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Sample records for georgia coastal plain

  1. Distribution and Ecology of Campylobacters in Coastal Plain Streams (Georgia, United States of America)▿

    OpenAIRE

    Vereen, Ethell; Lowrance, R. Richard; Cole, Dana J.; Lipp, Erin K.

    2006-01-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterium-associated diarrhea in the United States and most developed countries. While this disease is considered a food-borne disease, many clinical cases cannot be linked to a food source. In rural and agrarian areas environmental transmission may be an important factor contributing to case loads. Here we investigated the waterborne prevalence of campylobacters in a mixed-use rural watershed in the coastal plain of southern Georgia (United States). Six ...

  2. Effect of culture and density on aboveground biomass allocation of 12 years old loblolly pine trees in the upper coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia and Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh Subedi; Dr. Michael Kane; Dr. Dehai Zhao; Dr. Bruce Borders; Dr. Dale Greene

    2012-01-01

    We destructively sampled a total of 192 12-year-old loblolly pine trees from four installations established by the Plantation Management Research Cooperative (PMRC) to analyze the effects of planting density and cultural intensity on tree level biomass allocation in the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain of Georgia and Alabama. Each installation had 12 plots, each plot...

  3. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers an area of nearly 62,000 square miles in the southeastern United States, mostly in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. Land resource provinces have been designated based on generalized soil classifications. Land resource provinces in the study area include: the Coastal Flatwoods, the Southern Coastal Plain, the Central Florida Ridge, the Sand Hills, and the Southern Piedmont. The study area includes all or parts of seven hydrologic subregions: the Ogeechee-Savannah, the Altamaha- St.Marys, the Suwannee, the Ochlockonee, the St. Johns, the Peace-Tampa Bay, and the Southern Florida. The primary source of water for public supply in the study area is ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. In 1990, more than 90 percent of the 2,888 million gallons per day of ground water used came from this aquifer. The population of the study area was 9.3 million in 1990. The cities of Jacksonville, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tallahassee, and Tampa, Florida, and parts of Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia, are located in the study area. Forest and agricultural areas are the most common land uses in the study area, accounting for 48 percent and 25 percent of the study area, respectively. Climatic conditions range from temperate in Atlanta, Georgia, where mean annual temperature is about 61.3 degrees Fahrenheit, to subtropical in Tampa, Florida, where mean annual temperature is about 72.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Long-term average precipitation (1961-90) ranges from 43.9 inches per year in Tampa, Florida, and 44.6 in Macon, Georgia, to 65.7 inches per year in Tallahassee, Florida. Floods in the study area result from frontal systems, hurricanes, tropical storms, or severe thunderstorms. Droughts are not common in the study area,especially in the Florida part of the study area due to extensive maritime exposure. The primary physical and cultural characteristics in the study area include physiography, soils and land resource provinces

  4. Digital surfaces and hydrogeologic data for the Mesozoic through early Tertiary rocks in the Southeastern Coastal Plain in parts of Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Debra M.; Bellino, Jason C.; Williams, Lester J.

    2012-01-01

    A digital dataset of hydrogeologic data for Mesozoic through early Tertiary rocks in the Southeastern Coastal Plain was developed using data from five U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reports published between 1951 and 1996. These reports contain maps and data depicting the extent and elevation of the Southeast Coastal Plain stratigraphic and hydrogeologic units in Florida and parts of Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina. The reports are: Professional Paper 1410-B (Renken, 1996), Professional Paper 1088 (Brown and others, 1979), Professional Paper 524-G (Applin and Applin, 1967), Professional Paper 447 (Applin and Applin, 1965), and Circular 91 (Applin, 1951). The digital dataset provides hydrogeologic data for the USGS Energy Resources Program assessment of potential reservoirs for carbon sequestration and for the USGS Groundwater Resource Program assessment of saline aquifers in the southeastern United States. A Geographic Information System (ArcGIS 9.3.1) was used to construct 33 digital (raster) surfaces representing the top or base of key stratigraphic and hydrogeologic units. In addition, the Geographic Information System was used to generate 102 geo-referenced scanned maps from the five reports and a geo-database containing structural and thickness contours, faults, extent polygons, and common features. The dataset also includes point data of well construction and stratigraphic elevations and scanned images of two geologic cross sections and a nomenclature chart.

  5. Map showing distribution of small-scale deformation structures in a part of the upper coastal plain of South Carolina and adjacent Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, R.C.; Houser, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    As a contribution to the assessment of neotectonics in the area of the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, field traverses were made between Columbia, S.C., and Augusta, Ga., in 1975 and early 1976 in order to locate and describe small-scale deformation structures within exposed Coastal Plain rocks. The study covered most of the area between the Fall Line (northwest margin of the Coastal Plain) and the Orangeburg (Citronelle) escarpment (fig. 1).

  6. Characterization of yields for Pinus taeda genotypes at the half-sib, full-sib, and varietal levels of genetic improvement at two planting densities at age 5 in the upper coastal plain of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Dougherty; Michael Kane; Robert Teskey; Richard Daniels; Jeff Wright

    2012-01-01

    Seedling deployment options for the establishment of operational Pinus taeda plantations in the Southeastern U.S. now include half-sib families, full-sib crosses, and varietals. In 2005, a study to evaluate the effects of genotype and density on yield and quality was established on a moderately well-drained upland site in the Upper Coastal Plain in...

  7. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  8. Savannah, Georgia Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Soil change and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) seedling growth following site preparation tillage in the Upper Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad M. Lincoln; Rodney E. Will; Lawrence A. Morris; Emily A. Carter; Daniel Markewtiz; John R. Britt; Ben Cazell; Vic Ford

    2007-01-01

    To determine the relationship between changes in soil physical properties due to tillage and growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings, we measured soil moisture and penetration resistance for a range of tillage treatments on two Upper Coastal Plain sites in Georgia and correlated these measurements to the growth of individual seedlings. The...

  10. Study on ecological regulation of coastal plain sluice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wengong; Geng, Bing; Yu, Huanfei; Yu, Hongbo

    2018-02-01

    Coastal plains are densely populated and economically developed, therefore their importance is self-evident. However, there are some problems related with water in coastal plains, such as low flood control capacity and severe water pollution. Due to complicated river network hydrodynamic force, changeable flow direction and uncertain flood concentration and propagation mechanism, it is rather difficult to use sluice scheduling to realize flood control and tackle water pollution. On the base of the measured hydrological data during once-in-a-century Fitow typhoon in 2013 in Yuyao city, by typical analysis, theoretical analysis and process simulation, some key technologies were researched systematically including plain river network sluice ecological scheduling, “one tide” flood control and drainage scheduling and ecological running water scheduling. In the end, single factor health diagnostic evaluation, unit hydrograph of plain water level and evening tide scheduling were put forward.

  11. Quaternary evolution of the Southern Apennines coastal plains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santangelo Nicoletta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary evolution of the main coastal basins located along the southwestern margin of the Southern Apennines has been reconstructed by integrating the huge amount of existing stratigraphical and geomorphological data. The information produced in the last twenty years has shed new light on the recent (late Middle Pleistocene to Present history of the Campanian and Sele plains or basins. During the early Quaternary, the analysed coastal basins originated as half-grabens in response to opening processes active since the late Tortonian in the southern Tyrrhenian back-arc basin. In some of these basins (e.g. the Campanian Plain, volcanism has also played an important role. In the inner sectors of the coastal basins, the complex interplay between block faulting, sedimentary inputs and glacioeustatic fluctuations gave rise to relative sea-level change and related coastline migrations, leading to the formation of the present-day coastal plains. In the Sele Plain basin, the construction of the present-day landscape mainly resulted from the substantial ceasing of subsidence in the final part of the Middle Pleistocene. Conversely, a strong contribution to the recent evolution of the Campanian Plain has been provided by abundant volcaniclastic aggradation, able to hinder the effect of the vertical motions that occurred in the last 100 ka.

  12. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States: Southeastern Coastal Plain Subregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    A literature review was made of the geological characteristics of the Southeastern Coastal Plain physiograhic province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate exploration areas for the possible location of a mined repository for the storage of radioactive waste in the argillaceous sedimentary rocks of the Coastal Plain. Candidate areas were selected on the basis of geological characteristics, available subsurface data, and generally accepted requirements for waste isolation developed by previous studies. Factors considered in the evaluation include the stratigraphy and lithology, geologic history, structure, seismicity, hydrogeology, and natural resources of the candidate area. Unlike other potential regions, the Southeastern Coastal Plain is not composed of competent rock, but consists primarily of unconsolidated and water-saturated sediments overlying a basement of crystalline and metavolcanic rocks. Thus, construction of both shafts and tunnels to depths of approx. 1000 meters may encounter difficulties. Socio-economic and construction considerations have not been addressed in the evaluation. Based on the applied criteria, four areas were selected as being most favorable for future field investigation. These include one in Maryland, one in North Carolina, and two in Georgia

  13. Hydrology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M Amatya; Callahan Timothy J.; Carl C. Trettin; Hakkila Jon

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  14. Hyrdology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M. Amatya; Timothy J. Callahan; Carl C. Trettin; Jon Hakkila

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  15. prediction of characteristics of coastal plain soils using terrain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clay, electrical and hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, pH, exchangeable calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and acidity ... significantly correlated with clay and pH (H2O), while SPI and CTI correlated significantly with clay, pH, organic carbon and ... Key words: coastal plain sands, DEM, soil characteristics, modelling.

  16. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Vukovich; K.L. Turner; T.E. Grazia; T. Mims; J.C. Beasley; John Kilgo

    2015-01-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S...

  17. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovich, Mark [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Turner, Kelsey L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Grazia, Tracy E. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Mims, Thiomas [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Beasley, James C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site on the coastal plain of South Carolina. We identified eight individual Golden Eagles during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, with one detected during both winters. We detected eagles for 19 and 66 calendar days during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively, with two adult eagles detected for 30 and 31 calendar days in 2014–2015. Eagles typically scavenged on carcasses for a few days, left, and then returned when cameras were baited with another carcass, suggesting they had remained in the area. These observations suggest that large tracts of forests on the coastal plain may be important wintering areas for some Golden Eagles and, further, that other areas in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States may also harbor wintering eagles. Identification of wintering areas of Golden Eagles in the east will be an important step in the conservation of this protected species, and camera traps baited with carcasses can be an effective tool for such work.

  18. Forest statistics for the Coastal Plain of Virginia, 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel D. Cost

    1976-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fourth inventory of the timber resource in the coastal Plain of Virginia. The inventory was started in February 1975 and completed in November 1975. Three previous inventories, completed in 1940, 1956, and 1966, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 36 years. In this report, the primary...

  19. Forest statistics for the Coastal Plain of Virginia, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson

    1991-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the sixth forest survey of the Coastal Plain of Virginia. Field work began in October 1990 and was completed in March 1991. Five previous surveys, completed in 1940, 1956, 1966, 1976, and 1985, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 51 years. The primary emphasis in this report is on the...

  20. Forest statistics for the Coastal Plain of Virginia, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown; Gerald C. Craver

    1985-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fifth forest survey in the Coastal Plain of Virginia. Fieldwork began in September 1984 and was completed in February 1985. Four previous surveys, completed in 1940, 1956, 1966, and 1976, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 45 years. The primary emphasis in this report is on the changes...

  1. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  2. Coastal ground water at risk - Saltwater contamination at Brunswick, Georgia and Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Richard E.; Clarke, John S.

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionSaltwater contamination is restricting the development of ground-water supply in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida. The principal source of water in the coastal area is the Upper Floridan aquifer—an extremely permeable and high-yielding aquifer—which was first developed in the late 1800s. Pumping from the aquifer has resulted in substantial ground-water-level decline and subsequent saltwater intrusion of the aquifer from underlying strata containing highly saline water at Brunswick, Georgia, and with encroachment of sea-water into the aquifer at the northern end of Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. The saltwater contamination at these locations has constrained further development of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the coastal area and has created competing demands for the limited supply of freshwater. The Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Environmental Protection Division (GaEPD) has restricted permitted withdrawal of water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in parts of the coastal area (including the Savannah and Brunswick areas) to 1997 rates, and also has restricted additional permitted pumpage in all 24 coastal area counties to 36 million gallons per day above 1997 rates. These actions have prompted interest in alternative management of the aquifer and in the development of supplemental sources of water supply including those from the shallower surficial and upper and lower Brunswick aquifers and from the deeper Lower Floridan aquifer.

  3. Two depositional models for Pliocene coastal plain fluvial systems, Goliad Formation, south Texas Gulf Coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, H.D.; Galloway, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Goliad Formation consists of four depositional systems-the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems in the southwest and the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems in the northeast. Five facies are recognized in the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems: (1) primary channel-fill facies, (2) chaotic flood channel-fill facies, (3) complex splay facies, (4) flood plain facies, and (5) playa facies. A model for Realitos-Mathis depositional environments shows arid-climate braided stream complexes with extremely coarse sediment load, highly variable discharge, and marked channel instability. Broad, shallow, straight to slightly sinuous primary channels were flanked by wide flood channels. Flood channels passed laterally into broad, low-relief flood plains. Small playas occupied topographic lows near large channel axes. Three facies are recognized in the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems: (1) channel-fill facies, (2) crevasse splay facies, and (3) flood plain facies. A model for Cuero-Eagle Lake depositional environments shows coarse-grained meander belts in a semi-arid climate. Slightly to moderately sinuous meandering streams were flanked by low, poorly developed natural levees. Crevasse splays were common, but tended to be broad and ill-defined. Extensive, low-relief flood plains occupied interaxial areas. The model proposed for the Realitos and Mathis fluvial systems may aid in recognition of analogous ancient depositional systems. In addition, since facies characteristics exercise broad controls on Goliad uranium mineralization, the proposed depositional models aid in defining target zones for Goliad uranium exploration

  4. The Pliocene Citronelle Formation of the Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, George Charlton

    1916-01-01

    In the spring of 1910 the writer, working under the direction of T. Wayland Vaughan, geologist in charge of Coastal Plain investigations, undertook a study of the later Tertiary formations of the Gulf Coastal Plain. According to the plans outlined before the work was begun, the beds that had formerly been grouped under the names Lafayette formation and Grand Gulf formation were to be studied with a view to their possible separation into more satisfactory stratigraphic units that might be correlated with other formations which, on the basis of their fossils, had been assigned to their proper positions in the geologic time scale. The original plan included a study of the post-Vicksburgian Tertiary deposits from western Florida to Mississippi River and correlations with formations previously recognized in Florida, southern Alabama, and Louisiana. This plan was subsequently modified to extend the investigation as far west as Sabine River. The field work was interrupted and the office work was delayed by calls for geologic work in other areas, so that the preparation of the reports could not be begun until the spring of 1914.

  5. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  6. Quaternary subsidence of the Oahu Coastal Plain, Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, M.; Sandstrom, R. M.; Huppert, K.; Taylor, F. W.; Cronin, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Inter-plate hotspots continue to test our understanding of how the Earth's lithosphere deforms in response to an applied load, in part, because many current models are based on short or discontinuous observational datasets. Here we reconstruct a record of relative sea level rise spanning nearly two million years using the strontium isotope stratigraphy (SIS) of shallow water carbonates (e.g. corals, mollusks) recovered from a >300 m long drill core through the coastal plain of Oahu. We then compare it to model-predicted subsidence histories for our site that incorporate displacements at Ewa Beach, Oahu, due to the flexural isostatic response of the lithosphere to loading of each volcano along the Hawaiian Ridge as well as its migration over the Hawaiian Swell. Preliminary results indicate Oahu experienced relatively rapid rates of subsidence ( 0.45 mm/yr) during the mid-Pleistocene—vertical displacements our model largely attributes to loading of West Molokai. An abrupt slowing of subsidence over the past million years may be driven by the relative eastward progression of volcanism, including construction of large shields on Maui and Hawaii. Shallowly buried, late Pleistocene aged corals, however, may suggest: (1) a more limited flexural response to this loading for southeastern Oahu than has been inferred from raised marine isotope stage (MIS) 11/13 dated, shallow-water, deposits found elsewhere on the island and/or (2) substantial dissolution of coastal plain carbonates between MIS 31 and 11.

  7. Increasing N Retention in Coastal Plain Agricultural Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Staver

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, N availability has limited agricultural production as well as primary production in coastal waters. Prior to the middle of the last century, N available for grain production generally was limited to that supplied by previous legume crops, released from soil organic matter, or returned to the soil in animal wastes. The development of infrastructure to produce relatively low-cost inorganic N fertilizers eliminated the need to focus management of the entire agricultural system on increasing soil N availability. Increased N availability has contributed to dramatic increases in agricultural production but also has led to increased losses of both N and C from agricultural systems. N losses from cropland have been linked to increased algal production in the Chesapeake Bay, with N loss from cropland estimated to be the primary N input to the Bay from Coastal Plain regions of the watershed. The decade-long effort to reduce these losses has focused on reducing agricultural N use, but this strategy has yet to yield apparent reductions in N loadings to Coastal Plain tributaries. Although nitrate leaching losses are often attributed to inefficient use of N inputs, soil nitrate data indicate that both corn and soybeans can utilize nearly all available soil nitrate during periods of active growth. However, both crops tend to stop utilizing nitrate before mineralization has ceased, resulting in a late season buildup of root zone nitrate levels and significant leaching losses even when no N was applied. Reducing nitrate losses due to the inherent N inefficiency of summer annual grain crops will require the addition of winter annual crops to rotations or changes in weed management approaches that result in plant N uptake capacity being more closely matched to soil microbial N processes.

  8. Georgia 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic Coast in 2010. The data types collected...

  9. Reticuloendotheliosis in a wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) from coastal Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, L E; Langheinrich, K A; Witter, R L

    1992-01-01

    An emaciated wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) exhibiting neurologic signs was found on Ossabaw Island, Chatham County, Georgia (USA) on 11 April 1989. The neurologic abnormalities observed included ataxia, drooping wings, head tremors, torticollis, and circling. At necropsy, discrete yellowish-white nodules, varying in size from 2 to 5 mm, were present in the spleen. White nodular lesions approximately 2 mm in diameter were observed beneath the mucosal surface of the distal esophagus. Histopathologic examination of the splenic nodules disclosed large numbers of primitive lymphoreticular cells with leptochromatic nuclei and abundant, slightly basophilic cytoplasms. The mitotic index in these cells was moderate to high. Similar neoplastic cells composed the masses observed in the esophagus. Multifocal, mild perivascular cuffing with mononuclear cells was found in the lumbar spinal cord, brain, and brain stem. Reticuloendotheliosis virus, subtype 3, was isolated from samples of the spleen and liver.

  10. Shallow S-Wave Velocity Structures in the Western Coastal Plain of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Min Lin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The western coastal plain of Taiwan borders the Western Foot hills, which is a fold-and-thrust zone and one of Taiwan's major seismic zones. Earth quakes from the Western Foot hills are a frequent cause of disaster in the western coastal plain. In this study, array measurements of microtremors were conducted at seven sites through out the western coastal plain. At each site, four arrays (S, M, L, and XL arrays of different sizes were considered. The largest radius of each array ranged from 32 m to 1 km. The Maximum Likelihood Method of Frequency-Wavenumber (F-K analyses was used to obtain phase velocity dispersion curves. After the inversion of the dispersion curves with the initial models decided by Genetic Algorithm (GA searching, shallow S-wave velocity structures for the western coastal plain were estimated.

  11. Assessment of hyporheic zone, flood-plain, soil-gas, soil, and surface-water contamination at the Old Incinerator Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    their method detection levels, but those that were detected were above the nondetection level. The same six locations that were sampled for explosives and chemical agents were selected for the collection of soil samples. No metals that exceeded the Regional Screening Levels for Industrial Soils as classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were detected at any of the six Old Incinerator Area locations. The soil samples also were compared to values from the ambient, uncontaminated (background) levels for soils in South Carolina. Because South Carolina is adjacent to Georgia and the soils in the coastal plain are similar, these comparisons are valid. No similar values are available for Georgia to use for comparison purposes. The only metal detected above the ambient background levels for South Carolina was barium. A surface-water sample collected from a tributary west and north of the Old Incinerator Area was analyzed for volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and inorganic compounds (metals). The only volatile organic and (or) semivolatile organic compound that was detected above the laboratory reporting level was toluene. The compounds 4-isopropyl-1-methylbenzene and isophorone were detected above the nondetection level but below the laboratory reporting level and were estimated. These compounds were detected at levels below the maximum contaminant levels set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Primary Drinking Water Standard. Iron was the only inorganic compound detected in the surface-water sample that exceeded the maximum contaminant level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Secondary Drinking Water Standard. No other inorganic compounds exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Primary Drinking Water Standard, National Secondary Drinking Water Standard, or the Georgia In-Stream Water Quality Standard.

  12. Groundwater Discharge along a Channelized Coastal Plain Stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaSage, Danita M [Ky Dept for natural resources, Div of Mine Permits; Sexton, Joshua L [JL Sexton and Son; Mukherjee, Abhijit [Univ of Tx, Jackson School of Geosciences, Bur of Econ. Geology; Fryar, Alan E [Univ of KY, Dept of Earth and Geoligical Sciences; Greb, Stephen F [Univ of KY, KY Geological Survey

    2015-10-01

    In the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel.

  13. Coastal plain soils and geomorphology: a key to understanding forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Williams; Devendra M. Amatya

    2016-01-01

    In the 1950s, Coile published a simple classification of southeastern coastal soils using three characteristics: drainage class, sub-soil depth, and sub-soil texture. These ideas were used by Warren Stuck and Bill Smith to produce a matrix of soils with drainage class as one ordinate and subsoil texture as the second for the South Carolina coastal plain. Soils...

  14. A Surficial Hydrogeologic Framework for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.; Krantz, David E.; Newell, Wayne L.; Martucci, Sarah K.

    2005-01-01

    A surficial hydrogeologic framework was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, from New Jersey through North Carolina. The framework includes seven distinct hydrogeologic subregions within which the primary natural physical factors affecting the flow and chemistry of shallow ground water and small streams are relatively consistent. Within most subregions, the transport of chemicals from the land surface to ground water and streams can be described by a fairly uniform set of natural processes; some subregions include mixed hydrogeologic settings that are indistinguishable at the regional scale. The hydrogeologic framework and accompanying physiographic and geologic delineations are presented in digital and printed format. The seven hydrogeologic subregions that constitute the framework were delineated primarily on the basis of physiography and the predominant texture (typical grain size) of surficial and (where surficial sediments are particularly thin) subcropping sediments. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previously published interpretations for the Coastal Plain of South Carolina and New Jersey, based on similar work in the other States. Surficial and subcropping geology were similarly compiled from previous publications by resolving inconsistencies in nomenclature, interpretation, and scale, and interpolating across unmapped areas. A bulk sediment texture was determined for each mapped geologic unit on the basis of published descriptions. Fundamental differences among the seven hydrogeologic subregions are described on the basis of hypotheses about surficial and shallow subsurface hydrology and water chemistry in each, as well as variable land use, soils, and topography. On the regional scale, the Coastal Lowlands (Subregion 1), the Middle Coastal Plain Fine Sediments (Subregion 3), the Middle Coastal Plain Sands with Overlying Gravels (Subregion 4), and the Inner Coastal Plain Upland

  15. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat

  16. Geostatistical modeling of the spatial distribution of sediment oxygen demand within a Coastal Plain blackwater watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, M Jason; Lowrance, R Richard; Goovaerts, Pierre; Vellidis, George; Pringle, Catherine M

    2010-10-15

    Blackwater streams are found throughout the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States and are characterized by a series of instream floodplain swamps that play a critical role in determining the water quality of these systems. Within the state of Georgia, many of these streams are listed in violation of the state's dissolved oxygen (DO) standard. Previous work has shown that sediment oxygen demand (SOD) is elevated in instream floodplain swamps and due to these areas of intense oxygen demand, these locations play a major role in determining the oxygen balance of the watershed as a whole. This work also showed SOD rates to be positively correlated with the concentration of total organic carbon. This study builds on previous work by using geostatistics and Sequential Gaussian Simulation to investigate the patchiness and distribution of total organic carbon (TOC) at the reach scale. This was achieved by interpolating TOC observations and simulated SOD rates based on a linear regression. Additionally, this study identifies areas within the stream system prone to high SOD at representative 3rd and 5th order locations. Results show that SOD was spatially correlated with the differences in distribution of TOC at both locations and that these differences in distribution are likely a result of the differing hydrologic regime and watershed position. Mapping of floodplain soils at the watershed scale shows that areas of organic sediment are widespread and become more prevalent in higher order streams. DO dynamics within blackwater systems are a complicated mix of natural and anthropogenic influences, but this paper illustrates the importance of instream swamps in enhancing SOD at the watershed scale. Moreover, our study illustrates the influence of instream swamps on oxygen demand while providing support that many of these systems are naturally low in DO.

  17. Habitat use and survival rates of wintering American woodcocks in coastal South Carolina and Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, D.G.; Seginak, J.T.; Longcore, Jerry R.; Sepik, Greg F.

    1993-01-01

    Habitat use and survival rates of radio-marked American woodcocks (Scolopax minor) were studied during the winter in coastal South Carolina (1988-89) and Georgia (1989-90). Soon after they arrived, woodcocks were captured in mist nets or in modified shorebird traps or by nightlighting. Each bird was weighed, aged, sexed, and fitted with a 4-g radio transmitter and monitored daily until it died or could not be located or until its radio failed. During the day, the woodcocks in South Carolina frequented seasonally flooded stands of gum-oak-willow (Liquidambar-Quercus-Salix) > 75% of the time and Pinus spp.) plantations during the remaining time. The predominantly used understory vegetation was switch cane (Arundinaria gigantica). In Georgia, woodcocks used bottomland hardwoods, young pine plantations (cuttings that had regenerated naturally. Wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera) dominated the used understory species at these sites. The woodcocks in South Carolina rarely made daily moves between daytime and nighttime cover, whereas the birds in Georgia made regular flights. At both sites, the daily survival rates of females were low, especially in the absence of losses from hunting. Daily survival rates of females ranged from 0.992 in adults to 0.994 in young. Daily survival rates of males ranged from 1.0 in adults to 0.996 in young. We determined no significant differences in the daily survival rates of woodcocks by age or sex in either South Carolina or Georgia. Probable predators of radio-marked woodcocks included bobcats (Lynx rufus), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and barred owls (Strix varia).

  18. Ticks, Lyme disease spirochetes, trypanosomes, and antibody to encephalitis viruses in wild birds from coastal Georgia and South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, L A; McLean, R G; Oliver, J H; Ubico, S R; James, A M

    1997-12-01

    Ticks and blood samples were collected from wild birds mist-netted on St. Catherine's Island, Georgia, and at the Wedge Plantation in coastal South Carolina in 1994 and 1995. Immature stages of 5 species of ixodid ticks were recovered from 10 of 148 (7%) birds belonging to 6 species in Georgia, whereas 6 ixodid species were recovered from 45 of 259 (17%) birds representing 10 avian species in South Carolina. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was isolated from 27 of 120 (23%) screened ticks (Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes minor) recovered from South Carolina birds, but from none of 16 screened ticks removed from Georgia birds. This spirochete was also isolated from 1 of 97 (1%) birds in South Carolina. In 1995, neither eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus nor St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus was isolated from any of 218 bird sera screened, but serum neutralizing antibodies were found to EEE virus in 4 of 121 (3%) sera and to SLE virus in 2 of 121 (2%) sera from South Carolina. No antibody to either virus was detected in 51 avian sera screened from Georgia. Trypanosomes (probably Trypanosoma avium) were isolated from 1 of 51 (2%) birds from Georgia and from 13 of 97 (13%) birds from South Carolina. Our data suggest that some wild birds may be reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease spirochete and for encephalitis viruses in coastal Georgia and South Carolina and that migrating birds can disperse immature ticks infected with B. burgdorferi.

  19. Coastal Plain Soil Fertility Degradation And Natural Forest Ecosystem Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Sato, C. A.; Reis-Duarte, R. M.; Soares, M. R.; Galvão Bueno, M. S.

    2009-04-01

    The sand coastal plain vegetation (Restinga Forest) has been described as an ecosystem associated with the Atlantic Forest, constituted of mosaics, which occur in areas of great ecological diversity, particularly the features of the soil which mostly influence the forest, therefore assigned as edaphic community. The Restinga forest is one of the most fragile, showing low resilience to human damage This work was carried out in several points (14) of Restinga Forest (six low - trees from 3 to 10 m high - and eight high forest - trees from 10 to 15 m high) in the litoral coast of the state of São Paulo. Each sample was made of 15 subsamples of each area collected in each depth (one in 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15, 15 - 20, and another in 0 - 20, 20 - 40, 40 and 60 cm). Soil characteristics analyzed were pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, H + Al, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn contents and base saturation, cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. The vegetation physiognomies of Restinga forest (low and high) were associated with soil results and with the history of human occupation. The soils are sandy (2 to 4% of clay), resulting in a low capacity of nutrient retention. Soil fertility analysis to low and high Restinga forest were similar and showed very low contents of phosphorous, calcium and magnesium in all areas investigated. The base saturation was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg. Base saturation presents low level in all cases, less than 10, indicating low nutritional reserve in the soil. The aluminum saturation values varied from 58 to 69%. The level of calcium and magnesium were low in the subsurface soil layer mainly, associate with high aluminum saturation, representing an limiting factor for the root system development in depth. If soil fertility parameters do not show any significant difference between low and high Restinga physiognomy, what make distinction is the recuperation time. In the areas of high Forest can be note a too long time of recuperation

  20. Quantifying local-scale dust emission from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Anisimov, Anatolii

    2017-01-23

    Dust plumes emitted from the narrow Arabian Red Sea coastal plain are often observed on satellite images and felt in local population centers. Despite its relatively small area, the coastal plain could be a significant dust source; however, its effect is not well quantified as it is not well approximated in global or even regional models. In addition, because of close proximity to the Red Sea, a significant amount of dust from the coastal areas could be deposited into the Red Sea and serve as a vital component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems. In the current study, we apply the offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to better quantify dust emission from the coastal plain during the period of 2009-2011. We verify the spatial and temporal variability in model results using independent weather station reports. We also compare the results with the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). We show that the best results are obtained with 1 km model spatial resolution and dust source function based on Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) measurements. We present the dust emission spatial pattern, as well as estimates of seasonal and diurnal variability in dust event frequency and intensity, and discuss the emission regime in the major dust generation hot spot areas. We demonstrate the contrasting seasonal dust cycles in the northern and southern parts of the coastal plain and discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for dust generation. This study provides the first estimates of the fine-scale spatial and temporal distribution of dust emissions from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain constrained by MERRAero and short-term WRF-Chem simulations. The estimate of total dust emission from the coastal plain, tuned to fit emissions in MERRAero, is 7.5 ± 0.5 Mt a. Small interannual variability indicates that the study area is a stable dust source. The mineralogical composition analysis shows that the coastal plain

  1. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Charleston WFO (Georgia)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital elevation model (DEM) is a part of a series of DEMs produced for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's Sea...

  2. Late Holocene evolution of a coupled, mud-dominated delta plain-chenier plain system, coastal Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijma, Marc P.; Shen, Zhixiong; Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.; Mauz, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Major deltas and their adjacent coastal plains are commonly linked by means of coast-parallel fluxes of water, sediment, and nutrients. Observations of the evolution of these interlinked systems over centennial to millennial timescales are essential to understand the interaction between point sources of sediment discharge (i.e. deltaic distributaries) and adjacent coastal plains across large spatial (i.e. hundreds of kilometres) scales. This information is needed to constrain future generations of numerical models to predict coastal evolution in relation to climate change and other human activities. Here we examine the coastal plain (Chenier Plain, CP) adjacent to the Mississippi River delta, one of the world's largest deltas. We use a refined chronology based on 22 new optically stimulated luminescence and 22 new radiocarbon ages to test the hypothesis that cyclic Mississippi subdelta shifting has influenced the evolution of the adjacent CP. We show that over the past 3 kyr, accumulation rates in the CP were generally 0-1 Mt yr-1. However, between 1.2 and 0.5 ka, when the Mississippi River shifted to a position more proximal to the CP, these rates increased to 2.9 ±1.1 Mt yr-1 or 0.5-1.5 % of the total sediment load of the Mississippi River. We conclude that CP evolution during the past 3 kyr was partly a direct consequence of shifting subdeltas, in addition to changing regional sediment sources and modest rates of relative sea-level (RSL) rise. The RSL history of the CP during this time period was constrained by new limiting data points from the base of overwash deposits associated with the cheniers. These findings have implications for Mississippi River sediment diversions that are currently being planned to restore portions of this vulnerable coast. Only if such diversions are located in the western portion of the Mississippi Delta plain could they potentially contribute to sustaining the CP shoreline. Our findings highlight the importance of a better

  3. Preliminary geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Selting, Amy J.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new geologic digital map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map = 2,000 feet on the ground) and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. This preliminary map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Santa Barbara and Goleta 7.5' quadrangles. A planned second version will extend the mapping westward into the adjoining Dos Pueblos Canyon quadrangle and eastward into the Carpinteria quadrangle. The mapping presented here results from the collaborative efforts of geologists with the U.S. Geological Survey Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP) (Minor, Kellogg, Stanley, Stone, and Powell) and the tectonic geomorphology research group at the University of California at Santa Barbara (Gurrola and Selting). C.L. Powell, II, performed all new fossil identifications and interpretations reported herein. T.R. Brandt designed and edited the GIS database,performed GIS database integration and created the digital cartography for the map layout. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along a west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest of Los Angeles. The coastal plain region, which extends from the Santa Ynez Mountains on the north to the Santa Barbara Channel on the south, is underlain by numerous active and potentially active folds and partly buried thrust faults of the Santa Barbara fold and fault belt. Strong earthquakes that occurred in the region in 1925 (6.8 magnitude) and 1978 (5.1 magnitude) are evidence that such structures pose a significant earthquake hazard to the approximately 200,000 people living within the major coastal population centers of Santa Barbara and Goleta. Also, young landslide deposits along the steep lower flank of the Santa

  4. Importance of Small Isolated Wetlands for Herpetofaunal Diversity in Managed, Young Growth Forests in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.R.; Guynn, D.C. Jr.; Hanlin, H.G.

    2002-01-01

    Assessment and comparison of richness, abundance and difference of herpetofauna at five small isolated wetlands located within a commercial forest landscape in the South Carolina Coastal Plain. Data indicates small isolated wetlands are focal points of herpetofaunal richness and abundance in managed coastal plain forest and contribute more to regional biodiversity than is implied by their small size or ephemeral hydrology

  5. Geochemistry of shallow ground water in coastal plain environments in the southeastern United States: implications for aquifer susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Spruill, Timothy B.; Eimers, Jo L.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data from coastal plain environments have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in these areas and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Two distinct geochemical environments were studied to represent a range of conditions: an inner coastal plain setting having more well-drained soils and lower organic carbon (C) content and an outer coastal plain environment that has more poorly drained soils and high organic C content. Higher concentrations of most major ions and dissolved inorganic and organic C in the outer coastal plain setting indicate a greater degree of mineral dissolution and organic matter oxidation. Accordingly, outer coastal plain waters are more reducing than inner coastal plain waters. Low dissolved oxygen (O 2 ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations and high iron (Fe) concentrations indicate that ferric iron (Fe (III)) is an important electron acceptor in this setting, while dissolved O 2 is the most common terminal electron acceptor in the inner coastal plain setting. The presence of a wide range of redox conditions in the shallow aquifer system examined here underscores the importance of providing a detailed geochemical characterization of ground water when assessing the intrinsic susceptibility of coastal plain settings. The greater prevalence of aerobic conditions in the inner coastal plain setting makes this region more susceptible to contamination by constituents that are more stable under these conditions and is consistent with the significantly (p 3 - found in this setting. Herbicides and their transformation products were frequently detected (36% of wells sampled), however concentrations were typically low (<0.1 μg/L). Shallow water table depths often found in coastal plain settings may result in an increased risk of the detection of pesticides (e.g., alachlor) that degrade rapidly in the unsaturated zone

  6. Geochemistry of shallow ground water in coastal plain environments in the southeastern United States: Implications for aquifer susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Spruill, T.B.; Eimers, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data from coastal plain environments have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in these areas and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Two distinct geochemical environments were studied to represent a range of conditions: an inner coastal plain setting having more well-drained soils and lower organic carbon (C) content and an outer coastal plain environment that has more poorly drained soils and high organic C content. Higher concentrations of most major ions and dissolved inorganic and organic C in the outer coastal plain setting indicate a greater degree of mineral dissolution and organic matter oxidation. Accordingly, outer coastal plain waters are more reducing than inner coastal plain waters. Low dissolved oxygen (O2) and nitrate (NO 3-) concentrations and high iron (Fe) concentrations indicate that ferric iron (Fe (III)) is an important electron acceptor in this setting, while dissolved O2 is the most common terminal electron acceptor in the inner coastal plain setting. The presence of a wide range of redox conditions in the shallow aquifer system examined here underscores the importance of providing a detailed geochemical characterization of ground water when assessing the intrinsic susceptibility of coastal plain settings. The greater prevalence of aerobic conditions in the inner coastal plain setting makes this region more susceptible to contamination by constituents that are more stable under these conditions and is consistent with the significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of NO3- found in this setting. Herbicides and their transformation products were frequently detected (36% of wells sampled), however concentrations were typically low (<0.1 ??g/L). Shallow water table depths often found in coastal plain settings may result in an increased risk of the detection of pesticides (e.g., alachlor) that degrade rapidly in the unsaturated zone.

  7. Effect of habitat and foraging height on bat activity in the coastal plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer, M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Kilgo, John C.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; McCracken, Gary F.

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 habitat types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature pine plantations and pine savannas, using time expansion radio-microphones and integrated detectors to simultaneously monitor bat activity at three heights in each habitat type.

  8. Supplemental irrigation for grain sorghum production in the US eastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum is an important grain crop throughout the world and is generally considered drought tolerant. Recently, in the US eastern Coastal Plain region, there was an emphasis on increasing regional grain production with grain sorghum having an important role. The region soils have low water hol...

  9. Atlantic coastal plain geothermal test holes, New Jersey. Hole completion reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, L.B.; Radford, L.; Glascock, M.

    1979-03-01

    A description of the Atlantic Coastal Plains Geothermal Drilling Program and data for the following Geothermal test holes drilled in New Jersey are summarized: Site No. 40, Fort Monmouth; Site No. 41, Sea Girt; Site No. 39-A, Forked River; Site No. 38, Atlantic City; and Site No. 36, Cape May.

  10. Holocene paleogeographies of the Palairos coastal plain (Akarnania, northwest Greece) and their geoarchaeological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vött, A.; Brückner, H.; Schriever, A.; Luther, J.; Handl, M.; van der Borg, K.

