequence types (MLST) from WGS data. Using >900 genomes from common pathogens, we show SRST2 is highly accurate and outperforms assembly-based methods in term...

  2. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the ...

  3. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulford, Roberta Nancy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This lecture discusses stockpile stewardship efforts and the role surveillance plays in the process. Performance of the RTGs is described, and the question of the absence of anticipated He is addressed.

  4. Cyber surveillance for flood disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    ... river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image...

  5. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 8 -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 8 (ASR-8) is a short-range (60 nautical mile (nmi)), analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  6. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 7 -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 7 (ASR-7) is a short-range (60 nautical miles (nmi)) analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  7. Avian mortality surveillance for West Nile virus in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Beckett, Susan; Edwards, Eric; Klenk, Kaci; Komar, Nicholas

    2007-03-01

    We tested 1,549 avian carcasses of 104 species to identify targets for West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance in Colorado, determine species affected by WNV, compare virus isolation versus RNA detection applied to hearts and oral swabs from carcasses, and compare the VecTest WNV Antigen Assay (VecTest) to standard assays. Forty-two species tested positive. From June to September 2003, 86% of corvids, 34% of non-corvid passerines, and 37% of raptors tested positive. We developed the Target Species Index, which identified American crows as the most important avian indicator species. However, testing multiple species maximizes detection, which may be important early and late in the transmission season. This index may benefit surveillance for other zoonotic pathogens, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus. VecTest using oral swabs was most sensitive for American crow, black-billed magpie, house finch, house sparrow, and American kestrel. Wildlife rehabilitation centers should be recruited to enhance WNV surveillance.

  8. Development of the Observational Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Rieutort, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Impact of population on the environment, and conversely, is obvious and represents a real challenge for Public Health since 2000. It has been shown an increase in cancer prevalence, respiratory disease or even reproductive disorders, for which multifactorial origins are strongly suspected. In this context, surveillance has become an essential tool to decision making in public health, and surveillance networks of health events are multiplying, giving rise to numerous databases (sometimes consi...

  9. Syndromic surveillance: A local perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The promise of syndromic surveillance extends beyond early warning for bioterrorist attacks. Even if bioterrorism is first detected by an astute clinician, syndromic surveillance can help delineate the size, location, and tempo of the epidemic or provide reassurance that a large outbreak is not occurring when a single case or a small, localized cluster of an unusual illness is detected. More broadly, however, as public health and medicine proceed in our information age, the use of existing el...

  10. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  11. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  12. Assessment of forest geospatial patterns over the three giant forest areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-shi; ZHU Zhi-liang; LU Heng; XU Da; LIU An-xing; PENG Shi-kui

    2008-01-01

    Geospatial patterns of forest fragmentation over the three traditional giant forested areas of China (Northeastern, southwestern and Southern China) were analyzed comparatively and reported based on a 250-m resolution land cover dataset. Specifically, the spatial patterns of forest fragmentation were characterized by combining geospatial metrics and forest fragmentation models. The driving forces resulting in the differences of the forest spatial patterns were also investigated. Results suggested that forests in southwest China had the highest severity of forest fragmentation, followed by south region and northeast region. The driving forces of forest fragmentation in China were primarily the giant population and improper exploitation of forests. In conclusion, the generated information in the study provided valuable insights and implications as to the fragmentation patterns and the conservation of biodiversity or genes, and the use of the chosen geospatial metrics and forest fragmentation models was quite useful for depicting forest fragmentation patterns.

  13. Geospatial datasets for watershed delineation and characterization used in the Hawaii StreamStats web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Hawaii StreamStats application uses an integrated suite of raster and vector geospatial datasets to delineate and characterize watersheds. The geospatial datasets used to delineate and characterize watersheds on the StreamStats website, and the methods used to develop the datasets are described in this report. The datasets for Hawaii were derived primarily from 10 meter resolution National Elevation Dataset (NED) elevation models, and the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD), using a set of procedures designed to enforce the drainage pattern from the NHD into the NED, resulting in an integrated suite of elevation-derived datasets. Additional sources of data used for computing basin characteristics include precipitation, land cover, soil permeability, and elevation-derivative datasets. The report also includes links for metadata and downloads of the geospatial datasets.

