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Sample records for georgian children pilot

  1. Old Georgian Astronomical Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonia, I.

    2004-12-01

    A general overview of Georgian astronomical manuscripts is given, and the contents of a few, dating from the 12th to the 19th centuries, are given. A partial translation and commentary of manuscript A883, entitled "Cosmos", and dating from the 18th century, is presented.

  2. Associated factors for recommending HBV vaccination to children among Georgian health care workers

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    Butsashvili Maia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cases of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and subsequent liver diseases can be prevented with universal newborn HBV vaccination. The attitudes of health care workers about HBV vaccination and their willingness to recommend vaccine have been shown to impact HBV vaccination coverage and the prevention of vertical transmission of HBV. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the factors associated with health care worker recommendations regarding newborn HBV vaccination. Methods A cross-sectional study of prevalence and awareness of hepatitis B and hepatitis B vaccine was conducted among randomly selected physicians and nurses employed in seven hospitals in Georgia in 2006 and 2007. Self-administered questionnaires included a module on recommendations for HBV, HCV and HIV. Results Of the 1328 participants included in this analysis, 36% reported recommending against hepatitis B vaccination for children, including 33% of paediatricians. Among the 70.6% who provided a reason for not recommending HBV vaccine, the most common concern was an adverse vaccine event. Unvaccinated physicians and nurses were more likely to recommend against HBV vaccine (40.4% vs 11.4%, PR 3.54; 95% CI: 2.38, 5.29. Additionally, health care worker age was inversely correlated with recommendations for HBV vaccine with older workers less likely to recommend it. Conclusion Vaccinating health care workers against HBV may provide a dual benefit by boosting occupational safety as well as strengthening universal coverage programs for newborns.

  3. GEORGIAN PRODUCTION PREFABRICATED CERAMIC FIREPLACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaprindashvili, G.; Chemia, M.; Kartozia, L.

    2006-01-01

    General description and basic working principles of new construction prefabricated ceramic fireplace are given. The presented fireplace represents a unique synthesis of various fireplaces distributed in Georgian and some European countries; however, it is distinguished for its higher efficiency and other advantages. (author)

  4. The influence market economy on Georgian family

    OpenAIRE

    Kbiltsetskhlashvili, Tea

    2009-01-01

    In a very short period of time Georgian society and family itself undergone noticeable transformation process from a totalitarian regime to a democracy. In the process of this reforms the country is therefore undergoing significant economic, political, and social changes, which are having an impact on all aspects of public life. This article describes this shifting context and the links between economic hardships, unemployment and the influence of market economy on Georgian family. Article ex...

  5. AES in deficit on Georgian trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TREND

    2003-01-01

    According to Vedomosti journal Russian state energy company RAO JES Rossii paid for Georgian assets acquisition to American company AES only 23 million USD, what is less than a tenth of sum which AES had originally paid for it. Thus total transaction value including debts reached 80 millions USD. But internal documents of American AES confirm that Americans paid 260 millions USD for Georgian assets and they took besides over 60 millions USD of obligations. Russians bought Georgian AES assets through Finnish filial Nordic Oy. Thus they obtained 75 per cent share in Telasi company which operates distributive network in Tbilisi, two blocks of plant in Tbilisi and half share in AES-Transenergy company which exports electric energy from Georgia to Turkey. RAO JES besides got managerial laws on Hramesi company which owns two water plants. Russian company controls one fifth of production and 35 per cent of electric energy sale in Georgia by these assets

  6. Georgian Dublin : architecture and the built environment

    OpenAIRE

    Lucey, Conor

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the digitisation and cataloguing of photographic slides of Dublin’s Georgian architecture which was conducted as part of the UCD Irish Virtual Research Library and Archive (IVRLA) series of demonstrator research projects. The UCD School of Art History and Cultural Policy have a library of photographic slides taken between 1978 and 2005. While these had previously been used for School teaching purposes only, they were long recognized as a potentially significant resource ...

  7. Georgian climate change under global warming conditions

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    Mariam Elizbarashvili

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Georgian Climate change has been considered comprehensively, taking into account World Meteorological Organization recommendations and recent observation data. On the basis of mean temperature and precipitation decadal trend geo-information maps for 1936–2012 years period, Georgian territory zoning has been carried out and for each areas climate indices main trends have been studied, that best characterize climate change - cold and hot days, tropical nights, vegetation period duration, diurnal maximum precipitation, maximum five-day total precipitation, precipitation intensity simple index, precipitation days number of at least 10 mm, 20 mm and 50 mm, rainy and rainless periods duration. Trends of temperature indices are statistically significant. On the Black Sea coastline and Colchis lowland at high confidence level cold and hot days and tropical nights number changes are statistically significant. On eastern Georgia plains at high level of statistical significance, the change of all considered temperature indices has been fixed except for the number of hot days. In mountainous areas only hot day number increasing is significant. Trends of most moisture indices are statistically insignificant. While keeping Georgian climate change current trends, precipitation amount on the Black Sea coastline and Colchis lowland, as well as in some parts of Western Caucasus to the end of the century will increase by 50% and amounts to 3000 and 6000 mm, respectively this will strengthen humidity of those areas. Besides increasing of rainy period duration may constitute the risk for flooding and high waters. On eastern Georgia plains, in particular Kvemo Kartli, annual precipitation amount will decrease by 50% or more, and will be only 150–200 mm and the precipitation daily maximum will decrease by about 20 mm and be only 10–15 mm, which of course will increase the intensity of desertification of steppe and semi-desert landscapes.

  8. EVOLUTIONARY ASPECTS OF THE GEORGIAN BANKING SYSTEM

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    Tamar ATANELISHVILI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Georgian monetary relations have a centuries-old history. Credit associations were first founded in 11-13th centuries. Network of credit institutions became larger in the 19th century – independent commercial banks were established in the second half of the 19th century. Central State Bank of Georgia was established in the Democratic Republic of Georgia in the beginning of the 20th century. At the same time, there were efforts to create independent two-level banking system, although those efforts failed due to forceful sovietization of Georgia. But still, independent banking system was founded in Georgia after the collapse of the former Soviet Union. This work examines afore-mentioned evolutionary processes and some of peculiarities of modern banking system. The research shows that modern Georgian banking system is growing fast but it contains signs of oligopoly which contradicts the interests of vast masses of population and entrepreneurial development, while stimulating retaining of high interest rates and devaluation of national currency.

  9. The role of cooperatives in the Georgian wine industry

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    Kvariani Levani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of the Georgian wine industry is not fully utilized. High fragmentation of agricultural land leads to limited production that restricts farmers' access to capital resources, finances, and markets, and prevents further development of the Georgian wine industry. Grape collectors and wine makers need help to join their capital and efforts, to gain economies of scale in production and marketing by jointly accessing agricultural inputs. This study aims to identify the importance of farmer cooperatives for grape producers in the Georgian wine industry in order to overcome inefficiency in the sector. Furthermore, this research project investigates the barriers and driving forces of smallholder grape farmers or wine makers to join cooperatives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders of the Georgian wine industry in order to assess different perspectives on the importance and benefits of farmer cooperatives in the local context. The interview results permit economic analysis of transaction costs, agency theory and property rights in the context of the nascent cooperative movement in the Georgian wine industry. The interviews revealed that development of agriculture cooperatives in the Georgian wine industry is strongly dependent on both farmer enthusiasm and governmental support.1

  10. Building Parallel Treebanks for Underresourced Languages: a Georgian-Ukrainian Treebank Proposal

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    Oleg Kapanadze

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Building Parallel Treebanks for Underresourced Languages: a Georgian-Ukrainian Treebank Proposal We present outcomes of an undertaking on building a parallel Treebank for the Georgian and the Ukrainian languages, which is a “side product” of the GRUG multilingual Treebank project. The GRUG acronym stands for the German- Russian-Ukrainian-Georgian Treebank intended for contrastive studies and translation memory systems. The monolingual Ukrainian and Georgian parallel sentences were syntactically annotated manually using the Synpathy tool. Tagsets for both languages follow an adapted version of the German TIGER guidelines with necessary changes relevant for the Georgian and the Ukrainian grammar formal description. An output of the monolingual syntactic annotation is in the TIGER-XML format.  Alignment of monolingual resources into a bilingual Georgian-Ukrainian Treebank was done by the Stockholm TreeAligner software.

  11. Georgian – Turkish Relations since the Breakdown of Soviet Union

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    Fatih Mehmet SAYIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Georgian - Turkish relations since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Georgia managed to establish relations with Turkey only after gaining independence. Nowadays Georgia has very close relations with its Southern neighbor. Due to its strategic location, Georgia occupies a significant place in Turkish foreign policy. Georgia is a necessary bridge connecting Turkey with Azerbaijan and Central Asian States. Furthermore, Georgia has become a key transit route for Caspian energy resources. For Georgia Turkey is a window to Europe and the largest trade partner. The main goal of this article is to analyze various aspects of Turkish – Georgian relations and co-operation in different fields. There is outstanding cooperation between Turkey and Georgia in the fields such as energy, transport, economy, trade, defense, security etc.

  12. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  13. Using singing to nurture children's hearing? A pilot study.

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    Welch, Graham F; Saunders, Jo; Edwards, Sian; Palmer, Zoe; Himonides, Evangelos; Knight, Julian; Mahon, Merle; Griffin, Susanna; Vickers, Deborah A

    2015-09-01

    This article reports a pilot study of the potential benefits of a sustained programme of singing activities on the musical behaviours and hearing acuity of young children with hearing impairment (HI). Twenty-nine children (n=12 HI and n=17 NH) aged between 5 and 7 years from an inner-city primary school in London participated, following appropriate ethical approval. The predominantly classroom-based programme was designed by colleagues from the UCL Institute of Education and UCL Ear Institute in collaboration with a multi-arts charity Creative Futures and delivered by an experienced early years music specialist weekly across two school terms. There was a particular emphasis on building a repertoire of simple songs with actions and allied vocal exploration. Musical learning was also supported by activities that drew on visual imagery for sound and that included simple notation and physical gesture. An overall impact assessment of the pilot programme embraced pre- and post-intervention measures of pitch discrimination, speech perception in noise and singing competency. Subsequent statistical data analyses suggest that the programme had a positive impact on participant children's singing range, particularly (but not only) for HI children with hearing aids, and also in their singing skills. HI children's pitch perception also improved measurably over time. Findings imply that all children, including those with HI, can benefit from regular and sustained access to age-appropriate musical activities.

  14. Children's Views Matter Too! A Pilot Project Assessing Children's and Adolescents' Experiences of Clinical Psychology Services

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    Gordon, Michael; Russo, Kate

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study explored the experiences and understanding of clinical psychology practices and services of children and adolescents attending clinical psychology outpatient appointments. Fifteen young participants took part in the study. A content analysis indicated that young children and adolescents have an appropriate understanding of the…

  15. Impact of nutrition messages on children's food choice: pilot study.

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    Bannon, Katie; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2006-03-01

    This pilot study tested the influence of nutrition message framing on snack choice among kindergarteners. Three classrooms were randomly assigned to watch one of the following 60s videos: (a) a gain-framed nutrition message (i.e. the positive benefits of eating apples) (n=14); (b) a loss-framed message (i.e. the negative consequences of not eating apples) (n=18); or (c) a control scene (children playing a game) (n=18). Following this, the children were offered a choice between animal crackers and an apple for their snack. Among the children who saw one of the nutrition message videos, 56% chose apples rather than animal crackers; in the control condition only 33% chose apples. This difference was statistically significant (chi2=7.56, p<0.01). These results suggest that videos containing nutritional messages may have a positive influence on children's short-term food choices.

  16. Environmental radioactivity investigations in the Georgian subtropical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagava, S.; Kakashvili, P.; Avtandilashvili, M.; Kharashvili, G.; Robakidze, Z.; Rusetski, V.; Togonidze, G.; Baratashvili, D.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental changes in the contamination of the Georgian subtropical region have been investigated by analysing anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in samples of soil and tea leaves for possible chromosome mutations. As the tea industry in Georgia is an important economic activity, such investigations are of great importance. The changes in the morphology of tea leaves, their colour, blossoming, growth inhibition or stimulation, prolongation of the germination period and levels of tanin-katechin complexes have been investigated. The results of radionuclide measurements in soil and tea leaves ( 40 K, 210 Pb and 137 Cs) are presented. Elevated concentrations of 137 Cs were observed in soil samples due to fallout from Chernobyl, however, no direct relationship between the concentration of 137 Cs in soil and tea leaves has been observed. Cyto-genetic analyses of tea primary roots will be presented and compared for different time periods. Further, ichtyofauna samples taken from the Georgian subtropical areas were analysed for anthropogenic ( 137 Cs) and natural ( 40 K) radionuclides. The observed concentrations of 137 Cs were low, close to the detection limit of the order of 0.4 Bq/kg dry weight. Some of the investigations were carried out in the framework of the IAEA Technical Co-operation project 'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region'

  17. A pilot program to improve vaccination status for hospitalized children.

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    Pahud, Barbara; Clark, Shannon; Herigon, Joshua C; Sherman, Ashley; Lynch, Daryl A; Hoffman, Amber; Jackson, Mary Anne

    2015-01-01

    Screening of immunization status at each health care encounter is recommended to improve immunization coverage rates but is often limited to primary care practices. A pilot intervention study was performed to ascertain the immunization status of hospitalized children and determine if development of an immunization plan before discharge would improve the vaccination status for such children. On the basis of power calculations estimated to detect an increase in immunization status from 60% to 70% with 80% power, 356 randomly selected children were enrolled between March 6, 2012 and June 14, 2012. Immunization records were obtained, immunization status determined, and parent/guardian informed if catch-up dose(s) were needed. If parent requested vaccine dose(s), they were administered before discharge. Vaccination status was current per Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices guidelines in 73% of hospitalized children, and 27% children required catch-up dose(s) (200 doses for 95 children). Human papilloma virus vaccine (dose 1), varicella zoster vaccine (dose 2), and meningococcal conjugate vaccine were the most commonly identified dose(s) needed. Of those requiring catch-up dose(s), 25% were caught up, increasing vaccination status to 80% at 1-month post hospital discharge. This is the first study to determine the immunization status of hospitalized pediatric patients of all ages, including adolescents, providing new data on the immunization status of the inpatient pediatric population. A pilot intervention consisting of obtaining immunization records, determining immunization status, and discussing catch-up dose(s) before discharge resulted in improvement of immunization status, suggesting that the inpatient setting may be used along with many other national strategies to help address missed vaccination opportunities. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Sleep quality among internally displaced Georgian adolescents and population-based controls.

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    Sakhelashvili, Irine; Eliozishvili, Marine; Lortkipanidze, Nani; Oniani, Nikoloz; Cervena, Katerina; Darchia, Nato

    2016-09-01

    Sleep problems in children and adolescents are a significant public health concern and may be linked to a variety of psychoemotional difficulties. This study aimed to evaluate sleep quality and associated factors in conflict-affected Georgian adolescents after 9 months of forced displacement. Thirty-three internally displaced adolescents (mean age 11.4 years) and 33 adolescents (mean age 10.8 years) from the general population completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Parents completed the Children's Sleep-Wake Scale and provided information on their socioeconomic status (SES) and the adolescents' sleep behavior, academic performance, and peer social relationships. The groups differed significantly in sleep quality, peer relationships, SES, and CDI scores. In the internally displaced group, the only significant predictor of sleep quality was SES, which increased the predictive capacity of the model (demographic and psychosocial variables) by 20% in the hierarchical analyses. The most significant predictor in the non-internally displaced group was CDI. This research indicates that displacement may affect sleep quality and psychosocial functioning. The importance of family SES as a contributing factor to displaced adolescents' poor sleep quality is highlighted. An integrated approach designed to improve the psychosocial environment of internally displaced adolescents is needed for their protection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. The Visceral Novel Reader and Novelized Medicine in Georgian Britain.

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    Class, Monika

    The article introduces "the visceral novel reader" as a diachronic, context-sensitive mode of novelistic reception, in which fact and fiction overlap cognitively: the mental rehearsal of the activity of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching while reading novels and, vice versa, the mental rehearsal of novels in the act of perceiving the real world. Located at the intersection of literature, medicine and science, "the visceral novel reader" enhances our understanding of the role that novels played in the dialectic construction of erudition in English. In Georgian Britain, reading practices became a testing ground for the professionalization of physicians, natural philosophers, and men of letters. While it was in the professionals' common interest to implement protocols that taught readers to separate body from mind, and fact from fiction, novels came to stand for "debased" (visceral) reading. Novels inverted these notions by means of medicalization (regimentation, somatization, and individuation) and contributed to the professional stratification of medicine and literature.

  20. CONSEQUENCES OF THE GEORGIAN-SOUTH OSSETIAN ARMED CONFLICT IN 2008

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. KABISOV

    2016-01-01

    We consider the consequences of the Georgian-South Ossetian conflict to the international community. Aspects of contradictions and interests of South Ossetia and Georgia in the international arena. The analysis of the Georgian-South Ossetian relations, in the context of the security problems of the Caucasus region and taking into account the national interests of Russia, as one of the major mediators of the negotiation process between Georgia and South Ossetia. Presented by the opinion of int...

  1. Human resource management in the Georgian National Immunization Program: a baseline assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen-Kohler Jillian; Esmail Laura C; Djibuti Mamuka

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Georgia's health care system underwent dramatic reform after gaining independence in 1991. The decentralization of the health care system was one of the core elements of health care reform but reports suggest that human resource management issues were overlooked. The Georgian national immunization program was affected by these reforms and is not functioning at optimum levels. This paper describes the state of human resource management practices within the Georgian national...

  2. Mental disorder in children with physical conditions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Alexandra; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Lipman, Ellen Louise; MacMillan, Harriet L; Gonzalez, Andrea; Gorter, Jan Willem; Georgiades, Kathy; Speechley, Kathy N; Boyle, Michael H; Ferro, Mark A

    2018-01-03

    Methodologically, to assess the feasibility of participant recruitment and retention, as well as missing data in studying mental disorder among children newly diagnosed with chronic physical conditions (ie, multimorbidity). Substantively, to examine the prevalence of multimorbidity, identify sociodemographic correlates and model the influence of multimorbidity on changes in child quality of life and parental psychosocial outcomes over a 6-month follow-up. Prospective pilot study. Two children's tertiary-care hospitals. Children aged 6-16 years diagnosed in the past 6 months with one of the following: asthma, diabetes, epilepsy, food allergy or juvenile arthritis, and their parents. Response, participation and retention rates. Child mental disorder using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview at baseline and 6 months. Child quality of life, parental symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression, and family functioning. All outcomes were parent reported. Response, participation and retention rates were 90%, 83% and 88%, respectively. Of the 50 children enrolled in the study, the prevalence of multimorbidity was 58% at baseline and 42% at 6 months. No sociodemographic characteristics were associated with multimorbidity. Multimorbidity at baseline was associated with declines over 6 months in the following quality of life domains: physical well-being, β=-4.82 (-8.47, -1.17); psychological well-being, β=-4.10 (-7.62, -0.58) and school environment, β=-4.17 (-8.18, -0.16). There was no association with parental psychosocial outcomes over time. Preliminary evidence suggests that mental disorder in children with a physical condition is very common and has a negative impact on quality of life over time. Based on the strong response rate and minimal attrition, our approach to study child multimorbidity appears feasible and suggests that multimorbidity is an important concern for families. Methodological and substantive findings from this pilot study have

  3. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. Methods We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. Results To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Conclusions Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services. PMID:26345719

  4. Whole genome comparative analysis of four Georgian grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabidze, V; Pipia, I; Gogniashvili, M; Kunelauri, N; Ujmajuridze, L; Pirtskhalava, M; Vishnepolsky, B; Hernandez, A G; Fields, C J; Beridze, Tengiz

    2017-12-01

    Grapevine is the one of the most important fruit species in the world. Comparative genome sequencing of grape cultivars is very important for the interpretation of the grape genome and understanding its evolution. The genomes of four Georgian grape cultivars-Chkhaveri, Saperavi, Meskhetian green, and Rkatsiteli, belonging to different haplogroups, were resequenced. The shotgun genomic libraries of grape cultivars were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq. Pinot Noir nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast DNA were used as reference. Mitochondrial DNA of Chkhaveri closely matches that of the reference Pinot noir mitochondrial DNA, with the exception of 16 SNPs found in the Chkhaveri mitochondrial DNA. The number of SNPs in mitochondrial DNA from Saperavi, Meskhetian green, and Rkatsiteli was 764, 702, and 822, respectively. Nuclear DNA differs from the reference by 1,800,675 nt in Chkhaveri, 1,063,063 nt in Meskhetian green, 2,174,995 in Saperavi, and 5,011,513 in Rkatsiteli. Unlike mtDNA Pinot noir, chromosomal DNA is closer to the Meskhetian green than to other cultivars. Substantial differences in the number of SNPs in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of Chkhaveri and Pinot noir cultivars are explained by backcrossing or introgression of their wild predecessors before or during the process of domestication. Annotation of chromosomal DNA of Georgian grape cultivars by MEGANTE, a web-based annotation system, shows 66,745 predicted genes (Chkhaveri-17,409; Saperavi-17,021; Meskhetian green-18,355; and Rkatsiteli-13,960). Among them, 106 predicted genes and 43 pseudogenes of terpene synthase genes were found in chromosomes 12, 18 random (18R), and 19. Four novel TPS genes not present in reference Pinot noir DNA were detected. Two of them-germacrene A synthase (Chromosome 18R) and (-) germacrene D synthase (Chromosome 19) can be identified as putatively full-length proteins. This work performs the first attempt of the comparative whole genome analysis of different haplogroups

  5. SOME ASPECTS OF THE GEORGIAN ECONOMY AT THE CONTEMPORARY STAGE

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    Tamaz ZUBIASHVILI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the former Soviet Union the economy of the Georgian Republic occupied advanced positions. At the very first stage of the restoration of independence the post-Soviet Georgia’s economy declined 3-times; in the following years, the situation improved, but it reached the 1990 level only after 15 years. In spite of difficult problems of development it should be singled out the middle period progress of the 90-ies when the country introduced a new currency - Lari, created conditions for attracting foreign investments, economic growth was expressed in double-digit figures; it created an independent banking system, rapidly implemented the program of privatization, strengthened the links with international financial organizations and others. By this time, the private sector’s share in the state budget revenues was already 80%. After the end of the 90-ies, in a few years, economic reforms stalled. After the “Rose Revolution” - until 2012, the development of economy was greatly influenced by tightened administrative methods, foreign loans, foreign investment, and so forth. Unfortunately, at this stage of development, a property encroachment for the government became common practice in such a way as pressure on business. In recent four years, more attention was paid to the actual development, deepening of integration with European Union, the governmental pressure on business was removed. However, because of the lack of jobs, labour force continues to flow abroad.

  6. Aquatic Physical Therapy for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Hillier, Susan; McIntyre, Auburn; Plummer, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic therapy is an intervention for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) that has not been investigated formally. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an aquatic therapy program to improve motor skills of children with DCD. Thirteen children (mean age 7…

  7. Changes in Trunk and Head Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy after Hippotherapy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtleff, Tim L.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2010-01-01

    Hippotherapy (HPOT) is a therapy that uses horse movement. This pilot investigation objectively evaluated the efficacy of HPOT in improving head/trunk stability in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The participants were six children with spastic diplegia and six children without disability. Head and trunk stability was challenged by using a…

  8. Aspirating and Nonaspirating Swallow Sounds in Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakking, Thuy; Chang, Anne; O'Grady, Kerry; David, Michael; Weir, Kelly

    2016-12-01

    Cervical auscultation (CA) may be used to complement feeding/swallowing evaluations when assessing for aspiration. There are no published pediatric studies that compare the properties of sounds between aspirating and nonaspirating swallows. To establish acoustic and perceptual profiles of aspirating and nonaspirating swallow sounds and determine if a difference exists between these 2 swallowing types. Aspiration sound clips were obtained from recordings using CA simultaneously undertaken with videofluoroscopic swallow study. Aspiration was determined using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale. The presence of perceptual swallow/breath parameters was rated by 2 speech pathologists who were blinded to the type of swallow. Acoustic data between groups were compared using Mann Whitney U-tests, while perceptual differences were determined by a test of 2 proportions. Combinations of perceptual parameters of 50 swallows (27 aspiration, 23 no aspiration) from 47 children (57% male) were statistically analyzed using area under a receiver operating characteristic (aROC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values to determine predictors of aspirating swallows. The combination of post-swallow presence of wet breathing and wheeze and absence of GRS and normal breathing was the best predictor of aspiration (aROC = 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.94). There were no significant differences between these 2 swallow types for peak frequency, duration, and peak amplitude. Our pilot study has shown that certain characteristics of swallow obtained using CA may be useful in the prediction of aspiration. However, further research comparing the acoustic swallowing sound profiles of normal children to children with dysphagia (who are aspirating) on a larger scale is required. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. EMOTIONAL CREATIVITY INVENTORY: FACTOR STRUCTURE, RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN A GEORGIAN-SPEAKING POPULATION

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    Khatuna Martsksvishvili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of emotional creativity is based on a social constructivist theory of emotion and refers to an individual’s ability to experience and express novel, sincere, and effective mixtures of emotions. The present research examines the psychometric properties of the Georgian version of Emotional Creativity Inventory (G-ECI; Averill, 1999. 834 individuals across five studies completed the G-ECI. Results from exploratory factor analysis indicate that the factor structure of the original ECI broadly replicates in the Georgian translation. The Cronbach’s alpha reliabilities of the G-ECI scales are mostly acceptable. There are significant gender differences. Examining the construct validity of G-ECI with other constructs (namely, with emotional intelligence, creativity and flow showed the expected relationships. In conclusion, the Georgian version of the emotional creativity inventory seems well suited for future research purposes.

  10. Caffeine Awareness in Children: Insights from a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Tushar P; Deoras, Ketan; Griffin, Catherine; Vemana, Aarthi; Podmore, Petra; Krishna, Jyoti

    2015-07-15

    Caffeine, a commonly consumed psychoactive substance, can have significant effects on sleep. Caffeine intake among children is increasing, mainly in the form of sodas. However, adolescent caffeine consumers may lack knowledge about the caffeine content in common beverages. If true, this very fact may hamper the assessment of the effects of caffeine consumption on sleep in children if such assessments are a priori dependent on responders being able to reliably distinguish between caffeinated and noncaffeinated beverages. This preliminary study investigated adolescents' caffeine knowledge and intake at a Cleveland-area public middle school. Seventh- and eighth-grade students were surveyed using: (1) the Caffeine Literacy and Sleep Study (CLASS), a 15-question pilot instrument designed to assess caffeine knowledge and intake by type, quantity and timing, as well as sleep habits; and (2) the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ), a validated survey measuring excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. These questionnaires were distributed and collected during a specified class period. Of the 635 seventh- and eighth-grade students who attended school on the day of the study, 555 (87%) participated. Lack of knowledge about caffeine content of particular drinks was noted in seventh and eighth graders of both sexes with nearly 29% unaware that their favorite drinks contain caffeine and more than 50% unable to correctly identify the drinks with the most caffeine. A low percentage of students correctly identified light-colored sodas lacking caffeine: 7-Up (24.1%), Sierra Mist (38.9%), ginger ale (39.8%), Sprite (39.8%), and Fresca (53.7%). The percentages of students correctly identifying caffeinated light-colored beverages were: Arizona Green Tea (43.5%), Mello Yellow (50.9%), and A&W cream soda (67.6%). However, Mountain Dew was correctly identified by most (93.5%) as caffeinated. Students were not consistently able to identify caffeine content or lack

  11. Kinetic regularities of change in the concentration of radionuclides in the Georgian tea content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Katamadze, N.M.; Shoniya, N.I.; Ginturi, Eh.N.

    1990-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the results of a study of behavior of artificial radionuclides in Georgian tea technological products after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Station. A partial contribution of the activity of radionuclides 141 Ce, 140 La, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 140 Ba, 137 Cs, 95 Nb, 95 Zr, 134 Cs and 90 Sr to the total activity to Georgian tea samples. Maximum tolerated concentrations of radionuclides were assessed provided average annual tea consumption per capita was 1 kg. The maximum of solubility in the water phase falls on Cs radionuclides. The regularities of migration of half-lived radionuclides 3 yrs. After the Chernobyl accident were established

  12. Application of medical information system for telepathology--Georgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kldiashvili, Ekaterina; Schrader, Thomas; Burduli, Archil; Ghortlishvili, Gocha

    2010-01-01

    The field of healthcare informatics is rapidly evolving. The new models and protocols of medical information system (MIS) are developed. Despite obvious advantages and benefits, practical application of MIS in everyday practice is slow. Much progress has been made around the world in the field of digital imaging and virtual slides, but in Georgia telepathology is still in evolving stages. It revolves around static telepathology. Practical application of MIS has been started in Georgia. The architecture of the mentioned system and its usage for telepathology will be presented. The MIS has been created with .Net technology and structure query language (SQL) database architecture. It involves a multiuser Web-based approach. By this, local (intranet) and remote (Internet) access of the system and management of databases can be achieved. Two hundred electronic medical records illustrated by images were selected for telepathology consultations. These electronic medical records were written in Georgian. This predetermines organization of regional second opinion consultations. For security reasons all experts have been registered as users at MIS. MIS has been launched in Georgia. Its primary goal is patient management. However, the system can be successfully applied for static telepathology purposes. The ideal of healthcare in the information age must be to create a situation where healthcare professionals spend more time creating knowledge from medical information and less time managing medical information. The application of easily available and adaptable technology and improvement of the infrastructure conditions is the basis for telemedical applications. The usage of MIS holds the potential to realize telepathology in the effective and comprehensive mode.

  13. Sleep Disorders in a Sample of Adopted Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaprakash, Meghna; Kerr, Elizabeth; Friedlander, Benita; Weiss, Shelly

    2017-08-29

    Sleep disorders occur in up to 25% of children and are more prevalent in children who have attention problems and attachment issues. Research shows that foster children display sleep problems, but limited knowledge exists on sleep problems in adopted children. This pilot study aimed to identify the types of sleep disorders in adopted children and associated psychosocial factors. Parents of adopted children in Ontario, Canada, ages 2-10 years were asked to complete questionnaires evaluating demographic measures, sleep history, and the presence of behavioral problems. Insomnias and parasomnias were reported in adopted children and were associated with attention problems. This pilot study emphasizes the need for further research on the underlying factors governing the relationship between poor sleep and behavioral problems in adopted children.

  14. A Pilot Study of Motor Disturbances in Children with ADHD Belonging to Chilean Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancatén González, Carlos; Montes, Rodrigo; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    The present pilot study aimed to determine motor control alterations in children with ADHD belonging to public schools, using Da Fonseca's Psychomotor Battery (BPM). This was a descriptive cross-sectional comparative study. The sample consisted of two groups, each group composed of 15 children between 7 and 9 years old belonging to public…

  15. A pilot study to profile the lower limb musculoskeletal health in children with obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Malley, Grace

    2012-01-01

    : Evidence suggests a negative effect of obesity on musculoskeletal health in children. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the presence of musculoskeletal impairments in children with obesity and to explore the relationships among body mass index, physical activity, and musculoskeletal measures.

  16. Attitudes toward Everyday Odors for Children with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdenzi, Camille; Coureaud, Gerard; Camos, Valerie; Schaal, Benoist

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot investigation of the self-reported awareness and reactivity to odors of children with visual impairments and sighted children. A questionnaire related to relevant everyday contexts involving food and social cues, as well as the general environment, was used to determine whether, and in which…

  17. Implications of Social Groups on Sedentary Behavior of Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkelberg, Michaela A.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Milliken, George A.; Menear, Kristi; Dzewaltowski, David A.

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study compared sedentary behavior (SB) of children with autism (ASD) to typically developing peers (TD), and evaluated the influence of social contexts within free play (FP) and organized activity settings on SB of children with ASD during an inclusive summer camp. Participants with ASD were matched with TD peers by age and gender, and…

  18. Nutritional Status of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Y. Kiddie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This is a pilot study of the dietary intake and nutrient status of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Method. Nutritional assessment of 43 children aged 6–12 with ADHD was performed using a 3-day food record, 24-hour recall, and serum assessors. Results. Macronutrient intake and consumption of Low-Nutrient Foods were comparable to population norms; however, 66% were found to be deficient in zinc and 23% in copper. Conclusions. This pilot study reports the food intake and nutrient status of children with ADHD and shows a predisposition for low zinc and copper status in ADHD.

  19. "No Study so Agreeable to the Youthful Mind": Geographical Education in the Georgian Grammar School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Daniels, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The conservativeness of Georgian grammar schools used to be emphasised; however, as the case of geography teaching shows, this picture is complex with the growth of British trade and empire and the requirements of polite society and culture fostering a demand for "modern" subjects. Drawing on work in the history of education, Georgian…

  20. Resting cysts of freshwater dinoflagellates in southeastern Georgian Bay (Lake Huron) as proxies of cultural eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Francine M.G.; Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Resting cysts attributed to the freshwater dinoflagellate genus Peridinium were found in surface sediments from Severn Sound, southeastern Georgian Bay (Lake Huron, Laurentian Great Lakes of North America). Two distinct cyst morphotypes were present and they were assigned to Peridinium wisconsine...

  1. Hand Robotic Therapy in Children with Hemiparesis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Lauri; Gordon, Andrew M; Kim, Heakyung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the impact of training with a hand robotic device on hand paresis and function in a population of children with hemiparesis. Twelve children with hemiparesis (mean age, 9 [SD, 3.64] years) completed participation in this prospective, experimental, pilot study. Participants underwent clinical assessments at baseline and again 6 weeks later with instructions to not initiate new therapies. After these assessments, participants received 6 weeks of training with a hand robotic device, consisting of 1-hour sessions, 3 times weekly. Assessments were repeated on completion of training. Results showed significant improvements after training on the Assisting Hand Assessment (mean difference, 2.0 Assisting Hand Assessment units; P = 0.011) and on the upper-extremity component of the Fugl-Meyer scale (raw score mean difference, 4.334; P = 0.001). No significant improvements between pretest and posttest were noted on the Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function, the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, or the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory after intervention. Total active mobility of digits and grip strength also failed to demonstrate significant changes after training. Participants tolerated training with the hand robotic device, and significant improvements in bimanual hand use, as well as impairment-based scales, were noted. Improvements were carried over into bimanual skills during play. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) Understand key components of neuroplasticity; (2) Discuss the benefits of robotic therapy in the recovery of hand function in pediatric patients with hemiplegia; and (3) Appropriately incorporate robotic therapy into the treatment plan of pediatric patients with hemiplegia. Advanced ACCREDITATION: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the

  2. Analysis of longitudinal data of height z-scores in kindergarten children - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernitzki, Anna-Franziska; Pospisil, Christina; Musalek, Martin; Mumm, Rebekka; Scheffler, Christiane

    2017-07-01

    Changes in body height throughout extended historic periods are very complex and dynamic processes. This pilot study aimed to investigate the pattern of longitudinal height z-scores changes in children before and after entering kindergarten. In summer 2016, we measured height and weight of 32 children from 4 groups of two kindergartens aged 3-6 years. All ages were centered according to the age of entry into the kindergarten. For each child we determined mean z-scores for height before and after entering the kindergarten, and assessed the variances for each kindergarten group. Twenty-two children targeted in height z-scores towards average height of their respective kindergarten group, 10 children did not. Due to the small numbers, the convergence in height variance however, remained insignificant (chi-squared independence test, p = 0.127). Additional studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm this pilot study.

  3. Obtaining and a comprehensive study of highly bioavailable functional food additives based on Georgian soya varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Silagadze

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Overall chemical and micro-nutrient composition of Georgian soya varieties grown in different districts of West Georgia have been studied. It was established that “Gurian” soya from Lanchkhuti district is distinguished by the highest content of proteins, fats and dietary fibers that ensures its high functional properties. 18 Aminoacids, mostly fixed in the fractions of globulin and albumin, were identified in protein fractions of Georgian soya varieties that indicates to their high biological value. Highly-bioavailable foods: soya milk, soya pomace and soya flour were obtained during the soya processing; they were tested as food additives in the production of whole wheat bread. Their impact on the fermentation process of wheat dough was studied and the optimal parameters of this process were developed.

  4. Introducing Preschool Children to Novel Fruits and Vegetables: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tande, D. L.; Niemeier, B. S.; Hwang, J. H.; Stastny, S.; Bezbaruah, N.; Hektner, J. M.; Habedank, D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this pilot study was to compare changes in preschool children's identification, preferences, and beliefs related to fruits and vegetables introduced to a child care center's menu before and after a nutrition education and food exposure intervention. The study also sought to determine how these changes were…

  5. A Pilot Project to Increase Parent Comfort Communicating with Their Children about Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Elissa M.; Johnson Moore, Michele; Howard, Alexandria

    2012-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviors among U.S. adolescents have resulted in epidemic rates of sexually transmitted infections, HIV, and unintended pregnancy. This article describes a community-developed pilot program for parents in a large South Florida county aimed at increasing parent comfort in discussing sexuality with their children to improve adolescent…

  6. A Pilot Study of Integrated Listening Systems for Children with Sensory Processing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Sarah A.; Miller, Lucy J.; Sullivan, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study explored the effects of Integrated Listening Systems (iLs) Focus Series on individualized parent goals for children with sensory processing impairments. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline, repeated measure across participants, single-case study design was employed (n = 7). The 40-session intervention was delivered at home and in…

  7. Development of an auditory test battery for young children: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stollman, M.H.P.; Neijenhuis, C.A.M.; Jansen, S.; Simkens, H.M.F.; Snik, A.F.M.; Broek, P. van den

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development and results of a pilot study with a recently developed auditory test battery for 4-6-year-old Dutch children. The test battery consisted of a sustained auditory attention (SAA) test, a dichotic words (DW) test, a binaural masking-level difference (BMLD) test,

  8. Open-Trial Pilot of "Mind Reading" and in Vivo Rehearsal for Children with HFASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Lopata, Christopher; McDonald, Christin A.; Volker, Martin A.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Smith, Rachael A.; Gullo, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    In this pilot study, the authors evaluated a manualized administration of the "Mind Reading" (MR) program with in vivo rehearsal to determine the effects on emotion recognition and autism features of eleven 7- to 12-year-old children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD), and to determine the overall feasibility of the…

  9. Application of a ketogenic diet in children with autistic behavior: pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evangeliou, A.; Vlachonikolis, I.; Mihailidou, H.; Spilioti, M.; Skarpalezou, A.; Makaronas, N.; Prokopiou, A.; Christodoulou, P.; Liapi-Adamidou, G.; Helidonis, E.; Sbyrakis, S.; Smeitink, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    A pilot prospective follow-up study of the role of the ketogenic diet was carried out on 30 children, aged between 4 and 10 years, with autistic behavior. The diet was applied for 6 months, with continuous administration for 4 weeks, interrupted by 2-week diet-free intervals. Seven patients could

  10. LOCUS OF CONTROL IN GEORGIAN TEACHERS AND ITS RELATION TO TEACHER BURNOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Bitsadze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The intensive reforms taking place in general education field in Georgia impose considerable stress to those engaged in teaching profession. This may gradually lead to the condition of professional burnout of teachers. According to the conducted research some teachers have experienced burnout while others did not. The purpose of the present research is to identify how the personal quality such as control of locus may have influenced the level of burnout in Georgian teachers. Two self-assessment instruments, Rotter Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, were used in this research to measure control of locus type and level of burnout among Georgian teachers. Two questionnaires were distributed among 407 teachers at Public schools of Georgia. After dismissing inaccurately filled out questionnaires the analysis was conducted based on the data received from 373 questionnaires. The research findings revealed that Georgian teachers with internal locus of control are less likely to become professional burnout victims. Significant correlations proved to exist between locus of control orientation and teacher burnout on Emotional Exhaustion (EE and Personal Achievements (PA subscales of MBI. The article explores the opportunities to change locus of control from external to internal as a part of teacher professional development activities guided by school Principals and through redesigning of teacher preparation programs in order to make teachers more resistant to professional burnout.

  11. Aesthetics of movement with sight disabled children - pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Górny

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the aesthetics of movement in people with vision defects. This knowledge will provide tools to improve the methodology of study in the area of assessment of movement aesthetics in people with disabilities. In order to establish its level a test was used which measured its selected elements such as precision, rhythm, harmony, fluidity and speed. The aesthetics of movement was assessed using exercise tests which were to represent the components of aesthetics of movement. Individual tests were carried out on blind and partially sighted children aged 6 to 15 years and on a group of healthy children of the same age. Using the test tasks a general indicator of movement aesthetics in blind children was obtained. The participants of the study were 145 children from four School and Education Centres for Blind Children in Poland and the control group consisted of 310 children from a primary school in Poznań. The studies confirmed a lower level of movement aesthetics in children with vision defects, but the differences in groups between the partially sighted children and children with correct vision were definitely smaller. A higher level of aesthetics of movement characterised children from older groups irrespective of their sex. The best developed property in blind and partially sighted children was precision.

  12. Preschool children's social understanding: a pilot study of goals and strategies during conflict situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazura, Kerry; Flanders, Rachel

    2007-10-01

    This pilot study tested a new enactive measure of social information-processing skills and investigated whether preschool children's goals were related to their strategies during hypothetical conflict situations. Children (13 boys, 12 girls) ages 3 to 6 years (three 3-yr.-olds, three 4-yr.-olds, 11 5-yr.-olds, and eight 6-yr.-olds) engaged in a puppet interview of six hypothetical situations. Significant correlations were found between goals and strategies of the adapted version of Chung and Asher's Children's Conflict Resolution Measure, suggesting that preschool children who endorsed friendship goals tended to select more prosocial strategies (.41). Children who endorsed more retaliation goals tended to select more hostile strategies (.67) but fewer prosocial strategies (-.41), and children who endorsed more avoidance goals tended to select more adult-seeking strategies (.45).

  13. Informative nursery rhymes: a pilot study of children's satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglieri, Elisa; Guida, Edoardo; DI Grazia, Massimo; Franza, Francesca; Lisa, Filippo; Mattioli, Girolamo; Rigamonti, Waifro; Pompei, Viviana

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, by means of a questionnaire, the level of children's satisfaction relating to three informative charts, including a nursery rhyme, administered to the patient before a medical procedure. We created three types of specific informative charts on three medical topics with the double function of informing the child before the medical procedure, and of distracting him/her by means of a nursery rhyme read aloud by the authors. To assess the level of children's satisfaction, we administered the patients a questionnaire. According to children's feedback, the charts were funny and useful. The charts conceived in this study seem to be an easily applicable and entertaining approach to provide information and distraction to children undergoing surgery.

  14. Disturbed Children Under Reduced Auditory Input: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassler, Joan; Bryant, N. Dale

    1971-01-01

    Investigated were attention and performance on simple tasks as well as classroom attention of seriously disturbed, communication impaired, autistic children under conditions of reduced auditory input (using ear protectors). (Author)

  15. Classical conditioning for preserving the effects of short melatonin treatment in children with delayed sleep: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, A.; Meijer, A.M.; Smits, M.G.; Oort, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Melatonin treatment is effective in treating sleep onset problems in children with delayed melatonin onset, but effects usually disappear when treatment is discontinued. In this pilot study, we investigated whether classical conditioning might help in preserving treatment effects of

  16. Unilateral Hearing Loss Is Associated With Impaired Balance in Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Nikolaus E; Cushing, Sharon L; Vilchez-Madrigal, Luis D; James, Adrian L; Campos, Jennifer; Papsin, Blake C; Gordon, Karen A

    2016-12-01

    To determine if children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (UHL) demonstrate impaired balance compared with their normal hearing (NH) peers. Prospective, case-control study. Balance was assessed in14 UHL and 14 NH children using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test-2 (BOT-2) and time to fall (TTF) in an immersive, virtual-reality laboratory. Postural control was quantified by center of pressure (COP) using force plates. The effect of vision on balance was assessed by comparing scores and COP characteristics on BOT-2 tasks performed with eyes open and closed. Balance ability as measured by the BOT-2 score was significantly worse in children with UHL compared with NH children (p = 0.004). TTF was shorter in children with UHL compared with NH children in the most difficult tasks when visual and somatosensory inputs were limited (p children with UHL when visual input was removed while performing moderately difficult tasks (i.e., standing on one foot) (p = 0.02). In this pilot study, children with UHL show poorer balance skills than NH children. Significant differences in TTF between the two groups were only seen in the most difficult tasks and therefore may be missed on routine clinical assessment. Children with UHL appear to rely more on vision for maintaining postural control than their NH peers. These findings may point to deficits not only in the hearing but also the vestibular portion of the inner ear.

  17. EFFECT OF KUMARABHARANA RASA ON CHRONIC TONSILLITIS IN CHILDREN: A PILOT CLINICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Shailaja U; Rao Prasanna N; Arun Raj GR; Mallannavar V

    2013-01-01

    Objective of the study was to assess the effect of Kumarabharana Rasa in the management of chronic tonsillitis (Tundikeri) in children. This study was pilot clinical study with single arm with pre and post test design at outpatient level in a tertiary Ayurveda hospital attached to teaching institute located in district headquarters in Southern India. 16 patients of chronic tonsillitis satisfying diagnostic criteria and age 5-10 years were selected from outpatient department of Kaumarbhritya, ...

  18. Hepatitis C infection in children with haemophilia : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthouwer, D; Wolters, VM; Houwen, RHJ; Van den Berg, HM; Mauser-Bunschoten, EP

    2004-01-01

    Many haemophilia patients were infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in childhood after transfusion with inadequately or non-virus inactivated clotting factor products. Limited information is available on the clinical course of HCV infection in children. To assess the clinical consequences of

  19. Piloting an online grocery store simulation to assess children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Amy M; Harris, Jennifer L; Liu, Sai; Schwartz, Marlene B; Li, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Public health interventions must address poor diet among U.S. children, but research is needed to better understand factors influencing children's food choices. Using an online grocery store simulation, this research piloted a novel method to assess children's snack selection in a controlled but naturalistic laboratory setting, evaluate predictors of choice, and experimentally test whether promotions on food packages altered choices. Children (7-12 years, N = 61) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: promotions on healthy products; promotions on unhealthy products; and no promotions (control). They selected from a variety of healthy and unhealthy foods and beverages and rated all products on healthfulness and taste. Promotions on food packaging did not affect snack selection in this study, but findings supported our other hypothesis that perceived taste would be the strongest predictor of food choice. Children accurately rated product healthfulness, but these ratings did not predict healthy snack choices or taste ratings for healthy or unhealthy snacks. These results suggest that interventions to improve children's food choices should focus on increasing availability of healthy options and identifying opportunities to enhance children's liking of healthy options. However, nutrition education alone is unlikely to improve children's diets. Further testing is required, but the simulated online grocery store method shows potential for measuring children's food choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of a pilot walking school bus intervention on children's pedestrian safety behaviors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A; Uscanga, Doris K; Hanfling, Marcus J

    2012-01-01

    Walking school buses (WSB) increased children's physical activity, but impact on pedestrian safety behaviors (PSB) is unknown. We tested the feasibility of a protocol evaluating changes to PSB during a WSB program. Outcomes were school-level street crossing PSB prior to (Time 1) and during weeks 4-5 (Time 2) of the WSB. The protocol collected 1252 observations at Time 1 and 2548 at Time 2. Mixed model analyses yielded: intervention schoolchildren had 5-fold higher odds (pschool-level PSB. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Donkey-assisted rehabilitation program for children: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Rose

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bonding with animals grants access to the sphere of affectivity and facilitates therapeutic engagement. The methodological approach of donkey-assisted programs is based on mediation, which is characterized by multidirectional relationships (patient-donkey-therapist. The donkey is an excellent facilitator in the motivation-building process, being able to stimulate the child's development by way of active and positive forces that foster psycho-affective and psycho-cognitive development processes. Results of this study, which focused on the child's approach to the donkey, indicate that while communicating with the animal, children rely more on physical expressions than on verbal language. Donkey-assisted rehabilitative sessions can help in identifying children's strong points, on which motivation could be built.

  2. Cariogenic microbiota of children under chemotherapy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Evaristo Ricci Volpato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the cariogenic microbiota of children who are under antineoplastic therapy. Methods: Twenty-seven patients undergoing cancer treatment in the Pediatric Unit of Mato Grosso Cancer Hospital were selected. The inclusion criteria of volunteers were being under chemotherapy in the saliva collection period, age between 2 and 18 years, collaborate with the protocol for clinical examination and saliva collection, and responsible have given their written consent. For the realization of lactobacilli and Streptococcus mutans count in the patients′ saliva, respectively, Dentalcult I and II (LaborClin; kits were used. Statistical Analysis: Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher′s exact tests were used to assess the association of the variables age group, prevalence of lactobacilli and S. mutans, diagnosis of patients, presence and level of decay of patients defined by decayed, filled, and missing teeth (DMFT/dmft indexes with a significance level of 5%. Results: The group of patients consisted of 27 children, 15 males, and 12 females; 44% were aged between 6 and 10 years; 61% had present or past history of caries (dmft/DMFT >0; 48% had low value for Dentalcult I; 59% presented value grade 0 to Dentalcult II; and 63% were diagnosed with acute lymphoid leukemia. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of dental caries in the study population but low rates of S. mutans and lactobacilli in the saliva of the children. Lactobacilli rate was significantly associated with caries index scores, and the prevalence of caries was directly associated with the age group of the children.

  3. Active play exercise intervention in children with asthma: a PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergren, Thomas; Fegran, Liv; Nilsen, Tonje; Haraldstad, Kristin; Kittang, Ole Bjørn; Berntsen, Sveinung

    2016-01-05

    Increased physical activity (PA) may be beneficial for children with asthma. Knowledge about how to intervene and encourage children with asthma to be physically active is required. In the present study, we aimed to pilot a 6-week exercise intervention designed as active play and examine attendance rate, exercise intensity and children's perceptions of participating. 6 children with asthma (4 boys, 2 girls) aged 10-12 years, participated in 60 min of active play exercise twice weekly. A mixed-methods design was applied. The data analysed included attendance rate, exercise intensity assessed by heart rate (HR) monitoring during exercise sessions, registration and description of the active play exercise programme, 3 semistructured focus groups, field observations of 5 exercise sessions, and preintervention and postintervention testing. The average attendance rate was 90%. Intensity ≥ 80% of maximal HR (HRmax) was recorded for a median (IQR) time of 22 (8) out of 60 min per session. Median (IQR) HR during the sessions was 146 (9; 74% of HRmax) bpm. Children reported increased health-related quality of life (HRQoL) post-test compared with baseline. Children enjoyed participating and reported no limitations by asthma or serious asthma attacks. Instead, they perceived that their asthma and fitness had improved after the programme. The instructors created an inclusive atmosphere that was characterised by easy-to-master games, fair competition, humour and mutual participation. The exercise intervention pilot focusing on active play had a high attendance rate, relatively high exercise intensity, and satisfaction; the children perceived that their fitness and asthma had improved, and reported increased HRQoL. A randomised controlled trial of active play exercise including children with asthma should be conducted to evaluate effect on PA level, physical fitness, asthma control and HRQoL. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  4. Animal-Assisted Activity at A. Meyer Children's Hospital: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Caprilli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors systematically studied the introduction of animal-assisted activity into a children's hospital in Italy. This pilot study examined the reactions of children, their parents and the hospital staff and the hospital-wide infection rate before and after the introduction of animals. The SAM (self-assessment manikin, three behavioral scales, analysis of children's graphic productions, a parent questionnaire and a staff questionnaire were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. The children's participation was calculated. The analysis of the hospital infection rate was completed independently by the Hospital Infections Committee. The authors found that the presence of infections in the wards did not increase and the number of children at the meetings with pets in the wards was high (138 children. The study also found that the presence of animals produced some beneficial effects on children: a better perception of the environment and a good interaction with dogs. All parents were in favor of pets in the hospital, and 94% thought that this activity could benefit the child, as did the medical staff, although the staff needed more information about safety. The introduction of pets into the pediatric wards in an Italian children's hospital was a positive event because of the participation of hospitalized patients, the satisfaction expressed by both parents and medical staff, and the fact that the hospital infection rate did not change and no new infections developed after the introduction of dogs.

  5. Summative evaluation of a pilot aquatic exercise program for children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; O'Neil, Margaret E; Haley, Stephen M

    2010-07-01

    Children with disabilities have lower physical activity levels and participate less in community-based sport and exercise programs than do children without disabilities. This in part is due to environmental barriers and lack of appropriate resources in these programs. Adaptive programs encouraging increased physical activity for children with disabilities are needed, and as these programs are developed, they should be critically evaluated. The purposes of this article are to describe a pilot aquatic exercise program for children with disabilities, to evaluate the program, and to determine areas of strength and areas needing modifications. A summative program evaluation design was used to assess this twice per week aquatic exercise program lasting 14 weeks. Sixteen children, ages 6-12 years, with developmental disabilities participated in the program. Children swam laps, participated in relay races and water basketball games, and performed arm and leg strengthening exercises using aquatic noodles, foam barbells, and water for resistance. Swimming skills, program evaluation questionnaires, physical activity questionnaires, and interviews of pool site directors were used to determine program outcomes. Findings suggest that children made improvements in their swimming skills, parents were satisfied with the program, and children increased their physical activity levels during the program and maintained the increased physical activity levels six months after the program ended. The program continued in some form after the 14-week intervention ended. The program was successful in achieving its objectives and recommendations for application of this program are provided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Why do the clients of Georgian needle exchange programmes inject buprenorphine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otiashvili, David; Zabransky, Tomas; Kirtadze, Irma; Piralishvili, Gvantsa; Chavchanidze, Marina; Miovsky, Michal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the prevalence and patterns of the non-medical injecting use of buprenorphine among drug injectors in Georgia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among injecting drug users enrolled in Georgian needle exchange programmes. The questions covered topics related to drug use career, patterns (frequency, history, dosage) and reasons for the use of buprenorphine. Pharmaceutical buprenorphine in the form of Subutex was the most commonly injected drug in terms of lifetime (95.5%) and last-month (75%) prevalence of use. 48% of those study participants who had injected Subutex at some point reported having used it to cope with withdrawal or to give up other opioids. 90.5% of Subutex injectors used 1-2 mg as a single dose, and the mean frequency of its injection was 6 times per month. 75% of Subutex injectors had used 3 or more types of illegal drugs during the last 30 days. While widely misused by Georgian drug injectors, Subutex is neither the principal nor the favourite drug, and it is rather used as self-treatment. The authors consider the introduction of buprenorphine maintenance treatment to be a promising effective measure to decrease its non-medical and illegal use. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Armenian-Georgian Relations in the context of Regional Security in Transcaucasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nare Gareginova Galoyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the formation of foreign policy priorities of the Republic of Armenia and Georgia, and related processes in the South Caucasus in the 1990s. We consider their impact on the development of the Armenian-Georgian relations. The author draws attention to the key importance of the period, when the newly independent state, along with numerous internal problems, make decisions on matters of foreign policy. Also analyzes the factors of internal nature, affecting the bilateral relations in the framework of regional security. The author draws attention to the fact that the implementation of the military-political and economic projects there was a factor of manipulation on the part of the States concerned, that would lead to the division of the region into zones of influence. Special emphasis is placed also on the Georgian-Turkish relations in the region. In the military sphere, not only Georgia, but also aroused the interest of the Republic of Armenia from Turkey. This was due to the military presence of Russia in the region. Tbilisi integration into European and Euro-Atlantic organizations is a priority in its foreign policy, whereas in Armenia priority as previously considered Russia. Despite the differences in foreign policy, both countries understand and accept the importance of good neighborly relations in the region, which formed the basis of the bilateral cooperation between Georgia and the Republic of Armenia.

  8. Comparative study of Georgian breeds of mulberry silkworm according to the main biotechnological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baramidze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of natural silk thread production is conditioned completely by high productivity of mulberry silkworm breeds and hybrids and by biotechnological characteristics of cocoon. Silk capacity is one of the most significant indices of breed productivity. Nutrition of Georgian breeds and hybrids of mulberry silkworm of Mziuri and Digmuri groups was performed in the Georgian Agrarian University, in the laboratory of sericulture, in spring seasons of 2012–2014. In the process of grain incubation and silkworm feeding the first day selection methods were used. Silk capacity, worm viability and cocoon yield were considered as the main signs for selection. Emphasis was made on the increase of silk capacity in further generations. At the nutrition of Mziuri and Dighmuri group mulberry silkworm breeds in 2012–2014 years, economic indices such as silk capacity and cocoon yield per gram worm have increased. At the nutrition of Mziuri and Doghmuri group breeds in similar conditions it became vivid that Dighmuri breeds are more resistant to diseases. To elevate viability and biotechnological characteristics it is necessary to carry out significant selection measures, application of blood refreshing method to overcome inbreed depression.

  9. The Coping Cat Program for Children with Anxiety and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally Keehn, Rebecca H.; Lincoln, Alan J.; Brown, Milton Z.; Chavira, Denise A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate whether a modified version of the Coping Cat program could be effective in reducing anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-two children (ages 8-14; IQ greater than or equal to 70) with ASD and clinically significant anxiety were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of the Coping…

  10. Piloting a Cooperative Extension Service Nutrition Education Program on First-Grade Children's Willingness to Try Foods Containing Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cassandra S.; Hermann, Janice R.

    2011-01-01

    Many nutrition education campaigns targeting children in the United States focus on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, but most don't specifically promote legumes. The project described here sought to pilot the effect of an Extension nutrition education program on first grade children's willingness to try foods containing legumes. A…

  11. Atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, Pieter W.; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Tuynman-Qua, Hanneke G.; Kalverdijk, Luuk J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effects of atomoxetine on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic features in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Method: Twelve children (aged 6-14 years) with PDD accompanied by ADHD symptoms entered a

  12. Atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, P.W.; Steenhuis, M.P.; Tuynman-Qua, H.G.; Kalverdijk, L.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This pilot study examined the effects of atomoxetine on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic features in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). METHOD: Twelve children (aged 6-14 years) with PDD accompanied by ADHD symptoms entered a

  13. Sensory Adapted Dental Environments to Enhance Oral Care for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Sharon A.; Stein Duker, Leah I.; Williams, Marian E.; Dawson, Michael E.; Lane, Christianne J.; Polido, José C.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot and feasibility study examined the impact of a sensory adapted dental environment (SADE) to reduce distress, sensory discomfort, and perception of pain during oral prophylaxis for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 44 children ages 6-12 (n = 22 typical, n = 22 ASD). In an experimental crossover design, each…

  14. The Impact of Aquatic Exercise on Sleep Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriel, Kathryn N.; Kanupka, Jennifer Wood; DeLong, Kylee S.; Noel, Kelsie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if participation in an aquatic exercise program improves sleep in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Participants included 8 children. An A-B-A withdrawal design was utilized. Each phase lasted for 4 weeks. The treatment included 60 min of aquatic exercise 2X/week. Phone calls to parents…

  15. Pilot Implementation of the Improving Children's Health through Farming, Food, and Fitness Program in Select California Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Karrie; Junge, Sharon K.; Schneider, Connie; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this pilot project was to evaluate the effect of the Improving Children's Health through Farming, Food, and Fitness Program (CHF3) on the dietary knowledge and habits of participating children. Methods: The CHF3 program aims to 1) establish salad bars and integrate nutrition messages into cafeteria activities; 2) develop…

  16. Validity and feasibility of a digital diet estimation method for use with preschool children: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of the study was to assess the validity and feasibility of a digital diet estimation method for use with preschool children in Head Start. Preschool children and their caregivers participated in validation (n=22) and feasibility (n=24) pilot studies. Validity was determined in the metabolic...

  17. Soviet Georgia attainments and losses in 1920-1930 according to modern Georgian historiography estimations and public conscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana P. Khlynina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the events, concerned with the Soviet statehood formation and development of Georgia in 1920-1930 by modern Georgian historiography and shows interrelation between professional interest to the past and present political situation.

  18. Stress management in children: a pilot study in 7 to 9 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Mariana; Carro, Natalia; Dʼadamo, Paola; Barclay, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    At present, school-age children suffer high levels of chronic stress that could produce potentially long-lasting effects. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of mind-body integration practices and cooperative activities on stress levels and social interaction in 7- to 9-year-old children. We performed an intervention program once a week during 2 months in which children performed mind-body integration practices and cooperative activities. Our findings showed that these practices reduced cortisol levels and increased social connectedness. Moreover, we found that most of the children used the learned mind-body integration practices in stressful situations in their homes, even 5 months after the intervention. Our results demonstrated the positive impact of these helpful tools and the great plasticity of children's behavior, which enabled them to incorporate healthy habits. Overall, the intervention enhanced health at an individual level and favored social network diversity at a group level. Our research illustrates how children can incorporate techniques that help them cope with stressful moments and reveals the effectiveness of this experience in reducing cortisol levels. This study contributes to the understanding of how mind-body integration practices and social connectedness can be helpful in reducing chronic stress, a topic that, to the best of our knowledge, has been little studied in children.

  19. Child Directed Interaction Training for young children in kinship care: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'zi, Amanda M; Stevens, Monica L; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2016-05-01

    This pilot study used a randomized controlled trial design to examine the feasibility and explore initial outcomes of a twice weekly, 8-session Child Directed Interaction Training (CDIT) program for children living in kinship care. Participants included 14 grandmothers and great-grandmothers with their 2- to 7-year-old children randomized either to CDIT or a waitlist control condition. Training was delivered at a local, community library with high fidelity to the training protocol. There was no attrition in either condition. After training, kinship caregivers in the CDIT condition demonstrated more positive relationships with their children during behavioral observation. The caregivers in the CDIT condition also reported clinically and statistically significant decreases in parenting stress and caregiver depression, as well as fewer externalizing child behavior problems than waitlist controls. Parent daily report measures indicated significant changes in disciplining that included greater use of limit-setting and less use of critical verbal force. Results appeared stable at 3-month follow-up. Changes in child internalizing behaviors and caregiver use of non-critical verbal force were not seen until 3-month follow-up. Results of this pilot study suggest both the feasibility of conducting full scale randomized clinical trials of CDIT in the community and the promise of this approach for providing effective parent training for kinship caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Couch potatoes to jumping beans: A pilot study of the effect of active video games on physical activity in children

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph; Jiang, Yannan; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Rodgers, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The primary objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of active video games on children's physical activity levels. Twenty children (mean ± SD age = 12 ± 1.5 years; 40% female) were randomised to receive either an active video game upgrade package or to a control group (no intervention). Effects on physical activity over the 12-week intervention period were measured using objective (Actigraph accelerometer) and subjective (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children ...