    2006-01-01

    Sediments from the Palairos coastal plain (Akarnania, northwest Greece) were studied to establish paleogeographical scenarios of Holocene landscape evolution. Near coast vibracore profiles revealed regressive sedimentary sequences, the base of which is dominated by marine sand and/or lagoonal mud.

  11. Response of Competing Vegetation to Site Preparation on West Gulf Coastal Plain Commercial Forest Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale L. Wolters; Henry A. Pearson; Ronald E. Thill; V. Clark Baldwin; Alton Martin

    1995-01-01

    The response of woody and herbaceous vegetation to site preparation, subsoil texture, and fertilization was measured on the West Gulf Coastal Plain. The influences of these treatments on competing vegetation were short-term. Drastic soil disturbance and fertilization briefly increased herbage production. Shear-windrow and shear-disk were generally the most effective...

  12. Biomass of first and second rotation loblolly pine plantations in the South Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles A. Gresham

    2006-01-01

    In the South Carolina Coastal Plain, intensive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation management, without fertilization, was sustainable through two rotations as measured by biomass accumulation. Fixed plot tree inventories and destructive tree sampling of first and second rotation sections of the same plantations were used to produce area based...

  13. Presettlement fire regime and vegetation mapping in Southeastern Coastal Plain forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Bailey; Robert Mickler; Cecil Frost

    2007-01-01

    Fire-adapted forest ecosystems make up 95 percent of the historic Coastal Plain vegetation types in the Southeastern United States. Fire suppression over the last century has altered the species composition of these ecosystems, increased fuel loads, and increased wildfire risk. Prescribed fire is one management tool used to reduce fuel loading and restore fire-adapted...

  14. Timber rattlesnakes and Louisiana pine snakes of the West Gulf Coastal Plain: hypotheses of decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf

    1997-01-01

    Timber rattlesnakes (Croatlus horridus) and Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus ruthveni) are large-bodies snakes occurring on the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Both species are thoguht to be declining due to increasing habitat alteration. Timber rattlesnakes occur in closed canopy hardwood and pine-hardwood forests, and...

  15. Application of Watershed Scale Models to Predict Nitrogen Loading From Coastal Plain Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    George M. Chescheir; Glenn P Fernandez; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya

    2004-01-01

    DRAINMOD-based watershed models have been developed and tested using data collected from an intensively instrumented research site on Kendricks Creek watershed near Plymouth. NC. These models were applied to simulate the hydrology and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) loading from two other watersheds in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, the 11600 ha Chicod Creek watershed...

  16. Forest statistics for the Southern Coastal Plain of North Carolina, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the sixth forest survey of the Southern Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Field work began in April 1989 and was completed in September 1989. Five previous surveys, completed in 1937, 1952, 1962, 1973, and 1983, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 53 years. The primary emphasis in this report...

  17. Effect of Sulfometuron Methyl on Ground Water and Stream Quality in Coastal Plain Forest Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.G. Neary; J.L. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Sulfometuron methyl [methyl 2-[[[[(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidinyl)a-mino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]benzoate] was applied by a ground sprayer at a maximum labeled rate of 0.42 kg ha-1 a.i. to a 4 ha Coastal Plain flatwoods watershed BS site preperation for tree planting. Herbicide residues were detected in streamflow for only seven days after...

  18. Forest statistics for the Southern Coastal Plain of North Carolina, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Tansey

    1984-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fifth forest survey in the southern Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Fieldwork began in November 1982 and was completed in June 1983. Four previous surveys, completed in 1938, 1952, 1962, and 1973, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 46 years. The primary emphasis in this report is on...

  19. Forest statistics for the Northern Coastal plain of North Carolina 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard L. Welch; Herbert A. Knight

    1974-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fourth inventory of the timber resource in the Northern Coastal Plain of North Carolina. The inventory was started in July 1973 and completed in May 1974. Three previous inventories, completed in 1937, 1955, and 1963, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 37 years. In this report, the...

  20. Forest statistics for the Northern Coastal Plain of South Carolina, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Tansey

    1987-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the sixth forest survey in the Northern Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Fieldwork began in April 1986 and was completed in July 1986. Five previous surveys, completed in 1936, 1947, 1958, 1968, and 1978, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 50 years. The primary emphasis in this report is on...

  1. Forest statistics for the Southern Coastal Plain of South Carolina, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Tansey

    1987-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the sixth forest survey in the Southern Coastal plain of South Carolina. Fieldwork began in June 1986 and was completed in September 1986. Five previous surveys, completed in 1934, 1947, 1958, 1968, and 1978, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 53 years. The primary emphasis in this report...

  2. Outlook for coastal plain forests: a subregional report from the Southern Forest Futures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier Klepzig; Richard Shelfer; Zanethia Choice

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Coastal Plain consists of seven sections: the Northern Atlantic, Eastern Atlantic, Peninsular Florida, Southern Gulf, Middle Gulf-East, Middle Gulf-West, and Western Gulf. It covers a large area, consists of a diverse array of habitats, and supports a diverse array of uses. This report presents forecasts from the Southern Forest Futures Project that are...

  3. Forest statistics for the Northern Coastal Plain of South Carolina 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald C. Craver

    1979-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fifth forest inventory of the Northern Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Fieldwork began in September 1977 and was completed in April 1978. Four previous inventories, completed in 1936, 1947, 1958, and 1968, provide the basis for measuring changes and trends over the past 42 years. The primary emphasis in this report...

  4. Forest statistics for the Northern Coastal Plain of North Carolina, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar L. Davenport

    1984-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fifth forest inventory in the Northern Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Fieldwork began in June 1983 and was completed in December 1983. Four previous surveys, completed in 1937, 1955, 1963, and 1974, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 46 years. The primary emphasis in this report is on...

  5. Forest statistics for the Southern Coastal Plain of South Carolina 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond M. Sheffield; Joanne Hutchison

    1978-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fifth forest inventory of the Southern Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Fieldwork began in April 1978 and was completed in August 1978. Four previous inventories, completed in 1934, 1947, 1958, and 1968, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 44 years. The primary emphasis in this report is...

  6. Forest statistics for the Southern Coastal Plain of North Carolina 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel D. Cost

    1973-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fourth inventory of the timber resource in the Southern Coastal plain of North Carolina. The inventory was s t a r t e d in November 1972 and completed in August 1973. Three previous inventories, completed in 1937, 1952, and 1962, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 36 years. In this...

  7. Streamflow characteristics of a naturally drained forested watershed in southeast Atlantic coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Carl C. Trettin

    2010-01-01

    Information about streamflow characteristics e.g. runoff-rainfall (R/O) ratio, rate and timing of flow, surface and subsurface drainage (SSD), and response time to rainfall events is necessary to accurately simulate fluxes and for designing best management practices (BMPs). Unfortunately, those data are scarce in the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain, a highly...

  8. Characterization of storm flow dynamics of headwater streams in the South Carolina lower coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Epps; Daniel R. Hitchcock; Anand D. Jayakaran; Drake R. Loflin; Thomas M. Williams; Devendra M. Amatya

    2013-01-01

    Hydrologic monitoring was conducted in two first-order lower coastal plain watersheds in South Carolina, United States, a region with increasing growth and land use change. Storm events over a three-year period were analyzed for direct runoff coefficients (ROC) and the total storm response (TSR) as percent rainfall. ROC calculations utilized an empirical hydrograph...

  9. Sterol-inhibiting fungicide impacts on soil microbial ecology in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. M.; Potter, T. L.; Strickland, T. C.

    2008-12-01

    Seventy-five percent of the peanuts (Arachus hypogaia) produced in the United States are grown in the Atlantic Coastal Plain region. Portions of this area, including Alabama and Georgia, exhibit a subtropical climate that promotes soil-borne plant fungal diseases. Most fields receive repeated fungicide applications during the growing season to suppress the disease causing organisms, such as Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Cylindrocladium parasiticum. Information regarding fungicide effects on the soil microbial community, with components principally responsible for transformation and fate of fungicides and other soil-applied pesticides, is limited. The objectives of the study were to assess soil microbial community response to (1) varying rates of the sterol-inhibiting fungicide tebuconazole (0, single application, season max, 2x season max), and (2) field rates of the sterol-inhibitors cyproconazole, prothioconazole, tebuconazole, and flutriafol, and thiol-competitor chlorothalonil. The sterol-inhibitors exhibited different half lives, as listed in the FOOTPRINT database, ranging from 1300 d. Chlorothalonil was chosen because it is the most frequently applied fungicide to peanut. Shifts in the fungi, gram positive and gram negative bacteria, were monitored during the experiments using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Ergosterol levels and pesticide decay rates were also monitored to evaluate the effectiveness of the fungicide and soil residence time, respectively. In the rate study, the highest rate of tebuconazole reduced the fungal biomarker 18:2ω6,9c to 2.6 nmol g-1 dry soil at 17 d, as compared to the control (4.1 nmol g-1 dry soil). However, levels of the fungal PLFA biomarker were similar regardless of rate at 0 and 32 d. The gram negative bacterial PLFA mole percent was greater at 17 d for the two highest rates of tebuconazole, but was similar at 0 and 32 d. Gram positive and fungal mole percents were not affected at any time point

  10. Middle Holocene marine flooding and human response in the south Yangtze coastal plain, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanghua; Ryves, David B.; Lei, Shao; Nian, Xiaomei; Lv, Ye; Tang, Liang; Wang, Long; Wang, Jiehua; Chen, Jie

    2018-05-01

    Coastal flooding catastrophes have affected human societies on coastal plains around the world on several occasions in the past, and are threatening 21st century societies under global warming and sea-level rise. However, the role of coastal flooding in the interruption of the Neolithic Liangzhu culture in the lower Yangtze valley, East China coast has been long contested. In this study, we used a well-dated Neolithic site (the Yushan site) close to the present coastline to demonstrate a marine drowning event at the terminal stage of the Liangzhu culture and discuss its linkage to relative sea-level rise. We analysed sedimentology, chronology, organic elemental composition, diatoms and dinoflagellate cysts for several typical profiles at the Yushan site. The field and sedimentary data provided clear evidence of a palaeo-typhoon event that overwhelmed the Yushan site at ∼2560 BCE, which heralded a period of marine inundation and ecological deterioration at the site. We also infer an acceleration in sea-level rise at 2560-2440 BCE from the sedimentary records at Yushan, which explains the widespread signatures of coastal flooding across the south Yangtze coastal plain at that time. The timing of this mid-Holocene coastal flooding coincided with the sudden disappearance of the advanced and widespread Liangzhu culture along the lower Yangtze valley. We infer that extreme events and flooding accompanying accelerated sea-level rise were major causes of vulnerability for prehistoric coastal societies.

  11. Groundwater availability in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce G.; Coes, Alissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers and confining units of North and South Carolina are composed of crystalline carbonate rocks, sand, clay, silt, and gravel and contain large volumes of high-quality groundwater. The aquifers have a long history of use dating back to the earliest days of European settlement in the late 1600s. Although extensive areas of some of the aquifers have or currently (2009) are areas of groundwater level declines from large-scale, concentrated pumping centers, large areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain contain substantial quantities of high-quality groundwater that currently (2009) are unused. Groundwater use from the Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers in North Carolina and South Carolina has increased during the past 60 years as the population has increased along with demands for municipal, industrial, and agricultural water needs. While North Carolina and South Carolina work to increase development of water supplies in response to the rapid growth in these coastal populations, both States recognize that they are facing a number of unanswered questions regarding availability of groundwater supplies and the best methods to manage these important supplies. An in-depth assessment of groundwater availability of the Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers of North and South Carolina has been completed by the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program. This assessment includes (1) a determination of the present status of the Atlantic Coastal Plain groundwater resources; (2) an explanation for how these resources have changed over time; and (3) development of tools to assess the system's response to stresses from potential future climate variability. Results from numerous previous investigations of the Atlantic Coastal Plain by Federal and State agencies have been incorporated into this effort. The primary products of this effort are (1) comprehensive hydrologic datasets such as groundwater levels, groundwater use, and aquifer properties; (2) a

  12. Surface motion in the Western Coastal Plain of Taiwan after removal of groundwater withdrawal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K.; Ching, K.

    2011-12-01

    The widespread groundwater pumping was proposed to obscure the tectonic signals expected from the blind thrust faults in the metropolitan Los Angeles. In Taiwan, the tip of westward propagated frontal blind thrust has been suggested to be located beneath the Western Coastal Plain by analyses of the horizontal GPS velocities and the geological uplift rates due to the convergence between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates. However, the serious land subsidence has been consistently occurred in the Western Coastal Plain because of the artificial groundwater pumping for the development of agriculture in western Taiwan. The most significant subsidence rate is observed up to 109.4 mm/yr. The effect of groundwater pumping may disturb the pattern of the horizontal velocities caused by the movement of blind thrust. As a result, ignoring the groundwater withdrawal effects will make misunderstandings on the assessment of location and kinematic characteristics of the blind thrust in western Taiwan by analysis of horizontal velocities only. In this study, to obtain a reasonable horizontal velocity field for evaluating the fault behavior in western Taiwan, we therefore used more than 704 precise leveling measurements and 20 continuous GPS observations between 2000 and 2008 in the Western Coastal Plain of Taiwan to estimate and correct the effects of groundwater pumping. The contour of land subsidence rates in the Western Coastal Plain show a concentric-circle-like pattern with the peak subsidence rates of over 800 and 900 mm/yr at the northeastern and center area of the plain. Next, we will invert the vertical velocities for the land subsidence rate resulted from the groundwater withdrawal, using a dislocation model in an elastic half-space material. The accuracy of this dislocation model will also be assessed in this study. Then the corrections of horizontal velocities will be provided from this model to help us understand the reliable tectonic signals.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  14. Stratigraphic nomenclature and geologic sections of the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E.T.

    1995-01-01

    Geologic sections showing the subsurface delineation of approximately 100 Stratigraphic units composing the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras illustrate the interrelation of these units across most of the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas. The geologic names that constitute the nomenclature have been published, and the vast majority are approved for use by the U.S. Geological Survey. Four dip sections and four strike sections, extending from the land surface to a maximum of about 18,000 feet below sea level, provide continuity of correlation from the outcrop to the deep subsurface. Stratigraphic units containing water with less than 3,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids are shown on the geologic sections and serve as an indicator of water quality in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas.

  15. Coastal inundation risk assessment due to subsidence and sea level rise in a Mediterranean alluvial plain (Volturno coastal plain - southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciro Aucelli, Pietro Patrizio; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Incontri, Pietro; Rizzo, Angela; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Benassai, Guido; Buonocore, Berardino; Pappone, Gerardo

    2017-11-01

    Interdisciplinary studies of the last years highlight that the Italian coasts are significantly subject to retreat and to inundation by sea ingression due to natural and anthropic causes. In this study, the effects of future relative sea level have been evaluated for the Volturno River Plain, one of the widest coastal plain in southern Italy. The plain is characterized by high economical and ecological value, for the presence of farm activities, tourist structures and wetland protected zones. The study area is potentially prone to coastal flooding due to its very low topography and because it is affected by a severe subsidence, which emphasize the local effect of sea level rise due to the ongoing climate changes. In accordance with the guidelines of the MEDFLOOD project, the areas prone to inundation in the years 2065 and 2100 have been evaluated by comparing the future topographical information and expected relative sea level scenarios. The local Vertical Ground Displacements have been derived by PS-InSAR processing data whilst the mean values of the scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 provided by the IPCC (2014) have been used as future sea level projections in 2065 and 2100. The PS-InSar data elaboration shows that the area affected by subsidence corresponds to 35% of the Volturno plain and that the annual rate of the phenomenon ranges between -1 and -25 mm/yr. The inundation analysis, based on the classification of the areas in four hazard classes, indicates that in 2065 the zones located below the sea level will increase approximately of 50% respect to the present conditions, while between 2065 and 2100 the increase can be at least of 60% (IPCC, RCP 8.5 scenarios). Considering the socio-economical and ecological exposure, evaluated following the EUROSION project guidelines, the coastal flooding risk maps have been produced. Almost 8.2 km2 and 14.4 km2 of the investigated area has to be considered subject to very high marine inundation risk in 2065 and 2100

  16. Assessing aquifer storage and recovery feasibility in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas

    OpenAIRE

    W. Benjamin Smith; Gretchen R. Miller; Zhuping Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Study region: The Gulf Coast and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer systems in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas. Study focus: Aquifer storage and recovery is a water storage alternative that is underutilized in Texas, a state with both long periods of drought and high intensity storms. Future water storage plans in Texas almost exclusively rely on surface reservoirs, subject to high evaporative losses. This study seeks to identify sites where aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) may be successful, especial...

  17. Paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain, Northern coast of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Cristina de; Angulo, Rodolfo Jose; angulo@geologia.ufpr.br; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to characterize the paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain during the Quaternary and to compare this evolution with other proposed models. To reach the objectives the area was mapped in scale 1:50.000, sub-surface information were obtained from geotechnical drillings and paleosea-levels were inferred by radiocarbon dating performed on vermetids tubes, wood fragments and shells of Anomalocardia brasiliana samples. The paleosea-level reconstructions are consistent with the sea level curve proposed in previous works. The evolution model for the Itapoa coastal plain proposed in this work is similar to the model proposed for the coastal plain of Paranagua. The paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain can be summarized as: formation of fans during Lower Miocene, with sea level similar or lower than the present one; island-barrier formation during the Upper Pleistocene transgression maximum; formation of extensive regressive barriers and later dissection by a rectangular pattern drainage system, during sea level low stand; island barrier formation during the Holocene transgression maximum, with inlets associated to the present mouth of Sai-Mirim and Sai-Guacu rivers; formation of extensive regressive barriers during falling sea level period. During the Holocene regression, spits grew northward, moving northward the estuarine inlets as well. This drift direction is the same that was suggested for Parana and Santa Catarina north coast. During regression until present the Sai-Mirim River has eroded the Holocene barrier inland portion, that probably caused the erosion of most of the Holocene transgressive barrier-islands. (author)

  18. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis includes all major aquifer systems in Cenozoic deposits in the Gulf Coastal Plain in the States of Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, and small areas in Alabama and Florida (western panhandle area), an area of about 290,000 square miles. The Gulf Coast geosyncline and the Mississippi embayment were the major depocenters for the Tertiary and Quaternary deposits that form the framework for the aquifer systems.

  19. Forest statistics for the Northern Coastal Plain of North Carolina, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson

    1990-01-01

    Since 1984, area of timberland in the Northern Coastal Plain of North Carolina has remained stable at 3.8 million acres. Nonindustrial private owners control two-thirds of the region's timberland. Volume of softwood growing stock increased by 6 percent to 3.1 billion cubic feet, while hardwood growing-stock volume dropped 2 percent to 3.7 billion cubic feet. Net...

  20. Production and Decomposition Rates of a Coastal Plain Forest Following the Impact of Hurrican Hugo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Fail

    1999-01-01

    Recovery of a coastal plain mixed hardwood-pine forest following the impact of Hurricane Hugo in 1989 was monitored for four years, 1991-1995. Eight 400 m2 plots were set in each of two treatment areas-an Unsalvaged and a Salvaged site. Wind-downed trees were kept on the site in the Unsalvaged Site and removed in the Salvaged Site. It was...

  1. Restoration of Prime Farmland Disturbed by Mineral Sand Mining in the Upper Coastal Plain of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Philip D.

    1996-01-01

    Economic deposits of heavy mineral sand were identified in the late 1980's under prime farmland along the Upper Coastal Plain of Virginia. Mining in Virginia will commence in 1997 on the Old Hickory Deposit in Dinwiddie/Sussex Counties. Experiments were established on two mine pits representing two likely pit closure scenarios; regrading the surface with unprocessed subsoil (Pit 1) or filling to the surface with processed material (Pit 3). To evaluate topsoil replacement vs. organic amendment...

  2. Deciphering storm-event runoff behavior in a coastal plain watershed using chemical and physical hydrograph separation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Callahan; Austin E. Morrison

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting storm-event runoff in coastal plain watersheds is challenging because of the space- and time-variable nature of different sources that contribute to stream flow. These flow vectors and the magnitude of water flux is dependent on the pre-storm soil moisture (as estimated from depth to water table) in the lower coastal plain (LCP) region.

  3. Estimating occurrence and detection probabilities for stream-breeding salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Jennifer Y.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Qualls, Carl P.

    2017-01-01

    Large gaps exist in our knowledge of the ecology of stream-breeding plethodontid salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Data describing where these salamanders are likely to occur along environmental gradients, as well as their likelihood of detection, are important for the prevention and management of amphibian declines. We used presence/absence data from leaf litter bag surveys and a hierarchical Bayesian multispecies single-season occupancy model to estimate the occurrence of five species of plethodontids across reaches in headwater streams in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Average detection probabilities were high (range = 0.432–0.942) and unaffected by sampling covariates specific to the use of litter bags (i.e., bag submergence, sampling season, in-stream cover). Estimates of occurrence probabilities differed substantially between species (range = 0.092–0.703) and were influenced by the size of the upstream drainage area and by the maximum proportion of the reach that dried. The effects of these two factors were not equivalent across species. Our results demonstrate that hierarchical multispecies models successfully estimate occurrence parameters for both rare and common stream-breeding plethodontids. The resulting models clarify how species are distributed within stream networks, and they provide baseline values that will be useful in evaluating the conservation statuses of plethodontid species within lotic systems in the Gulf Coastal Plain.

  4. Retention of riverine sediment and nutrient loads by coastal plain floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, G.B.; Hupp, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the frequent citation of wetlands as effective regulators of water quality, few quantitative estimates exist for their cumulative retention of the annual river loads of nutrients or sediments. Here we report measurements of sediment accretion and associated carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation as sedimentation over feldspar marker horizons placed on floodplains of the non-tidal, freshwater Coastal Plain reaches of seven rivers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, USA. We then scale these accumulation rates to the entire extent of non-tidal floodplain in the Coastal Plain of each river, defined as riparian area extending from the Fall Line to the upper limit of tidal influence, and compare them to annual river loads. Floodplains accumulated a very large amount of material compared to their annual river loads of sediment (median among rivers = 119%), nitrogen (24%), and phosphorus (59%). Systems with larger floodplain areas and longer floodplain inundation retained greater proportions of riverine loads of nitrogen and phosphorus, but systems with larger riverine loads retained a smaller proportion of that load on floodplains. Although the source and long-term fate of deposited sediment and associated nutrients are uncertain, these fluxes represent the interception of large amounts of material that otherwise could have been exported downstream. Coastal Plain floodplain ecosystems are important regulators of sediment, carbon, and nutrient transport in watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay.

  5. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  6. Achieving conservation goals in managed forests of the southeastern coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehle, Craig; Wigley, T Bently; Schilling, Erik; Tatum, Vickie; Beebe, John; Vance, Eric; Van Deusen, Paul; Weatherford, Philip

    2009-12-01

    Managed forests are a primary land use within the Coastal Plain of the southern United States. These forests are generally managed under standards, guidelines, or regulations to conserve ecosystem functions and services. Economic value of commercial forests provides incentives for landowners to maintain forests rather than convert them to other uses that have substantially reduced environmental benefits. In this review, we describe the historical context of commercial forest management in the southern United States Coastal Plain, describe how working forests are managed today, and examine relationships between commercial forest management and maintenance of functional aquatic and wetland systems and conservation of biological diversity. Significant challenges for the region include increasing human population and urbanization and concomitant changes in forest area and structure, invasive species, and increased interest in forest biomass as an energy feedstock. Research needs include better information about management of rare species and communities and quantification of relationships between ecosystem attributes and forest management, including biomass production and harvest. Incentives and better information may help commercial forest managers in the Coastal Plain more efficiently contribute to landscape-scale conservation goals.

  7. Surface deformation in the Western Coastal Plain of Taiwan after removal of groundwater withdrawal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K.; Ching, K.

    2012-12-01

    The effect of widespread groundwater pumping has been proposed to be able to obscure the tectonic signals resulted from the movement of blind thrust faults, such as the metropolitan Los Angeles. In Taiwan, the tip of westward-propagating frontal blind thrust has been suggested to be located beneath the Western Coastal Plain by analyses of the horizontal GPS velocities and the geological uplift rates due to the convergence between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates. However, the serious land subsidence has been consistently occurred in the Western Coastal Plain because of the artificial groundwater pumping for the development of agriculture. The most significant subsidence rate is observed up to 109.4 mm/yr. This effect may disturb the pattern of the surface horizontal velocities caused by the movement of blind thrust. As a result, ignoring the groundwater withdrawal effects will make misunderstandings on the assessment of location and kinematic characteristics of the blind thrust in western Taiwan by analysis of horizontal velocities only. In this study, to obtain a reasonable horizontal velocity field for evaluating the fault behavior in western Taiwan, we therefore used more than 704 precise leveling measurements and 20 continuous GPS observations between 2000 and 2008 in the Western Coastal Plain of Taiwan to estimate and correct the effects of groundwater pumping from horizontal velocities. The distribution of subsidence rates in this area shows a concentric-circle-like pattern with the peak subsidence rates of over 80 and 90 mm/yr at the northeastern and center area of the plain. Next, we will invert the vertical velocities for the land subsidence rate resulted from the groundwater withdrawal, using a dislocation model and a tentative mogi-source model in an elastic half-space material. The accuracy of these tentative models will also be assessed in this study. Then the corrections of horizontal velocities will be provided from this model to help us

  8. Compound specific radiocarbon content of lignin oxidation products from the Altamaha river and Coastal Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culp, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a powerful tool in organic geochemistry by providing detailed information about an individual organic compound’s history with regard to its source and process of formation. Most CSIA involves measurement of the stable isotope ratio of carbon ( 13 C/ 12 C) and hydrogen (D/H) following separation by gas or liquid chromatography. New applications are being developed using compound-specific radiocarbon ( 14 C) content for delineating age of materials, rates of decomposition and residence time in various environments. This paper details the isotopic work on specific lignin monomers derived from terrestrial plants transported and deposited within the Altamaha River, estuary and off-shore Georgia in the Atlantic Ocean. By using gas chromatographic separation and identification of selected lignin oxidation products (LOP), the harvesting of these compounds using preparative fraction collection, and measurement of their 14 C content using accelerator mass spectrometry, details of the age and presence of specific biomarkers unique to a given terrestrial source are revealed. Radiocarbon ages determined from water-column particulate organic carbon and sediment LOPs indicate a range of ages from modern to well over 5,000 years for the former and latter respectively. Transport mechanisms and particle size associations on mineral grains may play a significant role in 14 C distribution in estuary and near-shore coastal environments. This data indicates higher than modern 14 C activities in large particle-size sediment fractions in contrast to older LOP 14 C ages found associated with the same coarse grain sediments. Individual LOP ages substantiate older terrestrial materials persist in the off-shore environment even though in the presence of modern marine 14 C sources.

  9. Compound specific radiocarbon content of lignin oxidation products from the Altamaha river and Coastal Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a powerful tool in organic geochemistry by providing detailed information about an individual organic compound’s history with regard to its source and process of formation. Most CSIA involves measurement of the stable isotope ratio of carbon (13C/12C) and hydrogen (D/H) following separation by gas or liquid chromatography. New applications are being developed using compound-specific radiocarbon (14C) content for delineating age of materials, rates of decomposition and residence time in various environments. This paper details the isotopic work on specific lignin monomers derived from terrestrial plants transported and deposited within the Altamaha River, estuary and off-shore Georgia in the Atlantic Ocean. By using gas chromatographic separation and identification of selected lignin oxidation products (LOP), the harvesting of these compounds using preparative fraction collection, and measurement of their 14C content using accelerator mass spectrometry, details of the age and presence of specific biomarkers unique to a given terrestrial source are revealed. Radiocarbon ages determined from water-column particulate organic carbon and sediment LOPs indicate a range of ages from modern to well over 5,000 years for the former and latter respectively. Transport mechanisms and particle size associations on mineral grains may play a significant role in 14C distribution in estuary and near-shore coastal environments. This data indicates higher than modern 14C activities in large particle-size sediment fractions in contrast to older LOP 14C ages found associated with the same coarse grain sediments. Individual LOP ages substantiate older terrestrial materials persist in the off-shore environment even though in the presence of modern marine 14C sources.

  10. Compound specific radiocarbon content of lignin oxidation products from the Altamaha river and Coastal Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Randy, E-mail: rculp@uga.edu [Center for Applied Isotope Studies, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a powerful tool in organic geochemistry by providing detailed information about an individual organic compound's history with regard to its source and process of formation. Most CSIA involves measurement of the stable isotope ratio of carbon ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) and hydrogen (D/H) following separation by gas or liquid chromatography. New applications are being developed using compound-specific radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) content for delineating age of materials, rates of decomposition and residence time in various environments. This paper details the isotopic work on specific lignin monomers derived from terrestrial plants transported and deposited within the Altamaha River, estuary and off-shore Georgia in the Atlantic Ocean. By using gas chromatographic separation and identification of selected lignin oxidation products (LOP), the harvesting of these compounds using preparative fraction collection, and measurement of their {sup 14}C content using accelerator mass spectrometry, details of the age and presence of specific biomarkers unique to a given terrestrial source are revealed. Radiocarbon ages determined from water-column particulate organic carbon and sediment LOPs indicate a range of ages from modern to well over 5,000 years for the former and latter respectively. Transport mechanisms and particle size associations on mineral grains may play a significant role in {sup 14}C distribution in estuary and near-shore coastal environments. This data indicates higher than modern {sup 14}C activities in large particle-size sediment fractions in contrast to older LOP {sup 14}C ages found associated with the same coarse grain sediments. Individual LOP ages substantiate older terrestrial materials persist in the off-shore environment even though in the presence of modern marine {sup 14}C sources.

  11. Pervasive migration across rainforest and sandy coastal plain Aechmea nudicaulis (Bromeliaceae) populations despite contrasting environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, José Eduardo; Manos, Paul S

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the colonization of extreme marginal habitats and the relative roles of space and environment in maintaining peripheral populations remains challenging. Here, we leverage a system of pairs of rainforest and sandy coastal plain communities that allow us to decouple spatial and environmental effects in the population structure and migration rates of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis. Structure and gene flow between populations were estimated from Bayesian clustering and coalescent-based migration models applied to chloroplast sequence and nuclear microsatellite data. Contrary to our initial expectation, the sharp environmental gradient between rainforest and sandy plains does not seem to have affected the colonization and migration dynamics in A. nudicaulis. Our analyses uncover pervasive gene flow between neighbouring habitats in both chloroplast and nuclear data despite the striking differences in environmental conditions. This result is consistent with a scenario of repeated colonization of the sandy coastal plains from forest populations through seed dispersal, as well as the maintenance of gene flow between habitats through pollination. We also recovered a broad north/south population structure that has been found in other Atlantic rainforest groups and possibly reflects older phylogeographic dynamics. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Hydrogeochemical processes and geochemical modeling in a coastal aquifer: Case study of the Marathon coastal plain, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazotos, Panagiotis; Koumantakis, Ioannis; Kallioras, Andreas; Vasileiou, Eleni; Perraki, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Determining the hydrogeochemical processes has always been a challenge for scientists. The aim of this work is the study of the principal hydrogeochemical processes controlling groundwater quality in the Marathon coastal plain, Greece, with emphasis on the origin of the solutes. Various physicochemical parameters and major ions of twenty-five groundwater samples were analyzed. The hydrogeochemical data of groundwater were studied in order to determine the major factors controlling the chemical composition and hydrogeochemical evolution. In the Marathon coastal plain, three different zones of the alluvial granular aquifer system have been detected, considering the geochemical processes and recharge, which affect its hydrochemical characteristics. The alluvial granular aquifer system is divided eastwards into three zones: a) the natural recharge zone, b) the reverse ion exchange zone and c) the diffusion sea water zone. Cl-is the dominant anion and Na+and Ca2+ are the dominant cations, as determined by plotting the analyses on the respective Piper diagram. Near the coastline high concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were observed indicating a zone of seawater intrusion. On the other hand, westward there is increasing concentration of HCO3- with simultaneous decrease of Na+is indication of a recharge zone from karstic aquifers of the study area. Between the aforementioned zones there is an intermediate one, where reverse ion exchange takes place due to high concentrations of dissolved Na+ and Ca2+ adsorption. The saturation indices (SI) were calculated using the geochemical modeling software PHREEQC. Mineral phases of halite, sylvite, gypsum and anhydrite were estimated to be undersaturated in the water samples, suggesting these phases are minor or absent in the host rock. On the other hand, calcite, aragonite and dolomite are close to equilibrium; these minerals are present in the host rocks or in the unsaturated zone, possibly increasing the Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3

  13. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grider, John F; Larsen, Angela L; Homyack, Jessica A; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C

    2016-01-01

    Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS) and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) was active in the

  14. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Grider

    Full Text Available Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus, were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus

  15. The Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System: A GIS-based tool for assessing groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, David C.; Nardi, Mark R.; Staley, Andrew W.; Achmad, Grufron; Grace, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the source of drinking water for ∼1.4 million people in the Coastal Plain Province of Maryland (USA). In addition, groundwater is essential for commercial, industrial, and agricultural uses. Approximately 0.757 × 109 L d–1 (200 million gallons/d) were withdrawn in 2010. As a result of decades of withdrawals from the coastal plain confined aquifers, groundwater levels have declined by as much as 70 m (230 ft) from estimated prepumping levels. Other issues posing challenges to long-term groundwater sustainability include degraded water quality from both man-made and natural sources, reduced stream base flow, land subsidence, and changing recharge patterns (drought) caused by climate change. In Maryland, groundwater supply is managed primarily by the Maryland Department of the Environment, which seeks to balance reasonable use of the resource with long-term sustainability. The chief goal of groundwater management in Maryland is to ensure safe and adequate supplies for all current and future users through the implementation of appropriate usage, planning, and conservation policies. To assist in that effort, the geographic information system (GIS)–based Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System was developed as a tool to help water managers access and visualize groundwater data for use in the evaluation of groundwater allocation and use permits. The system, contained within an ESRI ArcMap desktop environment, includes both interpreted and basic data for 16 aquifers and 14 confining units. Data map layers include aquifer and ­confining unit layer surfaces, aquifer extents, borehole information, hydraulic properties, time-series groundwater-level data, well records, and geophysical and lithologic logs. The aquifer and confining unit layer surfaces were generated specifically for the GIS system. The system also contains select groundwater-quality data and map layers that quantify groundwater and surface-water withdrawals. The aquifer

  16. Holocene palaeoDEMs for lowland coastal and delta plain landscape reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kim M.; Koster, Kay; Pierik, Harm-Jan; Van der Meulen, Bas; Hijma, Marc; Schokker, Jeroen; Stafleu, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Geological mapping of Holocene deposits of coastal plains, such as that of The Netherlands can reach high resolution (dense population, diverse applied usage) and good time control (14C dating, archaeology). The next step is then to create time sliced reconstructions for stages in the Holocene, peeling of the subrecent and exposing past relief situation. This includes winding back the history of sea-level rise and delta progradation etc. etc. So far, this has mainly be done as 2D series of landscape maps, or as sea-level curve age-depth plots. In the last decade, academic and applied projects at Utrecht University, TNO Geological Survey of The Netherlands and Deltares have developed palaeoDEMs for the Dutch low lands, that are a third main way of showing coastal plain evolution. Importantly, we produce two types of palaeoDEMs: (1) geological surface mapping using deposit contacts from borehole descriptions (and scripted 3D processing techniques - e.g. Van der Meulen et al. 2013) and (2) palaeogroundwater surfaces, using sea-level and inland water-level index-points (and 3D kriging interpolations - e.g. Koster et al. 2016). The applications for the combined palaeoDEMs range from relative sea-level rise mapping and assessment of variation in rate of GIA across the coastal plain, to quantification of soft soil deformation, to analysis of pre-embankment extreme flood levels. Koster, K., Stafleu, J., & Cohen, K.M. (2016). Generic 3D interpolation of Holocene base-level rise and provision of accommodation space, developed for the Netherlands coastal plain and infilled palaeovalleys. Basin Research. DOI 10.1111/bre.12202 Van der Meulen, M.J., Doornenbal, J.C., Gunnink, J.L., Stafleu, J., Schokker, J., Vernes, R.W., Van Geer, F.C., Van Gessel, S.F., Van Heteren, S., Van Leeuwen, R.J.W. & Bakker, M.A.J. (2013). 3D geology in a 2D country: perspectives for geological surveying in the Netherlands. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 92, 217-241. DOI 10.1017/S0016774600000184

  17. Assessment of forest plantations from low altitude aerial photography. [North Carolina coastal plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical color, and color-infrared, aerial photography obtained from altitudes between 183 m and 915 m provide a cost effective method of determining tree survival and height growth in pine plantations on the North Carolina Coastal Plain. All interpretations were performed by professional forestry personnel from the original 70 mm color transparencies. Prompt assessment of tree survival is necessary if failed spots are to be successfully replanted. Counts of living trees made after the third growing season, and sometimes only two growing seasons after planting, are accurate enough to permit planning of replanting operations without extensive ground surveys.

  18. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness.

  19. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness

  20. Soil nitrogen dynamics and leaching under conservation tillage in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation tillage (CsT) involves management that reduces soil erosion by maintaining crop residue cover on farm fields. Typically, both infiltration and soil organic matter increase over time with CsT practices. We compared the impact of a commonly used CsT practice, strip tillage (ST), to conven...

  1. Influence of coarse woody debris on the soricid community in southeastern Coastal Plain pine stands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, C.; Castleberry, Steven, B.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2010-07-01

    Shrew abundance has been linked to the presence of coarse woody debris (CWD), especially downed logs, in many regions in the United States. We investigated the importance of CWD to shrew communities in managed upland pine stands in the southeastern United States Coastal Plain. Using a randomized complete block design, 1 of the following treatments was assigned to twelve 9.3-ha plots: removal (n 5 3; all downed CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed), downed (n 5 3; 5-fold increase in volume of downed CWD), snag (n 5 3; 10-fold increase in volume of standing dead CWD), and control (n 5 3; unmanipulated). Shrews (Blarina carolinensis, Sorex longirostris, and Cryptotis parva) were captured over 7 seasons from January 2007 to August 2008 using drift-fence pitfall trapping arrays within treatment plots. Topographic variables were measured and included as treatment covariates. More captures of B. carolinensis were made in the downed treatment compared to removal, and captures of S. longirostris were greater in downed and snag compared to removal. Captures of C. parva did not differ among treatments. Captures of S. longirostris were positively correlated with slope. Our results suggest that abundance of 2 of the 3 common shrew species of the southeastern Coastal Plain examined in our study is influenced by the presence of CWD.