  14. The role of geospatial data in management of Croatian national parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran ŠIKIĆ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature protection, especially protection of most valuable parts enclosed in national parks and nature parks is today unthinkable without quality and updated geospatial data organized in efficient geographical information systems. Due to the fact that modern management today is based on geospatial information it resulted with definition of spatial data infrastructure concept. On the national level nature protection is also enclosed with national spatial data infrastructure so that creation and usage of geospatial information hast to be conducted in synergy between the stakeholders of the national infrastructure. For the purpose of synergetic cooperation models development and solving of present problems, Ministry of culture – Nature protection directorate, State geodetic administration and State institute for nature protection have in cooperation with the Norwegian mapping and cadastre authority (Statens kartverk accomplished PAMS (Protected Area Management System project on the location of National park Kornati. Results and findings accomplished through this project are presented in this article.

  15. KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE – AN INITIAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Alsultan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al. implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.

  16. Geospatial Information Relevant to the Flood Protection Available on The Mainstream Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kliment Tomáš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter “Geocatalogue” - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc. and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc. within the domain of flood protection.

  17. Geospatial Information Relevant to the Flood Protection Available on The Mainstream Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliment, Tomáš; Gálová, Linda; Ďuračiová, Renata; Fencík, Róbert; Kliment, Marcel

    2014-03-01

    Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter "Geocatalogue") - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc.) and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc.) within the domain of flood protection.

  18. Promising Practices in Building Geospatial Academic Pathways and Educator Capacity: Findings from a Multiyear Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, B.; Wilkerson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Geospatial technology, including geographical information systems, global positioning systems, remote sensing and the analysis and interpretation of spatial data, is a rapidly growing industry in the United States and touches almost every discipline from business to the environment to health and sciences. The demand for a larger and more qualified geospatial workforce is simultaneously increasing. The GeoTEd project aims to meet this demand in Virginia and the surrounding region by 1) developing academic-to-workforce pathways, 2) providing professional development for educators, and 3) increasing student participation and impact. Since 2009, Magnolia Consulting has been evaluating the GeoTEd project, particularly its professional development work through the GeoTEd Institute. This presentation will provide a look into the challenges and successes of GeoTEd, and examine its impact on the geospatial academic pathways in the Virginia region. The presentation will highlight promising elements of this project that could serve as models for other endeavors.

  19. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Administrative and political boundaries and offshore sand resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics Geopdf of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, military areas, marine protected areas, cultural resources, locations of submerged cables, and shipping routes. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in the administrative and political boundaries of Florida's coastal and offshore region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will find that they have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers.

  20. Working to define data curated geospatial services on a Research Campus, a Purdue University Libraries Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, B. D.; Kong, N.; Fosmire, M.; Rousi, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    As Data Curation is becoming a necessity of data science and library science, Purdue University Libraries has been a leader in data curation profiles research. Such research can be defined as a data stewardship protocol similar to a multiple use case analysis. In this this example, The Purdue University Libraries Geographical Information Systems (GIS) department has engaged in a data curation profiles assessment of the campus to baseline and qualify sustainable geospatial data services. It is the intent that other libraries will consider this IRB approved approach of grounded theory to assessment the geospatial data service capacity and potential on a parametric scale. Provided is the status of such research and the some highlights or considerations in the establishment of sustainable geospatial data services that include a full data curated lifecycle. Noted here are some of the essential engagement endeavors of the research.