  1. Low thiamine levels in children with type 1 diabetes and diabetic ketoacidosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Elizabeth A; Strezlecki, Kenneth D; Clark, Jeff A; Lieh-Lai, Mary

    2015-02-01

    Thiamine deficiency has been documented in adults with diabetes and in a single report of reversible encephalopathy in a child with diabetic ketoacidosis. In children who present with severe diabetic ketoacidosis, one of the most serious complications is cerebral edema of which the primary symptom may be encephalopathy. Thiamine deficiency in other disease states has been clearly linked with acute encephalopathy, but there are no data on thiamine status in children with diabetic ketoacidosis. This study describes the prevalence of thiamine deficiency in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus who present with diabetic ketoacidosis and are admitted to the ICU. A prospective observational pilot study. PICU in a tertiary care children's hospital. Children 2-18 years admitted to the ICU for treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Twenty-two patients were enrolled. The mean age was 13.7 ± 3.6 years. Five of 21 patients (23.8%) had thiamine deficiency prior to insulin administration. After 8 hours of insulin therapy, seven of 20 patients (35%) had thiamine deficiency, and four of these seven patients also had thiamine deficiency at presentation. Sixty-eight percent of patients had a decrease in thiamine levels after 8 hours of insulin therapy, with a mean fall of 20 ± 31.4 nmol/L. Thiamine deficiency is common in children with diabetic ketoacidosis, and this deficiency may be worsened by treatment. When metabolic acidosis persists despite appropriate treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis, other factors such as thiamine deficiency should be considered.

  2. Home Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation Therapy to Treat Children With Anorectal Retention: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yik, Yee Ian; Stathopoulos, Lefteris; Hutson, John M; Southwell, Bridget R

    2016-07-01

    As transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) increased defecation in children and adults with Slow-Transit Constipation (STC), we performed a pilot study to test if TES can improve symptoms (defecation and soiling) in children with chronic constipation without STC and transit delay in the anorectum. Children with treatment-resistant constipation presenting to a tertiary hospital had gastrointestinal nuclear transit study (NTS) showing normal proximal colonic transit and anorectal holdup of tracer. TES was administered at home (1 hour/day for 3 months) using a battery-powered interferential stimulator, with four adhesive electrodes (4 × 4 cm) connected so currents cross within the lower abdomen at the level of S2-S4. Stimulation was added to existing laxatives. Daily continence diary, and quality-of-life questionnaires (PedsQL4.0) were compared before and after TES. Ten children (4 females: 5-10 years, mean 8 years) had holdup in the anorectum by NTS. Nine had 50% of children with treatment-resistant constipation with isolated holdup in the anorectum. Further studies (RCTs) are warranted in these children. © 2016 International Neuromodulation Society.

  3. Reiki Therapy for Symptom Management in Children Receiving Palliative Care: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Susan E; Maurer, Scott H; Ren, Dianxu; Danford, Cynthia A; Cohen, Susan M

    2017-05-01

    Pain may be reported in one-half to three-fourths of children with cancer and other terminal conditions and anxiety in about one-third of them. Pharmacologic methods do not always give satisfactory symptom relief. Complementary therapies such as Reiki may help children manage symptoms. This pre-post mixed-methods single group pilot study examined feasibility, acceptability, and the outcomes of pain, anxiety, and relaxation using Reiki therapy with children receiving palliative care. A convenience sample of children ages 7 to 16 and their parents were recruited from a palliative care service. Two 24-minute Reiki sessions were completed at the children's home. Paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were calculated to compare change from pre to post for outcome variables. Significance was set at P Reiki therapy did decrease pain, anxiety, heart, and respiratory rates, but small sample size deterred statistical significance. This preliminary work suggests that complementary methods of treatment such as Reiki may be beneficial to support traditional methods to manage pain and anxiety in children receiving palliative care.

  4. Pediatric Primary Care-Based Obesity Prevention for Parents of Preschool Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Nancy E; JaKa, Meghan M; Crain, A Lauren; Martinson, Brian C; Hayes, Marcia G; Anderson, Julie D

    2015-12-01

    The Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids Preschool (HHHK-Preschool) pilot program is an obesity prevention intervention integrating pediatric care provider counseling and a phone-based program to prevent unhealthy weight gain among 2- to 4-year-old children at risk for obesity (BMI percentile between the 50th and 85th percentile and at least one overweight parent) or currently overweight (85th percentile ≤ BMI pediatric primary care clinics were randomized to: (1) the Busy Bodies/Better Bites Obesity Prevention Arm or the (2) Healthy Tots/Safe Spots safety/injury prevention Contact Control Arm. Baseline and 6-month data were collected, including measured height and weight, accelerometry, previous day dietary recalls, and parent surveys. Intervention process data (e.g., call completion) were also collected. High intervention completion and satisfaction rates were observed. Although a statistically significant time by treatment interaction was not observed for BMI percentile or BMI z-score, post-hoc examination of baseline weight status as a moderator of treatment outcome showed that the Busy Bodies/Better Bites obesity prevention intervention appeared to be effective among children who were in the overweight category at baseline relative to those who were categorized as at risk for obesity (p = 0.04). HHHK-Preschool pilot study results support the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy in already overweight children of a pediatric primary care-based obesity prevention intervention integrating brief provider counseling and parent-targeted phone coaching. What's New: Implementing pediatric primary care-based obesity interventions is challenging. Previous interventions have primarily involved in-person sessions, a barrier to sustained parent involvement. HHHK-preschool pilot study results suggest that integrating brief provider counseling and parent-targeted phone coaching is a promising approach.

  5. Mothers Secretor Status Affects Development of Childrens Microbiota Composition and Function: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Brown, Paula; Morrison, Mark; Krause, Lutz; Davies, Peter S W

    2016-01-01

    One mechanism by which early life environment may influence long term health is through modulation of the gut microbiota. It is widely accepted that the optimal source of nutrition in early life is breast milk, with Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) thought to play an important role in nourishing the developing microbiota. However, mothers with inactive secretor genes have altered HMO composition and quantities in their breast milk. In this pilot study we examine the influence of secretor status and breast-feeding on microbiota composition at 2 to 3 years of age. 37 children and 17 eligible mothers were recruited. Secretor status was determined from blood and saliva samples using hemagglutination inhibition technique and faecal microbiota composition was examined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Secretor status was determined for 28 eligible children with 20 being secretors (S, 71.4%). Eleven of the 17 mothers were secretors (S, 64.7%). Unweighted UniFrac distances were significantly associated with child secretor status (R2 = 0.069, p = 0.030) and with mother secretor status in children exclusively breastfed for at least 4 months (R2 = 0.167, p = 0.028), suggesting an influence on the presence/absence of microbes, with Prevotella not detected in samples from secretor children and children of secretor mothers. In children who were exclusively breast-fed for at least 4 months of life the abundance of the known HMO consumers Bifidobacterium were increased in the children of secretor mothers compared to non-secretor mothers. The relative abundance of an OTU related to Bacteroides plebeius, a bacterium noted for its capacity to utilise sulphated polysaccharides for growth, was decreased in these children. Child and mothers' secretor status have an impact on childrens' microbiota composition at 2 to 3 years of age.

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging in children with unilateral hearing loss: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara eRachakonda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Language acquisition was assumed to proceed normally in children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL since they have one functioning ear. However, children with UHL score poorly on speech-language tests and have higher rates of educational problems compared to normal hearing (NH peers. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is an imaging modality used to measure microstructural integrity of brain white matter. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate differences in fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in hearing- and non-hearing-related structures in the brain between children with UHL and their NH siblings. Study Design: Prospective observational cohortSetting: Academic medical center.Subjects and Methods: 61 children were recruited, tested and imaged. 29 children with severe-to-profound UHL were compared to 20 siblings with NH using IQ and oral language testing, and MRI with DTI. 12 children had inadequate MRI data. Parents provided demographic data and indicated whether children had a need for an individualized educational program (IEP or speech therapy (ST. DTI parameters were measured in auditory and non-auditory regions of interest (ROIs. Between-group comparisons were evaluated with non-parametric tests. Results: Lower FA of left lateral lemniscus was observed for children with UHL compared to their NH siblings, as well as trends towards differences in other auditory and nonauditory regions. Correlation analyses showed associations between several DTI parameters and outcomes in children with UHL. Regression analyses revealed relationships between educational outcome variables and several DTI parameters, which may provide clinically useful information for guidance of speech therapy. Discussion/Conclusion: White matter microstructural patterns in several brain regions are preserved despite unilateral rather than bilateral auditory input which contrasts with findings in patients with bilateral hearing loss.

  7. Physical measurements of Chinese children in Hong Kong-A pilot study in preschools and kindergartens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Gary T K; Chan, Sharon S; Chu, Yoyo W Y; Chan, Sau Man; Wong, Wilfred H S; Chung, Brian H Y

    2016-08-01

    Normal growth is essential to a developing child. Most syndromes with dysmorphic features demonstrate recognizable patterns of disproportionate growth, thus physical measurements are an important aspect of patient evaluation. Delineating the abnormal growth pattern depends greatly on the accuracy of the normal range. However, the currently available reference data are restricted in terms of ethnicity and geographical location, hence may not be applicable to all children worldwide. In Hong Kong, reference data are limited only to the neonatal period. The aim of our pilot study is to obtain a set of region-specific physical measurement data for Chinese children in Hong Kong. Two to six year olds were recruited from preschools and kindergartens in different regions of Hong Kong. Twenty-six parameters found in previous publications were measured with minor modifications. Three medical personnel trained by a clinical geneticist obtained these parameters. Satisfactory inter-rater reliability was achieved in a training cohort prior to the study. Raw measurement data collected were normalized and fitted into growth curves modeled by LMS method. We recruited 448 children (55.6% male) between 2 and 6 years old from five preschools and kindergartens. Growth curves with essential percentile lines were drawn. Significant differences were identified in 11 parameters when compared with Caucasian children, including canthal distances and facial width/height. Our current pilot study presents the first local- and ethnicity-specific data on physical measurements of 2-6 year olds. Our findings highlighted the substantial ethnic variability in physical measurements and the need for an ethnic-specific reference for Chinese children. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Potential Risk Estimation Drowning Index for Children (PREDIC): a pilot study from Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borse, N N; Hyder, A A; Bishai, D; Baker, T; Arifeen, S E

    2011-11-01

    Childhood drowning is a major public health problem that has been neglected in many low- and middle-income countries. In Matlab, rural Bangladesh, more than 40% of child deaths aged 1-4 years are due to drowning. The main objective of this paper was to develop and evaluate a childhood drowning risk prediction index. A literature review was carried out to document risk factors identified for childhood drowning in Bangladesh. The Newacheck model for special health care needs for children was adapted and applied to construct a childhood drowning risk index called "Potential Risk Estimation Drowning Index for Children" (PREDIC). Finally, the proposed PREDIC Index was applied to childhood drowning deaths and compared with the comparison group from children living in Matlab, Bangladesh. This pilot study used t-tests and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve to analyze the results. The PREDIC index was applied to 302 drowning deaths and 624 children 0-4 years old living in Matlab. The results of t-test indicate that the drowned children had a statistically (t=-8.58, p=0.0001) significant higher mean PREDIC score (6.01) than those in comparison group (5.26). Drowning cases had a PREDIC score of 6 or more for 68% of the children however, the comparison group had 43% of the children with score of 6 or more which was statistically significant (t=-7.36, p<0.001). The area under the curve for the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was 0.662. Index score construction was scientifically plausible; and the index is relatively complete, fairly accurate, and practical. The risk index can help identify and target high risk children with drowning prevention programs. PREDIC index needs to be further tested for its accuracy, feasibility and effectiveness in drowning risk reduction in Bangladesh and other countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Feeding difficulties in children with inherited metabolic disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S; Alroqaiba, N; Daly, A; Neville, C; Davies, P; Macdonald, A

    2012-06-01

    In children with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD), feeding difficulties are often assumed to be inherent, although there is little evidence describing their frequency or severity. The present study aimed to describe feeding patterns/difficulties among children with IMD on protein-restricted diets from one centre. Data from an observational, pilot study of 20 IMD children, nine females (median age, 2.7 years; range, 1-6 years) were compared with data obtained from a retrospective historical group of 15 healthy children (HC), 12 females, aged 1-5 years (median 3.0 years). Caregivers completed a feeding assessment questionnaire, and three separate video recordings were taken of each child eating at home. The main feeding problems identified by the caregivers' questionnaire in the IMD group (compared to HC) were: poor appetite (55% versus 7%; P = 0.004), limited food variety (55% versus 27%; P = 0.04) and lengthy mealtimes (70% versus 20%; P = 0.006). During mealtimes, children from the IMD group were more likely to vomit, exhibit negative behaviour, get distracted and self-feed less often. From video recordings of meals, although the median meal duration was similar for the two groups (18 min IMD versus 16 min HC), the HC ate twice the quantity of food (3.4 mouthfuls min(-1) versus 1.5 mouthfuls min(-1) ; P children (median parent to child communications: IMD group, seven in 10 min; HC, 17 in 10 min). Eighty-three percent of IMD children regularly ate alone. In children with IMD on protein restrictions, severe feeding difficulties were common. Caregivers need to focus more attention on the social aspects of feeding. Further larger scale studies are required. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Human resource management in the Georgian National Immunization Program: a baseline assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmail, Laura C; Cohen-Kohler, Jillian Clare; Djibuti, Mamuka

    2007-07-31

    Georgia's health care system underwent dramatic reform after gaining independence in 1991. The decentralization of the health care system was one of the core elements of health care reform but reports suggest that human resource management issues were overlooked. The Georgian national immunization program was affected by these reforms and is not functioning at optimum levels. This paper describes the state of human resource management practices within the Georgian national immunization program in late 2004. Thirty districts were selected for the study. Within these districts, 392 providers and thirty immunization managers participated in the study. Survey questionnaires were administered through face-to-face interviews to immunization managers and a mail survey was administered to immunization providers. Qualitative data collection involved four focus groups. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square tests were used to test for differences between groups for continuous and categorical variables. Content analysis identified main themes within the focus groups. Weak administrative links exist between the Centres of Public Health (CPH) and Primary Health Care (PHC) health facilities. There is a lack of clear management guidelines and only 49.6% of all health providers had written job descriptions. A common concern among all respondents was the extremely inadequate salary. Managers cited lack of authority and poor knowledge and skills in human resource management. Lack of resources and infrastructure were identified as major barriers to improving immunization. Our study found that the National Immunization Program in Georgia was characterized by weak organizational structure and processes and a lack of knowledge and skills in management and supervision, especially at peripheral levels. The development of the skills and processes of a well-managed workforce may help improve immunization rates, facilitate successful implementation of remaining health care reforms and

  11. ROMANIAN “FIDUCIA” AND GEORGIAN “TRUST” (MAJOR TERMINOLOGICAL SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA GVELESIANI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Globalization - a complex system of innovation, internationalization and rapidly growing interdependence – plays the greatest role in the formation of today’s world. It enters different spheres of human life and stipulates the uniformity of economy, law, business and even, political life. In the framework of global processes, a lot of changes can be seen in the legal systems of European countries. The given paper discusses the formation of the Romanian “fiducia” and the Georgian “საკუთრების მინდობა” (sakutrebis mindoba – means “trust” under the influence of Anglo-American “trust”. The term “trust” generally nominates an institution of Anglo-American law, which is irreplaceable in the cases when the real owner of the property must be substituted by the nominal one (trustee for carrying out civil relationships. This concept originated in the English Common law, but has been constantly rejected by the European continental legal systems (Civil law. The main obstacle laid in the fact, that Anglo-American legal system was based on the duality of ownership, which was almost unacceptable for the continental law-governed countries. However, in the recent years, the growing importance of the American capital markets popularized the utilization of “trust” and stipulated its insertion in some “rigid” European jurisdictions. Moreover, some world countries have already indirectly allowed mechanisms similar to the “trust”. Among them are Romania and Georgia. The given research is dedicated to the precise description of the Romanian and Georgian “trust instruments”. It singles out major terminological units and underlines the fact that newly-established mechanisms have to undergo several stages for turning into faithful reflections of the original model of “trust”.

  12. A pilot study using children's books to understand caregiver perceptions of parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nerissa S; Hus, Anna M; Sullivan, Paula D; Szczepaniak, Dorota; Carroll, Aaron E; Downs, Stephen M

    2012-06-01

    To conduct a pilot study to test the feasibility and acceptability of using children's books to understand caregiver perceptions of parenting practices around common behavior challenges. A prospective 1-month pilot study was conducted in 3 community-based pediatric clinics serving lower income families living in central Indianapolis. One hundred caregivers of 4- to 7-year-old children presenting for a well-child visit chose 1 of 3 available children's books that dealt with a behavioral concern the caregiver reported having with the child. The book was read aloud to the child in the caregiver's presence by a trained research assistant and given to the families to take home. Outcomes measured were caregiver intent to change their interaction with their child after the book reading, as well as caregiver reports of changes in caregiver-child interactions at 1 month. Reading the book took an average of 3 minutes. Most (71%) caregivers reported intent to change after the book reading; two-thirds (47/71) were able to identify a specific technique or example illustrated in the story. One month later, all caregivers remembered receiving the book, and 91% reported reading the book to their child and/or sharing it with someone else. Three-fourths of caregivers (60/80) reported a change in caregiver-child interactions. The distribution of children's books with positive parenting content is a feasible and promising tool, and further study is warranted to see whether these books can serve as an effective brief intervention in pediatric primary care practice.

  13. Issues about home computer workstations and primary school children in Hong Kong: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py Szeto, Grace; Tsui, Macy Mei Sze; Sze, Winky Wing Yu; Chan, Irene Sin Ting; Chung, Cyrus Chak Fai; Lee, Felix Wai Kit

    2014-01-01

    All around the world, there is a rising trend of computer use among young children especially at home; yet the computer furniture is usually not designed specifically for children's use. In Hong Kong, this creates an even greater problem as most people live in very small apartments in high-rise buildings. Most of the past research literature is focused on computer use in children in the school environment and not about the home setting. The present pilot study aimed to examine ergonomic issues in children's use of computers at home in Hong Kong, which has some unique home environmental issues. Fifteen children (six male, nine female) aged 8-11 years and their parents were recruited by convenience sampling. Participants were asked to provide information on their computer use habits and related musculoskeletal symptoms. Participants were photographed when sitting at the computer workstation in their usual postures and joint angles were measured. The participants used computers frequently for less than two hours daily and the majority shared their workstations with other family members. Computer furniture was designed more for adult use and a mismatch of furniture and body size was found. Ergonomic issues included inappropriate positioning of the display screen, keyboard, and mouse, as well as lack of forearm support and suitable backrest. These led to awkward or constrained postures while some postural problems may be habitual. Three participants reported neck and shoulder discomfort in the past 12 months and 4 reported computer-related discomfort. Inappropriate computer workstation settings may have adverse effects on children's postures. More research on workstation setup at home, where children may use their computers the most, is needed.

  14. Children Learning About Secondhand Smoke (CLASS II): protocol of a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Kamran; Huque, Rumana; Jackson, Cath; Parrott, Steve; Dogar, Omara; Shah, Sarwat; Thomson, Heather; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-08-25

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) increases children's risk of acquiring chest and ear infections, tuberculosis, meningitis and asthma. Smoking bans in public places (where implemented) have significantly reduced adults' exposure to SHS. However, for children, homes remain the most likely place for them to be exposed to SHS. Additional measures are therefore required to protect children from SHS. In a feasibility study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we have shown that a school-based smoke-free intervention (SFI) was successful in encouraging children to negotiate and implement smoking restrictions in homes. We will now conduct a pilot trial to inform plans to undertake a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SFI in reducing children's exposure to SHS. We plan to recruit 12 primary schools in Dhaka, Bangladesh. From these schools, we will recruit approximately 360 schoolchildren in year 5 (10-12 years old), that is, 30 per school. SFI consists of six interactive educational activities aimed at increasing pupils' knowledge about SHS and related harms, motivating them to act, providing skills to negotiate with adults to persuade them not to smoke inside homes and helping families to 'sign-up' to a voluntary contract to make their homes smoke-free. Children in the control arm will receive the usual education. We will estimate: recruitment and attrition rates, acceptability, fidelity to SFI, effect size, intracluster correlation coefficient, cost of intervention and adverse events. Our primary outcome will consist of SHS exposure in children measured by salivary cotinine. Secondary outcomes will include respiratory symptoms, lung function tests, healthcare contacts, school attendance, smoking uptake, quality of life and academic performance. The trial has received ethics approval from the Research Governance Committee at the University of York. Findings will help us plan for the definitive trial. ISRCTN68690577

  15. Brain response to taste in overweight children: A pilot feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Bohon

    Full Text Available Understanding the neural response to food and food cues during early stages of weight gain in childhood may help us determine the drive processes involved in unhealthy eating behavior and risk for obesity. Healthy weight and overweight children ages 6-8 (N = 18; 10 with BMI between 5th and 85th %ile and 8 with BMI >85th %ile underwent fMRI scans while anticipating and receiving tastes of chocolate milkshake. Parents completed a Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Results reveal greater response to milkshake taste receipt in overweight children in the right insula, operculum, precentral gyrus, and angular gyrus, and bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate. No group differences were found for brain response to a visual food cue. Exploratory analyses revealed interactions between self-report measures of eating behavior and weight status on brain response to taste. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence of feasibility of studying young children's taste processing and suggests a possible developmental shift in brain response to taste.

  16. A Sleep Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Schoen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children who have Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD commonly report sleep problems, which typically exacerbate daytime behavior problems. This pilot study sought to identify the short-term effects on sleep, behavior challenges, attention, and quality of life of children with ASD following use of the iLs Dreampad ™ pillow, which delivers bone conducted music and environmental sounds. Aims were to demonstrate acceptability and feasibility, identify measures sensitive to change, and describe individual characteristics responsive to change. Method: Parent report questionnaires assessed sleep behavior, attention, autism-related behaviors, and quality of life from 15 participants before and during intervention. A Sleep Diary documented average sleep duration and average time to fall asleep during the preintervention phase and the last 2 weeks of the treatment phase. Results: Procedures were acceptable and feasible for families. All measures were sensitive to change. Children with ASD demonstrated significant change in sleep duration and time needed to fall asleep from pretest to intervention. Improvements were noted in autism-related behaviors, attention, and quality of life. Parent satisfaction was high. Conclusions: The iLs Dreampad™ pillow may be one alternative intervention to pharmacological interventions for children with ASD who have sleep problems. Further study is warranted.

  17. Children with myelomeningocele and independence in the toilet activity: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlau, Marie; Mattsson, Sven; Glad-Mattsson, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    Regarding adult life and independence the most common obstacles for young adults with myelomeningocele (MMC) are cognitive dysfunction and difficulties in performing toilet activities. A step-by-step method with goal setting for the training of self-care in toilet activities for children with MMC was evaluated. Twenty-two children with MMC and bladder and bowel dysfunction (12 girls, 10 boys) aged 3-17.2 (m 9.1) were included. The toilet activities were observed at home jointly by an occupational therapist and urotherapist. Goal-setting procedures of self-training were promoted. Observation scores before and after intervention were compared, the goal setting being evaluated on a Goal Attainment Scale (GAS). Fifteen children who trained in self-catheterization had a median observation score of 22 before and 37 after the training period (p = 0.002). Another seven trained in trans-rectal irrigation with a median score of 30 before and 49 after (p = 0.02). As a result of GAS all children improved, of whom 17 reached the goal or even more so than expected. In this pilot study mutual goal setting in a step-by-step training programme based on professional observation of the toilet activity at home showed a better outcome than traditionally performed training in a hospital setting or with traditional habilitation support.

  18. The Walking School Bus and Children's Physical Activity: A Pilot Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Uscanga, Doris K.; Hanfling, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a “walking school bus” program on children's rates of active commuting to school and physical activity. METHODS: We conducted a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial among 4th-graders from 8 schools in Houston, Texas (N = 149). Random allocation to treatment or control conditions was at the school level. Study staff walked with children to and from school up to 5 days/week. Outcomes were measured the week before (time 1) and during weeks 4 and 5 of the intervention (time 2). The main outcome was the weekly rate of active commuting, and a secondary outcome was moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Covariates included sociodemographics, distance from home to school, neighborhood safety, child BMI z score, parent self-efficacy/outcome expectations, and child self-efficacy for active commuting. A mixed-model repeated measures regression accounted for clustering by school, and stepwise procedures with backward elimination of nonsignificant covariates were used to identify significant predictors. RESULTS: Intervention children increased active commuting (mean ± SD) from 23.8% ± 9.2% (time 1) to 54% ± 9.2% (time 2), whereas control subjects decreased from 40.2% ± 8.9% (time 1) to 32.6% ± 8.9% (time 2) (P < .0001). Intervention children increased their minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from 46.6 ± 4.5 (time 1) to 48.8 ± 4.5 (time 2), whereas control children decreased from 46.1 ± 4.3 (time 1) to 41.3 ± 4.3 (time 2) (P = .029). CONCLUSIONS: The program improved children's active commuting to school and daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. PMID:21859920

  19. High prevalence of overweight and obesity in homeless Baltimore children and their caregivers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Kathleen B; Garrett, Beth; Hampsey, Jenifer; Thompson, Douglas

    2007-03-07

    In the past, nutritional deficiencies were common among homeless families. Because obesity is currently a major public health issue in the United States, it is possible that obesity has supplanted nutritional deficiencies as the "new malnutrition" of the homeless. To perform a pilot study to determine the nutritional status of homeless caregivers and their children in the Baltimore City, Maryland. Determination of weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) (weight in kg/height in m2) of all subjects and correlation with demographic variables. Six homeless shelters and transitional houses in Baltimore City. Thirty-one caregivers and 60 children. Relationship between caregiver BMI and child BMI and comparison of our data to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) norms. Forty-two percent of the children (25 of 60) had a BMI-for-age classifying them as at risk for overweight (18%) or overweight (23%). None were underweight. One hundred percent of girls and 88% of boys under age 7 years were in the normal range for BMI. There were no caregivers in the underweight range for BMI. Seventy-seven percent were either overweight (26%) or obese (51%). When the weight categories of the largely African-American homeless Baltimore caregivers and their children were compared with national data from NHANES 1999-2002 for both African-American poor and nonpoor adult females and children, the Baltimore subjects had the lowest proportion in the healthy range and the highest proportion in the obese (adults) and overweight (children) categories. Caregiver BMI correlated with child BMI: r = 0.43, P = .0002. Our data suggest that overweight and obesity are the major forms of malnutrition in homeless families.

  20. Qigong Sensory Training Pilot Study: A Tactile Home Program for Children with or At-Risk for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal-Atzili, Orit; Salls, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the efficacy of Qigong Sensory Training, a parent-implemented tactile intervention, in improving sensory processing and self-regulation in children with or at-risk for autism who were enrolled in early intervention. A pretest-posttest, single-subject design was implemented with three families. After 5 months, atypical…

  1. 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    OpenAIRE

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013, 14-15 November). 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. Presentation (virtual) at the 6th ICT for Language learning Conference, Florence, Italy. (URL of virtual presentation, including audio, will follow).

  2. The Impact of Life Skills Training on Behavior Problems in Left-Behind Children in Rural China: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Shan; Yan, Jin; Lee, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda

    2016-01-01

    A randomized controlled experimental pilot study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of life skills training on behavior problems in left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Sixty-eight LBC were recruited from a middle school in rural China. The intervention group took a ten-week-long life skills training course. The Child Behavior…

  3. Mind magic: a pilot study of preventive mind-body-based stress reduction in behaviorally inhibited and activated children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F.C.; Cornelis, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of study: The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Design of study:

  4. Feasibility of a Preventive Parenting Intervention for Very Preterm Children at 18 Months Corrected Age: A Randomized Pilot Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flierman, Monique; Koldewijn, Karen; Meijssen, Dominique; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke; van Schie, Petra; Jeukens-Visser, Martine

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and potential efficacy of an age-appropriate additional parenting intervention for very preterm born toddlers. In a randomized controlled pilot study, 60 of 94 eligible very preterm born children who had received a responsive parenting intervention in their first year

  5. Maternal Stress and Young Children's Behavioural Development: A Prospective Pilot Study from 8 to 36 Months in a Finnish Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapsamo, Helena; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel A.; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Larinen, Katja; Soini, Hannu; Moilanen, Irma

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between maternal parenting stress and infant/toddler behavioural development was examined in a longitudinal pilot study. Fifty mothers reported parenting stress via the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form when their infants were eight months old. Parents subsequently rated their children's emotional and behavioural problems with the…

  6. A Pilot Study of a Culturally Adapted Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Yang, Jian; Yao, Jing; Chen, Jun; Zhuang, Xiangxiang; Wang, Wenxiang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Lee, Gabrielle T.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot test the effects of a culturally adapted early intervention influenced by the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) on reduction of autism symptoms and severity categorization for young children with autism spectrum disorders in China. Participants were randomly assigned to either the control or intervention…

  7. Fundamental movement skills training to promote physical activity in children with and without disability: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Capio

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The findings suggest that improved FMS proficiency could potentially contribute to heightened PA and decreased sedentary time during weekends for children. Such effect of improved FMS proficiency on PA appears to be greater in those with physical disability than in those without disability. It is recommended that the findings of this pilot study should be further examined in future research.

  8. 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013, 14-15 November). 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. Presentation (virtual) at the 6th ICT for Language learning Conference, Florence, Italy. (URL of virtual

  9. The FAV-S Pilot Study: Increasing Self-Efficacy and Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Somali Women and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Rebecca; Hearst, Mary O.; Sherman, Shelley; Elwell, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    The 2012 FAV-S pilot study was developed as a dietary intervention program for low-income Somali mothers grounded in the health belief model. The intervention was geared toward increasing fruit and vegetable intake among participants' children. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the impact of the FAV-S program on participants' (1)…

  10. Virtual field trips as physically active lessons for children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Emma; Shelton, Nicola; Dunsmuir, Sandra; Duke-Williams, Oliver; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2015-04-11

    The modern classroom is an inherently sedentary environment. Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) using interactive whiteboards to explore virtual scenes are a potential method of converting sedentary class-time into physically active teaching. This pilot aimed to assess the effects of a developed VFT on physical activity and learning in primary-school children. Participants (n = 85) were randomly assigned to a) a 30-minute physically active London 2012 Olympics-themed VFT, or b) a 30-minute sedentary version of the same VFT. Activity was measured using GT1M Actigraphs, content recall was assessed with a quiz and user evaluations were gained from teacher and pupil questionnaires. Pupils in the active VFT displayed significantly less sedentary time (p < 0.001), and significantly more light (p < 0.001), moderate (p = 0.01) and vigorous physical activity (p < 0.001) than sedentary VFT pupils. No differences in content recall were found between intervention groups: suggesting that adding physical activity into classroom teaching may not compromise attainment. High acceptability was found in teachers and active VFT students rated their session significantly higher than sedentary pupils (p < 0.002). This one-day pilot provides early evidence of the ability of VFTs to convert sedentary academic time into active time. Longitudinal research is needed to assess prolonged effects of active VFTs in reducing sedentary time.

  11. Parent training education program: a pilot study, involving families of children with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodra, Yllka; Kondili, Loreta A; Ferraroni, Alessia; Serra, Maria Antonietta; Caretto, Flavia; Ricci, Maria Antonietta; Taruscio, Domenica

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by severe hypotonia during the neonatal period and the first two years of life, the onset of hyperphagia with a risk of obesity during infancy and adulthood, learning difficulties and behavioral or severe psychiatric problems. This complex disease has severe consequences and difficult management issues also for patients' families. Parents of children with PWS need appropriate psychoeducational intervention in order to better manage their children with PWS. The purpose of this study was the implementation and evaluation of a PWS psychoeducational parent training program. The Italian National Center for Rare Diseases implemented a pilot parent training program offered to parents of children with PWS. The intervention's effects was evaluated using questionnaires comprised of 11 items rated on a 7 point Likert scale. The intervention was offered to 43 parents. The behavior problems management, dietary restrictions, autonomy and relationships were indicated by parents as the priority topics which needed to be addressed. Evaluations, immediately post-intervention and after 6 months, were reported by parents, fulfilling specific questionnaires. 90% of parents involved in the study, appreciated the methodology, 86% felt more informed about PWS, 47-62% felt more capable to better approach behaviour's problems, 20-25% felt better about the child's health situation and future expectations. Feeling more capable to help the child autonomy and relationships were reported in 62% and 63% of parents respectively, which decreased significantly (p children with behavior's problems. Interventions with a behaviorally oriented program, addressed to parents of PWS affected children, is a useful tool in increasing their ability to manage the problems related to the disease.

  12. Sublingual sugar for hypoglycaemia in children with severe malaria: A pilot clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graz, Bertrand; Dicko, Moussa; Willcox, Merlin L; Lambert, Bernard; Falquet, Jacques; Forster, Mathieu; Giani, Sergio; Diakite, Chiaka; Dembele, Eugène M; Diallo, Drissa; Barennes, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    Background Hypoglycaemia is a poor prognostic indicator in severe malaria. Intravenous infusions are rarely feasible in rural areas. The efficacy of sublingual sugar (SLS) was assessed in a pilot randomized controlled trial among hypoglycaemic children with severe malaria in Mali. Methods Of 151 patients with presumed severe malaria, 23 children with blood glucose concentrations = 3.3 mmol/l (60 mg/dl) within 40 minutes after admission. Secondary outcome measures were early treatment response at 20 minutes, relapse (early and late), maximal BGC gain (CGmax), and treatment delay. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in the primary outcome measure. Treatment response occurred in 71% and 67% for SLS and IVG, respectively. Among the responders, relapses occurred in 30% on SLS at 40 minutes and in 17% on IVG at 20 minutes. There was one fatality in each group. Treatment failures in the SLS group were related to children with clenched teeth or swallowing the sugar, whereas in the IVG group, they were due to unavoidable delays in beginning an infusion (median time 17.5 min (range 3–40). Among SLS, the BGC increase was rapid among the nine patients who really kept the sugar sublingually. All but one increased their BGC by 10 minutes with a mean gain of 44 mg/dl (95%CI: 20.5–63.4). Conclusion Sublingual sugar appears to be a child-friendly, well-tolerated and effective promising method of raising blood glucose in severely ill children. More frequent repeated doses are needed to prevent relapse. Children should be monitored for early swallowing which leads to delayed absorption, and in this case another dose of sugar should be given. Sublingual sugar could be proposed as an immediate "first aid" measure while awaiting intravenous glucose. In many cases it may avert the need for intravenous glucose. PMID:19025610

  13. Sublingual sugar for hypoglycaemia in children with severe malaria: A pilot clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani Sergio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoglycaemia is a poor prognostic indicator in severe malaria. Intravenous infusions are rarely feasible in rural areas. The efficacy of sublingual sugar (SLS was assessed in a pilot randomized controlled trial among hypoglycaemic children with severe malaria in Mali. Methods Of 151 patients with presumed severe malaria, 23 children with blood glucose concentrations = 3.3 mmol/l (60 mg/dl within 40 minutes after admission. Secondary outcome measures were early treatment response at 20 minutes, relapse (early and late, maximal BGC gain (CGmax, and treatment delay. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in the primary outcome measure. Treatment response occurred in 71% and 67% for SLS and IVG, respectively. Among the responders, relapses occurred in 30% on SLS at 40 minutes and in 17% on IVG at 20 minutes. There was one fatality in each group. Treatment failures in the SLS group were related to children with clenched teeth or swallowing the sugar, whereas in the IVG group, they were due to unavoidable delays in beginning an infusion (median time 17.5 min (range 3–40. Among SLS, the BGC increase was rapid among the nine patients who really kept the sugar sublingually. All but one increased their BGC by 10 minutes with a mean gain of 44 mg/dl (95%CI: 20.5–63.4. Conclusion Sublingual sugar appears to be a child-friendly, well-tolerated and effective promising method of raising blood glucose in severely ill children. More frequent repeated doses are needed to prevent relapse. Children should be monitored for early swallowing which leads to delayed absorption, and in this case another dose of sugar should be given. Sublingual sugar could be proposed as an immediate "first aid" measure while awaiting intravenous glucose. In many cases it may avert the need for intravenous glucose.

  14. Disparities in risk communication: a pilot study of asthmatic children, their parents, and home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biksey, Thomas; Zickmund, Susan; Wu, Felicia

    2011-05-01

    Parents' knowledge and control of asthma triggers in home environments can help reduce risks associated with asthmatic children's respiratory health. This pilot study used both qualitative and quantitative methods to determine parental knowledge of their children's asthma triggers in home environments, control of those triggers, and information received and trusted. Twelve parents of asthmatic children in the greater Pittsburgh area--8 white and 4 African American--participated in one-on-one interviews about home exposures to asthma triggers. All parents described the link between asthma symptoms and both environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and pet dander exposures. House dust mites and mold were also commonly identified asthma triggers. All 8 white parents reported receiving information from physicians about controlling home environmental triggers of asthma, but the 4 African American parents reported having received no such information. However, all 12 parents reported having greater trust in information received from physicians than from other sources. White parents were significantly more aware of potential asthma triggers and performed significantly more actions to control the triggers in their homes. African American parents noted stressful experiences with primary and secondary care, less recall of information sharing about asthma triggers, and a focus on symptom management vs trigger avoidance.

  15. The walking school bus and children's physical activity: a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A; Uscanga, Doris K; Hanfling, Marcus J

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of a "walking school bus" program on children's rates of active commuting to school and physical activity. We conducted a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial among 4th-graders from 8 schools in Houston, Texas (N = 149). Random allocation to treatment or control conditions was at the school level. Study staff walked with children to and from school up to 5 days/week. Outcomes were measured the week before (time 1) and during weeks 4 and 5 of the intervention (time 2). The main outcome was the weekly rate of active commuting, and a secondary outcome was moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Covariates included sociodemographics, distance from home to school, neighborhood safety, child BMI z score, parent self-efficacy/outcome expectations, and child self-efficacy for active commuting. A mixed-model repeated measures regression accounted for clustering by school, and stepwise procedures with backward elimination of nonsignificant covariates were used to identify significant predictors. Intervention children increased active commuting (mean ± SD) from 23.8% ± 9.2% (time 1) to 54% ± 9.2% (time 2), whereas control subjects decreased from 40.2% ± 8.9% (time 1) to 32.6% ± 8.9% (time 2) (P school and daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  16. Pilot Randomized Trial of Active Music Engagement Intervention Parent Delivery for Young Children With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sheri L; Haase, Joan E; Perkins, Susan M; Haut, Paul R; Henley, Amanda K; Knafl, Kathleen A; Tong, Yan

    2017-03-01

    To examine the feasibility/acceptability of a parent-delivered Active Music Engagement (AME + P) intervention for young children with cancer and their parents. Secondary aim to explore changes in AME + P child emotional distress (facial affect) and parent emotional distress (mood; traumatic stress symptoms) relative to controls. A pilot two-group randomized trial was conducted with parents/children (ages 3-8 years) receiving AME + P ( n  =  9) or attention control ( n  =  7). Feasibility of parent delivery was assessed using a delivery checklist and child engagement; acceptability through parent interviews; preliminary outcomes at baseline, postintervention, 30 days postintervention. Parent delivery was feasible, as they successfully delivered AME activities, but interviews indicated parent delivery was not acceptable to parents. Emotional distress was lower for AME + P children, but parents derived no benefit. Despite child benefit, findings do not support parent delivery of AME + P. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Aquatic aerobic exercise for children with cerebral palsy: a pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Smith, Hilary J; Lombard, Kelly A; Barlow, Carrie; O'Neil, Margaret E

    2014-02-01

    The primary purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a14-week aquatic exercise program on gross motor function and walking endurance in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The secondary purpose was to evaluate changes in functional strength, aerobic capacity and balance. A prospective time series group design consisting of four measurement sessions (two baseline, one post intervention, and 1-month follow-up) was used. Eight ambulatory children ages 6-15 years with CP and classified at Gross Motor Function Classification System Level I or Level III participated in an aquatic aerobic exercise program. Significant improvements were observed for the primary outcomes of gross motor function and walking endurance. No significant differences between any of the secondary measures were observed, although all of the measures demonstrated trends of improvement after intervention. Ambulatory children with CP may improve their gross motor skills and walking endurance after an aquatic exercise program held twice per week for 14 weeks, utilizing moderate-to-vigorous exercise intensity and consisting of functional activities.

  18. Pilot Phase II study of mazindol in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konofal, Eric; Zhao, Wei; Laouénan, Cédric; Lecendreux, Michel; Kaguelidou, Florentia; Benadjaoud, Lila; Mentré, France; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    Mazindol has been proposed as a potential treatment of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this pilot study was to assess its pharmacokinetics, short-term efficacy, and safety. A total of 24 children (aged 9-12 years) with ADHD (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, text-revision criteria) received a daily dose of 1 mg for 7 days and were followed for 3 additional weeks. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected after the first administration. ADHD symptoms were assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale (RS)-IV, Conners' Parent Rating Scale - Revised: Long (CPRS-R:L) at screening, baseline, and the end of the study. The Clinical Global Impression - Severity (CGI-S) scale was assessed at baseline, and the CGI - Improvement (CGI-I) scale was assessed at subsequent visits. Twenty-one subjects (aged 10±1 years) were analyzed. Pharmacokinetic data were described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption, elimination, and lag time. The typical apparent clearance and apparent volume of distribution were 27.9 L/h and 234 L, and increased with fat-free mass and age, respectively. The mean change in score in ADHD RS-IV after 1 week of mazindol was -24.1 (Pmazindol might be an effective, well-tolerated, and long-acting (more than 8 hours) agent for the treatment of ADHD in children.

  19. Peer tutoring pilot program for the improvement of oral health behavior in underprivileged and immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Claus H; Löpker, Nadine; Noack, Michael J; Klein, Klaus; Rosen, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    Caries prevalence in underprivileged children is particularly high and, even though many efforts have been made, adherence to dental preventive programs is low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a tutoring program can improve oral health behavior in underprivileged and/or immigrant children. Thirty fourth-grade children (mean age = 9.6), over 50 percent of immigrant background, participated in this longitudinal pilot study. The fourth graders were invited to develop on oral health program for their first-grade peers. For this purpose, the fourth graders learned oral health practices and developed the peer tutoring program. Prior to the intervention and after having instructed their first-grade peers, all fourth graders were interviewed about their oral health habits and their tooth-brushing was recorded on video. Toothbrushing time, performance of circular tooth-brushing movements, and systematic cleaning of all dental surfaces were analyzed before and after the intervention. After peer teaching, there was a significant increase concerning tooth-brushing time (P = .004), performance of circular tooth-brushing movements (P tutoring program yielded a significant improvement in relevant oral care behavior. This approach provided an environment which, in contrast to traditional approaches, facilitates empowerment.

  20. Body image perceptions in Western and post-communist countries: a cross-cultural pilot study of children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humenikova, Lenka; Gates, Gail E

    2008-07-01

    The development of an unrealistic ideal body image and body size dissatisfaction among children is common in Western countries, including the USA and many European nations. However, little is known about children's body image perceptions in post-communist countries. This pilot study evaluated body image perceptions in a sample of Czech school-aged children and their parents and compared them with the perceptions of American children and parents. Ninety-seven Czech and 45 American 4th-6th graders and their parents from eight urban schools participated in this study. A previously developed silhouette body image instrument was utilized in a parent questionnaire and during child interviews to measure perceived and ideal body image perceptions of children and parents. Descriptive statistics, independent t-tests and paired t-tests were used to compare differences between children's and parents' perceived and ideal body image perceptions. Associations between body image perceptions and other variables were explored using bivariate correlations. American children had a thinner ideal body image compared with Czech children (P image for their children did not differ by nationality (P = 0.858). While the pressure on children to look thinner was apparent among both American and Czech children, Czech children considered a larger body size as more ideal. A future study should evaluate body image perceptions and factors influencing these perceptions in a representative sample of Czech children and parents.

  1. Pilot evaluation of the Frankfurt Social Skills Training for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrecht, Evelyn; Poustka, Fritz; Birnkammer, Sabine; Duketis, Eftichia; Schlitt, Sabine; Schmötzer, Gabriele; Bölte, Sven

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a group-based intervention aiming at improving social and communication skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Over a period of 11 months, N = 17 children and adolescents received treatment according to the manualised Frankfurt Social Skills Training (KONTAKT). Parent, teacher, expert and blind expert ratings were assessed to judge outcome regarding peer interaction, autistic behaviours, adaptive functioning and family burden. The participants exhibited improvements pre to follow-up treatment, particularly in the area of autistic symptomatology. Effect sizes (partial eta squared) ranged from 0.02 to 0.69. Among other things, regression models showed a positive influence of IQ and language skills on gains in social skills. Findings indicate that KONTAKT might be useful for enhancing social skills and reducing autism-related psychopathology over time in different contexts. Nevertheless, controlled trials are needed to reassure its effectiveness.

  2. Human resource management in the Georgian National Immunization Program: a baseline assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen-Kohler Jillian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Georgia's health care system underwent dramatic reform after gaining independence in 1991. The decentralization of the health care system was one of the core elements of health care reform but reports suggest that human resource management issues were overlooked. The Georgian national immunization program was affected by these reforms and is not functioning at optimum levels. This paper describes the state of human resource management practices within the Georgian national immunization program in late 2004. Methods Thirty districts were selected for the study. Within these districts, 392 providers and thirty immunization managers participated in the study. Survey questionnaires were administered through face-to-face interviews to immunization managers and a mail survey was administered to immunization providers. Qualitative data collection involved four focus groups. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used to test for differences between groups for continuous and categorical variables. Content analysis identified main themes within the focus groups. Results Weak administrative links exist between the Centres of Public Health (CPH and Primary Health Care (PHC health facilities. There is a lack of clear management guidelines and only 49.6% of all health providers had written job descriptions. A common concern among all respondents was the extremely inadequate salary. Managers cited lack of authority and poor knowledge and skills in human resource management. Lack of resources and infrastructure were identified as major barriers to improving immunization. Conclusion Our study found that the National Immunization Program in Georgia was characterized by weak organizational structure and processes and a lack of knowledge and skills in management and supervision, especially at peripheral levels. The development of the skills and processes of a well-managed workforce may help improve immunization rates, facilitate

  3. Pilot study testing a European human biomonitoring framework for biomarkers of chemical exposure in children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exley, Karen; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to a number of environmental chemicals in UK mothers and children has been assessed as part of the European biomonitoring pilot study, Demonstration of a Study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). For the European-funded project, 17 countries...... tested the biomonitoring guidelines and protocols developed by COPHES. The results from the pilot study in the UK are presented; 21 school children aged 6-11 years old and their mothers provided hair samples to measure mercury and urine samples, to measure cadmium, cotinine and several phthalate...... on environment, health and lifestyle. Mercury in hair was higher in children who reported frequent consumption of fish (geometric mean 0.35 μg/g) compared to those that ate fish less frequently (0.13 μg/g, p = 0.002). Cadmium accumulates with age as demonstrated by higher levels of urinary cadmium in the mothers...

  4. Near vision anomalies in Black high school children in Empangeni, South Africa: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O. Wajuihian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to read efficiently and comfortably is important in the intellectual development and academic performance of a child. Some children experience difficulties when reading due to symptoms related to near vision anomalies. Aim: To explore the feasibility of conducting a large study to determine the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in high school children in Empangeni, South Africa. Methods: The study was a cross sectional descriptive pilot study designed to provide preliminary data on prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in a sample of high school-children in South Africa. Study participants comprised 65 Black children (30 males and 35 females, ages ranged between 13 and 19 years with a mean age and standard deviation of 17 ± 1.43 years. The visual functions evaluated and the techniques used included visual acuity (LogMAR acuity chart, refractive error (autorefractor and subjective refraction, heterophoria (von Graefe, near point of convergence (push-in-to-double, amplitude of accommodation (push-in-to-blur accommodation facility (± 2 D flipper lenses, relative accommodation, accommodation response (monocular estimation method and fusional vergences (step vergence with prism bars. Possible associations between symptoms and near vision anomalies were explored using a 20-point symptoms questionnaire. Results: Prevalence estimates were: Myopia 4.8%, hyperopia 1.6% and astigmatism 1.6%.  For accommodative anomalies, 1.6% had accommodative insufficiency while 1.6% had accommodative infacility. For convergence anomalies, 3.2% had receded near point of convergence, 16% had low suspect convergence insufficiency, no participant had high suspect convergence insufficiency, 1.6% had definite convergence insufficiency and 3.2% had convergence excess. Female participants reported more symptoms than the males and the association between clinical measures and symptoms

  5. Effect of an Ankle Foot Orthosis Intervention for Children With Non-Central Nervous System Cancers: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Lynn R; Hooke, Mary C; Hinshon, Scott; Hansen, Cheryl R

    2015-01-01

    Children with cancer are at risk for physical performance limitations. In this pilot study we investigated the feasibility and initial efficacy of an ankle foot orthosis (AFO) in children with non-central nervous system cancer with peripheral weakness. Participants included children aged 5 to 11 years diagnosed with cancer. Children wore AFOs for 1 cycle of chemotherapy. Pre- and postintervention adverse events, adherence, gait, strength, range of motion, activity, and fatigue were measured. Six of 7 children completed the study; none of the 7 reported adverse events. Positive trends were observed in step length (46.23-49.25 cm), dorsiflexion strength (19.25-24.50 lb), ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (0.5-8°), and activity (7850-9857 epochs). Negative trends observed included cadence and fatigue ratings. No change was observed in the 6-minute walk or parent-reported fatigue. An AFO intervention is feasible in children with cancer. Initial efficacy results warrant further study.

  6. Assisted autogenic drainage in infants and young children hospitalized with uncomplicated pneumonia, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corten, Lieselotte; Jelsma, Jennifer; Human, Anri; Rahim, Sameer; Morrow, Brenda M

    2018-01-01

    Pneumonia is the most important respiratory problem in low-to-middle income countries. Airway clearance therapy continues to be used in children with pneumonia and secretion retention; however, there is lack of evidence to support or reject this treatment. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the efficacy and safety of assisted autogenic drainage (AAD) compared to standard nursing care in children hospitalized with uncomplicated pneumonia. A single-blinded pilot RCT was conducted on 29 children (median age 3.5 months, IQR 1.5-9.4) hospitalized with uncomplicated pneumonia. The intervention group received standard nursing care with additional bi-daily AAD, for 10 to 30 min. The control group only received standard nursing care, unless otherwise deemed necessary by the physician or physiotherapist. The primary outcome measure was duration of hospitalization. The secondary outcome measures included days of fever and supplemental oxygen support; respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate adjusted for age; RR and oxygen saturation pre-, post-, and 1-hr post-treatment; oxygen saturation; adverse events; and mortality. No difference was found for duration of hospitalization (median 7.5 and 7.0 days for the control and intervention groups, respectively); however, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a strong tendency towards a shorter time to discharge in the intervention group (p = .06). No significant differences were found for the other outcome measures at time of discharge. No adverse events were reported. Within the intervention group, a significant reduction in RR adjusted for age was found. As no adverse events were reported, and AAD did not prolong hospitalization; AAD might be considered as safe and effective in young children with uncomplicated pneumonia. However, a larger multicentred RCT is warranted to determine the efficacy of AAD compared to standard nursing care. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Social anxiety and self-concept in children with epilepsy: a pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana E; Blocher, Jacquelyn B; Jackson, Daren C; Sung, Connie; Fujikawa, Mayu

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) anxiety intervention on social phobia, social skill development, and self-concept. Fifteen children with epilepsy and a primary anxiety disorder participated in a CBT intervention for 12 weeks plus a 3-month follow-up visit. Children were assessed at baseline, week 7, week 12, and 3 months post treatment to measure changes in social phobia using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Self-concept was also assessed by using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale II (Piers-Harris 2). There was a significant reduction in symptoms of social phobia and improved self-concept at the end of the 12-week intervention and at the 3 month follow-up. Repeated measures ANOVA's of child ratings revealed significant change over time on the SCARED-Social Phobia/Social Anxiety subscale score (p=0.024). In terms of self-concept, significant change over time was detected on the Piers-Harris 2-Total score (p=0.015) and several subscale scores of Piers-Harris 2, including: Physical Appearance and Attributes (p=0.016), Freedom from Anxiety (p=0.005), and Popularity (p=0.003). This pilot investigation utilized an evidenced based CBT intervention to reduce symptoms of social phobia, which in turn provided a vehicle to address specific social skills improving self-concept in children with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical activity 11-15 years old children with oncological disease: pilot study disHBSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vyhlídal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As of 1993, the Czech and Slovak Republic, along with other countries of Europe and North America, participating in regular intervals to 4 year international project HBSC (Health Behavior in The School-aged Children, for our purposes disHBSC - "with disability". The main objective of this research study is to identify determinants of health and lifestyle pupils and compare the results on the international level. Up to this time, however, the research could not include pupils with disabilities and physical handicaps. On the initiative of WHO were within these categories in the survey also included pupils with cancer. In order to integrate these students, a new study disHBSC, which aims to increase knowledge of health and health behaviors, related to them this target group. Objectives: The aim of the research investigation is to determine the selected determinants affecting the participation of pupils with oncological diseases in the age 11-15 years in physical activities. Part of the aim is to find out their self-assessment and aspiration level, which with the realization of physical activities can immediately relate to. The purpose of the investigation is, however, in particular the pilot revealed any organizational and substantive uncertainties and upgrade research technique with regard to the needs and options of the target group. Methods: The research survey used a pilot version of the questionnaire protocol disHBSC. This pilot version is derived from the questionnaire protocol that was used in 2010 and based on the international version of the questionnaire HBSC. A pilot version of the questionnaire contained 41 questions, which are divided into several thematic areas - basic sociodemographic characteristics and behaviors specific areas (which have a significant relationship to physical and mental health of children and youth youth health, eating habits, physical activity and leisure use substance abuse, self-esteem and

  9. Molecular diversity and predictability of Vibrio parahaemolyticus along the Georgian coastal zone of the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Bradd J; Kokashvili, Tamar; Tskshvediani, Ana; Janelidze, Nino; Mitaishvili, Nino; Grim, Christopher J; Constantin de Magny, Guillaume; Chen, Arlene J; Taviani, Elisa; Eliashvili, Tamar; Tediashvili, Marina; Whitehouse, Chris A; Colwell, Rita R; Huq, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-related gastroenteritis and is also an autochthonous member of marine and estuarine environments worldwide. One-hundred seventy strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from water and plankton samples collected along the Georgian coast of the Black Sea during 28 months of sample collection. All isolated strains were tested for presence of tlh, trh, and tdh. A subset of strains were serotyped and tested for additional factors and markers of pandemicity. Twenty-six serotypes, five of which are clinically relevant, were identified. Although all 170 isolates were negative for tdh, trh, and the Kanagawa Phenomenon, 7 possessed the GS-PCR sequence and 27 the 850 bp sequence of V. parahaemolyticus pandemic strains. The V. parahaemolyticus population in the Black Sea was estimated to be genomically heterogeneous by rep-PCR and the serodiversity observed did not correlate with rep-PCR genomic diversity. Statistical modeling was used to predict presence of V. parahaemolyticus as a function of water temperature, with strongest concordance observed for Green Cape site samples (Percent of total variance = 70, P Black Sea, some of which carry pandemic markers, with increased water temperature correlated to an increase in abundance of V. parahaemolyticus.

  10. Ethos without nomos: the Russian–Georgian War and the post-Soviet state of exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Prozorov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the 2008 Russian–Georgian conflict in the context of the post-Soviet spatial order, approached in terms of Carl Schmitt's theory of nomos and Giorgio Agamben's theory of the state of exception. The ‘five-day war’ was the first instance of the violation by Russia of the integrity of the post-Soviet spatial order established in the Belovezha treaties of December 1991. While from the beginning of the postcommunist period Russia functioned as the restraining force in the post-Soviet realm, the 2008 war has made further recourse to this function impossible, plunging the post-Soviet space into the condition of anomie, or the state of exception. This paper interprets this disruptive policy in the post-Soviet space as the continuation of the domestic political process of the ‘management of anomie,’ which has characterized the entire postcommunist period. In the conclusion, we address the implications of the transformation of the international order into the ethos of anomie for rethinking the ethical dimension of global politics.

  11. Organization and Implementation of Online Cytology Quality Assurance Program – Georgian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kldiashvili Ekaterina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical information system (MIS is at the heart of information technology (IT implementation policies in healthcare systems around the world. Different architecture and application models of MIS are developed. Despite of obvious advantages and benefits, application of MIS in everyday practice is slow. On the background of analysis of the existing models of MIS in Georgia has been created a multi-user web-based approach. This article will present the architecture of the system and its application for cytology quality assurance programs. Five hundred Georgian language electronic medical records from the cervical screening activity illustrated by images were selected for quality assurance program. The primary goal of the MIS is patient management. However, the system can be used for quality assurance programs. The ideal of healthcare in the information age must be to create a situation where healthcare professionals spend more time creating knowledge from medical information and less time managing medical information. The application of easily available and adaptable technology and improvement of the infrastructure conditions is the basis for eHealth applications. The MIS is perspective and actual technology solution. It can be used for cytology quality assurance programs.

  12. The Covent Garden Old Price Riots: Protest and Justice in Late‑Georgian London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James William Baker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores perceptions of the law and of how agents of the law responded to events at Covent Garden Theatre during the bitter months between mid-October and late-November 1809, the height of the Covent Garden Old Price riots. It does so through the lens of the periodical press, a vital and voluminous source of not only what happened during the riots but also of opinions on what happened and of perceptions of what happened, opinions and perceptions that are the primary concern of this article. The article begins with a discussion of how the magistrates, ‘police officers,’ justices, and lawyers who together were agents of the legal system were seen, where they were seen, and what they did. It moves on to examine how the actions of those agents and the legal system they represented were reported upon. And it concludes with a discussion of how theatregoers and Londoners were seen to have responded to those actions, moving a significant element of the conflict outside of Covent Garden Theatre and into the public press in a direct response to how they were policed as threats to public order and security. It argues that the Covent Garden Old Price riots was a significant urban act of multi-class protest because of the ways that it intersected with wider late-Georgian concerns, with discursive arenas where British liberty and the freedom of her subjects were contested and at stake.

  13. Microbial water quality of the Georgian coastal zone of the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janelidze, N; Jaiani, E; Lashkhi, N; Tskhvediani, A; Kokashvili, T; Gvarishvili, T; Jgenti, D; Mikashavidze, E; Diasamidze, R; Narodny, S; Obiso, R; Whitehouse, C A; Huq, A; Tediashvili, M

    2011-03-01

    From 2006 to 2008, microbial water quality was monitored along the Georgian coast of the Black Sea. Temperature, pH, salinity, and dissolved oxygen were measured, along with a variety of aquatic microbial parameters, including heterotrophic plate count (HPC), total culturable bacterial count (TCBC), and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration. Total and fecal coliforms and total enterococci counts were recorded as indicators of fecal pollution. Vibrio bacteria, and Escherichia coli- and Vibrio-specific bacteriophages were isolated and enumerated to determine their relationships to standard marine pollution indicators. Persistent microbial pollution was observed, particularly in the summer months, with a higher rate of contamination in estuaries. Microbial indicators generally showed seasonal dependence, suggesting that temperature may influence bacterial dynamics in this environment. No correlation was apparent between fecal pollution indicators and physical-chemical and aquatic microbial parameters, although there were significant relationships amongst the indicators themselves, as well as with the prevalence of Vibrio bacteria and phage. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive rehabilitation system for children with autism spectrum disorder using serious games: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresti-Bartolome, Nuria; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies and assesses how rehabilitation activities and supervised computer games incorporated into a system aimed at people diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can be used to work on the areas affected by ASD at any time and in any place. This research specifically assesses the areas that affect communication and interaction between people with ASD and professionals. In order to do this, a group of 20 children diagnosed with ASD of between 3 and 8 years old (clinical group) was used, together with a group of 20 children of between 3 and 8 years old with a neurotypical development, which served as a control group. During the tests, response time and visual interaction with the session leader were evaluated. Despite the fact that the clinical group spent more time (M = 21.08 sec) than the control group (M = 4.52) to interact leader, eye contact predominated in the interaction. As a result of the pilot study, the system obtained could help in cognitive rehabilitation.

  15. [International adoption of children from Ethiopia and language: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Navarro, A; de Casas-Calvo, N; Monsalve-Clemente, C; Martos-Perez, J

    2017-02-24

    Children who have gone through international adoption offer a great and unique learning opportunity around language development. Time elapsed since the first international adoptions took place in Spain has given a unique opportunity to research and conclude whether learning the second language follows the same developmental patterns and outcomes as compared to acquiring tongue language. To verify whether the evaluated subjects have reached the expected use and language proficiency for their chronological age. This pilot study focuses on the evaluation of language acquired in the first years of adolescence of 7 Ethiopian children who have lived over 8 years in Spain. CELF-4 test and the verbal tests of the WISC-IV have been administered. Scores have been analyzed and compared to the control group (same age group). In order to generate qualitative information about parents' concerns an on-line questionnaire has been administered in a form of a semi-structured interview. Both the CELF-4 test and the WISC-IV verbal tests reflect average or low average results in language abilities. Qualitative interviews reflect deep concern about academic outcome. Subjects in this study are showing an average to low average proficiency in the Spanish language. The results, nevertheless, do not explain the academic difficulties shown.

  16. A pilot pharmacokinetic study of tricyclic antidepressant ovine Fab for TCA poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalindağ-Oztürk, Nilüfer; Goto, Collin S; Shepherd, Greene; Torres, Olivia Nayeli; Giroir, Brett

    2010-06-01

    A pilot study of tricyclic antidepressant (TCA)-specific antibody fragments (TCA Fab) in TCA-intoxicated adults showed a marked increase in serum total TCA concentrations following TCA Fab infusion with no worsening signs of TCA toxicity. TCA Fab pharmacokinetics (PK) was not described in this adult study. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PK of TCA Fab in children with TCA poisoning. This was an open-label, single-center, dose escalation pilot trial of three patients. Inclusion criteria were documented TCA ingestion with at least one serious complication (QRS prolongation, dysrhythmia, hypotension, seizure, or coma). Patients were assigned to either a low-dose intravenous TCA Fab regimen (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg) or a high-dose regimen (30, 60, and 120 mg/kg) as needed to reverse TCA toxicity. Following the administration of TCA Fab, samples of blood and urine were obtained for PK evaluations. The outcomes of interest were serum and urine TCA concentrations (free and total), serum and urine Fab concentrations, improvement or worsening of TCA toxicity, and adverse effects. Three study patients were 11, 11, and 14 years of age. Two patients received 15 mg/kg of TCA Fab and one patient received a total of 90 mg/kg of TCA Fab (30 + 60 mg/kg). Serum-bound TCA increased significantly following TCA Fab administration with concomitant enhanced urinary elimination. Serum-free TCA concentrations were minimal to undetectable. Fab data were available for two patients. The serum TCA Fab area under the curve was 306.12 mg/L/h for the 15 mg/kg dose and 2,198.10 mg/L/h for the 90 mg/kg dose of TCA Fab. Maximum Fab concentrations correlated with maximum bound TCA in serum. The volume of distribution (V(D)) of TCA Fab was 0.2-0.3 L/kg. The clearance was 0.036-0.05 L/kg/h and the elimination half-life was 4 h. No adverse effects were observed. The limited PK data from this study are consistent with binding of TCA to TCA Fab and redistribution of TCA from the tissue to

  17. Assessment of pragmatic language impairment in children referred to psychiatric services: a pilot study of the Children's Communication Checklist in a Norwegian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Wenche Andersen; Heimann, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was to explore whether pragmatic language impairments are more prevalent among children referred to child psychiatric services (n=21) than among a comparison group of typically developing children (n=29) in the age range 8-10 years. A second and minor aim was also to assess the usability of a Norwegian translation of the Children's Communication Checklist (CCC). Communication disorders defined as a pragmatic score equal to or below 140 on the CCC were identified in a majority (0.57) of the children in the clinical group; the corresponding proportion for the typically developing comparison group was only 0.10. Thus, the Norwegian version of the CCC distinguishes between children with symptoms of pragmatic language impairments and those with no symptoms, as does the English version.