  2. Effects of Biochar Blends on Microbial Community Composition in Two Coastal Plain Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Ducey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The amendment of soil with biochar has been demonstrated to have an effect not only on the soil physicochemical properties, but also on soil microbial community composition and activity. Previous reports have demonstrated significant impacts on soil microbial community structure. These impacts are modulated not only by the biochar composition, but also on the soil’s physicochemical characteristics. This indicates that soil characteristics must be considered prior to biochar amendment. A significant portion of the soils of the southeastern coastal plain are severely degraded and, therefore, candidates for biochar amendment to strengthen soil fertility. In this study we focused on two common soil series in the southeastern coastal plain, utilizing feedstocks endemic to the area. We chose feedstocks in four ratios (100% pine chip; 80:20 mixture of pine chip to poultry litter; 50:50 mixture of pine chip to poultry litter; 100% poultry litter prior to pyrolysis and soil amendment as a biochar product. Soil was analyzed for bioavailable nutrients via Mehlich-1 extractions, as well as microbial community composition using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA. Our results demonstrated significant shifts in microbial community composition in response to biochar amendment, the effects of which were greatest with 100% poultry litter biochar. Strong relationships between PLFAs and several Mehlich-1 extractable nutrients (Al, Cu, Fe, and P were observed.

  3. The effect of beaver ponds on water quality in rural coastal plain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bason, Christopher W.; Kroes, Daniel; Brinson, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    We compared water-quality effects of 13 beaver ponds on adjacent free-flowing control reaches in the Coastal Plain of rural North Carolina. We measured concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and suspended sediment (SS) upstream and downstream of paired ponds and control reaches. Nitrate and SS concentrations decreased, ammonium concentrations increased, and SRP concentrations were unaffected downstream of the ponds and relative to the control reaches. The pond effect on nitrate concentration was a reduction of 112 ± 55 μg-N/L (19%) compared to a control-reach—influenced reduction of 28 ± 17 μg-N/L. The pond effect on ammonium concentration was an increase of 9.47 ± 10.9 μg-N/L (59%) compared to the control-reach—influenced reduction of 1.49 ± 1.37 μg-N/L. The pond effect on SS concentration was a decrease of 3.41 ± 1.68 mg/L (40%) compared to a control-reach—influenced increase of 0.56 ± 0.27 mg/L. Ponds on lower-order streams reduced nitrate concentrations by greater amounts compared to those in higher-order streams. Older ponds reduced SS concentrations by greater amounts compared to younger ponds. The findings of this study indicate that beaver ponds provide water-quality benefits to rural Coastal Plain streams by reducing concentrations of nitrate and suspended sediment.

  4. Historical and contemporary imagery to assess ecosystem change on the Arctic coastal plain of northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, Ken D.; Pearce, John M.; Walworth, Dennis; Meixell, Brandt W.; Fondell, Tom F.; Gustine, David D.; Flint, Paul L.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Ward, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is a complex landscape of lakes, streams, and wetlands scattered across low-relief tundra that is underlain by permafrost. This region of the Arctic has experienced a warming trend over the past three decades leading to thawing of on-shore permafrost and the disappearance of sea ice at unprecedented rates. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) research initiative was developed to investigate and forecast these rapid changes in the physical environment of the Arctic, and the associated changes to wildlife populations, in order to inform key management decisions by the U.S. Department of the Interior and other agencies. Forecasting future wildlife responses to changes in the Arctic can benefit greatly from historical records that inform what changes have already occurred. Several Arctic wildlife and plant species have already responded to climatic and physical changes to the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. Thus, we located historical aerial imagery to improve our understanding of recent habitat changes and the associated response to such changes by wildlife populations.

  5. Estimating contributions of nitrate and herbicides from groundwater to headwater streams, northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott; Denver, Judith M.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater transport often complicates understanding of surface-water contamination. We estimated the regional flux of nitrate and selected herbicides from groundwater to nontidal headwater streams of the Atlantic Coastal Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) based on late-winter or spring base-flow samples from 174 streams. Sampled streams were selected randomly, and flux estimates are based on resulting population estimates rather than on empirical models, which have been used previously for similar estimates. Base-flow flux in the estimated 8,834 headwater streams of the study area are an estimated 21,200 kg/day of nitrate (as N) and 5.83, 0.565, and 20.7 kg/day of alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor (and selected degradates), respectively. Base-flow flux of alachlor and metolachlor is herbicides as a percentage of applications is typically highest in well-drained areas and lowest in areas with abundant poor drainage and anoxic conditions. In Coastal Plain watersheds of Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, <2% of applied nitrogen reaches headwater streams as base flow. On the Delmarva Peninsula part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, however, more than 10% of such applications are transported through groundwater to streams, and base-flow nitrate flux represents 70% of total nitrogen flux in headwater streams.

  6. Titanium mineral resources in heavy-mineral sands in the Atlantic coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2018-04-16

    This study examined titanium distribution in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States; the titanium is found in heavy-mineral sands that include the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), or leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Deposits of heavy-mineral sands in ancient and modern coastal plains are a significant feedstock source for the titanium dioxide pigments industry. Currently, two heavy-mineral sands mining and processing operations are active in the southeast United States producing concentrates of ilmenite-leucoxene, rutile, and zircon. The results of this study indicate the potential for similar deposits in many areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.This study used the titanium analyses of 3,457 stream sediment samples that were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Geochemical Survey program. This data set was analyzed by an integrated spatial modeling technique known as Bayesian hierarchical modeling to map the regional-scale, spatial distribution of titanium concentrations. In particular, clusters of anomalous concentrations of titanium occur: (1) along the Fall Zone, from Virginia to Alabama, where metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Piedmont region contact younger sediments of the Coastal Plain; (2) a paleovalley near the South Carolina and North Carolina border; (3) the upper and middle Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina; (4) the majority of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Virginia; and (5) barrier islands and stretches of the modern shoreline from South Carolina to northeast Florida. The areas mapped by this study could help mining companies delimit areas for exploration.

  7. Dinosaur tracks in Lower Jurassic coastal plain sediments (Sose Bugt Member, Rønne Formation) on Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Milàn, Jesper; Pedersen, Gunver K

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial palaeochannels of coastal plain sediments of the Lower Jurassic Sose Bugt Member of the Rønne Formation exposed in the coastal cliffs at Sose Bugt, Bornholm, contain abundant dinosaur or other large vertebrate tracks in the form of deformation structures exposed in vertical section...... track. Contemporary Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic strata from southern Sweden and Poland contain a diverse track fauna, supporting our interpretation. This is the earliest evidence of dinosaur activity in Denmark....

  8. Dinoflagellate species and organic facies evidence of marine transgression and regression in the atlantic coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, D.; Miller, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Palynological evidence is used to date and interpret depositional environments of sediments of Campanian, Maestrichtian and early Danian ages cored in three wells from South Carolina and Georgia. The evidence is usefil for distinguishing environments which lithofacies evidence indicates a range from nonmarine to coastal to inner neritic shallow shelf. Numerous dinoflagellate species and an organic facies defined abundant amoprphous debris (amorphous debris facies) distinguish shallow shelf sediments deposited during marine transgression. The nearshore amorphous debris facies of late Campanian age consists of heterogenous assemblages dominated by Palaeohystrichophora infusorioides Deflandre or Hystrichosphaerina varians (May). The farther offshore amorphous debris facies of late early Maestrichtian to late Maestrichtian age consists of heterogenous assemblages dominated by Glaphyrocysta retiintexta (Cookson) and/or Areoligera medusettiformis (Wetzel). The larger number of dinoflagellate species in the offshore facies represents the maximum transgression detected in the investigated interval. A multiple occurrence datum defined by the combination of first appearance, klast appearances and sole occurrence of dinoflagellate species at the base of each interval distinguished by the amorphous debris facies provides the first evidence of marine transgression. Relatively small organic residues consisting of intertinite and few or no palynomorphs define the inertinite facies in nonmarine deltaic and in coastal (lagoonal, tidal flat, interdistributary bary) sediments. Dinocyt{star, open}s are absent in the nonmarine sediments and are represented by few species and few specimens in the coastal inertinite faceis. A third organic facies (vascular tissue facies) is defined by the abundance of land plant tissue. Sporomorph species, including those of the Normapolles pollen group and of pteridophyte spores, comprise a large proportion of the total palynomorph flora in the

  9. Socioeconomic factors, attitudes and practices associated with malaria prevention in the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Ruiz, Merit; Penilla, R Patricia; Ordóñez, José G; López, Alma D; Solis, Francisco; Torres-Estrada, José Luis; Rodríguez, Américo D

    2014-04-23

    Mexico is in the malaria pre-elimination phase; therefore, continuous assessment and understanding of the social and behavioural risk factors related to exposure to malaria are necessary to achieve the overall goal. The aim of this research was to investigate socio-economic backgrounds, attitudes and practices related with malaria in rural locations from the coastal plain of Chiapas. In January 2012, 542 interviews were conducted to householders from 20 villages across the coastal plain of Chiapas. Questions were about housing conditions, protection from mosquito bites and general information of householders. Chi2 analyses were performed to see whether there was a dependence of those reported having malaria with their house conditions and their malaria preventive practices. Results were discussed and also compared statistically against those obtained 17 years ago from the same area. Most households had 2-5 people (73.6%), 91.6% of houses had 1-3 bedrooms. The physical structure of the houses consisted of walls mainly made of block or brick 72.3%, the floor made of cement 90.0%, while the roof made of zinc sheet 43.9%, and straw or palm 42.2%. A 23.1% of the interviewed completed elementary school and 16.6% was illiterate. A 9.9% of the residents reported at least one family member having had malaria. A 98.1% of families used some method to prevent mosquito bites; those using bed nets were 94.3%. Almost 72% of families bought products for mosquito protection. A total of 537 out of 542 families agreed with the indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide and a frequency of application as often as every two months was preferred. Housing conditions and malaria preventive practices have improved in these rural areas in 17 years, which could be in favor of malaria elimination in this area. Information generated by this study could help in the decision making about whether to use insecticide as indoor residual spraying or to implement massive distribution of long

  10. Summary of wildlife-related research on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 2002–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M.; Flint, Paul L.; Atwood, Todd C.; Douglas, David C.; Adams, Layne G.; Johnson, Heather E.; Arthur, Stephen M.; Latty, Christopher J.

    2018-01-23

    We summarize recent (2002–17) publicly available information from studies within the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge as well as terrestrial and coastal ecosystems elsewhere on the Arctic Coastal Plain that are relevant to the 1002 Area. This report provides an update on earlier research summaries on caribou (Rangifer tarandus), forage quality and quantity, polar bears (Ursus maritimus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and snow geese (Chen caerulescens). We also provide information on new research related to climate, migratory birds, permafrost, coastal erosion, coastal lagoons, fish, water resources, and potential effects of industrial disturbance on wildlife. From this literature review, we noted evidence for change in the status of some wildlife and their habitats, and the lack of change for others. In the 1002 Area, muskox numbers have decreased and the Porcupine Caribou Herd has exhibited variation in use of the area during the calving season. Polar bears are now more common on shore in summer and fall because of declines in sea ice in the Beaufort Sea. In a study spanning 25 years, there were no significant changes in vegetation quality and quantity, soil conditions, or permafrost thaw in the coastal plain of the 1002 Area. Based on studies from the central Arctic Coastal Plain, there are persistent and emerging uncertainties about the long-term effects of energy development for caribou. In contrast, recent studies that examined direct and indirect effects of industrial activities and infrastructure on birds in the central Arctic Coastal Plain found little effect for the species and disturbances examined, except for the possibility of increased predator activity near human developments.

  11. Agricultural conservation practices and wetland ecosystem services in the wetland-rich Piedmont–Coastal Plain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Richard Lowrance

    2011-01-01

    In the eastern U.S. Coastal Plain and Piedmont region, diverse inland wetlands (riverine, depressional, wet flats) have been impacted by or converted to agriculture. Farm Bill conservation practices that restore or enhance wetlands can return their ecological functions and services to the agricultural landscape. We review the extent of regional knowledge regarding the...

  12. 50 CFR Appendix I to Part 37 - Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska I Appendix I to Part 37 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA Pt. 37...

  13. A conceptual hydrologic model for a forested Carolina bay depressional wetland on the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Timothy J. Callahan; Ge Sun; Carl C. Trettin; Masato Miwa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how climate influences the hydrology of an ephemeral depressional wetland. Surface water and groundwater elevation data were collected for 7 years in a Coastal Plain watershed in South Carolina USA containing depressional wetlands, known as Carolina bays. Rainfall and temperature data were compared with water-table well and piezometer data in and...

  14. Palynomorphs in Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon in the coastal plain of extreme southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebráilon Masetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative palynological analysis of a 140 cm-thick section of Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon, representing the last 2600 years, taken from an outcrop at Hermenegildo Beach (33º42'S; 53º18'W, located in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were treated with hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and potassium hydroxide, after which they were subjected to acetolysis and mounted on glycerin-coated slides for light microscopy analysis. Among the 48 palynomorphs identified were 25 fungi, eight algae, three bryophytes, and 12 pteridophytes. Brief descriptions and illustrations of each palynomorph are presented, together with ecological data from the organism of origin when possible. Our findings will serve as reference material for paleoenvironmental studies in the coastal plain of southern Brazil.

  15. Who knew? First Myotis sodalis (Indiana Bat) maternity colony in the coastal plain of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Germain, Michael J.; Kniowski, Andrew B.; Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W. Mark

    2017-01-01

    We report the first confirmed Myotis sodalis (Indiana Bat) maternity colony in Virginia, discovered at Fort A.P. Hill Military Reservation in Caroline County along the Piedmont-Coastal Plain Fall Line. Acoustic surveys conducted in 2014 indicated likely presence of Indiana Bats on the installation. Subsequent focal mist-netting during May–June 2015 resulted in capture of 4 lactating females that we subsequently radio tracked to a maternity colony site containing at least 20 individuals. The core roosting-area was comprised of Pinus taeda (Loblolly Pine) snags with abundant exfoliating bark and high solar exposure. This forest patch was adjacent to a large emergentshrub wetland and within a larger matrix of mature, mid-Atlantic hardwood forests. The site where we found the colony location is 140 km east of the nearest known hibernaculum and is outside of the previously documented extent of this species' occurrence.

  16. Mercury and methylmercury dynamics in a coastal plain watershed, New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Riskin, M.L.; Szabo, Z.; Reilly, P.A.; Rosman, R.; Bonin, J.L.; Fischer, J.M.; Heckathorn, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The upper Great Egg Harbor River watershed in New Jersey's Coastal Plain is urbanized but extensive freshwater wetlands are present downstream. In 2006-2007, studies to assess levels of total mercury (THg) found concentrations in unfiltered streamwater to range as high as 187 ng/L in urbanized areas. THg concentrations were water with THg that exceeds the drinking water standard (2,000 ng/L). THg concentrations were lower (water/sediment interface. Atmospheric deposition is presumed to be the main source of Hg to the wetlands and also may be a source to groundwater, where wastewater inputs in urban areas are hypothesized to mobilize Hg deposited to soils. ?? 2010 US Government.

  17. Salinization of porewater in a multiple aquitard-aquifer system in Jiangsu coastal plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liang, Xing; Zhang, Yanian; Liu, Yan; Chen, Naijia; Abubakari, Alhassan; Jin, Menggui

    2017-12-01

    Chemical and isotopic compositions were analyzed in porewater squeezed from a clayey aquitard in Jiangsu coastal plain, eastern China, to interpret the salinity origin, chemical evolution and water-mass mixing process. A strong geochemical fingerprint was obtained with an aligned Cl/Br ratio of 154 in the salinized aquitard porewater over a wide Cl- concentration range (396-9,720 mg/L), indicating that porewater salinity is likely derived from a mixing with old brine with a proportion of less than 20%. Very small contributions of brine exerted limited effects on water stable isotopes. The relationships between porewater δ18O and δD indicate that shallow and intermediate porewaters could be original seawater and were subsequently diluted with modern meteoric water, whereas deep porewaters with depleted stable isotopic values were probably recharged during a cooler period and modified by evaporation and seawater infiltration. The cation-Cl relationship and mineralogy of associated strata indicate that porewater has been chemically modified by silicate weathering and ion-exchange reactions. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7094-0.7112 further confirm the input source of silicate minerals. Numerical simulations were used to evaluate the long-term salinity evolution of the deep porewater. The alternations of boundary conditions (i.e., the third aquifer mixed with brine at approximately 70 ka BP, followed by recharge of glacial meltwater at 20-25 ka BP, and then mixing with Holocene seawater at 7-10 ka BP) are responsible for the shift in porewater salinity. These timeframes correspond with the results of previous studies on ancient marine transgression-regression in Jiangsu coastal plain.

  18. Characterizing mercury concentrations and fluxes in a Coastal Plain watershed: Insights from dynamic modeling and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, H.E.; Knightes, C.D.; Conrads, P.A.; Davis, G.M.; Feaster, T.D.; Journey, C.A.; Benedict, S.T.; Brigham, M.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the leading water quality concerns in surface waters of the United States. Although watershed-scale Hg cycling research has increased in the past two decades, advances in modeling watershed Hg processes in diverse physiographic regions, spatial scales, and land cover types are needed. The goal of this study was to assess Hg cycling in a Coastal Plain system using concentrations and fluxes estimated by multiple watershed-scale models with distinct mathematical frameworks reflecting different system dynamics. We simulated total mercury (HgT, the sum of filtered and particulate forms) concentrations and fluxes from a Coastal Plain watershed (McTier Creek) using three watershed Hg models and an empirical load model. Model output was compared with observed in-stream HgT. We found that shallow subsurface flow is a potentially important transport mechanism of particulate HgT during periods when connectivity between the uplands and surface waters is maximized. Other processes (e.g., stream bank erosion, sediment re-suspension) may increase particulate HgT in the water column. Simulations and data suggest that variable source area (VSA) flow and lack of rainfall interactions with surface soil horizons result in increased dissolved HgT concentrations unrelated to DOC mobilization following precipitation events. Although flushing of DOC-HgT complexes from surface soils can also occur during this period, DOC-complexed HgT becomes more important during base flow conditions. TOPLOAD simulations highlight saturated subsurface flow as a primary driver of daily HgT loadings, but shallow subsurface flow is important for HgT loads during high-flow events. Results suggest limited seasonal trends in HgT dynamics.

  19. Challenges to Rainfall-Runoff and Transit Time Distribution Modeling Within the Southeastern Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, P.; Cohen, M. J.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Previous hydrologic studies primarily focus on processes related to montane catchments with significant runoff ratios, low evapotranspiration rates, and reasonably short travel times. There is a significant lack of research for hydrologic processes occurring within the United States Southeastern Coastal Plain landscape where low-relief and high rates of evapotranspiration impact water fluxes. Hydrologic modeling efforts within this region may elucidate possible interactions and timescales of solute travel where much of the landscape is managed for agricultural crops, namely plantation forestry. A long-term paired watershed study carried out in northern Florida monitored two second-order blackwater streams for five years. Rainfall-runoff models for both catchments were created using daily discharge, precipitation, and modeled evapotranspiration as input parameters. Best fit occurred (NSE = 0.8) when the catchments were modeled as two-storage (shallow and deep) reservoirs in parallel and overland flow was allowed to contribute to streamflow in periods were shallow groundwater storage was at capacity. In addition, streamflow and rainfall chloride concentrations were used to model in-variable transit time distributions using spectral methods. In both catchments this transit time was unresolvable because output spectral power exceeded input spectral power, a result assumed to be driven by the evaporative demand of the region. A modeled chloride time series from random input concentration and modeled output through the rainfall-runoff model was used to alter the evaporation ratio. Once evaporation rates equaled known rates found in cool, high-relief catchments, spectral analysis illustrated higher input spectral power and therefore resolvable transit times. Findings from this study illustrate significant effects from evaporation within the catchment - often exceeding the signal from the background catchment process itself. Calculations illustrate a proposed mean transit

  20. Chemical evolution of groundwater in the Wilcox aquifer of the northern Gulf Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Estifanos; Fryar, Alan E.

    2017-12-01

    The Wilcox aquifer is a major groundwater resource in the northern Gulf Coastal Plain (lower Mississippi Valley) of the USA, yet the processes controlling water chemistry in this clastic aquifer have received relatively little attention. The current study combines analyses of solutes and stable isotopes in groundwater, petrography of core samples, and geochemical modeling to identify plausible reactions along a regional flow path ˜300 km long. The hydrochemical facies evolves from Ca-HCO3 upgradient to Na-HCO3 downgradient, with a sequential zonation of terminal electron-accepting processes from Fe(III) reduction through SO4 2- reduction to methanogenesis. In particular, decreasing SO4 2- and increasing δ34S of SO4 2- along the flow path, as well as observations of authigenic pyrite in core samples, provide evidence of SO4 2- reduction. Values of δ13C in groundwater suggest that dissolved inorganic carbon is contributed both by oxidation of sedimentary organic matter and calcite dissolution. Inverse modeling identified multiple plausible sets of reactions between sampled wells, which typically involved cation exchange, pyrite precipitation, CH2O oxidation, and dissolution of amorphous Fe(OH)3, calcite, or siderite. These reactions are consistent with processes identified in previous studies of Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers. Contrasts in groundwater chemistry between the Wilcox and the underlying McNairy and overlying Claiborne aquifers indicate that confining units are relatively effective in limiting cross-formational flow, but localized cross-formational mixing could occur via fault zones. Consequently, increased pumping in the vicinity of fault zones could facilitate upward movement of saline water into the Wilcox.

  1. Land subsidence in the Friuli Venezia Giulia coastal plain, Italy: 1992-2010 results from SAR-based interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Lio, Cristina; Tosi, Luigi

    2018-03-27

    Land subsidence is a concern in many coastal plains worldwide, particularly in the low-lying areas already facing sea level rise due to climate change, and much still needs to be done, with respect to both mapping land subsidence and gaining a comprehensive understanding of the relevant cause-effect relationships. Land subsidence of the northern coastal plain encompassing the Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) region in Italy, remains, to the authors' knowledge, poorly investigated. This coastland includes low-lying agricultural and urban areas and highly valuable lagoon environments, archaeological and touristic sites, and industrial zones. Here, we resolve land subsidence in the coastal plain between the Tagliamento River delta and the Isonzo River mouth over the period 1992-2010 using Envisat ASAR and ERS1/2 interferometric datasets. We identify a large variability of the land subsidence and a spatial gradient that ranges from less than 1mm/year in the high southwestern plain toward the littoral to more than 5mm/year close to the Tagliamento River delta. A comparison between the 2003-2010 and 1992-2000 sinking rates depicts quite similar behaviors of the process over the two time spans. The analysis indicates unclear correlations between ground movements and the typical driving mechanisms acting in the north Adriatic coastal plains, such as the variability of the morphological setting, the subsoil characteristics and the land use. We reason that multi-component mechanisms contribute to the observed image of the subsidence in the FVG coastland. Specifically, anthropogenic activities, e.g., groundwater exploitations, hydraulic reclamations and the development of newly built-up areas, are superposed to natural mechanisms related to the spatial variability of the subsoil characteristics, typical of transitional coastal environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Why the coastal plain of Paraiba do Sul river not be denominated the classical model of wave dominated delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.

    1987-01-01

    Existing coastal sedimentation models have not properly incorporated the fundamental role of Holocene sea-level history in the development of modern coastal regions. For example the classical work by COLEMAN and WRIGHT (1975), although analyzing the influence of as many as 400 parameters on the geometry of deltaic sand bodies, did not address the effects of Holocene sea-level oscillations. Previous work on the central portion of the Brazilian coastline indicated that the relative construction of the coastal plains. Detailed mapping and radiocarbon dating have allowed us to establish the different phases involved in the depositional history of the plain situated at the Paraiba do Sul river mouth. This history is not in keeping with the classical model of wave dominated delta. (author)

  3. Aminostratigraphy of surface and subsurface Quaternary sediments, North Carolina coastal plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmiller, John F.; Thieler, E. Robert; Miller, D.; Pellerito, V.; Bakeman, Keeney V.; Riggs, S.R.; Culver, S.; Mallinson, D.; Farrell, K.M.; York, L.L.; Pierson, J.; Parham, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    The Quaternary stratigraphy and geochronology of the Albemarle Embayment of the North Carolina (NC) Coastal Plain is examined using amino acid racemization (AAR) in marine mollusks, in combination with geophysical, lithologic, and biostratigraphic analysis of 28 rotasonic cores drilled between 2002 and 2006. The Albemarle Embayment is bounded by structural highs to the north and south, and Quaternary strata thin westward toward the Suffolk paleoshoreline, frequently referred to as the Suffolk Scarp. The Quaternary section is up to ∼90 m thick, consists of a variety of estuarine, shelf, back-barrier, and lagoonal deposits, and has been influenced by multiple sea-level cycles. The temporal resolution of the amino acid racemization method is tested statistically and with the stratigraphic control provided by this geologic framework, and it is then applied to the correlation and age estimation of subsurface units throughout the region. Over 500 specimens (primarily Mercenaria and Mulinia) from the subsurface section have been analyzed using either gas chromatographic (GC) or reverse-phase liquid chromatographic (RPLC) techniques. The subsurface stratigraphic data are compared with AAR results from numerous natural or excavated exposures from the surrounding region, as well as results from NC beach collections, to develop a comprehensive aminostratigraphic database for the entire Quaternary record within the NC coastal system. Age mixing, recognized in the beach collections, is also seen in subsurface sections, usually where major seismic reflections or core lithology indicate the presence of stratigraphic discontinuities. Kinetic models for racemization are tested within the regional stratigraphic framework, using either radiocarbon or U-series calibrations or comparison with regional biostratigraphy. Three major Pleistocene aminozones [AZ2, AZ3, and AZ4] are found throughout the region, all being found in superposition in several cores. Each can be subdivided

  4. Chapter 11 - Progression of Laurel Wilt Disease in Georgia: 2009–11 (Project SC-EM-08-02)

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Scott Cameron; Chip Bates; James Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Laurel wilt disease (LWD) is caused by the fungus Raffaelea lauricola and vectored by the redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Fraedrich and others 2008). The pathogen and vector were apparently introduced from Asia through the Port of Savannah, and the disease has spread rapidly throughout the lower coastal plains forests in Georgia, killing nearly all...

  5. Fertilizer legacies meet saltwater incursion: challenges and constraints for coastal plain wetland restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ardón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal wetland restoration is an important tool for climate change adaptation and excess nutrient runoff mitigation. However, the capacity of restored coastal wetlands to provide multiple ecosystem services is limited by stressors, such as excess nutrients from upstream agricultural fields, high nutrient legacies on-site, and rising salinities downstream. The effects of these stressors are exacerbated by an accelerating hydrologic cycle, expected to cause longer droughts punctuated by more severe storms. We used seven years of surface water and six years of soil solution water chemistry from a large (440 ha restored wetland to examine how fertilizer legacy, changes in hydrology, and drought-induced salinization affect dissolved nutrient and carbon concentrations. To better understand the recovery trajectory of the restored wetland, we also sampled an active agricultural field and two mature forested wetlands. Our results show that nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P concentrations in soil solution were 2–10 times higher in the restored wetland compared to two mature forested wetlands, presumably due to legacy fertilizer mobilized by reflooding. Despite elevated nutrient concentrations relative to reference wetlands, the restored wetland consistently attenuated N and P pulses delivered from an upstream farm. Even with continued loading, N and P concentrations in surface water throughout the restored wetland have decreased since the initial flooding. Our results suggest that high nutrient concentrations and export from wetlands restored on agricultural lands may be a severe but temporary problem. If field to wetland conversion is to become a more widespread method for ameliorating nutrient runoff and adapting coastal plain ecosystems to climate change, we should adopt new methods for minimizing the initial export phase of wetland restoration efforts.

  6. The distribution and composition of REE-bearing minerals in placers of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Shah, Anjana K.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) resources are currently of great interest because of their importance as raw materials for high-technology manufacturing. The REE-phosphates monazite (light REE enriched) and xenotime (heavy REE enriched) resist weathering and can accumulate in placer deposits as part of the heavy mineral assemblage. The Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains of the southeastern United States are known to host heavy mineral deposits with economic concentrations of zircon, ilmenite and rutile. This study provides a perspective on the distribution and composition of REE phosphate minerals in the region. The elemental chemistry and mineralogy of sands and associated heavy-mineral assemblages from new and archived sediment samples across the coastal plains are examined, along with phase-specific compositions of monazite, xenotime and zircon. Both monazite and xenotime are present across the coastal plains. The phase-specific compositions allow monazite content to be estimated using La as a geochemical proxy. Similarly, both Y and Yb are geochemical proxies for xenotime, but their additional presence in zircon and monazite require a correction to prevent overestimation of xenotime content. Applying this correction, maps of monazite and xenotime content across the coastal plains were generated using sample coverage from the National Geochemical Database (NGS) and National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE). The NGS and NURE approach of sampling stream sediments in small watersheds links samples to nearby lithologies. The results show an approximately 40 km-wide band of primarily Cretaceous, marine sediments bordering the Piedmont province from North Carolina to Alabama in which monazite and xenotime content are relatively high (up to 4.4 wt. % in < 150 μm bulk sediment). Strong correlations between concentrations of the two phases were found, with estimated monazite:xenotime ratios ranging approximately 6:1 to 12:1 depending upon the dataset analyzed. From a resource

  7. Effect of coarse woody debris manipulation on soricid and herpetofaunal communities in upland pine stands of the southeastern coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, Charles

    2009-04-01

    Abstract -The majority of studies investigating the importance of coarse woody debris (CWD) to forest- floor vertebrates have taken place in the Pacific Northwest and southern Appalachian Mountains, while comparative studies in the southeastern Coastal Plain are lacking. My study was a continuation of a long-term project investigating the importance of CWD as a habitat component for shrew and herpetofaunal communities within managed pine stands in the southeastern Coastal Plain. Results suggest that addition of CWD can increase abundance of southeastern and southern short-tailed shrews. However, downed wood does not appear to be a critical habitat component for amphibians and reptiles. Rising petroleum costs and advances in wood utilization technology have resulted in an emerging biofuels market with potential to decrease CWD volumes left in forests following timber harvests. Therefore, forest managers must understand the value of CWD as an ecosystem component to maintain economically productive forests while conserving biological diversity.

  8. Summer Roost Tree Selection by Eastern Red, Seminole, and Evening Bats in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Ford, W.M.; Chapman, B.R.; Ozier, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radiotraction of six eastern red bats, six seminole bats and twenty-four evening bats to 55, 61, and 65 day roosts during 1996 to 1997 in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. For each species, testing was done for differences between used roost trees and randomly located trees. Also tested for differences between habitat characteristics surrounding roost trees and randomly located trees. Eastern Red and Seminole bats generally roosted in canopies of hardwood and pine while clinging to foilage and small branches. Evening bats roosted in cavities or under exfoliating bark in pines and dead snags. Forest management strategies named within the study should be beneficial for providing roosts in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

  9. Mesozoic (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) deep gas reservoir play, central and eastern Gulf coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, E.A.; Li, P.; Goddard, D.A.; Ramirez, V.O.; Talukdar, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Mesozoic (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) deeply buried gas reservoir play in the central and eastern Gulf coastal plain of the United States has high potential for significant gas resources. Sequence-stratigraphic study, petroleum system analysis, and resource assessment were used to characterize this developing play and to identify areas in the North Louisiana and Mississippi Interior salt basins with potential for deeply buried gas reservoirs. These reservoir facies accumulated in Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Norphlet, Haynesville, Cotton Valley, and Hosston continental, coastal, and marine siliciclastic environments and Smackover and Sligo nearshore marine shelf, ramp, and reef carbonate environments. These Mesozoic strata are associated with transgressive and regressive systems tracts. In the North Louisiana salt basin, the estimate of secondary, nonassociated thermogenic gas generated from thermal cracking of oil to gas in the Upper Jurassic Smackover source rocks from depths below 3658 m (12,000 ft) is 4800 tcf of gas as determined using software applications. Assuming a gas expulsion, migration, and trapping efficiency of 2-3%, 96-144 tcf of gas is potentially available in this basin. With some 29 tcf of gas being produced from the North Louisiana salt basin, 67-115 tcf of in-place gas remains. Assuming a gas recovery factor of 65%, 44-75 tcf of gas is potentially recoverable. The expelled thermogenic gas migrated laterally and vertically from the southern part of this basin to the updip northern part into shallower reservoirs to depths of up to 610 m (2000 ft). Copyright ?? 2008. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting breeding shorebird distributions on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Saalfeld, David T.; Johnson, James A.; Andres, Brad A.; Bart, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska is an important region for millions of migrating and nesting shorebirds. However, this region is threatened by climate change and increased human development (e.g., oil and gas production) that have the potential to greatly impact shorebird populations and breeding habitat in the near future. Because historic data on shorebird distributions in the ACP are very coarse and incomplete, we sought to develop detailed, contemporary distribution maps so that the potential impacts of climate-mediated changes and development could be ascertained. To do this, we developed and mapped habitat suitability indices for eight species of shorebirds (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola], American Golden-Plover [Pluvialis dominica], Semipalmated Sandpiper [Calidris pusilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], Dunlin [Calidris alpina], Long-billed Dowitcher [Limnodromus scolopaceus], Red-necked Phalarope [Phalaropus lobatus], and Red Phalarope [Phalaropus fulicarius]) that commonly breed within the ACP of Alaska. These habitat suitability models were based on 767 plots surveyed during nine years between 1998 and 2008 (surveys were not conducted in 2003 and 2005), using single-visit rapid area searches during territory establishment and incubation (8 June, 1 July). Species specific habitat suitability indices were developed and mapped using presence-only modeling techniques (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) and landscape environmental variables. For most species, habitat suitability was greater at lower elevations (i.e., near the coast and river deltas) and lower within upland habitats. Accuracy of models was high for all species, ranging from 65 -98%. Our models predicted that the largest fraction of suitable habitat for the majority of species occurred within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, with highly suitable habitat also occurring within coastal areas of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge west to Prudhoe Bay.

  11. Selective extinction and survival across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, William B.

    1991-10-01

    The inner Atlantic Coastal Plain in New Jersey and the Delmarva Peninsula is underlain by an Upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary sequence of marine and paralic sand, clay, and glauconitic beds. Campanian, Maastrichtian, Danian, and Thanetian deposits are especially fossiliferous and yield a succession of marine faunas that reveal a pattern of selective extinction and survival across the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary in this area. Cretaceous benthic invertebrate communities are dominated by oysters and other semi-infaunal and infaunal molluscs with planktotrophic larval stages. These are replaced in the Danian by brachiopod-dominated communities that are composed of epifaunal benthos with a variety of nonplanktotrophic reproductive strategies. A similar pattern is observable in the nektonic cephalopod populations in this sequence; the typical ammonites of the Cretaceous became extinct at the K/T boundary, whereas the nautilids survived. Ammonites are thought to have had a planktotrophic larval stage, whereas nautilids are known to lay large lecithotrophic eggs. This pattern of differential survival is attributed to the planktonic population crash at the K/T boundary which placed planktotrophically reproducing species at a disadvantage while favoring the varied groups that practiced alternative reproductive strategies.

  12. What does the Southern Brazilian Coastal Plain tell about its diversity? Syrphidae (Diptera) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, F D; Marinoni, L; Krüger, R F

    2017-10-01

    The natural areas of the Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul (CPRS) have suffered fragmentation due to anthropic action. The faunal surveys offer a low-cost method to quickly evaluate environmental alterations, and Syrphidae flies are often used as models in this kind of study. We aimed to ascertain the diversity of Syrphidae in the South region of Brazil by estimating its species' richness, and to use this data to identify new areas for conservation. In this survey Malaise traps were installed for 8 days in the CPRS, which was divided into five regions. Each region was subdivided into seven collecting areas and each of those areas received four traps, totaling 140 traps. A total of 456 Syrphidae individuals from 18 genera and 49 species were collected. In Region 1, there were nine exclusive species; in Region 2, there were three; in Region 3, there were 13, ten of which came from Estação Ecológica do Taim (ESEC Taim). In the Individual-based rarefaction analysis, Region 1 possessed the largest number of expected species out of the regions in the CPRS; we found 97% of these species. This insect collection effort, as one of the first in the CPRS, has broadened the known geographic distributions of 11 species of Syrphidae, and also indicated areas to be conserved. Additionally, it gave support for expanding ESEC Taim and creating new areas of conservation in Region 1, in Arroio Pelotas and Arroio Corrientes.

  13. Floodplain geomorphic processes and environmental impacts of human alteration along coastal plain rivers, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, C.R.; Pierce, Aaron R.; Noe, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    Human alterations along stream channels and within catchments have affected fluvial geomorphic processes worldwide. Typically these alterations reduce the ecosystem services that functioning floodplains provide; in this paper we are concerned with the sediment and associated material trapping service. Similarly, these alterations may negatively impact the natural ecology of floodplains through reductions in suitable habitats, biodiversity, and nutrient cycling. Dams, stream channelization, and levee/canal construction are common human alterations along Coastal Plain fluvial systems. We use three case studies to illustrate these alterations and their impacts on floodplain geomorphic and ecological processes. They include: 1) dams along the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina, 2) stream channelization in west Tennessee, and 3) multiple impacts including canal and artificial levee construction in the central Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. Human alterations typically shift affected streams away from natural dynamic equilibrium where net sediment deposition is, approximately, in balance with net erosion. Identification and understanding of critical fluvial parameters (e.g., stream gradient, grain-size, and hydrography) and spatial and temporal sediment deposition/erosion process trajectories should facilitate management efforts to retain and/or regain important ecosystem services. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  14. Cesium-137 in deer: Savannah River Plant vs. southeastern coastal plain herds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, J.R.; Rabon, E.W.; Dicks, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    The 137 Cs content in deer killed during programmed hunts at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has averaged 9.0 pCi/g. This value, based on measurements of 13,907 deer taken over 14 years (1965 to 1978), similar to the value obtained for 552 deer from other southeastern Coastal Plain locations, indicating the 137 Cs content is due to fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons rather than from SRP operations. The computerized SRP data base for each harvested deer includes age, sex, weight, cesium content, kill location, date, and the hunter's name. Analysis of these data enables the estimation of population dose from ingestion of the edible meat. Consumption of all edible meat from deer killed at SRP from 1965 to 1978 gives a whole body population dose of 196 man-rem from 137 Cs. Assuming an annual consumption rate of 20 kg gives an average individual whole body dose of 13 mrem, about 10% of local annual background level. The radiation dose from 40 K of natural potassium content of deer is comparable to the radiation dose from 137 Cs

  15. Mercury and methylmercury dynamics in a coastal plain watershed, New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Riskin, M.L.; Szabo, Z.; Reilly, P.A.; Rosman, R.; Bonin, J.L.; Fischer, J.M.; Heckathorn, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The upper Great Egg Harbor River watershed in New Jersey's Coastal Plain is urbanized but extensive freshwater wetlands are present downstream. In 2006-2007, studies to assess levels of total mercury (THg) found concentrations in unfiltered streamwater to range as high as 187 ng/L in urbanized areas. THg concentrations were areas where both THg and dissolved organic carbon concentrations tended to increase while pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and nitrate decreased with flushing of soils after rain. Most of the river's flow comes from groundwater seepage; unfiltered groundwater samples contained up to 177 ng/L of THg in urban areas where there is a history of well water with THg that exceeds the drinking water standard (2,000 ng/L). THg concentrations were lower (areas. In addition to higher THg concentrations (mostly particulate), concentrations of chloride were higher in streamwater and groundwater from urban areas than in those from downstream wetland areas. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in unfiltered streamwater ranged from 0.17 ng/L at a forest/wetlands site to 2.94 ng/L at an urban site. The percentage of THg present as MeHg increased as the percentage of forest + wetlands increased, but also was high in some urban areas. MeHg was detected only in groundwater urban areas are hypothesized to mobilize Hg deposited to soils. ?? 2010 US Government.