  1. The Impact of a Geospatial Technology-Supported Energy Curriculum on Middle School Students' Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulo, Violet; Bodzin, Alec

    2013-02-01

    Geospatial technologies are increasingly being integrated in science classrooms to foster learning. This study examined whether a Web-enhanced science inquiry curriculum supported by geospatial technologies promoted urban middle school students' understanding of energy concepts. The participants included one science teacher and 108 eighth-grade students classified in three ability level tracks. Data were gathered through pre/posttest content knowledge assessments, daily classroom observations, and daily reflective meetings with the teacher. Findings indicated a significant increase in the energy content knowledge for all the students. Effect sizes were large for all three ability level tracks, with the middle and low track classes having larger effect sizes than the upper track class. Learners in all three tracks were highly engaged with the curriculum. Curriculum effectiveness and practical issues involved with using geospatial technologies to support science learning are discussed.

  2. Architecture of a Process Broker for Interoperable Geospatial Modeling on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Bigagli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of appropriate mechanisms for process sharing and reuse by means of composition is considered a key enabler for the effective uptake of a global Earth Observation infrastructure, currently pursued by the international geospatial research community. Modelers in need of running complex workflows may benefit from outsourcing process composition to a dedicated external service, according to the brokering approach. This work introduces our architecture of a process broker, as a distributed information system for creating, validating, editing, storing, publishing and executing geospatial-modeling workflows. The broker provides a service framework for adaptation, reuse and complementation of existing processing resources (including models and geospatial services in general in the form of interoperable, executable workflows. The described solution has been experimentally applied in several use scenarios in the context of EU-funded projects and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems.

  3. Landscape epidemiology and machine learning: A geospatial approach to modeling West Nile virus risk in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean Gregory

    The complex interactions between human health and the physical landscape and environment have been recognized, if not fully understood, since the ancient Greeks. Landscape epidemiology, sometimes called spatial epidemiology, is a sub-discipline of medical geography that uses environmental conditions as explanatory variables in the study of disease or other health phenomena. This theory suggests that pathogenic organisms (whether germs or larger vector and host species) are subject to environmental conditions that can be observed on the landscape, and by identifying where such organisms are likely to exist, areas at greatest risk of the disease can be derived. Machine learning is a sub-discipline of artificial intelligence that can be used to create predictive models from large and complex datasets. West Nile virus (WNV) is a relatively new infectious disease in the United States, and has a fairly well-understood transmission cycle that is believed to be highly dependent on environmental conditions. This study takes a geospatial approach to the study of WNV risk, using both landscape epidemiology and machine learning techniques. A combination of remotely sensed and in situ variables are used to predict WNV incidence with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.86. A novel method of mitigating the small numbers problem is also tested and ultimately discarded. Finally a consistent spatial pattern of model errors is identified, indicating the chosen variables are capable of predicting WNV disease risk across most of the United States, but are inadequate in the northern Great Plains region of the US.

  4. Geospatial Data Availability for Haiti: An Aid in the Development of GIS-Based Natural Resource Assessments for Conservation Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya Quinones; William Gould; Carlos D. Rodriguez-Pedraza

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the type and source of geospatial data available for Haiti. It was compiled to serve as a resource for geographic information system (GIS)-based land management and planning. It will be useful for conservation planning, reforestation efforts, and agricultural extension projects. Our study indicates that there is a great deal of geospatial...

  5. Relevance of indirect transmission for wildlife disease surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lange

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological models of infectious diseases are essential tools in support of risk assessment, surveillance design and contingency planning in public and animal health. Direct pathogen transmission from host to host is an essential process of each host-pathogen system and respective epidemiological modelling concepts. It is widely accepted that numerous diseases involve indirect transmission through pathogens shed by infectious hosts to their environment. However, epidemiological models largely do not represent pathogen persistence outside the host explicitly. We hypothesize that this simplification might bias management-related model predictions for disease agents that can persist outside their host for a certain time span. We adapted an individual-based, spatially explicit epidemiological model that can mimic both transmission processes. One version explicitly simulated indirect pathogen transmission through a contaminated environment. A second version simulated direct host-to-host transmission only. We aligned the model variants by the transmission potential per infectious host (i.e. basic reproductive number R0 and the spatial transmission kernel of the infection to allow unbiased comparison of predictions. The quantitative model results are provided for the example of surveillance plans for early detection of foot-and-mouth disease in wild boar, a social host.We applied systematic sampling strategies on the serological status of randomly selected host individuals in both models. We compared between the model variants the time to detection and the area affected prior to detection, measures that strongly influence mitigation costs. Moreover, the ideal sampling strategy to detect the infection in a given time frame was compared between both models.We found the simplified, direct transmission model to underestimate necessary sample size by up to one order of magnitude, but to overestimate the area put under control measures. Thus, the model

  6. Geospatial-temporal semantic graph representations of trajectories from remote sensing and geolocation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, David Nikolaus; Brost, Randolph; Ray, Lawrence P.