  18. Coaching Parents of Young Children with Autism in Rural Areas Using Internet-Based Technologies: A Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Meyer, Lori E.; Snodgrass, Melinda R.; Halle, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a pilot program (i.e., Internet-Based Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies [i-PiCS] program) that provides long-distance training and coaching via the Internet to parents of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The i-PiCS program is designed to teach parents how to use evidence-based…

  19. Thorium Energy Resources and its Potential of Georgian Republic, The Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoladze, Salome; Okrostsvaridze, Avtandil

    2017-04-01

    Energy resources, currently consumed by modern civilization, are represented by hydrocarbons - 78-80 %, however these reserves are exhausting. In light of these challenges, search of new energy resources is vital importance problem for the modern civilization. Based on the analysis of existing energy reserves and potential, as the main energy resources for the future of our civilization, the renewable and nuclear energy should be considered. However, thorium has a number of advantages compared to Uranium (Kazimi, 2003; et al.): It is concentrated in the earth crust 4-5 times more than uranium; extraction and enrichment of thorium is much cheaper than uranium's; It is less radioactive; complete destruction of its waste products is possible; thorium yields much more energy than uranium. Because of unique properties and currently existed difficult energetic situation thorium is considered as the main green energy resource in the 3rd millennium of the human civilization (Martin, 2009). Georgia republic, which is situated in the central part of Caucasus, poor of hydrocarbons, but has a thorium resource important potential. In general the Caucasus represents a collisional orogen, that formed along the Eurasian North continental margin and extends over 1200 km from Caspian to Black Sea. Three major units are distinguished in its construction: the Greater and Lesser Caucasian mobile belts and the Transcaucasus microplate. Currently it represents the Tethyan segment connecting the Mediterranean and Iran-Himalayan orogenic belts, between the Gondvana-derived Arabian plate and East European platform. Now in Georgian Republic are marked thorium four ore occurrences (Okrostsvaridze, 2014): 1- in the Sothern slope of the Greater Caucasus, in the quartz -plagioclases veins (Th concentrations vary between 51g/t - 3882 g/t); 2- in the Transcaucasus Dzirula massif hydrothermally altered rocks of the Precambrian quartz-diorite gneisses (Th concentrations vary between 117 g/t -266 g

  20. Single-event multilevel surgery in children with spastic diplegia: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Pamela; Baker, Richard; Dodd, Karen; Taylor, Nicholas; Selber, Paulo; Wolfe, Rory; Graham, H Kerr

    2011-03-02

    Single-event multilevel surgery is considered the standard of care to improve gait and functioning of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. However, the evidence base is limited. This pilot study is the first randomized controlled trial of single-event multilevel surgery, to our knowledge. Nineteen children (twelve boys and seven girls with a mean age of nine years and eight months) with spastic diplegia were enrolled. Eleven children were randomized to the surgical group and eight, to the control group. The control group underwent a program of progressive resistance strength training. The randomized phase of the trial concluded at twelve months. The control group then exited the study and progressed to surgery, whereas the surgical group continued to be followed in a prospective cohort study. The primary outcome measures were the Gait Profile Score (GPS) and the Gillette Gait Index (GGI). Secondary outcome measures were gross motor function (Gross Motor Function Measure-66 [GMFM-66]), functional mobility (Functional Mobility Scale [FMS]), time spent in the upright position, and health-related quality of life (Child Health Questionnaire [CHQ]). A total of eighty-five surgical procedures were performed, with a mean of eight procedures per child (standard deviation, four). The surgical group had a 34% improvement in the GPS and a 57% improvement in the GGI at twelve months. The control group had a small nonsignificant deterioration in both indices. The between-group differences for the change in the GPS (-5.5; 95% confidence interval, -7.6 to -3.4) and the GGI (-218; 95% confidence interval, -299 to -136) were highly significant. The differences between the groups with regard to the secondary outcome measures were not significant at twelve months. At twenty-four months after surgery, there was a 4.9% increase in the GMFM-66 score and improvements in the FMS score, time spent in the upright position, and the physical functioning domain of the CHQ in the

  1. Parent Perception of Two Eye-Gaze Control Technology Systems in Young Children with Cerebral Palsy: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Petra; Wallen, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Eye-gaze control technology enables people with significant physical disability to access computers for communication, play, learning and environmental control. This pilot study used a multiple case study design with repeated baseline assessment and parents' evaluations to compare two eye-gaze control technology systems to identify any differences in factors such as ease of use and impact of the systems for their young children. Five children, aged 3 to 5 years, with dyskinetic cerebral palsy, and their families participated. Overall, families were satisfied with both the Tobii PCEye Go and myGaze® eye tracker, found them easy to position and use, and children learned to operate them quickly. This technology provides young children with important opportunities for learning, play, leisure, and developing communication.

  2. Couch potatoes to jumping beans: a pilot study of the effect of active video games on physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph; Jiang, Yannan; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Rodgers, Anthony

    2008-02-07

    The primary objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of active video games on children's physical activity levels.Twenty children (mean +/- SD age = 12 +/- 1.5 years; 40% female) were randomised to receive either an active video game upgrade package or to a control group (no intervention). Effects on physical activity over the 12-week intervention period were measured using objective (Actigraph accelerometer) and subjective (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children [PAQ-C]) measures. An activity log was used to estimate time spent playing active and non-active video games.Children in the intervention group spent less mean time over the total 12-week intervention period playing all video games compared to those in the control group (54 versus 98 minutes/day [difference = -44 minutes/day, 95% CI [-92, 2

  3. Couch potatoes to jumping beans: A pilot study of the effect of active video games on physical activity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jull Andrew

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The primary objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of active video games on children's physical activity levels. Twenty children (mean ± SD age = 12 ± 1.5 years; 40% female were randomised to receive either an active video game upgrade package or to a control group (no intervention. Effects on physical activity over the 12-week intervention period were measured using objective (Actigraph accelerometer and subjective (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children [PAQ-C] measures. An activity log was used to estimate time spent playing active and non-active video games. Children in the intervention group spent less mean time over the total 12-week intervention period playing all video games compared to those in the control group (54 versus 98 minutes/day [difference = -44 minutes/day, 95% CI [-92, 2

  4. The natural history of spina bifida in children pilot project: research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alriksson-Schmidt, Ann I; Thibadeau, Judy K; Swanson, Mark E; Marcus, David; Carris, Kari L; Siffel, Csaba; Ward, Elisabeth

    2013-01-25

    Population-based empirical information to inform health care professionals working with children with spina bifida currently is lacking. Spina bifida is a highly complex condition that not only affects mobility but many additional aspects of life. We have developed a pilot project that focuses on a broad range of domains: surgeries, development and learning, nutrition and physical growth, mobility and functioning, general health, and family demographics. Specifically, we will: (1) explore the feasibility of identifying and recruiting participants using different recruitment sources, (2) test a multidisciplinary module to collect the data, (3) determine the utility of different methods of retrieving the data, and (4) summarize descriptive information on living with spina bifida. The overall objective of the project was to provide information for a future multistate prospective study on the natural history of spina bifida. Families with a child 3 to 6 years of age with a diagnosis of spina bifida were eligible for enrollment. Eligible families were identified through a US population-based tracking system for birth defects and from a local spina bifida clinic. This is an ongoing project with first results expected in 2013. This project, and the planned multistate follow-up project, will provide information both to health care professionals experienced in providing care to patients with spina bifida, and to those who have yet to work with this population. The long-term purpose of this project is to increase the knowledge about growing up with spina bifida and to guide health care practices by prospectively studying a cohort of children born with this condition.

  5. A Pilot of a Brief Positive Parenting Program on Children Newly Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Debra H; Bultas, Margaret W; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Halloran, Donna; White, Taryn; McNamara, Donnamarie; Pierce, Katherine J

    2017-12-14

    Disruptive behaviors can be of comparable or greater concern to parents than the core symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Provision of effective interventions to address these behaviors within the first year of initial diagnosis holds great potential for improving the child's, parents', and family's functioning. We piloted a four-session, manualized, positive parenting program on 21 parents of newly diagnosed children ages 2 through 12 years using a mixed methods design. Seventy-five percent of parents completed four sessions, with 100% reporting high levels of service satisfaction. Preliminary results indicated clinically and statistically significant reductions in child maladaptive behaviors, as well as improvements in parental and family functioning. Practitioners and parents identified several potential implementation adaptations, including additional sessions to focus on ASD education and real-time parent-child interactions. Taken as a whole, these data suggest that a brief positive parenting intervention may be a feasible way to improve child, parent, and family functioning during the first year of ASD diagnosis. Findings point to the need for additional research to determine treatment efficacy and to assist with the identification of moderators and mediators of effects. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  6. Vibration therapy tolerated in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kenneth A; Ramage, Barbara; Khan, Aneal; Mah, Jean K

    2014-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked recessive muscular dystrophy. Clinical management primarily involves rehabilitation strategies aimed at preserving functional mobility as long as possible. Side-alternating vibration therapy is a rehabilitation intervention that has shown promise in a number of different neuromuscular disorders, and has the potential to preserve strength, functional mobility, and bone mass. There has been little research regarding the tolerance to side-alternating vibration therapy in muscle diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Four patients were recruited for a pilot study assessing the safety and tolerance of side-alternating vibration therapy in individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. All patients participated in a 4-week training period involving side-alternating vibration therapy sessions three times per week. Serum creatine kinase was measured, and adverse effects reviewed at each session with functional mobility assessed before and after the training period. All patients tolerated the training protocol well, and there were no major changes in functional mobility. One patient had a transient increase in creatine kinase during the study; however, levels of this enzyme were stable overall when comparing the pretraining and posttraining values. Some patients reported subjective improvement during the training period. Side-alternating vibration therapy is well tolerated in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and may have potential to improve or maintain functional mobility and strength in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between facial expression and PTSD symptoms among young children exposed to the Great East Japan Earthquake: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eFujiwara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotional numbing is a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD characterized by a loss of interest in usually enjoyable activities, feeling detached from others, and an inability to express a full range of emotions. Emotional numbing is usually assessed through self-report, and is particularly difficult to ascertain among young children. We conducted a pilot study to explore the use of facial expression ratings in response to a comedy video clip, and to assess emotional reactivity among preschool children directly exposed to the Great East Japan Earthquake. This study included 23 child participants. Child PTSD symptoms were measured using a modified version of the Parent’s Report of the Child’s Reaction to Stress scale. Children were filmed while watching a 2-minute video compilation of natural scenes (‘baseline video’ followed by a 2-minute video clip from a television comedy (‘comedy video’. Children’s facial expressions were processed using Noldus FaceReader software, which implements the Facial Action Coding System (FACS. We investigated the association between PTSD symptom scores and facial emotion reactivity using linear regression analysis. Children with higher PTSD symptom scores showed a significantly greater proportion of neutral facial expressions, controlling for sex, age and baseline facial expression (p < .05. This pilot study suggests that facial emotion reactivity could provide an index against which emotional numbing could be measured in young children, using facial expression recognition software. This pilot study adds to the emerging literature on using experimental psychopathology methods to characterize children’s reactions to disasters.

  8. Achieving body confidence for young children: Development and pilot study of a universal teacher-led body image and weight stigma program for early primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Yager, Zali; McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J

    2018-03-26

    Negative body image attitudes develop in early childhood and there is a need for school-based resources during the early school years, but no teacher-delivered curriculum-based resources exist to mitigate these attitudes in young children. Achieving Body Confidence for Young Children (ABC-4-YC), a universal body dissatisfaction and weight stigma prevention program, was developed and then delivered in a pilot study. Fifty-one 5- to 8-year-old children completed pre- and post-intervention interviews assessing body image attitudes, and seven teachers provided feedback. Significant improvement in body esteem and positive teacher feedback were found. The results provide preliminary support for ABC-4-YC to improve children's body image attitudes, but extensive evaluation is needed.

  9. Changes in Mobility and Muscle Function of Children with Cerebral Palsy after Gait Training: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Amy K; Kurz, Max J; Stuberg, Wayne; Silverman, Anne K

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to characterize the effects of gait training on the capacity of muscles to produce body accelerations and relate these changes to mobility improvements seen in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Five children (14 years ± 3 y; GMFCS I-II) with spastic diplegic CP participated in a 6-week gait training program. Changes in 10-m fast-as-possible walking speed and 6-minute walking endurance were used to assess changes in mobility. In addition, musculoskeletal modeling was used to determine the potential of lower-limb muscles to accelerate the body's center of mass vertically and forward during stance. The mobility changes after the training were mixed, with some children demonstrating vast improvements, while others appeared to be minimal. However, the musculoskeletal results revealed unique responses for each child. The most common changes occurred in the capacity for the hip and knee extensors to produce body support and the hip flexors to produce body propulsion. These results cannot yet be generalized to the broad population of children with CP, but demonstrate that therapy protocols may be enhanced by modeling analyses. The pilot study results provide motivation for gait training emphasizing upright leg posture, mediolateral balance, and ankle push-off.

  10. Integration of oral health in primary health care through motivational interviewing for mothers of young children: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Manu; Shah, Aasim Farooq; Virtanen, Jorma I

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) continues to affect children worldwide. In India, primary health centers (PHCs) comprises the primary tier where Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) provide integrated curative and preventive health care. The aim of the study was to pilot test the integration of oral health in primary health care through motivational interviewing (MI) for mothers of young children provided by ASHAs. The pilot study was conducted in Kashipur, Uttarakhand. From the six PHCs in Kashipur, three were randomly selected, one each was assigned to MI group, traditional health education group, and control group. From 60 mothers with 8-12 months child, ASHAs of all three groups gathered mother's knowledge regarding child's oral health using close-ended questionnaire and diagnosed clinical risk markers of ECC in children and ASHAs of Group A and B imparted the oral health education as per their training. The comparison of ASHA's performances on the MI training competency pre- and post-test showed an overall average of 74% improvement in post-test scores. Interexaminer reliability of the parallel clinical measurements by 6 ASHAs and the investigator for the maxillary central incisors showed 93% of agreement for both dental plaque and dental caries assessment with 0.86 and 0.89 kappa values, respectively. The health education through MI is feasible and can be cost-effective by utilization of ASHAs at PHCs to provide the oral health education to mothers which will in turn improve the oral health status of children.

  11. A Pilot Study Assessing the Feasibility of a Facial Emotion Training Paradigm for School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Ponsaran, Nicole M.; Evans-Smith, Bernadette; Johnson, Jason K.; McKown, Clark

    2014-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) demonstrate facial emotion recognition and expression impairments. These impairments may contribute to social disability and may put children with ASDs at risk for developing further mental health problems. In this pilot study, we examined the use of a coach- and computer-assisted facial emotion…

  12. Een sociaal-cognitief interventieprogramma voor gedragsgestoorde kinderen, een vooronderzoek. / A social cognitive intervention program for children with a conduct disorder, a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, T.; Prins, P.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    1999-01-01

    Conducted a pilot study on the efficacy of a social-cognitive group intervention program based on social information-processing theory (K. A. Dodge, 1986) for children with a conduct disorder. Human Ss: 16 Dutch school-age children and adolescents (aged 10-13 yrs) (conduct disorder). Ss participated

  13. The Impact of a Mastery Motivational Climate on Obese and Overweight Children's Commitment to and Enjoyment of Physical Activity: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kent; Meaney, Karen; Hart, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obese and overweight children are often cast as being lazy or unmotivated in regards to participation in physical activity. Purpose: Based on the social cognitive principle of triadic reciprocality, this pilot study was designed to examine the impact of a mastery motivational climate on overweight and obese children's commitment to,…

  14. Social and Physical Environmental Factors and Child Overweight in a Sample of American and Czech School-Aged Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humenikova, Lenka; Gates, Gail E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare environmental factors that influence body mass index for age (BMI-for-age) between a sample of American and Czech school-aged children. Design: Pilot study. A parent questionnaire and school visits were used to collect data from parents and children. Setting: Public schools in 1 American and 2 Czech cities. Participants:…

  15. Prevalence and incidence of latent tuberculosis infection in georgian healthcare workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Whitaker

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a major occupational hazard in low and middle-income countries. Limited data exist on serial testing of healthcare workers (HCWs with interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI, especially in low and middle-income countries. We sought to evaluate the rates of and risk factors for LTBI prevalence and LTBI test conversion among HCWs using the tuberculin skin test (TST and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube assay (QFT-GIT.A prospective longitudinal study was conducted among HCWs in the country of Georgia. Subjects completed a questionnaire, and TST and QFT-GIT tests were performed. LTBI testing was repeated 6-26 months after baseline testing.Among 319 HCWs enrolled, 89% reported prior BCG vaccination, and 60% worked in TB healthcare facilities (HCFs. HCWs from TB HCFs had higher prevalence of positive QFT-GIT and TST than those from non-TB HCFs: 107/194 (55% vs. 30/125 (31% QFT-GIT positive (p<0.0001 and 128/189 (69% vs. 64/119 (54% TST positive (p = 0.01. There was fair agreement between TST and QFT-GIT (kappa = 0.42, 95% CI 0.31-0.52. In multivariate analysis, frequent contact with TB patients was associated with increased risk of positive QFT-GIT (aOR 3.04, 95% CI 1.79-5.14 but not positive TST. Increasing age was associated with increased risk of positive QFT-GIT (aOR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.09 and TST (aOR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10. High rates of HCW conversion were seen: the QFT-GIT conversion rate was 22.8/100 person-years, and TST conversion rate was 17.1/100 person-years. In multivariate analysis, female HCWs had decreased risk of TST conversion (aOR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.43, and older HCWs had increased risk of QFT-GIT conversion (aOR 1.07 per year, 95% CI 1.01-1.13.LTBI prevalence and LTBI test conversion rates were high among Georgian HCWs, especially among those working at TB HCFs. These data highlight the need for increased implementation of TB infection control measures.

  16. Impact of aerobic exercise on sleep and motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorders – a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Jossen, Stefanie; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have increased dramatically in the last two decades. In addition to the core symptoms such as impaired communication, difficulties in social interaction, and restricted and stereotypical patterns of behavior and interests, poor sleep and motor skill (MS) deficits have also been observed in children with ASD. On the other hand, there is evidence that aerobic exercise training (AET) has a positive impact on sleep, and that specific training improves MSs. Accordingly, the aim of the present pilot study was to investigate to what extent a combination of AET and MS training (MST) would improve sleep and physical performance in a small sample of children with ASD. Methods Ten children with ASD (mean age: 10 years) took part in the study. After a thorough medical examination and psychiatric assessment, children participated in thrice-weekly 60-minute sessions of AET and MST lasting for 3 consecutive weeks. Sleep was assessed both objectively (sleep-encephalography [sleep-EEG]) and subjectively (parents’ questionnaire). MSs were assessed via standardized test batteries. Parents completed sleep and mood logs, and ratings of mood. Results Mild-to-moderate insomnia was reported in 70% of children. Compared to nights without previous AET and MS, on nights following AET and MS, sleep efficiency increased (d=1.07), sleep onset latency shortened (d=0.38), and wake time after sleep onset decreased for 63% of the sample (d=1.09), as assessed via sleep-EEG. Mood in the morning, as rated by parents, improved after three weeks (d=0.90), as did MSs (ball playing, balance exercise: ds>0.6). Conclusion The pattern of results of this pilot study suggests that regular AET and MST impact positively on sleep, MSs, and mood among children with ASD. PMID:26346856

  17. Impact of aerobic exercise on sleep and motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorders - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Jossen, Stefanie; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have increased dramatically in the last two decades. In addition to the core symptoms such as impaired communication, difficulties in social interaction, and restricted and stereotypical patterns of behavior and interests, poor sleep and motor skill (MS) deficits have also been observed in children with ASD. On the other hand, there is evidence that aerobic exercise training (AET) has a positive impact on sleep, and that specific training improves MSs. Accordingly, the aim of the present pilot study was to investigate to what extent a combination of AET and MS training (MST) would improve sleep and physical performance in a small sample of children with ASD. Ten children with ASD (mean age: 10 years) took part in the study. After a thorough medical examination and psychiatric assessment, children participated in thrice-weekly 60-minute sessions of AET and MST lasting for 3 consecutive weeks. Sleep was assessed both objectively (sleep-encephalography [sleep-EEG]) and subjectively (parents' questionnaire). MSs were assessed via standardized test batteries. Parents completed sleep and mood logs, and ratings of mood. Mild-to-moderate insomnia was reported in 70% of children. Compared to nights without previous AET and MS, on nights following AET and MS, sleep efficiency increased (d=1.07), sleep onset latency shortened (d=0.38), and wake time after sleep onset decreased for 63% of the sample (d=1.09), as assessed via sleep-EEG. Mood in the morning, as rated by parents, improved after three weeks (d=0.90), as did MSs (ball playing, balance exercise: ds>0.6). The pattern of results of this pilot study suggests that regular AET and MST impact positively on sleep, MSs, and mood among children with ASD.

  18. Effects of music therapy in the treatment of children with delayed speech development - results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Wibke; Linden, Ulrike; Ostermann, Thomas

    2010-07-21

    Language development is one of the most significant processes of early childhood development. Children with delayed speech development are more at risk of acquiring other cognitive, social-emotional, and school-related problems. Music therapy appears to facilitate speech development in children, even within a short period of time. The aim of this pilot study is to explore the effects of music therapy in children with delayed speech development. A total of 18 children aged 3.5 to 6 years with delayed speech development took part in this observational study in which music therapy and no treatment were compared to demonstrate effectiveness. Individual music therapy was provided on an outpatient basis. An ABAB reversal design with alternations between music therapy and no treatment with an interval of approximately eight weeks between the blocks was chosen. Before and after each study period, a speech development test, a non-verbal intelligence test for children, and music therapy assessment scales were used to evaluate the speech development of the children. Compared to the baseline, we found a positive development in the study group after receiving music therapy. Both phonological capacity and the children's understanding of speech increased under treatment, as well as their cognitive structures, action patterns, and level of intelligence. Throughout the study period, developmental age converged with their biological age. Ratings according to the Nordoff-Robbins scales showed clinically significant changes in the children, namely in the areas of client-therapist relationship and communication. This study suggests that music therapy may have a measurable effect on the speech development of children through the treatment's interactions with fundamental aspects of speech development, including the ability to form and maintain relationships and prosodic abilities. Thus, music therapy may provide a basic and supportive therapy for children with delayed speech development

  19. GeneXpert MTB/RIF on bronchoalveolar lavage samples in children with suspected complicated intrathoracic tuberculosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Elisabetta; Goussard, Pierre; Bosch, Corne; Hesseling, Anneke C; Gie, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    Children with complicated intrathoracic tuberculosis (TB) require rapid confirmation of TB diagnosis and of drug susceptibility to institute appropriate therapy. In a pilot study, we evaluated the feasibility and potential utility of GeneXpert (Xpert) on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples in children undergoing routine diagnostic bronchoscopy. We included children Children's Hospital, October 1, 2012-May 15, 2013. A minimum of two respiratory specimens in addition to BAL were obtained from each child. In addition to fluorescent smear microscopy and automated liquid culture performed on all samples, BAL samples were analyzed by Xpert. Drug susceptibility was confirmed by GenoType(®) MTBDRplus. Fourteen children (2 HIV positive, median age 16 months) were included. The Mantoux tuberculin skin test was positive in 11. On chest radiograph, six children had expansile pneumonia and nine had airway compression (one had both). The median duration of TB treatment before bronchoscopy was 8 days. TB was confirmed by either culture or Xpert from any sample in 11 (78%) children. Among 9/14 (64%) cases confirmed by culture, BAL Xpert was positive in 7 (78% sensitivity); in addition, Xpert confirmed 2 cases who had negative culture (14% additional diagnostic yield). Two drug resistant cases were identified: one by BAL Xpert and one from genotypic testing of a culture from gastric aspirate. All children were initiated on anti-TB treatment and responded well to therapy. BAL Xpert resulted in additional diagnostic yield and also in the rapid detection of drug resistance in children with complicated intrathoracic TB. The clinical impact of this modality should be further evaluated in children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Aromatherapy for the treatment of PONV in children: a pilot RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiberd, Mathew B; Clarke, Suzanne K; Chorney, Jill; d'Eon, Brandon; Wright, Stuart

    2016-11-09

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common postoperative complications of general anesthesia in pediatrics. Aromatherapy has been shown to be effective in treating PONV in adults. Given the encouraging results of the adult studies, we planned to determine feasibility of doing a large-scale study in the pediatric population. Our group conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial examining the effect of aromatherapy on post-operative nausea and vomiting in patients 4-16 undergoing ambulatory surgery at a single center. Nausea was defined as a score of 4/10 on the Baxter Retching Faces Scale (BARF scale). A clinically significant reduction was defined as a two-point reduction in Nausea. Post operatively children were administered the BARF scale in 15 min internals until discharge home or until nausea score of 4/10 or greater. Children with nausea were randomized to saline placebo group or aromatherapy QueaseEase™ (Soothing Scents, Inc, Enterprise, AL: blend of ginger, lavender, mint and spearmint). Nausea scores were recorded post intervention. A total of 162 subjects were screened for inclusion in the study. Randomization occurred in 41 subjects of which 39 were included in the final analysis. For the primary outcome, 14/18 (78 %) of controls reached primary outcome compared to 19/21 (90 %) in the aromatherapy group (p = 0.39, Eta 0.175). Other outcomes included use of antiemetic in PACU (control 44 %, aromatherapy 52 % P = 0.75, Eta 0.08), emesis (Control 11 %, 9 % aromatherapy, P = 0.87, Eta = 0.03). There was a statistically significant difference in whether subjects continued to use the intervention (control 28 %, aromatherapy 66 %, p-value 0.048, Eta 0.33). Aromatherapy had a small non-significant effect size in treating postoperative nausea and vomiting compared with control. A large-scale randomized control trial would not be feasible at our institution and would be of doubtful utility. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  1. The Influence of Neighborhood Crime on Increases in Physical Activity during a Pilot Physical Activity Intervention in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Stephanie T; Myers, Candice A; Drazba, Kathryn T; Marker, Arwen M; Church, Timothy S; Newton, Robert L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether neighborhood crime moderated the response (increases in steps) to a pilot intervention to increase physical activity in children. Twenty-seven insufficiently active children aged 6-10 years (mean age = 8.7 years; 56 % female; 59 % African American) were randomly assigned to an intensive intervention group (IIG) or minimal intervention group (MIG). Change in average daily number of steps from baseline was regressed against an index of neighborhood crime in a multilevel repeated-measures model that included a propensity score to reduce confounding. Safer neighborhoods were associated with higher increases in steps during the pilot intervention (interaction p = 0.008). Children in the IIG living in low-crime neighborhoods significantly increased their physical activity (5275 ± 1040 steps/day) while those living in high-crime neighborhoods did not (1118 ± 1007) (p for difference = 0.046). In the IIG, the increase in daily steps was highly correlated with neighborhood crime (r = 0.58, p = 0.04). These findings suggest the need for physical activity interventions to account for participants' environments in their design and/or delivery. To promote healthy behaviors in less-supportive environments, future studies should seek to understand how environments modify intervention response and to identify mediators of the relationship between environment and intervention.

  2. A Pilot Study of Stress System Activation in Children Enrolled in a Targeted Prevention Program: Implications for Personalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirically validated interventions addressing childhood psychological problems are now readily available, but success likely depends in part on accurately identifying which children will benefit from which intervention. This pilot study examined the stress activation and response system, first as a way to differentiate high versus low-risk children, and second to explore indicators of the stress system associated with favorable intervention response. Method. Participants (N = 43, 58% male were school-aged children who qualified for inclusion in the Early Risers “Skills for Success” Prevention Program based on their elevated levels of aggressive and/or socially withdrawn behavior and a normally developing comparison group. Compared to the normally developing group, children who were participants in the intervention exhibited a more blunted cortisol response to the stress paradigm. However, for the children in the intervention group, elevated cortisol levels at the start of the stress paradigm were concurrently associated with internalizing problems and predictive of improvement in internalizing problems over time. These findings provide preliminary evidence that hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis biological variables may be helpful tools for identifying children who would benefit from intervention and personalizing interventions.

  3. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess: A Pilot Study Using GPS, Accelerometer, Participant Observation, and Go-Along Interview.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Skau Pawlowski

    Full Text Available Schoolyards are recognized as important settings for physical activity interventions during recess. However, varying results have been reported. This pilot study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of children's physical activity behavior during recess using a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt, sixteen children participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups were predominantly staying in three different locations during recess: school building, schoolyard and field, respectively. Mostly girls were in the building remaining in there because of a perceived lack of attractive outdoor play facilities. The children in the schoolyard were predominantly girls who preferred the schoolyard over the field to avoid the competitive soccer games on the field whereas boys dominated the field playing soccer. Using a mixed-methods approach to investigate children's physical activity behavior during recess helped gain in-depth knowledge that can aid development of future interventions in the school environment.

  4. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess: A Pilot Study Using GPS, Accelerometer, Participant Observation, and Go-Along Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    Schoolyards are recognized as important settings for physical activity interventions during recess. However, varying results have been reported. This pilot study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of children's physical activity behavior during recess using a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt), sixteen children participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups were predominantly staying in three different locations during recess: school building, schoolyard and field, respectively. Mostly girls were in the building remaining in there because of a perceived lack of attractive outdoor play facilities. The children in the schoolyard were predominantly girls who preferred the schoolyard over the field to avoid the competitive soccer games on the field whereas boys dominated the field playing soccer. Using a mixed-methods approach to investigate children's physical activity behavior during recess helped gain in-depth knowledge that can aid development of future interventions in the school environment.

  5. Assessing Children's Anxiety Using the Modified Short State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Talking Mats: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nilsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preoperative anxiety complicates treatment and requires assessment by nurses in children. Children, with or without disability, are helped when pictures are used to support communication. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the reliability and validity of the modified short State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI using a modified Talking Mats method in children undergoing day surgeries. Method. A modified short STAI with pictorial support along the lines of the Talking Mats method was pre- and postoperatively administered to 42 typically developing children aged three to nine years. The parents assessed the children’s anxiety, simultaneously and independently, by scoring the short STAI by proxy. Results. The modified short STAI showed moderate internal consistency and good construct validity in the age group seven to nine years. Conclusions. The results of this study support the use of the instrument for self-reports in children aged seven to nine years. Future research will explore the possibilities of also using this instrument for children with cognitive and communicative difficulties.

  6. Indigenous Georgian Wine-Associated Yeasts and Grape Cultivars to Edit the Wine Quality in a Precision Oenology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigentini, Ileana; Maghradze, David; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Bonello, Federica; Mezzapelle, Vito; Valdetara, Federica; Failla, Osvaldo; Foschino, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In Georgia, one of the most ancient vine-growing environment, the homemade production of wine is still very popular in every rural family and spontaneous fermentation of must, without addition of chemical preservatives, is the norm. The present work investigated the yeast biodiversity in five Georgian areas (Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kartli, Ratcha-Lechkhumi) sampling grapes and wines from 22 different native cultivars, in 26 vineyards and 19 family cellars. One hundred and eighty-two isolates were ascribed to 15 different species by PCR-ITS and RFLP, and partial sequencing of D1/D2 domain 26S rDNA gene. Metschnikowia pulcherrima (F' = 0.56, I' = 0.32), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (F' = 0.49, I' = 0.27), and Cryptococcus flavescens (F' = 0.31, I' = 0.11) were the dominant yeasts found on grapes, whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the highest prevalence into wine samples. Seventy four isolates with fermentative potential were screened for oenological traits such as ethanol production, resistance to SO2, and acetic acid, glycerol and H2S production. Three yeast strains (Kluyveromyces marxianus UMY207, S. cerevisiae UMY255, Torulaspora delbrueckii UMY196) were selected and separately inoculated in vinifications experiments at a Georgian cellar. Musts were prepared from healthy grapes of local varieties, Goruli Mtsvane (white berry cultivar) and Saperavi (black berry cultivar). Physical (°Brix) and microbial analyses (plate counts) were performed to monitor the fermentative process. The isolation of indigenous S. cerevisiae yeasts beyond the inoculated strains indicated that a co-presence occurred during the vinification tests. Results from quantitative GC-FID analysis of volatile compounds revealed that the highest amount of fermentation flavors, such as 4-ethoxy-4-oxobutanoic acid (monoethyl succinate), 2-methylpropan-1-ol, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, and 2-phenylethanol, were significantly more produced in fermentation conducted in Saperavi variety inoculated

  7. Indigenous Georgian wine-associated yeasts and grape cultivars to edit the wine quality in a precision oenology perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana eVigentini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Georgia, one of the most ancient vine-growing environment, the homemade production of wine is still very popular in every rural family and spontaneous fermentation of must, without addition of chemical preservatives, is the norm. The present work investigated the yeast biodiversity in five Georgian areas (Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kartli, Ratcha-Lechkhumi sampling grapes and wines from 22 different native cultivars, in 26 vineyards and 19 family cellars. One hundred and eighty-two isolates were ascribed to 15 different species by PCR-ITS and RFLP, and partial sequencing of D1/D2 domain 26S rDNA gene. Metschnikowia pulcherrima (F’ = 0.56, I’ = 0.32, Hanseniaspora gulliermondii (F’ = 0.49, I’ = 0.27 and Cryptococcus flavescens (F’ = 0.31, I’ = 0.11 were the dominant yeasts found on grapes, whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the highest prevalence into wine samples. Seventy four isolates with fermentative potential were screened for oenological traits such as ethanol production, resistance to SO2, and acetic acid, glycerol and H2S production. Three yeast strains (Kluyveromyces marxianus UMY207, S. cerevisiae UMY255, Torulaspora delbrueckii UMY196 were selected and separately inoculated in vinifications experiments at a Georgian cellar. Musts were prepared from healthy grapes of local varieties, Goruli Mtsvane (white berry cultivar and Saperavi (black berry cultivar. Physical (°Brix and microbial analyses (plate counts were performed to monitor the fermentative process. The isolation of indigenous S. cerevisiae yeasts beyond the inoculated strains indicated that a co-presence occurred during the vinification tests. Results from quantitative GC-FID analysis of volatile compounds revealed that the highest amount of fermentation flavours, such as 4-ethoxy-4-oxobutanoic acid (monoethyl succinate, 2-methylpropan-1-ol, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate and 2-phenylethanol, were significantly more produced in fermentation conducted in Saperavi

  8. Developmental neuropsychological assessment of 4- to 5-year-old children born following Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gilat Chaya; Altarescu, Gheona; Guedalia, Judith; Varshaver, Irit; Gilboa, Tal; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate developmental neuropsychological profiles of 4- to 5-year-old children born after Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Twenty-seven participants received a neurological examination and a battery of neuropsychological assessments including Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III; cognitive development), Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; language development), Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (visual motor abilities), Childhood Autism Rating Scales II (a screening test for autistic spectrum disorders), and the Miles ABC Test (ocular dominance). Parental questionnaires included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; executive function), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Carey Temperament Scales Behavioral Style Questionnaire (socioemotional development and temperament), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Interview Edition, Second Edition (general adaptive behavior). Subjects' tests results were compared to each test's norms. Children born after PGD demonstrated scores within the normal or above-normal ranges for all developmental outcomes (mean ± SD): WPPSI-III-VIQ 107.4 ± 14.4 (p = .013), PLS-4-Total 113.2 ± 12.4, p < .001), CBCL-Total 41.1 ± 8.6 (p < .001), BRIEF-P-Global Executive Composite 44.8 ± 9.5 (p = .009). Twelve (44%) of the PGD children had a significant difference between their VIQ and PIQ scores (compared to 27% in the general population). One subject was found to show possible signs of autistic spectrum disorder, although a family history of autism was noted. In conclusion, in this pilot study, children assessed at age 4-5 years and conceived after PGD displayed developmental neuropsychological outcomes within normal limits as compared to their chronologic peers. A larger study is needed to evaluate and follow the neuropsychological development of children born after PGD.

  9. Pilot Phase II study of mazindol in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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    Konofal E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eric Konofal,1,2 Wei Zhao,3–5 Cédric Laouénan,5–7 Michel Lecendreux,1,2 Florentia Kaguelidou,3–5 Lila Benadjaoud,4 France Mentré,5–7 Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain3–51Pediatric Sleep Disorders Center, 2Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Department, 3Department of Pediatric Pharmacology and Pharmacogenetics, Hôpital Robert Debré, Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP, 4Clinical Investigation Center, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM, 5Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, 6INSERM, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME, UMR1137, Paris, 7Department of Biostatistiques, Hôpital Bichat, APHP, Paris, FranceObjective: Mazindol has been proposed as a potential treatment of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess its pharmacokinetics, short-term efficacy, and safety.Subjects and methods: A total of 24 children (aged 9–12 years with ADHD (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, text-revision criteria received a daily dose of 1 mg for 7 days and were followed for 3 additional weeks. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected after the first administration. ADHD symptoms were assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale (RS-IV, Conners’ Parent Rating Scale – Revised: Long (CPRS-R:L at screening, baseline, and the end of the study. The Clinical Global Impression – Severity (CGI-S scale was assessed at baseline, and the CGI – Improvement (CGI-I scale was assessed at subsequent visits.Results: Twenty-one subjects (aged 10±1 years were analyzed. Pharmacokinetic data were described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption, elimination, and lag time. The typical apparent clearance and apparent volume of distribution were 27.9 L/h and 234 L, and increased with fat-free mass and age, respectively. The mean change in score in ADHD RS-IV after 1 week of

  10. Pilot Evaluation of a Palliative and End-of-Life Communication Intervention for Parents of Children With a Brain Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L; Pradhan, Kamnesh; Shih, Chie-Schin; Gauvain, Karen M; Kane, Javier R; Liu, Jingxia; Haase, Joan E

    Providing timely palliative and end-of-life care (PC/EOL) information to parents of children with a serious illness is a national health care priority. The goals of this study were to determine feasibility, acceptability, and parent responses related to a PC/EOL communication intervention, titled "Communication Plan: Early through End of Life (COMPLETE)" to parents of children with a brain tumor. The study was a 2-site prospective, single-group pilot study targeting parents' stress and coping outcomes. The sample included 13 parents of 11 children (ie, 11 families). During the first 6 months postdiagnosis, we evaluated parent outcomes at 4 time points (baseline and 3 post-sessions). Our findings included significant decline in decision regret ( P = .0089); strong, significantly increased hope ( P ≤ .0001); and significantly decreased uncertainty ( P = .04). Over time, more than half of the parents (61.5%) preferred to receive information about their child's current condition and PC/EOL options. Our findings provide evidence to suggest that the COMPLETE intervention is feasible and acceptable and produces promising effects on 3 parent outcomes (ie, decision regret, hope, and uncertainty) in parents of children with a brain tumor. Further research is indicated to evaluate COMPLETE with a larger sample of parents of children with cancer and with a control group.

  11. An Innovative Serious Game for the Detection and Rehabilitation of Oral-Facial Malfunction in Children: A Pilot Study

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    Nuria Máximo-Bocanegra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present SONRIE, a serious game based on virtual reality and comprising four games which act as tests where children must perform gestures in order to progress through several screens (raising eyebrows, kissing, blowing, and smiling. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the overall acceptance of the game and the capacity for detecting anomalies in motor execution and, lastly, to establish motor control benchmarks in orofacial muscles. For this purpose, tests were performed in school settings with 96 typically developing children aged between five and seven years. Regarding the different games, in the kissing game, children were able to execute the correct movement at six years of age and a precise movement at the age of seven years. Blowing actions required more maturity, starting from the age of five and achievable by the age of six years. The smiling game was performed correctly among all ages evaluated. The percentage of children who mastered this gesture with both precision and speed was progressively greater reaching more than 75% of values above 100 for children aged seven years. SONRIE was accepted enthusiastically among the population under study. In the future, SONRIE could be used as a tool for detecting difficulties regarding self-control and for influencing performance and the ability to produce fine-tuned facial movements.

  12. Expressive Arts Therapy with Hospitalized Children: A Pilot Study of Co-Creating Healing Sock Creatures©.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jane; Iida, Haruka; Rachlin, Kenneth; Yount, Garret

    2016-01-01

    A novel form of expressive arts therapy was developed in a pediatric unit and received enthusiastic support from hospital staff and family members because of their impressions that the children were calmer following therapy, as well as throughout the remainder of the hospital stay. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of quantifying such impressions by measuring changes in the children's mood by self-report. Twenty-five children (mean age 8.34 years, SD 3.77) were recruited for the study, coming from diverse social-economic backgrounds, ethnicities, and an array of medical diagnoses. The results document improvements in mood for children following therapy sessions, compared to children in a wait-list control group. Additionally, a meta-analysis examining external influences and changes in salivary cortisol levels measured before and after therapy sessions illustrates the importance of considering aspects of the clinical setting when assessing the effectiveness of this and other expressive arts therapies for reducing stress during hospitalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Challenges to the South Caucasus regional security aftermath of Russian–Georgian conflict: Hegemonic stability or new partnership?

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    Kornely K. Kakachia

    2011-01-01

    And the question is now how to handle this delicate situation in a strategically and geopolitically important region. So by controlling Georgia (in case Russia reaches abovementioned aims, Russia actually will be able to cut off Central Asia and Caspian resources. It means Russia would be able to isolate and cut off Azerbaijan and Central Asian countries and it will significantly strengthen its energy monopoly over Europe with all results coming out from that fact. So it’s about major shift in the energy policy and major shift in geopolitics based on this energy policy and Russian energy monopoly. The August war in Georgia demonstrated some risks associated with the functioning of the transit energy corridor in the southern Caucasus. It also demonstrated the need for broader security guarantees for a region that is vital to European and global energy security. Paper deals with economic damage inflicted by the Russo-Georgian war in South Caucasus and its implications for regional security.

  14. [Pilot study on nutritional and eating disorders in children and mood disorders: comorbidity or prodromal traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimbolli, Paola; Quiñones, Álvaro; Ugarte, Carla; De Pascale, Adele

    2017-01-01

    Both children affected by nutritional and eating disorders (ED) and adults with bipolar disorder (BD) display symptoms of deficient emotional self-regulation, which can present in different forms. If we observe the clinical and developmental histories of individuals affected by EDs and BD, based on a cognitive systemic post-rationalist approach, we can hypothesise a continuum between the two disorders. The aim of this pilot study is to support the hypothesis - from an explanatory rather than a non-descriptive approach - that EDs and BD are the possible result of issues tied to biological and psychological self-regulation. When such an issue manifests during an individual's early stages through an eating disorder, it is more likely to result in an actual affective disorder, such as BD, during an individual's adult years. The study examined a total of 51 patients affected by an ED between the ages of 8 and 18. At least one of the parents had been diagnosed with a mental disorder. All of the subjects completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) II. Each of the patients underwent a pediatric assessment using their BMI to establish the type of ED. The parents were divided into two groups: subjects with BD and subjects affected by other psychopathologies. Although the comparison between patients with EDs and parents with or without BD did not demonstrate a significant difference in any scale, it highlighted specific common characteristics between the disorder presented by the parent and the cognitive-emotional expressions of his or her child. In fact, the results indicate that the CBCL "problems of thought" scale explains much of the Impulsivity variance obtained by the EDI and that the CBCL "high withdrawal/depression" dependent factor highlighted a statistical significance for the EDI's "low interoceptive awareness" scale. The study presented limitations, especially with respect to the sample size examined, but it suggests a

  15. [Postoperative analgesia in children after hernioplasty. Wound infiltration with different concentrations of bupivacaine: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bültmann, M; Streich, R; Risse, A; Falke, K J; Pappert, D

    1999-07-01

    Wound instillation seems to be an easy and preferable way to achieve postoperative analgesia in pediatric hernioplasty. This prospective, randomized and double-blinded pilot-study was initiated to gain preliminary information in order to define the appropriate concentration of local anaesthetic for efficient posthernioplastic analgesia. 29 children aged 3.1 to 13.7 (5.25 (3.8-8.2) years were randomly assigned to receive either 0.2 ml/kg bupivacaine 0.125% (n = 10), bupivacaine 0.25% (n = 10) or bupivacaine 0.5% (n = 9). The local anesthetic (LA) was instillated intraoperatively before wound closure above the external oblique muscle and below Scarpa's fascia. After entering the post-anesthetic care unit (PACU) pain was assessed by a trained nurse using the linear analogue pain scale (LAPS) in intervals of 15 min. Patients were observed in the PACU for 30-60 min. Pain was further evaluated for 5.5(3-6) h in the ward every hour. In day-only patients the parents were contacted 24 h postoperatively to obtain additional information. From the beginning of the observation period the 0.5% group tended to have less pain than the others in the PACU. The 0.125% and 0.25% group required earlier supplementary analgetics. In addition, the 0.5% group needed once (1/9) supplementary analgesics; the 0.25% group five times (5/10) and the 0.125% group six times (6/10). None of these results is statistically significant, though they appear to be clinically relevant. Wound instillation with 0.2 ml of bupivacaine 0.5% seems to be easy to perform, safe and efficient in controlling posthernioplastic pain. Because of the small numbers of patients included however, no statistically significant differences were observed between the groups. Neither in the LAPS on arrival and observation at the PACU nor in the need for supplementary analgesics. Despite lacking significance the clinical impression suggests a difference to be validated by larger studies. Our data implies that wound instillation

  16. Integration of oral health in primary health care through motivational interviewing for mothers of young children: A pilot study

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    Manu Batra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early childhood caries (ECC continues to affect children worldwide. In India, primary health centers (PHCs comprises the primary tier where Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA provide integrated curative and preventive health care. The aim of the study was to pilot test the integration of oral health in primary health care through motivational interviewing (MI for mothers of young children provided by ASHAs. Subjects and Methods: The pilot study was conducted in Kashipur, Uttarakhand. From the six PHCs in Kashipur, three were randomly selected, one each was assigned to MI group, traditional health education group, and control group. From 60 mothers with 8–12 months child, ASHAs of all three groups gathered mother's knowledge regarding child's oral health using close-ended questionnaire and diagnosed clinical risk markers of ECC in children and ASHAs of Group A and B imparted the oral health education as per their training. Results: The comparison of ASHA's performances on the MI training competency pre- and post-test showed an overall average of 74% improvement in post–test scores. Interexaminer reliability of the parallel clinical measurements by 6 ASHAs and the investigator for the maxillary central incisors showed 93% of agreement for both dental plaque and dental caries assessment with 0.86 and 0.89 kappa values, respectively. Conclusion: The health education through MI is feasible and can be cost-effective by utilization of ASHAs at PHCs to provide the oral health education to mothers which will in turn improve the oral health status of children.

  17. Does the Kids Café Program's Nutrition Education Improve Children's Dietary Intake? A Pilot Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Jayna M; Liu, Yan; Chen, Tzu-An; Thompson, Deborah I; Cullen, Karen W

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the Kids Café Program (KCP) nutrition education and assess its impact on children's diet quality and body mass index (BMI) percentile. An experimental design consisting of pretest-posttest comparison groups using mixed methods to evaluate a 6-session nutrition education intervention. Four Boys and Girls Club sites PARTICIPANTS: A total of 120 9- to 12-year-old children in the KCP (60 intervention and 60 comparison); 89% completed posttest evaluations. Trained KCP site staff taught the nutrition education curriculum at intervention sites. Healthy Eating Index-2010 using 24-hour dietary recall data (primary) and BMI percentile (secondary) ANALYSIS: Repeated-measures mixed-effects modeling RESULTS: Mean age of children was 10.2 years; mean BMI percentile was about 79; 95% were from food-insecure households. The total Healthy Eating Index-2010 score for both groups at baseline and posttest ranged from 50 to 60. At posttest, compared with baseline scores, children from both groups scored significantly lower for total vegetables, and greens and beans; the intervention group children had significantly higher sodium scores. Process evaluation indicated that 60-minute lecture-based sessions were too long after children were in school all day. This pilot study suggests that the KCP nutrition education curriculum needs improvement. Further research based on behavioral constructs is needed to refine the curriculum to encourage healthier food choices among children and using the MyPlate and the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of Information Processing Strategy Training on Academic Task Performance in Children with Learning Disabilities: A Pilot Study

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    Sutinun Juntorn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning disabilities (LD can be associated with problems in the four stages of information processing used in learning: input, throughput, output, and feedback. These problems affect the child’s ability to learn and perform activities in daily life, especially during academic activities. This study is a pilot study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of information processing strategy training using a combination of two approaches that address the ability to apply processing strategies during academic activities in children with LD. The two approaches are the Perceive, Recall, Plan, and Perform (PRPP System of Intervention, which is a strategy training intervention, and the Four-Quadrant Model (4QM of Facilitated Learning approach, which is a systematic facilitator technique. Twenty children with LD were assigned to two groups: the experimental group (n=10 and the control group (n=10. Children in the experimental group received the intervention twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. Each treatment session took approximately 50 minutes. Children in the control group received traditional intervention twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. The results indicated that the combination of the PRPP System of Intervention and the 4QM may improve the participants’ ability to apply information processing strategies during academic activities.

  19. [Effects of a 'theory of mind' cognitive development pilot programme in three children with autism: emotional component].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Bonilla, Cristian; Bonilla-Santos, Jasmín; Arana-Guzmán, Fernanda; Ninco-Cuenca, Ingrid; Quintero-Lozano, Andrea

    2016-03-16

    Theory of mind is defined as the capacity to predict, understand and act when faced with other people's behaviour, their knowledge, their intentions, their emotions and their beliefs. It is proposed as a feasible alternative for establishing a programme adapted to the characteristics of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The effect of a 'theory of mind' cognitive development pilot programme on the emotional skills of three children with autism spectrum disorder is reported. Case 1: 9-year-old boy, with scarce emotional identification and expression, as well as difficulties to hold fluent and coherent conversations. Case 2: 10-year-old boy, with mechanical, not very fluent language, and difficulties to start and maintain a conversation. Case 3: 8-year-old girl who presents deficits in the non-verbal communicative behaviours used in social interaction and difficulties to adapt to situations other than everyday ones. In the three cases there is an improvement in the emotional capacities following implementation of the programme; moreover, their parents, teachers or therapists perceived positive changes in the children's adaptive skills. The methodological and structural aspects of the cognitive development programme were well-suited to the children with autism who took part in the research study. Due to the preliminary nature of this study, it is suggested that future research should utilise a larger sample and a double-blind design with randomised case-controls that allow the findings to be generalised.

  20. Adapting a robotics program to enhance participation and interest in STEM among children with disabilities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Hounsell, Kara Grace

    2017-10-01

    Youth with disabilities are under-represented in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in school and in the workforce. One encouraging approach to engage youth's interest in STEM is through robotics; however, such programs are mostly for typically developing youth. The purpose of this study was to understand the development and implementation of an adapted robotics program for children and youth with disabilities and their experiences within it. Our mixed methods pilot study (pre- and post-workshop surveys, observations, and interviews) involved 41 participants including: 18 youth (aged 6-13), 12 parents and 11 key informants. The robotics program involved 6, two-hour workshops held at a paediatric hospital. Our findings showed that several adaptations made to the robotics program helped to enhance the participation of children with disabilities. Adaptations addressed the educational/curriculum, cognitive and learning, physical and social needs of the children. In regards to experiences within the adapted hospital program, our findings highlight that children enjoyed the program and learned about computer programming and building robots. Clinicians and educators should consider engaging youth with disabilities in robotics to enhance learning and interest in STEM. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians and educators should consider adapting curriculum content and mode of delivery of LEGO ® robotics programs to include youth with disabilities. Appropriate staffing including clinicians and educators who are knowledgeable about youth with disabilities and LEGO ® robotics are needed. Clinicians should consider engaging youth with disabilities in LEGO ® to enhance learning and interest in STEM.

  1. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study: an international methodological pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Honor; Költő, András; Reis, Marta; Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Moreau, Nathalie; Burke, Lorraine; Cosma, Alina; Windlin, Béat; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2016-12-05

    This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people's sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania) with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95). The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ 2  = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117). Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data), understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures) and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the simplification has significantly reduced the proportion of missing data

  2. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC Study: an international methodological pilot investigation

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    Honor Young

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people’s sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. Methods An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95. Results The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ2 = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117. Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. Conclusions These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data, understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the

  3. Effect of electronic time monitors on children's television watching: pilot trial of a home-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Roberts, Vaughan; Maddison, Ralph; Dorey, Enid; Jiang, Yannan; Jull, Andrew; Tin Tin, Sandar

    2009-11-01

    This pilot study evaluated the feasibility (recruitment, retention, and acceptability) and preliminary efficacy of a six-week home-based electronic time monitor intervention on New Zealand children's television watching in 2008. Twenty-nine children aged 9 to 12 years who watched more than 20 h of television per week (62% male, mean age 10.4 years) were randomised to either the intervention or the control group. The intervention group received an electronic TV time monitor for 6 weeks and advice to restrict TV watching to 1 h per day or less. The control group was given verbal advice to restrict TV watching. Participant retention at 6 weeks was 93%. Semi-structured interviews with intervention families confirmed moderate acceptability of TV time monitors and several perceived benefits including better awareness of household TV viewing and improved time planning. Drawbacks reported included disruption to parents' TV watching and increased sibling conflict. Time spent watching television decreased by 4.2 h (mean change [SD]: -254 [536] min) per week in the intervention group compared with no change in the control group (-3 [241] min), but the difference between groups was not statistically significant, p=0.77. Both groups reported decreases in energy intake from snacks and total screen time and increases in physical activity measured by pedometer and between-group differences were not statistically significant. Electronic TV time monitors are feasible to use for home-based TV watching interventions although acceptability varies between families. Preliminary findings from this pilot suggest that such devices have potential to decrease children's TV watching but a larger trial is needed to confirm effectiveness. Future research should be family-orientated; take account of other screen time activities; and employ TV time monitors as just one of a range of strategies to decrease sedentary behaviour.

  4. Effects of music therapy in the treatment of children with delayed speech development - results of a pilot study

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    Linden Ulrike

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Language development is one of the most significant processes of early childhood development. Children with delayed speech development are more at risk of acquiring other cognitive, social-emotional, and school-related problems. Music therapy appears to facilitate speech development in children, even within a short period of time. The aim of this pilot study is to explore the effects of music therapy in children with delayed speech development. Methods A total of 18 children aged 3.5 to 6 years with delayed speech development took part in this observational study in which music therapy and no treatment were compared to demonstrate effectiveness. Individual music therapy was provided on an outpatient basis. An ABAB reversal design with alternations between music therapy and no treatment with an interval of approximately eight weeks between the blocks was chosen. Before and after each study period, a speech development test, a non-verbal intelligence test for children, and music therapy assessment scales were used to evaluate the speech development of the children. Results Compared to the baseline, we found a positive development in the study group after receiving music therapy. Both phonological capacity and the children's understanding of speech increased under treatment, as well as their cognitive structures, action patterns, and level of intelligence. Throughout the study period, developmental age converged with their biological age. Ratings according to the Nordoff-Robbins scales showed clinically significant changes in the children, namely in the areas of client-therapist relationship and communication. Conclusions This study suggests that music therapy may have a measurable effect on the speech development of children through the treatment's interactions with fundamental aspects of speech development, including the ability to form and maintain relationships and prosodic abilities. Thus, music therapy may provide a basic

  5. Effects of music therapy in the treatment of children with delayed speech development - results of a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Language development is one of the most significant processes of early childhood development. Children with delayed speech development are more at risk of acquiring other cognitive, social-emotional, and school-related problems. Music therapy appears to facilitate speech development in children, even within a short period of time. The aim of this pilot study is to explore the effects of music therapy in children with delayed speech development. Methods A total of 18 children aged 3.5 to 6 years with delayed speech development took part in this observational study in which music therapy and no treatment were compared to demonstrate effectiveness. Individual music therapy was provided on an outpatient basis. An ABAB reversal design with alternations between music therapy and no treatment with an interval of approximately eight weeks between the blocks was chosen. Before and after each study period, a speech development test, a non-verbal intelligence test for children, and music therapy assessment scales were used to evaluate the speech development of the children. Results Compared to the baseline, we found a positive development in the study group after receiving music therapy. Both phonological capacity and the children's understanding of speech increased under treatment, as well as their cognitive structures, action patterns, and level of intelligence. Throughout the study period, developmental age converged with their biological age. Ratings according to the Nordoff-Robbins scales showed clinically significant changes in the children, namely in the areas of client-therapist relationship and communication. Conclusions This study suggests that music therapy may have a measurable effect on the speech development of children through the treatment's interactions with fundamental aspects of speech development, including the ability to form and maintain relationships and prosodic abilities. Thus, music therapy may provide a basic and supportive therapy for

  6. Pedobarometric evaluation of equinus foot disorder after injection of botulinum toxin A in children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falso, M; Fiaschi, A; Manganotti, P

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injections on function in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using pedobarometric data collected in a standing position. Ten children with CP (seven males, three females) participated, five with diplegia and five with hemiplegia. All children exhibited signs of unilateral dynamic equinus foot disorder and were community ambulators. Age range at the time of treatment was 6 to 13 years (mean age 9 y, SD 2.5). A comprehensive clinical examination and a pedobarometric evaluation were performed before and after BTX-A injection. All children received at least one injection in each spastic muscle. BTX-A was given to eight children unilaterally and to two children bilaterally. A maximum dose of 4 to 8 units of BTX-A per kilogram body weight was administered. In comparison with pretreatment values, the pedobarometric evaluation revealed a significant increase in the whole plantar surface area on the affected side (p < 0.05), an increase in the peak pressure value at the hindfoot on the affected side (p < 0.05), and a significant shift in the body centre of mass to the affected limb (p < 0.05) 1 month after treatment with BTX-A. A significant decrease in the peak pressure value at the hindfoot on the unaffected side was also observed. Similarly, a decrease in the modified Ashworth scale and an increase in the range of motion were observed. Thus, BTX-A produces a significant plantar surface modification and a significant shift of the body centre of mass which represents an indirect measure of postural attitude. Pedobarometric evaluation can also be useful in quantifying clinical changes after treatment with BTX-A.

  7. Training Community Mental Health Therapists to Deliver a Package of Evidence-Based Practice Strategies for School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren I.; Drahota, Amy; Stadnick, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Research on moving evidence-based practice (EBP) intervention strategies to community service settings for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is urgently needed. The current pilot study addresses this need by examining the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary outcomes of training therapists practicing in community mental health…

  8. Impacts of an In-Service Education Program on Promoting Language Development in Young Children: A Pilot Study with Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Nerina; Rose, Tanya; Pee, Jerrine; Webb, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood educators (ECEs) play an important role in fostering language development in young children. In-service education, led by speech-language pathologists (SLPs), has a potential role in educating ECEs about language development. In this pilot study, 42 ECEs attended an in-service education program and completed pre- and…

  9. A Pilot Evaluation of the Test-Retest Score Reliability of the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoe, Deirdre; Peralta, Christopher; Jean, Lindsey; Vo, Sandra; Yep, Linda Ngan; Zabjek, Karl; Wright, F. Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Preschool-aged children continually learn new skills and perfect existing ones. "Mastery motivation" is theorized to be a personality trait linked to skill learning. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) quantifies mastery motivation. This pilot study evaluated DMQ test-retest score reliability (preschool-version) and included…

  10. An Individualised Curriculum to Teach Numeracy Skills to Children with Autism: Programme Description and Pilot Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakaki, Pagona; Grindle, Corinna Fay; Saville, Maria; Hastings, Richard Patrick; Hughes, John Carl; Huxley, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Teaching mathematics to children with autism is an area with limited research evidence. In this study we developed a teaching manual based on Maths Recovery, a numeracy programme designed for typically developing children. Six children with autism participated in the study and received daily numeracy teaching over a 20-week period. Our aims were…

  11. Low Motor Assessment : A Comparative Pilot Study with Young Children With and Without Motor Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, S.A.J.; Nakken, H.; Van der Meulen, B.F.; Lunenborg, C.B.

    Most of the developmental instruments that measure cognitive development in children rely heavily on fine motor skills, especially for young children whose language skills are not yet well developed. This is problematic when evaluating the cognitive development of young children with motor

  12. Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. Methods The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6 from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary. Results Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day-1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013. This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days. In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day-1, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007 and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day-1, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027 on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Conclusions Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial

  13. Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Scott; McPhee, Julia C; Schluter, Philip J; Zinn, Caryn; Smith, Richard; Schofield, Grant

    2011-11-15

    Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary. Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day-1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days). In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day-1, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day-1, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial results.

  14. A pilot study of the effect of providing daily free fruit to primary-school children in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfield-Watt, Pauline Al; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Scheffer, Judi A

    2009-05-01

    To determine the uptake of a free fruit provision to low-decile primary-school children by quantitatively assessing changes in fruit intake. A randomised controlled trial using a paired, cluster randomisation. Twenty low-decile primary schools (schools attended by the most deprived children) in Auckland, New Zealand. In total 2032 children, aged 7-11 years, provided data on at least one occasion. Ten pairs of low-decile primary schools matched by roll size and location were randomly allocated to control (no free fruit) or intervention (free fruit) for a school term. Dietary assessments using the 24 h recall methodology were made at baseline, on the last week of the intervention and 6 weeks post-intervention. Fruit intakes in this cohort were lower than the national average with over 40 % reporting no fruit intake at baseline and did not differ between groups. After the free fruit period the intervention group increased school fruit intakes by 0.39 pieces/school d from baseline (P < or = 0.001) and the proportion of children consuming no fruit reduced to 22 %. This increase, however, was not sustained and fruit intakes fell below baseline levels at 6 weeks post-intervention. Control subjects did not significantly alter their fruit intakes throughout the study. Improving exposure and accessibility to fruits at school increases fruit intakes of low socio-economic group children, particularly those who do not normally eat fruit. The present pilot study demonstrates some possible negative effects of short-term free fruit interventions, but is informative for developing and evaluating sustained fruit intervention programmes.

  15. Spinal posture and pelvic position in three hundred forty-five elementary school children: a rasterstereographic pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimm Christoph Furian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Children’s posture has been of growing concern due to observations that it seems to be impaired compared to previous generations. So far there is no reference data for spinal posture and pelvic position in healthy children available. Purpose of this pilot study was to determine rasterstereographic posture values in children during their second growth phase. Three hundred and forty-five pupils were measured with a rasterstereographic device in a neutral standing position with hanging arms. To further analyse for changes in spinal posture during growth, the children were divided into 12-month age clusters. A mean kyphotic angle of 47.1°±7.5 and a mean lordotic angle of 42.1°±9.9 were measured. Trunk imbalance in girls (5.85 mm±0.74 and boys (7.48 mm± 0.83 varied only little between the age groups, with boys showing slightly higher values than girls. The trunk inclination did not show any significant differences between the age groups in boys or girls. Girls’ inclination was 2.53°±1.96 with a tendency to decreasing angles by age, therefore slightly smaller compared to boys (2.98°±2.18. Lateral deviation (4.8 mm and pelvic position (tilt: 2.75 mm; torsion: 1.53°; inclination: 19.8°±19.8 were comparable for all age groups and genders. This study provides the first systematic rasterstereographic analysis of spinal posture in children between 6 and 11 years. With the method of rasterstereography a reliable three-dimensional analysis of spinal posture and pelvic position is possible. Spinal posture and pelvic position does not change significantly with increasing age in this collective of children during the second growth phase.