  16. Trophic pathways supporting Arctic grayling in a small stream on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Jason J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    Beaded streams are prominent across the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska, yet prey flow and food web dynamics supporting fish inhabiting these streams are poorly understood. Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) are a widely distributed upper-level consumer on the ACP and migrate into beaded streams to forage during the short 3-month open-water season. We investigated energy pathways and key prey resources that support grayling in a representative beaded stream, Crea Creek. We measured terrestrial invertebrates entering the stream from predominant riparian vegetation types, prey types supporting a range of fish size classes, and how riparian plants and fish size influenced foraging habits. We found that riparian plants influenced the quantity of terrestrial invertebrates entering Crea Creek; however, these differences were not reflected in fish diets. Prey type and size ingested varied with grayling size and season. Small grayling (15 cm FL) foraged most heavily on ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) throughout the summer, indicating that grayling can be insectivorous and piscivorous, depending on size. These findings underscore the potential importance of small streams in Arctic ecosystems as key summer foraging habitats for fish. Understanding trophic pathways supporting stream fishes in these systems will help interpret whether and how petroleum development and climate change may affect energy flow and stream productivity, terrestrial–aquatic linkages and fishes in Arctic ecosystems.

  17. Trophic pathways supporting Arctic grayling in a small stream on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Jason J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    Beaded streams are prominent across the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska, yet prey flow and food web dynamics supporting fish inhabiting these streams are poorly understood. Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) are a widely distributed upper-level consumer on the ACP and migrate into beaded streams to forage during the short 3-month open-water season. We investigated energy pathways and key prey resources that support grayling in a representative beaded stream, Crea Creek. We measured terrestrial invertebrates entering the stream from predominant riparian vegetation types, prey types supporting a range of fish size classes, and how riparian plants and fish size influenced foraging habits. We found that riparian plants influenced the quantity of terrestrial invertebrates entering Crea Creek; however, these differences were not reflected in fish diets. Prey type and size ingested varied with grayling size and season. Small grayling (fish (>15 cm FL) foraged most heavily on ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) throughout the summer, indicating that grayling can be insectivorous and piscivorous, depending on size. These findings underscore the potential importance of small streams in Arctic ecosystems as key summer foraging habitats for fish. Understanding trophic pathways supporting stream fishes in these systems will help interpret whether and how petroleum development and climate change may affect energy flow and stream productivity, terrestrial–aquatic linkages and fishes in Arctic ecosystems.

  18. InSAR detects possible thaw settlement in the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykhus, Russell P.; Lu, Zhong

    2008-01-01

    Satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has proven to be an effective tool for monitoring surface deformation from volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, and groundwater withdrawal. This paper seeks to expand the list of applications of InSAR data to include monitoring subsidence possibly associated with thaw settlement over the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. To test our hypothesis that InSAR data are sufficiently sensitive to detect subsidence associated with thaw settlement, we acquired all Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1) L-band data available for the summers of 1996, 1997, and 1998 over two sites on the Alaska North Slope. The least amount of subsidence for both study sites was detected in the interferograms covering the summer of 1996 (2-3 cm), interferograms from 1997 and 1998 revealed that about 3 cm of subsidence occurred at the northern Cache One Lake site, and about 5 cm of subsidence was detected at the southern Kaparuk River site. These preliminary results illustrate the capacity of the L-band (24 cm) wavelength JERS-1 radar data to penetrate the short Arctic vegetation to monitor subsidence possibly associated with thaw settlement of the active layer and (or) other hydrologic changes over relatively large areas.

  19. Groundwater-derived contaminant fluxes along a channelized Coastal Plain stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaSage, Danita m [JL Sexton and Son; Fryar, Alan E [Dept of Earth and Geoligical Sciences, Univ of KY,; Mukherjee, Abhijit [Univ of Tx, Jackson School of Geosciences, Bur of Econ. Geology; Sturchio, Neil C [Dept of earth and Env. Sciences, Univ of Ill at Chicago; Heraty, Linnea J [Dept of earth and Env. Sciences, Univ of Ill at Chicago

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies in various settings across eastern North America have examined the movement of volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes from groundwater to streams, but few studies have addressed focused discharge of such plumes in unlithified sediments. From 1999 through 2002, we monitored concentrations of trichloroethene (TCE) and the non-volatile co-contaminant technetium-99 along Little Bayou Creek, a first -order perennial stream in the Coastal Plain of western Kentucky. Spring flow contributed TCE and technetium-99 to the creek, and TCE concentrations tended to vary with technetium-99 in springs. Contaminant concentrations in stream water fluctuated seasonally, but not always synchronously with stream flow. However, contaminant influxes varied seasonally with stream flow and were dominated by a few springs. Concentrations of O2, NO3⁻, and SO2-4, values of δ37CL in groundwater, and the lack of less-chlorinated ethenes in groundwater and stream water indicated that aerobic biodegradation of TCE was unlikely. Losses of TCE along Little Bayou Creek resulted mainly from volatilization, in contrast to streams receiving diffuse contaminated discharge, where intrinsic bioremediation of VOCs appears to be prevalent.

  20. Tundra landform and vegetation productivity trend maps for the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Mark J; Nitze, Ingmar; Grosse, Guido; McGuire, A David

    2018-04-10

    Arctic tundra landscapes are composed of a complex mosaic of patterned ground features, varying in soil moisture, vegetation composition, and surface hydrology over small spatial scales (10-100 m). The importance of microtopography and associated geomorphic landforms in influencing ecosystem structure and function is well founded, however, spatial data products describing local to regional scale distribution of patterned ground or polygonal tundra geomorphology are largely unavailable. Thus, our understanding of local impacts on regional scale processes (e.g., carbon dynamics) may be limited. We produced two key spatiotemporal datasets spanning the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska (~60,000 km 2 ) to evaluate climate-geomorphological controls on arctic tundra productivity change, using (1) a novel 30 m classification of polygonal tundra geomorphology and (2) decadal-trends in surface greenness using the Landsat archive (1999-2014). These datasets can be easily integrated and adapted in an array of local to regional applications such as (1) upscaling plot-level measurements (e.g., carbon/energy fluxes), (2) mapping of soils, vegetation, or permafrost, and/or (3) initializing ecosystem biogeochemistry, hydrology, and/or habitat modeling.

  1. Forest statistics for the northern coastal plain of South Carolina, 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.T.; Sheffield, R.M.

    1993-05-01

    Since 1986, the area of timberland in the Northern Coastal Plain of South Carolina increased by 3 percent to 4.7 million acres. Nonindustrial private forest landowners control 67 percent of the region's timberland. Area classified as a pine type remained stable at 1.9 million acres. More than 116,000 acres were harvested annually, while 177,000 acres were regenerated by artificial and natural means. The volume of softwood growing stock decreased 26 percent to 2.5 billion cubic feet. The volume of hardwood growing stock declined 13 percent to 3.1 billion cubic feet. Extremely high mortality drove net growth downward. Net annual growth of softwoods declined 84 percent to 28 million cubic feet. Hardwood growth dropped 77 percent to 23 million cubic feet. Annual removals of softwood growing stock increased 9 percent to 175 million cubic feet; hardwood removals jumped 18 percent to 87 million cubic feet. Annual mortality of softwood growing stock was up eight times the level recorded in 1986, whereas hardwood mortality was up four times the previous level

  2. Forest response and recovery following disturbance in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Karina V R; Renninger, Heidi J; Carlo, Nicholas J; Vanderklein, Dirk W

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and water cycling of forests contribute significantly to the Earth's overall biogeochemical cycling and may be affected by disturbance and climate change. As a larger body of research becomes available about leaf-level, ecosystem and regional scale effects of disturbances on forest ecosystems, a more mechanistic understanding is developing which can improve modeling efforts. Here, we summarize some of the major effects of physical and biogenic disturbances, such as drought, prescribed fire, and insect defoliation, on leaf and ecosystem-scale physiological responses as well as impacts on carbon and water cycling in an Atlantic Coastal Plain upland oak/pine and upland pine forest. During drought, stomatal conductance and canopy stomatal conductance were reduced, however, defoliation increased conductance on both leaf-level and canopy scale. Furthermore, after prescribed fire, leaf-level stomatal conductance was unchanged for pines but decreased for oaks, while canopy stomatal conductance decreased temporarily, but then rebounded the following growing season, thus exhibiting transient responses. This study suggests that forest response to disturbance varies from the leaf to ecosystem level as well as species level and thus, these differential responses interplay to determine the fate of forest structure and functioning post disturbance.

  3. Presence and absence of bats across habitat scales in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.Mark; Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.: Edwards, John W.; Kilgo, John C.

    2006-10-01

    Abstract During 2001, we used active acoustical sampling (Anabat II) to survey foraging habitat relationships of bats on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Using an a priori information-theoretic approach, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine presence of individual bat species relative to a suite of microhabitat, stand, and landscape-level features such as forest structural metrics, forest type, proximity to riparian zones and Carolina bay wetlands, insect abundance, and weather. There was considerable empirical support to suggest that the majority of the activity of bats across most of the 6 species occurred at smaller, stand-level habitat scales that combine measures of habitat clutter (e.g., declining forest canopy cover and basal area), proximity to riparian zones, and insect abundance. Accordingly, we hypothesized that most foraging habitat relationships were more local than landscape across this relatively large area for generalist species of bats. The southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) was the partial exception, as its presence was linked to proximity of Carolina bays (best approximating model) and bottomland hardwood communities (other models with empirical support). Efforts at SRS to promote open longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and loblolly pine (P. taeda) savanna conditions and to actively restore degraded Carolina bay wetlands will be beneficial to bats. Accordingly, our results should provide managers better insight for crafting guidelines for bat habitat conservation that could be linked to widely accepted land management and environmental restoration practices for the region.

  4. Assessing groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Monti, Jack; Nardi, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Groundwater Resources Program is conducting an assessment of groundwater availability throughout the United States to gain a better understanding of the status of the Nation's groundwater resources and how changes in land use, water use, and climate may affect those resources. The goal of this National assessment is to improve our ability to forecast water availability for future economic and environmental uses. Assessments will be completed for the Nation's principal aquifer systems to help characterize how much water is currently available, how water availability is changing, and how much water we can expect to have in the future (Reilly and others, 2008). The concept of groundwater availability is more than just how much water can be pumped from any given aquifer. Groundwater availability is a function of many factors, including the quantity and quality of water and the laws, regulations, economics, and environmental factors that control its use. The primary objective of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain groundwater-availability study is to identify spatial and temporal changes in the overall water budget by more fully determining the natural and human processes that control how water enters, moves through, and leaves the groundwater system. Development of tools such as numerical models can help hydrologists gain an understanding of this groundwater system, allowing forecasts to be made about the response of this system to natural and human stresses, and water quality and ecosystem health to be analyzed, throughout the region.

  5. Chemical and isotopic properties of groundwater along the coastal plain of the aqaba gulf, (EG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, M.A.A

    1999-01-01

    Isotopic and hydrochemical studies were undertaken along the coastal plain of aqaba gulf in taba, dahab and sharm El-Sheikh to ascertain the role of precipitation (via floods), local water and sea water intrusion as replenishment sources for available groundwater resources in these areas. From the isotopic point of view, it can be concluded that groundwater in nuweiba wells appears to have been recharged from continental and mediterranean participation, while in dahab wells and sharm El-Sheikh Nubian well, recent precipitation via monsoonal air masses which comes from indian ocean plays a considerable role in recharging of these wells. In Taba wells, seepage of partly evaporated flood water represents the main source of their recharge. The fractured nature of the studied area has an effect on the occurrence of groundwater. The variation in chemical water type is due to leaching of terrestrial salts and impact of marine faces (i.e. evaporites and sea spray). Sea water intrusion via over pumping and/ or during tide and ebb duration shows an affect-to some extent-on the chemical composition of some localized wells. Construction of meteorological stations in scattered sites all over sinai is necessary to collect rainwater and floods samples periodically, to study the modification of the isotopic composition of rainwater by processes which occur before groundwater recharge using environmental isotopes

  6. Summary of hydrologic testing of the Floridan aquifer system at Fort Stewart, coastal Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Gerald J.

    2011-01-01

    Two test wells were completed at Fort Stewart, coastal Georgia, to investigate the potential for using the Lower Floridan aquifer as a source of water to satisfy anticipated, increased water needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, completed hydrologic testing of the Floridan aquifer system at the study site, including flowmeter surveys, slug tests, and 24- and 72-hour aquifer tests by mid-March 2010. Analytical approaches and model simulation were applied to aquifer-test results to provide estimates of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the multilayered Floridan aquifer system. Data from a 24-hour aquifer test of the Upper Floridan aquifer were evaluated by using the straight-line Cooper-Jacob analytical method. Data from a 72-hour aquifer test of the Lower Floridan aquifer were simulated by using axisymmetric model simulations. Results of aquifer testing indicated that the Upper Floridan aquifer has a transmissivity of 100,000 feet-squared per day, and the Lower Floridan aquifer has a transmissivity of 7,000 feet-squared per day. A specific storage for the Floridan aquifer system as a result of model calibration was 3E-06 ft–1. Additionally, during a 72-hour aquifer test of the Lower Floridan aquifer, a drawdown response was observed in two Upper Floridan aquifer wells, one of which was more than 1 mile away from the pumped well.

  7. Effects of 50-years unmanaged water resource in Southern Tuscany coastal plains (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, R.; Debolini, M.; Galli, M. A.; Bonari, E.

    2012-04-01

    Southern Tuscany coastal plains show favorable conditions from the agro-pedoclimatic point of view and are characterized by a relevant touristic flux, being one of the most popular seaside resort. In such conditions, water resource is one of the main assets: disregarded water management may then lead to severe consequences for the development and growth of the socio-economic system and agro-ecosystem maintenance. During the 1960 decade, ante-II World War projects for hydropower production (i.e. the Farma-Merse scheme) were rearranged in favor of irrigation and the enhancement of crop production. Storage of about 110 Mm3 was thought to provide water for about 35000 Ha. At the end of the 70's, mass tourism began to take place in coastal areas giving rise to water access conflicts between agriculture and the touristic infrastructure. Being none of these projects realized, the increasing demand for drinking water was satisfied by tapping the Mount Amiata aquifer for 70% of the annual demand, and the remaining 30% coming from local aquifers. Due to the absence of rainfall and then of surface water flow in streams at the end of the spring and during the summer period, irrigation requirements were also satisfied by means of groundwater withdrawals. As a consequence of overdraft, aquifer salinisation started in most of the coastal areas (Regione Toscana, 1995; Bianchi et al., 2011; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2011). All this happened in the completely absence of controls on groundwater abstractions. In the early 90's, the Commissione Leon (Regione Toscana, 1991) re-analyzed the largest dam projects and presented as feasible a conjunctive use of surface water stored in artificial basins (to be built) and by planned and controlled local aquifers. Anyway, political issues and environmental concerns halted any kind of realization, so that today the largest basin in the area is private, it dates back to 1930, and it shows a reduced capacity of about 1.8 Mm3, instead than the

  8. Late Holocene evolution of a coupled, mud-dominated delta plain–chenier plain system, coastal Louisiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Hijma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Major deltas and their adjacent coastal plains are commonly linked by means of coast-parallel fluxes of water, sediment, and nutrients. Observations of the evolution of these interlinked systems over centennial to millennial timescales are essential to understand the interaction between point sources of sediment discharge (i.e. deltaic distributaries and adjacent coastal plains across large spatial (i.e. hundreds of kilometres scales. This information is needed to constrain future generations of numerical models to predict coastal evolution in relation to climate change and other human activities. Here we examine the coastal plain (Chenier Plain, CP adjacent to the Mississippi River delta, one of the world's largest deltas. We use a refined chronology based on 22 new optically stimulated luminescence and 22 new radiocarbon ages to test the hypothesis that cyclic Mississippi subdelta shifting has influenced the evolution of the adjacent CP. We show that over the past 3 kyr, accumulation rates in the CP were generally 0–1 Mt yr−1. However, between 1.2 and 0.5 ka, when the Mississippi River shifted to a position more proximal to the CP, these rates increased to 2.9 ±1.1 Mt yr−1 or 0.5–1.5 % of the total sediment load of the Mississippi River. We conclude that CP evolution during the past 3 kyr was partly a direct consequence of shifting subdeltas, in addition to changing regional sediment sources and modest rates of relative sea-level (RSL rise. The RSL history of the CP during this time period was constrained by new limiting data points from the base of overwash deposits associated with the cheniers. These findings have implications for Mississippi River sediment diversions that are currently being planned to restore portions of this vulnerable coast. Only if such diversions are located in the western portion of the Mississippi Delta plain could they potentially contribute to sustaining the CP shoreline. Our findings

  9. Were sea level changes during the Pleistocene in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain a driver of speciation in Petunia (Solanaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Fregonezi, Aline M C; Fregonezi, Jeferson N; Cybis, Gabriela B; Fagundes, Nelson J R; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B

    2015-05-20

    Quaternary climatic changes led to variations in sea level and these variations played a significant role in the generation of marine terrace deposits in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain. The main consequence of the increase in sea level was local extinction or population displacement, such that coastal species would be found around the new coastline. Our main goal was to investigate the effects of sea level changes on the geographical structure and variability of genetic lineages from a Petunia species endemic to the South Atlantic Coastal Plain. We employed a phylogeographic approach based on plastid sequences obtained from individuals collected from the complete geographic distribution of Petunia integrifolia ssp. depauperata and its sister group. We used population genetics tests to evaluate the degree of genetic variation and structure among and within populations, and we used haplotype network analysis and Bayesian phylogenetic methods to estimate divergence times and population growth. We observed three major genetic lineages whose geographical distribution may be related to different transgression/regression events that occurred in this region during the Pleistocene. The divergence time between the monophyletic group P. integrifolia ssp. depauperata and its sister group (P. integrifolia ssp. integrifolia) was compatible with geological estimates of the availability of the coastal plain. Similarly, the origin of each genetic lineage is congruent with geological estimates of habitat availability. Diversification of P. integrifolia ssp. depauperata possibly occurred as a consequence of the marine transgression/regression cycles during the Pleistocene. In periods of high sea level, plants were most likely restricted to a refuge area corresponding to fossil dunes and granitic hills, from which they colonized the coast once the sea level came down. The modern pattern of lineage geographical distribution and population variation was established by a range

  10. Assessing landscape change and processes of recurrence, replacement, and recovery in the Southeastern Coastal Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mark A.; Stier, Michael P.; Auch, Roger F.; Taylor, Janis L.; Griffith, Glenn E.; Hester, David J.; Riegle, Jodi L.; Soulard, Christopher E.; McBeth, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    The processes of landscape change are complex, exhibiting spatial variability as well as linear, cyclical, and reversible characteristics. To better understand the various processes that cause transformation, a data aggregation, validation, and attribution approach was developed and applied to an analysis of the Southeastern Coastal Plains (SECP). The approach integrates information from available national land-use, natural disturbance, and land-cover data to efficiently assess spatially-specific changes and causes. Between 2001 and 2006, the processes of change affected 7.8 % of the SECP but varied across small-scale ecoregions. Processes were placed into a simple conceptual framework to explicitly identify the type and direction of change based on three general characteristics: replacement, recurrence, and recovery. Replacement processes, whereby a land use or cover is supplanted by a new land use, including urbanization and agricultural expansion, accounted for approximately 15 % of the extent of change. Recurrent processes that contribute to cyclical changes in land cover, including forest harvest/replanting and fire, accounted for 83 %. Most forest cover changes were recurrent, while the extents of recurrent silviculture and forest replacement processes such as urbanization far exceeded forest recovery processes. The total extent of landscape recovery, from prior land use to natural or semi-natural vegetation cover, accounted for less than 3 % of change. In a region of complex change, increases in transitory grassland and shrubland covers were caused by large-scale intensive plantation silviculture and small-scale activities including mining reclamation. Explicit identification of the process types and dynamics presented here may improve the understanding of land-cover change and landscape trajectory.

  11. Microclimate and actual evapotranspiration in a humid coastal-plain environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, K.F.; McMahon, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    Continuous hourly measurements of twelve meteorologic variables recorded during 1983 and 1984 were used to examine the microclimate and actual evapotranspiration at a low-level radioactive-waste burial site near Barnwell, South Carolina. The study area is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of southwestern South Carolina. Monthly, daily, and hourly trends in net radiation, incoming and reflected short-wave radiation, incoming and emitted long-wave radiation, soil-heat flux, dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, soil temperatures, wind direction and speed, and precipitation were used to characterize the microclimate. Average daily air temperatures ranged from -9 to 32?? Celsius during the period of study. Net radiation varied from about -27 to 251 watts m-2 and was dominated by incoming short-wave radiation throughout the year. The peak net radiation during a summer day generally occurred 2-3h before the peak vapor pressure deficit. In the winter, these peaks occurred at about the same time of day. Monthly precipitation varied from 15 to 241 mm. The Bowen ratio method was used to estimate hourly evapotranspiration, which was summed to also give daily and monthly evapotranspiration. Actual evapotranspiration varied from 0.0 to 0.7 mm h-1, 0.8-5 mm d-1, and 20-140 mm month-1 during 1983 and 1984. The maximum rate of evapotranspiration generally occurred at the same time of day as maximum net radiation, suggesting net radiation was the main driving force for evapotranspiration. Precipitation exceeded evapotranspiration during 14 months of the 2yr study period. Late fall, winter, and early spring contained the majority of these months. The maximum excess precipitation was 115 mm in February 1983. ?? 1987.

  12. Transplanting native dominant plants to facilitate community development in restored coastal plain wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.

    2007-12-01

    Abstract: Drained depressional wetlands are typically restored by plugging ditches or breaking drainage tiles to allow recovery of natural ponding regimes, while relying on passive recolonization from seed banks and dispersal to establish emergent vegetation. However, in restored depressions of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, certain characteristic rhizomatous graminoid species may not recolonize because they are dispersal-limited and uncommon or absent in the seed banks of disturbed sites. We tested whether selectively planting such wetland dominants could facilitate restoration by accelerating vegetative cover development and suppressing non-wetland species. In an operational-scale project in a South Carolina forested landscape, drained depressional wetlands were restored in early 2001 by completely removing woody vegetation and plugging surface ditches. After forest removal, tillers of two rhizomatous wetland grasses (Panicum hemitomon, Leersia hexandra) were transplanted into singlespecies blocks in 12 restored depressions that otherwise were revegetating passively. Presence and cover of all plant species appearing in planted plots and unplanted control plots were recorded annually. We analyzed vegetation composition after two and four years, during a severe drought (2002) and after hydrologic recovery (2004). Most grass plantings established successfully, attaining 15%–85% cover in two years. Planted plots had fewer total species and fewer wetland species compared to control plots, but differences were small. Planted plots achieved greater total vegetative cover during the drought and greater combined cover of wetland species in both years. By 2004, planted grasses appeared to reduce cover of non-wetland species in some cases, but wetter hydrologic conditions contributed more strongly to suppression of non-wetland species. Because these two grasses typically form a dominant cover matrix in herbaceous depressions, our results indicated that

  13. Paleoenvironmental analyses of an organic deposit from an erosional landscape remnant, Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisner, W R; Bockheim, J G; Hinkel, K M; Brown, T A; Nelson, F E; Peterson, K M; Jones, B M

    2005-01-02

    The dominant landscape process on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is the formation and drainage of thaw lakes. Lakes and drained thaw lake basins account for approximately 75% of the modern surface expression of the Barrow Peninsula. The thaw lake cycle usually obliterates lacustrine or peat sediments from previous cycles which could otherwise be used for paleoecological reconstruction of long-term landscape and vegetation changes. Several possible erosional remnants of a former topographic surface that predates the formation of the thaw lakes have been tentatively identified. These remnants are characterized by a higher elevation, a thick organic layer with very high ground ice content in the upper permafrost, and a plant community somewhat atypical of the region. Ten soil cores were collected from one site, and one core was intensively sampled for soil organic carbon content, pollen analysis, and {sup 14}C dating. The lowest level of the organic sediments represents the earliest phase of plant growth and dates to ca. 9000 cal BP. Palynological evidence indicates the presence of mesic shrub tundra (including sedge, birch, willow, and heath vegetation); and microfossil indicators point to wetter eutrophic conditions during this period. Carbon accumulation was rapid due to high net primary productivity in a relatively nutrient-rich environment. These results are interpreted as the local response to ameliorating climate during the early Holocene. The middle Holocene portion of the record contains an unconformity, indicating that between 8200 and 4200 cal BP sediments were eroded from the site, presumably in response to wind activity during a drier period centered around 4500 cal BP. The modern vegetation community of the erosional remnant was established after 4200 cal BP, and peat growth resumed. During the late Holocene, carbon accumulation rates were greatly reduced in response to the combined effects of declining productivity associated with climatic

  14. Assessing Landscape Change and Processes of Recurrence, Replacement, and Recovery in the Southeastern Coastal Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mark A; Stier, Michael P; Auch, Roger F; Taylor, Janis L; Griffith, Glenn E; Riegle, Jodi L; Hester, David J; Soulard, Christopher E; McBeth, Jamie L

    2015-11-01

    The processes of landscape change are complex, exhibiting spatial variability as well as linear, cyclical, and reversible characteristics. To better understand the various processes that cause transformation, a data aggregation, validation, and attribution approach was developed and applied to an analysis of the Southeastern Coastal Plains (SECP). The approach integrates information from available national land-use, natural disturbance, and land-cover data to efficiently assess spatially-specific changes and causes. Between 2001 and 2006, the processes of change affected 7.8% of the SECP but varied across small-scale ecoregions. Processes were placed into a simple conceptual framework to explicitly identify the type and direction of change based on three general characteristics: replacement, recurrence, and recovery. Replacement processes, whereby a land use or cover is supplanted by a new land use, including urbanization and agricultural expansion, accounted for approximately 15% of the extent of change. Recurrent processes that contribute to cyclical changes in land cover, including forest harvest/replanting and fire, accounted for 83%. Most forest cover changes were recurrent, while the extents of recurrent silviculture and forest replacement processes such as urbanization far exceeded forest recovery processes. The total extent of landscape recovery, from prior land use to natural or semi-natural vegetation cover, accounted for less than 3% of change. In a region of complex change, increases in transitory grassland and shrubland covers were caused by large-scale intensive plantation silviculture and small-scale activities including mining reclamation. Explicit identification of the process types and dynamics presented here may improve the understanding of land-cover change and landscape trajectory.

  15. Carbon in Natural, Cultivated, and Restored Depressional Wetlands in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, D E; Rabenhorst, M C; Lang, M W; McCarty, G W; Needelman, B A

    2016-03-01

    Aerial extent of wetland ecosystems has decreased dramatically since precolonial times due to the conversion of these areas for human use. Wetlands provide various ecosystem services, and conservation efforts are being made to restore wetlands and their functions, including soil carbon storage. This Mid-Atlantic Regional USDA Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project study was conducted to evaluate the effects and effectiveness of wetland conservation practices along the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. This study examined 48 wetland sites in Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina under natural, prior converted cropland, and 5- to 10-yr post wetland restoration states. The North Carolina sites mainly contained soils dominated by organic soil materials and therefore were analyzed separately from the rest of the sites, which primarily contained mineral soils. Soil samples were collected using the bulk density core method by horizon to a depth of 1 m and were analyzed for percent carbon. The natural wetlands were found to have significantly greater carbon stocks (21.5 ± 5.2 kg C m) than prior converted croplands (7.95 ± 1.93 kg C m; wetlands (4.82 ± 1.13 kg C m; wetlands, and the relatively young age of the restored sites. Wetlands were either restored by plugging drainage structures, with minimal surface disturbance, or by scraping the surface (i.e., excavation) to increase hydroperiod. Sites restored with the scraping technique had significantly lower carbon stocks (2.70 ± 0.38 kg C m) than those restored by passive techniques (6.06 ± 1.50 kg C m; = 0.09). Therefore, techniques that involve excavation and scraping to restore hydrology appear to negatively affect C storage. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Seasonal dynamic of a shallow freshwater lens due to irrigation in the coastal plain of Ravenna, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbohede, Alexander; Mollema, Pauline N.; Greggio, Nicolas; Antonellini, Marco

    2014-06-01

    Irrigation in low-lying coastal plains may enhance the formation of fresh groundwater lenses, which counteract salinization of groundwater and soil. This study presents seasonal dynamics of such a freshwater lens and discusses its influence on the salinity distribution of the unconfined aquifer in the coastal plain of Ravenna, Italy, combining field observations with numerical modeling (SEAWAT). The lens originates from an irrigation ditch used as a water reservoir for spray irrigation. The geometry of the freshwater lens shows seasonal differences because of freshwater infiltration during the irrigation season and upconing of deeper saltwater for the remainder of the year. The extent of the freshwater lens is controlled by the presence of nearby drainage ditches. Irrigation also results in a temperature anomaly in the aquifer because of the infiltration of warm water during the irrigation season. The surficial zone in the vicinity of the irrigation ditch is increased considerably in thickness. Finally, different irrigation alternatives and the influence of sea-level rise are simulated. This shows that it is necessary to integrate irrigation planning into the water management strategy of the coastal zone to have maximum benefits for freshening of the aquifer and to make optimal use of the existing infrastructure.

  17. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Key Largo, Florida, to the Florida/Georgia border, September 5-6, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2015-09-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts baseline and storm response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On September 5-6, 2014, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Key Largo, Florida, to the Florida/Georgia border (Figure 1), aboard a Cessna 182 at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore (Figure 2). This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes since the last survey, flown October 1998, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.

  18. Simulating Multi-Scale Mercury Fate and Transport in a Coastal Plain Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightes, C. D.; Davis, G. M.; Golden, H. E.; Conrads, P. A.; Bradley, P. M.; Journey, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury is the toxicant responsible for the largest number of fish advisories across the United States, with 1.1 million river miles under advisory. The processes governing fate, transport, and transformation of mercury in streams and rivers are not well understood, in large part, because these systems are intimately linked with their surrounding watersheds and are often highly spatially variable. In this study, we applied a linked watershed hydrology and biogeochemical cycling (N, C, and Hg) model (VELMA, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessment) to simulate daily flow, fluxes, and soil and stream concentrations of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) at multiple spatial scales in McTier Creek, a Coastal Plain watershed within the Edisto River basin of South Carolina, USA. Our goals were to (1) calibrate and simulate Hg fate and transport processes at a focused reach scale (0.1 km2) and (2) assess how representative the reach-scale parameters and processes are when multi-scale watershed information is included in Hg cycling simulations. Thus, reach-scale parameterization was applied to multi-scaled watersheds, including two headwater sub-watersheds (28 km2 and 25 km2) nested within the McTier Creek watershed (79 km2), to evaluate model performance and how well reach-scale parameterization and processes characterize nested watersheds with increasing drainage areas. The current VELMA simulations suggest that stream water column THg concentration predictions perform reasonably well at different scales based on reach-scale calibrations, but the model simulations of MeHg reach, sub-watershed, and watershed stream concentrations are out-of-phase with observed MeHg concentrations. This result suggests that processes governing MeHg loading to the main channel may be under-represented in the current model structure and underscores the complexity of simulating MeHg dynamics in watershed models. This work supports the importance of hydrology in

  19. Microbial Responses to Forest Management in the Western Gulf Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, J. A.; Boutton, T. W.; Scott, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    to the more severe harvest treatments; however, while TN was significantly impacted by harvest and varied over time, SOC varied only with time. Temporal variations in SMB-C and -N, TN, and SOC were correlated with temperature, precipitation, and volumetric soil moisture. Data suggest that forest harvest practices that minimize removal of above-ground biomass will favor soil N retention and the maintenance of the SMB pool. Since N limits tree growth in the sandy soils of the western Gulf Coastal Plain, and because SMB plays a key role in N mineralization, harvest practices that favor N retention and SMB will ensure the productivity of future rotations.

  20. Remotely Sensing Lake Water Volumes on the Inner Arctic Coastal Plain of Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C. E.; Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.; Hinkel, K. M.; Carroll, M.; Smith, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Thermokarst lake depth is controlled by the amount of excess ice in near-surface permafrost, with lake depths of about 1 - 3 m in areas of epigenetic permafrost and over 10 m in areas of syngenetic permafrost. An important exception to these general patterns is found on the inner Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska, where deep lakes occur in Pleistocene-aged, ground-ice poor sandy terrain. These lakes cover 20% of the currently inactive sand sheet and dune deposit (referred to as the Pleistocene Sand Sea) that comprises approximately 7000 km2 of the ACP. Surrounded by high and eroding bluffs, sand sea lakes lie in natural depressions and are characterized by wide, shallow littoral shelves and central troughs that are typically oriented NNW to SSE and can reach depths greater than 20 m. Despite their unique form and extensive coverage, these lakes have received little prior study and a literature gap remains regarding regional water storage. This research classifies sand sea lakes, estimates individual lake volume, and provides a first quantification of water storage in a region of the lake-dominated ACP. We measured bathymetric profiles in 19 sand sea lakes using a sonar recorder to capture various lake depth gradients. Bathymetric surveys collected by oil industry consultants, lake monitoring programs, and habitat studies serve as additional datasets. These field measured lake depth data points were used to classify Color Infrared Photography, WorldView-2 satellite imagery, and Landsat-OLI satellite imagery to develop a spectral depth-classification algorithm and facilitate the interpolation of the bathymetry for study lakes in the inner ACP. Finally, we integrate the remotely sensed bathymetry and imagery-derived lake surface area to estimate individual and regional-scale lake volume. In addition to the natural function of these lakes in water storage, energy balance, and habitat provision, the need for winter water supply to build ice roads for oil

  1. Assessing coastal plain wetland composition using advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleoni, Eva

    Establishing wetland gains and losses, delineating wetland boundaries, and determining their vegetative composition are major challenges that can be improved through remote sensing studies. We used the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) to separate wetlands from uplands in a study of 870 locations on the Virginia Coastal Plain. We used the first five bands from each of two ASTER scenes (6 March 2005 and 16 October 2005), covering the visible to the short-wave infrared region (0.52-2.185mum). We included GIS data layers for soil survey, topography, and presence or absence of water in a logistic regression model that predicted the location of over 78% of the wetlands. While this was slightly less accurate (78% vs. 86%) than current National Wetland Inventory (NWI) aerial photo interpretation procedures of locating wetlands, satellite imagery analysis holds great promise for speeding wetland mapping, lowering costs, and improving update frequency. To estimate wetland vegetation composition classes, we generated a classification and regression tree (CART) model and a multinomial logistic regression (logit) model, and compared their accuracy in separating woody wetlands, emergent wetlands and open water. The overall accuracy of the CART model was 73.3%, while for the logit model was 76.7%. The CART producer's accuracy of the emergent wetlands was higher than the accuracy from the multinomial logit (57.1% vs. 40.7%). However, we obtained the opposite result for the woody wetland category (68.7% vs. 52.6%). A McNemar test between the two models and NWI maps showed that their accuracies were not statistically different. We conducted a subpixel analysis of the ASTER images to estimate canopy cover of forested wetlands. We used top-of-atmosphere reflectance from the visible and near infrared bands, Delta Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and a tasseled cap brightness, greenness, and wetness in linear regression model with canopy

  2. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2017-09-27

    Mineral dust is the most abundant aerosol, having a profound impact on the global energy budget. This research continues our previous studies performed on surface soils in the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on the mineralogical, physical and chemical composition of dust deposits from the atmosphere at the Arabian Red Sea coast. For this purpose, aerosols deposited from the atmosphere are collected during 2015 at six sites on the campus of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period December 2014 to December 2015. The average deposition rate measured at KAUST for this period was 14 g m−2 per month, with lowest values in winter and increased deposition rates in August to October. The particle size distributions provide assessments of  < 10 and  < 2.5 µm dust deposition rates, and it is suggested that these represent proxies for PM10 (coarse) and PM2. 5 (fine) particle size fractions in the dust deposits. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of a subset of samples confirms variable amounts of quartz, feldspars, micas, and halite, with lesser amounts of gypsum, calcite, dolomite, hematite, and amphibole. Freeze-dried samples were re-suspended onto the Teflon® filters for elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while splits from each sample were analyzed for water-soluble cations and anions by ion chromatography. The dust deposits along the Red Sea coast are considered to be a mixture of dust emissions from local soils and soils imported from distal dust sources. Airborne mineral concentrations are greatest at or close to dust sources, compared to those through medium- and long-range transport. It is not possible to identify the exact origin of deposition samples from the

  3. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Johann P.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Jish Prakash, P.; Lersch, Traci; Anisimov, Anatolii; Shevchenko, Illia

    2017-09-01

    Mineral dust is the most abundant aerosol, having a profound impact on the global energy budget. This research continues our previous studies performed on surface soils in the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on the mineralogical, physical and chemical composition of dust deposits from the atmosphere at the Arabian Red Sea coast. For this purpose, aerosols deposited from the atmosphere are collected during 2015 at six sites on the campus of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period December 2014 to December 2015. The average deposition rate measured at KAUST for this period was 14 g m-2 per month, with lowest values in winter and increased deposition rates in August to October. The particle size distributions provide assessments of analysis of a subset of samples confirms variable amounts of quartz, feldspars, micas, and halite, with lesser amounts of gypsum, calcite, dolomite, hematite, and amphibole. Freeze-dried samples were re-suspended onto the Teflon® filters for elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while splits from each sample were analyzed for water-soluble cations and anions by ion chromatography. The dust deposits along the Red Sea coast are considered to be a mixture of dust emissions from local soils and soils imported from distal dust sources. Airborne mineral concentrations are greatest at or close to dust sources, compared to those through medium- and long-range transport. It is not possible to identify the exact origin of deposition samples from the mineralogical and chemical results alone. These aerosol data are the first of their kind from the Red Sea region. They will help assess their potential nutrient input into the Red Sea, as well the impact on human health

  4. Toward Understanding Mechanisms Controlling Urea Delivery in a Coastal Plain Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzilkowski, S. S.; Buda, A. R.; Boyer, E. W.; Bryant, R. B.; May, E. B.