    2017-08-08

    Various technologies for facilitating analysis of large remote sensing and geolocation datasets to identify features of interest are described herein. A search query can be submitted to a computing system that executes searches over a geospatial temporal semantic (GTS) graph to identify features of interest. The GTS graph comprises nodes corresponding to objects described in the remote sensing and geolocation datasets, and edges that indicate geospatial or temporal relationships between pairs of nodes in the nodes. Trajectory information is encoded in the GTS graph by the inclusion of movable nodes to facilitate searches for features of interest in the datasets relative to moving objects such as vehicles.

  7. Reviews of Geospatial Information Technology and Collaborative Data Delivery for Disaster Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Miyazaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that geospatial information technology is considered necessary for disaster risk management (DRM, the need for more effective collaborations between providers and end users in data delivery is increasing. This paper reviews the following: (i schemes of disaster risk management and collaborative data operation in DRM; (ii geospatial information technology in terms of applications to the schemes reviewed; and (iii ongoing practices of collaborative data delivery with the schemes reviewed. This paper concludes by discussing the future of collaborative data delivery and the progress of the technologies.

  8. Transportation of Large Wind Components: A Review of Existing Geospatial Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, Meghan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maclaurin, Galen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report features the geospatial data component of a larger project evaluating logistical and infrastructure requirements for transporting oversized and overweight (OSOW) wind components. The goal of the larger project was to assess the status and opportunities for improving the infrastructure and regulatory practices necessary to transport wind turbine towers, blades, and nacelles from current and potential manufacturing facilities to end-use markets. The purpose of this report is to summarize existing geospatial data on wind component transportation infrastructure and to provide a data gap analysis, identifying areas for further analysis and data collection.

  9. Introduction to the Special Issue: Geospatial Monitoring and Modeling of Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duccio Rocchini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial modeling is an approach to apply analysis to monitor environmental change over time considering different fields of re-search, including computer science, remote sensing, ecology, environmental science, life science, geography (see [1,2] for a critique. The special issue was instigated to publish straightforward research on the matter in order to stimulate further discussion on the potential of geospatial modelling. Both theoretical and empirical papers are part of the issue with the support of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, promoting an advanced forum for the science and technology of geographic information.

  10. Geospatial Applications on Different Parallel and Distributed Systems in enviroGRIDS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodila, D.; Bacu, V.; Gorgan, D.

    2012-04-01

    The execution of Earth Science applications and services on parallel and distributed systems has become a necessity especially due to the large amounts of Geospatial data these applications require and the large geographical areas they cover. The parallelization of these applications comes to solve important performance issues and can spread from task parallelism to data parallelism as well. Parallel and distributed architectures such as Grid, Cloud, Multicore, etc. seem to offer the necessary functionalities to solve important problems in the Earth Science domain: storing, distribution, management, processing and security of Geospatial data, execution of complex processing through task and data parallelism, etc. A main goal of the FP7-funded project enviroGRIDS (Black Sea Catchment Observation and Assessment System supporting Sustainable Development) [1] is the development of a Spatial Data Infrastructure targeting this catchment region but also the development of standardized and specialized tools for storing, analyzing, processing and visualizing the Geospatial data concerning this area. For achieving these objectives, the enviroGRIDS deals with the execution of different Earth Science applications, such as hydrological models, Geospatial Web services standardized by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and others, on parallel and distributed architecture to maximize the obtained performance. This presentation analysis the integration and execution of Geospatial applications on different parallel and distributed architectures and the possibility of choosing among these architectures based on application characteristics and user requirements through a specialized component. Versions of the proposed platform have been used in enviroGRIDS project on different use cases such as: the execution of Geospatial Web services both on Web and Grid infrastructures [2] and the execution of SWAT hydrological models both on Grid and Multicore architectures [3]. The current

  11. Participating in the Geospatial Web: Collaborative Mapping, Social Networks and Participatory GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, L. Jesse; Bergeron, Susan J.; Harris, Trevor M.