  16. Incidence of platelet dysfunction by thromboelastography-platelet mapping in children supported with ECMO: A Pilot Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun eSaini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bleeding complications are common and decrease the odds of survival in children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO. The role of platelet dysfunction on ECMO-induced coagulopathy and resultant bleeding complications is not well understood. The primary objective of this pilot study was to determine the incidence and magnitude of platelet dysfunction according to thromboelastography (TEG®-platelet mapping (PM testing. Methods: Retrospective chart review of children <18 years old who required ECMO at a tertiary level hospital. We collected TEG®-PM and conventional coagulation tests data. We also collected demographic, medications, blood products administered, and clinical outcome data. We defined severe platelet dysfunction as less than 50 % aggregation in response to an agonist. Results: We identified 24 out of 46 children on ECMO, who had TEG®-PM performed during the study period. We found the incidence of severe bleeding was 42%, and mortality was 54% in our study cohort. In all samples measured, severe qualitative platelet dysfunction was more common for adenosine diphosphate (ADP-mediated aggregation (92% compared to arachidonic acid (AA-mediated aggregation (75%, (p=0.001. Also, ADP-mediated percent of platelet aggregation was significant lower than AA-mediated platelet aggregation (15% [IQR 2.8-48] vs 49% [IQR 22-82.5], p<0.001. There was no difference in kaolin-activated heparinase TEG® parameters between the bleeding group and the non-bleeding group. Only absolute platelet count and TEG®-PM had increased predictive value on receiver operating characteristics analyses for severe bleeding and mortality compared to ACT. Conclusions: We found frequent and severe qualitative platelet dysfunction on TEG®-PM testing in children on ECMO. Larger studies are needed to determine if the assessment of qualitative platelet function by TEG®-PM can improve prediction of bleeding complications for children on ECMO.

  17. Step one within stepped care trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for young children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Alison; Robst, John; Scheeringa, Michael S; Cohen, Judith A; Wang, Wei; Murphy, Tanya K; Tolin, David F; Storch, Eric A

    2014-02-01

    This pilot study explored the preliminary efficacy, parent acceptability and economic cost of delivering Step One within Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (SC-TF-CBT). Nine young children ages 3-6 years and their parents participated in SC-TF-CBT. Eighty-three percent (5/6) of the children who completed Step One treatment and 55.6 % (5/9) of the intent-to-treat sample responded to Step One. One case relapsed at post-assessment. Treatment gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Generally, parents found Step One to be acceptable and were satisfied with treatment. At 3-month follow-up, the cost per unit improvement for posttraumatic stress symptoms and severity ranged from $27.65 to $131.33 for the responders and from $36.12 to $208.11 for the intent-to-treat sample. Further research on stepped care for young children is warranted to examine if this approach is more efficient, accessible and cost-effective than traditional therapy.

  18. Effect of occupation-based groups on self-concept of children aged 5-8: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurlock, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to ascertain the effectiveness of an occupation-based after-school program for improving self-concept in children, ages five through eight. Fifty-four randomly selected children ages five through eight from two schools (one being the control group) with similar socioeconomic status along the Ohio River were involved in this research study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) was administered to all participants (N = 54), four subtests were analyzed: cognitive competence, social competence with peers, physical competence in sports, and maternal acceptance. The experimental group (n = 25) attended occupation-based groups two times a week after school. The control group (n = 29) did not participate in an after-school program. Data from pre-test and post-test were analyzed using a t-test. Findings demonstrated that the experimental group improved their self-concept scores when compared to the control group in the areas of peer acceptance and cognitive competence. This would offer tentative evidence that an after-school program directed by occupational therapists that is designed to improve self-concept may be successful.

  19. Sleep-disordered breathing and orthodontic variables in children--pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando Rodrigues; Lentini-Oliveira, Débora Aparecida; Carvalho, Graziele Maria Missiano; Prado, Lucila Bizari Fernandes; Prado, Gilmar Fernandes; Carvalho, Luciane Bizari Coin

    2014-11-01

    Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) is a highly prevalent condition associated with orofacial and dentofacial characteristics. The aim of this study was to verify the association of dental malocclusion, molar relationship, crossbite, open bite, overjet, overbite, and crowding with SDB in children aged 7-9 years. Participating schools were selected randomly from within the public elementary school system. In the first phase of the study, the parents of 1216 children aged between 7 and 9 years old completed the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) questionnaire and the children had to participate in a dental examination. The evaluation of occlusion was divided into sagittal analysis, vertical analysis, and transverse analysis. In the second phase, 60 children were selected randomly to be undergone polysomnography (PSG) at a sleep clinic. Among the children included, 242 (19.9%) children had normal occlusion. Of the 60 children, 50 underwent PSG and 40 (80%) had SDB. The crossbite and open bite showed association with SDB, p=0.04 in both. Crossbite and open bite malocclusions were associated with SDB, and may be predictive of SDB in children. Studies with larger numbers of participants are needed to investigate the association of other malocclusions with SDB, and randomized clinical trials are also needed to see whether orthodontic and/or functional jaw orthopedic treatment is an option for treating children with malocclusion and SDB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Findings from the Families on Track Intervention Pilot Trial for Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Christie L M; Pandolfino, Mary E; Robinson, Luther K

    2017-07-01

    Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are at high risk for costly, debilitating mental health problems and secondary conditions, such as school disruption, trouble with the law, and substance use. The study objective was to pilot a multicomponent intervention designed to prevent secondary conditions in children with FASD and improve family adaptation. Thirty children with FASD or prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) (ages 4 to 8) and their primary caregivers were enrolled. Families were randomized to either the Families on Track Integrated Preventive Intervention or an active control of neuropsychological assessment and personalized community referrals. The 30-week intervention integrates scientifically validated bimonthly, in-home parent behavioral consultation, and weekly child skills groups. Outcomes measured at baseline and follow-up postintervention included intervention satisfaction, child emotional and behavioral functioning, child self-esteem, caregiver knowledge of FASD and advocacy, caregiver attitudes, use of targeted parenting practices, perceived family needs met, social support, and self-care. Data analysis emphasized calculation of effect sizes and was supplemented with analysis of variance techniques. Analyses indicated that families participating in the intervention reported high program satisfaction. Relative to comparison group outcomes, the intervention was associated with medium-to-large effects for child emotion regulation, self-esteem, and anxiety. Medium-sized improvements in disruptive behavior were observed for both groups. Medium and large effects were seen for important caregiver outcomes: knowledge of FASD and advocacy, attributions of behavior, use of antecedent strategies, parenting efficacy, family needs met, social support, and self-care. This pilot study yielded promising findings from the multicomponent Families on Track Integrated Preventive Intervention for child and caregiver outcomes. An important next step is to

  1. Feasibility of motor imagery training for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, I.L.J.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Lust, J.M.; Wilson, P.H.; Steenbergen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience movement difficulties that may be linked to processes involved in motor imagery (MI). This paper discusses recent advances in theory that underpin the use of MI training for children with DCD. This knowledge is translated in a new MI training protocol which is compared with the cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP). Children meeting DSM-5 criteria for DCD were assigned to MI (n = 4) or CO-OP (n = 4) i...

  2. Developing Interventions for Children's Exercise (DICE): a pilot evaluation of school-based exercise interventions for primary school children aged 7 to 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Karen; Torgerson, David; McKenna, Jim; Ashby, Rebecca; Daly-Smith, Andy; Truscott, John; MacKay, Heather; Jennings, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Developing Interventions for Children's Exercise (DICE) is an initiative aimed at determining effective school-based exercise programs. To assess feasibility, we conducted a pilot study of exercise sessions which varied in duration and frequency. Exercise interventions were delivered to Year 3 pupils (age 7-8 years; n = 73) in primary schools within Yorkshire, UK. Evaluations were conducted using focus group sessions, questionnaires and observations. The study revealed positive aspects of all interventions, including favorable effects on children's concentration during lessons and identified the value of incorporation of the DICE concept into curriculum lessons. Children appeared enthused and reported well-being and enjoyment. Areas requiring attention were the need for appropriate timetabling of sessions and ensuring the availability of space. The concept and sessions were well-accepted by teachers who confirmed their full support of any future implementation There appears to be potential for the encouragement and empowerment of teachers to support physical activity and healthy school environments, and to take an interest in the health of their pupils. Ultimately, these findings should assist in the design of successful exercise interventions in the school setting.

  3. A pilot, family-based randomised controlled trial to reduce screen time and unhealthy snacking in children and their parents: Kids FIRST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Pearson

    2015-10-01

    To our knowledge, Kids FIRST is the first pilot RCT to examine the effectiveness of behaviour change strategies for reducing children’s screen-time and unhealthy snacking. The integration of consistent, evidence-based and theory informed strategies and messages to children and their parents in the family and school settings are critical components of this pilot study. The results of this study will provide evidence on the feasibility and effectiveness of single versus multiple behaviour intervention strategies. If shown to be feasible and effective, the Kids FIRST study may have a significant impact on the home environment and parenting practices relating to screen time and unhealthy snacking.

  4. Internalizing problem behavior and family environment of children with burns: A Dutch pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liber, J.M.; List, D.; van Loey, N.E.E.; Kef, S.

    2006-01-01

    The psychosocial development of children with burns is at risk. Children with health care issues tend to develop internalizing problems. Several areas of protective or risk factors were composed into a conceptual model on how internalizing problems might develop or might be prevented after getting

  5. A Pilot Study to Increase Chewing in Children with Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Frese, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often display chewing deficits. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research examining procedures to increase or teach chewing to children with feeding disorders. The few studies on this topic have utilized multicomponent treatments typically involving a shaping procedure. In addition, to our knowledge, studies on…

  6. Outcomes of a pilot obesity prevention plus intervention targeting children and parenting practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevention-Plus interventions for primary care offer a venue to intervene with both children and parents for child obesity treatment. Such interventions can promote effective parenting practices that encourage healthy eating, physical activity (PA), and lower TV use among children. Test for feasibil...

  7. Evaluating Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Sleep in Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tim I.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have found beneficial effects of aromatherapy massage for agitation in people with dementia, for pain relief and for poor sleep. Children with autism often have sleep difficulties, and it was thought that aromatherapy massage might enable more rapid sleep onset, less sleep disruption and longer sleep duration. Twelve children with autism and learning difficulties (2 girls and 10 boys aged between 12 years 2 months to 15 years 7 months) in a residential school participated in a within subjects repeated measures design: 3 nights when the children were given aromatherapy massage with lavender oil were compared with 14 nights when it was not given. The children were checked every 30 min throughout the night to determine the time taken for the children to settle to sleep, the number of awakenings and the sleep duration. One boy's data were not analyzed owing to lengthy absence. Repeated measures analysis revealed no differences in any of the sleep measures between the nights when the children were given aromatherapy massage and nights when the children were not given aromatherapy massage. The results suggest that the use of aromatherapy massage with lavender oil has no beneficial effect on the sleep patterns of children with autism attending a residential school. It is possible that there are greater effects in the home environment or with longer-term interventions. PMID:16951722

  8. Dietary Status and Impact of Risperidone on Nutritional Balance in Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ronald L.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Posey, David J.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Pachler, Maryellen; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Bozzolo, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    Background: Risperidone may be effective in improving tantrums, aggression, or self-injurious behaviour in children with autism, but often leads to weight gain. Method: Using a quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we prospectively examined the nutritional intake of 20 children with autism participating in a randomised…

  9. Internet-Based Parent-Implemented Intervention for Young Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Snodgrass, Melinda R.; Meyer, Lori E.; Fisher, Kim W.; Chung, Moon Y.; Halle, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Both naturalistic communication and parent-implemented interventions are evidence-based practices for young children with disabilities, but demonstrations of effective methods for teaching parents to implement naturalistic interventions successfully with their children are still warranted. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a…

  10. Pilot survey on dental health in 5-12-year-old school children in Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, S.; Ngonephady, S.; van Wijk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The burden of dental caries in young Lao children is high. As a result, these children suffer from toothache, and school absenteeism is high. There is a need for the Lao Government to develop a strategy to prevent dental disease, such as caries. The aim of this study was to collect data on the

  11. Evaluating Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Sleep in Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim I. Williams

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found beneficial effects of aromatherapy massage for agitation in people with dementia, for pain relief and for poor sleep. Children with autism often have sleep difficulties, and it was thought that aromatherapy massage might enable more rapid sleep onset, less sleep disruption and longer sleep duration. Twelve children with autism and learning difficulties (2 girls and 10 boys aged between 12 years 2 months to 15 years 7 months in a residential school participated in a within subjects repeated measures design: 3 nights when the children were given aromatherapy massage with lavender oil were compared with 14 nights when it was not given. The children were checked every 30 min throughout the night to determine the time taken for the children to settle to sleep, the number of awakenings and the sleep duration. One boy's data were not analyzed owing to lengthy absence. Repeated measures analysis revealed no differences in any of the sleep measures between the nights when the children were given aromatherapy massage and nights when the children were not given aromatherapy massage. The results suggest that the use of aromatherapy massage with lavender oil has no beneficial effect on the sleep patterns of children with autism attending a residential school. It is possible that there are greater effects in the home environment or with longer-term interventions.

  12. Physical and psychosocial benefits of modified judo practice for blind, mentally retarded children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleser, J M; Margulies, J Y; Nyska, M; Porat, S; Mendelberg, H; Wertman, E

    1992-06-01

    A modified form of judo training was practiced by a class of 7 blind, mentally retarded children with associated neuropsychiatric disturbances. The biweekly training program lasted for 6 months. Analysis indicated improvements in physical fitness, motor skills, and psychosocial attitude. The authors concluded that a modified form of judo can be used as a therapeutic, educational, and recreational tool for multiply handicapped children.

  13. Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

  14. Improving Social Competence through Emotion Knowledge in 2-Year-Old Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and social competence in 2-year-old Spanish children. This study makes two original contributions because there are no validated education programs for such young children and because it…

  15. Play in Natural Environments: A Pilot Study Quantifying the Behavior of Children on Playground Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Schoen, Sarah A.; Camarata, Stephen M.; McConkey, John; Kanics, Ingrid M.; Valdez, Andrea; Hampton, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Playground design is critical to school-based practice, insuring access and use for all children. The play behavior of children with special needs is qualitatively and quantitatively different than their typically developing peers. However, empirical data is needed to support the therapeutic value of playground equipment used with school-aged…

  16. Exploring Children's Perceptions of Two School-Based Social Inclusion Programs: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; McPherson, Amy C.; Aslam, Henna; McKeever, Patricia; Wright, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although social exclusion among typically developing school-aged children has been well explored, it is under-researched for children with disabilities even though they are at a higher risk for being excluded. While there are a number of different programs available to improve social inclusion at school, the appeal of these programs to…

  17. A Pilot Study to Teach Siblings to Support Children with Complex Communication Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Sarah N.; Kammes, Rebecca; Nordquist, Erica; D'Agostino, Sophia

    2018-01-01

    Siblings play an important role in the lives of children with disabilities, especially those with complex communication needs (CCN). However, children with CCN require support to learn social and communication skills. Like other communication partners, typically developing (TD) siblings may struggle to understand how to best interact with a child…

  18. Prescribing books for immigrant children: a pilot study to promote emergent literacy among the children of Hispanic immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, L M; Gershon, T D; Huffman, L C; Mendoza, F S

    2000-08-01

    To assess book-sharing activities within first-generation Hispanic immigrant families, and to assess the effect of pediatricians giving books to their patients. Survey. Convenience sample of 122 predominantly Hispanic immigrant parents of children aged 2 months to 5 years. Of these parents, 56 had received children's books from the pediatrician, and 66 had not. House staff continuity clinic at a university children's hospital. Frequent Book Sharing (FBS) was defined as a parent's reporting more than 3 days per week of sharing books with the child. Main independent variables included the following: (1) exposure to the Reach Out and Read program, defined as having received a children's book from the pediatrician; (2) socioeconomics, as measured by parents' years of education and Medicaid enrollment; (3) acculturation, as defined by 4 questions relating to parents' proficiency with the English language; (4) parent's country of origin; (5) parent literacy, as measured by a parent's reporting more than 3 days per week of reading alone; (6) parent's age; (7) marital status; (8) household size; (9) child's age; (10) child's sex. Ninety percent of the parents were born outside of the United States (71% in Mexico), 85% spoke Spanish in the home, and 63% had completed less than a high-school education. Seventy-five percent of children's medical insurance was provided by Medi-Cal (Medicaid), and 9% of children were uninsured. Sixty-seven percent spoke exclusively Spanish at home, and 84% of parents want their children to learn to read in both English and Spanish. High FBS was reported among parents whose children had received books from the physician when compared with parents whose children had received no books. The odds ratio (OR) was 3.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-9.37; Pimmigrant children through the provision of free books at well-child visits. Our findings also suggest the independent effects of adult literacy and child age. Further research is needed to

  19. A pilot study comparing T-regulatory cell function among healthy children in different areas of Gansu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Panhong; Chang, Xiaoru; Ye, Zhonghui; Yao, Yueli; Nguyen, Patton Khuu; Hammond, Sally Katharine; Wang, Junling; Liu, Sa

    2017-10-01

    Immune system is critical to protecting human health from toxic substances. Our previously published research had found an important link between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air and changes at the DNA level in immune cells that led to impaired function of regulatory T (Treg) cells in children living in California, USA. But molecular and cellular pathways of these changes remain unclear. The present study aims to explore whether exposure to PAHs leads to changes in Treg cells functions of children living in Gansu, China, where ambient air pollution levels are much higher than those in California, and to explore potential mechanisms of PAH-induced immunological dysfunctions. Air pollutions in Lanzhou and Lintao, Gansu Province, were measured from December 2015 to June 2016. Healthy children were recruited from both cities and enrolled in this pilot study. Demographic information was collected by questionnaires. Blood samples were collected. Peripheral blood Treg cells were analyzed for Treg cells percentage by flow cytometry. Gene expression of forkhead box transcription factor 3 (Foxp3), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and interleukin 35 (IL35) were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results indicated PAH concentration (as sum of 16 PAHs) in Lintao was over two times higher than that was in Lanzhou (707 vs. 326 ng/m 3 ), whereas PM 2.5 concentration was comparable in two cities (55.3 in Lintao vs. 65.7 μg/m 3 in Lanzhou). Notably, we observed lower gene expressions for Foxp3 (P < 0.05), IL35 (P < 0.05), and TGF-β, in children living in Lintao, suggesting an impairment of Treg cells function potentially associated with higher PAH exposure in Lintao. However, no significant difference was observed in Treg cells % among CD4 + T cells between Lanzhou and Lintao groups.

  20. The impact of an exercise therapy on psychosocial health of children with benign epilepsy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Soyong; Lee, Mi Kyung; Park, Ji-Hye; Jeon, Justin Y; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Heung Dong

    2014-08-01

    The purposes of the current study were to test the feasibility of exercise therapy for children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) and to collect pilot data about the impact of exercise therapy on neurocognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. Ten children with BECTS (9.7±1.42 years) participated in a therapeutic exercise program consisting of ten supervised exercise sessions and home-based exercises for five weeks. Electroencephalography (EEG), seizure frequency, and neurocognitive and psychological factors, including attention, executive function, depression, anxiety, behavioral problems, and quality of life, were assessed before and after the exercise program. No clinical symptoms were observed to worsen during the study, demonstrating that the exercise therapy was safe and also feasible. After five weeks of exercise therapy, significant improvements in neurocognitive domains such as simple visual and auditory attention, sustained attention, divided attention, psychomotor speed, and inhibition-disinhibition were observed. Furthermore, parent ratings of internalizing behavioral problems and social problems and mood-related well-being from quality of life improved after exercise therapy. Although not statistically significant, trends were noted toward improvement in children's self-reports of negative mood/somatization, parent reports of somatic complaints, and general health on a quality-of-life measure. A five-week structured exercise program was successfully implemented, with preliminary data suggesting beneficial impact on neurocognitive and psychobehavioral function. Exercise therapy should be further evaluated as a part of a comprehensive treatment program for children with benign epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pilot Clinical Trial of High-Flow Oxygen Therapy in Children with Asthma in the Emergency Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestero, Yolanda; De Pedro, Jimena; Portillo, Nancy; Martinez-Mugica, Otilia; Arana-Arri, Eunate; Benito, Javier

    2018-03-01

    To assess the efficacy of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy and safety in children with asthma and moderate respiratory failure in the emergency department (ED). This was a prospective randomized pilot trial of children (aged 1-14 years) presenting to a tertiary academic pediatric ED with moderate-to-severe asthma exacerbations between September 2012 and December 2015. Patients with a pulmonary score (PS) ≥6 or oxygen saturation oxygen therapy. Pharmacologic treatment was at the discretion of attending physicians. The primary outcome was a decrease in PS ≥2 in the first 2 hours. Secondary outcomes included disposition, length of stay, and need for additional therapies. We randomly allocated 62 children to receive either HFNC (n = 30) or standard oxygen therapy (n = 32). Baseline patient characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. At 2 hours after the start of therapy, PS had decreased by ≥2 points in 16 patients in the HFNC group (53%) compared with 9 controls (28%) (P = .01). Between-group differences in disposition, length of stay, and need for additional therapies were not significant. No side effects were reported. HFNC appears to be superior to conventional oxygen therapy for reducing respiratory distress within the first 2 hours of treatment in children with moderate-to-severe asthma exacerbation refractory to first-line treatment. Further studies are needed to demonstrate its overall efficacy in the management of asthma and respiratory failure in the ED. EudraCT: 2012-001771-36. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exposure-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children with Abdominal Pain: A Pilot Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lalouni

    Full Text Available Children with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (P-FGIDs have an increased risk for school absenteeism, depression, anxiety and low quality of life. Exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT has shown large treatment effects in adults with irritable bowel syndrome, but has not been tested for children 8-12 years with P-FGIDs.The aim of this trial was to test the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a newly developed exposure-based CBT for children with P-FGIDs.The children (n = 20 with a P-FGID, were referred by their treating physicians. The participants received 10 weekly sessions of exposure-based CBT and were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up.Children improved significantly on the primary outcome measure pain intensity at post (Cohen's d = 0.40, p = 0.049 and at 6-month follow-up (Cohen's d = 0.85, p = 0.004. Improvements were also seen in pain frequency, gastrointestinal symptoms, quality of life, depression, anxiety, school absenteeism and somatic symptoms. Improvements were maintained or further increased at 6-month follow-up. The children engaged in the exposures and were satisfied with the treatment.Exposure-based CBT for children with P-FGIDs is feasible, acceptable and potentially efficacious.

  3. Physical violence against children with hearing loss by parents: A pilot study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingying; Chen, Jingqi; Yu, Buyi; Jin, Yichen

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to examine the rate and risk factors for physical violence (PV) by parents against hearing loss children in Beijing, China. Cross-sectional study was carried out among 86 couples of parents of hearing loss children from two special education schools in Beijing. Parents' self-reporting questionnaires were used to collect information about parental PV behaviors during the past 12 months, definition of child abuse, attitudes towards the use of corporal punishment to discipline children, parents' childhood experience of PV victimization, and demographic characteristics. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The rates of minor PV and severe PV reported by parents were 44.8% and 15.7%, respectively. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that the risk factors of PV were: lower educational attainment, favorable or tolerant attitudes towards the use of corporal punishment to discipline children, parents' experiences of PV victimization in childhood, and younger children. PV by parents against hearing loss children was common in Beijing. It is urgent to develop prevention programs to improve parents' parenting skills and protect children with hearing loss from PV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dental anxiety in children with cleft lip and palate: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Muharrem Cem; Serin, Buse Ayse; Uzel, Aslıhan; Seydaoglu, Gulsah

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the level of dental fear and anxiety of children who have cleft lip and palate (CLP). The study was performed at Cukurova University, Faculty of Dentistry. A total of 32 7- to 12-yearold children, 17 of them with CLP (8 girls and 9 boys) and 15 of them without CLP (7 girls and 8 boys) participated in the study. The children were evaluated by using the Facial Image Scale (FIS) and Dental Subscale of Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS) methods. The anxiety state of the children was assessed twice using FIS: first in the dental hospital waiting room (FIS-WR) and after, while sitting in the dental chair (FIS-DC). CFSS-DS was administered to all participants in order to assess the dental anxiety while they were sitting in the dental chair. According to the FIS results, there was no difference between CLP and control group in the waiting room (P = 0.682). However, the CLP group showed lower scores than the control group while they were sitting in the dental chair (P = 0.030). The FIS scores of the CLP group were significantly higher in the waiting room than while sitting in the dental chair (P = 0.007). In the control group, there was no significant difference between FIS-WR and FIS-DC values (P = 0.664). The total CFSS-DS scores of children with CLP were lower than those of the control group, but these differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Children with CLP showed more anxiety in the FIS-WR than in the FIS-DC, but they showed lower scores than the control group in the FIS-DC. The positive previous experience of meetings with dentists of the CLP children could explain these results. Positive previous experiences with dentists and a short time in the waiting room could be key elements in the care of CLP children.

  5. No Association between Mycotoxin Exposure and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Duringer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of environmental risk factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD is needed for a more complete understanding of disease etiology and best approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. A pilot experiment in 54 children (n = 25 ASD, n = 29 controls; aged 12.4 ± 3.9 years screened for 87 urinary mycotoxins via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess current exposure. Zearalenone, zearalenone-4-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and altenuene were detected in 9/54 (20% samples, most near the limit of detection. No mycotoxin/group of mycotoxins was associated with ASD-diagnosed children. To identify potential correlates of mycotoxin presence in urine, we further compared the nine subjects where a urinary mycotoxin was confirmed to the remaining 45 participants and found no difference based on the presence or absence of mycotoxin for age (t-test; p = 0.322, gender (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.456, exposure or not to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.367, or to other medications (Fisher’s exact test; p = 1.00. While no positive association was found, more sophisticated sample preparation techniques and instrumentation, coupled with selectivity for a smaller group of mycotoxins, could improve sensitivity and detection. Further, broadening sampling to in utero (mothers and newborn-toddler years would cover additional exposure windows.

  6. A pilot investigation of an iOS-based app for toilet training children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruzek, Daniel W; McAleavey, Stephen; Loring, Whitney A; Butter, Eric; Smith, Tristram; McDonnell, Erin; Levato, Lynne; Aponte, Courtney; Travis, Rebekah P; Aiello, Rachel E; Taylor, Cora M; Wilkins, Jonathan W; Corbett-Dick, Patricia; Finkelstein, Dianne M; York, Alyssa M; Zanibbi, Katherine

    2017-12-01

    We developed an iOS-based app with a transmitter/disposable sensor and corresponding manualized intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder. The app signaled the onset of urination, time-stamped accidents for analysis, reminded parents to reinforce intervals of continence, provided a visual outlet for parents to communicate reinforcement, and afforded opportunity for timely feedback from clinicians. We compared this intervention with an intervention that uses standard behavioral treatment in a pilot randomized controlled trial of 33 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 3-6 years with urinary incontinence. Parents in both groups received initial training and four booster consultations over 3 months. Results support the feasibility of parent-mediated toilet training studies (e.g., 84% retention rate, 92% fidelity of parent-implemented intervention). Parents used the app and related technology with few difficulties or malfunctions. There were no statistically significant group differences for rate of urine accidents, toilet usage, or satisfaction at close of intervention or 3-month follow-up; however, the alarm group trended toward greater rate of skill acquisition with significantly less day-to-day intervention. Further development of alarm and related technology and future comparative studies with a greater number of participants are warranted.

  7. Controller adherence following hospital discharge in high risk children: A pilot randomized trial of text message reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chén C; Gruschow, Siobhan M; Quarshie, William O; Griffis, Heather; Leach, Michelle C; Zorc, Joseph J; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra C; Miller, Victoria A; Feudtner, Chris

    2018-02-13

    To assess the feasibility of a mobile health, inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) adherence reminder intervention and to characterize adherence trajectories immediately following severe asthma exacerbation in high-risk urban children with persistent asthma. Children aged 2-13 with persistent asthma were enrolled in this pilot randomized controlled trial during an asthma emergency department (ED) visit or hospitalization. Intervention arm participants received daily text message reminders for 30 days, and both arms received electronic sensors to measure ICS use. Primary outcomes were feasibility of sensor use and text message acceptability. Secondary outcomes included adherence to prescribed ICS regimen and 30-day adherence trajectories. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to examine adherence trajectories. Forty-one participants (mean age 5.9) were randomized to intervention (n = 21) or control (n = 20). Overall, 85% were Black, 88% had public insurance, and 51% of the caregivers had a high school education or less. Thirty-two participant families (78%) transmitted medication adherence data; of caregivers who completed the acceptability survey, 25 (96%) chose to receive daily reminders beyond that study interval. Secondary outcome analyses demonstrated similar average daily adherence between groups (intervention = 36%; control = 32%, P = 0.73). Three adherence trajectories were identified with none ever exceeding 80% adherence. Within a high-risk pediatric cohort, electronic monitoring of ICS use and adherence reminders delivered via text message were feasible for most participants, but there was no signal of effect. Adherence trajectories following severe exacerbation were suboptimal, demonstrating an important opportunity for asthma care improvement.

  8. Evaluation of methods to relieve parental perceptions of vaccine-associated pain and anxiety in children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E; Beckstrand, Renea L; Pulsipher, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The pain and anxiety associated with vaccination is a significant reason why parents are reluctant to have their children vaccinated. Distraction methods and vapocoolant sprays may be use to modify the parent's perceptions of their child's pain and anxiety, thus encouraging parents to return for the child's next vaccination. A convenience sample of 68 parents with children ranging in age from 2 to 12 years was selected. The parents and the child were randomly assigned to three groups: a control group, a DVD distraction group, or a vapocoolant spray group. After the child was vaccinated, parents evaluated the child's pain and anxiety. No significant difference in the parents' perception of their child's pain or anxiety was found between the two treatment groups compared with the control group. Some parents expressed the desire to be able to choose the type of distraction method their child received rather than having them randomly assigned to a group. Although quantitative results were not statistically significant in this pilot study, parents commented that the DVD distraction method seemed helpful before and/or after vaccination, but not during vaccination, and parents appreciated the distraction. Parents, however, would prefer to choose the intervention rather than being randomly assigned to a group. The effectiveness of interventions with regard to parental perceptions of pain or anxiety warrants further study. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of two distinct group motor skill interventions in psychological and motor skills of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caçola, Priscila; Romero, Michael; Ibana, Melvin; Chuang, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have an increased risk for mental health difficulties. The present pilot study aimed to determine whether distinct group intervention programs improved several psychological variables (anxiety; adequacy and predilection for physical activity; participation, preferences, and enjoyment for activities) and motor skills from the perspective of a child with DCD as well as parental perceptions of motor skills, rate of function, and strengths and difficulties. Eleven children participated in Program A and thirteen in Program B. Both involved 10 sessions of 1 h each. Program A focused on task-oriented activities in a large group involving motor skill training and collaboration and cooperation among children, while Program B was composed of three groups with a direct goal-oriented approach for training of skills chosen by the children. Results indicated that children improved motor skills after both programs, but showed distinct results in regards to other variables - after Program A, children showed higher anxiety and lower levels of enjoyment, even though parents detected an improvement in rate of function and a decrease in peer problems. With Program B, children decreased anxiety levels, and parents noted a higher control of movement of their children. Regardless of the group approach, children were able to improve motor skills. However, it is possible that the differences between groups may have influenced parents' perception of their children's motor and psychological skills, as well as children's perception of anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Red palm oil as a source of vitamin A for mothers and children: impact of a pilot project in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagré, N M; Delpeuch, F; Traissac, P; Delisle, H

    2003-12-01

    To demonstrate the effectiveness of the commercial introduction of red palm oil (RPO) as a source of vitamin A (VA) for mothers and children in a non-consuming area, as a dietary diversification strategy. A pre-post intervention design (no control area) was used to assess changes in VA intake and status over a 24-month pilot project. The pilot project involved RPO promotion in 10 villages and an urban area in east-central Burkina Faso, targeting approximately 10 000 women and children aged <5 years. A random sample of 210 mother-child (12-36-months-old) pairs was selected in seven out of the 11 pilot sites for the evaluation. After 24 months, RPO was reportedly consumed by nearly 45% of mothers and children in the previous week. VA intake increased from 235+/-23 microg retinol activity equivalents (RAE) to 655+/-144 microg RAE in mothers (41 to 120% of safe intake level), and from 164+/-14 microg RAE to 514+/-77 microg RAE in children (36 to 97%). Rates of serum retinol <0.70 micromol l(-1) decreased from 61.8+/-8.0% to 28.2+/-11.0% in mothers, and from 84.5+/-6.4% to 66.9+/-11.2% in children. Those with a lower initial concentration of serum retinol showed a higher serum retinol response adjusted for VA intake. Commercial distribution of RPO was effective in reducing VA deficiency in the pilot sites. While it is promising as part of a national strategy, additional public health and food-based measures are needed to control VA malnutrition, which remained high in the RPO project area.

  11. Reducing Children Behavior Problems: A Pilot Study of Tuning in to Kids in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Aghaie Meybodi

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: The Tuning in to Kids program appears to be a promising parenting intervention for mothers and children with disruptive behavior problems, offering a useful addition to usual programs used in Iran.

  12. Increasing the Understanding and Demonstration of Appropriate Affection in Children with Asperger Syndrome: A Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sofronoff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to examine relationships between affectionate behavior in children with Asperger syndrome and variables likely to influence its expression (e.g., tactile sensitivity, social ability. It also evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral intervention that aimed to improve a child's understanding and expression of affection. Twenty-one children, aged 7 to 12 years, participated in the trial. The results showed significant correlations between measures of affection and tactile sensitivity and social ability. After attending the 5-week program, parents identified significant increases in the appropriateness of children's affectionate behavior both towards immediate family and people outside the immediate family, despite reporting no significant changes in their child's general difficulties with affectionate behavior. There was a significant improvement in children's understanding of the purpose of affection. The findings are discussed as well as the limitations of the study.

  13. Increasing the Understanding and Demonstration of Appropriate Affection in Children with Asperger Syndrome: A Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronoff, Kate; Eloff, Johann; Sheffield, Jeanie; Attwood, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to examine relationships between affectionate behavior in children with Asperger syndrome and variables likely to influence its expression (e.g., tactile sensitivity, social ability). It also evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral intervention that aimed to improve a child's understanding and expression of affection. Twenty-one children, aged 7 to 12 years, participated in the trial. The results showed significant correlations between measures of affection and tactile sensitivity and social ability. After attending the 5-week program, parents identified significant increases in the appropriateness of children's affectionate behavior both towards immediate family and people outside the immediate family, despite reporting no significant changes in their child's general difficulties with affectionate behavior. There was a significant improvement in children's understanding of the purpose of affection. The findings are discussed as well as the limitations of the study. PMID:22937243

  14. Visual pedagogy and probiotics for hearing impaired children: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Sujlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oral health care for children with special needs remains largely unmet. It is important that we should focus on preventive strategies for special children to help curtail and prevent oral diseases. Aim: This study aimed to assess the effect of visual pedagogy and probiotic mouth rinse on the periodontal health of hearing impaired children. Materials and Methodology: The study cohort consisted of twenty children with hearing impairment (HI and 20 age-matched healthy children. The gingival index (GI, plaque index (PI, and salivary pH for all children were assessed at baseline, 15 days after oral hygiene training using visual pedagogy, 15 days after probiotic mouth rinse introduction, and at the end of the test period, i.e., 2 months after discontinuing probiotics. Statistical Analysis: Comparison of means was carried out using the Student's t-test. Intragroup parameters were assessed using the one-way ANOVA, followed by the post hoc Scheffe test. Value for statistical significance was fixed at 0.05. Results: The GI and PI scores did not improve significantly after oral hygiene training in either of the two groups. The use of probiotic mouth rinse significantly reduced GI scores (<0.01 and PI scores (<0.01 and increased salivary pH above the critical pH in both groups. Conclusion: The use of visual pedagogy coupled with probiotic mouth rinsing may improve the periodontal status of children with HI and should be explored as a preventive procedure for children with special health-care needs.

  15. A new analgesia regimen after (adeno) tonsillectomy in children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, M I; Magos, T A; Singh, J; Montague, M L

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to ascertain the efficacy of a new analgesic regimen introduced in children undergoing (adeno)tonsillectomy in view of the ban on codeine use in children codeine, albeit one should bear in mind that parental concerns and adverse effects of the drug were seen in a minority of patients (n = 11) and anaesthetists were reluctant to prescribe the drug in cases of severe OSA or associated central apnoeas (n = 7). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Small Pilot Survey on Parents' Perception of the Relationship between Children and Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Natalia; Vergnano, Diana; Bergero, Domenico; Prola, Liviana

    2017-10-16

    Since companion animals are taking on more important roles in family life, the aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of parents about the relationship between their children and pets. A number of parents were asked to fill in a questionnaire; the principal topics were: pet ownership, pet care, relationship between pets and children, and sources of information about pet management. Eighty-two parents completed the survey; 71.4% of them already had pets before having children; pet care and health has emerged to be rather important, since 96.4% of the pets are taken to the veterinarian at least once a year; moreover, the great majority of the parents (97.2%) were not worried about the possible risks, linked to pets, pertaining to their child's health. The present survey confirms that pets are mostly considered as members of the family, and not only as a benefit for the children. Moreover, the relationship between children and pets is basically seen as a positive experience for children.

  17. Health outcomes of children born to mothers with chronic kidney disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Banerjee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study the health of children born to mothers with chronic kidney disease. Twenty-four children born to mothers with chronic kidney disease were compared with 39 matched control children born to healthy mothers without kidney disease. The well-being of each child was individually assessed in terms of physical health, neurodevelopment and psychological health. Families participating with renal disease were more likely to be from lower socio-economic backgrounds. Significantly fewer vaginal deliveries were reported for mothers with renal disease and their infants were more likely to experience neonatal morbidity. Study and control children were comparable for growth parameters and neurodevelopment as assessed by the Griffiths scales. There was no evidence of more stress amongst mothers with renal disease or of impaired bonding between mother and child when compared to controls. However, there was evidence of greater externalizing behavioral problems in the group of children born to mothers with renal disease. Engaging families in such studies is challenging. Nonetheless, families who participated appreciated being asked. The children were apparently healthy but there was evidence in this small study of significant antenatal and perinatal morbidity compared to controls. Future larger multi-center studies are required to confirm these early findings.

  18. Internet-delivered CBT for children with specific phobia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigerland, Sarah; Thulin, Ulrika; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Svirsky, Liv; Ost, Lars-Göran; Lindefors, Nils; Andersson, Gerhard; Serlachius, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for specific phobia in youth, but not all affected seek or receive treatment. Internet-delivered CBT could be a way to increase the availability of empirically supported treatments. An open trial was conducted to evaluate Internet-delivered CBT for children with specific phobia. Children (N = 30) aged 8-12, and their parents, with a principal diagnosis of specific phobia were recruited through media advertisement. Participants received six weeks of Internet-delivered CBT with therapist support. The treatment was aimed for the parents and the children, with the first part being only for the parents. The primary outcome measure was the Clinician Severity Rating (CSR), and secondary measures included clinician-rated global functioning and child- and parent-reported anxiety and quality of life. All assessments were made at pretreatment, posttreatment, and three-month follow-up. At posttreatment, there were significant reductions on the CSR, with a large within-group effect size (Cohen's d = 1.0) and 35% of children no longer meeting criteria for specific phobia. Self-report measures from parents and children showed significant effects on anxiety, with small to moderate effect sizes. Effects were maintained at three-month follow-up. Results show that Internet-delivered CBT with therapist support for children with specific phobia has the potential to reduce symptom severity. Randomized controlled trials are needed to further evaluate this treatment format.

  19. Medical hypnosis as a tool to acclimatize children to noninvasive positive pressure ventilation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delord, Vincent; Khirani, Sonia; Ramirez, Adriana; Joseph, Erick Louis; Gambier, Clotilde; Belson, Maryse; Gajan, Francis; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2013-07-01

    Patient cooperation is crucial for the success of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV). This study evaluated the efficacy of medical hypnosis to reduce anticipatory anxiety and acclimatization time in children who are candidates for long-term NPPV. Medical hypnosis was performed by a trained nurse. The acclimatization time and long-term compliance with NPPV were evaluated. Hypnosis was performed in nine children aged 2 to 15 years. Seven children had a high level of anticipatory anxiety because of a tracheotomy since birth (n=2), a history of maxillofacial surgery (n=2), severe dyspnea because of lung disease (n=2), and morbid obesity and depression (n=1), and two children with obstructive sleep apnea failed standard NPPV initiation. The hypnosis techniques were based on distraction in the youngest patient and indirect or direct hypnotic suggestions in the older children to obtain a progressive psychocorporal relaxation. All patients accepted the interface and the NPPV after the first hypnosis session. A median of three sessions was needed for overnight (>6 h) NPPV acceptance. The 6-month compliance with NPPV was excellent, with a median use of 7.5 h per night. Medical hypnosis is an effective, safe, noninvasive, and inexpensive tool for reducing the anticipatory distress and acclimatization time for NPPV. This therapy is particularly useful in children with traumatic experiences, such as a tracheotomy or facial surgical procedures.

  20. Feasibility of Motor Imagery Training for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder – A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke L. J. Adams

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD experience movement difficulties that may be linked to processes involved in motor imagery (MI. This paper discusses recent advances in theory that underpin the use of MI training for children with DCD. This knowledge is translated in a new MI training protocol which is compared with the cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP. Children meeting DSM-5 criteria for DCD were assigned to MI (n = 4 or CO-OP (n = 4 interventions and completed nine treatment sessions, including homework exercises. Results were positive, with two children in the MI group and three in the CO-OP group improving their m-ABC-2 score by ≥ 2 standard scores, interpreted as a clinically meaningful change. Moreover, all children and parents noticed improvements in motor skills after training. This is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of a theoretically principled treatment protocol for MI training in children with DCD, and extends earlier work.Trial registration: The complete trial is registered at the Dutch trial register, www.trialregister.nl (NTR5471. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5471

  1. Feasibility of Motor Imagery Training for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder – A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Imke L. J.; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien; Lust, Jessica M.; Wilson, Peter H.; Steenbergen, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience movement difficulties that may be linked to processes involved in motor imagery (MI). This paper discusses recent advances in theory that underpin the use of MI training for children with DCD. This knowledge is translated in a new MI training protocol which is compared with the cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP). Children meeting DSM-5 criteria for DCD were assigned to MI (n = 4) or CO-OP (n = 4) interventions and completed nine treatment sessions, including homework exercises. Results were positive, with two children in the MI group and three in the CO-OP group improving their m-ABC-2 score by ≥ 2 standard scores, interpreted as a clinically meaningful change. Moreover, all children and parents noticed improvements in motor skills after training. This is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of a theoretically principled treatment protocol for MI training in children with DCD, and extends earlier work. Trial registration: The complete trial is registered at the Dutch trial register, www.trialregister.nl (NTR5471). http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5471 PMID:28798707

  2. Tap into Good Teeth--a Western Australian pilot study of children's drinking patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Justine E; Heyworth, Jane; Middleton, Aves; Rosenberg, Michael; Woloszyn, Magdalene

    2012-04-01

    ISSUED ADDRESSED: The increase trend in the prevalence of dental caries in Australian children is a concern to public health professionals. Attitudes, behaviours and lifestyle patterns established in childhood are often carried throughout adult life. The objective of the study was to estimate the proportion of Perth metropolitan year two public primary school children drinking tap water at home, school and play. It also aimed to explore knowledge and attitudes that children and parents have towards drinking tap water, bottled water, fruit juices and soft drinks. Nine Western Australian government primary schools were recruited. A facilitator-led questionnaire was administered to year two primary school students and a matched parent self-administered questionnaire was also completed. Forty-two per cent of the children in our study reported if thirsty they drank tap (fluoridated) water at home whereas parents stated 60% of children drank tap water at home. The type of drink appeared to vary with time of day/activity while overall water was most frequently drunk; a higher proportion of milk was drunk at breakfast, whereas soft drinks were drunk in a greater proportion while watching television. This study found the vast majority of year two children in metropolitan Perth public primary schools are drinking tap water.

  3. Small Pilot Survey on Parents’ Perception of the Relationship between Children and Pets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Russo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since companion animals are taking on more important roles in family life, the aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of parents about the relationship between their children and pets. A number of parents were asked to fill in a questionnaire; the principal topics were: pet ownership, pet care, relationship between pets and children, and sources of information about pet management. Eighty-two parents completed the survey; 71.4% of them already had pets before having children; pet care and health has emerged to be rather important, since 96.4% of the pets are taken to the veterinarian at least once a year; moreover, the great majority of the parents (97.2% were not worried about the possible risks, linked to pets, pertaining to their child’s health. The present survey confirms that pets are mostly considered as members of the family, and not only as a benefit for the children. Moreover, the relationship between children and pets is basically seen as a positive experience for children.

  4. A play-based intervention for children with ADHD: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Sarah; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita; Docking, Kimberley; Munro, Natalie

    2011-08-01

    Many children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have serious social and peer difficulties that can lead to adverse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. To date, psychosocial treatments have produced poor outcomes in reducing social impairments commonly associated with ADHD. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of a new intervention designed to improve the play and social skills of children with ADHD and their playmates within the natural context of play. Participants included children (aged 5-11 years) diagnosed with ADHD, age-matched typically developing playmates (n=14/group) and parents of children with ADHD. The intervention involved seven weekly video-recorded free-play sessions; video feed-forward/feedback and therapist- and peer-modelling were used to promote social play. The Test of Playfulness was used as a pre-/post-test measure. Data were subjected to Rasch analysis to calculate measure scores on interval level; dependant sample t-test and Cohen-d calculations were used to measure effect. A dependant samples t-test revealed that both children with ADHD (t=8.1; d.f.=13; Pchildren with ADHD (d=1.5) and their playmates (d=1.3). Results support the use of play, video feed-forward/feedback techniques, therapist- and peer-modelling and parent involvement as an effective means to develop the social play skills of children with ADHD. Further larger-scale research is required. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  5. Children's at Home: Pilot Study Assessing Dedicated Social Media for Parents of Adolescents with Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, Christina; Polvinen, Julie; Ullrich, Nicole J; Rich, Michael

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate Children's at Home (C@H), a dedicated social media website for parents of adolescents with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The interventional study included two phases: (1) creating video intervention/prevention assessment (VIA) visual narratives about having an adolescent with NF1 and (2) interacting on C@H, a secure, medically moderated social media website. C@H was evaluated qualitatively at three time points. At enrollment (T0, N = 17), participants reported needing C@H to break their isolation, connect with other families, and receive accurate information, advice, and support from others facing similar challenges. At T1, after creating VIA during 6 months (N = 13, 145 videos), participants mostly valued the opportunity to speak about the challenges they face with NF1 and their journey since diagnosis. At T2, after interacting on C@H for 7 weeks (N = 10, two sign-ins/week/parent), participants reported connecting with other parents of children with NF1 for the first time, valuing the "real faces" and emotions of other parents with shared experiences providing a sense of normalcy. Qualitative analysis suggested that C@H decreased feelings of isolation, provided relief to talk about NF1 without having to explain it, provided new knowledge about NF1 and the opportunity to address non-medical issues of NF1 never discussed in clinic, and helped participants with putting their lives into perspective. C@H allowed parents of adolescents with NF1 to overcome previous isolation and connect for the first time. Innovative applications of social media dedicated to those who care for children with chronic conditions can provide peer-to-peer support, shared experience, and reliable medical information.

  6. Hemodynamic Effects of Phenylephrine, Vasopressin, and Epinephrine in Children With Pulmonary Hypertension: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siehr, Stephanie L; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Yang, Weiguang; Peng, Lynn F; Ogawa, Michelle T; Ramamoorthy, Chandra

    2016-05-01

    During a pulmonary hypertensive crisis, the marked increase in pulmonary vascular resistance can result in acute right ventricular failure and death. Currently, there are no therapeutic guidelines for managing an acute crisis. This pilot study examined the hemodynamic effects of phenylephrine, arginine vasopressin, and epinephrine in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension. In this prospective, open-label, nonrandomized pilot study, we enrolled pediatric patients previously diagnosed with pulmonary hypertensive who were scheduled electively for cardiac catheterization. Primary outcome was a change in the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance. Baseline hemodynamic data were collected before and after the study drug was administered. Eleven of 15 participants were women, median age was 9.2 years (range, 1.7-14.9 yr), and median weight was 26.8 kg (range, 8.5-55.2 kg). Baseline mean pulmonary artery pressure was 49 ± 19 mm Hg, and mean indexed pulmonary vascular resistance was 10 ± 5.4 Wood units. Etiology of pulmonary hypertensive varied, and all were on systemic pulmonary hypertensive medications. Patients 1-5 received phenylephrine 1 μg/kg; patients 6-10 received arginine vasopressin 0.03 U/kg; and patients 11-15 received epinephrine 1 μg/kg. Hemodynamics was measured continuously for up to 10 minutes following study drug administration. After study drug administration, the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance decreased in three of five patients receiving phenylephrine, five of five patients receiving arginine vasopressin, and three of five patients receiving epinephrine. Although all three medications resulted in an increase in aortic pressure, only arginine vasopressin consistently resulted in a decrease in the ratio of systolic pulmonary artery-to-aortic pressure. This prospective pilot study of phenylephrine, arginine vasopressin, and epinephrine in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertensive showed an increase in aortic

  7. The effects of the Lactobacillus casei strain on obesity in children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, S; Chiba, Y; Wang, C; Yamashiro, Y

    2017-08-24

    There are few data regarding the role of probiotics as a dietary intervention in the management of obesity in children. An open prospective examination was conducted to clarify the effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS)-containing beverages in obese children. We compared the intestinal microbiota and organic acid levels between 12 obese (average age, 10.8 years; body mass index (BMI) Z score, 2.7±1.7) and 22 control children(average age, 8.5 years; BMI Z score, 0.1±0.7), and pre- and post-intervention in the obese children. The obese group underwent diet and exercise therapy for 6 months and then were given an LcS beverage daily for another 6 months and the body weight and serological markers were monitored. Significant reductions in the faecal concentrations of Bifidobacterium (obese group, 7.9±1.5 vs non-obese group, 9.8±0.5 Log 10 cells/g; Pobese group, 45.1±16.9 vs non-obese group, 57.9±17.6 μmol/g; Pobese group at baseline. A significant decline in body weight (-2.9±4.6%; Pobese children via a significant increase in the faecal Bifidobacterium numbers and the acetic acid concentration.

  8. Feasibility of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for traumatized children in Japan: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameoka, Satomi; Yagi, Junko; Arai, Yoko; Nosaka, Sachiko; Saito, Azusa; Miyake, Wakako; Takada, Saeko; Yamamoto, Sayaka; Asano, Yasuko; Tanaka, Eizaburo; Asukai, Nozomu

    2015-01-01

    Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy is used to treat children who have experienced traumatic events and suffer from trauma-related disorders. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated in several randomized controlled studies. However, most of these studies have been performed in the United States, with few studies conducted in Asian countries. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy in children who have experienced traumatic events and who suffer from trauma-related disorders in Japan. Thirty-five traumatized children (mean age = 10.9 years; range = 3-17 years; 74.3% girls) who received trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy were included. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated in each case using the University of California at Los Angeles Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index for DSM-IV for trauma-related symptoms and the Children's Global Assessment Scale for social functioning. Pre- and post-treatment outcome measures were analyzed using two-tailed paired t tests. The results for 35 participants indicate that post-traumatic stress symptoms were significantly improved following therapy [t(35) = 8.27; p cognitive behavioral therapy is feasible for treating traumatized children of an Asian population. We discuss the implications of this result for clinical practice and future research.

  9. The role of children's appraisals on adjustment following psychological maltreatment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Fiona J; Nixon, Reginald D V

    2011-07-01

    Little is known about the cognitive mechanisms involved in the development of psychopathology following psychological maltreatment in children. This study therefore examined the role of thinking styles on children's outcomes following this subtype of maltreatment. Children who had experienced past maltreatment (n = 24) and a control group (n = 26) were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Maltreatment history, cognitive styles and psychological outcomes, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-esteem were assessed. Parents/caregivers also completed a measure of child internalizing and externalizing behaviours. Psychological maltreatment made a significant contribution to children's self-reported depression and low self-esteem, and parent reported internalizing and externalizing problems, even after controlling for other abusive experiences. This was not the case for PTSD symptoms. Further, children's cognitive styles were associated with self-reported depression, self-esteem and PTSD. They did not, however, predict parent-rated emotional and behavioural problems. This study provides preliminary support for a cognitive model of adjustment following psychological maltreatment. The results indicate the need for enhanced community awareness about the impact of psychological maltreatment, and suggest a direction for therapeutic intervention.

  10. Relieving pain and distress during venipuncture: Pilot study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Hanada, Kiwako; Futamura, Masaki; Kitazawa, Hiroshi; Ohya, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Fumio; Kusuda, Takeshi; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Oda, Masako; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Shibata, Eiji; Tsuji, Mayumi; Kayama, Fujio; Nakano, Yuko; Suda, Eiko; Michikawa, Takehiro; Katoh, Takahiko; Saito, Hirohisa

    2015-10-01

    Pain management for needle-related procedures is poor in Japan. In many countries the use of lidocaine/prilocaine cream for the relief of pain associated with venipuncture has been approved. In children, a psychological approach has also been shown to be effective in reducing pain with venipuncture. We developed a multidisciplinary procedure that combines a cream (2.5% lidocaine and 2.5% prilocaine) and pharmacological approaches such as preparation, education, positioning and distraction. We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of the procedure for young children. Among 132 pediatric participants, 58.3% did not cry during venipuncture. According to caregiver questionnaire, 71.9% felt that the multidisciplinary procedure eliminated the fear of needle-related procedures in the children; 90.9% were satisfied with it and 75.8% thought it should be applied to all children undergoing venipuncture. The present results suggest that the multidisciplinary procedure is feasible, acceptable and suitable for use in children undergoing venipuncture. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Where do parents sleep best when children are hospitalized? A pilot comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Linda; Wray, Jo; Gay, Caryl; Dearmun, Annette K; Alsberge, Isaline; Lee, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study compared the sleep quality and quantity of parents who slept at their hospitalized child's bedside with parents who slept at the hospital's onsite Ronald McDonald House® (RMH). Wrist actigraphy and questionnaires were used to estimate parent sleep quality and quantity. Parents who slept at their hospitalized child's bedside (n = 27) experienced more sleep disruption (wake after sleep onset) and reported poorer sleep quality and feeling less rested than parents who slept at RMH (n = 11). Bedside accommodation was associated with poorer parent sleep even when controlling for the covariates of child age and parent gender. Nearby family accommodations, such as RMH, may facilitate parent-child proximity during a child's hospitalization while also providing parents with opportunities for essential sleep.

  12. Aromatherapy massage seems to enhance relaxation in children with burns: an observational pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Linda-Anne; van Dijk, Monique; Albertyn, Rene; Millar, Alastair; Rode, Heinz

    2012-09-01

    This observational pilot study investigated effects of aromatherapy massage in paediatric burn patients. The setting was a 17 beds level I burn unit in Cape Town, South Africa. Between January and October 2009 heart rates and respiratory rates of patients who underwent aromatherapy massage sessions were read before and after the sessions. Primary outcomes were decline in heart rates and respiratory rates, a sign of relaxation. Behavioural responses (sleep/awake state, facial expression, body posture) were documented as secondary outcomes. A convenience sample of 71 paediatric burn patients (median age 3 years) underwent a total of 126 massage sessions. Mean heart rate decreased significantly from 118 (SD 20) to 109 (SD 21), t=9.8, pAromatherapy massage seems to be a helpful nonpharmacological approach to reduce hospitalized paediatric burn patients' distress. Future studies with better research designs and validated outcome measures should confirm our findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Emulsified omega-3 fatty-acids modulate the symptoms of depressive disorder in children and adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebatická, Jana; Hradečná, Zuzana; Böhmer, František; Vaváková, Magdaléna; Waczulíková, Iveta; Garaiova, Iveta; Luha, Ján; Škodáček, Igor; Šuba, Ján; Ďuračková, Zdeňka

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of mood disorders in children is a growing global concern. Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) are emerging as a promising adjuvant therapy for depressive disorder (DD) in paediatric patients. The primary objective of this pilot, single-centre, randomized, double-blind controlled study was to compare the efficacy of an Omega-3 FA fish oil emulsion with a control oil emulsion alongside standard treatment for depressive symptoms in children and adolescents suffering from depressive disorder (DD) and mixed anxiety depressive disorder (MADD). 38 children (12 patients were treated and diagnosed for at least 1 month before enrolment, 26 patients were first-time diagnosed as DD) aged 11-17 years were randomised 1:1 to the intervention (Omega-3 FA, 19 patients) or active comparator (Omega-6 FA, 19 patients) groups. Children's depression inventory (CDI) ratings were performed at baseline, every 2 weeks for a 12-week intervention period and at 4-week post-intervention. 35 patients (17 in Omega-3 and 18 in Omega-6 groups) who completed the whole intervention period were evaluated. Patients from Omega-3 group were stratified according to diagnosis into two subgroups (DD-10/17 and mixed anxiety depressive disorder (MADD)-7/17 patients) and in the Omega-6 group into DD-10/18 and MADD-8/18 patients. Groups were evaluated separately. Differences between-groups were tested with the Student´s t test or non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures and Friedman test were used to analyse the Treatment effect for response in CDI score. p depressive disorder and mixed anxiety depressive disorder subgroups, the DD subgroup receiving the Omega-3 FA fish oil showed statistically greater improvement (score reduction after 8 week treatment of -9.1 CDI, p = 0.0001) when compared to the MADD subgroup (score reduction after 8 week treatment -4.24 CDI, p = 0.271). CDI scores were reduced in the Omega-3 group and the depression subgroup had greater

  14. Virtual Sensorimotor Training for Balance: Pilot Study Results for Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Westcott McCoy, Sarah; Price, Robert; Ciol, Marcia A; Hsu, Lin-Ya; Kartin, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of Sensorimotor Training to Affect Balance, Engagement, and Learning (STABEL), a virtual reality system to train sensory adaptation for balance control, for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Twenty-three children with FASDs received STABEL training in a university laboratory, or home, or were controls. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition (MABC-2) and Pediatric Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction for Balance-2 (P-CTSIB-2) were analyzed by group (lab, home, and control), session (pre-STABEL, 1 week post-STABEL, and 1 month post-STABEL), and group-by-session interaction. Significant effects were group and session for MABC-2 Balance and interaction for MABC-2 Total Motor and P-CTSIB-2. Preliminary results support improved sensory adaptation, balance, and motor performance post-STABEL, which warrant further study with a larger, randomized sample.

  15. A Pilot Survey of Clergy Regarding Mental Health Care for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Blalock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaborations between healthcare and faith-based organizations have emerged in the drive to improve access to care. Little research has examined clergy views on collaborations in the provision of mental healthcare, particularly to children. The current paper reports survey responses of 25 clergy from diverse religious traditions concerning mental health care in children. Subjects queried include clergy referral habits, specific knowledge of childhood conditions such as depression and anxiety, past experiences with behavioral health workers, and resources available through their home institutions. Overall, surveyed clergy support collaborations to improve childhood mental health. However, they vary considerably in their confidence with recognizing mental illness in children and perceive significant barriers to collaborating with mental health providers.

  16. A Pilot Study of the Attractive Features of Active Videogames Among Chinese Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Patrick W C; Lau, Erica Y; Wang, Jing Jing; Choi, Cheong-Rak; Kim, Chang Gyun

    2017-04-01

    The present study (1) explored the attractive features that affect Chinese primary school children's preferences of active videogames (AVGs) and (2) contrasted these findings with those in the Western literature. A total of 22 Chinese primary school children were recruited and interviewed. Four AVGs (Wii "Boxing," "Wii Fit™ Plus Obstacle Run"; "EyeToy Knockout", "EyeToy Keep ups") from two commercial consoles (Nintendo® Wii™ and Sony PlayStation ® 2 "EyeToy ® ") were employed. Participants used four selected AVGs for 3 minutes each. After each play period, children (1) described the strengths and weaknesses of each game as well as rated the attractive features of each game based on a 16-item questionnaire and (2) rated up to 5 items that were most influential regarding their AVG preferences. Participants indicated that control was the most significant feature, followed by feedback, goal, and graphics. The top five rated features imply that the perception of competence was the most appealing aspect and expected outcome of Chinese children who play AVGs. Compared with the Western findings regarding attractive AVG features, the present study found certain similarities as well as significant differences among Chinese AVG players. Based on the present study, control, feedback, goal, and graphics are the most significant features that attract Chinese children to play AVGs. Physical exertion, social interaction, competition, and learning outcomes, which are valued according to Western studies, were not mentioned as significant features by Chinese children. These findings demonstrate a need to investigate the effect of cultural background in AVG study design.