    2012-12-01

    Improved understanding of nutrient mobilization and delivery to surface waters is critical to protecting water quality in agricultural watersheds. Urea, a form of organic nitrogen, is a common nutrient found in fertilizers, manures, and human waste, and is gaining recognition as an important driver of coastal eutrophication, particularly through the development of harmful algal blooms. While several studies have documented elevated urea concentrations in tributaries draining to the Chesapeake Bay, little is known about the potential sources and flow pathways responsible for urea delivery from the landscape to surface waters, as well as how these sources and pathways might vary with changing seasons, antecedent conditions, and storm types. In this study, we investigated hydrologic controls on urea delivery in the Manokin River watershed through the analysis of urea concentration dynamics and hysteresis patterns during seven storm events that occurred in 2010 and 2011. The Manokin River is a Coastal Plain watershed (11.1 km2) on the Delmarva Peninsula that drains directly to the Chesapeake Bay and is characterized by extensive rural development coupled with intensive agriculture, particularly poultry production. Sampling was conducted through monthly grab sampling at baseflow conditions and by time-weighted, automated (Sigma) samplers during stormflow events. Monitored storms were chosen to represent a spectrum of antecedent conditions based on precipitation and groundwater levels in the area. Flushing from the landscape during events was found to be the predominant urea delivery mechanism, as urea concentrations increased 3-9 times above baseflow concentrations during storms. The timing and number of flushes, as well as the degree of increased concentrations were dependent on antecedent conditions and the characteristics of the storm event. For instance, during an intense (13.7 mm hr-1), short-duration (4 hrs) storm in August of 2010 when antecedent conditions were

  5. Geophysical detection of on-site wastewater plumes in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew

    Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) continues to be the leading cause of water quality degradation in the United States. On-site wastewater systems (OWS) contribute to NPS; however, due to the range of system designs and complexity of the subsurface, OWS contributions to groundwater pollution are not well understood. As the population of coastal North Carolina continues to increase, better methods to locate and characterize wastewater impacted groundwater are needed. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of non-intrusive geophysical methods to provide high resolution information on various contaminants in different geologic settings. The goals of this study were to evaluate the utility of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and capacitively coupled resistivity (CCR) for detecting OWS components, delineating associated wastewater plumes, and monitoring temporal variations in groundwater quality. Cross-sectional and three dimensional (3D) geophysical surveys were conducted periodically over a one year period (February 2011--January 2012) at two schools utilizing OWS in the lower Neuse River Basin (NRB) in the North Carolina Coastal Plain (NCCP). Cores were collected at both study sites; as well as monthly groundwater depth, temperature, and specific conductivity measurements to better constrain the geophysical interpretations. Additionally, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and Cl concentrations were monitored bi-monthly to assess nutrient transport at the sites. The 3D GPR surveys effectively located the wastewater drainage trenches at both sites, in close agreement with locations described in as-built OWS blueprints. Regression analysis of resistivity versus groundwater specific conductivity revealed an inverse relationship, suggesting resistivity ≤ 250 ohm.m was indicative of wastewater impacted groundwater at both sites. The 3D resistivity models identified regions of low resistivity beneath the drainfields relative to background values. Regression analysis of

  6. Numerical modelling and hydrochemical characterisation of a fresh-water lens in the Belgian coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.

    2002-05-01

    The distribution of fresh and salt water in coastal aquifers is influenced by many processes. The influence of aquifer heterogeneity and human interference such as land reclamation is illustrated in the Belgian coastal plain where, around A.D. 1200, the reclamation of a tidally influenced environment was completed. The aquifer, which was filled with salt water, was thereafter freshened. The areal distribution of peat, clay, silt and sand influences the general flow and distribution of fresh and salt water along with the drainage pattern and results in the development of fresh-water lenses. The water quality in and around the fresh-water lenses below an inverted tidal channel ridge is surveyed. The hydrochemical evolution of the fresh water lens is reconstructed, pointing to cation exchange, solution of calcite and the oxidation of organic material as the major chemical reactions. The formation and evolution of the fresh water lens is modelled using a two-dimensional density-dependent solute transport model and the sensitivity of drainage and conductivities are studied. Drainage level mainly influences the depth of the fresh-water lens, whereas the time of formation is mainly influenced by conductivity. Résumé. La répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée dans les aquifères littoraux est influencée par de nombreux mécanismes. L'influence de l'hétérogénéité de l'aquifère et des interférences anthropiques telles que la mise en valeur des terres est illustrée par la plaine côtière belge où, depuis l'an 1200, on a mis en valeur un environnement soumis aux marées. L'aquifère, qui contenait de l'eau salée, contient maintenant de l'eau douce. La distribution spatiale de tourbe, d'argile, de silt et de sable joue un rôle dans l'écoulement général et dans la répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée le long du réseau de drainage et produit des lentilles d'eau douce. La qualité de l'eau dans et autour des lentilles d'eau douce sous une lev

  7. Characterization of geomorphic units in the alluvial valleys and channels of Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in Texas, with examples from the Brazos, Sabine, and Trinity Rivers, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, David K.; Malstaff, Greg; Heitmuller, Franklin T.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, described and characterized examples of geomorphic units within the channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers using a geomorphic unit classification scale that differentiates geomorphic units on the basis of their location either outside or inside the river channel. The geomorphic properties of a river system determine the distribution and type of potential habitat both within and adjacent to the channel. This report characterizes the geomorphic units contained in the river channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in the context of the River Styles framework. This report is intended to help Texas Instream Flow Program practitioners, river managers, ecologists and biologists, and others interested in the geomorphology and the physical processes of the rivers of the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain (1) gain insights into how geomorphic units develop and adjust spatially and temporally, and (2) be able to recognize common geomorphic units from the examples cataloged in this report. Recent aerial imagery (high-resolution digital orthoimagery) collected in 2008 and 2009 were inspected by using geographic information system software to identify representative examples of the types of geomorphic units that occurred in the study area. Geomorphic units outside the channels of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers are called \\"valley geomorphic units\\" in this report. Valley geomorphic units for the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers described in this report are terraces, flood plains, crevasses and crevasse splays, flood-plain depressions, tie channels, tributaries, paleochannels, anabranches, distributaries, natural levees, neck cutoffs, oxbow lakes, and constructed channels. Channel geomorphic units occur in the river channel and are subject to frequent stresses associated with flowing water and sediment transport; they adjust (change) relatively quickly in

  8. Section 206, Flood Plain Management Services; Study of Coastal Flooding Charlestown, Rhode Island

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The New England Division, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (NED) conducted this study for the Town of Charlestown, Rhode Island under the authority provided by the Corps of Engineers' Section 206 Flood Plain Management Services (FPMS) program...

  9. Predation of amphibians by carabid beetles of the genus Epomis found in the central coastal plain of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Wizen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Epomis is represented in Israel by two species: E. dejeani and E. circumscriptus. In the central coastal plain these species are sympatric but do not occur in the same sites. The objective of this study was to record and describe trophic interactions between the adult beetles and amphibian species occurring in the central coastal plain of Israel. Day and night surveys at three sites, as well as controlled laboratory experiments were conducted for studying beetle-amphibian trophic interaction. In the field we recorded three cases of E. dejeani preying upon amphibian metamorphs and also found that Epomis adults share shelters with amphibians. Laboratory experiments supported the observations that both Epomis species can prey on amphibians. Predation of the three anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla savignyi and Rana bedriagae and two urodele species (Triturus vittatus and Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculata is described. Only E. dejeani consumed T. vittatus. Therefore, we conclude that the two species display a partial overlap in food habit.

  10. Predation of amphibians by carabid beetles of the genus Epomis found in the central coastal plain of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizen, Gil; Gasith, Avital

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The genus Epomis is represented in Israel by two species: Epomis dejeani and Epomis circumscriptus. In the central coastal plain these species are sympatric but do not occur in the same sites. The objective of this study was to record and describe trophic interactions between the adult beetles and amphibian species occurring in the central coastal plain of Israel. Day and night surveys at three sites, as well as controlled laboratory experiments were conducted for studying beetle-amphibian trophic interaction. In the field we recorded three cases of Epomis dejeani preying upon amphibian metamorphs and also found that Epomis adults share shelters with amphibians. Laboratory experiments supported the observations that both Epomis species can prey on amphibians. Predation of the three anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla savignyi and Rana bedriagae) and two urodele species (Triturus vittatus and Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculata) is described. Only Epomis dejeani consumed Triturus vittatus. Therefore, we conclude that the two species display a partial overlap in food habit. PMID:21738411

  11. Regional chloride distribution in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Emmanuel

    2016-08-31

    The aquifers of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain are the principal source of water supply for the region’s nearly 20 million residents. Water quality and water levels in the aquifers, and maintenance of streamflow, are of concern because of the use of this natural resource for water supply and because of the possible effects of climate change and changes in land use on groundwater. The long-term sustainability of this natural resource is a concern at the local community scale, as well as at a regional scale, across state boundaries. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a regional assessment of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers. An important part of this assessment is a regional interpretation of the extent of saltwater and the proximity of saltwater to fresh-groundwater resources and includes samples and published interpretations of chloride concentrations newly available since the last regional chloride assessment in 1989. This updated assessment also includes consideration of chloride samples and refined interpretations that stem from the 1994 discovery of the buried 35 million year old Chesapeake Bay impact structure that has substantially altered the understanding of the hydrogeologic framework and saltwater distribution in eastern Virginia.

  12. Detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed representative of the Brazilian Coastal Plains and its practical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walbert Júnior Reis dos Santos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed with representative pedoclimatic characteristics of the Coastal Plains in Espírito Santo State and its practical applications. For the pedological survey, 35 observation sites and three soil profiles were sampled and described, which were morphologically characterized and subjected to physical (particle size and chemical analyses (routine and sulfuric acid digestion. The soil map was made using the geographic information system ArcGIS 9.3. This GIS software was also used to generate the digital elevation model (DEM for identifying the slope classes. SAGA software was used to calculate the topographic wetness index (WI which aided in a more accurate separation of Haplic Organosol from other soils. The predominant soil class in the watershed was the dystrophic/dystrocohesive Yellow Argisol (97%, containing morphological, chemical and physical characteristics representative of the most expressive Coastal Plains soils. Geoprocessing tools and techniques aided to make the watershed soil map.

  13. Epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain of southern Brazil: latitudinal effects on the plant community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia S. Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Community structure and spatial distribution of epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants along the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. A total of 440 trees were sampled in fifty-seven 10 x 10 m plots. Each phorophyte was divided into five ecological zones (strata, where all species of epiphytic ferns were recorded. A total of 34 species representing 18 genera in six families were recorded. Polypodiaceae was the most represented family with 17 species, and Microgramma vacciniifolia had the highest epiphytic importance value. Characteristic holoepiphyte was the predominant ecological category, representing 70 % of the species. Ordination analysis showed a gradual change in floristic composition between ecological zones with richness differing significantly between strata. We observed that with increasing latitude there was a decrease in mean temperature and total rainfall, but an increase in frosts. These climatic and phytogeography changes result in a reduction in species richness and a change in the structure of epiphytic fern communities in a north-to-south direction. The importance of swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain to the diversity of epiphytic ferns is discussed.

  14. High-resolution hydro- and geo-stratigraphy at Atlantic Coastal Plain drillhole CR-622 (Strat 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrege, B.M.; Isely, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    We interpret borehole geophysical logs in conjunction with lithology developed from continuous core to produce high-resolution hydro- and geo-stratigraphic profiles for the drillhole CR-622 (Strat 8) in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina. The resulting hydrologic and stratigraphic columns show a generalized relation between hydrologic and geologic units. Fresh-water aquifers encountered are the surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River and Castle Hayne. Geologic units present are of the middle and upper Tertiary and Quaternary periods, these are the Castle Hayne (Eocene), Pungo River (Miocene), Yorktown (Pliocene), James City and Flanner Beach (Pleistocene), and the topsoil (Holocene). The River Bend Formation (Oligocene) is missing as a distinct unit between the Pungo River Formation and the Castle Hayne Formation. The confining unit underlying the Yorktown Aquifer corresponds to the Yorktown Geologic Unit. The remaining hydrologic units and geologic units are hydrologically transitional and non-coincident. The lower Pungo River Formation serves as the confining unit for the Castle Hayne Aquifer, rather than the River Bend Aquifer, and separates the Pungo River Aquifer from the upper Castle Hayne Aquifer. All geologic formations were bound by unconformities. All aquifers were confined by the anticipated hydrologic units. We conclude that CR-622 (Strat 8) represents a normal sequence in the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

  15. In situ measurement of some gamma-emitting radionuclides in plant communities of the South Carolina coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragsdale, H.L.; Tanner, B.K.; Coleman, R.N.; Palms, J.M.; Wood, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    In situ and laboratory gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements were taken in nine scrub oak forests and nine old fields to determine the applicability of in situ analysis in the coastal plain. Data collected at each of the 18 sites included a 2-hr count, soil density and moisture estimates, and vegetation measurements. Samples returned to the laboratory for radiometric analysis included litter and herbaceous vegetation and soil cores. Analysis of the gamma-emitter detection frequencies, concentrations, and burdens showed good to excellent agreement between laboratory and in situ methods. Generally, forests were determined to be superior in situ sampling systems. Laboratory analysis of collected samples may be a superior technique for gamma emitters with low energies, low concentrations, or nonuniform distributions in the soil. Three potential uses of in situ Ge(Li) spectrometers were identified and discussed in terms of their limits and of the replicate ecosystems appropriate for in situ analyses. Although the variety and the biogeochemical cycling regimes of southeastern coastal plain ecosystems complicate in situ analyses, it was concluded that comparable and probably accurate results can be achieved using in situ technology

  16. Petrology and Geochemistry of Neoproterozoic Arc Plutons Beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, SRS, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maryak, M.

    1998-10-21

    In this report is presented first a brief review of the regional geologic setting of the Savannah River Site, descriptions of the plutonic rock units sampled here, whole rock geochemical data on the plutonic igneous rocks, and finally, a discussion of how the crystalline basement rocks of the Savannah River Site formed and how they may correlate with other terranes exposed in the Piedmont of the Carolinas, Georgia, and Virginia.

  17. Private Domestic-Well Characteristics and the Distribution of Domestic Withdrawals among Aquifers in the Virginia Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Jason P.; McFarland, Randolph E.; Banks, R. Brent

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of private domestic wells and self-supplied domestic ground-water withdrawals in the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province of Virginia indicates that the magnitudes of these withdrawals and their effects on local and regional ground-water flow are larger and more important than previous reports have stated. Self-supplied ground-water withdrawals for domestic use in the Virginia Coastal Plain are estimated to be approximately 40 million gallons per day, or about 28 percent of all ground-water withdrawals in the area. Contrary to widely held assumptions, only 22 percent of domestic wells in the Virginia Coastal Plain are completed in the shallow, unconfined surficial aquifer to which the water is returned directly by home septic systems. Fifty-three percent of the wells are completed in six deeper confined aquifers, and the remaining 25 percent are completed in the Potomac aquifer and confining zone, the deepest units in the confined system. Assuming an equal rate of withdrawal per well, 78 percent of domestic ground-water withdrawal, or about 30 million gallons per day, is removed from the regional confined ground-water system. Domestic ground-water withdrawal from an estimated 200,000 private wells supplies more than 15 percent of the population of the area and provides almost the entire source of water in some rural counties. The geographic distribution of these withdrawals is dependent on the self-supplied population and is highly variable. Domestic-well characteristics vary spatially as well, primarily because of geographic differences in depths to particular aquifers, but also because of well-drilling practices that are influenced by geographic, regulatory, and socioeconomic factors. Domestic ground-water withdrawals in the Virginia Coastal Plain were characterized as part of a larger study to analyze the regional ground-water flow system. Characterizing the withdrawals required differentiation of the withdrawals among the aquifers in

  18. Climate Variability and Its Impact on Forest Hydrology on South Carolina Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaohua Dai; Devendra Amatya; Ge Sun; Carl Trettin; Changsheng Li; Harbin Li

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the changes in hydrology of coastal forested wetlands induced by climate change is fundamental for developing strategies to sustain their functions and services. This study examined 60 years of climatic observations and 30 years of hydrological data, collected at the Santee Experimental Forest (SEF) in coastal South Carolina. We also applied a physically-...

  19. Soil Fertility and Radicular System Depth of Sand Coastal Plain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, José Carlos; Akemi Sato, Claudia; Reis-Duarte, Rose Mary; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Sérgio Galvão Bueno, Mário

    2010-05-01

    The sand coastal plain vegetation (Restinga Forest) is a type of ecosystem associated with the Atlantic Forest constituted of mosaics, which occur in areas of great ecological diversity. This vegetation is currently assigned as edaphic communities. In this study we present data on soil fertility in different vegetation physiognomies to discuss on abiotic factors related to Restinga Forest stability and recovery potential. This work was carried out in several points of Restinga Forest in the litoral coast of the state of São Paulo, namely: State Park of the Serra do Mar, Picinguaba, in the city of Ubatuba (23°20' e 23°22' S / 44°48' e 44°52' W); State Park of Anchieta Island, in the city of Ubatuba (45°02' e 45°05' W / 23°31' e 23° 45' S); Restinga Forest in the residential joint ownership Riviera of São Lourenço, in the city of Bertioga (46°08' W e 23°51' S); Ecological Station Juréia-Itatins, Ecological Station of Chauas , in the city of Iguape (24°45' S e 47°33' W) and State Park of Cardoso Island, Pereirinha Restinga Forest, in the city of Cananéia (25°03'05" e 25°18'18" S / 47°53'48" e 48° 05'42" W), Brazil. Sampling was carried out as follows in every area above mentioned. One sample was made of 15 subsamples of each area collected in each depth (one in 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15, 15 - 20, and another in 0 - 20, 20 - 40, 40 and 60 cm). Soil characteristics analyzed were pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, H + Al, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn contents and base saturation, cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. All areas investigated showed very low contents of phosphorous, calcium and magnesium. The base saturation, less than 10, was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg, indicating low nutritional reserve into the soil. The nutritional reserve is present primarily in a depth of 15 cm, although mainly in the vegetable biomass. The level of calcium and magnesium were mainly low in the subsurface soil layer, associate with high concentration of

  20. Groundwater-quality data and regional trends in the Virginia Coastal Plain, 1906-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Randolph E.

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed regional perspective of the hydrogeology of the Virginia Coastal Plain incorporates updated information on groundwater quality in the area. Local-scale groundwater-quality information is provided by a comprehensive dataset compiled from multiple Federal and State agency databases. Groundwater-sample chemical-constituent values and related data are presented in tables, summaries, location maps, and discussions of data quality and limitations. Spatial trends in groundwater quality and related processes at the regional scale are determined from interpretive analyses of the sample data. Major ions that dominate the chemical composition of groundwater in the deep Piney Point, Aquia, and Potomac aquifers evolve eastward and with depth from (1) 'hard' water, dominated by calcium and magnesium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, to (2) 'soft' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, and lastly to (3) 'salty' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and chloride anions. Chemical weathering of subsurface sediments is followed by ion exchange by clay and glauconite, and subsequently by mixing with seawater along the saltwater-transition zone. The chemical composition of groundwater in the shallower surficial and Yorktown-Eastover aquifers, and in basement bedrock along the Fall Zone, is more variable as a result of short flow paths between closely located recharge and discharge areas and possibly some solutes originating from human sources. The saltwater-transition zone is generally broad and landward-dipping, based on groundwater chloride concentrations that increase eastward and with depth. The configuration is convoluted across the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, however, where it is warped and mounded along zones having vertically inverted chloride concentrations that decrease with depth. Fresh groundwater has flushed seawater from subsurface sediments preferentially around the impact crater

  1. The sources and fluxes of dissolved chemistry in a semi-confined, sandy coastal aquifer: The Pingtung Plain, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Caroline E.A.; Galy, Albert; Hovius, Niels; Bickle, Mike; Lin, In-Tian; Horng, Ming-Jame; Calmels, Damien; Chen, Hongey

    2013-01-01

    concentrations of dissolved species in the coastal groundwaters exceed those of the river, ranging from a factor of 1.33 in the case of Li + to 27.29 in the case of Cl − . The results suggest that submarine groundwater chemical fluxes through the drilled depth of the Pingtung Plain into the Taiwan Strait are modest in comparison to those related to surface runoff

  2. Distribution of Georgia Oyster Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The feature class in this ESRI Geodatabase contains polygons representing oyster reefs along the Georgia coastal waterways from Chatham County south to Glynn County....

  3. Cenozoic global sea level, sequences, and the New Jersey transect: Results from coastal plain and continental slope drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.G.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.; Sugarman, P.J.; Christie-Blick, N.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The New Jersey Sea Level Transect was designed to evaluate the relationships among global sea level (eustatic) change, unconformity-bounded sequences, and variations in subsidence, sediment supply, and climate on a passive continental margin. By sampling and dating Cenozoic strata from coastal plain and continental slope locations, we show that sequence boundaries correlate (within ??0.5 myr) regionally (onshore-offshore) and interregionally (New Jersey-Alabama-Bahamas), implicating a global cause. Sequence boundaries correlate with ??18O increases for at least the past 42 myr, consistent with an ice volume (glacioeustatic) control, although a causal relationship is not required because of uncertainties in ages and correlations. Evidence for a causal connection is provided by preliminary Miocene data from slope Site 904 that directly link ??18O increases with sequence boundaries. We conclude that variation in the size of ice sheets has been a primary control on the formation of sequence boundaries since ~42 Ma. We speculate that prior to this, the growth and decay of small ice sheets caused small-amplitude sea level changes (changes on mid-ocean ridges. Although our results are consistent with the general number and timing of Paleocene to middle Miocene sequences published by workers at Exxon Production Research Company, our estimates of sea level amplitudes are substantially lower than theirs. Lithofacies patterns within sequences follow repetitive, predictable patterns: (1) coastal plain sequences consist of basal transgressive sands overlain by regressive highstand silts and quartz sands; and (2) although slope lithofacies variations are subdued, reworked sediments constitute lowstand deposits, causing the strongest, most extensive seismic reflections. Despite a primary eustatic control on sequence boundaries, New Jersey sequences were also influenced by changes in tectonics, sediment supply, and climate. During the early to middle Eocene, low siliciclastic and

  4. Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Joseph, M., Jr.; Jones, Robert, H.

    2003-01-01

    Riley, J.M. Jr., and R.H.Jones. 2003. Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina. For. Ecol., and Mgt. 177:571-586. To determine the extent that resources, conditions, and herbivoryy limit regeneration of Quercus alba L. and Cornus florida L. in formerly cultivated coastal plain uplands, we planted seedlings of the two species in two pine and one pine-hardwood forest understory and three adjacent clearcuts. Soil carbon and moisture, available nitrogen and phosphorous, and gap light index (GLI) were measured next to each seedling. Over two growing seasons, stem and leaf herbivory were estimated and survival was recorded. At the end of 2 years, all surviving stems were harvested to determine total leaf area and 2-year biomass growth. Survival to the end of the study was not significantly different between clearcuts and understories. However, clearcuts led to significantly greater biomass growth and leaf area for both Q. alba and C. florida. Soil moisture and available nutrients were also greater in the clearcuts. Using separate multiple linear (growth) or logistic (survival) regressions for each combination of three sites, two cutting treatments and two species, we found that soil moisture significantly affected survival in 12.5% and biomass growth in 8.3% of the regressions. Light availability significantly impacted biomass growth in 16.7% of the regressions. Stem and leaf herbivory had very little impact on survival (8.3%), but when combined, these two factors significantly impacted leaf area or biomass growth in 33.3% of the regressions. Seedling responses were highly variable, and no regression model accounted for more that 70.0% of this variation. In our study, stand-scalevariation in seedling responses (especially the difference between clearcut and understory) was much greater than within-stand variation. Of the within stand factors measured, herbivory was clearly the most

  5. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Athens Quadrangle, Georgia and South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.H.

    1979-09-01

    Reconnaissance and detailed geologic and radiometric investigations were conducted throughout the Athens Quadrangle, Georgia and South Carolina, to evaluate the uranium favorability using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. Surface and subsurface studies were augmented by aerial radiometric surveys, emanometry studies and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance studies. The results of the investigations indicate environments favorable for allogenic deposits in metamorphic rocks adjacent to granite plutons, and Texas roll-type sandstone deposits in the Coastal Plain Province. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits are the placers of the Monazite Belt, pegmatites, and base- and precious-metal veins associated with faults and shear zones in metamorphic rocks

  6. Nitrogen balance for a plantation forest drainage canal on the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy W. Appelboom; George M. Chescheir; R. Wayne Skaggs; J. Wendell Gilliam; Devendra M. Amatya

    2009-01-01

    Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has led to increased riverine nitrogen loads, contributing to the eutrophication of lakes, streams, estuaries, and near-coastal oceans. These riverine nitrogen loads are usually less...

  7. Multiscale habitat suitability index models for priority landbirds in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Tirpak; D. Todd Jones-Farrand; Frank R., III Thompson; Daniel J. Twedt; William B., III Uihlein

    2009-01-01

    Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models were developed to assess habitat quality for 40 priority bird species in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions. The models incorporated both site and landscape environmental variables from one of six nationally consistent datasets. Potential habitat was first defined from unique...

  8. Biomass and nitrogen-use efficiency of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) with nitrogen and supplemental irrigation in Coastal Plain Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor rainfall distribution and soil conditions such as high soil strength, low water holding capacity of soils and poor soil fertility in the humid Coastal Plain region may affect production of grain crops. Nitrogen insufficiency and water stress can both reduce crop yield, but little information is...

  9. Effects of tornado damage, prescribed fire, and salvage logging on natural oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration in a xeric southern USA Coastal Plain oak/pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery B. Cannon; J. Stephen Brewer

    2013-01-01

    Due in large part to fire exclusion, many oak-dominated (Quercus spp.) forests, woodlands, and savannas throughout eastern North America are being replaced by less diverse forest ecosystems. In the interior coastal plain of the southern United States, these forests are dominated in the mid- and understory by mesophytic species such as Acer...

  10. Effects of cultural intensity and density regime treatment on post-thinning loblolly pine individual tree DBH increment in the lower coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Perren; Michael Kane; Dehai Zhao; Richard Daniels

    2016-01-01

    Thinning is a well understood concept used to manage density dependent factors at the stand level. This study evaluates the effect of planting density, cultural intensity, and thinning treatment on loblolly pine post-thinning individual tree development. The Lower Coastal Plain Culture/Density Study, has four initial densities, in combination with two cultural...

  11. Species Composition, Tree Quality and Wood Properties of Southern Pine Stands Under Ecosystemm Management on National Forests in the Peidmont and Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Clark; James W. McMinn

    1999-01-01

    National Forests in the United States are under sustainable ecosystem management to conserve biodiversity, achieve sustainable conditions and improve the balance among forest values. This paper reports on a study established to identify the implications of ecosystem management strategies on natural stands in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. The impact of partial...

  12. The effect of water table fluctuation on soil respiration in a lower coastal plain forested wetland in the southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guofang Miao; Asko Noormets; Jean-Christophe Domec; Carl C. Trettin; Steve G. McNulty; Ge Sun; John S. King

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic and environmental pressures on wetland hydrology may trigger changes in carbon (C) cycling, potentially exposing vast amounts of soil C to rapid decomposition. We measured soil CO2 efflux (Rs) continuously from 2009 to 2010 in a lower coastal plain forested wetland in North Carolina, U.S., to characterize its...

  13. Past human-landscape interactions in the Netherlands: Reconstructions from sand belt to coastal-delta plain for the first millennium AD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    The first millennium AD represents a transition period in the Netherlands from a mainly natural prehistorical lowland landscape to a landscape that was increasingly influenced by humans. This thesis focuses on human-landscape interactions in the coastal plain, the delta, and the Pleistocene sand

  14. Reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii in Brazilian sandy coastal plain vegetation: implications for biological invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campanhã Bechara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinus is the most invasive woody taxon, exceeded only by herbaceous plants. This study reports the reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, describing its invasive properties in a protected natural area of the Brazilian coastal sandy plains. We evaluated the seed germination and rain, longevity of seed viability and the initial dynamics of the seedlings of Pinus elliottii var elliottii through field and laboratory experiments. We recorded a continuous seed rain of about 204.0 viable seeds m- 2 per year, with a 90 % germination rate. The seeds exhibited a low longevity of viability in the soil and a dense, permanent seedling bank that may explain the high levels of pine invasion. The environmental impact caused by the pine's biological invasion suggests the recommendation for its immediate eradication, together with a restoration plan to restitute the native biodiversity gradually.

  15. FROG ASSEMBLAGE ASSOCIATED WITH BROMELIADS IN A SANDY COASTAL PLAIN IN THE STATE OF ESPÍRITO SANTO, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCIO MARQUES MAGESKI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amphibians may use bromeliads for reproduction (i.e., bromeligenous species or only for refuge and foraging (i.e., bromelicolous species. The partition of bromeliad resources is essential to maintain the coexistence of the associated assemblages. We sampled 913 bromeliads in a sandy coastal plain (i.e., restinga habitat in southeastern Brazil and found 234 frogs belonging to seven species. One of the frog species was bromeligenous and the other six were facultative bromelicolous. The bromeliads of the genus Aechmea were the most frequently used by frogs. The low degree of frog occupancy of bromeliads (26% suggests habitat segregation. Our study highlights the importance of maintenance of bromeliad species for conservation of the associated frog assemblages.

  16. Surface-water quality in agricultural watersheds of the North Carolina Coastal Plain associated with concentrated animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on water quality were investigated at 54 agricultural stream sites throughout the North Carolina Coastal Plain during 2012 and 2013. Three general watershed land-use types were examined during the study, including 18 background watersheds with no active CAFOs (BK sites), 18 watersheds with one or more active swine CAFOs but no poultry CAFOs (SW sites), and 18 watersheds with at least one active swine CAFO and one active dry-litter poultry CAFO (SP sites). The watershed drainage areas for these 54 stream sites ranged from 1.2 to 17.5 square miles. Conventional fertilizers used for crop production are the primary source of nutrients at the BK sites. Animal-waste manures represent an additional source of nutrients at the SW and SP study sites.

  17. SOIL ERODIBILITY IN THE BRAZILIAN COASTAL PLAINS ERODIBILIDADE DO SOLO NOS TABULEIROS COSTEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Curi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to determine soil losses caused by water erosion, in different situations, erosion prediction models, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, are used. Their application on agricultural and environmental planning depends on the determination of the USLE factors, including erodibility (K factor. The objective of this study was to determine erodibility for the main soil classes of the Brazilian Coastal Plains region, in Aracruz, Espírito Santo State. The experiment was established in the following soils: medium/clayey texture Yellow Argisol (PA1, Haplic Plinthosol (FX, and moderately rocky Yellow Argisol (PA2. For the calculation of soil erodibility, data of erosivity and soil losses, from November 1997 to May 2004, were used. Soil losses samplings were performed for each rainfall event regarded as erosive. The erodibility values were 0.007 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1

  18. Executive summary - Geologic assessment of coal in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has assessed the quantity and quality of the nation's coal deposits that potentially could be mined during the next few decades. For eight years, geologic, geochemical, and resource information was collected and compiled for the five major coal-producing regions of the United States: the Appalachian Basin, Illinois Basin, Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, Colorado Plateau, and the western part of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain (Gulf Coast) region (Figure 1). In particular, the NCRA assessed resource estimates, compiled coal-quality information, and characterized environmentally sensitive trace elements, such as arsenic and mercury, that are mentioned in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1990). The results of the USGS coal assessment efforts may be found at: http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/coal/coal-assessments/index.html and a summary of the results from all assessment areas can be found in Ruppert et al. (2002) and Dennen (2009).Detailed assessments of the major coal-producing areas for the Gulf Coast region along with reviews of the stratigraphy, coal quality, resources, and coalbed methane potential of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene coal deposits are presented in this report (Chapters 5-10).

  19. Coupled human-water system dynamics of saltwater intrusion in the low coastal plain of the Po River, Ravenna, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriola, Ilaria; Ciriello, Valentina; Antonellini, Marco; Pande, Saket

    2017-04-01

    Human activities affect the whole hydrological cycle with possible severe consequences on ecosystem services. Human-water interaction follows complex dynamics that can't be addressed only through the analysis of water withdrawals and contamination processes. As such, comprehensive analysis strategies based on a socio-hydrology approach may allow to deeply understand the co-evolution of human and water systems. Here, we focus on the low coastal plain of the Po river in the south of Ravenna (Italy), which is adjacent to the North Adriatic sea. In particular, our study regards a basin characterized by a land reclamation drainage system, given the low topography which reaches in some places 1 m below sea level. In this area, the thin phreatic coastal aquifer is affected by a relevant salinization process and characterized by the presence of valuable water-dependent ecosystems such as pine forests and wetlands. Groundwater salinization is mainly caused by seawater intrusion due to the hydraulic gradient landwards that is enhanced by land subsidence, land use and drainage allowing for agriculture and settlements. Such a complex scenario involves environmental, social and economic interests. We study the intricate system of relationships occurring between a set of socio-hydrological state variables of interest based on the dynamic analysis of land use changes in the study area that mainly affect groundwater recharge and the availability of freshwater for ecosystem and agriculture activities.

  20. The Fate and Stability of Eroding Wetland Soil Carbon in a Subsiding Deltaic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. R.; Steinmuller, H.; Chambers, L. G.; Fontenot, A.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetlands can respond to rapid rates of relative sea level rise via wetland submergence and/or erosion, which occur when wetlands are unable to vertically accrete to keep pace with sea level rise. As coastal wetlands erode, previously sequestered organic carbon is exposed to oxygen-rich estuarine water. This transition in redox from anaerobic to aerobic condition can trigger increased mineralization rates of decades to centuries'-old soil carbon. Barataria Bay, Louisiana has one of the highest coastal wetland land loss rates in the United States, primarily due to eustatic sea level rise coupled with coastal subsidence. Marsh-edge erosion rates measured over the past two years are on the order of 1.5 meters per year. Meter long soil cores were obtained from vegetated wetland sites and sectioned into 11 intervals to investigate aerobic and anaerobic mineralization rates with depth. In surface soils, organic carbon mineralization rates averaged 16 times greater than anaerobic mineralization rates. In deeper, older soils, the aerobic mineralization rate was still an order of magnitude greater than the anaerobic rate, suggesting a significant portion of this older, soil carbon is readily cycling back to the atmosphere after erosion followed by mineralization by microorganisms. These results have consequences for increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the future, as stable coastlines worldwide will be subjected to Barataria-bay levels of sea level rise in the next 50-75 years.

  1. Characterization of labile organic carbon in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain: relationships to carbon functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodla, Syam K; Wang, Jim J; Delaune, Ronald D

    2012-10-01

    Adequate characterization of labile organic carbon (LOC) is essential to the understanding of C cycling in soil. There has been very little evaluation about the nature of LOC characterizations in coastal wetlands, where soils are constantly influenced by different redox fluctuations and salt water intrusions. In this study, we characterized and compared LOC fractions in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain using four different methods including 1) aerobically mineralizable C (AMC), 2) cold water extractable C (CWEC), 3) hot water extractable C (HWEC), and 4) salt extractable C (SEC), as well as acid hydrolysable C (AHC) which includes both labile and slowly degradable organic C. Molecular organic C functional groups of these wetland soils were characterized by (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The LOC and AHC increased with soil organic C (SOC) regardless of wetland soil type. The LOC estimates by four different methods were positively and significantly linearly related to each other (R(2)=0.62-0.84) and with AHC (R(2)=0.47-0.71). The various LOC fractions accounted for ≤4.3% of SOC whereas AHC fraction represented 16-49% of SOC. AMC was influenced positively by O/N-alkyl and carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C, whereas CWEC and SEC fractions were influenced only positively by carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C in SOC. On the other hand, HWEC fraction was found to be only influenced positively by carbonyl C, and AHC positively by O/N-alkyl and alkyl C but negatively by aromatic C groups in SOC. Overall these relations suggested different contributions of various molecular organic C moieties to LOC in these wetlands from those often found for upland soils. The presence of more than 50% non-acid hydrolysable C suggested the dominance of relatively stable SOC pool that would be sequestered in these Mississippi River deltaic plain coastal wetland soils. The results have important implications to the understanding of the

  2. Assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    Executive SummaryThe U.S. Geological Survey began a multiyear regional assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) aquifer system in 2010 as part of its ongoing regional assessments of groundwater availability of the principal aquifers of the Nation. The goals of this national assessment are to document effects of human activities on water levels and groundwater storage, explore climate variability effects on the regional water budget, and provide consistent and integrated information that is useful to those who use and manage the groundwater resource. As part of this nationwide assessment, the USGS evaluated available groundwater resources within the NACP aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina.The northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province depends heavily on groundwater to meet agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs. The groundwater assessment of the NACP aquifer system included an evaluation of how water use has changed over time; this evaluation primarily used groundwater budgets and development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends.This assessment focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to examine changes in groundwater pumping, storage, and water levels. The regional scale provides a broad view of the sources and demands on the system with time. The sub-regional scale provides an evaluation of the differing response of the aquifer system across geographic areas allowing for closer examination of the interaction between different aquifers and confining units and the changes in these interactions under pumping and recharge conditions in 2013 and hydrologic stresses as much as 45 years in the future. By focusing on multiple scales, water-resource managers may utilize this study to understand system response to changes as they affect the system as a whole.The NACP aquifer system extends from

  3. Monitoring of the radioecological situation in marine and coastal environment of Georgia-Southern Caucasian New Independent State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avtandilashvili, M.; Baratashvili, D.; Mazmanidi, N.; Pagava, S.; Robakidze, Z.; Rusetski, V.; Togonidze, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: At the same time is marked that during the independence period Georgian officials did not yet restore properly the national monitoring infrastructure for radiation in environment. The mentioned can be explained partially by taking notice of western politologists' opinion that 'Georgia as other Southern Caucasian New Independent States (Azerbaijan, Armenia) belongs to small countries category which at the present stage of development are unable to regulate and eliminate the consequences of ecological disasters without active assistance and support of more developed countries. 'Therefore, National Research and Educational Collaboration for Radioecology, successfully acting in Georgia since 2001, as independent expert institution, initiated the corresponding movement by support of 'Open Society - Georgia'Foundation. Analyses of results were obtained by Collaboration during 2001-2002 show: tendency towards 'purification'of soils polluted by anthropogenic radionuclides during Chernobyl Accident was not observed for the region of studies (Georgian area of the Black Sea coast); minimal and maximal committed annual individual effective doze due to external exposure for population in the region of studies come to 0.15 mSv and 0.35 mSv; maintenance of Cs 137 in agricultural products sometimes exceeds the values defined by Radiation Safety Regulations in force. Maintenance of Pb 210 is also significant; maintenance of Cs 137 in various fish and shellfish is significantly lower than the values defined by Radiation Safety Regulations in force

  4. Patterns of cowbird parasitism in the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain and Piedmont.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.C. Kilgo; C.E. Moorman

    2003-09-01

    Until recently, little information was available on patterns of brood parasitism by Brownheaded Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in the southeastern United States, a region into which cowbirds expanded their range only during the last half of the Twentieth Century and where their abundance is relatively low. We compiled parasitism data from several published and unpublished studies conducted in Georgia and South Carolina from 1993-2000 to examine levels of brood parasitism and determine frequent host species. The combined dataset included 1,372 nests of 24 species reported in the literature to have been parasitized by cowbirds. The parasitism rate on all species combined was 8.2%. Considering only those species that served as hosts in these studies (n = I2), the parasitism rate was 9.3%. Seven species were parasitized at rates 2 10%. Based on the extent of parasitism (among studies and locations), their relative abundance, and the sample size of nests, Prairie Warblers (Dendroicta discolor), Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina), Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens), and Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea), all shrub nesters, appear to be the most important cowbird hosts in the region. Parasitism on some species reported as frequent hosts elsewhere was extremely low or not documented. We conclude that the impact of brood parasitism on the seasonal fecundity of hosts in the region probably is minimal, but additional work is warranted on species of concern, such as the Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris).