    In 2005, Google, Microsoft and Yahoo! released free Web mapping applications that opened up digital mapping to mainstream Internet users. Importantly, these companies also released free APIs for their platforms, allowing users to geo-locate and map their own data. These initiatives have spurred the growth of the Geospatial Web and represent spatially aware online communities and new ways of enabling communities to share information from the bottom up. This chapter explores how the emerging Geospatial Web can meet some of the fundamental needs of Participatory GIS projects to incorporate local knowledge into GIS, as well as promote public access and collaborative mapping.

  12. Organizational needs for managing and preserving geospatial data and related electronic records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Downs

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Government agencies and other organizations are required to manage and preserve records that they create and use to facilitate future access and reuse. The increasing use of geospatial data and related electronic records presents new challenges for these organizations, which have relied on traditional practices for managing and preserving records in printed form. This article reports on an investigation of current and future needs for managing and preserving geospatial electronic records on the part of localand state-level organizations in the New York City metropolitan region. It introduces the study and describes organizational needs observed, including needs for organizational coordination and interorganizational cooperation throughout the entire data lifecycle.

  13. High Performance Processing and Analysis of Geospatial Data Using CUDA on GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOJANOVIC, N.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the high-performance processing of massive geospatial data on many-core GPU (Graphic Processing Unit is presented. We use CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture programming framework to implement parallel processing of common Geographic Information Systems (GIS algorithms, such as viewshed analysis and map-matching. Experimental evaluation indicates the improvement in performance with respect to CPU-based solutions and shows feasibility of using GPU and CUDA for parallel implementation of GIS algorithms over large-scale geospatial datasets.

  14. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi

  15. The use of geospatial web services for exchanging utilities data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczyńska, Joanna

    2013-04-01

    Geographic information technologies and related geo-information systems currently play an important role in the management of public administration in Poland. One of these tasks is to maintain and update Geodetic Evidence of Public Utilities (GESUT), part of the National Geodetic and Cartographic Resource, which contains an important for many institutions information of technical infrastructure. It requires an active exchange of data between the Geodesy and Cartography Documentation Centers and institutions, which administrate transmission lines. The administrator of public utilities, is legally obliged to provide information about utilities to GESUT. The aim of the research work was to develop a universal data exchange methodology, which can be implemented on a variety of hardware and software platforms. This methodology use Unified Modeling Language (UML), eXtensible Markup Language (XML), and Geography Markup Language (GML). The proposed methodology is based on the two different strategies: Model Driven Architecture (MDA) and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Used solutions are consistent with the INSPIRE Directive and ISO 19100 series standards for geographic information. On the basis of analysis of the input data structures, conceptual models were built for both databases. Models were written in the universal modeling language: UML. Combined model that defines a common data structure was also built. This model was transformed into developed for the exchange of geographic information GML standard. The structure of the document describing the data that may be exchanged is defined in the .xsd file. Network services were selected and implemented in the system designed for data exchange based on open source tools. Methodology was implemented and tested. Data in the agreed data structure and metadata were set up on the server. Data access was provided by geospatial network services: data searching possibilities by Catalog Service for the Web (CSW), data

  16. Biosecurity and geospatial analysis of mycoplasma infections in poultry farms at Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi region of Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammon, Abdulwahab; Mulatti, Paolo; Lorenzetto, Monica; Ferre, Nicola; Sharif, Monier; Eldaghayes, Ibrahim; Dayhum, Abdunaser