  17. Hand surface area as a percentage of body surface area in Asian children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyuk; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Heung-Man

    2011-09-01

    The hand surface area (HSA) of one hand has been estimated as 1% of the body surface area (BSA). This does change with the patient's age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). There are many HSA studies done on adult populations, but fewer done on children. Our hypothesis in this study is that the general HSA equation for Caucasian adults cannot be applied as accurately to children and Asian people. HSA was defined as the area of the palm without fingers in this study. Children are in a stage of growth. If a child's hand growth ratio is not the same as that of an adult, the result of HSA/BSA calculation could be different. We undertook this study to determine whether or not there were any differences in HSA/BSA among Korean children (7-18 years) and adults (20-60 years), and compared our results with western data. A total of 186 boys aged between 7 and 18 years, were recruited for this study; their HSA was measured, directly. A total of 186 adults aged between 20 and 60 years were selected as well. BSA was calculated only for volunteers in subjects who HSA had been measured. From these results, HSA/BSA was calculated. HSA/BSA ratio of Korean boys was 0.69±0.05%, which was less than 1%. It is suggested that the ratio of the western data may not be applicable to Asian children, particularly, Korean children. HSA/BSA ratio can be applied in administration of drug doses and estimation of the area of burns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Speech and language skills and cognitive functioning in children with Apert syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipster, C; Hearst, D; Dockrell, J E; Kilby, E; Hayward, R

    2002-01-01

    There are few studies that report findings on the speech and language characteristics of Apert syndrome and little is known about the cognitive profile of the syndrome. The current study addresses this gap and explores speech, language, resonance/voice, attention oro-motor and cognitive skills in a group of 10 children (4;1-5;11) with Apert syndrome. The speech and language battery included: the CELF-Pre-school, the PLS-3, the Vocal Profile Analysis, GOS.SP.ASS, PACS; and the Brodsky Drooling Scale. Subscales of the BAS II-Early Years Version were used to assess cognition. Data were also collected on other factors that could influence developmental outcome such as audiological history and management; occlusion/dentition; respiratory problems and management; neuroanatomical abnormalities; the number and nature of cranial surgeries; and the occurrence of raised intracranial pressure. All children for whom a Performance IQ was obtained (n = 8) had abilities within the average range and IQ scores were considerably higher than those reported in previous studies. Eight children had moderate or severe language difficulties and expressive language difficulties were the most frequent. These language difficulties were not associated with a general cognitive deficit. All the children had problems with attention, speech and oro-motor skills. Nine had abnormal voice. In addition, a range of other associated factors that could affect functioning were identified. The discrepancies between the current study and previous investigations are outlined. Parameters for assessment are considered. The implications of these findings for valid assessments of children with Apert syndrome are discussed. Multidisciplinary assessment of children with Apert syndrome across a broad range of dimensions is recommended to obtain a profile of each child's strengths and weaknesses to ensure that appropriate educational placements and early interventions are implemented. Considering patterns of

  19. Prevention of further weight gain in overweight school children, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Anna; Lenner, Ragnhild Arvidsson

    2009-09-01

    Involving school nurses in weight gain prevention activities in already overweight children may be a means to address childhood obesity prevention. To describe and evaluate a treatment method aimed for implementation in school care centres. Twenty families (20 overweight children aged 7 years) were interviewed at baseline with standardized questionnaires, received simple dietary and lifestyle advice. Weight was measured and advice/support by school nurses was available monthly during the 1-year period. A follow-up was made after 1 year. Changes in wellbeing, life style and body mass index (BMI) z-score were recorded and analysed. Experiences from parents and nurses were also examined. A good (91%) or fair (54%) adherence to dietary advice was found in children who decreased or maintained their z-score respectively. Mean BMI z-score reduced [-0.16 (p = 0.03)] during the intervention period. Generally, parents and school nurses were satisfied with the programme, helping them to set limits and be more self-confident in their role as 'health adviser' respectively. Overweight progression in younger children is possible to modify by increased awareness of the problem, of their food habits and lifestyle practices. Providing school nurses with the knowledge to address the problem and working in collaboration with dieticians and a healthcare team can be an effective means to prevent further weight gain in overweight school-age children. Possibility of stigmatization was expressed thus efforts will need to be made to carry out such a programme to preserve the children's integrity and run activities in a discrete manner in the school environment. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  20. Effect of a plant sterol, fish oil and B vitamin combination on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Garaiova, Iveta; Muchov?, Jana; Nagyov?, Zuzana; Mi??anov?, Csilla; Oravec, Stanislav; Duk?t, Andrej; Wang, Duolao; Plummer, Sue F; ?ura?kov?, Zde?ka

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors can predict clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis in adulthood. In this pilot study with hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents, we investigated the effects of a combination of plant sterols, fish oil and B vitamins on the levels of four independent risk factors for CVD; LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, C-reactive protein and homocysteine. Methods Twenty five participants (mean age 16 y, BMI 23 kg/m2) re...

  1. Using the Theory of Mind Inventory to Detect a Broad Range of Theory of Mind Challenges in Children with Hearing Loss: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Allen, Lyndsey; Schefer, Maggie

    2017-01-01

    Traditional child-performance measures of theory of mind (ToM) are associated with several limitations. The Theory of Mind Inventory-2 (ToMI-2) is a new broadband caregiver-informant measure designed to tap children's ToM competence. The purposes of this pilot study were to (1) gather preliminary data to explore the scope of the ToM challenges…

  2. Credible knowledge: A pilot evaluation of a modified GRADE method using parent-implemented interventions for children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Adrienne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision-making in child and youth mental health (CYMH care requires recommendations that are developed through an efficient and effective method and are based on credible knowledge. Credible knowledge is informed by two sources: scientific evidence, and practice-based evidence, that reflects the "real world" experience of service providers. Current approaches to developing these recommendations in relation to CYMH will typically include evidence from one source or the other but do not have an objective method to combine the two. To this end, a modified version of the Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach was pilot-tested, a novel method for the CYMH field. Methods GRADE has an explicit methodology that relies on input from scientific evidence as well as a panel of experts. The panel established the quality of evidence and derived detailed recommendations regarding the organization and delivery of mental health care for children and youth or their caregivers. In this study a modified GRADE method was used to provide precise recommendations based on a specific CYMH question (i.e. What is the current credible knowledge concerning the effects of parent-implemented, early intervention with their autistic children?. Results Overall, it appeared that early, parent-implemented interventions for autism result in positive effects that outweigh any undesirable effects. However, as opposed to overall recommendations, the heterogeneity of the evidence required that recommendations be specific to particular interventions, based on the questions of whether the benefits of a particular intervention outweighs its harms. Conclusions This pilot project provided evidence that a modified GRADE method may be an effective and practical approach to making recommendations in CYMH, based on credible knowledge. Key strengths of the process included separating the assessments of the quality of the evidence and

  3. One Health in Practice: A Pilot Project for Integrated Care of Zoonotic Infections in Immunocompromised Children and Their Pets in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, A; Abarca, K; Weitzel, T; Gallegos, J; Cerda, J; García, P; López, J

    2016-08-01

    Although pets provide physiological and psychological benefits to their owners, they are a potential source of zoonotic infections, especially for vulnerable individuals such as immunocompromised patients. During 1 year, we therefore performed a pilot project, which included 32 immunocompromised Chilean children and their family pets (35 dogs and 9 cats) with the aim of detecting, treating and preventing zoonotic infections. Children were examined by Infectious Diseases paediatricians and demographical and clinical information related to zoonotic infections were recorded. Pets were examined and sampled by veterinarians, who also administered missing routine vaccines and anti-parasitics. During family visits, all members were informed and educated about zoonoses and a satisfaction survey was performed. Visits also included vector control and indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids. Children were re-examined and re-tested according to the findings of their pets, and all detected zoonotic infections were treated both in children and pets. Physical examination revealed abnormalities in 18 dogs (51.4%) and three cats (33.3%). Twenty-eight (63.6%) of the pets were diagnosed with a zoonotic pathogen, and seven (15.9%) with a facultative pathogen. Most zoonotic agents were isolated from the pet's external ear and intestine. Bacteria with the highest pathogenic potential were Campylobacter jejuni and Brucella canis. In two children and their respective pets, the same zoonotic diseases were diagnosed (toxocariasis and giardiasis). Arthropods serving as potential vectors of zoonotic infections were found in 49% of dogs and 44% of cats. The pilot project was positively evaluated by the participating families. Our pilot project confirmed that pets are reservoir for various zoonotic agents in Chile and that the implementation of an integrated multidisciplinary programme was a valuable tool to prevent, diagnose and treat such zoonotic infections in vulnerable patients such as

  4. fMRI of Parents of Children with Asperger Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Ring, Howard; Chitnis, Xavier; Wheelwright, Sally; Gregory, Lloyd, Williams, Steve; Brammer, Mick; Bullmore, Ed

    2006-01-01

    Background: People with autism or Asperger Syndrome (AS) show altered patterns of brain activity during visual search and emotion recognition tasks. Autism and AS are genetic conditions and parents may show the "broader autism phenotype." Aims: (1) To test if parents of children with AS show atypical brain activity during a visual search…

  5. Assessment of Foot Shape in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolan-Nieroda, Andżelina; Guzik, Agnieszka; Bazarnik-Mucha, Katarzyna; Rachwał, Maciej; Drzał-Grabiec, Justyna; Szeliga, Ewa; Walicka-Cupryś, Katarzyna

    2018-04-11

    BACKGROUND Available publications provide little evidence pertaining to assessment of foot shape in children with intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to assess the parameters of foot shape in children and adolescents with intellectual disability and to evaluate the relationship between the degree of disability and these parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study involved 90 individuals aged 7-15 years, including 45 subjects with mild and moderate levels of intellectual disability (study group) and 45 peers with normal intellectual development (control group). Each participant was subjected to photogrammetric assessment of foot shape based on the projection moire effect. RESULTS Analysis of the relationship between the disability level and the assessed parameters showed that the length of the right (p=0.006) and left (p=0.004) foot, as well as Wejsflog's rate for the right (p<0.001) and left (p<0.001) foot, were significantly higher among children with mild disability, whereas GAMMA angle of the right (p=0.028) and left (p=0.006) foot was significantly higher among children with moderate disability. CONCLUSIONS The findings show a significant relationship between the degree of disability and the assessed foot parameters. Significant differences between the subjects with intellectual disability and the control group were identified in the basic parameters defining foot structure.

  6. An interactive parents' guide for feeding preschool-aged children: pilot studies for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are few motivational materials to help families with limited resources develop optimal, practical feeding strategies for young children to reduce dietary risk for poor diet and weight status. Formative evaluation strategies consisting of both qualitative and quantitative data helped to refine ...

  7. Does the Kids Cafe Program's nutrition education improve children's dietary intake? A pilot evaluation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to evaluate the Kids Café Program (KCP) nutrition education intervention and assess its impact on children's diet quality and body mass index (BMI) percentile. An experimental design consisting of pretest-posttest comparison groups using mixed methods was used to evaluate the 6-ses...

  8. A pilot study evaluating erect chest imaging in children, using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To evaluate the image quality and diagnostic accuracy of erect paediatric chest radiographs obtained with the Statscan and to compare these with conventional erect chest images obtained with a CR system. Materials and methods. Thirty-three children with suspected chest pathology were enrolled randomly over ...

  9. The role of hypofractionation radiotherapy for diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma in children: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, G.O.; Gidding, C.E.M.; Lindert, E.J. van; Oldenburger, F.R.; Erasmus, C.E.; Schouten-Meeteren, A.Y.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Most children with a diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma will die within 1 year after diagnosis. To reduce patient burden, we investigated the feasibility of a radical hypofractionation radiotherapy schedule, given over 3 weeks, as an alternative to the standard regimen (30 fractions over 6

  10. The role of hypofractionation radiotherapy for diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma in children: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Geert O. R. J.; Gidding, Corrie E. M.; van Lindert, Erik J.; Oldenburger, Foppe R.; Erasmus, Corrie E.; Schouten-Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N.; Kaanders, Johannes H. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Most children with a diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma will die within 1 year after diagnosis. To reduce patient burden, we investigated the feasibility of a radical hypofractionation radiotherapy schedule, given over 3 weeks, as an alternative to the standard regimen (30 fractions over 6 weeks).

  11. Does a Culturally Sensitive Smoking Prevention Program Reduce Smoking Intentions among Aboriginal Children? A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…

  12. Behavior Therapy for Tics via Videoconference Delivery: An Initial Pilot Test in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himle, Michael B.; Olufs, Erin; Himle, Joseph; Tucker, Benjamin T. P.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    Habit reversal training (HRT) has been proven effective for reducing tics in children with Tourette's syndrome (TS). However, the availability of the intervention is limited. Videoconference technology represents a promising mode through which HRT may be disseminated to underserved areas. Using a multiple-baseline across participants design, the…

  13. A Pilot Controlled Trial of Topiramate for Mania in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelBello, Melissa P.; Findling, Robert L.; Kushner, Stuart; Wang, Daniel; Olson, William H.; Capece, Julie A.; Fazzio, Lydia; Rosenthal, Norman R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of topiramate monotherapy for acute mania in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder type 1. Method: This double-blind, placebo-controlled study was discontinued early when adult mania trials with topiramate failed to show efficacy. Efficacy end points included the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Brief…

  14. Can a Brief Educational Intervention Improve Parents' Knowledge of Healthy Children's Sleep? A Pilot-Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Caroline H. D.; Owens, Judith A.; Pham, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Insufficient and poor quality sleep is prevalent in children, and is a significant public health concern due to the negative consequences for health. Certain sleep-related behaviours are associated with improved sleep, and sleep behaviours are amenable to efforts targeted towards behaviour change. Parental educational interventions have…

  15. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Children and Adolescents With Dystrophinopathies : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Bart; Takken, Tim; Blank, A. Christian; van Moorsel, Huib; van der Pol, W. Ludo; de Groot, Janke F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine exercise response during cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children and adolescents with dystrophinopathies. Methods: Exercise response on the cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was compared with a standard care test protocol. Results: Nine boys (aged 10.8 +/- 4.7 years)

  16. [Agility in treatment of children with type 1 diabetes--pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomska, Monika; Radziejewska, Marija; Horodnicka-Józwa, Anita; Petriczko, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is a very important element in treatment of children with type 1 diabetes. However, it is difficult to find suitable exercises for the children due to their specific needs and psychophysiological condition. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of agility as a physical activity used to improve parameters of metabolic control in children with type 1 diabetes. Additionally, we hope that this form of recreation could induce a more health-oriented behavior in children. The experimental group consisted of seven girls aged 8-10 years, the patients of the Clinic of Pediatrics, Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolic Disorders and Cardiology of the Developmental Age in Szczecin. The children were qualified for the study after the prior assessment of their metabolic control under the conditions of the one-day hospital stay program. The physical condition of the patients was controlled with a 6-minute walk test and the test of perceived exertion (Borg scale). All the patients were treated using a personal insulin pump and the basal-bolus therapy. The applied research method used the scheme of physical exercise performed 3 times a week, 45 min each, reaching the intensity of 75% of the maximum heart rate under effort performed by a given patient. Before the exercises and directly after their completion, sugar level was measured in the blood of the patients (Accu-chek Active). During the exercises, the heart rate was measured with a pulsometer Bauer PM 80. The exercises included outdoor games and agility sessions. Especially the latter received a positive response and high involvement. This form includes a dog going through an obstacle course, with a child as a guide. After three months of the exercise scheme, the analysis of the collected results showed a statistically significant (p <0.05) decrease in the insulin doses (bolus) during morning hours (7-8 am), and in the evening at 9 pm and 10.30 pm, with an unchanged basal. No such decrease was

  17. Maps of Ventricular Activation Time (VAT) Differences in Children on Peritoneal Dialysis — a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszki-Szcząchor, Krystyna; Polak-Jonkisz, Dorota; Zwolińska, Danuta; Salomon, Ewa; Filipowski, Henryk; Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    ♦ Background: Decrement of glomerular filtration rate leads to many serious complications that cause both functional and structural impairments of the other organs. Long-term clinical observations of children and teenagers with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) showed that more than one third of those patients manifested various cardio-vascular conditions. The aim of the study was to analyze possible disturbances in the heart ventricular conduction system by using a technique of ventricular activation time (VAT) differences in ESRF children on peritoneal dialysis (PD) with normal electrocardiogram (ECG) examinations. ♦ Material and methods: The study group comprised 10 ESRD children (mean age: 13.6 ± 2.31 years) on peritoneal dialysis – group I. The control group (group II) consisted of 26 age-matched healthy children with no clinical evidence of renal or cardiac disease and with normal 12-lead ECG recordings. Each of the ESRD patients was also subjected to the standard ECG examination. In order to capture possible heart conduction abnormalities, body surface potential mapping (BSPM) recordings were performed in PD patients between the successive dwells (‘on empty abdomen’) with a HPM-7100 Fukuda Denshi system. Based on the source ECG data, the original technique of a VAT difference map was then applied. ♦ Results: Differences between VAT values for the two examined groups of children, controls and ESRD patients on PD, were significantly pronounced in the region of the right upper anterior thorax, the entire left thorax and nearly in the total back. Such a pattern of VAT delays indicates a pathological electric transmission in the intraventricular conduction system of the left anterior fascicle of His bundle. ♦ Conclusion: 1. VAT maps (isochrone maps) can be useful to detect abnormal spreading and depolarization through the heart ventricles. 2. Map of VAT value differences makes it possible to identify early disturbances in the left His bundle branch in

  18. Maps of Ventricular Activation Time (VAT) Differences in Children on Peritoneal Dialysis - a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszki-Szcząchor, Krystyna; Polak-Jonkisz, Dorota; Zwolińska, Danuta; Salomon, Ewa; Filipowski, Henryk; Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Decrement of glomerular filtration rate leads to many serious complications that cause both functional and structural impairments of the other organs. Long-term clinical observations of children and teenagers with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) showed that more than one third of those patients manifested various cardio-vascular conditions. The aim of the study was to analyze possible disturbances in the heart ventricular conduction system by using a technique of ventricular activation time (VAT) differences in ESRF children on peritoneal dialysis (PD) with normal electrocardiogram (ECG) examinations. The study group comprised 10 ESRD children (mean age: 13.6 ± 2.31 years) on peritoneal dialysis - group I. The control group (group II) consisted of 26 age-matched healthy children with no clinical evidence of renal or cardiac disease and with normal 12-lead ECG recordings. Each of the ESRD patients was also subjected to the standard ECG examination. In order to capture possible heart conduction abnormalities, body surface potential mapping (BSPM) recordings were performed in PD patients between the successive dwells ('on empty abdomen') with a HPM-7100 Fukuda Denshi system. Based on the source ECG data, the original technique of a VAT difference map was then applied. Differences between VAT values for the two examined groups of children, controls and ESRD patients on PD, were significantly pronounced in the region of the right upper anterior thorax, the entire left thorax and nearly in the total back. Such a pattern of VAT delays indicates a pathological electric transmission in the intraventricular conduction system of the left anterior fascicle of His bundle. 1. VAT maps (isochrone maps) can be useful to detect abnormal spreading and depolarization through the heart ventricles. 2. Map of VAT value differences makes it possible to identify early disturbances in the left His bundle branch in ESRD children treated with peritoneal dialysis regardless of normal 12-lead

  19. Feasibility of the Participation and Activity Inventory for Children and Youth (PAI-CY) and Young Adults (PAI-YA) with a visual impairment: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Elsman, Ellen Bernadette Maria; van Nispen, Ruth Marie Antoinette; van Rens, Gerardus Hermanus Maria Bartholomeus

    2017-01-01

    Background Having a visual impairment affects quality of life, daily functioning and participation. To assess rehabilitation needs of visually impaired children and young adults, the Participation and Activity Inventory for Children and Youth (PAI-CY) and Young Adults (PAI-YA) were developed. The PAI-CY comprises four questionnaires for different age categories: 0?2 years, 3?6 years, 7?12 years and 13?17 years. This pilot study assesses the feasibility and acceptability of the PAI-CY and PAI-...

  20. Pilot study of brain morphometry in a sample of Brazilian children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: influence of clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastura, Giuseppe; Kubo, Tadeu Takao Almodovar; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Figueiredo, Otavio; Mattos, Paulo; Prüfer Araújo, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    Currently, the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rests on clinical criteria. Nonetheless, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that children with ADHD have different cortical thickness and volume measures to typically developing children (TDC). In general, studies do not evaluate the influence of clinical presentation in the brain morphometry of ADHD children. Our objective was to perform a pilot study in order to evaluate cortical thickness and brain volume in a sample of Brazilian ADHD children and compare these to those of TDC, taking into account the influence of clinical presentation. We performed an analytic study comparing 17 drug-naïve ADHD children of both genders, aged between 7 and 10, and 16 TDC. ADHD subjects were first considered as one group and further separated based on clinical presentation. The brain volume did not differ between patients and TDC. Smaller cortical thicknesses were identified on the left superior, medium and inferior temporal cortex, as well as in the left inferior parietal cortex. When compared to TDC, combined and inattentive ADHD presentations depicted smaller cortical thickness with high significance and power. The same magnitude of results was not observed when comparing inattentive ADHD and TDC. In this pilot study, ADHD is associated with abnormalities involving the cortical thickness of the posterior attentional system. The cortical thickness in the left superior, medium and inferior temporal cortex, as well as in the left inferior parietal cortex may differ according to ADHD presentations.

  1. The influence of emerging low mood symptoms on sleep in children: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conroy DA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Deirdre A Conroy, Anameti Usoro, Robert F Hoffmann, Kirk J Brower, Roseanne ArmitageUniversity of Michigan, Department of Psychiatry, Ann Arbor, MI, USAPurpose: Sleep disturbances can lead to the onset and relapse of psychiatric disorders. However, the age at which this relationship begins and the role of sleep disturbances in the trajectory to the onset of a psychiatric disorder are still not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to explore, based on self- and parental-reports of mood symptoms, subjective and objective sleep in young children who are at risk of developing a psychiatric disorder but who have not yet met diagnostic criteria.Patients and methods: Twenty-one children (eleven girls between the ages of 8 and 11 (mean age = 9.7 years, standard deviation = 1.1 years were dichotomized into low mood (LM and not low mood (NLM groups based on scoring below or above the median threshold score on at least two of the following questionnaires: the Child Depressive Rating Scale (CDRS, Weinberg Screening Affective Scale (WSAS, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS. The children completed sleep diaries and underwent two nights (for adaptation and baseline of polysomnography. Sleep stages and sleep microarchitecture (alpha, sigma, beta, and delta in the first half of the night, were analyzed.Results: Self-reported sleep disturbance accounted for 72% of the variance (F[3, 20] = 15, P < 0.005 of the Weinberg Screening Affective Scale in LM children. LM children had fewer arousals at night, but awakened earlier than NLM children. Regardless of mood, girls had more sleep disturbance, as well as lower alpha, beta, and delta power in the first half of the night, compared to boys. Girls with LM had shorter sleep times and a lower percentage of rapid eye movement sleep.Conclusions: Girls with and without LM, and without a clinical diagnosis of depression, showed more sleep disturbances than boys of the same age. Sleep

  2. Implementation of a Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Program among School-Aged Children: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavon Young

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test students’ knowledge of cardiovascular disease information and to determine if a carefully structured training program administered to high school students would increase their knowledge about cardiovascular disease and risk factors that are preventable. A pilot study was conducted during which fifty high school students from nine counties in the State of Mississippi were measured for their knowledge of hypertension both at baseline and after the completion of an intervention training activity. There were significant gains in knowledge between the pre-test and the post-test that the students completed. The gains in knowledge indicate that elimination of risk factors is possible if all health care and school-based prevention programs are implemented to positively impact changes in eating and physical activity behaviors. Students’ involvement in such activities could translate into significant changes in risk factors at these ages and throughout their lifetime. It is widely accepted that these behavioral changes, if sustained into adulthood, could have the potential to influence cardiovascular risk reduction.

  3. Distraction Kits for Pain Management of Children Undergoing Painful Procedures in the Emergency Department: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ariane; Le May, Sylvie; Khadra, Christelle; Lachance Fiola, Jacinthe; Charette, Sylvie; Charest, Marie-Claude; Gagnon, Hélène; Bailey, Benoit; Villeneuve, Edith; Tsimicalis, Argerie

    2017-12-01

    To assess the feasibility, usefulness, and acceptability of using distraction kits, tailored to age, for procedural pain management of young children visiting the emergency department and requiring a needle-related procedure. A pre-experimental design was piloted. A kit, tailored to age (infants-toddlers: 3 months-2 years; preschoolers: 3-5 years), was provided to parents before their child's needle-related procedure. Data was collected to assess feasibility, usefulness, and acceptability of the kits by parents and nurses. Pain was measured pre-, peri-, and postprocedure using the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale. A total of 25 infants and toddlers (mean age: 1.4 ± .7 years) and 25 preschoolers (mean age: 4.0 ± .9) participated in the study. Parents and nurses considered the kits useful and acceptable for distraction in the emergency department, especially in the postprocedural period. Addition of more animated and interactive toys to the kits was suggested. In the infants-toddlers group, mean pain scores were 1.6 ± 2.5 preprocedure, 7.1 ± 3.0 periprocedure, and 2.5 ± 2.5 postprocedure. In the preschoolers group, mean pain scores were 1.6 ± 3.0 preprocedure, 4.8 ± 3.4 periprocedure, and 2.0 ± 3.2 postprocedure. Distraction kits were deemed useful and acceptable by parents and emergency nurses. They are an interesting nonpharmacologic option for nurses to distract children, giving them a sense of control over their pain and improving their hospital experience. Future research should address the feasibility of distraction kits for a broader population of patients and a variety of painful procedures. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Education and dentistry: advanced synergy in the dental treatment of children with autism; a pilot clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Bossù

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. From the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR, autism is considered a pervasive developmental disorder. It manifests as a behavioral syndrome characterised by impairment in social interaction and communication, restricted interests and activities, as well as repetitive and stereotyped patterns. Such profile renders prevention measures and dental care seriously compromised so that usually autistic children are treated and cared following general anesthesia. Aims. We aimed at developing a target-specific educational approach allowing to avoid general anesthesia in autistic patients subjected to dental care treatments (e.g. sealing, plaque ablation, minimal carious lesions etc.; such protocol should also facilitate the implementation of prevention measures. Design. It is proposed a target-specific educational research protocol adopting individual strategies and methodologies, including Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC for patients with speech and language impairments. The dentists are trained by the educator, who acts as a filter between the patient and the medical team. The team is required until a relationship of trust with the patient is built and the dentist is able to continue independently. Results. We present a pilot clinical trial in which out of 34 patients between 6 and 12 years old showed a positive response to the application of the protocol, allowing the execution of dental therapies together with a long-term prevention programme and in 32 of them the general anesthesia was avoided. Negative results regarded two patients who had not undergone any behavioral, psychomotor or speech rehabilitation therapy. Conclusions. Though the results should be considered as preliminary, the application of the method with the synergistic action of the people in the team allowed the execution of dental therapies. Given the positive outcomes, the Pediatric Dentistry Unit of the Umberto I Hospital

  5. Screening for inborn errors of metabolism in high-risk children: a 3-year pilot study in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xinwen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS has been available in China for 8 years. This technique makes it possible to screen for a wide range of previously unscreened inborn errors of metabolism (IEM using a single test. This 3-year pilot study investigated the screening, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of IEM in symptomatic infants and children. Methods All children encountered in the Newborn Screening Center of Zhejiang Province during a 3-year period with symptoms suspicious for IEM were screened for metabolic diseases. Dried blood spots were collected and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. The diagnoses were further confirmed by clinical symptoms and biochemical analysis. Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and primary carnitine deficiency were confirmed by DNA analysis. Results A total of 11,060 symptomatic patients (6,720 boys, 4,340 girls with a median age of 28.8 months (range: 0.04-168.2 months were screened. Among these, 62 were diagnosed with IEM, with a detection rate of 0.56%. Thirty-five were males and 27 females and the median age was 3.55 months (range 0.07-143.9 months. Of the 62 patients, 27 (43.5% had aminoacidemias, 26 (41.9% had organic acidemias and nine (14.5% had fatty acid oxidation disorders. Conclusions Because most symptomatic patients are diagnosed at an older age, mental retardation and motor delay are difficult to reverse. Additionally, poor medication compliance reduces the efficacy of treatment. More extensive newborn screening is thus imperative for ensuring early diagnosis and enhancing the treatment efficacy of IEM.

  6. Presentation of an online programme for children refugees: pilot study in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantzi-Azizi, Anastasia; Anastasiou, Theodora

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The psychological trauma caused by war to children and adolescents is of great concern to specialists, especially in recent years. At the end of 2014, from almost 60 million forcibly displaced people all over the world, one third were refugees and half of them were minors (Turner, 2015). It is widely known that a great percentage of them suffer from mental problems (Vostanis, 2016). Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and severe anxiety disorders are among the most...

  7. Exposure to toxics during pregnancy and childhood and asthma in children: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souheil Hallit

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors, pesticides, alcohol and smoking are linked to asthma in children. The association of toxic substances exposure with asthma has not been evaluated. Our objective is to assess such associations among children aged less than 16 years old. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted between January and May 2015, using a sample of Lebanese students from private schools in Beirut and Mount Lebanon. Out of 700 distributed questionnaires, 527 (75.2% were returned to us. Verbal informed consent was also obtained from all parents prior to participating in the study. A significant association was found between waterpipe smoking and diagnosed asthma (p = 0.003; ORa = 13.25; 95% CI 2.472–71.026. Alcohol during pregnancy, waterpipe smoking during pregnancy and parents respiratory problems significantly increased the risk of respiratory problems by approximately 5 times, 6 times and 2 times respectively (p = 0.016; ORa = 4.889; 95% CI 1.339–17.844, p = 0.021; ORa = 6.083; 95% CI 1.314–28.172, p = 0.004; ORa = 1.748; 95% CI 1.197–2.554 respectively. Waterpipe smoking, alcohol during pregnancy, recurrent otitis and humidity at home seem to be significantly correlated with asthma in children. Spreading awareness by health care professionals is needed to permit a reduction of the prevalence of these allergic diseases, especially asthma, in children.

  8. Competence and Behavioral/Emotional Problems in Croatian Children – Parents' and Teachers' Reports: Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudan, V.; Begovac, I.; Szirovicza, L.; Filipović, O.

    2002-01-01

    Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Teacher's Report Form (TRF) were administered to school children aged between 7–11 comprising a non-referred sample (n = 349) drawn from the whole country. Those were the first data on the CBCL and TRF in Croatia. Both in the CBCL and TRF boys had higher scores compared to girls in the Externalizing and Total Problems scale (p

  9. SHOULD WE BE CONSERED ABOUT CHILDREN USE OF INTERNET? – PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Smailbegović

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Addiction of internet and problematic internet use is a growing problem in Bosnian scholars. There are many risk factors for addiction and problematic use of Internet found at school and at home. The purpose of this study is to examine scholar's habits and experiences while using the internet and to identify the most common dangers to which children are exposed during a web search. The main risks to which children are exposed while using the internet are: sexual or violent content, direct communication with persons seeking inappropriate relationships, exposure to disturbing, hostile or inappropriate messages, and the isolation of the child due to too frequent and prolonged use of the internet. The study was conducted on a sample of 1,941 scholars from fifth to eight grades in Sarajevo. Problematic use of internet is common among scholars in Sarajevo. Serious risk factors are found at home and at school. The results show that scholars of different ages differ in terms of their use of the internet, owning a Facebook profile, frequency and purposes of internet use, as well as releasing personal information on the internet, confronting pornographic content and internet addiction. Researchers did not find a statistically significant difference between scholars of different ages in experiencing violence on the internet. According to the search results, children whose parents did not pay enough attention to the activities of their children on the internet are more frequently confronted with pornographic content and are more likely to experience violence on the internet and show more signs of internet addiction. Effective measures are needed to prevent the spread of this problem.

  10. Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries: Pilot Study Examining Mutans Streptococci Genotypic Strains After Full-Mouth Caries Restorative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Elizabeth A.; Nielsen, Truman; Peirano, Patricia; Nguyen, Anna T.; Vo, Alex; Nguyen, Aivan; Jackson, Stephen; Finlayson, Tyler; Sauerwein, Rebecca; Marsh, Katie; Edwards, Issac; Wilmot, Beth; Engle, John; Peterson, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Genotypic strains of mutans streptococci (MS) may vary in important virulence properties, and may be differentially affected by specific components of full-mouth caries restorative therapy. The purpose of this pilot study was to identify MS strains that predominate following caries restorative therapy. Methods Plaque from seven children with severe early childhood caries was collected before and following therapy. MS isolates (N=828) were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and arbitrarily primed-PCR (AP-PCR) for assignment within MS strains. Determining the longitudinal changes in MS strain distribution over time within each patient required the isolation of larger numbers of isolates per patient, but from fewer patients. Results Up to 39 genotypic strains of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, and seven genotypic strains of non-MS streptococci were identified by AP-PCR and 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. The number of MS strains isolated from each patient were 3–7 prior to treatment, diminishing to 1–2 dominant MS strains in most patients 6 months post-therapy. Conclusions Caries restorative therapy resulted in shifts of specific MS and non-MS streptococci strains. The implications are that caries restorative therapy affects the distribution of MS strains, and that well-accepted practices for caries prevention should be more closely examined for efficacy. PMID:22583870

  11. Perceived risks and benefits of hippotherapy among parents of children currently engaged in or waiting for hippotherapy: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léveillé, Audrey; Rochette, Annie; Mainville, Carolyne

    2017-04-01

    Explore the perceived risks and benefits of hippotherapy among parents of children currently engaged in or waiting rehabilitation using hippotherapy. Phenomenological qualitative exploratory pilot study. An interview guide validated by experts was used to conduct the interviews. Summaries were written to capture first impressions. One team member coded the transcripts and the coding was validated by the research team through discussion until consensus was reached. The average age of the participants (n = 4) was 37.3 ± 6.6 years. The few risks they perceived related to physical injuries. Lack of knowledge of contraindications, lack of fear, minimization of risks, and risk-attenuation factors also emerged as important themes. Benefits accounted for a large part of the content of the interviews and were grouped under 13 themes, including motor and postural control, enjoyment and the development of a special relationship. Minimization of the perceived risks compared to the numerous perceived benefits could create clinical issues such as the client putting self at risk of injuries (e.g., bites, falls, and kicks) if not cautious enough or complications insufficiently prevented, which suggests the need to develop educational activities for an informed consent to this type of rehabilitation.

  12. Does having a buddy help women with young children increase physical activity? Lessons learned from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, JiWon; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2018-02-05

    A 12-week pilot controlled trial of a physical activity (PA) buddy program was designed for women with young children. Conducted in January 2015 through March 2016, 49 women (mean age = 36.4 ± 4.8 years) were randomized to one of two groups. Both conditions received an in-person session, weekly step goals based on their baseline number of steps, an accelerometer, and its mobile app. Only women assigned to the intervention group brought their buddies and exercised together at least once per week. Buddies also received an accelerometer and its mobile app. Among 47 women who completed the study, we found no significant difference between groups in changes in the mean number of daily steps for the prior week (p = 0.56). When women were categorized into three groups based on change in buddies' PA, those with inactive buddies had significantly less change in number of steps than those with an active buddy and those in the control group (p < 0.018). Those with an active buddy also had higher friend social support scores for PA than the other two groups (p = 0.05). Thus, to improve PA, creating a social environment in which women associate with active individuals may be necessary.

  13. Two-year process evaluation of a pilot program to increase elementary children's physical activity during school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Collin A; Weaver, R Glenn; Egan, Cate A; Brian, Ali; Vazou, Spyridoula

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine implementation processes in elementary classrooms during a 2-year (Fall 2014 to Spring 2016) pilot intervention program, Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools (PACES). We examined (a) the effect of PACES on the extent of movement integration (MI) and (b) changes in teachers' perceptions regarding MI. Purposively selected classrooms (grades 1-3) across four schools (3 intervention, 1 control) participated in the study. The sample included classroom teachers (N = 12) in Fall 2014 and Spring 2015, but the number of participants dropped to eight in Fall 2015 and Spring 2016. PACES consisted of three partnership approaches (a virtual community of practice, community-based participatory research, and university service learning) intended to increase the extent of MI in the intervention classrooms. We collected process data using the System for Observing Student Movement in Academic Routines and Transitions (SOSMART) and teacher interviews. PACES did not significantly impact the extent of observed MI. Interviews indicated that the intervention had both strengths and limitations. Building interpersonal support for teachers is important to their use of MI. A different measurement schedule (e.g., collecting MI data each day of the school week) may be required to more thoroughly capture MI instances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A resistant-starch enriched yogurt: fermentability, sensory characteristics, and a pilot study in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryana, Kayanush; Greenway, Frank; Dhurandhar, Nikhil; Tulley, Richard; Finley, John; Keenan, Michael; Martin, Roy; Pelkman, Christine; Olson, Douglas; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and the vulnerability of the pediatric age group have highlighted the critical need for a careful consideration of effective, safe, remedial and preventive dietary interventions.  Amylose starch (RS2) from high-amylose maize (HAM) ferments in the gut and affects body weight.   One hundred and ten children, of 7-8 (n=91) or 13-14 (n=19) years of age scored the sensory qualities of a yogurt supplemented with either HAM-RS2 or an amylopectin starch.  The amylopectin starch yogurt was preferred to the HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt by 7-8 year old panelists ( Pyogurt than for HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt ( Pyogurt in 74% of subjects.  Four children consumed a HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt for four weeks to test its fermentability in a clinical trial.  Three adolescents, but not the single pre-pubertal child, had reduced stool pH ( P=0.1) and increased stool short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) ( Pyogurt, and may be a palatable way to increase fiber intake and stimulate colonic fermentation in adolescents.  Future studies are planned to determine the concentration of HAM-RS2 that offers the optimal safe and effective strategy to prevent excessive fat gain in children. PMID:26925221

  15. Pilot study of preoperative heart rate variability and adverse events in children emerging from anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Tom; Cecchin, Frank; Low, Jasmine I; Bradford, Heidi M; Goldstein, Brahm

    2005-01-01

    To assess correlations between preoperative heart rate variability (a noninvasive measure of autonomic cardiac activity) and adverse respiratory events during anesthesia emergence in children. Case control study. Tertiary care pediatric operating room. Sixty-one children, aged 8 months to 13 yrs. None. Heart rate power spectra were obtained from two 5-min immediate-preoperative electrocardiographs with an orthostatic posture change interposed and (n = 32) from a 24-hr preoperative Holter monitor. Observers recorded emergence from standardized anesthesia for coughing, laryngospasm, and desaturation. Low-frequency/high-frequency ratios (LF/HF) were derived from power spectra of heart rate variability. The orthostatic change in heart rate variability derived from brief preoperative recordings was significantly different if adverse events occurred during emergence from anesthesia (LF/HF standing/LF/HF supine = 1.3 vs. 2.8, p = .019). Holter-derived heart rate variability had no correlation with adverse events. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 52% for predicting adverse events with preoperative recordings. This study provides new information regarding pathophysiology in children with upper respiratory infection. The magnitude of difference demonstrated is insufficient to propose this method as a preoperative screening test.

  16. The Effect of Music on Exercise Intensity among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley C. Woodman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD are at risk for obesity, commonly have sleep disorders, and exhibit stereotypic behaviors that disrupt their learning. Vigorous levels of exercise have been shown to ameliorate these issues in children with ASD, but little research exists to provide techniques for motivating children with ASD to engage in exercise. The present study examined the effect of music on exercise intensity in a group of 13 elementary school students with ASD. Data were collected across six days during structured (e.g., verbal and physical prompts and unstructured (e.g., minimal prompting exercise periods. During these exercise periods, three music conditions were randomized: no music, slow-tempo music, and fast-tempo music. Exercise intensity, measured in Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks by triaxial accelerometers, was greatest during the structured exercise periods and during the slow music condition. Student characteristics moderated the impact of music condition on exercise intensity, such that students with high levels of adaptive behavior or lower levels of maladaptive behavior displayed greater exercise intensity during the fast music condition.

  17. A pilot randomized controlled clinical trial to improve antiepileptic drug adherence in young children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Avani C; Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Mann, Krista A; Rausch, Joseph R

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim was to examine the preliminary efficacy of a family tailored problem-solving intervention to improve antiepileptic drug (AED) adherence in families of children with new-onset epilepsy. Secondary aims were to assess changes in targeted mechanisms and treatment feasibility and acceptability. Fifty families (M(age) = 7.6 ± 3.0; 80% Caucasian; 42% idiopathic localization related) completed baseline questionnaires and were given an electronic monitor to observe daily AED adherence. If adherence was ≤ 95% in the first 7 months of the study, families were randomized (Supporting Treatment Adherence Regimens (STAR): n = 11; Treatment as Usual (TAU): n = 12). Twenty-one families were not randomized due to adherence being ≥95%. The STAR intervention included four face-to-face and two telephone problem-solving sessions over 8 weeks. Significant group differences in adherence were found during active intervention (weeks 4-6; TAU = -12.0 vs. STAR = 18.1, p < 0.01; and weeks session 6-8: TAU = -9.7 vs. STAR = 15.3, p < 0.05). Children who received the STAR intervention exhibited improved adherence compared to children in the TAU group during active treatment. Significant changes in epilepsy knowledge and management were noted for the STAR group. Families expressed benefitting from the STAR intervention. Future studies should include a larger sample size and booster intervention sessions to maintain treatment effects over time. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. The Effect of Music on Exercise Intensity among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Ashley C; Breviglia, Emily; Mori, Yumiko; Golden, Rebecca; Maina, John; Wisniewski, Hannah

    2018-02-26

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for obesity, commonly have sleep disorders, and exhibit stereotypic behaviors that disrupt their learning. Vigorous levels of exercise have been shown to ameliorate these issues in children with ASD, but little research exists to provide techniques for motivating children with ASD to engage in exercise. The present study examined the effect of music on exercise intensity in a group of 13 elementary school students with ASD. Data were collected across six days during structured (e.g., verbal and physical prompts) and unstructured (e.g., minimal prompting) exercise periods. During these exercise periods, three music conditions were randomized: no music, slow-tempo music, and fast-tempo music. Exercise intensity, measured in Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks by triaxial accelerometers, was greatest during the structured exercise periods and during the slow music condition. Student characteristics moderated the impact of music condition on exercise intensity, such that students with high levels of adaptive behavior or lower levels of maladaptive behavior displayed greater exercise intensity during the fast music condition.

  19. What Parents Think about Giving Nonnutritive Sweeteners to Their Children: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison C. Sylvetsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate parental attitudes toward providing foods and beverages with nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS to their children and to explore parental ability to recognize NNS in packaged foods and beverages. Methods. 120 parents of children ≥ 1 and ≤18 years of age completed brief questionnaires upon entering or exiting a grocery store. Parental attitudes toward NNS were assessed using an interviewer-assisted survey. Parental selection of packaged food and beverages (with and without NNS was evaluated during a shopping simulation activity. Parental ability to identify products with NNS was tested with a NNS recognition test. Results. Most parents (72% disagreed with the statement “NNS are safe for my child to consume.” This was not reflected during the shopping simulation activity because about one-quarter of items selected by parents contained NNS. Parents correctly identified only 23% of NNS-containing items presented as foods or beverages which were sweetened with NNS. Conclusions. The negative parental attitudes toward providing NNS to their children raise the question whether parents are willing to replace added sugars with NNS in an effort to reduce their child’s calorie intake. Our findings also suggest that food labeling should be revised in order for consumers to more easily identify NNS in foods and beverages.

  20. A pilot study to improve venipuncture compliance in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davit, Caroline J; Hundley, Rachel J; Bacic, Janine D; Hanson, Ellen M

    2011-09-01

    Medical procedures, particularly venipuncture (the puncture of a vein especially for the withdrawal of blood), can cause serious distress and behavior disturbance for many children. Noncompliance to blood draws can have significant ramifications in both research and clinical settings. The negative reactions may be exacerbated in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Even so, there has been little research into the prevalence of the problem or effective intervention procedures. In response to these concerns, we developed and evaluated the Blood Draw Intervention Program. The program was designed to be easy to use, require little provider or family time, effectively reduce negative behaviors, and increase blood draw compliance. In a quasi-randomized trial over the course of ∼ 18 months, 58 of 210 families with children with autism spectrum disorders participating in a larger study of phenotypic and genotypic factors reported significant concerns about blood draws and elected to use the Blood Draw Intervention Program. Completion of the program increased blood draw compliance rates from 85.4% to 96.6% (odds ratio = 4.80; 95% confidence interval = 1.12, 20.59; p = .03). Results indicate the efficacy of the program in a research setting and suggest a potential clinical application. The current intervention, unlike many others for the same or similar difficulties proposed in the past, was successful without requiring extensive time, training, or effort on the part of providers and parents or their children, nor did it require large-scale institutional changes.

  1. A pilot study of children's physical activity levels during imagination-based mobile games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, James W; Iarocci, Grace; Bojin, Nis

    2017-09-01

    This research looked at Biba: a suite of mobile games intended to get kids back out to playgrounds and engaging in more moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Year after year, annual national surveys report a general decline in physical activity amongst children and a corresponding increase in screen time. Further to this, time spent outside by children has been reported to be on the decline since the 1980s. Recent work has suggested that in order to 'maintain the outdoor recreation participation of children across America, park and recreation professionals may need to embrace the expanding role of technology'. This research tested Biba in precisely this regard, deploying a 20-subject within-subject experimental design that compared Biba playground gameplay with typical free play playground sessions, measuring heart rate activity in them. The outcome demonstrated that Biba playground play results in greater amounts of MVPA with a difference in heart rate that was significantly higher in the Biba play session than in the free play session t(19) = 2.41, p < 0.05.

  2. Quantification of myelin in children using multiparametric quantitative MRI: a pilot study

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    Kim, Hyun Gi; Choi, Jin Wook [Ajou University School of Medicine, Ajou University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Won-Jin [Konkuk University Hospital, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, JinJoo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Office of Biostatistics, Department of Humanities and Social Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of multiparametric quantitative MRI for myelination quantification in children. We examined 22 children (age 0-14 years) with multiparametric quantitative MRI. The total volume of myelin partial volume (Msum), the percentage of Msum within the whole brain parenchyma (Mbpv), and the percentage of Msum within the intracranial volume (Micv) were obtained. Four developmental models of myelin maturation (the logarithmic, logistic, Gompertz, and modified Gompertz models) were examined to find the most representative model of the three parameters. We acquired myelin partial volume values in different brain regions and assessed the goodness of fit for the models. The ranges of Msum, Mbpv, and Micv were 0.8-160.9 ml, 0.2-13%, and 0.0-11.6%, respectively. The Gompertz model was the best fit for the three parameters. For developmental model analysis of myelin partial volume in each brain region, the Gompertz model was the best-fit model for pons (R{sup 2} = 74.6%), middle cerebeller peduncle (R{sup 2} = 76.4%), putamen (R{sup 2} = 95.8%), and centrum semiovale (R{sup 2} = 77.7%). The logistic model was the best-fit model for the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (R{sup 2} = 79.7-93.6%), thalamus (R{sup 2} = 81.7%), and frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital white matter (R{sup 2} = 92.5-96.5%). Multiparametric quantitative MRI depicts the normal developmental pattern of myelination in children. It is a potential tool for research studies on pediatric brain development evaluation. (orig.)

  3. Ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy in children with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Qia Xie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Childhood post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (BO is an infrequent lung disease leading to narrowing and/or complete obliteration of small airways. Ventilation and perfusion (V/Q scan can provide both regional and global pulmonary information. However, only few retrospective researches investigating post-infectious BO involved V/Q scan, the clinical value of this method is unknown. This preliminary prospective study was aimed to evaluate the correlation of V/Q scan with disease severity, pulmonary function test results, and prognosis in children with post-infectious BO. METHODS: Twenty-five post-infectious BO children (18 boys and 7 girls; mean age, 41 months underwent V/Q scan and pulmonary function tests. Patients were followed after their inclusion. Ventilation index and perfusion index obtained from V/Q scan were used to measure pulmonary abnormalities. Spearman's rank correlation test of ventilation index and perfusion index on disease severity, lung function tests indices, and follow-up results were performed. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 4.6 years (range, 2.2 to 5.0 years. Ventilation index and perfusion index were both correlated with disease severity (r = 0.72, p<0.01 and r = 0.73, p<0.01, but only ventilation index was related to pulmonary function tests results (all p<0.05. In addition, Spearman test yielded significant correlations between perfusion index and prognosis (r = 0.77, p<0.01, and ventilation index and prognosis (r = 0.63, p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: For children with post-infectious BO, the present study preliminarily indicated that the degree of ventilation and perfusion abnormalities evaluated by V/Q scan may be used to assess disease severity, and may be predictive of patient's outcome.

  4. Increased oxidative stress in healthy children following an exercise program: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasca, Melita M; Zhang, Renliang; Super, Dennis M; Hazen, Stanley L; Hall, Howard R

    2010-06-01

    Exercise can induce oxidative stress or an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and cellular antioxidant defenses. We investigated the effect of a real-life exercise program on systemic oxidative stress measured by urinary concentrations of 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2 alpha), a noninvasive index of lipid peroxidation, in a well-characterized pediatric group. Healthy but primarily sedentary, 8- to 10-year-old children (n = 6, mean age 8.8 +/- 0.9 years) of equally distributed healthy weight, overweight, and obese categories, participated in a 5-week exercise program (track and field summer camp, 2 hours/day, 1-2 days/week). By using high-performance liquid chromatography with online electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS), we found a significant (p = .028) increase in group mean urinary 8-iso-PGF2 alpha concentration from 8.163 +/- 6.919 ng/mg creatinine pre-exercise program to 32.320 +/- 16.970 ng/mg creatinine post-exercise program. The increase was also measured at each individual level. We found preliminary evidence that pre- and post-exercise program urinary 8-iso-PGF2 alpha concentrations selectively correlated with children's cardiometabolic characteristics and mood. Our results warrant further exploration of the relationships between pre/post-exercise oxidative stress marker 8-iso-PGF2 alpha and cardiometabolic characteristics, exercise habits, eating habits, and mood to determine whether increased post-exercise oxidative stress in healthy children is part of their normal adaptation to exercise or mediator of oxidative injury.

  5. Effects of Mixed Carotenoids on Adipokines and Abdominal Adiposity in Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, J Atilio; Lochrie, Amanda; McGowan, Amy Galena; Hossain, Jobayer; Schettino, Christopher; Balagopal, P Babu

    2017-06-01

    Carotenoids have been implicated in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism. To compare the effects of mixed-carotenoid supplementation (MCS) versus placebo on adipokines and the accrual of abdominal adiposity in children with obesity. Randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial to evaluate the effects of MCS over 6 months in a subspecialty clinic. Twenty (6 male and 14 female) children with simple obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 90%], a mean age (± standard deviation) of 10.5 ± 0.4 years, and Tanner stage I to V were enrolled; 17 participants completed the trial. MCS (which contains β-carotene, α-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene, astaxanthin, and γ-tocopherol) or placebo was administered daily. Primary outcomes were change in β-carotene, abdominal fat accrual (according to magnetic resonance imaging), and BMI z-score; secondary outcomes were adipokines and markers of insulin resistance. Cross-sectional analysis of β-carotene showed inverse correlation with BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) at baseline. MCS increased β-carotene, total adiponectin, and high-molecular-weight adiponectin compared with placebo. MCS led to a greater reduction in BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, and SAT compared with placebo. The percentage change in β-carotene directly correlated with the percentage change in SAT. The decrease in BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, and SAT and the concomitant increase in the concentration of β-carotene and high-molecular-weight adiponectin by MCS suggest the putative beneficial role of MCS in children with obesity.

  6. The Role of Hypofractionation Radiotherapy for Diffuse Intrinsic Brainstem Glioma in Children: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, Geert O.R.J.; Gidding, Corrie E.M.; Lindert, Erik J. van; Oldenburger, Foppe R.; Erasmus, Corrie E.; Schouten-Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N.; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Most children with a diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma will die within 1 year after diagnosis. To reduce patient burden, we investigated the feasibility of a radical hypofractionation radiotherapy schedule, given over 3 weeks, as an alternative to the standard regimen (30 fractions over 6 weeks). Methods and Materials: Nine children, ages 3-13, were treated by 13 fractions of 3 Gy (n = 8) or 6 fractions of 5.5 Gy (n = 1) given over 3 weeks. All patients had symptoms for ≤3 months and ≥2 signs of the neurologic triad (long tract signs, ataxia, cranial nerve deficit). Bilateral involvement of the pons (n = 8), encasement of the basilar artery (n = 7) and extension into the cerebellar peduncle (n = 6) was visible on magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Symptom improvement occurred in all patients within 2 weeks after start of radiotherapy. At a mean follow-up time of 15 months, 7 patients have died. Median time to progression and overall survival was 4.9 and 8.6 months, respectively. Median time to death after progression was 3.6 months. No Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed. In a recently published review of clinical trials, median time to progression, overall survival, and time between progression and death ranged from 5.0-8.8, 7.0-16, and 1.0-4.5 months, respectively, with more aggressive regimens. Conclusion: This radical hypofractionation radiotherapy regimen for children with diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma is feasible and associated with no Grade 3 or 4 toxicities. With a minimal overall treatment time, it offers quick symptom relief and outcome results within the range of published data

  7. A Pilot Study of Correlation between Intelligence Quotient, Social Quotient, and Ayurveda Parameters in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satyam; Balsavar, Anuradha; Beniwal, R P; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N

    2018-01-01

    Intelligence quotient (IQ) and social quotient (SQ) are comparable in predicting intelligence status. The latter is assessed whenever IQ testing is not possible. According to Ayurveda, Buddhi (intelligence) is affected by Prakriti (body constitution) which depends on the predominance of Tridosha and Triguna. There is a paucity of studies to examine their association. The study was designed to examine correlation among IQ, SQ, performance quotient (PQ) and maladaptive behaviour; and to find out their relationship with primary (Anubandhya) and secondary (Anubandha) doshas with intelligence in children with mild to moderate intellectual disability. Children ( n = 120) were recruited from outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital as part of a clinical trial of a novel Ayurveda formulation. Stanford Binet Scale, Vineland Social Maturity Scale, Seguin Form Board Test, and Maladaptive Behavior Schedule-II were administered. Ayurvedic parameters were assessed clinically by Ayurveda practitioner. Separate regression analyses were carried out to look for associations. IQ and SQ were positively correlated ( P = 0.01). Maladaptive behavior and SQ were negatively correlated (0.05). SQ was associated with secondary dosha ( P = 0.002) and stage of disease (Roga Kriyakala) ( P = 0.015). IQ was also associated with secondary dosha ( P = 0.008). SQ and IQ are positively correlated. The correlation of Anubandha (secondary) dosha was high on IQ and SQ.

  8. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Can Improve Liver Transaminase Quantities in Children with Anticonvulsant Drugs Hepatotoxicity: a Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Asgarshirazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been directed to investigate Ursodeoxycholic Acid (UDCA effect in children, to reduce the high Liver transaminases induced by Anticonvulsant drugs (drug induced hepatitis. This idea has been driven from Cytoprotective and antioxidant properties of UDCA to be used in drug induced inflammation in Liver. Twenty two epileptic patients aged between 4 mo - 3 yr whom were under anticonvulsant therapy with drugs such as valperoic acid, primidone, levetiracetam, Phenobarbital or any combination of them and had shown Liver transaminases rise , after rule out of Viral-Autoimmune, Metabolic and Anatomic causes, have been prescribed UDCA in dose of 10-15 mg/kg/day, at least for 6 months. Any patient who have shown confusing factors such as genetic disorders with liver involvement or spontaneous decline in enzymes or had not treatment compliance has been excluded from the study. Transaminases range changes as well as Probable side effects of the drug have been monitored. The results indicated that UDCA is effective and well tolerable in the children with drug induced hyper transaminasemia. No side effect has been seen and recorded in this study. Based on this study and its results, we recommend UDCA as a safe and effective choice in drug induced hepatotoxicities.

  9. Measuring physical function in children with airway support: a pilot study using computer adaptive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Helene M; Rosen, Elaine L; Haley, Stephen M; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Ni, Pengsheng; O'Brien, Jane E

    2010-01-01

    To assess the responsiveness, examine the scoring range and determine the efficiency of a multidimensional computer adaptive testing version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI-MCAT) for children admitted to inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation. The PEDI-MCAT was completed by clinician report for 30 infants and children. Mean self-care and mobility admission scores were compared with discharge scores for the total group and two diagnostic sub-groups (prematurity and congenital/neurological conditions). The scoring range of the mobility and self-care scales was examined to determine placement of the scores along the overall PEDI-MCAT scale. Efficiency was determined using an internal clock and average number of items required for score generation. Mean changes for the total group and both sub-groups were significant for both self-care and mobility, except for the prematurity group's mobility scores. Effect sizes were small-to-moderate. Scores for both groups were at the low end of the scoring ranges. Average time to complete the PEDI-MCAT was 1.57 minutes. Average number of items administered was nine for self-care and 11 for mobility. The PEDI-MCAT was responsive to change in physical function, although only low-ability items were needed. The PEDI-MCAT can potentially minimize clinician burden in inpatient settings.

  10. Structural language, pragmatic communication, behavior, and social competence in children adopted internationally: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranovich, Christine L; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Staat, Mary Allen; Chiu, Chung-Yiu Peter; Wade, Shari L

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the association of structural language and pragmatic communication with behavior problems and social competence in girls adopted internationally. Participants included girls between 6-12 years of age who were internationally adopted from China (n = 32) and Eastern-Europe (n = 25) and a control group of never-adopted girls (n = 25). Children completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Parents completed the Child Communication Checklist- second edition, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Home and Community Social Behavior Scales. Compared to the controls, parents in the Eastern European group reported more problems with social competence, externalizing behaviors, structural language, and pragmatic communication. The Chinese group evidenced more internalizing problems. Using generalized linear regression, interaction terms were examined to determine if the associations of pragmatic communication and structural language with behavior problems and social competence varied across groups. Controlling for general intellectual functioning, poorer pragmatic communication was associated with more externalizing problems and poorer social competence. In the Chinese group, poorer pragmatic communication was associated with more internalizing problems. Post-adoption weaknesses in pragmatic communication are associated with behavior problems and social competence. Internationally adopted children may benefit from interventions that target pragmatic communication.

  11. Student pharmacists provide tobacco use prevention education to elementary school children: A pilot experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Jared L; Wolff, Marissa L; Andros, Christina; Nemec, Eric C

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a service learning experience involving tobacco prevention education and to measure the education's effect on the learners' knowledge of tobacco products. Student pharmacists planned and presented a 40-min tobacco prevention education program using the Tar Wars curriculum to fourth and fifth grade students at three suburban elementary schools in Western Massachusetts. Mean scores on a five-question assessment given to school age children before and after the presentation were compared. A total of 206 elementary school students in ten classrooms participated. The average survey score increased from 1.87 on the pre-survey to 3.72 out of a maximum of five on the post-survey (Peducation to three suburban elementary schools. The children demonstrated an increase in short-term knowledge regarding tobacco use. Tobacco prevention is a unique co-curricular opportunity for student pharmacists to get involved in their community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An open-label pilot trial of minocycline in children as a treatment for Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Joseph C; Ciarlone, Stephanie L; Gieron-Korthals, Maria; Schoenberg, Mike R; Smith, Amanda G; Philpot, Rex M; Heussler, Helen S; Banko, Jessica L; Weeber, Edwin J

    2014-12-10

    Minocycline, a member of the tetracycline family, has a low risk of adverse effects and an ability to improve behavioral performance in humans with cognitive disruption. We performed a single-arm open-label trial in which 25 children diagnosed with Angelman syndrome (AS) were administered minocycline to assess the safety and tolerability of minocycline in this patient population and determine the drug's effect on the cognitive and behavioral manifestations of the disorder. Participants, age 4-12 years old, were randomly selected from a pool of previously screened children for participation in this study. Each child received 3 milligrams of minocycline per kilogram of body weight per day for 8 weeks. Participants were assessed during 3 study visits: baseline, after 8-weeks of minocycline treatment and after an 8-week wash out period. The primary outcome measure was the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition (BSID-III). Secondary outcome measures included the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales 2nd Edition (VABS-II), Preschool Language Scale 4th Edition (PLS-IV) and EEG scores. Observations were considered statistically significant if p Angelman syndrome. While the optimal dosage and the effects of long-term use still need to be determined, these findings suggest further investigation into the effect minocycline has on patients with Angelman syndrome is warranted. NCT01531582 - clinicaltrials.gov.

  13. Effects of an open-label pilot study with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates on plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchins Heather L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common neurological condition in children. This pilot study evaluated the effects of high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation on the isolated plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with ADHD (primarily inattentive subtype and combined subtype. Methods Nine children were initially supplemented with 16.2 g EPA/DHA concentrates per day. The dosage was adjusted dependent on the ratio of arachidonic acid (AA to EPA in the isolated plasma phospholipids at four weeks to reach a level normally found in the Japanese population. Results At the end of the eight-week study, supplementation resulted in significant increases in EPA and DHA, as well as a significant reduction in the AA:EPA ratio (20.78 ± 5.26 to 5.95 ± 7.35, p Conclusion The findings of this small pilot study suggest supplementation with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates may improve behavior in children with ADHD.

  14. To the question of the Georgian influence on architecture of mono-apsishall churches of the North Caucasus of the Medieval period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishchulina Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mono-apsishall church – is the most popular temple type of the Medieval period in the North Caucasus. The transformations of their design in the North Caucasus during the considered period are connected both with the introduction of samples from Kartli, Abkhazia, Armenia, Albania and Svaneti in the XI-XII centuries, and development of Christian culture of Alania. Temples of this type in the North Caucasus can be divided into three big groups according to the character of their planning composition: three-part hall churches, churches with the entered apsis, churches with the projecting apsis. The first two types of temples are traditionally connected with the Georgian influence. As the composite type, this temple was created in Armenia where from the IXth century it is presented by a significant number of monuments. With nuance changes and additions made by the Georgian missionaries this type has found its way to Dvaletiya’s territory where it is presented by a large number of objects, and also to the kingdom Serir where only two temples of this composition remain. For Dvaletiya’s temples it is Kartli, for temples in Dido – not only Kartli, but also Armenia, for temples in the river basin of the Kuban – Abkhazia, but this region was also influenced by the Armenian architecture due involvement of craftsmen from Kafy.

  15. Establishment and extinction of a population of South Georgian diving petrel (Pelecanoides georgicus) at Mason Bay, Stewart Island, New Zealand, during the late Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdaway, R.N.; Jones, M.D.; Beavan Athfield, N.R.