  5. Long-term water chemistry database, Little River Experimental Watershed, southeast Coastal Plain, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyereisen, G. W.; Lowrance, R.; Strickland, T. C.; Sheridan, J. M.; Hubbard, R. K.; Bosch, D. D.

    2007-09-01

    A water quality sampling program was initiated in 1974 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service on the 334 km2 Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW) near Tifton in south Georgia to monitor the effects of changing land use and agricultural practices over time and to support development of simulation models capable of predicting future impacts of agricultural land use and management changes. Stream samples were taken on a weekly or more frequent basis and were analyzed for chloride, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, and dissolved molybdate reactive phosphorus. Monitoring began in 1974 on the entire watershed and four nested subwatersheds, ranging in size from 16.7 to 114.9 km2, and continues until present. Partial records of 7, 10, and 19 years exist for three additional subwatersheds. Suspended solids data are available for all eight subwatersheds for 1974-1978 and 1979-1981, three subwatersheds for 1982-1986, and all eight subwatersheds again beginning in the year 2000. The concentration and associated load data are being published on the LREW database anonymous ftp site (ftp://www.tiftonars.org/).

  6. Productivity of ephemeral headwater riparian forests impacted by sedimentation in the southeastern United States coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Rachel L; Lockaby, B Graeme; Cavalcanti, Guadalupe G

    2009-01-01

    Riparian forests serve an essential function in improving water quality through the filtering of sediments and nutrients from surface runoff. However, little is known about the impact of sediment deposition on productivity of riparian forests. Sediment inputs may act as a subsidy to forest productivity by providing additional nutrients for plant uptake or may act as a stress by creating anoxic soil conditions. This study determined how sediment deposition affected riparian forests along ephemeral headwater streams at Ft. Benning, Georgia, USA. Above- and belowground productivity, leaf-area index (LAI), and standing crop biomass for fine roots, shrubs, and trees were compared along a gradient of present sedimentation rates in 17 riparian forests. Annual litterfall production was determined from monthly collections using 0.25- m(2) traps; woody biomass was determined from annual diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements using species-specific allometric equations; fine root productivity was determined using sequential coring; LAI was measured by expanding specific leaf area by annual litterfall production; and shrub biomass was determined using species-specific biomass equations based on height and root collar diameter. Significant declines in litterfall, woody biomass production, fine root production, LAI, and shrub biomass were found with as little as 0.1 to 0.4 cm yr(-2) sedimentation. We conclude that the levels of sedimentation in this study do not subsidize growth in ephemeral headwater riparian forests but instead create a stress similar to that found under flooded conditions.

  7. Genetic and grade and tonnage models for sandstone-hosted roll-type uranium deposits, Texas Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Tureck, Kathleen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hannon, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The coincidence of a number of geologic and climatic factors combined to create conditions favorable for the development of mineable concentrations of uranium hosted by Eocene through Pliocene sandstones in the Texas Coastal Plain. Here 254 uranium occurrences, including 169 deposits, 73 prospects, 6 showings and 4 anomalies, have been identified. About 80 million pounds of U3O8 have been produced and about 60 million pounds of identified producible U3O8 remain in place. The development of economic roll-type uranium deposits requires a source, large-scale transport of uranium in groundwater, and deposition in reducing zones within a sedimentary sequence. The weight of the evidence supports a source from thick sequences of volcanic ash and volcaniclastic sediment derived mostly from the Trans-Pecos volcanic field and Sierra Madre Occidental that lie west of the region. The thickest accumulations of source material were deposited and preserved south and west of the San Marcos arch in the Catahoula Formation. By the early Oligocene, a formerly uniformly subtropical climate along the Gulf Coast transitioned to a zoned climate in which the southwestern portion of Texas Coastal Plain was dry, and the eastern portion humid. The more arid climate in the southwestern area supported weathering of volcanic ash source rocks during pedogenesis and early diagenesis, concentration of uranium in groundwater and movement through host sediments. During the middle Tertiary Era, abundant clastic sediments were deposited in thick sequences by bed-load dominated fluvial systems in long-lived channel complexes that provided transmissive conduits favoring transport of uranium-rich groundwater. Groundwater transported uranium through permeable sandstones that were hydrologically connected with source rocks, commonly across formation boundaries driven by isostatic loading and eustatic sea level changes. Uranium roll fronts formed as a result of the interaction of uranium-rich groundwater

  8. Geophysical modeling of the northern Appalachian Brompton-Cameron, Central Maine, and Avalon terranes under the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, T.J.; Sheridan, R.E.; Volkert, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A regional terrane map of the New Jersey Coastal Plain basement was constructed using seismic, drilling, gravity and magnetic data. The Brompton-Cameron and Central Maine terranes were coalesced as one volcanic island arc terrane before obducting onto Laurentian, Grenville age, continental crust in the Taconian orogeny [Rankin, D.W., 1994. Continental margin of the eastern United States: past and present. In: Speed, R.C., (Ed.), Phanerozoic Evolution of North American Continent-Ocean Transitions. DNAG Continent-Ocean Transect Volume. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, pp. 129-218]. Volcanic island-arc rocks of the Avalon terrane are in contact with Central Maine terrane rocks in southern Connecticut where the latter are overthrust onto the Brompton-Cameron terrane, which is thrust over Laurentian basement. Similarities of these allochthonous island arc terranes (Brompton-Cameron, Central Maine, Avalon) in lithology, fauna and age suggest that they are faulted segments of the margin of one major late Precambrian to early Paleozoic, high latitude peri-Gondwana island arc designated as "Avalonia", which collided with Laurentia in the early to middle Paleozoic. The Brompton Cameron, Central Maine, and Avalon terranes are projected as the basement under the eastern New Jersey Coastal Plain based on drill core samples of metamorphic rocks of active margin/magmatic arc origin. A seismic reflection profile across the New York Bight traces the gentle dipping (approximately 20 degrees) Cameron's Line Taconian suture southeast beneath allochthonous Avalon and other terranes to a 4 sec TWTT depth (approximately 9 km) where the Avalonian rocks are over Laurentian crust. Gentle up-plunge (approximately 5 degrees) projections to the southwest bring the Laurentian Grenville age basement and the drift-stage early Paleozoic cover rocks to windows in Burlington Co. at approximately 1 km depth and Cape May Co. at approximately 2 km depths. The antiformal Shellburne

  9. Effect of wastewater treatment facility closure on endocrine disrupting chemicals in a Coastal Plain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste; Clark, Jimmy M.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) closures are rare environmental remediation events; offering unique insight into contaminant persistence, long-term wastewater impacts, and ecosystem recovery processes. The U.S. Geological Survey assessed the fate of select endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) in surface water and streambed sediment one year before and one year after closure of a long-term WWTF located within the Spirit Creek watershed at Fort Gordon, Georgia. Sample sites included a WWTF-effluent control located upstream from the outfall, three downstream effluent-impacted sites located between the outfall and Spirit Lake, and one downstream from the lake's outfall. Prior to closure, the 2.2-km stream segment downstream from the WWTF outfall was characterized by EDC concentrations significantly higher (α = 0.05) than at the control site; indicating substantial downstream transport and limited in-stream attenuation of EDC, including pharmaceuticals, estrogens, alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) metabolites, and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFR). Wastewater-derived pharmaceutical, APE metabolites, and OPFR compounds were also detected in the outflow of Spirit Lake, indicating the potential for EDC transport to aquatic ecosystems downstream of Fort Gordon under effluent discharge conditions. After the WWTF closure, no significant differences in concentrations or numbers of detected EDC compounds were observed between control and downstream locations. The results indicated EDC pseudo-persistence under preclosure, continuous supply conditions, with rapid attenuation following WWTF closure. Low concentrations of EDC at the control site throughout the study and comparable concentrations in downstream locations after WWTF closure indicated additional, continuing, upstream contaminant sources within the Spirit Creek watershed. 

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Hydrologic Response to Climate Change in Developed and Undeveloped Watersheds on the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraio, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is projected to have an impact on precipitation patterns across the Mid-Atlantic with the likelihood of an increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation events. A greater proportion of total annual precipitation could fall in larger events with the potential to impact flooding, storm water infrastructure, and water supply. The watersheds of the coastal plain of New Jersey draining to the Atlantic and Delaware Bay have mild slopes are underlain by very sandy soils. These areas serve as sources of recharge to the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer, which is an important water supply for the region. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) was used to simulate the potential impacts of climate change on stream flow and groundwater recharge in two watersheds located within the New Jersey coastal plain. The Batsto River watershed includes parts of the Pinelands Reserve with relatively little development in some its headwater areas, primarily small towns and agricultural land use. The Maurice River watershed includes several urbanized areas along with some agricultural land, but population is expecting to increase within the next 10-20 years. The Maurice River basin is outside the Pinelands Reserve but has significant area that contains Pine Barrens. Models were calibrated using observed stream flow from USGS gages and gridded meteorological data from 1995-2002 and validated with observed data from 2002-2005. The calibrated models were forced using an ensemble of three bias-corrected downscaled climate projections (CMIP5, NOAA NCEP, and ECHAM) to assess and compare the potential response of these two watersheds. All meteorological data were obtained online from the GeoData Portal. Preliminary results indicate that climate change is likely to have a greater impact on stream flow in the developed Maurice River basin than in the undeveloped Batsto River basin. More detailed analyses of stream flow and the potential impacts on groundwater

  11. Source identification and exchangeability of heavy metals accumulated in vegetable soils in the coastal plain of eastern Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiutong, Xu; Mingkui, Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Vegetable production in China is suffering increasingly heavy metal damages from various pollution sources including agricultural, industrial and other activities. It is of practical significance to understand the effects of human activities on the accumulation and exchangeability of soil heavy metals in vegetable fields. In this study, seventy-two arable layer samples of vegetable soils were collected from the Shaoxing coastal plain, a representative region of the coastal plain of eastern Zhejiang province, China for characterizing the effects of fertilization methods on accumulation and exchangeable heavy metals in soils (Exchangeable heavy metals in the soil samples were extracted by 0.01molL -1 CaCl 2 ). The different origins of heavy metals in the vegetable soils were investigated by multivariate statistical techniques, including principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). Marked increases were noted for soil heavy metals due to long-term manure or chemical fertilizer application. Three significant components were extracted by PCA, explaining 78.86% of total variance. Mn, Co, Ni, Fe, and Al were associated in lithogenic components, while an anthropogenic origin was identified for Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg. However, As level was due to the geochemical background and was not linked to soil management. The results obtained by cluster analysis elucidated individual relationships between metals and agreed with PCA. Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn in the soils that were mainly associated with the application of chemical fertilizers, organic manures or other activities regarding soil management. Although the origin of Cd, Hg, and As was also attributed to soil management, other sources like vehicle exhaust or aerial depositions were not discarded as possible contributors. Soil amended with organic fertilizer contained more Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr; whereas the soil amended with chemical fertilizer had more Cd. Application of fertilizers also had significant effect on the

  12. Erosional history of the Appalachians as recordeed in detrital zircon fission-track ages and lithic detritus in Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, C.W.; Naeser, N.D.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Weems, Robert E.; Southworth, C. Scott; Newell, Wayne L.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of fission-track (FT) ages of detrital zircons recovered from Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments to FT ages of zircons from bedrock in source terranes in the Appalachians provides a key to understanding the provenance of the sediments and, in turn, the erosional and depositional history of the Atlantic passive margin.In Appalachian source terranes, the oldest zircon fission-track (ZFT) ages from bedrock in the western Appalachians (defined for this paper as the Appalachian Plateau, Valley and Ridge, and far western Blue Ridge) are notably older than the oldest ages from bedrock in the eastern Appalachians (Piedmont and main part of the Blue Ridge). The age difference is seen both in ZFT sample ages and in individual zircon grain ages and reflects differences in the thermotectonic history of the rocks. In the east, ZFT data indicate that the rocks cooled from temperatures high enough to partially or totally reset ZFT ages during the Paleozoic and (or) Mesozoic. The majority of the rocks are interpreted to have cooled through the ZFT closure temperature (∼235 °C) at various times during the late Paleozoic Alleghanian orogeny. In contrast, most of the rocks sampled in the western Appalachians have never been heated to temperatures high enough to totally reset their ZFT ages. Reflecting their contrasting thermotectonic histories, nearly 80 percent of the sampled western rocks yield one or more zircon grains with very old FT ages, in excess of 800 Ma; zircon grains yielding FT ages this old have not been found in rocks in the Piedmont and main part of the Blue Ridge. The ZFT data suggest that the asymmetry of zircon ages of exposed bedrock in the eastern and western Appalachians was in evidence by no later than the Early Cretaceous and probably by the Late Triassic.Detrital zircon suites from sands collected in the Atlantic Coastal Plain provide a record of detritus eroded from source terranes in the Appalachians during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. In Virginia

  13. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic signature of surface and groundwater in a highly industrialized sector of the Rio de la Plata coastal plain (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, L; Carol, E; Borzi, G; García, M G

    2017-07-15

    The coastal plain of the middle estuary of the Río de la Plata is a highly industrialized area and is densely populated by sectors. The main human activity in the sector encompassed between the cities of Ensenada and Berisso is associated with the petrochemical industry. In this work, hydrogeochemical and isotopic characteristics of surface and groundwater in the impacted area are analyzed and the results are contrasted with those obtained in an undisturbed protected area. Major and trace elements were determined using standardized methods while the stable isotopes δ 18 O y δ 2 H were analyzed by mass spectroscopy. Human impact is evidenced by the occurrence of large variations in the major chemical composition of water, and also by the elevated concentrations of some trace elements that are not contributed from natural sources. These results may contribute to the understanding of chemical processes and pollutants distribution in highly industrialized coastal plain areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Benthic foraminifera or Ostracoda? Comparing the accuracy of palaeoenvironmental indicators from a Pleistocene lagoon of the Romagna coastal plain (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Giulia; Vaiani, Stefano Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Integrated analyses of multiple groups of microfossils are frequently performed to unravel the palaeoenvironmental evolution of subsurface coastal successions, where the complex interaction among several palaeoecological factors can be detected with benthic assemblages. This work investigates the palaeoenvironmental resolution potential provided by benthic foraminifera and ostracoda within a Pleistocene lagoonal succession of the Romagna coastal plain (northern Italy). Quantitative approaches and statistical techniques have been applied to both groups in order to understand the main factors that controlled the composition of assemblages and compare the palaeoecological record provided by single fossil groups. The two faunal groups are characterized by the high dominance of opportunistic species (Ammonia tepida-Ammonia parkinsoniana and Cyprideis torosa); however, detailed palaeoecological information is inferred from less common taxa. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages are mainly determined by the frequencies of abnormal individuals and species related to high concentrations of organic matter, showing two assemblages: a stressed assemblage, consistent with a brackish-water environment subject to salinity and oxygen fluctuations, and an unstressed assemblage, which indicates more stable conditions. Despite the lower number of species, ostracoda show more significant differences in terms of species composition and ecological structure between their three assemblages, formed in response to a salinity gradient and indicative of inner, central, and outer lagoon conditions. The stratigraphic distribution of ostracod assemblages shows a general transgressive-regressive trend with minor fluctuations, whereas benthic foraminifera highlight the presence of a significant palaeoenvironmental stress. In this case, the higher abundance along the stratigraphic succession, the higher differentiation of the assemblages, and the well-defined relationship between taxa and ecological

  15. Sedimentary architecture and depositional evolution of the Quaternary coastal plain of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Carvalho da Silva

    Full Text Available The coastal geomorphology of Maricá (Rio de Janeiro state is characterized by a large lagoon and by two sandy barriers that confine a series of small isolated chain-like lagoons. Data collected from ground-penetrating radar and boreholes from the central coastal plain of Maricá provided information on the sedimentary architecture and evolution of this area in the Quaternary. Six lithological units were identified comprising three depositional sequences limited by erosional surfaces, related to barrier-lagoon systems that migrated onshore, offshore, and longshore, giving rise to a sedimentary deposit 25 m thick or more. The data reveal a retrograding barrier overlying a basal mud unit which rests in unconformity upon Precambrian basement, thus characterizing an important Pleistocene transgression. A second Pleistocene barrier of 45,000 cal years BP migrated over a lagoonal mud unit (48,000-45,000 cal years BP reaching over the previous barrier. A progradational phase followed due to a fall of sea level. A long interval of erosion of the barrier created an unconformity that represents the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. A beachrock in nearby Itaipuaçu, 100 m offshore from the present-day beach, dated as 8,500 cal years BP marks the onset of Holocene sedimentation due to gradually rising sea level, which continued until at about 5,000 years ago. This promoted the retrogradation of the barrier-lagoon system. A brief episode of progradation is observed as a series of paleobeach scarps. Today's rising sea level is causing the retrogradation of the barrier.

  16. Seasonal variability of the inorganic carbon system in a large coastal plain estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joesoef, Andrew; Kirchman, David L.; Sommerfield, Christopher K.; Cai, Wei-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Carbonate geochemistry research in large estuarine systems is limited. More work is needed to understand how changes in land-use activity influence watershed export of organic and inorganic carbon, acids, and nutrients to the coastal ocean. To investigate the seasonal variation of the inorganic carbon system in the Delaware Estuary, one of the largest estuaries along the US east coast, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), and pH were measured along the estuary from June 2013 to April 2015. In addition, DIC, TA, and pH were periodically measured from March to October 2015 in the nontidal freshwater Delaware, Schuylkill, and Christina rivers over a range of discharge conditions. There were strong negative relationships between river TA and discharge, suggesting that changes in HCO3- concentrations reflect dilution of weathering products in the drainage basin. The ratio of DIC to TA, an understudied but important property, was high (1.11) during high discharge and low (0.94) during low discharge, reflecting additional DIC input in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2), most likely from terrestrial organic matter decomposition, rather than bicarbonate (HCO3-) inputs due to drainage basin weathering processes. This is also a result of CO2 loss to the atmosphere due to rapid water transit during the wet season. Our data further show that elevated DIC in the Schuylkill River is substantially different than that in the Delaware River. Thus, tributary contributions must be considered when attributing estuarine DIC sources to the internal carbon cycle versus external processes such as drainage basin mineralogy, weathering intensity, and discharge patterns. Long-term records in the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers indicate shifts toward higher alkalinity in estuarine waters over time, as has been found in other estuaries worldwide. Annual DIC input flux to the estuary and export flux to the coastal ocean are estimated to be 15.7 ± 8.2 × 109 mol C yr-1 and 16

  17. Digital elevations and extents of regional hydrogeologic units in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Jason P.; Andreasen, David C.; Mcfarland, E. Randolph; Watt, Martha K.

    2016-08-31

    Digital geospatial datasets of the extents and top elevations of the regional hydrogeologic units of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina were developed to provide an updated hydrogeologic framework to support analysis of groundwater resources. The 19 regional hydrogeologic units were delineated by elevation grids and extent polygons for 20 layers: the land and bathymetric surface at the top of the unconfined surficial aquifer, the upper surfaces of 9 confined aquifers and 9 confining units, and the bedrock surface that defines the base of all Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. The delineation of the regional hydrogeologic units relied on the interpretive work from source reports for New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina rather than from re-analysis of fundamental hydrogeologic data. This model of regional hydrogeologic unit geometries represents interpolation, extrapolation, and generalization of the earlier interpretive work. Regional units were constructed from available digital data layers from the source studies in order to extend units consistently across political boundaries and approximate units in offshore areas.Though many of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain hydrogeologic units may extend eastward as far as the edge of the Atlantic Continental Shelf, the modeled boundaries of all regional hydrogeologic units in this study were clipped to an area approximately defined by the furthest offshore extent of fresh to brackish water in any part of the aquifer system, as indicated by chloride concentrations of 10,000 milligrams per liter. Elevations and extents of units that do not exist onshore in Long Island, New York, were not included north of New Jersey. Hydrogeologic units in North Carolina were included primarily to provide continuity across the Virginia-North Carolina State boundary, which was important for defining the southern edge of

  18. Mid- to Late Holocene environmental dynamics on the Yukon Coastal Plain and Herschel Island (Canada) – evidence from polygonal peatlands and lake sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Wolter, Juliane

    2017-01-01

    The North American Arctic witnessed high-amplitude climatic change during the Early Holocene that resulted in regional-scale environmental change. These changes are well documented in the literature. The environmental impacts of moderate climatic oscillations during the Mid- to Late Holocene are less well understood, especially on the Yukon Coastal Plain, which is geographically and topographically isolated from the rest of the western Canadian Arctic. The region is currently experiencing inc...

  19. A study of building the hydrogeological apparent model with geoelectrical measurements for the Chia-Nan Coastal Plain of SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P. Y.; Tsai, J. P.; Chang, L. C.

    2016-12-01

    In the study we used the resistivity measurements collected in the Chia-Nan coastal plain of SW Taiwan to establish a three-dimensional (3D) hydrogeological apparent model. The resistivity measurements include data from half-Schlumberger surveys conducted during the year of 1990-2000 across the entire area and from the recent two-dimensional resistivity surveys for characterizing the recharge zone boundaries. Core records from monitoring wells in the area were used for the training data to help determining the resistivity ranges of the gavel, sand, and muddy sediments in the coastal plain. These resistivity measurements were inverted and converted into 1-D data form and interpolated for rendering a three dimensional resistivity volume that represents the general resistivity distribution in the coastal-plain systems. In addition we used water resistivity data from the observation wells to calculating the formation factors (FI) and to render the FI model. We then compared the FIs with indexed core records near some of the resistivity surveys sites, and concluded the range of the FIs for different materials in a statistical sense. Lastly we transfer the FI model into the gravel-sand-clay apparent model with the classification criteria from previous petrophysical analysis. Because there are more resistivity measurements than the limited geological boreholes, the apparent model is better to represent the detailed sedimentary structures than the traditional over-simplified conceptual models.

  20. A conceptual framework and monitoring strategy for movement of saltwater in the coastal plain aquifer system of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarland, E. Randolph

    2015-09-04

    A conceptual framework synthesizes previous studies to provide an understanding of conditions, processes, and relations of saltwater to groundwater withdrawal in the Virginia Coastal Plain aquifer system. A strategy for monitoring saltwater movement is based on spatial relations between the saltwater-transition zone and 612 groundwater-production wells that were regulated during 2013 by the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. The vertical position and lateral distance and direction of the bottom of each production well’s screened interval was calculated relative to previously published groundwater chloride iso-concentration surfaces. Spatial analysis identified 81 production wells completed in the Yorktown-Eastover and Potomac aquifers that are positioned in closest proximity to the 250-milligrams-per-liter chloride surface, and from which chloride concentrations are most likely to increase above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s 250-milligrams-per-liter secondary maximum-contaminant level. Observation wells are specified to distinguish vertical upconing from lateral intrusion among individual production wells. To monitor upconing, an observation well is to be collocated with each production well and completed at about the altitude of the 250-milligrams-per-liter chloride iso-concentration surface. To monitor lateral intrusion, a potential location of an observation well is projected from the bottom of each production well’s screened interval, in the lateral direction to the underlying chloride surface to a distance of 1 mile.

  1. Impacts of Extreme Flooding on Hydrologic Connectivity and Water Quality in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and Implications for Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Moser, H. A.; Christenson, E. C.; Gray, J.; Hedgespeth, M. L.; Jass, T. L.; Lowry, D. S.; Martin, K.; Nichols, E. G.; Stewart, J. R.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    In October 2016, Hurricane Matthew brought extreme flooding to eastern North Carolina, including record regional flooding along the Lumber River and its tributaries in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Situated in a region dominated by large-scale crop-cultivation and containing some of the highest densities of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and animal processing operations in the U.S., the Lumber River watershed is also home to the Lumbee Tribe of American Indians. Most of the tribe's 60,000+ members live within or immediately adjacent to the 3,000 km2 watershed where they maintain deep cultural and historical connections. The region, however, also suffers from high rates of poverty and large disparities in healthcare, education, and infrastructure, conditions exacerbated by Hurricane Matthew. We summarize ongoing efforts to characterize the short- and long-term impacts of extreme flooding on water quality in (1) low gradient streams and riverine wetlands of the watershed; (2) surficial aquifers, which provide water resources for the local communities, and (3) public drinking water supplies, which derive from deeper, confined aquifers but whose infrastructure suffered widespread damage following Hurricane Matthew. Our results provide mechanistic understanding of flood-related connectivity across multiple hydrologic compartments, and provide important implications for how hydrological natural hazards combine with land use to drive water quality impacts and affect vulnerable populations.

  2. ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC MATTER IN HOLOCENE SEDIMENTS OF COASTAL PLAIN FROM PERO BEACH, CABO FRIO, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taísa Camila Silveira de Souza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of palynofacies along a core drilled on the coastal plain of Cabo Frio, State of Rio de Janeiro, was carried out in order to contribute to the knowledge of the paleoenvironmental evolution of the Pero Beach region. The ages obtained from 14C datings allowed to verify that the studied core records the past 6761 ± 130 yrs cal BP. Thirty samples were prepared by standard methodology for palynofacies. About three hundred particles of the particulate organic material was classified and recorded for each sample. Statistical methods were employed for the associations of particulate organic matter (R-mode cluster analysis and levels (samples; Q-mode cluster analysis analyzed along the core. Furthermore, the ratio Phytoclast - Total Organic Carbon (Phy-TOC was used to verify the proximity of the source area. The three major groups of particulate organic matter found along the studied core are Phytoclasts, Amorphous Organic Matter (AOM and Palynomorphs. The samples showed in general, a predominance of phytoclasts (73.2%, followed by AOM (18.6% and Palynomorphs (8.2%. Supported by statistical analysis, it was possible to deduce that the study area evolved since the middle Holocene from a marine environment to a paleolagoon.

  3. Cold-climate slope deposits and landscape modifications of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Wayne L.; Dejong, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Pleistocene cold-climate geomorphology are distributed across the weathered and eroded Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain uplands from the Wisconsinan terminal moraine south to Tidewater Virginia. Cold-climate deposits and landscape modifications are superimposed on antecedent landscapes of old, weathered Neogene upland gravels and Pleistocene marine terraces that had been built during warm periods and sea-level highstands. In New Jersey, sequences of surficial deposits define a long history of repeating climate change events. To the south across the Delmarva Peninsula and southern Maryland, most antecedent topography has been obscured by Late Pleistocene surficial deposits. These are spatially variable and are collectively described as a cold-climate alloformation. The cold-climate alloformation includes time-transgressive details of climate deterioration from at least marine isotope stage (MIS) 4 through the end of MIS 2. Some deposits and landforms within the alloformation may be as young as the Younger Dryas. Southwards along the trend of the Potomac River, these deposits and their climatic affinities become diffused. In Virginia, a continuum of erosion and surficial deposits appears to be the product of ‘normal’ temperate, climate-forced processes. The cold-climate alloformation and more temperate deposits in Virginia are being partly covered by Holocene alluvium and bay mud.

  4. A field test of the centrifugal community organization model using psammophilic gerbils in Israel's southern coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Gideon; Kotler, B.P.; Morris, D.W.; Abramsky, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Background: An optimal habitat selection model called centrifugal community organization (CCO) predicts that species, although they have the same primary habitat, may co-exist owing to their ability to use different secondary habitats. Goal: Test the predictions of CCO with field experiments. Species: The Egyptian sand gerbil (40 g), Gerbillus pyramidum, and Allenby's gerbil (25 g), G. andersoni allenbyi. Site: Ashdod sand dunes in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three sandy habitats are present: shifting, semi-stabilized, and stabilized sand. Gerbils occupied all three habitats. Methods: We surveyed rodent abundance, activity levels, and foraging behaviour while experimentally removing G. pyramidum. Results: Three predictions of the CCO model were supported. Both species did best in the semi-stabilized habitat. However, they differed in their secondary habitats. Gerbillus pyramidum preferred the shifting sand habitat, whereas G. a. allenbyi preferred the stabilized habitat. Habitat selection by both species depended on density. However, in contrast to CCO, G. pyramidum dominated the core habitat and excluded G. a. allenbyi. We term this variant of CCO, 'asymmetric CCO'. Conclusions: The fundamental feature of CCO appears valid: co-existence may result not because of what each competing species does best, but because of what they do as a back-up. But in contrast to the prediction of the original CCO model, all dynamic traces of interaction can vanish if the system includes interference competition. ?? 2007 Gideon Wasserberg.

  5. Seasonal variability of the inorganic carbon system in a large coastal plain estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Joesoef

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate geochemistry research in large estuarine systems is limited. More work is needed to understand how changes in land-use activity influence watershed export of organic and inorganic carbon, acids, and nutrients to the coastal ocean. To investigate the seasonal variation of the inorganic carbon system in the Delaware Estuary, one of the largest estuaries along the US east coast, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, total alkalinity (TA, and pH were measured along the estuary from June 2013 to April 2015. In addition, DIC, TA, and pH were periodically measured from March to October 2015 in the nontidal freshwater Delaware, Schuylkill, and Christina rivers over a range of discharge conditions. There were strong negative relationships between river TA and discharge, suggesting that changes in HCO3− concentrations reflect dilution of weathering products in the drainage basin. The ratio of DIC to TA, an understudied but important property, was high (1.11 during high discharge and low (0.94 during low discharge, reflecting additional DIC input in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2, most likely from terrestrial organic matter decomposition, rather than bicarbonate (HCO3− inputs due to drainage basin weathering processes. This is also a result of CO2 loss to the atmosphere due to rapid water transit during the wet season. Our data further show that elevated DIC in the Schuylkill River is substantially different than that in the Delaware River. Thus, tributary contributions must be considered when attributing estuarine DIC sources to the internal carbon cycle versus external processes such as drainage basin mineralogy, weathering intensity, and discharge patterns. Long-term records in the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers indicate shifts toward higher alkalinity in estuarine waters over time, as has been found in other estuaries worldwide. Annual DIC input flux to the estuary and export flux to the coastal ocean are estimated to be 15.7 ± 8.2

  6. Mercury adsorption in the Mississippi River deltaic plain freshwater marsh soil of Louisiana Gulf coastal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Wang, Jim J; Xiao, Ran; Pensky, Scott M; Kongchum, Manoch; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2018-03-01

    Mercury adsorption characteristics of Mississippi River deltaic plain (MRDP) freshwater marsh soil in the Louisiana Gulf coast were evaluated under various conditions. Mercury adsorption was well described by pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models with maximum adsorption capacity of 39.8 mg g -1 . Additional fitting of intraparticle model showed that mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was controlled by both external surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. The partition of adsorbed mercury (mg g -1 ) revealed that mercury was primarily adsorbed into organic-bond fraction (12.09) and soluble/exchangeable fraction (10.85), which accounted for 63.5% of the total adsorption, followed by manganese oxide-bound (7.50), easily mobilizable carbonate-bound (4.53), amorphous iron oxide-bound (0.55), crystalline Fe oxide-bound (0.41), and residual fraction (0.16). Mercury adsorption capacity was generally elevated along with increasing solution pH even though dominant species of mercury were non-ionic HgCl 2 , HgClOH and Hg(OH) 2  at between pH 3 and 9. In addition, increasing background NaCl concentration and the presence of humic acid decreased mercury adsorption, whereas the presence of phosphate, sulfate and nitrate enhanced mercury adsorption. Mercury adsorption in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was reduced by the presence of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn with Pb showing the greatest competitive adsorption. Overall the adsorption capacity of mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was found to be significantly influenced by potential environmental changes, and such factors should be considered in order to manage the risks associated with mercury in this MRDP wetland for responding to future climate change scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impacts of prescribed fire on Pinus rigida Mill. in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Nicholas J; Renninger, Heidi J; Clark, Kenneth L; Schäfer, Karina V R

    2016-08-01

    A comparative analysis of the impacts of prescribed fire on three upland forest stands in the Northeastern Atlantic Plain, NJ, USA, was conducted. Effects of prescribed fire on water use and gas exchange of overstory pines were estimated via sap-flux rates and photosynthetic measurements on Pinus rigida Mill. Each study site had two sap-flux plots, one experiencing prescribed fire and one control (unburned) plot for comparison before and after the fire. We found that photosynthetic capacity in terms of Rubisco-limited carboxylation rate and intrinsic water-use efficiency was unaffected, while light compensation point and dark respiration rate were significantly lower in the burned vs control plots post-fire. Furthermore, quantum yield in pines in the pine-dominated stands was less affected than pines in the mixed oak/pine stand, as there was an increase in quantum yield in the oak/pine stand post-fire compared with the control (unburned) plot. We attribute this to an effect of forest type but not fire per se. Average daily sap-flux rates of the pine trees increased compared with control (unburned) plots in pine-dominated stands and decreased in the oak/pine stand compared with control (unburned) plots, potentially due to differences in fuel consumption and pre-fire sap-flux rates. Finally, when reference canopy stomatal conductance was analyzed, pines in the pine-dominated stands were more sensitive to changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD), while stomatal responses of pines in the oak/pine stand were less affected by VPD. Therefore, prescribed fire affects physiological functioning and water use of pines, but the effects may be modulated by forest stand type and fuel consumption pattern, which suggests that these factors may need to be taken into account for forest management in fire-dominated systems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Contribution To The HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY Of Groundwater In The Northwest Coastal Plain, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-SAYED, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the deterioration of water resources in the studied area using the hydrogeochemical and isotopic tools as complementary techniques. Fourteen water samples from the available groundwater and surface water bodies and from rainwater were collected to execute this study. The main source for groundwater recharge is the rainwater falling on the area in winter season (150 mm/year). The quality of this water has been changed in the Pleistocene and Middle Miocene aquifers and excavations due to the effect of different hydrogeochemical processes, leaching, dissolution, evaporation and mixing with sea water. The classic hydrochemical tool alone was not enough to delineate these processes while the stable isotope investigation was very useful in discriminating them. Water from wells tapping the Middle Miocene aquifer, from wells nos. 6 and 9, penetrating the Pleistocene aquifer and from excavation no. 11 have not been influenced by sea water intrusion. Its high salinity and other chemical constituents were due to the effect of leaching and dissolution of rocks and soil salts. The higher salinity, chemical constituents and stable isotopic composition of water from wells 6 and 9 and from excavation no. 10 were attributed to the mixing with sea water. The presence of water levels of these points under mean sea level confirms the intrusion of sea water. Water of Al-Agara spring was highly affected by evaporation process. As a result of this study, the coastal aquifers were vulnerable to sea water invasion. Groundwater over exploitation and drilling of more water wells in the area should be managed wisely

  9. Preliminary report on arsenic and heavy metals contents in soils and stream bed sediments of Cornia, Bruna and Alma coastal plains (Southern Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dughetti F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Earth Sciences of University of Florence has conducted over the past ten years, numerous studies about the distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in mineralized areas of Tuscany, particularly in the Pecora basin. The area hosts several polymetallic ore bodies and a pyrite ore deposit. The studies have identified several geochemical anomalies (As, Cu, Pb, Zn… both in the areas which host the ore bodies and in the coastal plain (Scarlino Plain. To increase the knowledge concerning the distribution of As and heavy metals in other Tuscan coastal plains, research is under way in the alluvial plains of the Bruna, Cornia and Alma rivers. The preliminary analysis have focused on soils and stream sediments, to better understand the correlations between the downstream transport of rivers and the soils. We have made physic-chemical analysis, particle size analysis, mineralogical analysis for X-ray powder diffraction, chemical analysis for the determination of major element (X-ray Fluorescence and for the determination of 35 minor elements and traces (AAS and ICP.Preliminary data show high concentrations of several elements (As, Zn, Co…. The concentrations of these elements in soils and stream bed sediments are not always consistent; in particular we have found higher concentrations in soils than in stream bed sediments in Cornia Plain, while the opposite happens in the Bruna basin. Therefore the natural processes of rocks weathering does not seem to have affected uniformly. The distribution of As and heavy metals in soils and stream bed sediments of the all three basins of interest are still under investigation.

  10. The Morphologic Evolution of the Amazon Coastal Plain, Cabo Norte, Amapa, Brazil: The Need for Integrated Investigation on the Internal Continental Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, O.; Santos, V. F.; Takiyama, L. R.