    2017-01-01

    Geospatial database of farm locations and biosecurity measures are essential to control disease outbreaks. A study was conducted to establish geospatial database on poultry farms in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi region of Libya, to evaluate the biosecurity level of each farm and to determine the seroprevalence of mycoplasma and its relation to biosecurity level. A field team of 7 Veterinarians belongs to the National Center of Animal Health was assigned for data recording and collection of blood samples. Personal information of the producers, geographical locations, biosecurity measures and description of the poultry farms were recorded. The total number of poultry farms in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi Region is 461 farms distributed in 13 cities. Out of these, 102 broiler farms and one broiler breeder farm (10 houses) which were in operation during team visit were included in this study. Following collection of blood, sera were separated and tested by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies against Mycoplasma (General antigen for M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae). The seroprevalence of Mycoplasma in the region was 28% (29 poultry farms out of 103 were infected). About 50% (23 out of 47) of poultry farms located in Garian city were infected with Mycoplasma and one significant cluster of Mycoplasma infection in the city was identified. Low level of biosecurity was found in poultry farms of the region. Out of the 103 farms included, 63% of poultry houses has a ground of soil and 44% of them has uncoated walls which may influence the proper cleaning and disinfection. Almost 100% of the farms are at risk of exposure to diseases transmitted by wild birds such as avian influenza and Newcastle disease due to absence of wild birds control program. Although, 81% of the farms have entry restrictions, only 20% have disinfectants at entry which increase the risk of exposure to pathogens. The results of this study highlight the weakness points of biosecurity

  17. Biosecurity and geospatial analysis of mycoplasma infections in poultry farms at Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi region of Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwahab Kammon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial database of farm locations and biosecurity measures are essential to control disease outbreaks. A study was conducted to establish geospatial database on poultry farms in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi region of Libya, to evaluate the biosecurity level of each farm and to determine the seroprevalence of mycoplasma and its relation to biosecurity level. A field team of 7 Veterinarians belongs to the National Center of Animal Health was assigned for data recording and collection of blood samples. Personal information of the producers, geographical locations, biosecurity measures and description of the poultry farms were recorded. The total number of poultry farms in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi Region is 461 farms distributed in 13 cities. Out of these, 102 broiler farms and one broiler breeder farm (10 houses which were in operation during team visit were included in this study. Following collection of blood, sera were separated and tested by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the presence of antibodies against Mycoplasma (General antigen for M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae. The seroprevalence of Mycoplasma in the region was 28% (29 poultry farms out of 103 were infected. About 50% (23 out of 47 of poultry farms located in Garian city were infected with Mycoplasma and one significant cluster of Mycoplasma infection in the city was identified. Low level of biosecurity was found in poultry farms of the region. Out of the 103 farms included, 63% of poultry houses has a ground of soil and 44% of them has uncoated walls which may influence the proper cleaning and disinfection. Almost 100% of the farms are at risk of exposure to diseases transmitted by wild birds such as avian influenza and Newcastle disease due to absence of wild birds control program. Although, 81% of the farms have entry restrictions, only 20% have disinfectants at entry which increase the risk of exposure to pathogens. The results of this study highlight the weakness points of

  18. 2013年长沙市妇幼保健院病原菌监测及细菌耐药性分析%Surveillance of Pathogenic Bacterium and Analysis of Bacterial Resistance in Changsha Maternal and Child Health Hospital in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娜; 谭秋荣; 邓倩; 李莉明; 喻南慧