    2003-01-01

    A population of South Georgian diving petrels (Pelecanoides georgicus) (c. 130 g) became extinct at Mason Bay, on the west coast of Stewart Island, before European settlement. Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) bones with the diving petrel fossils provided an opportunity to determine whether the rats arrived before the petrels went extinct. Fifteen 14 C accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) ages on purified diving petrel bone gelatin from various parts of Mason Bay clustered unexpectedly in the 14th and 15th centuries AD, and none was older. Bayesian statistical analysis, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure, gave a 95% probability that the diving petrel colony was founded between 1338 and 1440 AD, lasted 40-310 years, and became extinct between 1475 and 1650 AD. Possible reasons for the late colonisation of Mason Bay by South Georgian diving petrels burrow are discussed. Bayesian analysis of five 14 C AMS determinations on Pacific rat bone gelatin did not exclude the possibility that the Pacific rat arrived before the diving petrel colony was established. However, the enriched δ 13 C of their bone gelatin suggests that the rats had a partially marine diet, and a terrestrial calibration procedure for their AMS ages was probably not appropriate. The Pacific rat is likely to have arrived after the diving petrel colony became established and probably caused the bird's extinction after a short period of coexistence. (author). 103 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Evaluation of nutritional status of children and adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusik, Edyta; Durmała, Jacek; Matusik, Paweł; Piotrowski, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    Body composition changes during childhood and adolescence. It is markedly different in children with idiopathic scoliosis (IS). This study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of patients with IS based on standard anthropometric indices and bioimpedance measurements (BIA). 59 patients with IS (45 girls/ 14 boys) at a mean age of 13.37 ± 2.67 years were qualified into the study. Scoliotic curves were assessed radiographically by measuring Cobb's angle and apical vertebral rotation (AVR, standing A-P view). Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and the body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (WHtR) and waist/hip ratio (WHR) were calculated for each participant. A bioelectrical impedance analyzer was used to assess body composition in every child. 64.4% of the children in the study had normal weight, while 23.7% of them were underweight and 11.9% overweight or obese. More patients in the juvenile IS group were underweight and fewer were overweight compared with the adolescent IS (AIS) group. Normal nutritional status was found significantly more frequently in girls. Body composition correlated significantly with scoliotic curve severity in the study group. Higher correlation coefficients were seen in overweight and obese patients, but significance was reached only for predicted muscle mass. WHtR correlated significantly with curve severity in the entire group, in AIS patients and in girls. Scoliotic curve severity also correlated significantly with the degree, as measured by the BMI Z-score, of both overweight (positively) and underweight (negatively). 1. Overweight and obesity appear to have a similar prevalence in scoliotic adolescents and in the general pediatric population. 2. Scoliotic curve severity appears to be related to body composition parameters, especially in overweight and obese patients. 3. Adipose tissue distribution measured by WHtR seems to be significantly related to the clinical grade of IS. 4

  17. [The regional model of three-level system of of medical social monitoring of children and adolescents: the pilot project in the Republic of Tatarstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bitskii, V Iu; Ustinova, N V; Farrakhov, A Z; Shavaliev, R F; Kulikov O V; Plaksina, L V

    2014-01-01

    The absence of system of medical social monitoring of children being in difficult life situations is one of main causes of preventable losses of health and life of children and adolescents. The plan of activities of the working group No3 under the Coordination council under the President of the Russian Federation of the national strategy realization of actions in interest of children for 2012-2017 includes a point: "The development and implementation of standard model of medical social monitoring of children and adolescents in the subjects of the Russian Federation". The implementation of this task is assigned to the Department of social pediatrics of The research center of children health of Moscow and the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Tatarstan. The research methods included analysis and generalization of advanced experience of medical social monitoring of children population; expertise technique; modeling. The regional model of three-level system of medical social monitoring of children population is developed and implemented. The model includes level I (consulting rooms of medical social care of children polyclinics, feldsher obstetric stations, first-aid centers), level II--inter-municipal (departments of medical social monitoring in central district hospitals, medical institutions, clinical diagnostic centers) and level III--regional (the Republican center of medical social monitoring of children and adolescents). The immediate tasks necessary for effective functioning of system of medical social monitoring were determined. Within the framework of implementation of the pilot project the legal and normative legislative acts were developed to regulate functioning of regional model of three-level system of medical social care. The other documents necessary for effective functioning of this system were elaborated. The practical significance of this system is in the implementation of effective three-level model of medical social monitoring of children and

  18. A Pilot Investigation of Speech Sound Disorder Intervention Delivered by Telehealth to School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Grogan-Johnson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a school-based telehealth service delivery model and reports outcomes made by school-age students with speech sound disorders in a rural Ohio school district. Speech therapy using computer-based speech sound intervention materials was provided either by live interactive videoconferencing (telehealth, or conventional side-by-side intervention.  Progress was measured using pre- and post-intervention scores on the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (Goldman & Fristoe, 2002. Students in both service delivery models made significant improvements in speech sound production, with students in the telehealth condition demonstrating greater mastery of their Individual Education Plan (IEP goals. Live interactive videoconferencing thus appears to be a viable method for delivering intervention for speech sound disorders to children in a rural, public school setting. Keywords:  Telehealth, telerehabilitation, videoconferencing, speech sound disorder, speech therapy, speech-language pathology; E-Helper

  19. A pilot exploration of speech sound disorder intervention delivered by telehealth to school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan-Johnson, Susan; Gabel, Rodney M; Taylor, Jacquelyn; Rowan, Lynne E; Alvares, Robin; Schenker, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a school-based telehealth service delivery model and reports outcomes made by school-age students with speech sound disorders in a rural Ohio school district. Speech therapy using computer-based speech sound intervention materials was provided either by live interactive videoconferencing (telehealth), or conventional side-by-side intervention. Progress was measured using pre- and post-intervention scores on the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (Goldman & Fristoe, 2002). Students in both service delivery models made significant improvements in speech sound production, with students in the telehealth condition demonstrating greater mastery of their Individual Education Plan (IEP) goals. Live interactive videoconferencing thus appears to be a viable method for delivering intervention for speech sound disorders to children in a rural, public school setting.

  20. QT and JT dispersion and cardiac performance in children with neonatal Bartter syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacihamdioglu, Duygu Ovunc; Fidanci, Kursat; Kilic, Ayhan; Gok, Faysal; Topaloglu, Rezan

    2013-10-01

    QT dispersion and JT dispersion are simple noninvasive arrhythmogenic markers that can be used to assess the homogeneity of cardiac repolarization. The aim of this study was to assess QT and JT dispersion and their relation with left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions in children with Bartter syndrome (BS). Nine neonatal patients with BS (median age 9.7 years) and 20 controls (median age 8 years) were investigated at rest. Both study and control subjects underwent electrocardiography (ECG) in which the interval between two R waves and QT intervals, corrected QT, QT dispersion, corrected QT dispersion, JT, corrected JT, JT dispersion and corrected JT dispersion were measured with 12-lead ECG. Two-dimensional, Doppler echocardiographic examinations were performed. Patients and controls did not differ for gender and for serum levels of potassium, magnesium, and calcium (p > 0.05). Both study and control subjects had normal echocardiographic examination and baseline myocardial performance indexes. The QT dispersion and JT dispersion were significantly prolonged in patients with BS compared to those of the controls {37.5 ms [interquartile range (IQR) 32.5-40] vs. 25.5 ms (IQR 20-30), respectively, p = 0.014 and 37.5 ms (IQR 27.5-40) vs. 22.5 ms (IQR 20-30), respectively, p = 0.003}. Elevated QT and JT dispersion during asymptomatic and normokalemic periods may be risk factors for the development of cardiac complications and arrhythmias in children with BS. In these patients the need for systematic cardiac screening and management protocol is extremely important for effective prevention.

  1. Aquatic therapy for children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial and mixed-methods process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Daniel; Parkin, James; Whitworth, Victoria; Rex, Saleema; Young, Tracey; Hampson, Lisa; Sheehan, Jennie; Maguire, Chin; Cantrill, Hannah; Scott, Elaine; Epps, Heather; Main, Marion; Geary, Michelle; McMurchie, Heather; Pallant, Lindsey; Woods, Daniel; Freeman, Jennifer; Lee, Ellen; Eagle, Michelle; Willis, Tracey; Muntoni, Francesco; Baxter, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a rare disease that causes the progressive loss of motor abilities such as walking. Standard treatment includes physiotherapy. No trial has evaluated whether or not adding aquatic therapy (AT) to land-based therapy (LBT) exercises helps to keep muscles strong and children independent. To assess the feasibility of recruiting boys with DMD to a randomised trial evaluating AT (primary objective) and to collect data from them; to assess how, and how well, the intervention and trial procedures work. Parallel-group, single-blind, randomised pilot trial with nested qualitative research. Six paediatric neuromuscular units. Children with DMD aged 7-16 years, established on corticosteroids, with a North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) score of 8-34 and able to complete a 10-m walk without aids/assistance. Exclusions: > 20% variation between baseline screens 4 weeks apart and contraindications. Participants were allocated on a 1 : 1 ratio to (1) optimised, manualised LBT (prescribed by specialist neuromuscular physiotherapists) or (2) the same plus manualised AT (30 minutes, twice weekly for 6 months: active assisted and/or passive stretching regime; simulated or real functional activities; submaximal exercise). Semistructured interviews with participants, parents ( n  = 8) and professionals ( n  = 8) were analysed using Framework analysis. An independent rater reviewed patient records to determine the extent to which treatment was optimised. A cost-impact analysis was performed. Quantitative and qualitative data were mixed using a triangulation exercise. Feasibility of recruiting 40 participants in 6 months, participant and therapist views on the acceptability of the intervention and research protocols, clinical outcomes including NSAA, independent assessment of treatment optimisation and intervention costs. Over 6 months, 348 children were screened - most lived too far from centres or were enrolled in other trials. Twelve

  2. The St. Jude Cancer Education for Children Program Pilot Study: Determining the Knowledge Acquisition and Retention of 4th-Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Katherine; Villalobos, Aubrey Van Kirk; Li, Zhenghong; Krasin, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    In 2006, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital began developing a school-based outreach program known as the St. Jude Cancer Education for Children Program (SJCECP). The program aimed to teach children about cancer and healthy habits that can prevent the formation of cancers into adulthood. During the 2010-2011 academic years, we conducted a pilot evaluation of the SJCECP curriculum, with the primary objective of evaluating the impact of the intervention on knowledge acquisition and retention among 4th-grade students participating in the program. Seven local schools and 481 students from the Memphis area participated in the program evaluation. The results of this study show that 4th-grade students are able to acquire gains in knowledge related to cells, cancer, and healthy living after receiving the SJCECP intervention. We conclude that the program can be a useful tool for improving knowledge of cancer concepts at the 4th-grade level.

  3. Promoting healthier children's meals at quick-service and full-service restaurants: Results from a pilot and feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Nanette V; Folta, Sara C; Glenn, Meaghan E; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Patel, Anjali A; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    High-calorie restaurant foods contribute to childhood overweight. Increased consumer demand for healthier kids' meals may motivate the restaurant industry to provide additional healthy options. This study pilot-tested a combination of four strategies (toy incentive, placemats, server prompts, signage) designed to increase demand for healthier kids' meals, which were defined as those eligible for the National Restaurant Association's Kids LiveWell program. Relative sales of healthier kids' meals were examined before (n = 3473 total kids' meal orders) and during Month 1 (n = 3546 total kids' meal orders) and Month 2 of implementation (n = 3645 total kids' meal orders) of an 8-week intervention in two locations each of a quick-service (QSR) and full-service (FSR) restaurant chain. Convenience samples of children (n = 27) and their parents (n = 28) were surveyed regarding parent and child perceptions of intervention components. Findings regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of the intervention were mixed. At the FSRs, the relative percentage of monthly sales from healthier kids' meals increased from 5.0% of kids' meal orders at baseline to 8.3% during Month 1, ending at 6.4% during Month 2. At the QSRs, the relative percentage of monthly sales from healthier kids' entrees decreased from 27.5% at baseline to 25.2% during Month 1, ending at 25.9% during Month 2. Implementation quality tracking showed that consistent implementation of intervention components was a challenge; parent- and child-reported awareness of intervention components supported this finding. Future directions are discussed, aiming to build upon these findings and maximize the feasibility, effectiveness, and sustainability of efforts to promote healthier eating in restaurants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rehabilitation of Children with Hemiparesis: A Pilot Study on the Use of Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Olivieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A wide range of treatments have been used to improve upper arm motor performances in children with congenital hemiplegia. Recent findings are suggesting that virtual reality based intervention could be a promising tool also in pediatric rehabilitation. Methods. Six patients with congenital hemiplegia (age: 4–16 years were recruited among those treated in the Child Neuropsychiatry and Rehabilitation Unit of the IRCCS “Santa Maria Nascente” (Milan, Italy, for a preliminary investigation about using nonimmersive virtual reality for upper limb rehabilitation. Ten sessions using VRRS system (Khymeia, Padova, Italy were weekly administered as a part of the rehabilitative treatment. Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Limb Movement, Ashworth Scale, and Arm’s PROM were selected as main outcome measures. At the end of treatment, participants filled in an ad hoc satisfaction questionnaire. Results. All subjects completed the proposed treatment, and they also gave a positive judgment regarding this rehabilitative method. Melbourne score increased in all patients. Conclusion. Our findings seem to support the evidence that VR treatment could be a promising and engaging tool for pediatric rehabilitation. However, the limited size of the population and the small number of sessions require further investigations and RCTs to confirm our positive results.

  5. Mudflow Hazards in the Georgian Caucasus - Using Participatory Methods to Investigate Disaster Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Valentina; McCall, Michael; Gaprindashvili, George

    2014-05-01

    /Management (DRR and DRM). Participatory surveys (and participatory monitoring) elicit local people's knowledge about the specifics of the hazard concerning frequency, timing, warning signals, rates of flow, spatial extent, etc. And significantly, only this local knowledge from informants can reveal essential information about different vulnerabilities of people and places, and about any coping or adjustment mechanisms that local people have. The participatory methods employed in Mleta included historical discussions with key informants, village social transects, participatory mapping with children, semi-structured interviews with inhabitants, and VCA (Vulnerability & Capacity Analysis). The geolomorphological map produced on the base of the local geology has been realized with ArcGIS. This allowed the assessment of the areas at risk and the relative maps. We adapted and tested the software programme CyberTracker as a survey tool, a digital device method of field data collection. Google Earth, OpenStreetMap, Virtual Earth and Ilwis have been used for data processing.

  6. Magnetic resonance volumetric analysis of hippocampi in children in the age group of 6-to-12 years: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulani, S.J.; Kothare, S.V.; Patkar, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    Atrophy of the mesial temporal structures, especially the hippocampus, has been implicated in temporal lobe epilepsy. However, to date, there is very scant data regarding normal volumes of the hippocampus in the pediatric population. This is a pilot study to estimate the normal volumetric data for the Indian pediatric population between 6 and 12 years of age. We have also tried to understand whether age and gender have an effect on the hippocampal volumes in this age group. The study group comprised 20 children, 6-12-years old without history of epilepsy or other neurological deficits. There were nine boys and 11 girls. All scans were performed on a 1.5T GE echo speed scanner. 3D fast SPGR sequence was prescribed in the coronal plane. The images were post-processed on an Advantage Windows 3.1 workstation. Using an automated program, the same observer calculated the hippocampal area, in cubic centimeters, clockwise and anticlockwise. The clockwise/anticlockwise data were subjected to correlation analysis for detecting intra-observer agreement. The mean and SD for left and right hippocampal volumes were estimated. The lower and upper limits for normal hippocampal volumes were determined using 95% (± 2SD) limits on either side of the mean. In order to understand the effect of age on various hippocampal volumes we performed regression analysis. Mann-Whitney's test was used to test the significance of differences for gender variations. Correlation analysis established that there was intra-observer agreement. In the Indian pediatric population we have found the mean right hippocampal volume (RHV) to be 2.75 cm 3 and mean left hippocampal volume (LHV) to be 2.49 cm 3 . Mean hippocampal volume was found to be 2.67 cm 3 (SD=0.42). The upper and lower limits for hippocampal volumes were 3.51 cm 3 and 1.83 cm 3 , respectively, based on 95% (± 2SD) limits on either side of the mean. There was no effect of age or gender on the hippocampal volumes. In the Indian pediatric

  7. A "novel" intervention: a pilot study of children's literature and healthy lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravender, Terrill; Russell, Alexandra; Chung, Richard J; Armstrong, Sarah C

    2010-03-01

    To determine if reading an age-appropriate novel has the potential to improve BMI percentile and exercise- and nutrition-related knowledge and behaviors in girls aged 9 to 13 years who were enrolled in a childhood obesity-treatment program. This preliminary, randomized, controlled trial followed 81 obese girls aged 9 to 13 years who were enrolled in the Duke University Healthy Lifestyles Program, a comprehensive clinical and behavioral lifestyle-modification program for overweight and obese children. Thirty-one girls were randomly assigned to read the intervention novel, which describes an overweight girl who discovers improved health and self-efficacy, and 33 participants were given a control novel to read. Participants were evaluated at the study intake and again at their scheduled follow-up appointments 1 to 2 months later. Intake and follow-up BMI percentiles were evaluated for 17 girls in the program who did not receive either book. Follow-up data were available for 11 of 31 girls in the intervention-book group, 14 of 33 girls in the control-book group, and 14 of 17 girls who did not receive a book. There was a significantly greater reduction in BMI percentile among those in the intervention-book group (-0.71) versus those in the control-book group (-0.33; P = .03). Girls who read either book had a significantly greater reduction in BMI percentile (-0.49) than girls who were followed in the program but who were not assigned a book (0.05; P = .02). Age-appropriate fiction, particularly if it addresses health-oriented behaviors, shows potential for augmenting weight loss in girls who participate in a weight-management program. Future research is needed to determine if the novel is effective for healthy lifestyle promotion among all overweight and obese adolescents.

  8. Laser acupuncture and probiotics in school age children with asthma: a randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study of therapy guided by principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockert, Karin; Schneider, Barbara; Porenta, Gerold; Rath, Regina; Nissel, Helmut; Eichler, Irmgard

    2007-03-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) postulates an interaction between the lung as a Yin-organ and the large intestine as a Yang-organ. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate in asthmatic school age children whether treatment with laser acupuncture and probiotics according to TCM portends a clinical benefit to standard medical treatment performed according to pediatric guidelines. Seventeen children aged 6-12 yr with intermittent or mild persistent asthma were enrolled in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study. Eight patients received laser acupuncture for 10 wk and probiotic treatment in the form of oral drops (living non-pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis) for 7 wk. Nine patients in the control group were treated with a laser pen which did not emit laser light and were given placebo drops. Peak flow variability (PFV) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) were measured and Quality of Life was assessed by a standardized questionnaire. Laser acupuncture and probiotics significantly decreased mean (standard deviation) weekly PFV as a measurement of bronchial hyperreactivity by -17.4% (14.2) in the TCM group vs. 2.2% (22.5) in the control group (p = 0.034). No significant effect was detected for FEV(1), Quality of Life criteria and additional medication. As an exploratory result, patients in the TCM group had fewer days of acute febrile infections when compared with the control group [1.14 (1.4) vs. 2.66 (2.5), p = 0.18]. In conclusion, this pilot study generates the hypothesis that the interactive treatment of lung and large intestine according to TCM by laser acupuncture and probiotics has a beneficial clinical effect on bronchial hyperreactivity in school age children with intermittent or mild persistent asthma and might be helpful in the prevention of acute respiratory exacerbations. These results should be confirmed by further studies.

  9. Reducing visual deficits caused by refractive errors in school and preschool children: results of a pilot school program in the Andean region of Apurimac, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Arteaga, Sergio; Gil-González, Diana; Enciso, Olga; Phelan, Aoife; García-Muñoz, Angel; Kohler, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Refractive error is defined as the inability of the eye to bring parallel rays of light into focus on the retina, resulting in nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (Hyperopia) or astigmatism. Uncorrected refractive error in children is associated with increased morbidity and reduced educational opportunities. Vision screening (VS) is a method for identifying children with visual impairment or eye conditions likely to lead to visual impairment. To analyze the utility of vision screening conducted by teachers and to contribute to a better estimation of the prevalence of childhood refractive errors in Apurimac, Peru. Design : A pilot vision screening program in preschool (Group I) and elementary school children (Group II) was conducted with the participation of 26 trained teachers. Children whose visual acuity wasrefractive error were calculated against clinical examination. Program assessment with participants was conducted to evaluate outcomes and procedures. A total sample of 364 children aged 3-11 were screened; 45 children were examined at Centro Oftalmológico Monseñor Enrique Pelach (COMEP) Eye Hospital. Prevalence of refractive error was 6.2% (Group I) and 6.9% (Group II); specificity of teacher vision screening was 95.8% and 93.0%, while positive predictive value was 59.1% and 47.8% for each group, respectively. Aspects highlighted to improve the program included extending training, increasing parental involvement, and helping referred children to attend the hospital. Prevalence of refractive error in children is significant in the region. Vision screening performed by trained teachers is a valid intervention for early detection of refractive error, including screening of preschool children. Program sustainability and improvements in education and quality of life resulting from childhood vision screening require further research.

  10. Guided self-help interventions for mental health disorders in children with neurological conditions: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sophie; Heyman, Isobel; Coughtrey, Anna; Simmonds, Jess; Varadkar, Sophia; Stephenson, Terence; DeJong, Margaret; Shafran, Roz

    2016-11-04

    Rates of mental health disorders are significantly greater in children with physical illnesses than in physically well children. Children with neurological conditions, such as epilepsy, are known to have particularly high rates of mental health disorders. Despite this, mental health problems in children with neurological conditions have remained under-recognised and under-treated in clinical settings. Evidence-based guided self-help interventions are efficacious in reducing symptoms of mental health disorders in children, but their efficacy in reducing symptoms of common mental health disorders in children with neurological conditions has not been investigated. We aim to pilot a guided self-help intervention for the treatment of mental health disorders in children with neurological conditions. A pilot randomised controlled trial with 18 patients with neurological conditions and mental health disorders will be conducted. Participants attending specialist neurology clinics at a National UK Children's Hospital will be randomised to receive guided self-help for common mental health disorders or to a 12-week waiting list control. Participants in the treatment group will receive 10 sessions of guided self-help delivered over the telephone. The waiting list control group will receive the intervention after a waiting period of 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure is reduction in symptoms of mental health disorders. Exclusion criteria are limited to those at significant risk of harm to self or others, the presence of primary mental health disorder other than anxiety, depression or disruptive behaviour (e.g. psychosis, eating disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder) or intellectual disability at a level meaning potential participants would be unable to access the intervention. The study has ethical approval from the Camden and Islington NHS Research Ethics Committee, registration number 14.LO.1353. Results will be disseminated to patients, the wider public, clinicians and

  11. A Smart Toy to Enhance the Decision-Making Process at Children's Psychomotor Delay Screenings: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez García, María Angeles; Martín Ruiz, María Luisa; Rivera, Diego; Vadillo, Laura; Valero Duboy, Miguel Angel

    2017-05-19

    EDUCERE ("Ubiquitous Detection Ecosystem to Care and Early Stimulation for Children with Developmental Disorders") is an ecosystem for ubiquitous detection, care, and early stimulation of children with developmental disorders. The objectives of this Spanish government-funded research and development project are to investigate, develop, and evaluate innovative solutions to detect changes in psychomotor development through the natural interaction of children with toys and everyday objects, and perform stimulation and early attention activities in real environments such as home and school. Thirty multidisciplinary professionals and three nursery schools worked in the EDUCERE project between 2014 and 2017 and they obtained satisfactory results. Related to EDUCERE, we found studies based on providing networks of connected smart objects and the interaction between toys and social networks. This research includes the design, implementation, and validation of an EDUCERE smart toy aimed to automatically detect delays in psychomotor development. The results from initial tests led to enhancing the effectiveness of the original design and deployment. The smart toy, based on stackable cubes, has a data collector module and a smart system for detection of developmental delays, called the EDUCERE developmental delay screening system (DDSS). The pilot study involved 65 toddlers aged between 23 and 37 months (mean=29.02, SD 3.81) who built a tower with five stackable cubes, designed by following the EDUCERE smart toy model. As toddlers made the tower, sensors in the cubes sent data to a collector module through a wireless connection. All trials were video-recorded for further analysis by child development experts. After watching the videos, experts scored the performance of the trials to compare and fine-tune the interpretation of the data automatically gathered by the toy-embedded sensors. Judges were highly reliable in an interrater agreement analysis (intraclass correlation 0

  12. MOTOR SKILLS AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OUTCOMES FROM A PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTION IN SHORT BREAKS ON PRESCHOOL CHILDREN CONDUCTED BY THEIR EDUCATORS: A PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalves-Alvarez, Matias; Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio; Zapata-Lamana, Rafael; Rosales-Soto, Giovanni; Salazar, Gabriela

    2015-10-01

    childhood obesity is a worldwide health concern. For this issue different intervention have being planned to increase physical activity patterns and reduce the excess of weight in children with limited or no success. the aim of this study is to evaluate the results of a pilot intervention consisting in three 15-minute breaks conducted by educators and supervised by physical education teachers on motor skills and nutritional status in preschool children. sample was 70 preschool children (32 boys and 38 girls), age 4 ± 0,6 years. The physical activity classes were performed three times a week, 45 minutes daily, distributed in three 15 minutes breaks. The circuits were planned to have; jumps, sprints, carrying medicinal balls, gallops and crawling. Motor skill tests that were performed Standing long jump (SLJ) and Twelve meter run. with the intervention no significant differences in nutritional status where found on mean Z score (boys p = 0.49, girls p = 0.77). An increment on weight and height was fount after the intervention (p intervention when we normalize by weight in boys (p = 0.002) and girls (p intervention (p intervention with more intense activities in small breaks (15 minutes), and guided by the educators could improve essential motor skills (running and jumping) in preschool children of a semi-rural sector independent of nutritional status. This gaining in motor skills is the first step to increase physical activity levels in preschool children. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. [Changes in comorbid symptoms and subjective interference in a habit reversal therapy in children with chronic tic disorder - a pilot study].

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    Woitecki, Katrin; Döpfner, Manfred

    2012-05-01

    This pilot study investigates the effects of habit reversal training in a German-speaking population of children and young adults with chronic tic disorders on comorbid symptoms and subjective interference. 16 children were treated using a manualized program. Comorbid-symptoms (ADHD, anxiety and OCD, depression) were assessed using parent and self-ratings. Additionally, the correlation of tic symptoms with comorbid symptoms at the beginning of the therapy was analyzed. We obtained positive results in reducing comorbid symptoms during a primary treatment of tic symptoms. We further found a correlation of tic symptoms and comorbid symptoms especially in parent ratings. These first findings show that a primary treatment of tics may be indicated in patients with comorbid symptoms, because a therapy of tic symptoms has also positive effects on comorbid symptoms.

  14. A non-equivalent group pilot trial of a school-based physical activity and fitness intervention for 10–11 year old english children: born to move

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    Stuart J. Fairclough

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PE lessons are the formal opportunity in schools for promotion of physical activity and fitness. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot PE intervention on physical activity, fitness, and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Participants were 139 children aged 10–11 years from four schools. For six weeks children in two schools received a twice-weekly pilot ‘Born to Move’ (BTM physical activity (PA and fitness intervention alongside one regular PE lesson. Children in the two comparison (COM schools received their regular twice weekly PE lessons. Outcomes were lesson time and whole-day light (LPA, moderate (MPA, vigorous (VPA, and MVPA, and sedentary time, muscular fitness, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, and lesson-specific perceived exertion, enjoyment, and perceived competence. Outcomes were assessed at baseline (T0, midway through the intervention (T1, and at the end (T2 using ANOVAs and ANCOVAs. Intervention fidelity was measured using child and teacher surveys at T2 and analysed using Chi-square tests. Results The BTM group engaged in moderate PA for significantly more lesson time (29.4 % than the COM group (25.8 %; p = .009, d = .53. The amount of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA during the T1 BTM lesson contributed 14.0 % to total MVPA, which was significantly more than the COM group’s T1 PE lesson (11.4 %; p < .001, d = .47. The BTM group were significantly more active during the whole-day (p < .05 and the school-day (p < .01. In both groups push-up test performance increased (p < .001 and CRF test performance decreased (p < .01. Perceived exertion, enjoyment, and perceived competence increased in both groups (p < .05, but the BTM group rated their enjoyment of the T1 BTM lesson higher than the COM group rated their PE lesson (p = .02, d = .56. The children’s and teachers’ responses to the intervention indicated that the delivery aims of enjoyment

  15. The Effect of a Pilot Pediatric In-Patient Department-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention on Parental Smoking and Children's Secondhand Smoke (SHS) Exposure in Guangxi, China.

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    Huang, Kaiyong; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liang, Xia; Liang, Gang; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-11-08

    Children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home has numerous adverse health effects. This study evaluated the effects of a pediatric in-patient department-based pilot smoking cessation intervention for household members to reduce children's SHS exposure and encourage smoking cessation. A pre-post test design study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a telephone counseling intervention on household members of hospitalized children in pediatric departments. Data were collected with a standardized Chinese language questionnaire. At the three-month follow-up survey, the proportions of household members who reported adopting complete smoking restriction at home (55%), did not smoke at home at all (37%), did not allow others to smoke in the car (70%), or did not allow others to smoke around the child (57%) were significantly higher than the self-reported responses at the baseline survey. The proportions of household members who reported smoking at home (49%) and in the car (22%) were significantly lower than the baseline survey. Overall, 7% of the participants had reported quitting smoking after three months. Pediatric in-patient department-based telephone counseling for smoking cessation was found to be acceptable to Chinese parents. The intervention encouraged few parents to quit smoking, but encouraged more parents to take measures to reduce children's SHS exposure.

  16. Efficacy of Chloroquine as a first line agent in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in children and treatment practices in Pakistan: A Pilot study.

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    Waqar, Talal; Khushdil, Arshad; Haque, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain the efficacy of chloroquine as first line agent in treatment of uncomplicated malaria -caused by Plasmodium vivax in children---and to determine its current treatment practice in Pakistan. This pilot study was conducted at the Paediatrics Department of Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Lahore, Pakistan. Forty-eight children between six months and twelve years of age having positive blood film for Plasmodium vivax were included. They were treated with chloroquine as a drug of - choice. Efficacy of chloroquine was assessed by clinical response, absence of parasitaemia on day seven and twenty-eight after initiation of therapy. A survey was also conducted to determine the first line therapeutic choice of Paediatricians in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in children in Pakistan. The results showed 100% efficacy of chloroquine in treating uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax in children. Artemisin was preferred by 74.28% Paediatricians' in combination therapy as 1st line treatment. Guidelines proposed by Malaria Control Programme Pakistan (MCPP) in collaboration with World Health Organization (WHO) are comprehensive but not being adhered to. The recently reported resistance of Plasmodium vivax to artemisin should urge measures to implement WHO guidelines.

  17. Active Video Gaming for Children with Cerebral Palsy: Does a Clinic-Based Virtual Reality Component Offer an Additive Benefit? A Pilot Study.

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    Levac, Danielle; McCormick, Anna; Levin, Mindy F; Brien, Marie; Mills, Richard; Miller, Elka; Sveistrup, Heidi

    2018-02-01

    To compare changes in gross motor skills and functional mobility between ambulatory children with cerebral palsy who underwent a 1-week clinic-based virtual reality intervention (VR) followed by a 6-week, therapist-monitored home active video gaming (AVG) program and children who completed only the 6-week home AVG program. Pilot non-randomized controlled trial. Five children received 1 hour of VR training for 5 days followed by a 6-week home AVG program, supervised online by a physical therapist. Six children completed only the 6-week home AVG program. The Gross Motor Function Measure Challenge Module (GMFM-CM) and Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT) evaluated change. There were no significant differences between groups. The home AVG-only group demonstrated a statistically and clinically significant improvement in GMFM-CM scores following the 6-week AVG intervention (median difference 4.5 points, interquartile range [IQR] 4.75, p = 0.042). The VR + AVG group demonstrated a statistically and clinically significant decrease in 6MWT distance following the intervention (median decrease 68.2 m, IQR 39.7 m, p = 0.043). All 6MWT scores returned to baseline at 2 months post-intervention. Neither intervention improved outcomes in this small sample. Online mechanisms to support therapist-child communication for exercise progression were insufficient to individualize exercise challenge.

  18. Impact of aerobic exercise on sleep and motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorders – a pilot study

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    Br

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand,1,2,* Stefanie Jossen,2,* Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Uwe Pühse,2 Markus Gerber21Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders (ZASS, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland*These authors contributed equally to this work and share the first authorshipBackground: Prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD have increased dramatically in the last two decades. In addition to the core symptoms such as impaired communication, difficulties in social interaction, and restricted and stereotypical patterns of behavior and interests, poor sleep and motor skill (MS deficits have also been observed in children with ASD. On the other hand, there is evidence that aerobic exercise training (AET has a positive impact on sleep, and that specific training improves MSs. Accordingly, the aim of the present pilot study was to investigate to what extent a combination of AET and MS training (MST would improve sleep and physical performance in a small sample of children with ASD. Method: Ten children with ASD (mean age: 10 years took part in the study. After a thorough medical examination and psychiatric assessment, children participated in thrice-weekly 60-minute sessions of AET and MST lasting for 3 consecutive weeks. Sleep was assessed both objectively (sleep-encephalography [sleep-EEG] and subjectively (parents’ questionnaire. MSs were assessed via standardized test batteries. Parents completed sleep and mood logs, and ratings of mood. Results: Mild-to-moderate insomnia was reported in 70% of children. Compared to nights without previous AET and MS, on nights following AET and MS, sleep efficiency increased (d=1.07, sleep onset latency shortened (d=0.38, and wake time after sleep onset decreased for 63% of the sample (d=1.09, as assessed via sleep-EEG. Mood in the morning, as rated by parents, improved after three weeks (d=0

  19. Lessons learned from a pilot RCT of simultaneous versus delayed initiation of continuous glucose monitoring in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes starting insulin pump therapy.

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    Olivier, Patricia; Lawson, Margaret L; Huot, Celine; Richardson, Christine; Nakhla, Meranda; Romain, Judette

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainty remains about effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D). Success with CGM is related to CGM adherence, which may relate to readiness to make the behavior changes required for effective use. We hypothesize that readiness for change will be greater at initiation of insulin pump therapy than in established pump users, and that this will predict CGM adherence. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in children with established T1D comparing simultaneous pump and CGM initiation to standard pump therapy with delayed CGM initiation. We randomized participants to simultaneous pump and CGM initiation or to standard pump therapy with the option of adding CGM 4 months later. CGM adherence was tracked via web-based download and readiness for change assessed with the SOCRATES questionnaire. Of 41 eligible children, 20 agreed to participate; 15 subjects completed the study (7 males; baseline age 11.8 ± 4.0 years; T1D duration 2.7 ± 2.7 years; mean A1C 8.2 ± 0.8%). Six of 8 simultaneous group subjects used CGM > 60% of the time for 4 months compared to 1 of 7 delayed group subjects (P = .02). Using SOCRATES, we could assign 87-100% of subjects to a single motivation stage at baseline and 4 months. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of randomizing pump naïve children and adolescents with established T1D to simultaneous pump and CGM initiation versus standard pump therapy with delayed CGM initiation. Lessons from this pilot study were used to inform development of a full-scale multicenter RCT. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools: Outcomes of a 2-Year Pilot Study to Increase Physical Activity During the School Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R Glenn; Webster, Collin A; Egan, Cate; Campos, Carolina M C; Michael, Robert D; Vazou, Spyridoula

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of the pilot study Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools on the percentage of children achieving the Institute of Medicine guideline of 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the school day. Pre/multiple post-quasi-experimental. Four elementary schools. Physical education (n = 3) and classroom teachers (n = 12) and students (n = 229). Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools was a multicomponent, theory-driven intervention facilitated through school-university partnerships. Intervention approaches included communities of practice, community-based participatory research, and service learning. Accelerometer-derived percentage of children accumulating 30 minutes of MVPA during the school day. Multilevel mixed-effects regression estimated MVPA differences over time. Compared to control, a 2.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.0% to 4.8%) and 8.8% (95% CI: -0.3% to 15.4%) increase in the percentage of time girls and boys engaged in MVPA during the school day was observed. The percentage of boys and girls in the intervention group achieving 30 minutes of MVPA/day increased from 57.5% to 70.7% and 35.4% to 56.9%, respectively. Boys and girls in the control group decreased from 61.5% to 56.4% and 52.6% to 41.9%, respectively. However, these changes did not reach statistical significance. Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools demonstrated meaningful impact on children's MVPA during the school day by increasing boys' and girls' MVPA. However, additional strategies may be required to help schools achieve the Institute of Medicine guideline.

  1. "The 1-2-3 Magic Program": Implementation Outcomes of an Australian Pilot Evaluation with School-Aged Children

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    Bailey, Erin L.; van der Zwan, Rick; Phelan, Thomas W.; Brooks, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This study served as a pilot evaluation of the efficacy of the 1-2-3 Magic Program (Phelan, 2003) as a brief parenting intervention for families with a school-aged child. Nine Australian families assigned to either a wait-listed control group (n = 4) or to one that received immediate intervention (n = 5), participated in a randomized controlled…

  2. The Social Life and Emotional State of Adolescent Children of Parents Who Are Blind and Sighted: A Pilot Study

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    Duvdevany, Ilana; Moin, Victor; Yahav, Rivka

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study compared the development of two groups of adolescents--those whose parents were blind and those whose parents were sighted. It found that there were no essential differences between the groups. Moreover, the friendship relationships, feelings toward parents, and some essential characteristics of the adolescents' emotional state…

  3. Effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Program on School Children's Self-Reported Well-Being: A Pilot Study Comparing Effects with an Emotional Literacy Program

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    Devcich, Daniel A.; Rix, Grant; Bernay, Ross; Graham, Esther

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to test the well-being effects of a locally developed mindfulness-based program tailored for New Zealand elementary school children in comparison with an active control condition. It was hypothesized that significantly greater well-being change scores would be observed for the mindfulness group. Students (n = 106) between 9…

  4. Developing a Measure to Understand Young Children's Internet Cognition and Cyber-Safety Awareness: A Pilot Test

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    Edwards, Susan; Nolan, Andrea; Henderson, Michael; Skouteris, Helen; Mantilla, Ana; Lambert, Pamela; Bird, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in technology have increased preschool children's access to the Internet. Very little research has been conducted to identify pre-school-aged children's understandings of the Internet and ramifications of being "online." Without an understanding of children's thinking about the Internet, it is difficult to provide age- and…

  5. Improved Speech Following Parent-Delivered Qigong Massage in Young Children with Down Syndrome: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

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    Silva, Louisa M. T.; Schalock, Mark; Williams, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Qigong massage is an eastern form of massage that can be delivered by western parents to their children with appropriate training and support. It has been shown to improve developmental measures in young children with autism when given daily for five months. A recent trial evaluating its effect on motor development in young children with Down…

  6. Reducing visual deficits caused by refractive errors in school and preschool children: results of a pilot school program in the Andean region of Apurimac, Peru

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    Sergio Latorre-Arteaga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Refractive error is defined as the inability of the eye to bring parallel rays of light into focus on the retina, resulting in nearsightedness (myopia, farsightedness (Hyperopia or astigmatism. Uncorrected refractive error in children is associated with increased morbidity and reduced educational opportunities. Vision screening (VS is a method for identifying children with visual impairment or eye conditions likely to lead to visual impairment. Objective: To analyze the utility of vision screening conducted by teachers and to contribute to a better estimation of the prevalence of childhood refractive errors in Apurimac, Peru. Design: A pilot vision screening program in preschool (Group I and elementary school children (Group II was conducted with the participation of 26 trained teachers. Children whose visual acuity was<6/9 [20/30] (Group I and≤6/9 (Group II in one or both eyes, measured with the Snellen Tumbling E chart at 6 m, were referred for a comprehensive eye exam. Specificity and positive predictive value to detect refractive error were calculated against clinical examination. Program assessment with participants was conducted to evaluate outcomes and procedures. Results: A total sample of 364 children aged 3–11 were screened; 45 children were examined at Centro Oftalmológico Monseñor Enrique Pelach (COMEP Eye Hospital. Prevalence of refractive error was 6.2% (Group I and 6.9% (Group II; specificity of teacher vision screening was 95.8% and 93.0%, while positive predictive value was 59.1% and 47.8% for each group, respectively. Aspects highlighted to improve the program included extending training, increasing parental involvement, and helping referred children to attend the hospital. Conclusion: Prevalence of refractive error in children is significant in the region. Vision screening performed by trained teachers is a valid intervention for early detection of refractive error, including screening of preschool children

  7. Regional ventricular performance and exercise training in children and young adults after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: randomized controlled pilot study.

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    Duppen, Nienke; Geerdink, Lianne M; Kuipers, Irene M; Bossers, Sjoerd S M; Koopman, Laurens P; van Dijk, Arie P J; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; De Korte, Chris L; Helbing, Willem A; Kapusta, Livia

    2015-04-01

    Public-health guidelines recommend patients with congenital heart disease to exercise. Studies have shown that patients with congenital heart disease can improve physical exercise capacity. The effect of training on regional ventricular performance has hardly been studied. We performed a pilot study to assess whether an exercise training program would result in adverse changes of regional ventricular performance in patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot. Multicenter prospective randomized controlled pilot study in patients with tetralogy of Fallot aged 10 to 25 years. A 12-week standardized aerobic dynamic exercise training program (3 one-hour sessions per week) was used. Pre- and post-training cardiopulmonary exercise tests, MRI, and echocardiography, including tissue-Doppler imaging, were performed. Patients were randomized to the exercise group (n=28) or control group (n=20). One patient in the exercise group dropped out. Change in tissue-Doppler imaging parameters was similar in the exercise group and control group (change in right ventricle free wall peak velocity E' exercise group, 0.8±2.6 cm/s; control group, 0.9±4.1; peak velocity A' exercise group, 0.4±2.4 m/s; control group 4.6±18.1 cm/s). This randomized controlled pilot study provides preliminary data suggesting that regional ventricular performance is well maintained during 3-month aerobic dynamic exercise training in children and young adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. This information might help patients adhere to current public-health guidelines. URL: http//:www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR2731. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Febrile illness management in children under five years of age: a qualitative pilot study on primary health care workers' practices in Zanzibar.

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    Baltzell, Kimberly; Elfving, Kristina; Shakely, Deler; Ali, Abdullah S; Msellem, Mwinyi; Gulati, Shilpa; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2013-01-28

    In Zanzibar, malaria prevalence dropped substantially in the last decade and presently most febrile patients seen in primary health care facilities (PHCF) test negative for malaria. The availability of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) allows rural health workers to reliably rule out malaria in fever patients. However, additional diagnostic tools to identify alternative fever causes are scarce, often leaving RDT-negative patients without a clear diagnosis and management plan. This pilot study aimed to explore health workers' practices with febrile children and identify factors influencing their diagnostic and management decisions in non-malarial fever patients. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with 12 health workers in six PHCFs in North A district, Zanzibar, April to June 2011. Interviews were coded using Atlas.ti to identify emerging themes that play a role in the diagnosis and management of febrile children. The following themes were identified: 1) health workers use caregivers' history of illness and RDT results for initial diagnostic and management decisions, but suggest caregivers need more education to prevent late presentation and poor health outcomes; 2) there is uncertainty regarding viral versus bacterial illness and health workers feel additional point-of-care diagnostic tests would help with differential diagnoses; 3) stock-outs of medications and limited caregivers' resources are barriers to delivering good care; 4) training, short courses and participation in research as well as; 5) weather also influences diagnostic decision-making. This pilot study found that health workers in Zanzibar use caregiver history of fever and results of malaria RDTs to guide management of febrile children. However, since most febrile children test negative for malaria, health workers believe additional training and point-of-care tests would improve their ability to diagnose and manage non-malarial fevers. Educating caregivers on signs and symptoms of

  9. A pilot study to examine the effects of a nutrition intervention on nutrition knowledge, behaviors, and efficacy expectations in middle school children.

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    Fahlman, Mariane M; Dake, Joseph A; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

    2008-04-01

    This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study were divided into an intervention group (n = 407) and a control group (n = 169). An MM instructor trained health teachers in the use of the curriculum, and the teacher subsequently taught the curriculum to students in the intervention group. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used to determine pre-post differences. It consisted of 3 subscales assessing eating habits, nutrition knowledge, and efficacy expectations toward healthy eating. Subscale scores were analyzed using a 2 groups (intervention vs control) x 2 times (pre vs post) analysis of variance. The intervention group increased their nutrition knowledge at post. There was also a significant main effect for groups in the subscales "Eating Behaviors" and "Efficacy Expectations Regarding Healthy Eating." Subsequent post hoc analysis revealed that the intervention group was significantly more likely to eat fruits and vegetables and less likely to eat junk food than the control group. Students in the intervention group also felt more confident that they could eat healthy. The results of this pilot study suggest that the MM Nutrition Curriculum delivered by trained professionals resulted in significant positive changes in both nutrition knowledge and behaviors in middle school children. Further research needs to be conducted to determine the long-term impact.

  10. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of an Intervention to Promote Psychological Well-Being in Critically Ill Children: Soothing Through Touch, Reading, and Music.

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    Rennick, Janet E; Stremler, Robyn; Horwood, Linda; Aita, Marilyn; Lavoie, Tanya; Majnemer, Annette; Antonacci, Marie; Knox, Alyssa; Constantin, Evelyn

    2018-04-13

    To examine the feasibility and acceptability of a PICU Soothing intervention using touch, reading, and music. Nonblinded, pilot randomized controlled trial. The PICU and medical-surgical wards of one Canadian pediatric hospital. Twenty PICU patients age 2-14 years old and their parents, randomized to an intervention group (n = 10) or control group (n = 10). PICU Soothing consisted of: 1) parental comforting (touch and reading), followed by 2) a quiet period with music via soft headbands, administered once daily throughout hospitalization. Acceptability and feasibility of the intervention and methods were assessed via participation rates, observation, measurement completion rates, semistructured interviews, and telephone calls. Psychological well-being was assessed using measures of distress, sleep, and child and parent anxiety in the PICU, on the wards and 3 months post discharge. Forty-four percent of parents agreed to participate. Seventy percent and 100% of intervention group parents responded positively to comforting and music, respectively. Most intervention group parents (70%) and all nurses felt children responded positively. All nurses found the intervention acceptable and feasible. Measurement completion rates ranged from 70% to 100%. Pilot data suggested lower intervention group child and parent anxiety after transfer to hospital wards. PICU Soothing is acceptable and feasible to conduct. Results support the implementation of a full-scale randomized controlled trial to evaluate intervention effectiveness.

  11. Percutaneous radiofrequency lesions adjacent to the dorsal root ganglion alleviate spasticity and pain in children with cerebral palsy: pilot study in 17 patients

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    van Rhijn Lodewijk W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral palsy (CP may cause severe spasticity, requiring neurosurgical procedures. The most common neurosurgical procedures are continuous infusion of intrathecal baclofen and selective dorsal rhizotomy. Both are invasive and complex procedures. We hypothesized that a percutaneous radiofrequency lesion of the dorsal root ganglion (RF-DRG could be a simple and safe alternative treatment. We undertook a pilot study to test this hypothesis. Methods We performed an RF-DRG procedure in 17 consecutive CP patients with severe hip flexor/adductor spasms accompanied by pain or care-giving difficulties. Six children were systematically evaluated at baseline, and 1 month and 6 months after treatment by means of the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM and a self-made caregiver's questionnaire. Eleven subsequent children were evaluated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for spasticity, pain and ease of care. Results A total of 19 RF-DRG treatments were performed in 17 patients. We found a small improvement in muscle tone measured by MAS, but no effect on the GMFM scale. Despite this, the caregivers of these six treated children unanimously stated that the quality of life of their children had indeed improved after the RF-DRG. In the subsequent 11 children we found improvements in all VAS scores, in a range comparable to the conventional treatment options. Conclusion RF-DRG is a promising new treatment option for severe spasticity in CP patients, and its definitive effectiveness remains to be defined in a randomised controlled trial.

  12. Korean Environmental Health Survey in Children and Adolescents (KorEHS-C): survey design and pilot study results on selected exposure biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Mina; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Lee, Kee Jae; Park, Inho; Lim, Young-Wook; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Yeni; Seo, Ju-Hee; Hong, Soo-Jong; Choi, Youn-Hee; Yu, Jeesuk; Kim, Jeongseon; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Bo-Eun

    2014-03-01

    For the first nationwide representative survey on the environmental health of children and adolescents in Korea, we designed the Korean Environmental Health Survey in Children and Adolescents (KorEHS-C) as a two-phase survey and planned a sampling strategy that would represent the whole population of Korean children and adolescents, based on the school unit for the 6-19 years age group and the household unit for the 5 years or less age group. A pilot study for 351 children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years in elementary, middle, and high school of two cities was performed to validate several measurement methods and tools, as well as to test their feasibility, and to elaborate the protocols used throughout the survey process. Selected exposure biomarkers, i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium in blood, and bisphenol A, metabolites of diethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate and cotinine in urine were analyzed. We found that the levels of blood mercury (Median: 1.7 ug/L) and cadmium (Median: 0.30 ug/L) were much higher than those of subjects in Germany and the US, while metabolites of phthalates and bisphenol A showed similar levels and tendencies by age; the highest levels of phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A occurred in the youngest group of children. Specific investigations to elucidate the exposure pathways of major environmental exposure need to be conducted, and the KorEHS-C should cover as many potential environmental hazards as possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Feasibility and impact of Creciendo Sanos, a clinic-based pilot intervention to prevent obesity among preschool children in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Andrade, Gloria Oliva; Cespedes, Elizabeth M; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Romero-Quechol, Guillermina; González-Unzaga, Marco Aurelio; Benítez-Trejo, María Amalia; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Horan, Chrissy; Haines, Jess; Taveras, Elsie M; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Gillman, Matthew W

    2014-03-20

    Mexico has the highest adult overweight and obesity prevalence in the Americas; 23.8% of children obese. Creciendo Sanos was a pilot intervention to prevent obesity among preschoolers in Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) clinics. We randomized 4 IMSS primary care clinics to either 6 weekly educational sessions promoting healthful nutrition and physical activity or usual care. We recruited 306 parent-child pairs: 168 intervention, 138 usual care. Children were 2-5 years old with WHO body mass index (BMI) z-score 0-3. We measured children's height and weight and parents reported children's diet and physical activity at baseline and 3 and 6-month follow-up. We analyzed behavioral and BMI outcomes with generalized mixed models incorporating multiple imputation for missing values. 93 (55%) intervention and 96 (70%) usual care families completed 3 and 6-month follow-up. At 3 months, intervention v. usual care children increased vegetables by 6.3 servings/week (95% CI, 1.8, 10.8). In stratified analyses, intervention participants with high program adherence (5-6 sessions) decreased snacks and screen time and increased vegetables v. usual care. No further effects on behavioral outcomes or BMI were observed. Transportation time and expenses were barriers to adherence. 90% of parents who completed the post-intervention survey were satisfied with the program. Although satisfaction was high among participants, barriers to participation and retention included transportation cost and time. In intention to treat analyses, we found intervention effects on vegetable intake, but not other behaviors or BMI. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01539070.Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica del IMSS: 2009-785-120.

  14. Feasibility of the Participation and Activity Inventory for Children and Youth (PAI-CY) and Young Adults (PAI-YA) with a visual impairment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsman, Ellen Bernadette Maria; van Nispen, Ruth Marie Antoinette; van Rens, Gerardus Hermanus Maria Bartholomeus

    2017-05-11

    Having a visual impairment affects quality of life, daily functioning and participation. To assess rehabilitation needs of visually impaired children and young adults, the Participation and Activity Inventory for Children and Youth (PAI-CY) and Young Adults (PAI-YA) were developed. The PAI-CY comprises four questionnaires for different age categories: 0-2 years, 3-6 years, 7-12 years and 13-17 years. This pilot study assesses the feasibility and acceptability of the PAI-CY and PAI-YA, and the relevance of the content of the questionnaires. In addition to the regular admission procedure, the PAI-CY and PAI-YA were completed by 30 participants (six per questionnaire). For the PAI-CY, parents completed the questionnaire online prior to admission. From age 7 years onwards, children completed the questionnaire face-to-face with a rehabilitation professional during the admission procedure. Young adults completed the PAI-YA online. Subsequently, participants and professionals administered an evaluation form. Overall, 85% of the parents rated all aspects of the PAI-CY neutral to positive, whereas 100% of all children and young adults were neutral to positive on all aspects, except for the duration to complete. The main criticism of professionals was that they were unable to identify actual rehabilitation needs using the questionnaires. Minor adjustments were recommended for the content of questions. Parents, children and young adults were mostly satisfied with the questionnaires, however, professionals suggested some changes. The adaptations made should improve satisfaction with content, clarification of questions, and satisfaction with the questionnaires in compiling a rehabilitation plan. Although face and content validity has been optimized, a larger field study is taking place to further develop and evaluate the questionnaires.

  15. Pilot evaluation of physical and psychological effects of a physical trek programme including a dog sledding expedition in children and teenagers with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Clothilde; André, Nicolas; Gentet, Jean-Claude; Verschuur, Arnauld; Michel, Gérard; Sotteau, Frédéric; Martha, Cécile; Grélot, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and to measure the effects of a six-week-long adapted physical activity programme (APAP), including 5 days of intense dog sledding, on the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents treated for cancer. Eleven children and teenagers (4 girls, 7 boys; mean age 14.3 ± 2.9 years) participated in this monocentric pilot programme of adapted physical activities from February 2013 to March 2013. Seven were still on treatment. The programme lasted 6 weeks. A series of physical tests and psychological questionnaires were carried out before and after the programme. All children and teenagers completed the full programme. An improvement in all physical and psychological parameters was observed. Statistically significant differences were observed for global self-esteem (6.2 ± 2.1 to 7.7 ± 1.8; p = 0.02), perceived sport competence (5.3 ± 3.2 to 7.4 ± 2; p = 0.02) and perceived physical strength (5.6 ± 2.5 to 7.1 ± 1.8; p = 0.001). Regarding physical tests, the physical training led to statistically significant improvement for sit-ups (13.8 ± 2.6 to 21.75 ± 5.4; p = 0.01), muscle tone (76 ± 23.7 to 100 ± 22.9; p = 0.01), and resting heart rate (96.1 ± 3.2 to 91.6 ± 4.5; p = 0.03). This programme is feasible in children and adolescents even during their oncologic treatment. During the 6-week programme, children and adolescents improved their physical and psychological health, and the putative benefits of the APAP are discussed. A larger randomised trial started in 2014.

  16. Piloting the use of experience sampling method to investigate the everyday social experiences of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Brown, Nicole; Chen, Yu-Wei; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study explored the nature and quality of social experiences of children with Asperger Syndrome/High Functioning Autism (AS/HFA) through experience sampling method (ESM) while participating in everyday activities. ESM was used to identify the contexts and content of daily life experiences. Six children with AS/HFA (aged 8-12) wore an iPod Touch on seven consecutive days, while being signalled to complete a short survey. Participants were in the company of others 88.3% of their waking time, spent 69.0% of their time with family and 3.8% with friends, but only conversed with others 26.8% of the time. Participants had more positive experiences and emotions when they were with friends compared with other company. Participating in leisure activities was associated with enjoyment, interest in the occasion, and having positive emotions. ESM was found to be helpful in identifying the nature and quality of social experiences of children with AS/HFA from their perspective.

  17. Kelston Beverages Pilot Study: Rationale, design and implementation of a community and school based intervention to reduce sugary drink consumption among children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundborn, G; Ni Mhurchu, C; Ness, C; Latu, H; Jackson, R

    2014-03-01

    The Kelston Beverages Study was designed to increase awareness of the sugar content of sugary drinks, the poor health consequences that high intake of these drinks have, and inform on ways to reduce intake of students. The aims of this pilot study were to refine interventions and processes designed to raise awareness of the harms that sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) have on health, and to reduce their consumption among the youth of a small West Auckland suburb. There were three arms to this interventional study, one in schools, another in community organisations (churches, sports clubs and community groups), and the final arm is in the local retail sector. The school arm was the most extensive component and initially involved a survey of children's knowledge and consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) using a brief questionnaire. The study evaluated any SSB policies in schools and for schools that did not have policies, opportunities were scoped to develop and implement them; a canteen AUDIT focussed particularly on beverages was carried out; and finally a student partnered social marketing exercise was undertaken that comprised 2 competitions, one to design a poster, and another to write and perform a rap. Children were re-surveyed at the completion of the intervention (7 months later) to determine change in knowledge and self-reported consumption of SSBs. Both the community organisations and retail arms of this study focussed on raising awareness into the harmful effects of SSBs and establishing healthy beverage policy in the respective organisations. Promising results with regards to acceptability, feasibility, and recruitment as well as valuable learnings with regard to process support the development of a proposal to conduct a cluster randomised trial of the interventions successfully tested in this pilot study.

  18. Pilot feasibility study of binaural auditory beats for reducing symptoms of inattention in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Susan; Taylor, Ann Gill; Lyon, Debra; Bourguignon, Cheryl

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the potential for the use of binaural auditory beat stimulation to reduce the symptom of inattention in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This pilot study had a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Twenty participants were randomly assigned to listen to either an audio program on compact disk that contained binaural auditory beats or a sham audio program that did not have binaural beats for 20 minutes, three times a week for 3 weeks. The Children's Color Trails Test, the Color Trails Test, the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), and the Homework Problem Checklist were used to measure changes in inattention pre- and postintervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze pre- and postintervention scores on the Color Trails Tests, Homework Problem Checklist, and the TOVA. The effect of time was significant on the Color Trails Test. However, there were no significant group differences on the Color Trails Test or the TOVA scores postintervention. Parents reported that the study participants had fewer homework problems postintervention. The results from this study indicate that binaural auditory beat stimulation did not significantly reduce the symptom of inattention in the experimental group. However, parents and adolescents stated that homework problems due to inattention improved during the 3-week study. Parents and participants stated that the modality was easy to use and helpful. Therefore, this modality should be studied over a longer time frame in a larger sample to further its effectiveness to reduce the symptom of inattention in those diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS neurofeedback as a treatment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria eMarx

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS neurofeedback was investigated as a new method for the treatment of ADHD. Oxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex of children with ADHD was measured and fed back. 12 sessions of NIRS-neurofeedback were compared to the intermediate outcome after 12 sessions of EEG-neurofeedback (slow cortical potentials, SCP and 12 sessions of EMG-feedback (muscular activity of left and right musculus supraspinatus. The task was either to increase or decrease hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex (NIRS, to produce positive or negative shifts of SCP (EEG or to increase or decrease muscular activity (EMG. In each group nine children with ADHD, aged 7 to 10 years, took part. Changes in parents’ ratings of ADHD symptoms were assessed before and after the 12 sessions and compared within and between groups. For the NIRS-group additional teachers’ ratings of ADHD symptoms, parents’ and teachers’ ratings of associated behavioral symptoms, childrens’ self reports on quality of life and a computer based attention task were conducted before, 4 weeks and 6 months after training. As primary outcome, ADHD symptoms decreased significantly 4 weeks and 6 months after the NIRS training, according to parents’ ratings. In teachers’ ratings of ADHD symptoms there was a significant reduction 4 weeks after the training. The performance in the computer based attention test improved significantly. Within-group comparisons after 12 sessions of NIRS-, EEG- and EMG-training revealed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms in the NIRS-group and a trend for EEG- and EMG-groups. No significant differences for symptom reduction were found between the groups. Despite the limitations of small groups and the comparison of a completed with two uncompleted interventions, the results of this pilot study are promising. NIRS-neurofeedback could be a time-effective treatment for ADHD and an interesting new option to

  20. A New Visual Stimulation Program for Improving Visual Acuity in Children with Visual Impairment: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Li-Ting; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Wu, Chien-Te; Chen, Chia-Ching; Su, Yu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS) program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation) with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation) for improving the visual acuity (VA) of visually impaired (VI) children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (three females, three males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years) with impaired VA caused by deficits alon...

  1. Comparison between noninvasive mechanical ventilation and standard oxygen therapy in children up to 3 years old with respiratory failure after extubation: a pilot prospective randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretto, José R; Ribeiro, Cristiane F; Carpi, Mario F; Bonatto, Rossano C; Moraes, Marcos A; Fioretto, Eduardo B; Fagundes, Djalma J

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in preventing reintubation due to respiratory failure in children remains uncertain. A pilot study was designed to evaluate the frequency of extubation failure, develop a randomization approach, and analyze the feasibility of a powered randomized trial to compare noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation and standard oxygen therapy post extubation for preventing reintubation within 48 hours in children with respiratory failure. Prospective pilot study. PICU at a university-affiliated hospital. Children aged between 28 days and 3 years undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation for greater than or equal to 48 hours with respiratory failure after programmed extubation. Patients were prospectively enrolled and randomly assigned into noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation group and inhaled oxygen group after programmed extubation from May 2012 to May 2013. Length of stay in PICU and hospital, oxygenation index, blood gas before and after tracheal extubation, failure and reason for tracheal extubation, complications, mechanical ventilation variables before tracheal extubation, arterial blood gas, and respiratory and heart rates before and 1 hour after tracheal extubation were analyzed. One hundred eight patients were included (noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation group, n = 55 and inhaled oxygen group, n = 53), with 66 exclusions. Groups did not significantly differ for gender, age, disease severity, Pediatric Risk of Mortality at admission, tracheal intubation, and mechanical ventilation indications. There was no statistically significant difference in reintubation rate (noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation group, 9.1%; inhaled oxygen group, 11.3%; p > 0.05) and length of stay (days) in PICU (noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation group, 3 [1-16]; inhaled oxygen group, 2 [1-25]; p > 0.05) or hospital (noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation group, 19 [7-141]; inhaled oxygen group, 17 [8

  2. A pilot and feasibility study to assess children's consumption in quick-service restaurants using plate waste methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Roberts, Susan B; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Gamache, Madeleine M G; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Matthews, Emilia; Mueller, Megan P; Sharma, Shanti; Economos, Christina D

    2017-03-15

    Children regularly consume foods from quick-service restaurants (QSR), but little is known about the foods that children order, the calories and nutrients consumed, the accuracy of stated calorie information, or the ability to assess food orders and consumption in QSRs. This study evaluated the feasibility of plate waste collection in QSRs and examined children's orders and consumption of meals from the standard and children's menus. Additional aims were to examine if the meals ordered met healthier standards for children's menu items and determine the accuracy of the QSR-stated energy content of foods. Fifteen QSRs, two malls, and 116 eligible parents were approached to participate in the study in 2015. Among the families recruited, children's meal orders and consumption were analyzed using plate waste methodology, and a subsample of foods was analyzed using bomb calorimetry in 2015. Two individual QSRs and one mall food court with two QSRs agreed to participate, and n = 50 participants (parents with children between the ages of 5-10 years) were recruited. Children consumed on average 519 calories, 5.7 g saturated fat, 957 mg sodium, 3.7 g fiber, and 22.7 g sugar. Children ordered and consumed significantly fewer calories and less sodium and sugar with meals ordered exclusively from the children's menu compared with the standard menu. Overall there were no significant differences between the measured and stated energy contents of the QSR foods. Conducting plate waste research in QSRs is feasible and there is concordance with stated calorie information. Consuming foods exclusively from the children's menu may help limit overconsumption in QSRs.

  3. Development of a Tablet Application for the Screening of Receptive Vocabulary Skills in Multilingual Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Blanca; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Herrmann, Frank; Fricke, Silke

    2016-01-01

    For professionals working with multilingual children, detecting language deficits in a child's home language can present a challenge. This is largely due to the scarcity of standardized assessments in many children's home languages and missing normative data on multilingual language acquisition. A common approach is to translate existing English…

  4. Pilot evaluation of an instrument to measure quality of life in British children with inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogden, Cassandra Anne; Abbott, Janice; Aggett, Peter; Derkx, Bert H.; Maity, Santanu; Thomas, Adrian G.

    2008-01-01

    The IMPACT questionnaire was developed in Canada to measure quality of life in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, 20 children with IBD completed 2 versions of the IMPACT questionnaire with a Likert scale or visual analog scale (VAS), 5 of whom expressed problems

  5. The use of inulin-type fructans improves stool consistency in constipated children. A randomised clinical trial: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Ferré, Natalia; Castillejo-DeVillasante, Gemma; Luque, Veronica; Gispert-Llaurado, Mariona; Zaragoza-Jordana, Marta; Theis, Stephan; Escribano, Joaquin

    2017-08-01

    Constipation is a common disorder in children. The objective of this study is to assess the beneficial effects of a daily supplementation with Orafti ® inulin-type fructans in 2-5 year old constipated children. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel group trial where constipated children received two doses of 2 g Orafti ® inulin-type fructans (OF:IN) or placebo (maltodextrin) for 6 weeks. Primary outcome was stool consistency. Secondary outcomes were stool frequency and gastrointestinal symptoms. Twenty-two children were included, 17 completed the study protocol (nine and eight for the control and the OF:IN group, respectively). Results showed that Orafti ® inulin-type fructans supplemented children had softer stools (p = .003). The longitudinal analysis showed no significant changes in controls, whereas supplemented children increased their stool consistency from 2.2 to 2.6 on the modified Bristol scale for children (five items instead of seven) (p = .040). Prebiotic inulin-type fructans supplementation improves stool consistency in constipated 2-5-year old children. Clinicaltrials.gov, with number NCT02863848.