    2007-05-01

    The north brazilian coastal region is submitted to the conjunction of three major forcing: 1) Atmospheric, related to the wind and precipitation regimen and controlling the climatic seasonality and the local rivers hydrology; 2) Oceanic, result of the general oceanic circulation (North Equatorial Current-NEC) and it modulation with the atmospheric forcing (North Brazilian Coastal Current reflection), and 3) Amazonic, which is a result of the sedimentary transport from Amazon river, being itself under the influence of the atmospheric and oceanic forcing. Their main characteristic are the proper periodicities and also variabilities expressed according multiples and differentiated scales of time and space, determining the structure and functioning of the coastal space, giving to the Amazon coast line a considerable environmental instability. The Amapa Coastal Plain shows important part of this environmental instability. Semidiurnal macro tides, strong currents and tidal bores acts over a low gradient coastal plain which evolutionary process are intrinsically related with tectonic and geological settings. Two main areas can be distinguished in this scenario. The first one is the Amapa Lakes Region, developed over meanders of ancient drainages building a mosaic of low relief forms, with varied shapes, linked throughout communication channels. Two lacustrine belts showing alignments with the main tectonic traces were recognized beginning at the internal limit of the coastal plain, flowing southeast through the Tabaco Creek until reach the Araguari River. In it way it conform the Occidental and Meridional Belts represented by shallow lakes, totally dependent of Tartarugal River discharge and surrounded by enormous areas of peat highly sensitive to fire during the regional low discharge. Light blue clays, peat and a package of tidal deposits with fluidization structures were recognized close to Araguari River, suggesting deposition during high sea level. The second area

  11. Range of Variability in Southern Coastal Plain Forests: Its Historical, Contemporary, and Future Role in Sustaining Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Mitchell

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical range of variation (HRV has been used as a conceptual tool to determine appropriate management actions to sustain or restore diversity of ecological systems. This concept has come into question for both biological and social considerations, and the southeastern United States is a good model system to test its utility. Southeastern Coastal Plain upland pine savannas and woodlands and their associated wetlands are among the most diverse communities in temperate North America, having both high levels of species richness and large numbers of endemic flora and fauna. However, this diversity is intimately linked with disturbance regimes. Maintaining frequent fire, varied in season based on changing management objectives through time, is the most important management tool for sustaining biodiversity. Moreover, the landscape has been molded by a long history of intense land use that has altered both the biological and the social landscape in which management occurs, and threatens the native diversity. Management must anticipate likely trends and adopt strategies that provide flexibility for managers to deal with the future, both socially and ecologically. In the Southeast, the most dominant trend is associated with urbanization and forest fragmentation, which results from urban sprawl. This issue joins others - fire and smoke, logging, access, in-holdings, and the uncertainty of scientific models, for example - as matters of major concern to the public. Ultimately, it is the public that eventually grants or withholds social permission to manage. We explore, here, the potential and the limitations for how history can inform future management. Rather than being used as a specific management tool, we find that one purpose for which HRV may be well suited is serving as a broad communication framework to help diverse publics understand the concept of landscape dynamics. This approach would provide the fundamental background material for

  12. Patterns and controls of mercury accumulation in sediments from three thermokarst lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Samantha M.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Branfireun, Brian A.; Koch, Joshua C.; Swanson, Heidi K.

    2018-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycle of mercury will be influenced by climate change, particularly at higher latitudes. Investigations of historical mercury accumulation in lake sediments inform future predictions as to how climate change might affect mercury biogeochemistry; however, in regions with a paucity of data, such as the thermokarst-rich Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska (ACP), the trajectory of mercury accumulation in lake sediments is particularly uncertain. Sediment cores from three thermokarst lakes on the ACP were analyzed to understand changes in, and drivers of, Hg accumulation over the past ~ 100 years. Mercury accumulation in two of the three lakes was variable and high over the past century (91.96 and 78.6 µg/m2/year), and largely controlled by sedimentation rate. Mercury accumulation in the third lake was lower (14.2 µg/m2/year), more temporally uniform, and was more strongly related to sediment Hg concentration than sedimentation rate. Sediment mercury concentrations were quantitatively related to measures of sediment composition and VRS-inferred chlorophyll a, and sedimentation rates were related to various catchment characteristics. These results were compared to data from 37 previously studied Arctic and Alaskan lakes. Results from the meta-analysis indicate that thermokarst lakes have significantly higher and more variable Hg accumulation rates than non-thermokarst lakes, suggesting that certain properties (e.g., thermal erosion, thaw slumping, low hydraulic conductivity) likely make lakes prone to high and variable Hg accumulation rates. Differences and high variability in Hg accumulation among high latitude lakes highlight the complexity of predicting future climate-related change impacts on mercury cycling in these environments.

  13. Impacts of Enhanced-Efficiency Nitrogen Fertilizers on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in a Coastal Plain Soil under Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Dexter B; Runion, G Brett; Smith Nannenga, Katy W; Torbert, H Allen

    2015-11-01

    Enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers (EENFs) have the potential to increase crop yield while decreasing soil N loss. However, the effect of EENFs on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different agricultural systems is not well understood. Thus, studies from a variety of locations and cropping systems are needed to evaluate their impact. An experiment was initiated on a Coastal Plain soil under cotton ( L.) production for comparing EENFs to traditional sources. Nitrogen sources included urea, ammonia sulfate (AS), urea-ammonia sulfate (UAS), controlled-release, polymer-coated urea (Environmental Smart Nitrogen [ESN]), stabilized granular urea (SuperU), poultry litter (PL), poultry litter plus AgrotainPlus (PLA), and an unfertilized control. Carbon dioxide (CO), nitrous oxide (NO), and methane (CH) fluxes were monitored regularly after fertilization through harvest from 2009 to 2011 using a closed-chamber method. Poultry litter and PLA had higher CO flux than other N treatments, while ESN and SU were generally lowest following fertilization. Nitrous oxide fluxes were highly variable and rarely affected by N treatments; PL and PLA were higher but only during the few samplings in 2010 and 2011. Methane fluxes were higher in 2009 (wet year) than 2010 or 2011, and N treatments had minimal impact. Global warming potential (GWP), calculated from cumulative GHG fluxes, was highest with PL and PLA and lowest for control, UAS, ESN, and SU. Results suggest that PL application to cotton increases GHG flux, but GHG flux reductions from EENFs were infrequently different from standard inorganic fertilizers, suggesting their higher cost may render them presently impractical. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Drainage network structure and hydrologic behavior of three lake-rich watersheds on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, C.D.; Whitman, M.S.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Kemnitz, R.; Grosse, G.; Urban, F.E.

    2012-01-01

    Watersheds draining the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska are dominated by permafrost and snowmelt runoff that create abundant surface storage in the form of lakes, wetlands, and beaded streams. These surface water elements compose complex drainage networks that affect aquatic ecosystem connectivity and hydrologic behavior. The 4676 km2 Fish Creek drainage basin is composed of three watersheds that represent a gradient of the ACP landscape with varying extents of eolian, lacustrine, and fluvial landforms. In each watershed, we analyzed 2.5-m-resolution aerial photography, a 5-m digital elevation model, and river gauging and climate records to better understand ACP watershed structure and processes. We show that connected lakes accounted for 19 to 26% of drainage density among watersheds and most all channels initiate from lake basins in the form of beaded streams. Of the > 2500 lakes in these watersheds, 33% have perennial streamflow connectivity, and these represent 66% of total lake area extent. Deeper lakes with over-wintering habitat were more abundant in the watershed with eolian sand deposits, while the watershed with marine silt deposits contained a greater extent of beaded streams and shallow thermokarst lakes that provide essential summer feeding habitat. Comparison of flow regimes among watersheds showed that higher lake extent and lower drained lake-basin extent corresponded with lower snowmelt and higher baseflow runoff. Variation in baseflow runoff among watersheds was most pronounced during drought conditions in 2007 with corresponding reduction in snowmelt peak flows the following year. Comparison with other Arctic watersheds indicates that lake area extent corresponds to slower recession of both snowmelt and baseflow runoff. These analyses help refine our understanding of how Arctic watersheds are structured and function hydrologically, emphasizing the important role of lake basins and suggesting how future lake change may impact hydrologic

  15. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-01-01

    fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of 228 Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of 228 Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of 228 Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate qualitatively the differences in behavior of both long-lived Ra isotopes, the

  16. Arsenic in New Jersey Coastal Plain streams, sediments, and shallow groundwater: effects from different geologic sources and anthropogenic inputs on biogeochemical and physical mobilization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Julia L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Mumford, Adam C.; Benzel, William M.; Szabo, Zoltan; Shourds, Jennifer L.; Young, Lily Y.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) concentrations in New Jersey Coastal Plain streams generally exceed the State Surface Water Quality Standard (0.017 micrograms per liter (µg/L)), but concentrations seldom exceed 1 µg/L in filtered stream-water samples, regardless of geologic contributions or anthropogenic inputs. Nevertheless, As concentrations in unfiltered stream water indicate substantial variation because of particle inputs from soils and sediments with differing As contents, and because of discharges from groundwater of widely varying chemistry.

  17. Evidence of Cold Climate Slope Processes from the New Jersey Coastal Plain: Debris Flow Stratigraphy at Haines Corner, Camden County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Wayne L.

    2005-01-01

    Excavations through surficial deposits across the New Jersey Coastal Plain commonly reveal homogenized surficial sediments, deformed sedimentary structures, chaotically rearranged bed-forms, and wedge-shaped cracks filled with sand from the top-most layers of extant soil profiles. As a whole, these abundant, broadly distributed phenomena are best explained as artifacts of an era of frozen ground during the last Pleistocene glacial maximum. Vigorous freeze-thaw processes and abundant seasonal rainfall created a landscape of low relief covered by highly mobile surficial deposits. The surficial deposits are at grade into broad, flat bottomed valleys now drained by small, tightly meandering, under-fit streams. Modern fluvial, aeolian, and slope processes are ineffectual in either creating or modifying these landscapes. One particularly brief exposure of complex slope deposits was documented at Haines Corner, Camden County, during the field work (1986) for the Surficial Geologic Map of southern and central New Jersey. The exposure, now presented and interpreted here, provides previously unavailable details of a system of freeze-thaw driven processes that unfolded upon a frozen, impermeable substrate 80 miles south of the southern margin of the Wisconsinan glacial advance to Long Island, N.Y. At the time of these extreme processes, the presently sub-aerial New Jersey Coastal Plain was not proximal to moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean, being about 100 miles inland and 300 feet above the lowered sea level. Current studies of analogous deposits across the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain now benefit from dating techniques that were not available during the geologic mapping field work (1985-'92). During the mapping in New Jersey, hundreds of exposures failed to produce datable carbon remains within the stratigraphy of the surficial deposits. Recently reported TL dates from wind-blown sand filling frost wedges, exposed elsewhere in New Jersey, indicate that the widely

  18. Paleoenvironmental interpretation of an ancient Arctic coastal plain: Integrated paleopedology and palynology from the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Prince Creek Formation, North Slope, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, P. J.; Flaig, P. P.; Fiorillo, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Cretaceous (Early Maastrichtian), dinosaur-bearing Prince Creek Formation, North Slope, Alaska, records high-latitude, alluvial sedimentation and soil formation on a low-lying, coastal plain during a greenhouse phase in Earth history. This study combines outcrop observations, micromorphology, geochemistry, and palynological analyses of paleosols in order to reconstruct local paleoenvironments of weakly developed, high-latitude coastal plain soils. Sediments of the Prince Creek Fm. include quartz- and chert-rich sandstone channels, and floodplains containing organic-rich siltstone and mudstone, carbonaceous shale, coal and ashfall deposits. Vertically stacked horizons of blocky-to-platy, drab-colored mudstone and siltstone with carbonaceous root-traces and mottled aggregates alternating with sandy units indicate that the development of compound and cumulative, weakly-developed soils on floodplains alternated with overbank alluviation and deposition on crevasse splay complexes on floodplains . Soil formation occurred on levees, point bars, crevasse splays and along the margins of floodplain lakes, ponds, and swamps. Soil-forming processes were interrupted by repeated deposition of sediment on top of soil profiles by flooding of nearby channels. Alluviation is evidenced by thin (coatings, and zoned peds suggest periodic waterlogging, anoxia and gleying. In contrast, Fe-oxide mottles, ferruginous and manganiferous segregations, burrows, and rare illuvial clay coatings suggest recurring oxidation and periodic drying out of some soils. Jarosite mottles and halos, and rare pyrite and gypsum found in some distal paleosols implies a marine influence at the distal margins of the coastal plain. Biota including Peridinioid dinocysts, brackish and freshwater algae, fungal hyphae, fern and moss spores, projectates, age-diagnostic Wodehouseia edmontonicola, hinterland bisaccate pollen and pollen from lowland trees, shrubs, and herbs indicate an Early Maastrichtian age for

  19. Long-term patterns of fruit production in five forest types of the South Carolina upper coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Levey, Douglas J.; Kwit, Charles; McCarty, John P.; Pearson, Scott F.; Sargent, Sarah; Kilgo, John

    2012-02-06

    ABSTRACT Fleshy fruit is a key food resource for many vertebrates and may be particularly important energy source to birds during fall migration and winter. Hence, land managers should know how fruit availability varies among forest types, seasons, and years. We quantified fleshy fruit abundance monthly for 9 years (1995-2003) in 56 0.1-ha plots in 5 forest types of South Carolina's upper Coastal Plain, USA. Forest types were mature upland hardwood and bottomland hardwood forest, mature closed-canopy loblolly (Pinus taeda) and longleaf pine (P. palustris) plantation, and recent clearcut regeneration harvests planted with longleaf pine seedlings. Mean annual number of fruits and dry fruit pulp mass were highest in regeneration harvests (264,592 _ 37,444 fruits; 12,009 _ 2,392 g/ha), upland hardwoods (60,769 _ 7,667 fruits; 5,079 _ 529 g/ha), and bottomland hardwoods (65,614 _ 8,351 fruits; 4,621 _ 677 g/ha), and lowest in longleaf pine (44,104 _ 8,301 fruits; 4,102 _ 877 g/ha) and loblolly (39,532 _ 5,034 fruits; 3,261 _ 492 g/ha) plantations. Fruit production was initially high in regeneration harvests and declined with stand development and canopy closure (1995-2003). Fruit availability was highest June-September and lowest in April. More species of fruit-producing plants occurred in upland hardwoods, bottomland hardwoods, and regeneration harvests than in loblolly and longleaf pine plantations. Several species produced fruit only in 1 or 2 forest types. In sum, fruit availability varied temporally and spatially because of differences in species composition among forest types and age classes, patchy distributions of fruiting plants both within and among forest types, fruiting phenology, high inter-annual variation in fruit crop size by some dominant fruit-producing species, and the dynamic process of disturbance-adapted species colonization and decline, or recovery in recently harvested stands. Land managers could enhance fruit availability for wildlife by

  20. Long-term patterns of fruit production in five forest types of the South Carolina upper coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Levey, Douglas J.; Kwit, Charles; Mccarty, John P.; Pearson, Scott F.

    2012-01-01

    Fleshy fruit is a key food resource for many vertebrates and may be particularly important energy source to birds during fall migration and winter. Hence, land managers should know how fruit availability varies among forest types, seasons, and years. We quantified fleshy fruit abundance monthly for 9 years (1995–2003) in 56 0.1-ha plots in 5 forest types of South Carolina's upper Coastal Plain, USA. Forest types were mature upland hardwood and bottomland hardwood forest, mature closed-canopy loblolly (Pinus taeda) and longleaf pine (P. palustris) plantation, and recent clearcut regeneration harvests planted with longleaf pine seedlings. Mean annual number of fruits and dry fruit pulp mass were highest in regeneration harvests (264,592 ± 37,444 fruits; 12,009 ± 2,392 g/ha), upland hardwoods (60,769 ± 7,667 fruits; 5,079 ± 529 g/ha), and bottomland hardwoods (65,614 ± 8,351 fruits; 4,621 ± 677 g/ha), and lowest in longleaf pine (44,104 ± 8,301 fruits; 4,102 ± 877 g/ha) and loblolly (39,532 ± 5,034 fruits; 3,261 ± 492 g/ha) plantations. Fruit production was initially high in regeneration harvests and declined with stand development and canopy closure (1995–2003). Fruit availability was highest June–September and lowest in April. More species of fruit-producing plants occurred in upland hardwoods, bottomland hardwoods, and regeneration harvests than in loblolly and longleaf pine plantations. Several species produced fruit only in 1 or 2 forest types. In sum, fruit availability varied temporally and spatially because of differences in species composition among forest types and age classes, patchy distributions of fruiting plants both within and among forest types, fruiting phenology, high inter-annual variation in fruit crop size by some dominant fruit-producing species, and the dynamic process of disturbance-adapted species colonization and decline, or recovery in recently harvested stands. As a result, land managers could enhance fruit availability for

  1. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water

  2. The Influence of Land Subsidence, Quarrying, Drainage, Irrigation and Forest Fire on Groundwater Resources and Biodiversity Along the Southern Po Plain Coastal Zone (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonellini, M. A.; Mollema, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal zone of the southern Po plain is characterized by low lying land, which is reclaimed to permit settlements and agriculture. The history, tourism resorts and peculiar coastal environments make this territory attractive and valuable. Natural and fluid-extraction-induced land subsidence along with coastal erosion are major problems. Touristic development has strongly modified the landscape; coastal dunes have been in part removed to make room for hotels and quarrying has caused the formation of gravel pit lakes close to the shoreline. Protected natural areas include a belt of coastal dunes, wetlands, and the internal historical forests of San Vitale and Classe. The dunes have largely lost their original vegetation ecosystem, because years ago they have been colonized with pine trees to protect the adjacent farmland from sea spray. These pine forests are currently a fire hazard. Land reclamation drainage keeps the water table artificially low. Results of these anthropogenic disturbances on the hydrology include a decrease in infiltration rates, loss of freshwater surface bodies, encroachment of saltwater inland from the river estuaries, salinization of the aquifer, wetlands and soil with a loss in plant and aquatic species biodiversity. Feedback mechanisms are complex: as land subsidence continues, drainage increases at the same pace promoting sea-water intrusion. The salinity of the groundwater does not allow for plant species richness nor for the survival of large pine trees. Farmland irrigation and fires in the pine forests, on the other hand, allow for increased infiltration and freshening of the aquifer and at the same time promote plant species diversity. Our work shows that the characteristics of the southern Po coastal zone require integrated management of economic activities, natural areas, and resources. This approach is different from the ad hoc measures taken so far, because it requires long term planning and setting a priority of objectives.

  3. Summary of northern Atlantic coastal plain hydrology and its relation to disposal of high-level radioactive waste in buried crystalline rock; a preliminary appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Larson, J.D.; Davis, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Interpretation of available hydrologic data suggests that some areas beneath the Coastal Plain in the States of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Virginia might have some potential for the disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rock that is buried beneath the Coastal Plain sediments. The areas of major interest occur where the top of the basement rock lies between 1,000 and 4,000 feet below sea level, the aquifer(s) immediately above the basement rock are saturated with saline water, confining material overlies the saline water bearing aquifer(s), and groundwater flow in the saline water aquifer(s) can be established. Preliminary data on (1) the distribution and thickness of the lowermost aquifers and confining beds, (2) the distribution of hydraulic conductivity in the lowermost aquifers, (3) estimated hydraulic heads and inferred direction of lateral groundwater flow for 1980, and (4) the distribution of saline water and brine, indicate eastern parts of the study area relatively best meet most of the criteria proposed for sediments that would overlie any potential buried crystalline-rock disposal site.

  4. The fault pattern in the northern Negev and southern Coastal Plain of Israel and its hydrogeological implications for groundwater flow in the Judea Group aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, G.; Rosenthal, E.

    1994-03-01

    On the basis of a broadly expanding data base, the hydrogeological properties of the Judea Group sequence in the northern Negev and southern Coastal Plain of Israel have been reassessed. The updated subsurface model is based on data derived from water- and oil-wells and on recent large-scale geophysical investigations. A new regional pattern of the reassessed geological through the subsurface of the study area has been revealed. In view of the reassessed geological and hydrological subsurface setting, it appears that the Judea Group aquifer should not be regarded as one continuous and undisturbed hydrological unit; owing to the occurrence of regional faults, its subaquifers are locally interconnected. These subaquifers, which contain mainly high-quality water, are juxtaposed, as a result of faulting, against Kurnub Group sandstones containing brackish paleowater. The latter Group is faulted against late Jurassic formations containing highly saline groundwater. In the Beer Sheva area, the Judea Group aquifer is vertically displaced against the Senonian and Eocene Mt. Scopus and Avdat Groups, which also contain brackish and saline water. In the southern Coastal Plain, major faults locally dissect also the Pleistocene Kurkar Group, facilitating inflow of Mg-rich groundwater deriving from Judea Group dolomites. The new geological evidence and its hydrogeological implications provide new solutions for previously unexplained salinization phenomena.

  5. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 5: Coastal zones case study and generalization. [economic benefits of weather forecasting by SEASAT satellites to the coastal plains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The economic losses sustained in the U.S. coastal zones were studied for the purpose of quantitatively establishing economic benefits as a consequence of improving the predictive quality of destructive phenomena in U.S. coastal zones. Improved prediction of hurricane landfall and improved experimental knowledge of hurricane seeding are discussed.

  6. Pond-aquifer flow and water availability in the vicinity of two coastal area seepage ponds, Glynn and Bulloch Counties, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Rumman, Malek Abu

    2005-01-01

    /min at the end of the test (low pond stage and high hydraulic gradient). At the Bulloch County pond site, values ranged from -17.7 gal/min at the beginning of the test to 15 gal/min at the end of the test. Results at the two pond sites indicate that the use of excavated seepage ponds as sources for irrigation supply is limited by pond-storage volume and low net ground-water seepage rates during periods of low precipitation. Pumps withdrawing 1,000 gal/min for 10 hours per dayunder climatic and hydrologic conditions similar to those observed during pond pumping tests at each sitewould drain the Glynn County pond within 30 days and the Bulloch County pond within 3.5 days. Because the two pond sites are considered to represent the extremes of likely conditions to be encountered in the coastal Georgia area, it is likely that other seepage ponds would have similar storage-depletion rates.

  7. On the use of InSAR technology to assess land subsidence in Jakarta coastal flood plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudogbo, Fifame; Duro, Javier; Garcia Robles, Javier; Arnaud, Alain; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.

    2014-05-01

    Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia and is home to approximately 10 million people on the coast of the Java Sea. It is situated on the northern coastal alluvial plane of Java which shares boundaries with West Java Province in the south and in the east, and with Banten Province in the west. The Capital District of Jakarta (DKI) sits in the lowest lying areas of the basin. Its topography varies, with the northern part just meters above current sea level and lying on a flood plain. Subsequently, this portion of the city frequently floods. The southern part of the city is hilly. Thirteen major rivers flow through Jakarta to the Java Sea. The Ciliwung River is the most significant river and divides the city West to East. In the last three decades, urban growing of Jakarta has been very fast in sectors as industry, trade, transportation, real estate, among others. This exponential development has caused several environmental issues; land subsidence is one of them. Subsidence in Jakarta has been known since the early part of the 20th century. It is mainly due to groundwater extraction, the fast development (construction load), soil natural consolidation and tectonics. Evidence of land subsidence exists through monitoring with GPS, level surveys and InSAR investigations. InSAR states for "Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar". Its principle is based on comparing the distance between the satellite and the ground in consecutive satellite passes over the same area on the Earth's surface. Radar satellites images record, with very high precision, the distance travelled by the radar signal that is emitted by the satellite is registered. When this distance is compared through time, InSAR technology can provide highly accurate ground deformation measurements. ALTAMIRA INFORMATION, company specialized in ground motion monitoring, has developed GlobalSARTM, which combines several processing techniques and algorithms based on InSAR technology, to achieve ground motion

  8. Developing custom fire behavior fuel models from ecologically complex fuel structures for upper Atlantic Coastal Plain forests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.; Scott, Joe, H.; Andreu, Anne; Prichard, Susan; Kurth, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    Currently geospatial fire behavior analyses are performed with an array of fire behavior modeling systems such as FARSITE, FlamMap, and the Large Fire Simulation System. These systems currently require standard or customized surface fire behavior fuel models as inputs that are often assigned through remote sensing information. The ability to handle hundreds or thousands of measured surface fuelbeds representing the fine scale variation in fire behavior on the landscape is constrained in terms of creating compatible custom fire behavior fuel models. In this study, we demonstrate an objective method for taking ecologically complex fuelbeds from inventory observations and converting those into a set of custom fuel models that can be mapped to the original landscape. We use an original set of 629 fuel inventory plots measured on an 80,000 ha contiguous landscape in the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. From models linking stand conditions to component fuel loads, we impute fuelbeds for over 6000 stands. These imputed fuelbeds were then converted to fire behavior parameters under extreme fuel moisture and wind conditions (97th percentile) using the fuel characteristic classification system (FCCS) to estimate surface fire rate of spread, surface fire flame length, shrub layer reaction intensity (heat load), non-woody layer reaction intensity, woody layer reaction intensity, and litter-lichen-moss layer reaction intensity. We performed hierarchical cluster analysis of the stands based on the values of the fire behavior parameters. The resulting 7 clusters were the basis for the development of 7 custom fire behavior fuel models from the cluster centroids that were calibrated against the FCCS point data for wind and fuel moisture. The latter process resulted in calibration against flame length as it was difficult to obtain a simultaneous calibration against both rate of spread and flame length. The clusters based on FCCS fire behavior

  9. Biogenic origin of coalbed gas in the northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Hackley, Paul C. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Breland, F. Clayton Jr. [Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, 617 North 3rd Street, Baton Rouge, LA 70802 (United States)

    2008-10-02

    New coal-gas exploration and production in northern Louisiana and south-central Mississippi, Gulf of Mexico Basin, is focused on the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene), where the depth to targeted subbituminous C to high volatile C bituminous coal beds ranges from 300 to 1680 m, and individual coal beds have a maximum thickness of about 6 m. Total gas content (generally excluding residual gas) of the coal beds ranges from less than 0.37 cm{sup 3}/g (as-analyzed or raw basis; 1.2 cm{sup 3}/g, dry, ash free basis, daf) at depths less than 400 m, to greater than 7.3 cm{sup 3}/g (as-analyzed basis; 8.76 cm{sup 3}/g, daf) in deeper (> 1,500 m) parts of the basin. About 20 Wilcox coal-gas wells in northern Louisiana produce from 200 to 6485 m{sup 3} of gas/day and cumulative gas production from these wells is approximately 25 million m{sup 3} (as of December, 2006). U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas resources in the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, including northern and south-central Mississippi, indicates that coal beds of the Wilcox Group contain an estimated mean total 109.3 million m{sup 3} (3.86 trillion ft{sup 3}) of producible natural gas. To determine the origin of the Wilcox Group coal gases in northern Louisiana, samples of gas, water, and oil were collected from Wilcox coal and sandstone reservoirs and from under- and overlying Late Cretaceous and Eocene carbonate and sandstone reservoirs. Isotopic data from Wilcox coal-gas samples have an average {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4} value of - 62.6 permille VPDB (relative to Vienna Peedee Belemnite) and an average {delta}D{sub CH4} value of - 199.9 permille VSMOW (relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). Values of {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CO2} range from - 25.4 to 3.42 permille VPDB. Produced Wilcox saline water collected from oil, conventional gas, and coalbed gas wells have {delta}D{sub H2O} values that range from - 27.3 to - 18.0 permille VSMOW. These data suggest that the

  10. The sea-level highstand correlated to marine isotope stage (MIS 7 in the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO P. LOPES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil, includes four barrier-lagoon depositional systems formed by successive Quaternary sea-level highstands that were correlated to marine isotope stages (MIS 11, 9, 5 and 1, despite the scarcity of absolute ages. This study describes a sea-level highstand older than MIS 5, based on the stratigraphy, ages and fossils of the shallow marine facies found in coastal barrier (Barrier II. This facies outcrops along the banks of Chuí Creek, it is composed of fine, well-sorted quartz sand and contains ichnofossils Ophiomorpha nodosa and Rosselia sp., and molluscan shells. The sedimentary record indicates coastal aggradation followed by sea-level fall and progradation of the coastline. Thermoluminescence (TL and electron spin resonance (ESR ages from sediments and fossil shells point to an age of ∼220 ka for the end of this marine transgression, thus correlating it to MIS 7 (substage 7e. Altimetric data point to a maximum amplitude of about 10 meters above present-day mean sea-level, but tectonic processes may be involved. Paleoceanographic conditions at the time of the highstand and correlations with other deposits in the Brazilian coasts are also discussed.

  11. Simulation of ground-water flow in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida-predevelopment, 1980, and 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Dorothy F.; Rumman, Malek Abu; Clarke, John S.

    2005-01-01

    A digital model was developed to simulate steady-state ground-water flow in a 42,155-square-mile area of coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida. The model was developed to (1) understand and refine the conceptual model of regional ground-water flow, (2) serve as a framework for the development of digital subregional ground-water flow and solute-transport models, and (3) serve as a tool for future evaluations of hypothetical pumping scenarios used to facilitate water management in the coastal area. Single-density ground-water flow was simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference code MODFLOW-2000 for mean-annual conditions during predevelopment (pre?1900) and the years 1980 and 2000. The model comprises seven layers: the surficial aquifer system, the Brunswick aquifer system, the Upper Floridan aquifer, the Lower Floridan aquifer, and the intervening confining units. A combination of boundary conditions was applied, including a general-head boundary condition on the top active cells of the model and a time-variable fixed-head boundary condition along part of the southern lateral boundary. Simulated heads for 1980 and 2000 conditions indicate a good match to observed values, based on a plus-or-minus 10-foot (ft) calibration target and calibration statistics. The root-mean square of residual water levels for the Upper Floridan aquifer was 13.0 ft for the 1980 calibration and 9.94 ft for the 2000 calibration. Some spatial patterns of residuals were indicated for the 1980 and 2000 simulations, and are likely a result of model-grid cell size and insufficiently detailed hydraulic-property and pumpage data in some areas. Simulated potentiometric surfaces for predevelopment, 1980, and 2000 conditions all show major flow system features that are indicated by estimated peotentiometric maps. During 1980?2000, simulated water levels at the centers of pumping at Savannah and Brunswick rose more than 20 ft and 8 ft, respectively, in

  12. Evaluation of intercropped switchgrass establishment under a range of experimental site preparation treatments in a forested setting on the Lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janine M. Albaugh; Eric B. Sucre; Zakiya H. Leggett; Jean-Christophe Domec; John S. King

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in using switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a biofuel crop and for its potential to sequester carbon. However, there are limited data on the establishment success of this species when grown as a forest intercrop in coastal plain settings of the U.S. Southeast. Therefore, we studied establishment success of switchgrass...

  13. A contribution to late Middle Paleolithic chronology of the Levant: New luminescence ages for the Atlit Railway Bridge site, Coastal Plain, Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porat, N.; Jain, Mayank; Ronen, A.

    2018-01-01

    of the different minerals and signals mostly agree within errors. The new luminescence ages date the sediment infill in Caves III and II to ~90 ka and ~70 ka, respectively, indicating that hominin occupation of this locality is coeval with the nearby Skhul Cave and Layer B in Tabun Cave....... Coastal Plain of Israel. Quaternary International 121, 1e52), providing a maximum age for the artifacts. Samples for luminescence dating were collected from the infill of the two caves (II and III), from the same deposits as the archaeological finds. Both quartz and alkali feldspars (KF) were extracted...... and measured using four different luminescence signals: optically stimulated luminescence (blue OSL) and violet stimulated luminescence (VSL) on quartz; and the infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) post-IR-IR290 signal and the IR50 signal corrected for anomalous fading on KF. The ages obtained from analyses...

  14. Evaluation of hot dry rock exploration techniques in the Atlantic Coastal Plain: a test site on the Delmarva Peninsula of Maryland and Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    Detailed investigation of a potential Hot Dry Rock (HDR) energy extraction site in the area of Crisfield, Maryland, and Wallops Island, Virginia, (referred to as the Cris-Wall site) was carried out to evaluate HDR exploration techniques in the Atlantic Coastal Plain province. The findings favor the HDR exploration program that is outlined for locating a deep test hole in an area with presumed HDR potential (higher than normal heat flow). Six potential sites for extracting HDR energy have been identified within the Cris-Wall area. Each site is thought to have temperatures at the basement rock surface in excess of 75/sup 0/C and to be at least 1 km away from the nearest fault.

  15. Marine diatom study and stratigraphy of cenozoic sediments in the coastal plain between Morro da Jureia and Barra do Una, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant-Vildary, S.; Soguio, K.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of sediments obtained from cores of four wells drilled by Nuclebras, in the coastal plain of State of Sao Paulo, have been here studied from diatom flora viewpoint. The irregular surface of the crystalline pre-Cambrian basements rocks is locally covered by the Pliocene Pariquera-Acu Formation - like deposits, whose contact with the Quaternary sediments is flat, being situated about 40 m bellow the present sea-level. The contact between the Holocene Santos Formation and the probable Pleistocene Cananeia Formation is very difficult to be recognized. It has been tentatively established based on two radiocarbon ages. Dominantly clayey-silty intervals from the wells F-003 and F-004, probably related to the Cananeia Formation, have been selectively sampled and studied for definition of their diatom flora assemblage. (author)

  16. Environmental fate of Ra in cation-exchange regeneration brine waste disposed to septic tanks, New Jersey Coastal Plain, USA: migration to the water table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Jacobsen, Eric; Kraemer, Thomas F; Parsa, Bahman

    2010-01-01

    Fate of radium (Ra) in liquid regeneration brine wastes from water softeners disposed to septic tanks in the New Jersey Coastal Plain was studied. Before treatment, combined Ra ((226)Ra plus (228)Ra) concentrations (maximum, 1.54 Bq L(-1)) exceeded the 0.185 Bq L(-1) Maximum Contaminant Level in 4 of 10 studied domestic-well waters (median pH, 4.90). At the water table downgradient from leachfields, combined Ra concentrations were low (commonly 5.3, indicating sequestration; when pH was synoptic sampling of effluents and ground waters, and large uncertainties associated with analytical methods. The trend of Ra mobilization in acidic environments does match observations from regional water-quality assessments.

  17. The collection of clear-water contraction and abutment scour data at selected bridge sites in the coastal plain and piedmont of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andy W.; Edited by Abt, S. R. and others

    1998-01-01

    Clear-water contraction and abutment scour data were collected at 128 bridge sites in South Carolina. In the sandy soils of the Coastal Plain, clear-water-scour data were collected at 63 sites (scour depths ranged from 0.4 to 7.2 meters.) In the clayey soils of the Piedmont, clear-water-scour data were collected at 47 sites (scour depths ranged from 0 to 1.4 meters.) In the sandy, clayey soils of the Piedmont, clear-water-scour data were collected at 18 sites (scour depths ranged from 0.9 to 5.5 meters.) The field data are to be compiled into a data base that will include bridge age; basin, soil and hydraulic characteristics; and theoretical scour data. The data are planned to be statistically analyzed for significant relations that may help explain and (or) predict maximum scour depths at bridges in South Carolina.

  18. Assessment of Hyporheic Zone, Flood-Plain, Soil-Gas, Soil, and Surface-Water Contamination at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, soil, and surface water for contaminants at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area (MCTA) at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic contaminants in the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, and surface water. In addition, the organic contaminant assessment included the analysis of organic compounds classified as explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. Inorganic contaminants were assessed in soil and surface-water samples. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Ten passive samplers were deployed in the hyporheic zone and flood plain, and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and octane were detected above the method detection level in every sampler. Other organic compounds detected above the method detection level in the hyporheic zone and flood-plain samplers were trichloroethylene, and cis- and trans- 1, 2-dichloroethylene. One trip blank detected TPH below the method detection level but above the nondetection level. The concentrations of TPH in the samplers were many times greater than the concentrations detected in the blank; therefore, all other TPH concentrations detected are considered to represent environmental conditions. Seventy-one soil-gas samplers were deployed in a grid pattern across the MCTA. Three trip blanks and three method blanks were used and not deployed, and TPH was detected above the method detection level in two trip blanks and one method blank. Detection of TPH was observed at all 71 samplers, but because TPH was detected in the trip and method blanks, TPH was

  19. Old groundwater in parts of the upper Patapsco aquifer, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Maryland, USA: Evidence from radiocarbon, chlorine-36 and helium-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Niel; Eggleston, John R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Andreasen, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    Apparent groundwater ages along two flow paths in the upper Patapsco aquifer of the Maryland Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA, were estimated using 14C, 36Cl and 4He data. Most of the ages range from modern to about 500 ka, with one sample at 117 km downgradient from the recharge area dated by radiogenic 4He accumulation at more than one Ma. Last glacial maximum (LGM) water was located about 20 km downgradient on the northern flow path, where the radiocarbon age was 21.5 ka, paleorecharge temperatures were 0.5–1.5  °C (a maximum cooling of about 12 °C relative to the modern mean annual temperature of 13 °C), and Cl–, Cl/Br, and stable isotopes of water were minimum. Low recharge temperatures (typically 5–7 °C) indicate that recharge occurred predominantly during glacial periods when coastal heads were lowest due to low sea-level stand. Flow velocities averaged about 1.0 m a–1 in upgradient parts of the upper Patapsco aquifer and decreased from 0.13 to 0.04 m a–1 at 40 and 80 km further downgradient, respectively. This study demonstrates that most water in the upper Patapsco aquifer is non-renewable on human timescales under natural gradients, thus highlighting the importance of effective water-supply management to prolong the resource.

  20. Cordão Formation: loess deposits in the southern coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO P. LOPES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Loess consists of silt-dominated sediments that cover ~10% of the Earth's surface. In southern South America it occurs in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay, and its presence in southern Brazil was never studied in detail. Here is proposed a new lithostratigraphic unit, Cordão Formation, consisting of loess deposits in the southern Brazilian coastal plain. It consists of fine-very fine silt with subordinate sand and clay, found mostly in lowland areas between Pleistocene coastal barriers. These sediments are pale-colored (10YR hue and forms ~1,5-2,0 meter-thick stable vertical walls. The clay minerals include illite, smectite, interstratified illite/smectite and kaolinite, the coarser fraction is mostly quartz and plagioclase. Caliche and iron-manganese nodules are also present. The only fossils found so far are rodent teeth and a tooth of a camelid (Hemiauchenia paradoxa. Luminescence ages indicate that this loess was deposited in the latest Pleistocene, between ~30 and 10 kyrs ago, and its upper portion was modified by erosion and accumulation of clay and organic matter in the Holocene. The estimated accumulation rate was ~630 g/m2/year. The probable source of this loess is the Pampean Aeolian System of Argentina and it would have been deposited by the increased aeolian processes of the last glacial.