    2014-01-01

    Objective] To understand the resistance of clinical isolates obtained from Changsha maternal and child health hospital in 2013 to commonly used antimicrobial agents .[Methods]Kirby‐Bauer(K‐B) method was used for anti‐bacterial drug susceptibility test of 1882 stains of bacteria isolated from our hospital in 2013 .According to 2013 national committee for clinical and laboratory standards institute(CLSI) ,the results were analyzed .[Results] A total of 1882 pathogenic strains were clinically isolated and included 557 Gram‐positive bacteria(29 .60% ) ,803 Gram‐negative bacteria (42 .67% ) and 522 fungi(27 .73% ) .Among Gram‐positive bacteria ,the detection rate of methicillin resistant staphylo‐coccus aureus(MASA) was 32 .94% ,and vancomycin and linezolid‐resistant staphylococcus aureus were not found ,and the sensitivity of staphylococcus epidermidis to oxacillin was high(90 .32% ) ,and the Enterococcus faecalis was sensitive to ampicillin and the resistant rate was 6 .25% ,and the sensitivity of Streptococcus agalactiae to ampicillin was 100% .A‐mong Gram‐negative bacteria ,Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia producing the extended spectrum beta‐lactamases (ESBLs) were not found ,and the sensitivity of Moraxelle catarrhalis to Ampicillin and Sulbactam was 100% ,and the re‐sistance rate of Haemophilus influenzae to Ampicillin and Sulbactam was 8 .51% .[Conclusion] Regular surveillance of bacterial drug resistance is helpful to understand the transition of bacterial drug resistance and can provide a theoretical ba‐sis for rational administration .%目的 了解2013年长沙市妇幼保健院临床分离菌株对常用抗菌药物的耐药性。方法 对本院2013年临床分离的1882株细菌采用K‐B法进行抗菌药物敏感试验,按美国临床实验室标准化协会(CLSI)2013年版判断结果。结果 临床分离菌株共1882株,其中革兰阳性菌557株(29.60%),革兰阴性菌803株(42.67

  19. OpenSearch technology for geospatial resources discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papeschi, Fabrizio; Enrico, Boldrini; Mazzetti, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    In 2005, the term Web 2.0 has been coined by Tim O'Reilly to describe a quickly growing set of Web-based applications that share a common philosophy of "mutually maximizing collective intelligence and added value for each participant by formalized and dynamic information sharing". Around this same period, OpenSearch a new Web 2.0 technology, was developed. More properly, OpenSearch is a collection of technologies that allow publishing of search results in a format suitable for syndication and aggregation. It is a way for websites and search engines to publish search results in a standard and accessible format. Due to its strong impact on the way the Web is perceived by users and also due its relevance for businesses, Web 2.0 has attracted the attention of both mass media and the scientific community. This explosive growth in popularity of Web 2.0 technologies like OpenSearch, and practical applications of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) resulted in an increased interest in similarities, convergence, and a potential synergy of these two concepts. SOA is considered as the philosophy of encapsulating application logic in services with a uniformly defined interface and making these publicly available via discovery mechanisms. Service consumers may then retrieve these services, compose and use them according to their current needs. A great degree of similarity between SOA and Web 2.0 may be leading to a convergence between the two paradigms. They also expose divergent elements, such as the Web 2.0 support to the human interaction in opposition to the typical SOA machine-to-machine interaction. According to these considerations, the Geospatial Information (GI) domain, is also moving first steps towards a new approach of data publishing and discovering, in particular taking advantage of the OpenSearch technology. A specific GI niche is represented by the OGC Catalog Service for Web (CSW) that is part of the OGC Web Services (OWS) specifications suite, which provides a

  20. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis (CS is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Treponema pallidum IgM Western Blot (WB and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of CS during a prospective surveillance study carried out at St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 through June 2010. All pregnant women during pregnancy and at delivery were screened for syphilis by ARCHITECT® Syphilis TP, Abbott. Positive samples were further analysed by Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test (TPHA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests, Radim.An in-house Western Blot (WB was also performed. Infants born to syphilis seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow up. At birth, tests were performed (including IgM WB. Infants with positive RPR tests at birth born to mothers not adequately treated received also a long bone radiograph as well as a complete CSF analysis, including Veneral Disease Research Laboratori (VDRL (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and PCR testing. All seroreactive infants received careful follow up examinations and serological testing at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 months or until the tests became negative. In this study, positive syphilis serology was noted in 151 pregnant women delivering in our hospital. Fifteen women had never been adequately treated, and 9 out 15 gave birth to infected newborns.All these 9 infants had positive IgM WB results on serum samples. Two babies had characteristic long bone lesions at X-ray examination and 3 were born