  6. Effects of Hippotherapy on Psychosocial Aspects in Children With Cerebral Palsy and Their Caregivers: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Chul Hwan; Joo, Min Cheol; Noh, Se Eung; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Dae Bo; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Ho Kyun; Park, Hyo In

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effects of hippotherapy on psychosocial and emotional parameters in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their caregivers. Eight children with CP were recruited (three males and five females; mean age, 7.3 years; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 1-3). Hippotherapy sessions were conducted for 30 minutes once weekly for 10 consecutive weeks in an indoor riding arena. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS), and the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index were evaluated. All children were evaluated by the Children's Depression Inventory, Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, State Anxiety Inventory for Children, Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, and the Korean-Satisfaction with Life Scale (K-SWLS). Their caregivers were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the K-SWLS. We assessed children and their caregivers with the same parameters immediately after hippotherapy. Significant improvements on the GMFM, dimension E in the GMFM, and the PBS were observed after hippotherapy compared with the baseline assessment (phippotherapy program. Hippotherapy was safe and effectively improved gross motor and balance domains in children with CP. However, no improvements were observed in psychosocial or emotional parameters.

  7. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food.

  8. Feasibility of parent-mediated behavioural intervention for behavioural problems in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nigeria: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Mojeed, Mashudat; Ani, Cornelius; Lagunju, Ike; Omigbodun, Olayinka

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a disabling and lifelong neuro-developmental disorder. Challenging behaviours such as aggression and self injury are common maladaptive behaviours in ASD which adversely affect the mental health of both the affected children and their caregivers. Although there is evidence-base for parent-delivered behavioural intervention for children with ASD and challenging behaviours, there is no published research on the feasibility of such an intervention in sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the feasibility of parent-mediated behavioural intervention for challenging behaviour in children with ASD in Nigeria. This was a pre-post intervention pilot study involving 20 mothers of children with DSM-5 diagnosis of ASD recruited from a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service out-patient Unit. All the mothers completed five sessions of weekly manualised group-based intervention from March to April, 2015. The intervention included Functional Behavioural Analysis for each child followed by an individualised behaviour management plan. The primary outcome measure was the Aggression and Self Injury Questionnaire, which assessed both Aggression towards a Person and Property (APP) and Self Injurious Behaviour (SIB). The mothers' knowledge of the intervention content was the secondary outcome. All outcome measures were completed at baseline and after the intervention. The mothers' level of satisfaction with the programme was also assessed. Treatment effect was evaluated with Wilcoxon Signed Rank Tests of baseline and post-intervention scores on outcome measures. The children were aged 3-17 years (mean = 10.7 years, SD 4.6 years), while their mothers' ages ranged from 32 to 52 years (mean 42.8 years, SD 6.4 years). The post intervention scores in all four domains of the APP and SIB were significantly reduced compared with pre-intervention scores. The mothers' knowledge of the intervention content significantly increased post

  9. Acute effects of advertisements on children's choices, preferences, and ratings of liking for physical activities and sedentary behaviours: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantis, Evan; Salmon, Jo; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-11-01

    The acute decision prompting effects of social marketing via television (TV) advertisements promoting physical activity to children are unknown. This pilot study aimed to determine the acute effects of an Australian government-sponsored TV advertisement (called 'Get Moving'), promoting more physical activity and less sedentary behaviour, on children's choices, preferences, and ratings of liking for physical activities and sedentary behaviours. Thirty-one children aged 10-12 years were recruited from a single public school, and randomised to one of two treatment groups or two control groups (Solomon four-group design). Treatment participants watched an episode of The Simpsons embedded every 10min with three 30s Get Moving advertisements plus standard advertisements. Control participants watched the same episode plus standard advertisements, but without the Get Moving advertisements. The following dependent variables were assessed immediately before and/or after exposure: activity preference (participants selected either verbally or by pointing to one of eight picture cards depicting four physical activities and four sedentary behaviours); ratings of liking (participants rated how much they liked or disliked each of these activities/behaviours either verbally or by pointing to one of nine values with an adjacent smile or frown on a Likert-type scale); and time spent in physical activities was assessed by direct observation during a 10min free-time session. No significant effects or trends were seen for any of the dependent variables. Further research is needed to determine whether different content and/or higher doses of exposure to physical activity promoting advertisements are needed to influence children's activity choices.

  10. A PILOT STUDY OF HYDROXYUREA TO PREVENT CHRONIC ORGAN DAMAGE IN YOUNG CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, Courtney D.; Dixon, Natalia; Burgett, Shelly; Mortier, Nicole A.; Schultz, William H.; Zimmerman, Sherri A.; Bonner, Melanie; Hardy, Kristina K.; Calatroni, Agustin; Ware, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydroxyurea improves laboratory parameters and prevents acute clinical complications of sickle cell anemia (SCA) in children and adults, but its effects on organ function remain incompletely defined. Methods To assess the safety and efficacy of hydroxyurea in young children with SCA and to prospectively assess kidney and brain function, 14 young children (mean age 35 months) received hydroxyurea at a mean maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 28 mg/kg/day. Results After a mean of 25 months, expected laboratory effects included significant increases in hemoglobin, MCV and %HbF along with significant decreases in reticulocytes, absolute neutrophil count, and bilirubin. There was no significant increase in glomerular filtration rate by DTPA clearance or Schwartz estimate. Mean transcranial Doppler (TCD) velocity changes were −25.6 cm/sec (phydroxyurea at MTD is well-tolerated by both children and families, and may prevent chronic organ damage in young children with SCA. PMID:19061213

  11. Rebuilding relationships: a pilot study of the effectiveness of the Mellow Parenting Programme for children with Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckering, Christine; Connolly, Brenda; Werner, Claudia; Toms-Whittle, Louise; Thompson, Lucy; Lennox, Jeannette; Minnis, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Mellow Parenting is an intensive parenting programme which has been shown to be effective in improving the psychosocial functioning of very vulnerable babies and preschool children. We used a complex interventions model to evaluate its use with school-age children with Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD), a serious disorder of social functioning associated with maltreatment. The programme had a positive effect on mothers' mental health, but had no measurable effects on symptoms of RAD or on parent-child interaction, although the variation between families after the group suggested that some had responded more than others. Mellow Parenting is an effective programme for vulnerable families with younger children and may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of school-age children with RAD, but it cannot be considered a definite treatment for RAD in this age group. The search continues for safe and effective treatments for RAD in school-age children.

  12. Predicting Active Duty Air Force Pilot Attrition Given an Anticipated Increase in Major Airline Pilot Hiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    pilots, including PALACE CHASE pilots), the Voluntary Separation Program (379 pilots accepting bonuses for separating early), and the 51 pilots...future. Unlike marital status, the number of children an individual may have in any given year is memory -less. That is, the number is stochastically... memory . It increased the nominal yearly ACP value in FY1998 in response to increased attrition, and then again in FY2000 as it continued to try to

  13. Vitamin D status of gastrostomy-fed children with special needs: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuter, Hayley; Das, Geeta; Mughal, M Zulf

    2017-12-01

    To assess the vitamin D status of gastrostomy-fed children. Vitamin D status was measured in 32 children aged five to 16 years recruited from special schools in Manchester, UK (53° 48 ' N). All children were receiving a nutritionally complete, commercially prepared enteral feed via gastrostomy, and had been established on this regimen for over 12 months. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were measured at the end of winter. Children with serum concentrations of 25OHD >50 nmol/L were considered to be sufficient, and those with concentrations 50 nmol/L). One subject was vitamin D deficient (serum 25OHD vitamin D insufficient (serum 25OHD >25 nmol/L - vitamin D derived from enteral feeds was 9.45 μg/day; range 3.5-30; 13 children (41%) received less than 10 μg of vitamin D per day from their enteral feed. Nutritionally complete gastrostomy feeds may be protective against vitamin D deficiency in the majority of children with special needs. We recommend that all children over 1 year of age receive 10 μg (400 IU) of vitamin D, as recommended by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN). ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Parallel mediation effects by sleep on the parental warmth-problem behavior links: evidence from national probability samples of Georgian and Swiss adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Harris, Charlene; Terveer, Agnes M; Pagava, Karaman; Phagava, Helen; Michaud, Pierre-Andre

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has documented the importance of parenting on adolescent health and well-being; however, some of the underlying mechanisms that link the quality of parent-child relationship to health, adjustment, and well-being are not clearly understood. The current study seeks to address this gap by examining the extent to which sleep functioning mediates the effects by parental warmth on different measures of adolescent problem behaviors. Specifically, we test whether sleep functioning, operationalized by sleep quality and sleep quantity, mediates the relationship between the parental warmth and three measures of problem behaviors, namely alcohol use, illegal drug use, and deviance, in two nationally representative samples of Georgian (N = 6,992; M = 15.83, 60% females, and Swiss (N = 5,575; M = 17.17, 50% females) adolescents. Based on tests for parallel mediating effects by sleep functioning of parental warmth on problem behaviors in the MEDIATE macro in SPSS, the findings provided evidence that both sleep quality and sleep quantity independently and cumulatively mediated the effects of parental warmth on each of the three problem behaviors in both samples, with one exception. These results highlight the salience of positive parenting on sleep functioning among teens in two different cultural contexts, and, in turn, on measures of problem behaviors.

  15. Development of a programme about Food and Nutrition Education in school children in the State School “La Serranica” in Aspe (Alicante: A pilot experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Martínez-García

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity and overweight are among the main risk factors in the world today. In Spain, more than half of the children are above their ideal weight. The aim of this study was to show the pilot experience of the activities of food and nutrition education which were carried out in the State School “La Serranica “ in Aspe (Spain to promote the acquisition of knowledge and healthy eating habits and assess the impact of such intervention. Material and Methods: The study was developed in a population of 28 students of 3rd of Primary School in “La Serranica” in Aspe (Alicante, Spain. Results: The student response was positive. After the intervention, more than 70% of children placed the food correctly in the pyramid, identified season fruits and vegetables, and a healthy breakfast. However, the percentage decreased two years later, except for recognizing a healthy breakfast (89%. In relation to lunch, consumption of fruits increased in 18% at the end of the period of the activities, and consumption of pastries and commercial juices decreased. Anybody took for lunch pastries and most of them consumed sandwich and/or fruit two years after intervention. Conclusions: An educational intervention about food and nutrition produces positive changes on the population, significantly improving knowledge and consumption of healthy food and decreasing consumption of unhealthy foods. Therefore, it could be said that nutrition programmes education are needed in today’s society to prevent the problem of overweight and obesity and promote healthy habits.

  16. Effect of a plant sterol, fish oil and B vitamin combination on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garaiova Iveta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors can predict clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis in adulthood. In this pilot study with hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents, we investigated the effects of a combination of plant sterols, fish oil and B vitamins on the levels of four independent risk factors for CVD; LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, C-reactive protein and homocysteine. Methods Twenty five participants (mean age 16 y, BMI 23 kg/m2 received daily for a period of 16 weeks an emulsified preparation comprising plant sterols esters (1300 mg, fish oil (providing 1000 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and vitamins B12 (50 μg, B6 (2.5 mg, folic acid (800 μg and coenzyme Q10 (3 mg. Atherogenic and inflammatory risk factors, plasma lipophilic vitamins, provitamins and fatty acids were measured at baseline, week 8 and 16. Results The serum total cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, subfractions LDL-2, IDL-1, IDL-2 and plasma homocysteine levels were significantly reduced at the end of the intervention period (pp Conclusions Daily intake of a combination of plant sterols, fish oil and B vitamins may modulate the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89549017

  17. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of Classroom-Based Mindfulness Meditation Compared to an Active Control Condition in 6th Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Willoughby B.; Lepp, Nathaniel E.; Niles, Halsey F.; Rocha, Tomas; Fisher, Nathan; Gold, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Children in the United States are at risk for numerous psychological problems, such as anxiety, attention problems, and mood disorders, and are underserved by current mental health provisions. The current study is a pilot trial to examine the effects of a nonelective, classroom-based, teacher-implemented, mindfulness meditation intervention on standard clinical measures of mental health and affect in middle school children. A total of 101 healthy sixth-grade students (55 boys and 46 girls) were randomized to either an Asian history course with daily mindfulness meditation practice (intervention group) or an African history course with a matched experiential activity (active control group). Self-reported data was collected by administering the Youth Self Report (YSR), a modified Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Measure -Revised before and after 6 weeks of meditation or active control condition. Both meditators and active controls decreased significantly on the YSR Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems, and Attention Problems subscales but did not differ in the extent of their improvements. Both groups also showed comparable improvements on measures in affect. Meditators were significantly less likely to develop suicidal ideation or thoughts of self-harm than controls. Improvements in affect were correlated with increases in mindfulness in meditators but not controls. These results suggest that mindfulness training may yield both unique and nonspecific benefits that are shared by other novel activities. PMID:24930819

  18. A Pilot Intervention Designed to Address Behavioral Factors That Place Overweight/Obese Young Children at Risk for Later-Life Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Leigh; Thacker, Leroy; Aldrich, Heather; Bonds-McClain, Darya; Melnyk, Bernadette

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to intervene with parents of overweight/obese 4- to 8-year-old children to improve child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Parent-child dyads ( N = 60) were randomly assigned to treatment or comparison conditions. Parents attended four intervention sessions at their child's primary health care office over 3 months. Child behaviors were assessed at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months post intervention. Parental beliefs in their skills/abilities increased in the experimental group parents, but there was no statistical difference between groups at any time. Child externalizing behaviors significantly decreased from baseline to postintervention for both groups ( F = 3.26, p = .020). Post hoc model testing suggests that this change was more pronounced in the intervention group ( F = 0.56, p = .692). Child somatic symptoms significantly decreased over time ( F = 4.55, p = .004), and there were group differences in child depressive behaviors ( F = 6.19, p = .020). These findings suggest that a parent-focused intervention program demonstrated positive preliminary effects on children's behaviors.

  19. Effect of presurgical orthopedics on oral-health related quality of life in Chilean children with cleft lip and palate. A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Christian Aravena

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of Presurgical Orthopedics (PSO on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate (CLP treated in two hospitals in Chile using the Spanish version of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP-Sp. Method: Cross-sectional study, involving 42 children with CLP (mean age 12±2.1 years; 28 men who attended their annual checkup at the main Hospital of Valdivia and at the Hospital Fundacion Gantz in Santiago, Chile, between March and April 2016. Those who met the selection criteria were applied the COHIP-Sp scale. Based on their medical records, patients who used PSO as treatment protocol were classified as "PSO". Those who did not receive treatment with the appliance were classified as "Non-PSO". The score of the COHIP-Sp scale and its domains between the two groups was compared (t-test, p<0.05. Results: Twenty-five patients (59.5% used PSO. COHIP-Sp score was 91.7±26.2 points in the PSO group, and 81.2±30.9 points in the Non-PSO group. There was no statistically significant difference (p=0.24. Conclusion: OHRQoL of patients with CLP treated with PSO was similar to that of patients not treated with PSO.

  20. Protocol for a randomised pilot multiple centre trial of conservative versus liberal oxygenation targets in critically ill children (Oxy-PICU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth A L; Ramnarayan, Padmanabhan; Raman, Sainath; Inwald, David; Grocott, Michael P W; Eaton, Simon; Ray, Samiran; Griksaitis, Michael J; Pappachan, John; Wiley, Daisy; Mouncey, Paul R; Wulff, Jerome; Harrison, David A; Rowan, Kathryn M; Peters, Mark J

    2017-12-14

    Optimal targets for systemic oxygenation in paediatric critical illness are unknown. Observational data indicate that high levels of arterial oxygenation are associated with poor outcomes in resuscitation of the newborn and in adult critical illness. Within paediatric intensive care units (PICUs), staff prevent severe hypoxia wherever possible, but beyond this there is no consensus. Practice varies widely with age, diagnosis, treating doctor and local or national guidelines followed, though peripheral blood oxygen saturations (SpO 2 ) of >95% are often targeted. The overall aim of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility of performing a randomised trial in critically ill children comparing current practice of liberal SpO 2 targets with a more conservative target. Oxy-PICU is a pragmatic, open, pilot randomised controlled trial in infants and children requiring mechanical ventilation and receiving supplemental oxygen for abnormal gas exchange accepted for emergency admission to one of three participating UK PICUs. The study groups will be either a conservative SpO 2 target of 88%-92% (inclusive) or a liberal SpO 2 target of >94%. Infants and children who fulfil all inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria will be randomised 1:1 by a secure web-based system to one of the two groups. Baseline demographics and clinical status will be recorded as well as daily measures of oxygenation and organ support. Discharge outcomes will also be recorded. In addition to observational data, blood and urine samples will be taken to identify biochemical markers of oxidative stress. Outcomes are targeted at assessing study feasibility with a primary outcome of adequate study recruitment (target: 120 participants). The trial received Health Research Authority approval on 1 June 2017 (16/SC/0617). Study findings will be disseminated in national and international conferences and peer-reviewed journals. NCT03040570. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  1. Low-cost virtual reality intervention program for children with developmental coordination disorder: a pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Tal; Weiss, Patrice L; Orian, Danielle; Laufer, Yocheved

    2013-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of using a low-cost, off-the-shelf virtual reality (VR) game to treat young children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and to determine the effect of this intervention on motor function. Nine children, aged 4 to 6 years, referred to physical therapy because of suspected DCD participated in 10 game-based intervention sessions. Outcome measures included Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (M-ABC-2), the DCD Questionnaire (DCD-Q), the 6-minute walk test, and 10-m walk test. Statistically significant changes were observed in the total standard score (P = .024) and the balance subscore (P = .012) of the M-ABC-2 and in the DCD-Q (P VR environment. VR games seemed to be beneficial in improving the children's motor function.

  2. Are teaching principles associated with improved motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder? A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Schoemaker, Marina M.; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.

    Background and Purpose. Physical therapists' teaching skills often are disregarded, in research studies. We examined whether the use of. different teaching principles during neuromotor task training was associated with treatment effects. Subjects. Nineteen children (mean age = 7 years 5 months,

  3. Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing Functions in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Jin Song

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that OST and NMES facilitated swallowing functions than OST and sham–NMES in children with CP and dysphagia. Future studies need to utilise video fluoroscopy swallowing study for outcome measurements in a large participant group.

  4. Executive functions in preschool children with cerebral palsy--Assessment and early intervention--A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kristian; Liverød, Janne Risholm; Lerdal, Bjørn; Vestrheim, Ida E; Skranes, Jon

    2016-01-01

    To assess the level of executive functioning among preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) and evaluate effects of the Program Intensified habilitation (PIH). In this non-randomized, prospective study, 15 preschool children with CP, and their parents attended the PIH for a 1-year period. Executive functions were evaluated using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive functions-Preschool version (BRIEF-P), filled out by parents and preschool teachers. Before PIH, scores of executive function difficulties were close to the general population mean. After PIH, fathers and preschool teachers reported reduced levels of executive difficulties on, respectively, the Emergent Metacognition Index and the Flexibility Index on the BRIEF-P. Mothers reported no changes. The children in our sample showed age-appropriate levels of executive functions before attending PIH. Some aspects of executive skills difficulties were reduced after PIH. Using BRIEF-P contributed to the differentiation of cognitive strengths and weaknesses among the children.

  5. Social Communication Anxiety Treatment (S-CAT) for children and families with selective mutism: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Evelyn R; Armstrong, Sharon Lee; Skira, Kathryn; Gordon, Janice

    2017-01-01

    This research assessed the feasibility of Social Communication Anxiety Treatment (S-CAT) developed by Elisa Shipon-Blum, a brief multimodal approach, to increase social communication in 40 children aged 5-12 years with selective mutism (SM). SM is a disorder in which children consistently fail to speak in specific situations although they have the ability to do so. Key features of this approach are the SM-Social Communication Comfort Scale (SCCS), transfer of control (ToC), a nonchalant therapeutic style, and cognitive-behavioral strategies over a brief time frame. Following 9 weeks of treatment, children showed significant gains in speaking frequency on all 17 items from the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ), a standardized measure of SM severity. Children also showed decreased levels of anxiety and withdrawal as reported by parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). SM initial symptom severity and family therapy compliance, but not duration of SM, contributed to treatment outcomes.

  6. The effect of gender and ethnicity on children's attitudes and preferences for essential oils: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Maura; Culbert, Timothy; Finkelstein, Marsha; Green, Mindy; Johnson, Anjanette; Chen, Song

    2007-01-01

    Aromatherapy is frequently recommended for children but children's preferences for specific essential oils are not well documented. To measure preferences of school aged children for essential oils based on gender and ethnicity. Descriptive study measuring children's responses to and preferences for selected essential oils. Pediatric integrative medicine clinic in a Midwestern children's hospital. Healthy school-age children of Latino (N = 39) and non-Latino Caucasian (NLC) (N = 48) ethnicity, 41.7% of the NLC group and 59.0% of the Latino Group were males. Participants smelled single essential oils, answered three forced choice questions and one open ended question, order of exposure was varied. Participants evaluated each scent's effect on mood and energy, stated their preferences, indicated if scents evoked particular thoughts and selected a favorite essential oil. Females were more likely to feel happy when smelling sweet orange (p = .043). Female Latinos were more likely than NLC females to find sweet orange calming (56.2% vs. 18.5%). Male Latinos were more likely (65.2%) to describe peppermint as "energetic" than male NLC (30%). Children chose an essential oil that they rated as "making them feel happy" (72.6%) and/or as "liking the most" (64.3%). Other results that approached statistical significance were: females felt more energetic with spearmint (p = .055). Latinos preferred spearmint over NLC (p = .075), and all males felt more energetic when smelling ginger (p = .091). Ginger and lavender were the least preferred. Results indicate that children have specific essential oil scent preferences. There is trend toward differences based on gender and ethnicity.

  7. Effectiveness of behavioral vaccine on the oral health of children in Komarapalayam, South India: A randomized controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Umamaheswari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health education and promotion have emerged as a strong force against the traditional, dominant, and curative model of health practice. In pediatric dentistry, the utilization of an entertaining, easy to understand, and practical educational material is warranted. Behavioral vaccine is a simple, scientifically proven practice that is repeated to increase well-being. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of conventional (instructional dental hygiene program and “Good Behavior Game” (GBG (contingency dental hygiene program – a behavioral vaccine on the practice of oral hygiene among 5–7-year-old schoolchildren. Study Design: A total of sixty children aged 5–7 years were divided into two groups. Each group had thirty children. Materials and Methods: A pretest estimation of debris index-simplified (DI-S was carried out. Children in Group A were given oral health education through instructional oral hygiene program. Children in Group B were allowed to participate in GBG daily for a week. The DI-S was recorded on the 8th day and 3 months after the intervention in both the groups. Results: In Group B, the good oral hygiene score dramatically increased from 10% to 93.3% 1 week after the intervention. There was a relative decrease in percentage of children who scored fair and poor also. At the end of 3-month follow-up, 90% of children had good oral hygiene. In Group A, there was a significant improvement in oral hygiene after 1 week, but it was not significant after 3 months. Conclusion: The present study was undertaken to advance the area of behavioral vaccine as an alternative for teaching basic oral health concepts in children. In this study, the GBG was found to be an effective intervention aid for educating children.

  8. Clustering of unhealthy food around German schools and its influence on dietary behavior in school children: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Christoph; Boernhorst, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Huybrechts, Inge; Pala, Valeria; Reisch, Lucia; Pigeot, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Background The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy foods leads to its higher consumption in children. Studies that support these relationships have primarily been conducted in the U.S. or Australia, but rarely in European communities. We used data of...

  9. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ae-Na; Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-...

  10. The health belief model and determinants of oral hygiene practices and beliefs in preteen children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kimberly; Jackson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    There is limited understanding of children's behavioral decisions for practicing good oral hygiene. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that may motivate children to practice good oral hygiene. Guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM), eight focus groups of 42 American children (second through fifth graders) were interviewed concerning their histories with caries, perceived confidence in brushing, self-perceived susceptibility and vulnerability for caries and/or poor oral health, and perceived benefits and barriers to practicing oral hygiene. Most children equated good oral health as being central to their overall health; however, some viewed poor oral health as occurring only in the elderly while others believed poor oral health could begin at any age. Children cited esthetic appearance of teeth and the desire to please others by brushing without reminders as motivators of good oral hygiene. The greatest barriers to performing oral hygiene were a perceived lack of time and limited access to toothbrushes and dentifrice when away. To motivate children in this age range, emphasis should be placed on the positive aspects of maintaining good oral hygiene for its contribution to appearance and its implication for an overall healthy body and self-image.

  11. Feasibility and acceptability of ambulatory glucose profile in children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Rai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin administration and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG are pillars in the management of diabetes in children. Introduction of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM has made it possible to understand the glycemic profiles which are not picked up by SMBG. Recent advent of flash glucose monitoring with inbuilt software to obtain ambulatory glucose profile (AGP has emerged as a novel method to study glycemic patterns in adults with Type I diabetes. However, the use of AGP in children is yet to be explored. Methods: AGP was used in 46 children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Feasibility was measured regarding data and sensor failure. Acceptability was measured using a questionnaire. Results: Forty-six children (22 girls and 24 boys with a mean age of 10.07 years and mean diabetes duration of 3.4 years were included in the study. In this cohort, for 30 (65.21% subjects, the sensor remained in situ for a complete duration of 14 days. Except for minor discomfort, AGP was well accepted by most of the children and their parents. Conclusion: AGP is a feasible option for monitoring glycemic status in children with diabetes with a high rate of acceptance.

  12. Collaborating With Parents of Children With Chronic Conditions and Professionals to Design, Develop and Pre-pilot PLAnT (the Parent Learning Needs and Preferences Assessment Tool).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Ruth; Wirz, Lucy; Cook, Wendy; Swallow, Veronica

    This study aimed to design, develop and pre-pilot an assessment tool (PLAnT) to identify parents' learning needs and preferences when carrying out home-based clinical care for their child with a chronic condition. A mixed methods, two-phased design was used. Phase 1: a total of 10 parents/carers and 13 professionals from six UK's children's kidney units participated in qualitative interviews. Interview data were used to develop the PLAnT. Eight of these participants subsequently took part in an online survey to refine the PLAnT. Phase 2: thirteen parents were paired with one of nine professionals to undertake a pre-pilot evaluation of PLAnT. Data were analyzed using the Framework approach. A key emergent theme identifying parents' learning needs and preferences was identified. The importance of professionals being aware of parents' learning needs and preferences was recognised. Participants discussed how parents' learning needs and preferences should be identified, including: the purpose for doing this, the process for doing this, and what would the outcome be of identifying parents' needs. The evidence suggests that asking parents directly about their learning needs and preferences may be the most reliable way for professionals to ascertain how to support individual parents' learning when sharing management of their child's chronic condition. With the increasing emphasis on parent-professional shared management of childhood chronic conditions, professionals can be guided by PLAnT in their assessment of parents' learning needs and preferences, based on identified barriers and facilitators to parental learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Technology-assisted language intervention for children who are deaf or hard-of-hearing; a pilot study of augmentative and alternative communication for enhancing language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; McAuley, Rose; Smith, Laura; Grether, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    Pilot study to assess the effect of augmentative and alternative communication technology to enhance language development in children who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. Five children ages 5-10 years with permanent bilateral hearing loss who were identified with language underperformance participated in an individualized 24-week structured program using the application TouchChat WordPower on iPads ® . Language samples were analyzed for changes in mean length of utterance, vocabulary words and mean turn length. Repeated measures models assessed change over time. The baseline median mean length of utterance was 2.41 (range 1.09-6.63; mean 2.88) and significantly increased over time (p = 0.002) to a median of 3.68 at final visit (range 1.97-6.81; mean 3.62). At baseline, the median total number of words spoken per language sample was 251 (range 101-458), with 100 (range 36-100) different words spoken. Total words and different words significantly increased over time (β = 26.8 (7.1), p = 0.001 for total words; β = 8.0 (2.7), p = 0.008 for different words). Mean turn length values also slightly increased over time. Using augmentative and alternative communication technology on iPads ® shows promise in supporting rapid language growth among elementary school-age children who are deaf or hard-of-hearing with language underperformance.

  14. Core stability exercise is as effective as task-oriented motor training in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Mei K; Chan, Wai M; Lee, Lin; Chen, Tracy Mk; Chau, Rosanna Mw; Pang, Marco Yc

    2014-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a core stability program with a task-oriented motor training program in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Randomized controlled pilot trial. Outpatient unit in a hospital. Twenty-two children diagnosed with DCD aged 6-9 years were randomly allocated to the core stability program or the task-oriented motor program. Both groups underwent their respective face-to-face training session once per week for eight consecutive weeks. They were also instructed to carry out home exercises on a daily basis during the intervention period. Short Form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Second Edition) and Sensory Organization Test at pre- and post-intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant between-group difference in the change of motor proficiency standard score (P=0.717), and composite equilibrium score derived from the Sensory Organization Test (P=0.100). Further analysis showed significant improvement in motor proficiency in both the core stability (mean change (SD)=6.3(5.4); p=0.008) and task-oriented training groups (mean change(SD)=5.1(4.0); P=0.007). The composite equilibrium score was significantly increased in the task-oriented training group (mean change (SD)=6.0(5.5); P=0.009), but not in the core stability group (mean change(SD) =0.0(9.6); P=0.812). In the task-oriented training group, compliance with the home program was positively correlated with change in motor proficiency (ρ=0.680, P=0.030) and composite equilibrium score (ρ=0.638, P=0.047). The core stability exercise program is as effective as task-oriented training in improving motor proficiency among children with DCD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Usability testing and piloting of the Mums Step It Up program--a team-based social networking physical activity intervention for women with young children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Kernot

    Full Text Available Women's physical activity levels decline during their transition to parenthood. Facebook is widely used by Australian mothers and provides the opportunity to target social networks in order to maintain and increase physical activity.This mixed method study aimed to pilot and assess the usability of the Mums Step It Up Facebook app, a new team-based physical activity intervention for mothers with young children. A purposive sample of five "Captain" women with young children, were recruited through personal contacts. These women used the app to recruit 3-7 Facebook friends (with children under 5 to join their respective teams (total n = 25. The app encourages women to take 10,000 steps a day measured by a pedometer. Women used the app for 28 days to log steps, interact with team mates and monitor progress. Physical activity was assessed at two time points (baseline and final week using the Active Australia Survey. Usability testing with the five "Captain" women took place over two one hour face-to-face sessions. A questionnaire seeking feedback on the app was completed at time point two.Participants' total physical activity increased by an average of 177 minutes per week (p = 0.01. The complexity of the team forming process and issues using the Facebook environment, where a variety of devices and software platforms are used, was highlighted.A team-based Facebook app shows considerable promise for the recruitment and retention of participants to a social network-based physical activity intervention. A randomised controlled trial to further evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention is warranted.

  16. Toxic metal levels in children residing in a smelting craft village in Vietnam: a pilot biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Miller, Sloane K; Nguyen, Viet; Kotch, Jonathan B; Fry, Rebecca C

    2014-02-04

    In Vietnam, environmental pollution caused by small-scale domestic smelting of automobile batteries into lead ingot is a growing concern. The village of Nghia Lo is a smelting craft village located roughly 25 km southeast of Hanoi in the Red River Delta. Despite the concern of toxic metal exposure in the village, biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the body burden of toxic metals in children residing in a smelting craft village. Twenty children from Nghia Lo, Vietnam, ages 18 months to four years were selected for capillary whole blood and toenail biomonitoring. Whole blood lead levels (BLLs) were measured using a portable lead analyzer, and toenail levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The findings show that all of the 20 children had detectable BLLs, and every child had levels that exceeded the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline level of 5 μg/dL. Eighty percent of tested subjects had BLLs higher than 10 μg/dL. Five children (25%) had BLLs greater than 45 μg/dL, the level of recommended medical intervention. In addition to blood lead, all of the children had detectable levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury in toenail samples. Notably, average toenail lead, manganese, and mercury levels were 157 μg/g, 7.41 μg/g, and 2.63 μg/g respectively, well above levels previously reported in children. Significant Spearman's rank correlations showed that there were relationships between blood and toenail lead levels (r = 0.65, p toxic metals. There is an urgent need for mitigation to control metal exposure related to domestic smelting.

  17. Pilot study using transcutaneous electrical stimulation (interferential current) to treat chronic treatment-resistant constipation and soiling in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Janet; Robertson, Val J; Southwell, Bridget; Hutson, John; Gibb, Susie

    2005-07-01

    Chronic constipation in children may have organic or behavioral causes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of treatment with transcutaneous electrical stimulation (using interferential current) in children with chronic treatment-resistant constipation with proven organic disorders. Eight children (7-16 years) with at least 4 years of chronic treatment-resistant constipation and soiling, who had failed diet, laxative treatment and behavioral therapy were given 1 month of transcutaneous electrical stimulation. The three most severe cases had appendicostomies with antegrade washouts every 2-3 days to prevent impaction and reduce their soiling. Children and carers kept a daily diary of bowel habits, recording number of spontaneous defecations, episodes of soiling, use of bowel washouts and medications. Transcutaneous stimulation using interferential current was applied three times per week for 3-4 weeks using four surface electrodes, two to the paraspinal area of T9-10 to L2 and one to either side of the anterior abdominal wall beneath the costal margin. Diaries were recorded for 1 month before, during, and after stimulation and for 2 weeks 3 months later. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation using interferential current stopped soiling in 7/8 children and increased the frequency of spontaneous defecations in 5/8. Defecations remained high and soiling low for 3 months in 3/6 children (with data). These results suggest that transcutaneous electrical stimulation using interferential current has a beneficial effect for children with chronic treatment-resistant constipation. Further trials using larger series of patients are needed to confirm this benefit, to determine the ideal stimulation parameters and to investigate why electrical stimulation might be effective. (c) 2005 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Effects of trunk-hip strengthening on standing in children with spastic diplegia: a comparative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joong-Hwi; Seo, Hye-Jung

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of trunk-hip strengthening exercise on trunk-hip activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing in children with spastic diplegia and compared the improvement of pelvic tilt between the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise and conventional exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Ten ambulant children with spastic diplegia were randomized to the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise (n = 5) or conventional exercise (n = 5) group. The intervention consisted of a 6-week modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise 3 times per week. The children were tested for trunk-hip muscles activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing by surface electromyography and an inclinometer before and after the intervention. [Results] The anterior pelvic tilt angle and activation of the extensor spinae, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus during standing decreased significantly in the modified exercise group. The activation of extensor spinae differed significantly between groups. [Conclusion] Compared to the conventional exercise, the modified exercise was more effective for trunk-hip activation improvement and anterior pelvic tilt motion decrease during standing in children with spastic diplegia. We suggest clinicians use an individually tailored modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise for strengthening the weakest muscle groups in children with standing ability problems.

  19. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    be difficult to plan and conduct. It is sometimes assumed that pilot implementations are less complicated and risky than ordinary implementations. Pilot implementations are, however, neither prototyping nor small-scale versions of full-scale implementations; they are fundamentally different and have their own...

  20. Effect of hippotherapy on motor control, adaptive behaviors, and participation in children with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzenman, Heather F; Standeven, John W; Shurtleff, Tim L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether hippotherapy increased function and participation in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We hypothesized improvements in motor control, which might increase adaptive behaviors and participation in daily activities. Six children with ASD ages 5-12 participated in 12 weekly 45-min hippotherapy sessions. Measures pre- and post-hippotherapy included the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II and the Child Activity Card Sort. Motor control was measured preintervention and postintervention using a video motion capture system and force plates. Postural sway significantly decreased postintervention. Significant increases were observed in overall adaptive behaviors (receptive communication and coping) and in participation in self-care, low-demand leisure, and social interactions. These results suggest that hippotherapy has a positive influence on children with ASD and can be a useful treatment tool for this population. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  1. Cognitive Inhibitory Control and Arithmetic Word Problem Solving in Children with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigem Sabagh-Sabbagh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 30 subjects, 10 with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD and 20 non-ADHD children, statistically controlled byage, gender, academic grades and normal full scale intelligence quotient,was selected. To measure cognitive inhibitory control, a math problem solving ability test containing four problems for each level with verbal and numerical irrelevant content was administered. ADHD children exhibited significantly inferior performance in choosing correct answers (p = 0.011 with a large effect size (d = 1.00 and a significantly superior number of irrelevant answers (p = 0.004 with a very large effect size. In conclusion ADHD children showed a cognitive inhibitory control disorder, measured by math problem solving ability.

  2. Prevention and early intervention of anxiety problems in young children: A pilot evaluation of Cool Little Kids Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Morgan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are common, debilitating, and begin early in life. Early intervention to prevent anxiety disorders in children who are at risk could have long-term impact. The ‘Cool Little Kids’ parenting group program has previously been shown to be efficacious in preventing anxiety disorders in temperamentally inhibited young children. Wider dissemination of the program could be achieved with an internet-based delivery platform, affording greater accessibility and convenience for parents. The aim of this study was to evaluate ‘Cool Little Kids Online’, a newly developed online version of the existing parenting group program. Fifty-one parents of children aged 3–6 years were recruited to evaluate the online program's acceptability and preliminary efficacy in reducing inhibited young children's anxiety problems. Parents were randomized to receive either a clinician-supported version or an unsupported version of the program. Parents had 10 weeks to access the program and completed questionnaires at baseline and post-intervention. Both groups showed medium-to-large reductions in children's anxiety symptoms, emotional symptoms, number of child anxiety diagnoses, and improvements in life interference from anxiety. The effect of clinician support was inconsistent and difficult to interpret. Parents reported high levels of satisfaction with the program. These encouraging results indicate that the online version is acceptable and useful for parents with temperamentally inhibited young children. Cool Little Kids Online may be a promising direction for improving access to an evidence-based prevention and early intervention program for child anxiety problems. A large randomized trial is warranted to further evaluate efficacy.

  3. A pilot study: Horticulture-related activities significantly reduce stress levels and salivary cortisol concentration of maladjusted elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Oh, Wook; Jang, Ja Soon; Lee, Ju Young

    2018-04-01

    The effects of three horticulture-related activities (HRAs), including floral arranging, planting, and flower pressing were compared to see if they influenced changes on a stress scale and on salivary cortisol concentrations (SCC) in maladjusted elementary school children. Twenty maladjusted elementary school children were randomly assigned either to an experimental or control group. The control group carried out individual favorite indoor activities under the supervision of a teacher. Simultaneously, the ten children in the experimental group participated in a HRA program consisting of flower arrangement (FA), planting (P), and flower pressing (PF) activities, in which the other ten children in the control group did not take part. During nine sessions, the activities were completed as follows: FA-FA-FA, P-P-P, and PF-PF-PF; each session lasted 40 min and took place once a week. For the quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol, saliva was collected from the experimental group one week before the HRAs and immediately after the activities for 9 consecutive weeks at the same time each session. In the experimental group, stress scores of interpersonal relationship, school life, personal problems, and home life decreased after the HRAs by 1.3, 1.8, 4.2, and 1.3 points, respectively. In particular, the stress score of school life was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In addition, from the investigation of the SCCs for the children before and after repeating HRAs three times, it was found that flower arrangement, planting, and flower pressing activities reduced the SCCs by ≥37% compared to the SCCs prior to taking part in the HRAs. These results indicate that HRAs are associated with a reduction in the stress levels of maladjusted elementary school children. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Guimarães, Rachel Silvany Quadros; Jagersbacher, João Gabriel; Barretto, Thiago Lima; de Jesus-Silva, Jéssica Regina; Santos, Samantha Nunes; Argollo, Nayara; Lucena, Rita

    2016-06-01

    Studies investigating the possible benefits of transcranial direct current stimulation on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been performed. This study assesses the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD on neuropsychological tests of visual attention, visual and verbal working memory, and inhibitory control. An auto-matched clinical trial was performed involving transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD, using SNAP-IV and subtests Vocabulary and Cubes of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III). Subjects were assessed before and after transcranial direct current stimulation sessions with the Digit Span subtest of the WISC-III, inhibitory control subtest of the NEPSY-II, Corsi cubes, and the Visual Attention Test (TAVIS-3). There were 9 individuals with ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) criteria. There was statistically significant difference in some aspects of TAVIS-3 tests and the inhibitory control subtest of NEPSY-II. Transcranial direct current stimulation can be related to a more efficient processing speed, improved detection of stimuli, and improved ability to switch between an ongoing activity and a new one. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Facilitated Playgroups to Promote Speech and Language Skills of Young Children with Communication Delays: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Katherine B.; Towson, Jacqueline A.; Head, Cynthia; Janowski, Brittany; Smith, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Family-centered practices that build caregiver capacity are a central focus of early intervention services for young children with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of adapting the "Parents Interacting with Infants" (PIWI) facilitated playgroup model to target effective communication strategies for…

  6. Evaluation of constipation after parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Maria Luiza; Lordêlo, Patrícia; Farias, Tiago; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for the treatment of constipation in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). We treated 9 boys and 5 girls with a mean age of 8.07 ± 2.72 years. 10 (71.4%) had overactive bladder and 4 (28.6%) had voiding dysfunction. A total of 20 parasacral TENS sessions, 20 min each (10 Hz), were performed 3 times per week. The criteria used to assess constipation were the Rome III criteria for children, the Bristol Stool Chart, and a visual analog scale (pain from 0 to 10). The children were reassessed immediately after treatment. No specific treatment of constipation was performed. After treatment, 85.7% (p incontinence per week", "history of stool retention", and "the presence of a large fecal mass in the rectum." There was no significant change in the Bristol Stool Chart evaluation (p urinary symptoms evaluated showed improvement after TENS treatment. There was a decrease in post-void residual urine. In this first study to evaluate the results of parasacral TENS on constipation in children with LUTD, satisfactory results were obtained for both complaints. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of a Brief Psychoeducational Intervention for Mothers of Children with Breath-Holding Spells: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Nurullah; Eliacik, Kayi; Sargin, Enis; Kanik, Ali; Baydan, Figen; Sarioglu, Berrak

    2016-08-01

    Objective Mothers of individuals with breath-holding spells (BHS) suffer more often from anxiety and experience more stressors in their everyday life. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of psychoeducational intervention in reducing BHS and coping with these spells. Participants and Methods Mothers who have children with BHS were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: an intervention group receiving psychoeducational therapy in addition to the routine follow-up (n = 31) and a control group who did not receive psychoeducation in their routine follow-up (n = 28). The data collected at the beginning of the study and at the end of 3rd and 6th months about the frequency of the spells per month, maternal anxiety, and depression levels and mothers' perceived self-knowledge about coping BHS of both groups were compared. Results Mothers in psychoeducation group, compared with controls, improved significantly on state anxiety, depression, perceived anticipation anxiety level for BHS of their children and self-knowledge about coping with the spells. Conclusion The intervention program had a positive effect on anxiety-depression levels of the mothers and the frequency of BHS among the children. The possible link between emotional and autonomic dysregulation in children with BHS and maternal mental health were discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. A Pilot Survey of Food Frequencies, Meal Frequencies and Meal Patterns of Preschool Children in East Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    The food frequency, meal frequency, and meal patterns of a group of Mexican American children attending Head Start in East Los Angeles and their siblings were studied. Fifty dietary questionnaires in English and in Spanish with written instructions were distributed to parents. Parents were asked to record for a 3 day period the eating time, type…

  9. The Relationship between Motor Skill Proficiency and Body Mass Index in Children with and without Dyslexia: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, S. Wood; Getchell, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the authors wanted to examine the associations of motor proficiency and body composition in children with and without dyslexia. They hypothesized there would be a negative relationship between body composition (measured by body mass index [BMI]) and motor proficiency (measured by MABC [Movement…

  10. A Parent Education Program for Parents of Chinese American Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a parent education program on decreasing parenting stress and increasing parental confidence and quality of life in parents of Chinese American children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A pre-, posttest group design was used in this study. A total of nine families of Chinese American…

  11. Taekwondo Training Improves Mood and Sociability in Children from Multicultural Families in South Korea: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hee-Tae; Cho, Su-Youn; So, Wi-Young

    2018-04-16

    Children from multicultural families face physical, social, mental, and intellectual hurdles; however, relative interventions are lacking in South Korea (hereafter Korea) in this regard. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of regular Taekwondo (TKD) training on physical fitness, mood, sociability, and cognitive functions in these children. This study included 30 children from multicultural families in Korea who were randomly assigned to a TKD group ( n = 15) and control group ( n = 15). The children in TKD group underwent 16 weeks of TKD training once a week for 60 min. Each participant underwent a basic fitness test and sociability questionnaire before and after the intervention. Furthermore, we examined the changes in the mood and cognitive function by determining the profile of mood states (POMS), and Stroop color and word test, respectively. Results of the Stork test of balance were significantly higher in the TKD group after intervention ( p training can be effective for balanced improvements in variables of basic fitness and that it exerts a positive effect on the mood and development of sociability.

  12. Hip Hop HEALS: Pilot Study of a Culturally Targeted Calorie Label Intervention to Improve Food Purchases of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Sawyer, Vanessa; Apakama, Donald; Shaffer, Michele; Gerin, William; Noble, James

    2016-02-01

    We explored the effect of a culturally targeted calorie label intervention on food purchasing behavior of elementary school students. We used a quasi-experimental design with two intervention schools and one control school to assess food purchases of third through fifth graders at standardized school food sales before and after the intervention (immediate and delayed) in schools. The intervention comprised three 1-hour assembly-style hip-hop-themed multimedia classes. A mean total of 225 children participated in two baseline preintervention sales with and without calorie labels; 149 children participated in immediate postintervention food sales, while 133 children participated in the delayed sales. No significant change in purchased calories was observed in response to labels alone before the intervention. However, a mean decline in purchased calories of 20% (p < .01) and unhealthy foods (p < .01) was seen in immediately following the intervention compared to baseline purchases, and this persisted without significant decay after 7 days and 12 days. A 3-hour culturally targeted calorie label intervention may improve food-purchasing behavior of children. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  13. A Pilot Study of Telepractice for Teaching Listening and Spoken Language to Mandarin-Speaking Children with Congenital Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Telepractice provides an alternative form of auditory-verbal therapy (eAVT) intervention through videoconferencing; this can be of immense benefit for children with hearing loss, especially those living in rural or remote areas. The effectiveness of eAVT for the language development of Mandarin-speaking preschoolers with hearing loss was…

  14. Brief Report: Remotely Delivered Video Modeling for Improving Oral Hygiene in Children with ASD: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Ben; Wall, Carla; Flink, Lilli; Powell, Kelly; Discepolo, Keri; Keck, Douglas; Mademtzi, Marilena; Volkmar, Fred; Shic, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism have heightened risk of developing oral health problems. Interventions targeting at-home oral hygiene habits may be the most effective means of improving oral hygiene outcomes in this population. This randomized control trial examined the effectiveness of a 3-week video-modeling brushing intervention delivered to patients over…

  15. Exploring story grammar structure in the book reading interactions of African American mothers and their preschool children: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Yvette R; Rothstein, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions.

  16. Effects of a Short Teacher Training Programme on the Management of Children's Sexual Behaviours: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnaud, Jean-Paul; Turner, William

    2015-01-01

    This small-scale quasi-experimental study set out to examine the effects of a brief training programme aiming to develop primary school teachers' knowledge, attitudes and confidence in recognising and responding to children who display sexual behaviours. Data on prevalence of sexual behaviours observed by teachers in the study, their level of…

  17. The effect of a hippotherapy session on spatiotemporal parameters of gait in children with cerebral palsy - pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikowska, Faustyna; Jóźwiak, Marek; Idzior, Maciej; Chen, Po-Jung Brian; Tarnowski, Dariusz

    2013-06-28

    Hippotherapy has been shown to produce beneficial effects by improving the most difficult motor functions, such as sitting, running, jumping, coordination, as well as balance and muscle strength in children with motor developmental delays. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of hippotherapy on spatiotemporal parameters of gait in cerebrally palsied children. 16 ambulatory cerebrally palsied children (GMFCS Level I-III; Female: 10, Male: 6; Age: 5.7-17.5 years old) qualified for hippotherapy were investigated. Basic spatiotemporal parameters of gait, including walking speed, cadence, step length, stride length and the left-right symmetry, were collected using a three-dimensional accelerometer device (DynaPort MiniMod) before and immediately after a hippotherapy session. The Wilcoxon test was used to verify the differences between pre- and post-session results. Changes of walking speed were statistically significant. With the exception of step length, all spatiotemporal parameters improved, i.e. were closer to the respective reference ranges after the session. However, these changes were not statistically significant. One session of hippotherapy may have a significant effect on the spatiotemporal parameters of gait in cerebrally palsied children.

  18. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ae-Na; Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  19. Importance of Quality of Life Issues: A Pilot Comparison of Teachers and Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Frederick, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) issues for parents and teachers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are important to investigate. Independence, social functioning, school functioning and participating in leisure activities are some of the quality of life indicators that parents and teachers must agree upon to ensure effective communication and…

  20. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  1. Effectiveness of a Fundamental Motor Skill Intervention for 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…

  2. The Role of Ethnicity in School-Based Obesity Intervention for School-Aged Children: A Pilot Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczewski, Sabrina A.; Carter, Jocelyn S.; DeCator, Draycen D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rates of obesity have risen disproportionately for ethnic minority youth in the United States. School-based programs may be the most comprehensive and cost-effective way to implement primary prevention in children. In this study we evaluated the effect of a school-based obesity prevention on the outcome of body mass index percentile…

  3. Quantitative MR characterization of disease activity in the knee in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a longitudinal pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workie, Dagnachew W.; Graham, T.B.; Laor, Tal; Racadio, Judy M.; Rajagopal, Akila; O'Brien, Kendall J.; Bommer, Wendy A.; Shire, Norah J.; Dardzinski, Bernard J.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a quantifiable and noninvasive method of monitoring disease activity and response to therapy is vital for arthritis management. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) based on pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling to evaluate disease activity in the knee and correlate the results with the clinical assessment in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). A group of 17 children with JIA underwent longitudinal clinical and laboratory assessment and DCE-MRI of the knee at enrollment, 3 months, and 12 months. A PK model was employed using MRI signal enhancement data to give three parameters, K trans ' (min -1 ), k ep (min -1 ), and V p ' and to calculate synovial volume. The PK parameters, synovial volumes, and clinical and laboratory assessments in most children were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) at 12 months when compared to the enrollment values. There was excellent correlation between the PK and synovial volume and the clinical and laboratory assessments. Differences in MR and clinical parameter values in individual subjects illustrate persistent synovitis when in clinical remission. A decrease in PK parameter values obtained from DCE-MRI in children with JIA likely reflects diminution of disease activity. This technique may be used as an objective follow-up measure of therapeutic efficacy in patients with JIA. MR imaging can detect persistent synovitis in patients considered to be in clinical remission. (orig.)

  4. Oral use of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in children with secretory otitis media: preliminary results of a pilot, uncontrolled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Daniele Di Pasquale,2 Maurizio Di Cicco2 1Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2ORL Department, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico Ca’ Grande IRCCS, Milan, Italy Abstract: Secretory otitis media (SOM remains a common disease among children. Although its cause is not yet perfectly established, the pathology, often a sequel of acute otitis media (AOM, is mainly characterized by persistent fluid in the middle ear cavity. Twenty-two children with a diagnosis of SOM were treated daily for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®. After treatment, the children were evaluated for AOM episodes and subjected to tone audiometry, tympanometry, endonasal endoscopy, otoscopy, and tonsillar examination. Subject compliance and probiotic tolerability and side effects have also been evaluated. Our results indicate a good safety profile, a substantial reduction of AOM episodes, and a positive outcome from the treatment for all of the clinical outcomes tested. We conclude that strain K12 may have a role in reducing the occurrence and/or severity of SOM in children. From our perspective, this study constitutes a starting point toward the organization of a more extensive placebo-controlled study aimed at critically appraising our preliminary observations. Keywords: BLIS K12, Bactoblis®, acute otitis media, exudative otitis media

  5. Socio-behavioural risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC) in Cambodian preschool children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, B; Durward, C; Manton, D; Bach, K; Yos, C

    2016-04-01

    This was to explore the socio-behavioural risk factors for ECC in Cambodia. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a significant health problem in Cambodia. A convenience sample of 362 primary caregiver-child dyads were selected. The children were aged between birth and 6 years old and participated in a structured interview and intra-oral examination. ECC was diagnosed in 244 of 362 (65.6%) children and 178 (50.6%) had severe early childhood caries (sECC). There were significant associations between caries experience and tooth brushing, dietary, and nursing habits. The odds ratio (OR) for sECC in those children who started brushing before the age of 18 months was 0.41 (CI 0.18, 0.93). However, for those children who continued to breast-feed after the age of 2 years the OR was 5.31 (CI 1.50, 18.79). The most prominent risk factors for ECC in the present study were lack of tooth brushing and breast-feeding past the age of 2 years.

  6. A new visual stimulation program for improving visual acuity in children with visual impairment: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ting eTsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation for improving the visual acuity (VA of visually impaired (VI children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (3 females, 3 males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week of at least 8 sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards, visual evoked potential (VEP, and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training (VA=1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z=-2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed =0.028. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment (92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ± SD=15.4, Z=-1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed = 0.144. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders.

  7. A New Visual Stimulation Program for Improving Visual Acuity in Children with Visual Impairment: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Li-Ting; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Wu, Chien-Te; Chen, Chia-Ching; Su, Yu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS) program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation) with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation) for improving the visual acuity (VA) of visually impaired (VI) children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (three females, three males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years) with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week) of at least eight sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards), visual evoked potential (VEP), and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ) were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training [VA = 1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z = -2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.028]. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment [92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ±SD = 15.4, Z = -1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.144]. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders.

  8. A New Visual Stimulation Program for Improving Visual Acuity in Children with Visual Impairment: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Li-Ting; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Wu, Chien-Te; Chen, Chia-Ching; Su, Yu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS) program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation) with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation) for improving the visual acuity (VA) of visually impaired (VI) children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (three females, three males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years) with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week) of at least eight sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards), visual evoked potential (VEP), and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ) were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training [VA = 1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z = –2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.028]. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment [92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ±SD = 15.4, Z = –1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.144]. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders. PMID:27148014

  9. Improving sun-safe knowledge, attitude and behaviour in parents of primary school children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercato, M C; Nagore, E; Ramazzotti, V; Sperduti, I; Guillén, C

    2013-03-01

    Excessive sun exposure, mainly in childhood, represents one of the major skin cancer risk factors. Sun protection habits should start early in life to be effective. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and sun protection behaviour in parents (P) and in their children (C). The educational intervention addressed the parents of 131 primary school pupils in Valencia, Spain, during the school year 2007-2008. A self-administered pre- and post-intervention questionnaire was handed in during school hours to be filled in by parents. Parents' compliance was very high (88 %). At baseline, regular high-sun-protective-factor (>15) sunscreen use was common (P, 64 %; C, 95 %); wearing clothing (T-shirt: P, 34 %, C, 62 %; hat: P, 29 %, C, 64 %) and sun avoidance at midday (P, 23 %; C, 29 %) were less frequent. Almost 70 % of parents reported difficulties, mainly due to the children's refusal. A high knowledge score (median, 6/7) and a medium/high attitude score (median, 24/30) in parents were observed; however, lifetime sunburn history was generally reported (P, 88 %; C, 24 %). Factors associated with parents' knowledge were a personal history of sunburns and regularly repeating sunscreen application to children (median score: 6 vs 5; p ≤ 0.01) Predictors of a more favourable attitude were female caretakers and having daughters (median score: 30 vs 25 and 25 vs 24, respectively; p ≤ 0.01). A trend towards limited post-intervention positive changes emerged; however, sun avoidance habit decreased (35 vs 20 %, p = 0.01). Despite a high level of parents' knowledge, sun protection in children is not adequate, and sunburns are not uncommon. Unfavourable beliefs and attitudes need to be overcome and quality of messages improved to achieve sun-safe exposure in children.

  10. Tablet computers versus optical aids to support education and learning in children and young people with low vision: protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial, CREATE (Children Reading with Electronic Assistance To Educate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Michael D; Thomas, Rachel; Unwin, Hilary; Bharani, Seelam; Gothwal, Vijaya K; Quartilho, Ana; Bunce, Catey; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret

    2017-06-21

    Low vision and blindness adversely affect education and independence of children and young people. New 'assistive' technologies such as tablet computers can display text in enlarged font, read text out to the user, allow speech input and conversion into typed text, offer document and spreadsheet processing and give access to wide sources of information such as the internet. Research on these devices in low vision has been limited to case series. We will carry out a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess the feasibility of a full RCT of assistive technologies for children/young people with low vision. We will recruit 40 students age 10-18 years in India and the UK, whom we will randomise 1:1 into two parallel groups. The active intervention will be Apple iPads; the control arm will be the local standard low-vision aid care. Primary outcomes will be acceptance/usage, accessibility of the device and trial feasibility measures (time to recruit children, lost to follow-up). Exploratory outcomes will be validated measures of vision-related quality of life for children/young people as well as validated measures of reading and educational outcomes. In addition, we will carry out semistructured interviews with the participants and their teachers. NRES reference 15/NS/0068; dissemination is planned via healthcare and education sector conferences and publications, as well as via patient support organisations. NCT02798848; IRAS ID 179658, UCL reference 15/0570. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Tablet computers versus optical aids to support education and learning in children and young people with low vision: protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial, CREATE (Children Reading with Electronic Assistance To Educate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Michael D; Thomas, Rachel; Unwin, Hilary; Bharani, Seelam; Gothwal, Vijaya K; Quartilho, Ana; Bunce, Catey

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Low vision and blindness adversely affect education and independence of children and young people. New ‘assistive’ technologies such as tablet computers can display text in enlarged font, read text out to the user, allow speech input and conversion into typed text, offer document and spreadsheet processing and give access to wide sources of information such as the internet. Research on these devices in low vision has been limited to case series. Methods and analysis We will carry out a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess the feasibility of a full RCT of assistive technologies for children/young people with low vision. We will recruit 40 students age 10–18 years in India and the UK, whom we will randomise 1:1 into two parallel groups. The active intervention will be Apple iPads; the control arm will be the local standard low-vision aid care. Primary outcomes will be acceptance/usage, accessibility of the device and trial feasibility measures (time to recruit children, lost to follow-up). Exploratory outcomes will be validated measures of vision-related quality of life for children/young people as well as validated measures of reading and educational outcomes. In addition, we will carry out semistructured interviews with the participants and their teachers. Ethics and dissemination NRES reference 15/NS/0068; dissemination is planned via healthcare and education sector conferences and publications, as well as via patient support organisations. Trial registration number NCT02798848; IRAS ID 179658, UCL reference 15/0570. PMID:28637740

  12. Phase 1 trial of ontuxizumab (MORAb-004) in children with relapsed or refractory solid tumors: A report from the Children's Oncology Group Phase 1 Pilot Consortium (ADVL1213).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Robin E; Fox, Elizabeth; Reid, Joel M; Ralya, Andrew; Liu, Xiaowei W; Minard, Charles; Weigel, Brenda J

    2018-05-01

    Ontuxizumab is a humanized IgG monoclonal antibody that targets the cell-surface glycoprotein endosialin (tumor endothelial marker-1[TEM-1]/CD248) found on activated mesenchymal cells and certain tumors. Ontuxizumab binding to endosialin may interfere with platelet-derived growth factor signaling, prevent tumor stroma organization, and prevent new vessel formation. Ontuxizumab was administered intravenously on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of a 28-day cycle at three dose levels (4, 8, and 12 mg/kg). Further dose escalation to 16 mg/kg was planned if the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was not reached and the ontuxizumab systemic clearance was ≥30% higher in children compared to adults. Following determination of the MTD/recommended phase 2 dose, an additional cohort of six patients (children with relapsed or refractory solid tumors. The PK of ontuxizumab does not appear to be significantly different in children compared to adults. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Personal listening devices and the prevention of noise induced hearing loss in children: The cheers for ears pilot program

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    Dunay Schmulian Taljaard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether the Cheers for Ears Program on noise induced hearing loss prevention was effective in improving current knowledge of noise impact of personal listening devices on hearing, and in changing self-reported listening behavior of primary school students aged between 9 years and 13 years. A survey study was implemented at participating primary schools. Schools represented various levels of socio-economic status. Informed consent (parents and teachers and informed assent (pupils were obtained. All pupils participated in two interactive sessions (the second 6 weeks after first and only those who provided assent and consent were surveyed at three points during the study: Prior to the first session (baseline, directly post-session and at 3 months post-session. A total of 318 pupils were surveyed. The median age of the participants was 11 years (nearly 50% of the total cohort. Significant changes are reported in their knowledge about hearing and in listening behavior of the participants as measured by pre- and post-measurement. The changes in behaviors were stable and sustained at 3 months post-intervention survey point and the success of the program can be attributed to the multimodal interactive nature of the sessions, the spacing of the sessions and the survey points. Wide-ranging support from schools and departments also played a role. The pilot Cheers for Ears Program is effective in increasing knowledge on the harmful effects of noise and therefore, it may prevent future noise-induced hearing loss.

  14. Designing an iPad App to Monitor and Improve Classroom Behavior for Children with ADHD: iSelfControl Feasibility and Pilot Studies

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    Emmerson, Natasha; Ziv, Hadar; Collins, Penelope; Arastoo, Sara; Warschauer, Mark; Crinella, Francis; Lakes, Kimberley

    2016-01-01

    Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) receive approximately 80% of instruction in the general education classroom, where individualized behavioral management strategies may be difficult for teachers to consistently deliver. Mobile device apps provide promising platforms to manage behavior. This pilot study evaluated the utility of a web-based application (iSelfControl) designed to support classroom behavior management. iSelfControl prompted students every ‘Center’ (30-minutes) to self-evaluate using a universal token-economy classroom management system focused on compliance, productivity, and positive relationships. Simultaneously, the teacher evaluated each student on a separate iPad. Using Multi Level Modeling, we examined 13 days of data gathered from implementation with 5th grade students (N = 12) at a school for children with ADHD and related executive function difficulties. First, an unconditional growth model evaluated the overall amount of change in aggregated scores over time as well as the degree of systematic variation in scores within and across teacher-student dyads. Second, separate intercepts and slopes were estimated for teacher and student to estimate degree of congruency between trajectories. Finally, differences between teacher and student scores were tested at each time-point in separate models to examine unique ‘Center’ effects. 51% of the total variance in scores was attributed to differences between dyads. Trajectories of student and teacher scores remained relatively stable across seven time-points each day and did not statistically differ from each other. On any given day, students tended to evaluate their behaviors more positively (entered higher scores for themselves) compared to corresponding teacher scores. In summary, iSelfControl provides a platform for self and teacher evaluation that is an important adjunct to conventional classroom management strategies. The application captured teacher

  15. Total and soluble fluoride concentration present in various commercial brands of children toothpastes available in Saudi Arabia – A pilot study

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    Imran Farooq

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to perform chemical analysis and investigate the total and soluble fluoride concentrations in various brands of children toothpastes. Materials and methods: Three samples of five different commercial brands of children toothpastes were collected and divided into five groups; group A – Biorepair Oral Care toothpaste containing no fluoride (control, group B – Signal Kids Strawberry toothpaste having 500 ppm fluoride, group C – Aquafresh Milk Teeth toothpaste having 500 ppm fluoride, group D – Aquafresh Little Teeth toothpaste having 500 ppm fluoride, and group E – Siwak F Junior having 400 ppm F. The total fluoride (TF and total soluble fluoride (TSF concentration of the toothpastes was determined using fluoride ion selective electrode. Data were analysed using Paired sample t-test. Results: The measured TF values were inconsistent with that of the declared concentrations by the manufacturers. Mean TF found in the toothpastes ranged between 2.37 and 515.74 ppm whereas, the mean TSF ranged between 2.00 and 503.4 ppm. For two groups, TF was more than the declared TF whereas for the other three groups, it was less than the declared concentration. All the differences between the declared and observed TF concentration were statistically significant (p < .05 except for one group. All the toothpastes demonstrated mean TSF slightly lower than their respective observed mean TF concentrations. Conclusion: The analysis of TF and TSF concentrations revealed variations from the labelled claims. Therefore, some of the toothpastes may have doubtful anti-caries effectiveness owing to deficiency of total and soluble fluoride. Keywords: Fluoride, Fluoride ion electrode, Total fluoride, Total soluble fluoride, Toothpastes

  16. Experiments and Pilot Study Evaluating the Performance of Reading Miscue Detector and Automated Reading Tutor for Filipino: A Children's Speech Technology for Improving Literacy

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    Ronald M. Pascual

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The latest advances in speech processing technology have allowed the development of automated reading tutors (ART for improving children's literacy. An ART is a computer-assisted learning system based on oral reading fluency (ORF instruction and automated speech recognition (ASR technology. However, the design of an ART system is language-specif ic, and thus, requires developing a system specif ically for the Filipino language. In a previous work, the authors have presented the development of the children's Filipino speech corpus (CFSC for the purpose of designing an ART in Filipino. In this paper, the authors present the evaluation of the ART in Filipino which integrates a reference verification (RV- and word duration analysis-based reading miscue detector (RMD, a user interface, and a feedback and instruction set. The authors also present the performance evaluation of the RMD in offline tests, and the effectiveness of the ART as shown by the results of the intervention program, a month-long pilot study that involved the use of the ART by a small group of students. Offline test results show that the RMD's performance (i.e., FA rate ≈ 3% and MDerr rate ≈ 5% is at par with those from state-of-the-art RMDs reported in the literature. The results of the ART intervention experiment showed that the students, on the average, have improved in their words correct per minute (WCPM rate by 4.66 times, in their ORF-16 scores by 6.0 times, and in their reading comprehension exam scores by 4.4 times, after using the ART.

  17. A social competence intervention for young children with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome: a pilot study.

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    Minne, Elizabeth Portman; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2012-11-01

    The key features of Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) include marked and sustained impairment in social interactions. A multi-session, small group program was developed to increase social perception based on the assumption perceptual or interpretive problems underlying these social difficulties. Additionally, the group format espoused a play therapy orientation and the use of sociodramatic play was the primary therapeutic modality used. Qualitative analyses of the data resulted in an explanation of the key changes in social interactions that took place through the course of the intervention. Although each participant's experience in this group was unique, all children in this program demonstrated improvements in their social interactions, as they experienced development both emotionally and behaviorally. Findings suggest that, despite their rigid interests and behavior patterns, the social limitations of these children improved when provided with the necessary environmental resources.

  18. Serum chemerin in children with excess body weight may be associated with ongoing metabolic complications - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledzińska, Marta; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Brzezinski, Michał; Kaźmierska, Katarzyna; Sledziński, Tomasz; Kamińska, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if serum chemerin in children correlates with body weight, fat mass, selected inflammatory markers, parameters of liver function, lipid and glucose metabolism. The study included children aged 5-17 years with normal body weight (body weight presented with significantly higher serum concentrations of chemerin. Serum chemerin correlated positively with body weight, absolute BMI and its percentile, fat mass, systolic blood pressure, CRP, ALT, insulin and HOMA-IR. Serum level of chemerin may serve as a measure of ongoing obesity-related inflammation, early marker of subclinical liver dysfunction and metabolic syndrome in overweight pediatric patients. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality of outpatient care of children and adolescents in conventional X-ray diagnosis - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasch, C.; Duetting, T.; Zieger, B.; Troeger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the current quality of the outpatient radiodiagnostic care of children and adolescents as demonstrated for the example of conventional X-ray procedures. Materials and Methods: A consecutive series of 166 outpatient X-rays, selected by fixed criteria, was analysed according to both diagnostic aspects and radiation protection. Results: The X-rays examined were mainly gathered from orthopedic and radiological practices and from hospital radiological departments. The majority of these outpatient X-rays showed significant deficiencies regarding exposure, appropriate field size, and focussing or positioning of the patient. After the evaluation of the 166 X-rays by a total-score, 25% (42/166) of the X-rays were considered to be diagnostically insufficient. Conclusions: Improvements in outpatient radiodiagnostics are necessary to ensure adequate radiodiagnostic care of children and adolescents. (orig.) [de

  20. A pilot study evaluating a one-session attention modification training to decrease overeating in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Kuckertz, Jennie M; Carlson, Jordan; Amir, Nader

    2014-05-01

    There are a number of neurocognitive and behavioral mechanisms that contribute to overeating and obesity, including an attentional bias to food cues. Attention modification programs, which implicitly train attention away from specific cues, have been used in anxiety and substance abuse, and could logically be applied to food cues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the initial efficacy of a single session attention modification training for food cues (AMP) on overeating in overweight and obese children. Twenty-four obese children who eat in the absence of hunger participated in two visits and were assigned to an attention modification program (AMP) or attentional control program (ACC). The AMP program trained attention away 100% of the time from food words to neutral words. The ACC program trained attention 50% of the time to neutral and 50% of the time to food. Outcome measures included the eating in the absence of hunger free access session, and measures of craving, liking and salivation. Results revealed significant treatment effects for EAH percent and EAH kcal (group by time interactions pover time in the number of calories consumed in the free access session (within group t=3.09, p=.009) as well as the percent of daily caloric needs consumed in free access (within group t=3.37, p=.006), whereas children in the AMP group demonstrated slight decreases in these variables (within group t=-0.75 and -0.63, respectively). There was a trend suggesting a beneficial effect of AMP as compared to ACC for attentional bias (group by time interaction p=.073). Changes in craving, liking and saliva were not significantly different between groups (ps=.178-.527). This is the first study to demonstrate that an AMP program can influence eating in obese children. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these results. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Taekwondo Training Improves Mood and Sociability in Children from Multicultural Families in South Korea: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

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    Hee-Tae Roh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Children from multicultural families face physical, social, mental, and intellectual hurdles; however, relative interventions are lacking in South Korea (hereafter Korea in this regard. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of regular Taekwondo (TKD training on physical fitness, mood, sociability, and cognitive functions in these children. Methods: This study included 30 children from multicultural families in Korea who were randomly assigned to a TKD group (n = 15 and control group (n = 15. The children in TKD group underwent 16 weeks of TKD training once a week for 60 min. Each participant underwent a basic fitness test and sociability questionnaire before and after the intervention. Furthermore, we examined the changes in the mood and cognitive function by determining the profile of mood states (POMS, and Stroop color and word test, respectively. Results: Results of the Stork test of balance were significantly higher in the TKD group after intervention (p < 0.05. In terms of sub-variables, POMS, tension, and depression scores were significantly lower (p < 0.05 after the intervention, while the vigor score was significantly higher in the intervention group than those in the control group (p < 0.05. Furthermore, sociability and ‘being left out’ score, a sub-variable of sociability, was significantly lower (p < 0.05 after the intervention, while sociability score was significantly higher (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that participation in regular TKD training can be effective for balanced improvements in variables of basic fitness and that it exerts a positive effect on the mood and development of sociability.

  2. A metacognitive strategy for reducing disruptive behavior in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: GoFAR pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; Taddeo, Elles; Strickland, Dorothy C

    2015-11-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are often characterized by disruptive behavior problems and there are few effective interventions available. GoFAR is a novel, 3-part intervention designed to improve self-regulation and adaptive living skills of children with FASD by improving metacognitive control of emotions and arousal. The intervention has 3 components: (i) GoFAR: a "serious game" designed to teach a metacognitive control strategy in a computer game environment; (ii) parent training on child behavioral regulation; and (iii) Behavior Analog Therapy (BAT) sessions, a practical application of the metacognitive learning methodology by parent and child in the context of learning adaptive skills. The learning strategy (FAR) teaches the child to Focus and make a plan, Act out the plan, and Reflect back on the plan. Thirty families were randomized to 3 groups: (i) GoFAR (n = 10); (ii) FACELAND (n = 10); or (iii) CONTROL (n = 10). The 2 intervention groups, GoFAR and FACELAND, used computer games to instruct children. Both groups also received 5 sessions of parent training followed by 5 sessions of joint parent/child therapy (BAT). Assessment of disruptive behavior, including frequency of temper tantrums, frustration tolerance, impulsivity, destructiveness, aggression, and maintaining attention were carried out before enrollment at Mid-Treatment, when game play and parent training were completed, and finally, after completing the BAT sessions. Parental report of disruptive behavior overall was significantly reduced in the GoFAR group after the first components, game play and parent training, and after the BAT sessions in the FACELAND group with no changes in the CONTROL group over time. The GoFAR(®) game was well received by children and effective in teaching the required skills. Mastering the FAR metacognitive strategy was associated with a reduction in disruptive behaviors in children with FASD suggesting that effective interventions can improve outcomes for

  3. A randomized controlled pilot trial of classroom-based mindfulness meditation compared to an active control condition in sixth-grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Willoughby B; Lepp, Nathaniel E; Niles, Halsey F; Rocha, Tomas; Fisher, Nathan E; Gold, Jonathan S

    2014-06-01

    The current study is a pilot trial to examine the effects of a nonelective, classroom-based, teacher-implemented, mindfulness meditation intervention on standard clinical measures of mental health and affect in middle school children. A total of 101 healthy sixth-grade students (55 boys, 46 girls) were randomized to either an Asian history course with daily mindfulness meditation practice (intervention group) or an African history course with a matched experiential activity (active control group). Self-reported measures included the Youth Self Report (YSR), a modified Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Measure -Revised. Both groups decreased significantly on clinical syndrome subscales and affect but did not differ in the extent of their improvements. Meditators were significantly less likely to develop suicidal ideation or thoughts of self-harm than controls. These results suggest that mindfulness training may yield both unique and non-specific benefits that are shared by other novel activities. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bangladesh Cerebral Palsy Register (BCPR): a pilot study to develop a national cerebral palsy (CP) register with surveillance of children for CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Gulam; Smithers-Sheedy, Hayley; Islam, Johurul; Alam, Monzurul; Jung, Jenny; Novak, Iona; Booy, Robert; Jones, Cheryl; Badawi, Nadia; Muhit, Mohammad

    2015-09-25

    The causes and pathogenesis of cerebral palsy (CP) are all poorly understood, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). There are gaps in knowledge about CP in Bangladesh, especially in the spheres of epidemiological research, intervention and service utilization. In high-income countries CP registers have made substantial contributions to our understanding of CP. In this paper, we describe a pilot study protocol to develop, implement, and evaluate a CP population register in Bangladesh (i.e., Bangladesh Cerebral Palsy Register - BCPR) to facilitate studies on prevalence, severity, aetiology, associated impairments and risk factors for CP. The BCPR will utilise a modified version of the Australian Cerebral Palsy Register (ACPR) on a secured web-based platform hosted by the Cerebral Palsy Alliance Research Institute, Australia. A standard BCPR record form (i.e., data collection form) has been developed in consultation with local and international experts. Using this form, the BPCR will capture information about maternal health, birth history and the nature of disability in all children with CP aged CP will be identified by using the community based Key Informants Method (KIM). Data from the completed BPCR record together with details of assessment by a research physician will be entered into an online data repository. Once implemented, BCPR will be, to the best of our knowledge, the first formalised CP register from a LMIC. Establishment of the BCPR will enable estimates of prevalence; facilitate clinical surveillance and promote research to improve the care of individuals with CP in Bangladesh.

  5. Prevalence of anti-hepatitis B surface antibodies among children and adolescents vaccinated in infancy and effect of booster dose administered within a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassal, R; Markovich, M P; Weil, M; Shinar, E; Carmeli, Y; Dan, M; Sofer, D; Mendelson, E; Cohen, D; Shohat, T

    2017-10-01

    We determined the prevalence of anti-hepatitis B surface antibodies (anti-HBs) among children and adolescents vaccinated for hepatitis B virus in infancy as part of the routine vaccination programme. A representative serum sample of the Israeli population age 0-19 was tested. In a separate pilot study, a booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine was administered to 31 candidates for national service, who were fully vaccinated in infancy and tested negative for hepatitis B surface antibodies at age 17-19 years and anti-HBs antibodies were assessed 8 weeks later. Of the 1273 samples tested, 631 (49·6%) were positive to anti-HBs antibodies. Seropositivity rates were 89·5% among infants aged 6-12 months and declined significantly with age to 20·7% at age 19 years. No differences in seropositivity rates were observed between Jews and Arabs, males and females and those born in Israel and in other countries. Seroconversion rate among the 31 individuals who received a booster dose was 90·3% (95% CI: 75·1-96·6%). We recommend a booster dose for healthcare personnel before starting to work at the health care facility.

  6. Effect of Bifidobacterium breve on the Intestinal Microbiota of Coeliac Children on a Gluten Free Diet: A Pilot Study

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    Andrea Quagliariello

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coeliac disease (CD is associated with alterations of the intestinal microbiota. Although several Bifidobacterium strains showed anti-inflammatory activity and prevention of toxic gliadin peptides generation in vitro, few data are available on their efficacy when administered to CD subjects. This study evaluated the effect of administration for three months of a food supplement based on two Bifidobacterium breve strains (B632 and BR03 to restore the gut microbial balance in coeliac children on a gluten free diet (GFD. Microbial DNA was extracted from faeces of 40 coeliac children before and after probiotic or placebo administration and 16 healthy children (Control group. Sequencing of the amplified V3-V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene as well as qPCR of Bidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bacteroides fragilis group Clostridium sensu stricto and enterobacteria were performed. The comparison between CD subjects and Control group revealed an alteration in the intestinal microbial composition of coeliacs mainly characterized by a reduction of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, of Actinobacteria and Euryarchaeota. Regarding the effects of the probiotic, an increase of Actinobacteria was found as well as a re-establishment of the physiological Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Therefore, a three-month administration of B. breve strains helps in restoring the healthy percentage of main microbial components.

  7. Social communication features in children following moderate to severe acquired brain injury: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breau, Lynn M; Clark, Brenda; Scott, Ori; Wilkes, Courtney; Reynolds, Shawn; Ricci, Florencia; Sonnenberg, Lyn; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Rashid, Marghalara; Goez, Helly R

    2015-04-01

    We compared the social communication deficits of children with moderate to severe acquired brain injury or autism spectrum disorder, while accounting for the role of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Parents of 20 children aged 6 to 10 years (10 acquired brain injury; 10 autism spectrum disorder) completed the Social Communication Questionnaire, and Conners 3 Parent Short. A multivariate analysis of covariance revealed significant differences between groups in Social Communication Questionnaire restricted repetitive behavior scores, but not reciprocal social interaction or social communication. Multiple linear regressions indicated diagnosis did not predict reciprocal social interaction or social communication scores and that Conners 3 Parent Short Form hyperactivity scores were the strongest predictor of Social Communication Questionnaire reciprocal social interaction scores after accounting for age and Intelligence Quotient. The lack of difference in social communication deficits between groups may help in understanding the pathophysiology underlying the behavioral consequences of acquired brain injury. The link between hyperactivity and reciprocal interaction suggests that targeting hyperactivity may improve social outcomes in children following acquired brain injury. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori with triple therapy regimen (omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin in children for seven days (A Pilot Study

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    Mehri Najafi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Successful treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection causes not only eradication of pathogen, but also prevents the associated diseases such as peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma and lymphoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 7 days triple therapy as a lowest drug resistance, shortest duration and fewer numbers of drugs in children. Materials and Method: The target population was 22 children <15 years with peptic disease complaints. The inclusion criteria were: positive endoscopic finding, inflammatory evidence in gastric biopsy and presence of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa. Two pieces from incisura and body of gastric mucosa were taken and stained with Gimsa. Helicobacter pylori positive patients were treated with omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin for 7 days. One month later, all cases were evaluated by repeated endoscopy or Urea Breath Test and H pylori eradication were assessed. Data was gathered and analyzed with SPSS software, and McNamara's and Chi-Square test were performed. Results: Nineteen patients were studied including twelve boys, 26.3% 2-6 years and the rest older than 6 years. The most common clinical presentations and endoscopic findings were chronic abdominal pain (74% and nodularity (47.4%, respectively. The per-protocol and intention-to-treat H. pylori eradication rates were 84.2% and 76%, respectively in seven days triple therapy regimen. Conclusion: Seven days triple therapy successfully eradicated H pylori in children

  9. Pilot Testing a Photo-Based Food Diary in Nine- to Twelve- Year Old- Children from Dunedin, New Zealand

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    Brittany K. Davison

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate if an Evernote app-based electronic food diary is an acceptable method to measure nutrient intake in children aged 9–12 years. A convenience sample of 16 nine- to twelve-year-olds from Dunedin, New Zealand, completed a paper-based food dairy on four days, followed by four more days using a photo-based diary on an iPod. This photo-based diary used a combination of photographs and short written descriptions of foods consumed. The photo-based diaries produced similar results to written diaries for all macronutrients and major micronutrients (e.g., calcium, fibre, vitamin C. Spearman correlation coefficients between the two methods for all nutrients, except sugars, were above 0.3. However, burden on researchers and participants was reduced for the photo-based diary, primarily due to the additional information obtained from photographs. Participating children needed less help from parents with completing the electronic diaries and preferred them to the paper version. This electronic diary is likely to be suitable, after additional formal validity testing, for use in measuring nutrient intake in children.

  10. Effects of different physical education programmes on children's skill- and health-related outcomes: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Iazzoni, Sara; Iasevoli, Luigi; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2017-08-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two different 5-month physical education (PE) interventions conducted by a specialist PE teacher on primary school children's skill- and health-related outcomes. About 230 children were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: experimental_1 group, experimental_2 group or control group (school curriculum given by the generalist teacher). Pre- and post-intervention tests assessed pupils' fitness (pacer, curl-up, push-up, trunk lift, sit and reach tests) and gross motor coordination (shifting platforms, balance beam, jumping laterally, hopping on one leg over an obstacle tests). Both experimental groups significantly improved some fitness and coordinative tests after the intervention period when compared with control group. However, no differential changes on coordinative development were observed between the 2 experimental groups. Results of this study demonstrated that children benefitted from a well-structured PE intervention conducted and supervised by a specialist PE teacher improving their motor skills and fitness.

  11. Clustering of unhealthy food around German schools and its influence on dietary behavior in school children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christoph; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Huybrechts, Inge; Pala, Valeria; Reisch, Lucia; Pigeot, Iris

    2013-05-24

    The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy foods leads to its higher consumption in children. Studies that support these relationships have primarily been conducted in the U.S. or Australia, but rarely in European communities. We used data of FFQ and 24-HDR of the IDEFICS study, as well as geographical data from one German study region to investigate (1) the clustering of food outlets around schools and (2) the influence of junk food availability on the food intake in school children. We geocoded food outlets offering junk food (e.g. supermarkets, kiosks, and fast food restaurants). Spatial cluster analysis of food retailers around child-serving institutions was conducted using an inhomogeneous K-function to calculate global 95% confidence envelopes. Furthermore, a food retail index was implemented considering the kernel density of junk food supplies per service area, adjusted for residential density. We linked the food retail index to FFQ and 24-HDR data of 384 6- to 9-year-old school children in the study region and investigated the impact of the index on food intake, using multilevel regression models adjusted for sex, age, BMI, parent's education and income, as well as adjusting for over- and underreporting of food intake. Comparing the 95% confidence envelopes to the observed K-function, we showed that food stores and fast food restaurants do not significantly cluster around schools. Apart from this result, the food retail index showed no effect on BMI (β=0.01,p=0.11) or food intake variables assessed by FFQ and 24-HDR. In the built environment of the German study region, clustering of food retailers does not depend on the location of schools. Additionally, the results suggest that the consumption of junk food in young

  12. Clustering of unhealthy food around German schools and its influence on dietary behavior in school children: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy foods leads to its higher consumption in children. Studies that support these relationships have primarily been conducted in the U.S. or Australia, but rarely in European communities. We used data of FFQ and 24-HDR of the IDEFICS study, as well as geographical data from one German study region to investigate (1) the clustering of food outlets around schools and (2) the influence of junk food availability on the food intake in school children. Methods We geocoded food outlets offering junk food (e.g. supermarkets, kiosks, and fast food restaurants). Spatial cluster analysis of food retailers around child-serving institutions was conducted using an inhomogeneous K-function to calculate global 95% confidence envelopes. Furthermore, a food retail index was implemented considering the kernel density of junk food supplies per service area, adjusted for residential density. We linked the food retail index to FFQ and 24-HDR data of 384 6- to 9-year-old school children in the study region and investigated the impact of the index on food intake, using multilevel regression models adjusted for sex, age, BMI, parent’s education and income, as well as adjusting for over- and underreporting of food intake. Results Comparing the 95% confidence envelopes to the observed K-function, we showed that food stores and fast food restaurants do not significantly cluster around schools. Apart from this result, the food retail index showed no effect on BMI (β=0.01,p=0.11) or food intake variables assessed by FFQ and 24-HDR. Conclusion In the built environment of the German study region, clustering of food retailers does not depend on the location of schools. Additionally, the results suggest

  13. Pilot Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie

    This PhD dissertation engages in the study of pilot (system) implementation. In the field of information systems, pilot implementations are commissioned as a way to learn from real use of a pilot system with real data, by real users during an information systems development (ISD) project and before...... the final system is implemented. Among others, their use is argued to investigate the fit between the technical design and the organisational use. But what is a pilot implementation really? In this dissertation, I set out to address this conceptual question. I initially investigate this question....... The analysis is conducted by means of a theoretical framework that centres on the concept infrastructure. With infrastructure I understand the relation between organised practice and the information systems supporting this practice. Thus, infrastructure is not a thing but a relational and situated concept...

  14. Temporal and dynamic characteristics of walking in preschool children with different level of balance: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Kubisová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD is impairment in motor coordination which can be manifested also by poor balance. Some childrenwith DCD can be more dependent on visual feedback to control their movements. This fact can result in disruption of predictive control, recognition of movement errors and correcting them.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare foot pressure distribution and basic temporal and spatial variables during gait in the children with a risk of developmental defi ciency in balance and without motor diffi culties.METHODS: According to the results of the Test MABC-2 (Movement Assessment Battery for Children subjects were divided into two groups – with the risk of developmental defi ciency in balance (rBAL (n = 4, age 4.0 ± 1.2 years, weight 18.3 ± 3.5 kg, height 102.9 ± 10.6 cm and without motor diffi culties (KS (n = 9, age 4.4 ± 1.2, weight 17.9 ± 2.9 kg, height 106.4 ± 7.9 cm. Distribution of plantar pressure was detected by the Footscansystem (RSscan International, Olen, Belgium. Basic time and pressure variables were assessed in these areas: lateral and medial heel, 1st–5th metatarsal, midfoot and big toe and other toes. The gait was performed at self-selected speed, barefoot, three trials per child. Diff erences between groups were assessed by eff ect size – Cohen’s d.RESULTS: The medium eff ect was reported for pressure impulse in lateral heel, pressure peak in medial heel, pressure peak, pressure impulse and contact duration of 1st metatarsal, contact duration in 4th metatarsal and pressurepeak in area of 2nd–5th toe. Except for the pressure peak in the fi rst metatarsals, all of the mentioned parameters were higher in the KS group. Generally, the foot pressure and foot contact in the rBAL group was smaller and shorter, so their steps were faster and diff erent from a normal gait performance. Large eff ect sizes were found for contact duration in the 1st metatarsal and pressure

  15. A pilot study evaluating erect chest imaging in children, using the Lodox Statscan digital X-ray machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Baloo Daya

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Chest radiography accounts for a significant proportion of ionising radiation in children. The radiation dose of radiographs performed on the Lodox Statscan system has been shown to be lower than that of a computed radiography (CR system. The role of the Lodox Statscan (hereafter referred to as the Statscan in routine erect chest radiography in children has not been evaluated. Objective: To evaluate the image quality and diagnostic accuracy of erect paediatric chest radiographs obtained with the Statscan and compare this with conventional erect chest images obtained with a CR system. Materials and Methods: Thirty three children with suspected chest pathology were enrolled randomly over a period of three months. Erect chest radiographs were obtained with the Statscan, and a Shimadzu R-20J X-ray machine coupled with a Fuji FCR 5000 CR system. Image quality and diagnostic accuracy and diagnostic capability were evaluated between the two modalities. Results: The erect Statscan allowed superior visualisation of the three major airways. Statscan images however, demonstrated exposure and movement artifacts with hemidiaphragms and ribs most prone to movement. Bronchovascular clarity was also considered unsatisfactory on the Statscan images. Conclusion: The Statscan has limitations in erect chest radiography in terms of movement artefacts, exposure fluctuations, and poor definition of lung markings. Despite this, the Statscan allows better visualisation of the major airways, equivalent to a ‘high KV’ film at a fraction of the radiation dose. This supports the finding of an earlier study evaluating Statscan images in trauma cases, where the images were taken supine. Statscan has great potential in assisting in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis where airway narrowing occurs as a result of nodal compression.

  16. A pilot study for augmenting atomoxetine with methylphenidate: safety of concomitant therapy in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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    Ball Susan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined augmenting atomoxetine with extended-release methylphenidate in children whose attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD previously failed to respond adequately to stimulant medication. Methods Children with ADHD and prior stimulant treatment (N = 25 received atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg/day plus placebo. After 4 weeks, patients who were responders (n = 4 were continued on atomoxetine/placebo while remaining patients were randomly assigned to either methylphenidate (ATX/MPH (1.1 mg/kg/day or placebo augmentation (ATX/PB for another 6 weeks. Patients and sites were blind to timing of active augmentation. Safety measures included vital signs, weight, and adverse events. Efficacy was assessed by ADHD rating scales. Results Categorical increases in vital signs occurred for 5 patients (3 patients in ATX/MPH, 2 patients in ATX/PBO. Sixteen percent discontinued the study due to AE, but no difference between augmentation groups. Atomoxetine treatment was efficacious on outcome measures (P ≤ .001, but methylphenidate did not enhance response. Conclusion Methylphenidate appears to be safely combined with atomoxetine, but conclusions limited by small sample. With atomoxetine treatment, 43% of patients achieved normalization on ADHD ratings.

  17. Children with Motor Impairments Play a Kinect Learning Game: First Findings from a Pilot Case in an Authentic Classroom Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symeon Retalis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first very positive findings from an empirical study about the effectiveness of the use of a Kinect learning game for children with gross motor skills problems and motor impairments. This game follows the principles of a newly presented approach, called Kinems, which advocates that special educators and therapists should use learning games that via embodied touchless interaction – thanks to the Microsoft Kinect camera- children with dyspraxia and other related disorders such as autism, Asperger's Syndrome, and Attention Deficit Disorder, can improve related skills. Several Kinems games have been proposed (http://www.kinems.com. These games are innovative and are played with hand and body gestures. Kinems suggests that games should be highly configurable so that a teacher can modify the settings (e.g. difficult level, time settings, etc. for the individual needs of each child. Also, a teacher should have access to kinetic and learning analytics of the child’s interaction progress and achievements should be safely stored and vividly presented.

  18. A Pilot Study on the Combination of Applied Behavior Analysis and Bumetanide Treatment for Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin; Shan, Ling; Wang, Bing; Li, Honghua; Xu, Zhida; Staal, Wouter G; Jia, Feiyong

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of combined bumetanide and applied behavior analysis (ABA) treatment in children with autism. Sixty children diagnosed with autism according to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) criteria (mean age of 4.5 years) were randomly divided into two groups: A single treatment group (n=28) and a combined treatment group (n=32). The combined treatment group received ABA training combined with oral bumetanide (0.5 mg twice a day). The single treatment group received ABA training only. Autism symptoms were evaluated with the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), whereas severity of disease (SI) and global improvement (GI) were measured with the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI). Assessment of ABC, CARS, and CGI was performed immediately before and 3 months after initiation of the treatment(s). Prior to intervention(s) no statistically significant differences in scores on the ABC, CARS, SI, or GI were found between the two groups. Total scores of the ABC, CARS, and SI were decreased in both groups after 3 months (pautism than ABA training alone.

  19. Parent reports of children's working memory, coping, and emotional/behavioral adjustment in pediatric brain tumor patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Leandra; Thigpen, Jennifer C; Kobritz, Molly; Bettis, Alexandra H; Gruhn, Meredith A; Ichinose, Megan; Hoskinson, Kristen; Fraley, Claire; Vreeland, Allison; McNally, Colleen; Compas, Bruce E

    2017-10-02

    Neurocognitive problems in childhood survivors of brain tumors are well documented. Further, research has shown that problems in cognitive functioning may be associated with impairment in the use of complex strategies needed to cope with stress, including secondary control coping strategies (e.g., acceptance and cognitive reappraisal) which have been associated with fewer adjustment problems. The present study measured cognitive function, coping strategies, and adjustment in children ages 6-16 years at the time of brain tumor diagnosis and at two follow-up time-points up to 1 year post-diagnosis. In a prospective design, working memory was assessed in a total of 29 pediatric brain tumor patients prior to undergoing surgery, child self-reported coping was assessed at 6 months post-diagnosis, and parent-reported child adjustment was assessed at 12 months post-diagnosis. Significant correlations were found between working memory difficulties and secondary control coping. Secondary control coping was also negatively correlated with child attention and total problems. Regression analyses did not support secondary control coping mediating the association between working memory difficulties and child attention or total problems. These findings represent the first longitudinal assessment of the association between working memory, coping, and adjustment across the first year of a child's brain tumor diagnosis and suggest a possible role for early interventions addressing both working memory difficulties and coping in children with brain tumors.

  20. The effectiveness and influence of Vocal and Instrumental Improvisation in Music Therapy on children diagnosed with autism. Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Knapik-Szweda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a developmental disorder which is difficult to recognize and diagnose. The present study examines the effectiveness of music therapy intervention based on improvisational techniques with the elements of Creative Music Therapy by Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins and improvisational techniques by Tony Wigram (such as imitating, frameworking, dialogues, holding on developmentl of children with Autism (two boys diagnosed with autism - case 1. and case 2, especially in verbal and nonverbal communication, disturbance behavior patterns, cognitive and social-emotional areas. The results indicate a positive outcome in two music therapy observing tools: Scale I Child – Therapist Relationship in Coactive Musical Experience Rating Form and Scale II Musical Communicativeness Rating Form. The tables indicate the intensity of interaction between the therapist and the subject during the music therapy process (including communication skills, cognitive skills and behavior patterns. The results of case 1 are indicated in Scale I and Scale II and show a significant effect of improvisational music therapy. The important findings from the analysis of behavior in the sessions were Stability and confidence in interpersonal musical relationship, Activity relationship developing, (scale 1.. The results of the case 2. show small changes in musical behavior when it comes to Stability and confidence in interpersonal musical relationship, but in Activity relationship developing the indicators show a lot of changes between sessions. The results of the research indicate that music therapy intervention has a positive outcome and may be an effective method to increase functioning of children with autism

  1. Electrical Stimulation Following Botulinum Toxin A in Children With Spastic Diplegia: A Within-Participant Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Anita; Harvey, Lisa A; Lancaster, Ann; Lowe, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether electrical stimulation (ES) following botulinum toxin A (BoNT/A) injection increases passive extensibility of the hamstring muscles in children with spastic diplegia. Six children undergoing bilateral BoNT/A injections to the hamstrings participated in this within-participant single blind randomized controlled trial. One leg of each child was randomised to the experimental condition and the other to the control condition. The experimental leg received daily stretch and ES to the hamstrings for 12 weeks, while the control leg received only daily stretch. The primary outcome was passive hamstring extensibility reflected by popliteal angle measured with a standardised torque. Secondary outcomes were two goniometric measures of popliteal angle using the Modified Tardieu Scale (R1 and R2), and parents' perceptions of treatment effectiveness. Outcomes were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months. The mean between-group difference (95% CI) at 4 weeks was 2° (-2 to 5) for popliteal angle measured with a standardised torque, favouring the experimental leg. Tardieu results for R1 and R2 were 0° (-4 to 3) and 7° (0 to 14), respectively. ES does not improve passive extensibility of the hamstring muscles at 4 weeks over any possible effects of BoNT/A alone.

  2. Quantitative computed tomography assessment of graft-versus-host disease-related bronchiolitis obliterans in children: A pilot feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Myung-Joon; Lee, Mi-Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Hee; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics and Institute of Allergy, Severance Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lyu, Chuhl Joo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Severance Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To suggest a simple method that can quantify air trapping from chest CT in children with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-related bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). This institutional review board-approved retrospective study included eight GVHD-related BO patients (age, 6 - 17 years) who underwent both 31 CTs of variable settings and pulmonary function tests (PFT). The attenuation values of lung parenchyma in normal (An) and air trapping (Aa) areas were obtained. Individualized threshold [(An + Aa)/2] and fixed threshold of -950 HU were set for air trapping quantification. Spearman correlation analysis and generalized linear mixed models were used for statistical analysis. The mean value of individualized threshold was -830.2 ± 48.3 HU. The mean air trapping lung volume percentage with individualized threshold and -950 HU were 45.4 ± 18.9 % and 1.4 ± 1.9 %, respectively. The air trapping lung volume percentage with individualized threshold showed a significant negative correlation with the PFT of FEV1/FVC% in all data (γ = -0.795, P <.001) and in the correction of repetition (γ = -0.837, P =.010). We suggest a simple and individualized threshold attenuation setting method for air trapping quantification insusceptible to CT imaging protocols or respiratory phase control in children with GVHD-related BO. (orig.)

  3. Selective mutism: a home-and kindergarten-based intervention for children 3-5 years: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerbeck, Beate; Johansen, Jorunn; Lundahl, Kathe; Kristensen, Hanne

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to examine the outcome of a multimodal treatment for selective mutism (SM). Seven children, aged three-five years, who were referred for SM were included. The treatment started at home and was continued at kindergarten for a maximum of six months, with predefined treatment goals in terms of speaking levels, from I ("Speaks to the therapist in a separate room with a parent present") through to VI ("Speaks in all kindergarten settings without the therapist present"). The outcome measures were the teacher-reported School Speech Questionnaire (SSQ) and the treatment goal obtained (I-VI) six months after the onset of treatment, and the SSQ and Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) at one-year follow-up. Six children spoke in all kindergarten settings (VI) after a mean of 14 weeks treatment. One child, with more extensive neuro-developmental delay, spoke in some settings only (V). The mean SSQ score was 0.59 (SD = 0.51) at baseline compared with 2.68 (SD = 0.35) at the six-month evaluation and 2.26 (SD = 0.93) at one-year follow-up. The mean CGI score at baseline was 4.43 (SD = 0.79) compared with 1.14 (SD = 0.38) at follow-up. Home- and kindergarten-based treatment appears to be promising.

  4. Participation and community-based walking activity after neuroprosthesis use in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: A pilot study1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, Amy F; Caldwell, Cailee; Clay, Mike; Tremper, Melissa; Dunning, Kari; Long, Jason

    2017-05-17

    To explore the effects of neuroprosthesis use on participation, level of community-based walking activity, safety and satisfaction in children with hemiplegic CP. Eleven children (mean 9 years 11 months) with hemiplegic CP Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) Level I and II participated in a 16-week intervention using the Ness L300 neuroprosthesis. Outcome measures included satisfaction and performance with self-selected participation goals (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM)), level of community-based walking activity (Step Watch Activity Monitor (SAM)), trip and fall frequency (caregiver report) and a satisfaction questionnaire. Significant (p< 0.001) improvements in performance and satisfaction with self-selected participation goals (COPM) were demonstrated. No significant changes were noted in SAM values. A significant (p= 0.01) decrease in trips was demonstrated from baseline to post. Satisfaction with the device was high. Results indicate that daily neuroprosthesis use may improve performance and satisfaction with participation goals and reduce trips. No changes in community-based walking activity were noted. Further study is needed to examine response based on GMFCS levels, across geographical regions and between FES neuroprosthesis and a control group.

  5. Characteristics of Older Georgians Receiving Older Americans Act Nutrition Program Services and Other Home- and Community-Based Services: Findings from the Georgia Aging Information Management System (GA AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Sun; Shannon, Jerry; Brown, Arvine

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study examined characteristics of older Georgians receiving Older Americans Act Nutrition Program Services and other home- and community-based services (HCBS) using state aging administrative data (N = 31,341, mean age: 76.6 ± 9.2 y, 71.2% female, 52.3% White). Home-delivered meals (HDM) was used most frequently. The characteristics of older Georgian HCBS participants varied by the type and number of HCBS received. Those receiving HDM and other in-home and caregiving services were more likely to show poorer sociodemographic, economic, and functional characteristics, and food insecurity. Those receiving multiple HCBS were most vulnerable, but showed lower level of food insecurity than those receiving single HCBS, suggesting potential combined benefits of receiving multiple programs. This study underscores the importance of documenting dynamic needs for HCBS, especially HDM, among vulnerable older adults as part of standard administrative process to identify those at high risk of institutionalization, optimize HCBS delivery and coordination, and maximize HCBS benefits.

  6. Rules and tools that improved vaccines for children vaccine-ordering practices in Oregon: a 2010 pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Rafe; VanCuren, Anne; Trocio, Loralee; Beaudrault, Sara; Gund, Anona; Luther, Mimi; Groom, Holly

    2013-01-01

    This project's objective was to enhance efforts to improve vaccine-ordering efficiencies among targeted clinics using publicly purchased vaccines. Using an assessment of ordering behavior developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we selected and trained immunization providers and assessed improvements in ordering behavior by comparing ordering patterns before and after the intervention. A total of 144 Vaccines for Children program providers in Oregon. We assessed 144 providers trained in the Economic Order Quantity process between January and November 2010. INTERVENTION (IF APPLICABLE): Providers were invited to participate in regional trainings. Trainings included assignment of ordering frequency and dissemination of tools to support adherence to the recommended ordering frequency. The percent increase in targeted clinics ordering according to recommended order frequency and the resulting decrease in orders placed, as an outcome of training and ordering tools. Only 35% of targeted providers were ordering according to the recommended ordering frequency before the project began. After completing training, utilizing ordering tools and ordering over a 7-month period, 78% of the targeted clinics were ordering according to the recommended frequency, a 120% increase in the number of clinics ordering with the recommended frequency. At baseline, targeted clinics placed 915 total vaccine orders over a 7-month period. After completing training and participating in the Economic Order Quantity process, only 645 orders were placed, a reduction of 30% . The initiative was successful in reducing the number of orders placed by Vaccines for Children providers in Oregon. A previous effort to reduce ordering, without the use of training or tools, did not achieve the same levels of provider compliance, suggesting that the addition of staff and development of tools were helpful in supporting behavior change and improving providers' ability to adhere to assigned order

  7. A prospective pilot study: Can the biliary tree be visualized in children younger than 3 months on Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siles, Pascale [La Timone Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Marseille (France); Aschero, Audrey; Gorincour, Guillaume; Bourliere-Najean, Brigitte; Petit, Philippe [La Timone Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Marseille (France); Roquelaure, Bertrand [La Timone Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Marseille (France); Delarue, Arnauld [La Timone Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Marseille (France)

    2014-09-15

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) could aid in the diagnosis of biliary atresia, a hepatic pathology with thin, irregular or interrupted biliary ducts. There is little published evidence of MRCP appearances in normal neonates and young infants. To assess the use of MR cholangiopancreatography in visualizing the biliary tree in neonates and infants younger than 3 months with no hepatobiliary disorder, and to assess this visibility in relationship to the child's age, weight, and sedation and fasting states. Between December 2008 and October 2010 our department performed MRI of the brain, orbits and face on 16 full-term neonates and infants. Each child was younger than 3 months (90 days) and without any hepatobiliary disorders. The children were scanned with a respiratory-gated 0.54 x 0.51 x 0.4-mm{sup 3} 3-D MRCP sequence. We used a reading grid to assess subjectively the visibility of the extrahepatic bile ducts along with extrahepatic bile duct confluence. The visibility of the extrahepatic bile duct confluence was assessed against age, weight, and sedation and fasting states. The extrahepatic bile duct confluence was seen in 10 children out of 16 (62.5%). In the neonate sub-group (corrected age younger than 30 days), the MRCP was technically workable and the extrahepatic bile duct confluence was seen in four cases out of eight (50%). This visualization was up to 75% in the subgroup older than 30 days. However, statistically there was no significant difference in visibility of the extrahepatic bile duct confluence in relationship to age, weight or MRCP performance conditions (feeding, fasting or sedation). The complete normal biliary system (extrahepatic bile duct confluence included) is not consistently visualized in infants younger than 3 months old on non-enhanced MRCP. Thus the use of MRCP to exclude a diagnosis of biliary atresia is compromised at optimal time of surgery. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of a self-regulation based psycho-educational pilot intervention targeting children and adolescents with epilepsy in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizou, Ioanna; De Gucht, Veronique; Papavasiliou, Antigone; Maes, Stan

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the development and initial evaluation of a minimal structured psycho-educational intervention for children and adolescents with epilepsy. The intervention aimed at increasing the understanding and personal control (self-management) of epilepsy, and at reducing psychological distress, sleep problems and somatic complaints. Twelve patients participated in our intervention and another 12, matched on age and gender, served as the control group. Data were obtained at baseline (prior to the intervention) and 3 months later in the context of an interview based on several validated questionnaires. The intervention was limited to one 4-h session using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy techniques, relaxation techniques, video and storytelling. Effects of the intervention on primary and secondary outcomes were examined using 2 (baseline, T1 vs. post-treatment, T2)×2 (intervention vs. control) mixed model repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for epilepsy severity. The analysis revealed that over the three months of the study, significant main effects (group x time) were observed on coherence (F (1,21) =6.12; p=0.02) with important changes in favour of the intervention group. Significant main effects were also observed on psychological distress levels (F (1,21) =10.08; p=0.005) and sleep problems (F (1,21) =11.40; p=0.003). The results of this study show that a brief self-regulation-based intervention may have beneficial effects for children and adolescents suffering from epilepsy by inciting improvements in coherence, psychological distress and sleep problems. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Change in children?s school behavior after mass administration of praziquantel for Schistosoma mansoni infection in endemic areas of western Kenya: A pilot study using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2)

    OpenAIRE

    Musuva, Rosemary; Shen, Ye; Wei, Xianjue; Binder, Sue; Ivy, Julianne A.; Secor, W. Evan; Montgomery, Susan P.; King, Charles H.; Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a parasite-related chronic inflammatory condition that can cause anemia, decreased growth, liver abnormalities, and deficits in cognitive functioning among children. Methodology/Principal findings This study used the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-2) to collect data on thirty-six 9?12 year old school-attending children?s behavioral profiles in an Schistosoma mansoni-endemic area of western Kenya, before and after treatment with praziquantel for S. ...

  10. Measuring and valuing health-related quality of life among children and adolescents in mainland China--a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu

    Full Text Available The Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D, a new generic preference-based health-related quality of life (HRQoL instrument, has been validated for use in young people in both the UK and Australia. The main objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of using a Chinese version of the CHU9D (CHU9D-CHN to assess HRQoL and to investigate the association of physical activity, homework hours and sleep duration with HRQoL in children and adolescents in Mainland China.Data were collected using a multi-stage sampling method from grades 4-12 students in May 2013 in Nanjing, China. Consenting participants (N = 815 completed a self-administered questionnaire including the CHU9D-CHN instrument and information on physical activity, homework and sleep duration, self-reported health status, and socio-demographic characteristics. Descriptive and multivariate linear regression analyses were undertaken. CHU9D-CHN utility scores were generated by employing two scoring algorithms currently available for the instrument, the first derived from UK adults utilising the standard gamble (SG valuation method and the second derived from Australian adolescents utilising the best-worst scaling (BWS method.It was found that CHU9D utility scores discriminated well in relation to self-reported health status and that better health status was significantly associated with higher utility scores regardless of which scoring algorithm was employed (both p<0.001. The adjusted mean utilities were significantly higher for physically active than inactive students (0.023 by SG, 0.029 by BWS scoring methods, p<0.05. An additional hour of doing homework and sleep duration were, separately, associated with mean utilities of -0.019 and 0.032 based on SG, and -0.021 and 0.040 according to BWS scoring algorithms (p<0.01.The CHU9D-CHN shows promise for measuring and valuing the HRQoL of children and adolescents in China. Levels of self-reported physical activity, homework and sleep time

  11. Can growth hormone treatment improve growth in children with severe growth failure due to anorexia nervosa? A preliminary pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Léger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Growth failure is a difficult but key aspect of care in children with anorexia nervosa (AN. The effects of hGH therapy have not been studied. The aim was to investigate the effect of hGH treatment on height velocity (HV in children with AN. Methods: We carried out a retrospective observational study. Ten girls diagnosed with AN at 10.0 ± 1.9 years, with prolonged severe growth failure (HV < 2.5 cm/year for at least 18 months at the age of 13.3 ± 1.1 years and delayed puberty after nutritional rehabilitation, were treated with hGH (0.040 mg/kg/day from a bone age of 10.9 ± 1.7 years until they reached adult height. Height and HV were measured before treatment and at 12-month intervals during treatment. Results: Mean body mass index SDS remained unchanged, but HV increased significantly, from a median of 1.0 (0.7–2.1 to 7.1 (6.0–9.5 cm/year after one year (P < 0.002 and 5.6 (4.8–6.2 cm/year after two years of treatment. Height SDS increased from −2.2 ± 1.3 to −1.6 ± 1.3 after one year (P < 0.002 and −1.1 ± 1.5 after two years of GH treatment. Adult height (−0.1 ± 1.0 SDS was close to target height after 3.6 ± 1.4 years of GH treatment. Serum IGF-I levels increased significantly during treatment (P < 0.01. The treatment was well tolerated. Conclusions: This proof-of-concept study shows that hGH treatment is associated with significant improvements in linear growth in adolescents with AN and severe growth failure. A randomized placebo-controlled trial is required to determine the ultimate impact of GH treatment in patients with this severe, rare condition.

  12. Choice architecture to promote fruit and vegetable purchases by families participating in the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC): randomized corner store pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Anne N; Bright, Oliver-John M; Dimond, Melissa A; Fishman, Ronald; Levy, Douglas E

    2017-05-01

    To conduct a pilot study to determine if improving the visibility and quality of fresh produce (choice architecture) in corner stores would increase fruit/vegetable purchases by families participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Six stores were randomly assigned to choice architecture intervention or control. Store-level WIC sales data were provided by the state. Primary outcomes were WIC fruit/vegetable voucher and non-fruit/vegetable voucher sales, comparing trends from baseline (December 2012-October 2013) with the five-month intervention period (December 2013-April 2014). Secondary outcomes were differences in customer self-reported fruit/vegetable purchases between baseline and end of the intervention. Chelsea, MA, USA, a low-income urban community. Adult customers (n 575) completing store exit interviews. During baseline, WIC fruit/vegetable and non-fruit/vegetable sales decreased in both intervention and control stores by $US 16/month. During the intervention period, WIC fruit/vegetable sales increased in intervention stores by $US 40/month but decreased in control stores by $US 23/month (difference in trends: $US 63/month; 95 % CI 4, 121 $US/month; P=0·036); WIC non-fruit/vegetable sales were not different (P=0·45). Comparing baseline and intervention-period exit interview responses by customers participating in WIC (n 134), intervention store customers reported increased fruit/vegetable purchases compared with control store customers (18 v. -2 %), but this did not achieve statistical significance (P=0·11). Placement of fruits/vegetables near the front of corner stores increased purchase of produce by customers using WIC. New policies that incentivize stores to stock and prominently display good-quality produce could promote healthier food choices of low-income families.

  13. Reduced glycaemic variability in diazoxide-responsive children with congenital hyperinsulinism using supplemental omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids; a pilot trial with MaxEPA

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    Mars eSkae

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Congenital Hyperinsulinism (CHI is a rare condition of hypoglycaemia where therapeutic options are limited and often complicated by side-effects. Omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA which can suppress cardiac myocyte electrical activity, may also reduce ion channel activity in insulin-secreting cells. PUFA supplements in combination with standard medical treatment may improve glucose profile and may reduce glycaemic variability in diazoxide-responsive CHI. Design: Open label pilot trial with MaxEPA liquid (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid PUFA (3 ml/day for 21 days in diazoxide-responsive CHI patients [https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/, EudraCT number 201100363333]. Methods: Glucose levels were monitored pre treatment, end of treatment and at follow up by subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS in 13 patients (7 girls who received PUFA. Outcome measures were an improved glucose profile, reduced glycaemic variability quantified by a reduction in the risk of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia (glucose10mmol/l respectively and safety of PUFA. All children were analysed either as intention to treat (n=13 or as per protocol (n=7. Results: Mean (% CGMS glucose levels increased by 0.1mmol/l (2% in intention to treat and by 0.4mmol/l (8% in per protocol analysis (n=7. The frequency of CGMS10mmol/l, was also less at the end of treatment [27(0.3% v 49(0.7%]. Except for one child with increased LDL cholesterol, all safety parameters were normal. Conclusions: MaxEPAR was safe and reduced glycaemic variability, but did not increase glucose profiles significantly in diazoxide-responsive CHI. The supplemental value of PUFA should be evaluated in a comprehensive clinical trial.

  14. A pilot study evaluating the clinical and immunomodulatory effects of an orally administered extract of Dendrobium huoshanense in children with moderate to severe recalcitrant atopic dermatitis.

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    Wu, K-G; Li, T-H; Chen, C-J; Cheng, H-I; Wang, T-Y

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disorder for which few safe and effective systemic treatments are available. To test the clinical and immunomodulatory effects of a crude polysaccharide fraction isolated from Dendrobium huoshanense for the treatment of AD, we conducted a pilot, uncontrolled case series study. Twenty-seven patients aged 4-18 years (mean∓SD, 10.82±4.4) with AD that had not responded to topical therapy were treated with polysaccharide derived from D. huoshanense for 4 weeks and followed-up for another 4 weeks. Progression of AD was determined with the Lund-Browder chart for children, the Investigator's Global Atopic Dermatitis Assessment (IGADA), and the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 8. Serum levels of cytokines were evaluated. Safety was determined with laboratory and clinical tests. The lesion area, IGADA score, total SCORAD result, and score for sleeplessness decreased significantly from weeks 0 to 4, but did not change significantly between weeks 4 and 8. The scores for subjective symptoms and pruritus decreased significantly from week 0 to week 4 and increased significantly from week 4 to week 8. Serum levels of IL-5, IL-13, IFN-gamma, and TGF-beta1 decreased significantly between weeks 0 and 4 and between weeks 0 and 8. No significant difference in the levels of IL-10 was found. The polysaccharide from D. huoshanense reduced the levels of some cytokines associated with AD and had beneficial effects on symptoms. No serious adverse effects occurred when it was administered orally for 4 weeks.

  15. Effectiveness of the pilot program correction psychophysical condition of children in the second year of a common educational school

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    O. A. Klyus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the algorithms have been defined and grounded that contain projecting operations for the formation and implementation of a programme aiming at the correction of psychophysical state of children in the process of physical education during the second year of studying at school. In the investigated was attended by 19 girls and 15 boys second class of experimental group and 30 girls and 30 boys in the control group. Results: it is shown that the increase in body weight of 2.4% in girls and 3.9% boys, increase in body length 14.7% of girls and 11.5% boys, vital capacity of the lungs 22% and 21.8%, respectively, m the muscle strength by dynamometry results brushes right and left hands grew by 142.4 and 94.8%, revealed a significant (from p <0.05 to p <0.001 improved values of all investigated parameters of physical fitness girls and boys. Conclusions: use within one year of the proposed development of 19 girls and 15 boys achieved the much better results in solving tasks than the traditional organization and content of physical education, which are used in the control group

  16. 3D high-definition manometry in evaluation of children after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease: A pilot study.

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    Banasiuk, Marcin; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Piotrowski, Dariusz; Albrecht, Piotr; Kamiński, Andrzej; Radzikowski, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Anorectal 3-dimensional high definition manometry (3D HRM) could be the best tool for postoperative assessment of restorative surgical procedures for Hirschsprung's disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate patients after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease using 3D HRM. Anorectal function was evaluated using solid state 3D HRM. We measured the length of the anal canal, mean resting squeeze pressures, the presence of rectoanal inhibitory reflex, cough reflex, ano-anal reflex and the bear down manoeuvre. We studied 14 children operated on for Hirschsprung's disease. The mean values of pressure asymmetry were higher in patients after the Duhamel procedure than after the TEPT procedure (29.58% vs. 22.26% during resting and 26.1% vs. 14.01% during squeeze, respectively). No difference between the groups was observed in the measurement of all the manometric parameters except the presence of rectoanal inhibitory reflex (87.5% after TEPT vs. 33% after Duhamel). Anorectal 3D HRM evaluation of patients with Hirschsprung's disease demonstrated that the asymmetry of the anal canal occurred in a similar percentage after both procedures. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of cardiovascular virtual endoscopy: a pilot study on roaming path planning for diagnosis of congenital heart diseases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li-Ping; Mei, Ju; Ding, Fang-Bao; Zhang, Li; Li, Hui-Ming; Ding, Ming; Yang, Xin; Li, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Kun

    2018-01-23

    To investigate roaming paths planning for diagnosis of congenital heart diseases (CHD) using a cardiovascular virtual endoscopy (VE) system. Forty children were enrolled. VE system was applied to support in establishing a diagnosis. Performance in diagnosing CHDs by CT, VE using automatically planned roaming paths (VE-auto, objects were treated as left heart system and right heart system), VE using manually planned paths (VE-manual), and VE using automatically planned path for left heart system and manually planned path for right heart system (VE-combined) were studied and compared. Comparable accuracy of 93%, 93%, 95% and 95% was found by CT, VE-auto, VE-manual and VE-combined. However, in diagnosing tetralogy of Fallot, significantly higher performance was found by VEs, compared with CT. For VE-auto, poor performance with an accuracy of 85% and sensitivity of 22% was revealed in diagnosing muscular ventricular septal defect, compared with VE-manual and VE-combined. Compared with VE-manual, VE-combined illustrated comparable diagnostic accuracy on all CHDs; however, significantly smaller diagnostic time was utilized (P diagnosis of CHDs. Left and right heart system should not be modeled as two cavity objects simultaneously. When one of two systems is treated as one object, the other system should be treated as three separate objects when using VE to diagnose CHDs.

  18. Callous-unemotional traits moderate executive function in children with ASD and ADHD: A pilot event-related potential study

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    C. Tye

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD are associated with varied executive function (EF difficulties. Callous-unemotional (CU traits, a proposed antecedent of adult psychopathy, are often associated with intact or enhanced EF. Here we test whether CU traits may therefore modulate EF in ASD and ADHD, in which EF is typically impaired. We collected CU traits and measured event-related potentials (ERPs that index EF during a cued-continuous performance test (CPT-OX in boys with ASD, ADHD, comorbid ASD + ADHD and typical controls. We examined attentional orienting at cues (Cue-P3, inhibitory processing at non-targets (NoGo-P3 and conflict monitoring between target and non-target trials (Go-N2 vs. NoGo-N2. In children with ASD, higher CU traits were associated with an enhanced increase in N2 amplitude in NoGo trials compared to Go trials, which suggests relatively superior conflict monitoring and a potential cognitive strength associated with CU traits. The results emphasise the importance of considering the effects of co-occurring traits in the assessment of heterogeneity of EF profiles in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  19. Caries experience of children in primary schools with long-term tooth brushing programs: A pilot Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, T; Harrison-Barry, L; Pukallus, M L; Kazoullis, S; Seow, W K

    2017-03-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a primary school-based tooth brushing (TB) program conducted in a low socio-economic area of Queensland, Australia, to determine its effectiveness in reducing caries. Records kept at the central dental clinic of the district were used to analyse the caries experience (decayed, missing, filled teeth [dmft/DMFT]) and caries prevalence in children from two schools with long-term TB programs (TB) (N=1191) and three Non-TB schools (N=553). The schools were matched by socio-economic indices. Historical records showed that the baseline caries experience in all TB and Non-TB primary schools were similar at each primary school year. After a mean period of 5-9 years of the TB program, the caries experience (mean decayed, missing, filled teeth, dmft/DMFT) and prevalence were lower for TB group than Non-TB group. In the primary dentition, the overall mean dmft (±standard deviation) of TB group (2.53±3.00) was significantly lower than the Non-TB group (3.06±3.30) (Pprimary school TB program significantly reduced caries experience and caries prevalence in an optimally fluoridated (1-ppm), very low socio-economic district. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Pilot Study of a 6-Week Parenting Program for Mothers of Pre-school Children Attending Family Health Centers in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Yasmin Khowaja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, parenting programs to address behavioural and emotional problems associated with child maltreatment in developing countries have received much attention. There is a paucity of literature on effective parent education interventions in the local context of Pakistan. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of offering a 6-week parenting program for mothers of pre-school children attending family health centres (FHCs in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan. Methods A pilot quasi-experimental trial was conducted. Two FHCs were selected, one as the intervention and the second as the control. A total of 57 mothers of pre-school children (n = 30 intervention; n = 27 control participated in this study. Mothers in the intervention group received SOS Help for parents module, while mothers in the control group received information about routine childcare. A parenting scale (PS was administered before the program was implemented and repeated 2 weeks after the program was completed in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed to compare participants’ attributes. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare pre- and post-test mean scores along with standard deviation for parenting subscales in the intervention and control groups. Results A total of 50 mothers (n = 25 intervention; n = 25 control completed the 6-week program. Attrition was observed as 5/30 (17% in the intervention arm and 2/27 (2% in the control arm. Mothers commonly reported the burden of daily domestic and social responsibilities as the main reason for dropping out. Furthermore, the majority of participants in the control group recommended increasing the duration of weekly sessions from 1 to 1.5 hours, thereby decreasing the program period from 6 to 4 weeks. Mothers in intervention group reported substantial improvement in parenting skills as indicated by mean difference in their pre- and post-test scores for laxness and over

  1. Effectiveness and tolerability of aripiprazole in children and adolescents with Tourette's disorder: a pilot study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong-hua; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Yun-ping; Liu, Jing; Li, Jun

    2010-08-01

    The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of aripiprazole on motor and vocal tics in children and adolescents with Tourette's disorder (TD). The secondary aim was to assess the response of TD-associated behaviors to aripiprazole exposure. This was an 8-week, open-label trial with flexible dosing strategy of aripiprazole in children and adolescents with TD. A total of 72 patients, aged 6-18 years, participated in the 8-week trial. The Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), the Clinical Global Impressions-Tics (CGI-Tics), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were compared at the baseline, weeks 2 and 4, and end point. The side effects of aripiprazole, electrocardiogram (ECG), and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Over the 8-week trial, aripiprazole administration was associated with a significant decrease in total tic severity as measured by the YGTSS (50.3% reduction by week 8). The mean scores of motor tic in the YGTSS were 17.42 +/- 4.83, 12.93 +/- 3.76, 8.39 +/- 3.70, and 6.75 +/- 3.95 at baseline, weeks 2 and 4, and end point. A significant decrease in the scores was observed in week 2 compared to the baseline, and the scores continued to decrease for the remainder of the study period (degrees of freedom [df ] = 3, F = 96.02, p = 0.000). The mean phonic tic scores were 12.71 +/- 4.60, 8.53 +/- 3.26, 6.10 +/- 2.50, and 3.63 +/- 2.20 at baseline, weeks 2 and 4, and end point, respectively. A significant change was observed during week 2 compared to the baseline, and this change continued for the rest of the study period (df = 3, F = 95.16, p = 0.000). Significant improvement was also observed according to the CGI-Tics severity. The mean CGI-Tics severity score was 4.77 +/- 1.69 at baseline and decreased to 2.20 +/- 1.39 at end point (t = 10.70, p = 0.000). A significant reduction of behavior symptoms was noticed according to the CBCL and its subscales between baseline and end point. The majority of subjects tolerated

  2. A pilot duplicate diet study on manganese, selenium and chromium intakes in institutionalised children and adolescents from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Briones, Mercedes; Muros, José Joaquín; Seiquer, Isabel; Sánchez, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Giménez, Rafael

    2015-11-28

    Hidden hunger occurs in the presence of an otherwise nutritionally or energetically appropriate diet that is deficient in essential vitamins and minerals. Guatemala has the highest rate of child malnutrition in Latin America and the prevalence of hidden hunger is high. The aim of this study was to determine the Mn, Se and Cr dietary intakes in Guatemalan institutionalised children (4-14 years), a population group at high risk of mineral deficiency. For this purpose, the contents of Mn, Se and Cr were analysed in a duplicate diet (for 7 consecutive days) by electrothermal atomisation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry following acid digestion. Mn, Se and Cr intakes from the duplicate diets were in the range of 1·3-2·31 mg/d, 58·7-69·6 µg/d and 6·32-27·57 µg/d, respectively. Mn and Cr values were below current recommended daily intakes. A cereal- and legumes-based diet is habitually consumed by this population. Local vegetables, fruits and nutritional supplements are included daily, but the consumption of fish, meat, eggs and dairy products is very infrequent or negligible. Mean daily energy intake from the 7-d diet was 8418·2 kJ (2012 kcal), with a macronutrient energy distribution of carbohydrates 69·4 %, proteins 12·3 % and fats 18·3 %. Correlations between Mn, Se and Cr intakes and energy and other nutrient intakes were also evaluated. The present findings will help establish new nutritional strategies for this and similar population groups.

  3. PTSD in Children and Teens

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    ... version, located in the "Professional" section of our website: PTSD in Children and Adolescents . Date this content was last updated is at the bottom of the ... PILOTS *, the largest citation database on PTSD. What is PILOTS? Subscribe Sign ...

  4. Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children's Study

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    Mortensen, Mary E., E-mail: MMortensen@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wright, David J. [Westat, Inc. Rockville, MD (United States); Pirkle, James L. [National Center for Environ