  1. Geophysical characterization of saltwater intrusion in a coastal aquifer: The case of Martil-Alila plain (North Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himi, Mahjoub; Tapias, Josefiina; Benabdelouahab, Sara; Salhi, Adil; Rivero, Luis; Elgettafi, Mohamed; El Mandour, Abdenabi; Stitou, Jamal; Casas, Albert

    2017-02-01

    Several factors can affect the quantity and the quality of groundwater resources, but in coastal aquifers seawater intrusion is often the most significant issue regarding freshwater supply. Further, saltwater intrusion is a worldwide issue because about seventy percent of the world's population lives in coastal regions. Generally, fresh groundwater not affected by saltwater intrusion is characterized by low salinity and therefore low electrical conductivity (EC) values. Consequently, high values of EC in groundwater along the coastline are usually associated to seawater intrusion. This effect is amplified if the coastal aquifer is overexploited with a subsequent gradual displacement of the freshwater-saltwater interface towards the continent. Delineation of marine intrusion in coastal aquifers has traditionally relied upon observation wells and collection of water samples. This approach may miss important hydrologic features related to saltwater intrusion in areas where access is difficult and where wells are widely spaced. Consequently, the scarcity of sampling points and sometimes their total absence makes the number of data available limited and most of the time not representative for mapping the spatial and temporal variability of groundwater salinity. In this study, we use a series of geophysical methods for characterizing the aquifer geometry and the extension of saltwater intrusion in the Martil-Alila coastal region (Morocco) as a complement to geological and hydrogeochemical data. For this reason, we carried out three geophysical surveys: Gravity, Electrical Resistivity and Frequency Domain Electromagnetic. The geometry of the basin has been determined from the interpretation of a detailed gravity survey. Electrical resistivity models derived from vertical electrical soundings allowed to characterize the vertical and the lateral extensions of aquifer formations. Finally, frequency domain electromagnetic methods allowed delineating the extension of the

  2. Use Of Radar-Rainfall Data for the Southwest Coastal Louisiana Feasibility Study: Regional Scale Hydrologic and Salinity Modeling and Management Scenario Analysis for Chenier Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meselhe, E. A.; Michot, B.; Chen, C.; Habib, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Chenier Plain, in Southwest Louisiana, extends from Vermilion Bay to Sabine Lake in southeast Texas. It has great economic, industrial, recreational, and ecological value. Over the years, human activities such as dredging ship channels and access canals, building roads, levees, and hydraulic structures have altered the hydrology of the Chenier Plain. These alterations have affected the fragile equilibrium of the marsh ecology. If no action is taken to restore the Chenier Plain, land loss through conversion of marsh to open water would continue. The Southwest Coastal Louisiana Feasibility Study aims at evaluating proposed protection and restoration measures and ultimately submitting a comprehensive plan to protect and preserve the Chenier Plain at the regional scale. The proposed alternatives include marsh creation, terracing, shoreline protection, and freshwater introduction and salinity control structures. A regional scale hydrodynamic and salinity transport model was developed to screen and assess the proposed restoration measures. A critical component of this modeling effort is local rainfall. The strong spatial variability and limited availability of ground-level precipitation measurements limited our ability to capture local rainfall. Thus, a radar-based rainfall product was used as a viable alternative to the rain gauges. These estimates are based on the National Weather Service from the Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) algorithm. Since the model was used to perform long-term (yearly) simulations, the 4x4 km2 MPE estimates were represented as daily accumulations. The use of the radar-rainfall product data improved the model performance especially on our ability to capture the spatial and temporal variations of salinity. Overall, the model is improving our understanding of the circulation patterns and salinity regimes of the region. The circulation model used here is the MIKE FLOOD software (Danish Hydraulic Institute, DHI 2008) which dynamically

  3. Periodic isolation of the southern coastal plain of South Africa and the evolution of modern humans over late Quaternary glacial to interglacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Humans evolved in Africa, but where in Africa and by what mechanisms remain unclear. The evolution of modern humans over the last million years is associated with the onset of major global climate fluctuations, glacial to interglacial cycles, related to the build up and melting of large ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. During interglacial periods, such as today, warm and wet climates favored human expansion but during cold and dry glacial periods conditions were harsh and habitats fragmented. These large climate fluctuations periodically expanded and contracted African ecosystems and led to human migrations to more hospitable glacial refugia. Periodic isolation of relatively small numbers of humans may have allowed for their rapid evolutionary divergence from the rest of Africa. During climate transitions these divergent groups may have then dispersed and interbred with other groups (hybridization). Two areas at the opposite ends of Africa stand out as regions that were periodically isolated from the rest of Africa: North Africa (the Maghreb) and the southern coastal plain (SCP) of South Africa. The Maghreb is isolated by the Sahara Desert which periodically greens and is reconnected to the rest of Africa during the transition from glacial to interglacial periods. The SCP of South Africa is isolated from the rest of Africa by the rugged mountains of the Cape Fold Belt associated with inedible vegetation and dry climates to the north. The SCP is periodically opened when sea level falls by up to 130 m during glacial maxima to expose the present day submerged inner continental shelf. A five-fold expansion of the SCP receiving more rainfall in glacial periods may have served as a refuge to humans and large migratory herds. The expansive glacial SCP habitat abruptly contracts, by as much as one-third in 300 yr, during the rapid rise in sea level associated with glacial terminations. Rapid flooding may have increased population density and competition on the SCP to

  4. Georgia's Surface-Water Resources and Streamflow Monitoring Network, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Surface water provides 5 billion gallons per day, or 78 percent, of the total freshwater used (including thermoelectric) in Georgia (Fanning, 2003). Climate, geology, and landforms control the natural distribution of Georgia's water resources. Georgia is a 'headwaters' State, with most of the rivers beginning in northern Georgia and increasing in size downstream (see map at right for major watersheds). Surface water is the primary source of water in the northern one-half of the State, including the Atlanta metropolitan area, where limited ground-water resources are difficult to obtain. In Georgia, periodic droughts exacerbate competition for surface-water supplies. Many areas of Georgia also face a threat of flooding because of spring frontal thunderstorms and the potential for hurricanes from both the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. As the population of Georgia increases, these flood risks will increase with development in flood-risk zones, particularly in the coastal region.

  5. Estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods for urban and small, rural streams in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Gotvald, Anthony J.; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2014-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are essential for such things as the design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, Flood Insurance Studies, and flood-plain management. The flood-frequency estimates are particularly important in densely populated urban areas. A multistate approach was used to update methods for determining the magnitude and frequency of floods in urban and small, rural streams that are not substantially affected by regulation or tidal fluctuations in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. The multistate approach has the advantage over a single state approach of increasing the number of stations available for analysis, expanding the geographical coverage that would allow for application of regional regression equations across state boundaries, and building on a previous flood-frequency investigation of rural streamflow-gaging stations (streamgages) in the Southeastern United States. In addition, streamgages from the inner Coastal Plain of New Jersey were included in the analysis. Generalized least-squares regression techniques were used to generate predictive equations for estimating the 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flows for urban and small, rural ungaged basins for three hydrologic regions; the Piedmont-Ridge and Valley, Sand Hills, and Coastal Plain. Incorporation of urban streamgages from New Jersey also allowed for the expansion of the applicability of the predictive equations in the Coastal Plain from 2.1 to 53.5 square miles. Explanatory variables in the regression equations included drainage area (DA) and percent of impervious area (IA) for the Piedmont-Ridge and Valley region; DA and percent of developed land for the Sand Hills; and DA, IA, and 24-hour, 50-year maximum precipitation for the Coastal Plain. An application spreadsheet also was developed that can be used to compute the flood-frequency estimates along with the 95-percent prediction

  6. InSAR Time Series Analysis of Natural and Anthropogenic Coastal Plain Subsidence: The Case of Sibari (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cianflone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We applied the Small Baseline Subset multi-temporal InSAR technique (SBAS to two SAR datasets acquired from 2003 up to 2013 by Envisat (ESA, European Space Agency and COSMO-SkyMed (ASI, Italian Space Agency satellites to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of land subsidence in the Sibari Plain (Southern Italy. Subsidence processes (up to ~20 mm/yr were investigated comparing geological, hydrogeological, and land use information with interferometric results. We suppose a correlation between subsidence and thickness of the Plio-Quaternary succession suggesting an active role of the isostatic compensation. Furthermore, the active back thrusting in the Corigliano Gulf could trigger a flexural subsidence mechanism even if fault activity and earthquakes do not seem play a role in the present subsidence. In this context, the compaction of Holocene deposits contributes to ground deformation. Despite the rapid urbanization of the area in the last 50 years, we do not consider the intensive groundwater pumping and related water table drop as the main triggering cause of subsidence phenomena, in disagreement with some previous publications. Our interpretation for the deformation fields related to natural and anthropogenic factors would be a comprehensive and exhaustive justification to the complexity of subsidence processes in the Sibari Plain.

  7. Effects of planting density on the Biomass partitioning of intensively managed loblolly pine stands on the Piedmont and upper Coastal plain of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney E. Will; Nikhil Narahari; Robert O. Teskey; Barry D. Shiver; Matthew Wosotowsky

    2006-01-01

    Increased planting density enhances overall stand growth by increasing resource capture and use. However, planting density also may affect the proportion of biomass partitioned to stem growth, a main factor controlling stand growth and yield. During the fourth growing season, we determined the biomass partitioned to leaf, branch, stem, and fine root (> 0.5mm) of...

  8. Systematic vertical and lateral changes in quality and time resolution of the macrofossil record: insights from Holocene transgressive deposits, Po coastal plain, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarone, Michele; Scarponi, Daniele; Kusnerik, Kristopher; Amorosi, Alessandro; Bohacs, Kevin M.; Drexler, Tina M.; Kowalewski, Michał

    2017-04-01

    In siliciclastic marine settings, skeletal concentrations are a characteristic feature of transgressive intervals that provide insights into paleobiology and sequence stratigraphy. To investigate taphonomic signatures of transgressive intervals, we analyzed three cores from a Holocene depositional profile of the Po coastal plain, in northern Italy. Coupled multivariate taphonomic and bathymetric trends delineate spatial and temporal gradients in sediment starvation/bypassing, suggesting that quality and resolution of the fossil record vary predictably along the studied depositional profile. Moreover, joint consideration of taphonomic, bathymetric, and fossil density trends across the study area reveals distinctive signatures that are useful in characterizing facies associations and recognizing surfaces and intervals of sequence stratigraphic significance. Within the southern Po plain succession, taphonomic degradation of macroskeletal remains increases from proximal—nearshore to distal—offshore locations. This trend is discernible for both biologically-driven (bioerosion) and chemically/physically-driven (e.g., dissolution, abrasion) shell alterations. Compared to the up-dip (most proximal) core, the down-dip core is distinguished by shell-rich lithosomes affected by ecological condensation (co-occurrence of environmentally non-overlapping taxa) and by higher taphonomic alteration. The onshore-offshore taphonomic trend likely reflects variation in sediment-supply along the depositional profile of the Holocene Northern Adriatic shelf, with surface/near-surface residence-time of macroskeletal remains increasing down dip due to lower accumulation rates. These results indicate that, during transgressive phases, changes in sea-level (base level) are likely to produce down-dip taphonomic gradients across shelves, where the quality and resolution of the fossil record both deteriorate distally. The amino acid radiometrically calibrated dates on bivalves and the

  9. The late Quaternary evolution of the Arno Coastal plain (northern Tuscany, Italy): unravelling the interplay between glacio-eustatic and tectonic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, G.; Rossi, V.; Amorosi, A.; Ciampalini, A.; Molli, G.; Moretti, S.; Solari, L.

    2016-12-01

    Through the integration of sedimentological, radar interferometry and structural studies, a complex mid-late Quaternary coastal evolution related to Milankovitch-scale glacio-eustatic oscillations and local tectonics was reconstructed for the southern margin of the Arno coastal plain (APC, Tuscany, Italy). A set of 14C and ESR ages combined with SAR data, paleontological and archaeological proxy support the chronological framework. At a regional scale, the ACP straddles at the SW termination of a regional-scale fault, a crustal expression of lithospheric-scale tear segmenting the deep structure of the northern Apennines. GPS data, historical and present-day seismicity testify the activity of the fault zone. The thickness (up to 3000 m) and the age (Upper Miocene-Holocene) of the APC fill deposits reflect the accommodation space through time north of the Livorno-Sillaro line (LSL), in contrast to the recent uplifting documented south of the it. The uppermost 100 m of subsurface in the APC shows a Pleistocene incised-valley system (IVS), ca. 4 km wide and 45 m deep. The IVS fill is composed of floodplain clays passing upwards to estuarine deposits, dated to MIS 7. Above, a succession of amalgamated fluvial-channel sands record both depositional and erosional events of post-MIS 7 age. Upwards, a Holocene alluvial-deltaic succession overlies an indurated horizon related to a younger IVS system that formed at MIS 3/MIS 2 transition. The Holocene succession becomes thin in proximity of an isolated relief, Upper Pleistocene in age, rising up to 15 m above the present-day plain, ca. 6 km south of the Arno River. ERS and Envisat SAR data were acquired between the 1992 and the 2010 and processed by using the PSInSAR technique. The subsidence rates along the southern boundary of the ACP, reach 28 mm/y even if this data may be partially enhanced by water exploitation. Our results document that the transition between the subsiding and uplifting areas does not coincide with the

  10. Vegetation dynamics during the Last Interglacial-Glacial cycle in the Arno coastal plain (Tuscany, western Italy): location of a new tree refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchi, M. Ricci

    2008-12-01

    Pollen analysis of the pre-Last Glacial Maximum succession of a 105 m-long continuous core from Tirrenia (Tuscany) provides evidence for the existence of an area of relatively high ecological stability where the effects of climate change were mitigated. The chronological framework of the vegetation record, spanning the Last Interglacial-Glacial cycle, was established by (i) AMS 14C dating, (ii) correlation with well-dated pollen sequences, and (iii) local stratigraphical constraints. A high lithological and sedimentological variability, with facies associations changing from fluvial to alluvial and coastal plain, enhances the palaeoenvironmental control on pollen distribution, thus helping to discriminate the impact of local factors on vegetation history. The most remarkable evidence, however, is represented by the continuous record of temperate trees throughout the whole glacial period, which provides useful indications on the location and nature of cold stage refugia. Most of the vegetation changes recorded in the core can be compared to the vegetation history of the Last Interglacial-Glacial cycle from southern Europe as a whole. In addition, local geographic and environmental features account for a more complex and varied floristic composition. Only the last phase of the Penultimate Glacial (MIS6), which was characterized by the diffusion of an arid steppe tundra, is recorded at the base of the core. The subsequent Last Interglacial (MIS5e) interval shows a poor and scattered pollen content due to the instability of the sedimentary environment. Nevertheless, it provides evidence of both global and local controls on vegetation dynamics, as indicated by the initial expansion of thermophilous forests and the remarkably late diffusion of conifers ( Pinus-Abies-Picea forests), respectively. Similarly, the transition to the Last Glacial (MIS5b and 5a in the core) is characterized by a reduced vegetation response to the typical stadial/interstadial climate variability

  11. Flood Hazard Assessment of the coastal lowland in the Kujukuri Plain of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, using GIS and multicriteria decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, Huali; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Ito, Yuka; Sawamukai, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Floods, the most common natural disaster in the world, cause serious loss of life and economic damage. Flood is one of the disasters in the coastal lowland along the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Many natural and human activities have changed the surface environment of the Plain. These include agricultural development, urban and industrial development, change of the drainage patterns of the land surface, deposition and/or erosion of the river valleys, and so on. In addition, wide spread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by the abstraction of natural gas dissolved in groundwater. The locations of the groundwater extraction include nearby the coast, and it may increase the flood risk. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to develop hazard maps for protecting surface environment and land-use planning. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) provides methodology and techniques for analyzing complex decision problems, which often involve incommensurable data or criteria. Also, Geographical Information System (GIS) is the powerful tool since it manages large amount of spatial data involved in MCDA. The purpose of this study is to present a flood hazard model using MCDA techniques with GIS support in a region where primary data are scare. The model incorporates six parameters: river system, topography, land-use, flood control project, passing flood from coast, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 meter resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30,000 scale river watershed map, and precipitation data from precipitation observation stations around the study area. River system map was created by merging the river order, the line density, and the river sink point density layers. Land-use data were derived from Landsat-TM images. A final hazard map for 2004, as an example, was

  12. Estimating the freshwater-lens reserve in the coastal plain of the middle Río de la Plata Estuary (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellone, Francisco; Tosi, Luigi; Carol, Eleonora

    2018-02-23

    Drinking-water supply is one of the main issues that populations face in many coastlands. Shallow coastal aquifers are often characterized by the presence of lens-shaped freshwater floating on the saline groundwater plume of marine origin. These groundwater lenses are commonly associated with landforms, such as littoral ridges and dunes and in many cases they represent the main source of water supply in remote coastal areas. At the right side of the middle Río de la Plata estuary (Argentina) the aquifer system is generally saline. Elongated and thin sandy beach ridge systems emerging from the general flat morphology of the marsh-flood plain are capable of storing precipitations forming freshwater lenses, which to date are the main freshwater supply for inhabitants. The aim of this study is to identify and delimitate the presence of such valuable freshwater reserves in order to provide the first necessary guidelines for the water management plan in this area, which has never been implemented since, to the Authors' knowledge, no specific investigation had been carried out before this study. To achieve this goal, Vertical Electrical Sounding, groundwater electrical conductivity measurements, water balances and groundwater chemical analyses were performed and interpreted together. The whole dataset was processed to define the electro-stratigraphic model of the study area and to produce the map of the electrical conductivity of the shallow aquifer. In addition, a three-dimensional model of the fresh water reservoir has been implemented for a better understanding of the relationship between geomorphology and groundwater. Results point out that a total freshwater volume of 78,259,700m 3 is stored into a continuous lens and the annual average recharge from precipitation amounts to 6,303,500m 3 . Although preliminary, this work provides the basic knowledge on the potential fresh groundwater lenses and provides important information for addressing a sustainable use of the

  13. Use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index to Assess Vegetative Nutritive Value in Halophytic Graminoid Habitat across Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, K. R.; Ward, D. H.; Budde, M. E.; Ruthrauff, D. R.; Hupp, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change will likely alter the seasonal nutrient abundance and general distribution of halophytic graminoid (salt marsh) habitat across the Arctic Coastal Plain. Halophytic graminoids are key forage for newly hatched Black Brant, Lesser Snow and Greater White-fronted Geese and the timing and degree of seasonal nutrient abundance in these plants is critical for gosling growth and survival. After 5 years of research (culminating in 2015) under the USGS Alaska Science Center's Changing Arctic Ecosystems Initiative, we found strong relationships between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and nutrient abundance (N g/m2) and availability (%N) in halophytic graminoid habitat. The relationships between NDVI and nutrient abundance and availability were strong whether using NDVI derived from high (spectrometer), moderate (WorldView-2 satellite) or low (eMODIS satellite) resolution data. Correlations established and validated at one location were used to predict nutrient abundance using NDVI readings from other locations, allowing interpretation of satellite derived NDVI in terms of nutrient abundance across broad areas of mapped salt marsh habitat. Further, NDVI seasonal timelines were used to predict the timing of peak nutrient availability using the period of most rapid increase in NDVI value. Currently, we are using WorldView-2 imagery to create vegetation maps of the central Arctic coastal zone (~20 km inland) of Alaska, covering approximately 1000 km of coastline, with a focus on identifying all salt marshes. Such maps will enable monitoring programs and allow for modeling to predict spatial and temporal changes in halophytic graminoid habitat and the nutrients available to geese in the early stages of life.

  14. First steps of integrated spatial modeling of titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources within the Coastal Plain sediments of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Budahn, James R.; Smith, Steven M.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2015-01-01

    The Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States has extensive, unconsolidated sedimentary deposits that are enriched in heavy minerals containing titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources. Areas favorable for exploration and development of these resources are being identified by geochemical data, which are supplemented with geological, geophysical, hydrological, and geographical data. The first steps of this analysis have been completed. The concentrations of lanthanum, yttrium, and titanium tend to decrease as distance from the Piedmont (which is the likely source of these resources) increases and are moderately correlated with airborne measurements of equivalent thorium concentration. The concentrations of lanthanum, yttrium, and titanium are relatively high in those watersheds that adjoin the Piedmont, south of the Cape Fear Arch. Although this relation suggests that the concentrations are related to the watersheds, it may be simply an independent regional trend. The concentration of zirconium is unrelated to the distance from the Piedmont, the equivalent thorium concentration, and the watershed. These findings establish a foundation for more sophisticated analyses using integrated spatial modeling.

  15. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY FROM UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER CARBONATES THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AT WOMACK HILL OIL FIELD, CHOCTAW AND CLARKE COUNTIES, EASTERN GULF COASTAL PLAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-05-20

    Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates are undertaking a focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling and an integrated field demonstration project at Womack Hill Oil Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The principal research efforts for Year 3 of the project have been recovery technology analysis and recovery technology evaluation. The research focus has primarily been on well test analysis, 3-D reservoir simulation, microbial core experiments, and the decision to acquire new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field area. Although Geoscientific Reservoir Characterization and 3-D Geologic Modeling have been completed and Petrophysical and Engineering Characterization and Microbial Characterization are essentially on schedule, a no-cost extension until September 30, 2003, has been granted by DOE so that new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field can be acquired and interpreted to assist in the determination as to whether Phase II of the project should be implemented.

  16. A gas-tracer injection for evaluating the fate of methane in a coastal plain stream: Degassing versus in-stream oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Solomon, D. Kip; Darrah, Thomas H.; Gilmore, Troy E.; Genereux, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Methane emissions from streams and rivers have recently been recognized as an important component of global greenhouse budgets. Stream methane is lost as evasion to the atmosphere or in-stream methane oxidation. Previous studies have quantified evasion and oxidation with point-scale measurements. In this study, dissolved gases (methane, krypton) were injected into a coastal plain stream in North Carolina to quantify stream CH4 losses at the watershed scale. Stream-reach modeling yielded gas transfer and oxidation rate constants of 3.2 ± 0.5 and 0.5 ± 1.5 d–1, respectively, indicating a ratio of about 6:1. The resulting evasion and oxidation rates of 2.9 mmol m–2 d–1 and 1,140 nmol L–1 d–1, respectively, lie within ranges of published values. Similarly, the gas transfer velocity (K600) of 2.1 m d–1 is consistent with other gas tracer studies. This study illustrates the utility of dissolved-gas tracers for evaluating stream methane fluxes. In contrast to point measurements, this approach provides a larger watershed-scale perspective. Further work is needed to quantify the magnitude of these fluxes under varying conditions (e.g., stream temperature, nutrient load, gradient, flow rate) at regional and global scales before reliable bottom-up estimates of methane evasion can be determined at global scales.

  17. Impact of Addition of FGDB as a Soil Amendment on Physical and Chemical Properties of an Alkali Soil and Crop Yield of Maize in Northern China Coastal Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-L. Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of Flue gas desulfurization byproduct( FGDB as a soil amendment on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays and to determine the impact of FGDB additions on soil fertility characteristics in alkaline clayey soils, a 2-year field experiment was conducted in Huanghua, in Northern China Coastal Plain. The experiment included five treatments in which the soil was amended with FGDB at 15 cm depth at the rates of 0 t·hm−2, 4.50 t·hm−2, 9.00 t·hm−2, 13.5 t·hm−2, and 18.00 t·hm−2, respectively, before maize was planted. The values of soil pH, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, and bulk density (BD of the soil decreased; however, values of electrical conductivity (EC, water holding capacity (WHC, and plant nutrients increased with FGDB application in the soil. Crop plants grow more readily in FGDB amended soils because of improved soil properties. The best ameliorative effect was obtained at the rate of 13.5 t·hm−2. The germination percentage, plant height, and crop yield successively increased in both years. The results indicated FGDB was an effective soil amendment for improving the physicochemical properties and nutrient balance, and enhancing crop germination, growth, and yield, particularly when applied at a suitable application rate.

  18. Concentrations and environmental fate of Ra in cation-exchange regeneration brine waste disposed to septic tanks and accumulation in sludge, New Jersey Coastal Plain, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Jacobsen, Eric; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Parsa, Bahman

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of Ra in liquid and solid wastes generated from 15 softeners treating domestic well waters from New Jersey Coastal Plain aquifers (where combined Ra ( 226 Ra plus 228 Ra) concentrations commonly exceed 0.185 Bq L -1 ) were determined. Softeners, when maintained, reduced combined Ra about 10-fold ( -1 ). Combined Ra exceeded 0.185 Bq L -1 at 1 non-maintained system. Combined Ra was enriched in regeneration brine waste (maximum, 81.2 Bq L -1 ), but concentrations in septic-tank effluents receiving brine waste were less than in the untreated ground waters. The maximum combined Ra concentration in aquifer sands (40.7 Bq kg -1 dry weight) was less than that in sludge from the septic tanks (range, 84-363 Bq kg -1 ), indicating Ra accumulation in sludge from effluent. The combined Ra concentration in sludge from the homeowners' septic systems falls within the range reported for sludge samples from publicly owned treatment works within the region

  19. Applications of quaternary stratigraphic, soil-geomorphic, and quantitative geomorphic analyses to the evaluation of tectonic activity and landscape evolution in the Upper Coastal Plain, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.L.; Bullard, T.F.; Wit, M.W. de; Stieve, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Geomorphic analyses combined with mapping of fluvial terraces and upland geomorphic surfaces provide new approaches and data for evaluating the Quaternary activity of post-Cretaceous faults that are recognized in subsurface data at the Savannah River Site in the Upper Coastal Plain of southwestern South Carolina. Analyses of longitudinal stream and terrace profiles, regional slope maps, and drainage basin morphometry indicate long-term uplift and southeast tilt of the site region. Preliminary results of drainage basin characterization suggests an apparent rejuvenation of drainages along the trace of the Pen Branch fault (a Tertiary reactivated reverse fault that initiated as a basin-margin normal fault along the northern boundary of the Triassic Dunbarton Basin). This apparent rejuvenation of drainages may be the result of nontectonic geomorphic processes or local tectonic uplift and tilting within a framework of regional uplift. Longitudinal profiles of fluvial terrace surfaces that are laterally continuous across the projected surface trace of the Pen Branch fault show no obvious evidence of warping or faulting within a resolution of ∼3 m. This combined with the estimated age of the terrace surfaces (350 ka to 1 Ma) indicates that if the Pen Branch fault is active, the Pleistocene rate of slip is very low (0.002 to 0.009 mm/yr)

  20. Leaf δ15N as an indicator of arbuscular mycorrhizal nitrogen uptake in a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardegan, S. F.; Valadares, R.; Martinelli, L.

    2013-12-01

    Restinga diversity contrasts with a series of adverse environmental conditions that constrain their development, including nutrient limitation. In this sense, the mutualistic symbiosis between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may contribute in nutrient acquisition, including nitrogen. However, this association deeply affects plant nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N), since assimilation processes and biochemical reactions within the fungi may reflect in a delivered product with an isotopic composition about 8 to 10 ‰ lower than that observed at the fungal symbiont per se. Here we assessed if the association with AMF affects δ15N values of plant species from a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at Southeastern Brazil. Accordingly, we analyzed the nutritional and isotopic compositions from ecosystem key-compartments (soil, litter and leaves), relating plant δ15N with the colonization rates. The study was carried out in a permanent plot (1 ha) at a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at the Serra do Mar State Park, SP, Brazil. Sampled vegetation is characterized by the lack of a well-defined stratification and a rather open canopy. It also comprises trees ranging from 10 to 15-m high. Soils are deep and sandy, being characterized by high acidity, nutrient deficiency and a dense litter cover. We randomly collected five samples (250 mg) from topsoil (0-10 cm) and five to ten leaves from individuals belonging to 16 plant species of high relevance within the site (IVI index). We also collected superficial (0-10 cm depth) fine roots (5 g) and 13 samples (100 g) of fine litter next to the individuals sampled. Soil samples were air-dried, sieved, homogenized and used in the physical-chemical characterization. The remainder was ground to a fine powder to determine nitrogen concentrations and δ15N values. Leaves were dried at 50 °C, finely milled and used for the determination of nitrogen concentrations, C/N ratios and δ15N values. Root samples were

  1. Assessment of seawater intrusion and nitrate contamination on the groundwater quality in the Korba coastal plain of Cap-Bon (North-east of Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zghibi, Adel; Tarhouni, Jamila; Zouhri, Lahcen

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, seawater intrusion and nitrate contamination of groundwater have become a growing concern for people in rural areas in Tunisia where groundwater is always used as drinking water. The coastal plain of Korba (north-east of Tunisia) is a typical area where the contamination of the aquifer in the form of saltwater intrusion and high nitrate concentrations is very developed and represents the major consequence of human activities. The objective of this study is to evaluate groundwater resource level, to determine groundwater quality and to assess the risk of NO3- pollution in groundwater using hydrogeochemical tools. Groundwater were sampled and analyzed for physic-chemical parameters: Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, NO3-, Total Dissolved Solid and of the physical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity and the temperature). The interpretation of the analytical results is shown numerically and graphically through the ionic deviations, Piper Diagram, seawater fractions and binary diagrams. Moreover, electrical conductivity investigations have been used to identify the location of the major intrusion plumes in this coastal area and to obtain new information on the spatial scales and dynamics of the fresh water-seawater interface. Those processes can be used as indicators of seawater intrusion progression. First, the hydrogeochemical investigation of this aquifer reveals the major sources of contamination, represented by seawater intrusion. Thus, the intensive extraction of groundwater from aquifer reduces freshwater outflow to the sea, creates several drawdown cones and lowering of the water table to as much as 12 m below mean sea level in the center part of the study area especially between Diarr El Hojjej and Tafelloun villages, causing seawater migration inland and rising toward the wells. Moreover, the results of this study revealed the presence of direct cation exchange linked to seawater intrusion and dissolution processes associated with

  2. Stratigraphy, age, and correlation of voluminous debris-avalanche events from an ancestral Egmont Volcano : implications for coastal plain construction and regional hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloway, B.V.; McComb, P.; Neall, V.; Vucetich, C.; Gibb, J.; Sherburn, S.; Stirling, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Two previously unrecognised debris-avalanche deposits have been identified on the eastern flanks of Egmont Volcano beneath a thick mantle of tephric and andic soil material that has mostly subdued their topographic expression. The Ngaere Formation is a c. 23 14 C ka large volume (>5.85 km 3 ) debris-avalanche deposit that is widely distributed over 320-500 km 2 of the north-east, south-east, and south portions of the Egmont ring plain. The second deposit, Okawa Formation, is a c. 105 ka large volume (>3.62 km 3 ) debris-avalanche deposit that has been mapped over a minimum area of 255 km 2 in northern and north-eastern Taranaki. Both debris-avalanche formations contain axial facies with hummocks composed mainly of block-supported brecciated andesitic debris. A less conspicuous marginal facies, texturally resembling a mudflow, is more extensive. A third debris-avalanche deposit (Motunui Formation) is extensively preserved along the north Taranaki coast where it is truncated by a c. 127 ka wave cut surface (NT2) and closely overlies a c. 210 ka wave cut surface (NT3). The source of this debris-avalanche deposit is unknown. Side-scan sonar and shallow seismic profiling have been useful in accurately delineating the distribution of combined Okawa and Motunui debris-avalanche deposits in the offshore environment but cannot distinguish between the two deposits or enable onshore spatial and volumetric estimates for each unit to be revised. However, the widespread occurrence of debris-avalanche rock material offshore does emphasise the importance of this lag material altering the orientation of the coast influencing both wave climate and rates of coastal erosion. Similarly, the extensive onshore occurrence of debris-avalanche rock material appears to be a significant factor in widening of the north Taranaki coastal plain and preservation of the NT2 and NT3 uplifted marine terrace surfaces. Initiation of collapse by magmatically-induced seismicity is apparently common at

  3. Soil color indicates carbon and wetlands: developing a color-proxy for soil organic carbon and wetland boundaries on sandy coastal plains in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, M L; Van Huyssteen, C W; Brown, L R

    2017-10-13

    A relationship between soil organic carbon and soil color is acknowledged-albeit not a direct one. Since heightened carbon contents can be an indicator of wetlands, a quantifiable relationship between color and carbon might assist in determining wetland boundaries by rapid, field-based appraisal. The overarching aim of this initial study was to determine the potential of top soil color to indicate soil organic carbon, and by extension wetland boundaries, on a sandy coastal plain in South Africa. Data were collected from four wetland types in northern KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Soil samples were taken to a depth of 300 mm in three transects in each wetland type and analyzed for soil organic carbon. The matrix color was described using a Munsell soil color chart. Various color indices were correlated with soil organic carbon. The relationship between color and carbon were further elucidated using segmented quantile regression. This showed that potentially maximal carbon contents will occur at values of low color indices, and predictably minimal carbon contents will occur at values of low or high color indices. Threshold values can thus be used to make deductions such as "when the sum of dry and wet Value and Chroma values is 9 or more, carbon content will be 4.79% and less." These threshold values can then be used to differentiate between wetland and non-wetland sites with a 70 to 100% certainty. This study successfully developed a quantifiable correlation between color and carbon and showed that wetland boundaries can be determined based thereon.

  4. Residence time, chemical and isotopic analysis of nitrate in the groundwater and surface water of a small agricultural watershed in the Coastal Plain, Bucks Branch, Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, John W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate is a common contaminant in groundwater and surface water throughout the Nation, and water-resource managers need more detailed small-scale watershed research to guide conservation efforts aimed at improving water quality. Concentrations of nitrate in Bucks Branch are among the highest in the state of Delaware and a scientific investigation was performed to provide water-quality information to assist with the management of agriculture and water resources. A combination of major-ion chemistry, nitrogen isotopic composition and age-dating techniques was used to estimate the residence time and provide a chemical and isotopic analysis of nitrate in the groundwater in the surficial aquifer of the Bucks Branch watershed in Sussex County, Delaware. The land use was more than 90 percent agricultural and most nitrogen inputs were from manure and fertilizer. The apparent median age of sampled groundwater is 18 years and the estimated residence time of groundwater contributing to the streamflow for the entire Bucks Branch watershed at the outlet is approximately 19 years. Concentrations of nitrate exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter (as nitrogen) in 60 percent of groundwater samples and 42 percent of surface-water samples. The overall geochemistry in the Bucks Branch watershed indicates that agriculture is the predominant source of nitrate contamination and the observed patterns in major-ion chemistry are similar to those observed in other studies on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. The pattern of enrichment in nitrogen and oxygen isotopes (δ15N and δ18O) of nitrate in groundwater and surface water indicates there is some loss of nitrate through denitrification, but this process is not sufficient to remove all of the nitrate from groundwater discharging to streams, and concentrations of nitrate in streams remain elevated.

  5. High and Increasing Shoreline Erosion Rates of Thermokarst Lakes Set in Ice-Rich Permafrost Terrain of the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondurant, A. C.; Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.; Shur, Y.; Daanen, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Thermokarst lakes are a dominant landform shaping landscapes and impacting permafrost on the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska, a region of continuous permafrost. Here lakes cover greater than 20% of the landscape and drained lake basins cover an additional 50 to 60% of the landscape. The formation, expansion, and drainage of thaw lakes has been described by some researchers as part of a natural cycle that has reworked the ACP landscape during the Holocene. Yet the factors and processes controlling contemporary thermokarst lake expansion remain poorly described. This study focuses on the factors controlling expansion rates of thermokarst lakes in three ACP regions that vary in landscape history, ground-ice content, and lake morphology (i.e. size and depth), as well as evaluating changes through time. Through the use of historical aerial imagery, satellite imagery, and field observations, this study identifies the controlling factors at multiple spatial and temporal scales to better understand the processes relating to thermokarst lake expansion. Studies of 35 lakes across the ACP shows regional differences in expansion rate related to permafrost ice content ranging from an average expansion rate of 0.62 m/yr where ice content is highest ( 86%) to 0.16 m/yr where ice content is lowest (45%-71%). A subset of these lakes analyzed over multiple time periods show increasing rates of erosion, with average rates being 37% higher over the period 1979-2002 (0.73 m/yr) compared to 1948-1979 (0.53 m/yr). These increased rates of erosion have important implications for the regional hydrologic cycle and localized permafrost degradation. Predicting how thermokarst lakes will behave locally and on a landscape scale is increasingly important for managing habitat and water resources and informing models of land-climate interactions in the Arctic.

  6. Seasonal and multiannual roost use by Rafinesque's Big-eared Bats in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, Susan, C.; Zarnoch, Stanley, J.

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about factors affecting year-round use of roosts by Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) or the long-term fidelity of this species to anthropogenic or natural roosts. The objectives of this study were to test whether seasonal use of roosts by Rafinesque's big-eared bats varied with roost type and environmental conditions within and among seasons and to document multiannual use of natural and anthropogenic structures by this species. We inspected 4 bridges, 1 building, and 59 tree roosts possessing basal cavity openings; roosts were inspected at least once per week from May through October in every year from 2005 through 2008 and once a month from November through April in every year from 2005 through 2009. We found that use of anthropogenic roosts was significantly greater than the use of tree roosts in summer but that the use of structure types did not differ in other seasons. There was significant seasonal variation in use of anthropogenic and tree roosts. Anthropogenic roost use was higher in summer than in all other seasons. There was no significant difference in tree use among spring, summer, and fall, but use in winter was significantly lower in 2 years of the study. Overall use of anthropogenic and tree roosts was positively related to minimum temperature, but the relationship between use of roosts and minimum temperature varied among seasons. Bats showed multiannual fidelity ({ge} 4 years) to all anthropogenic roosts and to some tree roosts, but fidelity of bats to anthropogenic roosts was greater and more consistent than to tree roosts. Our data indicate that Rafinesque's big-eared bats responded differently to environmental conditions among seasons; thus, a variety of structure types and characteristics are necessary for conservation of these bats. We suggest long-term protection of roost structures of all types is necessary for conservation of Rafinesque's big-eared bats in the southeast Coastal Plain.

  7. Sorption kinetics of Hg and HgCl[sub 2] on Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer sediments from the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, C.; Peterson, J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Geological and Geophysical Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Anomalously high Hg concentrations have been detected from domestic wells in the Kirkwood-Cohansey Aquifer System, New Jersey Coastal Plain. Mercury concentrations ranging from 0.2--83.0 [mu]g/l in relatively shallow wells ([lt] 100 feet) have been detected. Concentrations in excess of 2.0 [mu]g/l, (the USEPA Drinking Water Standard) have been detected in wells where the Cohansey Sand is overlain by the Bridgeton Formation; a fluvial iron-rich sand with some gravelly channel deposits containing goethite and gibbsite nodules. In this study, Bridgeton Fm. sediments were used to determine the sorption kinetics for solutions containing HgCl[sub 2] and for solutions containing dissolved elemental Hg in order to assess the potential for the Bridgeton sediments to act as a conduit for Hg mobilized from the surface. Results of batch equilibrium experiments suggest that dissolved elemental Hg sorbs to Bridgeton sediments by a risk-order kinetic process. Sorption of the Hg proceeded exponentially and equilibrium was reached within 14 hours. The sorption kinetics for the HgCl[sub 2] solutions, however, appear to be of a second or higher order. For this compound sorption to the sediments begins exponentially, but after 6 hours desorption into the water begins to predominate followed by a slower exponential sorption step that requires nearly 36 hours to reach equilibrium. These experiments illustrate the necessity of determining the distribution coefficients of possible source compounds when attempting to evaluate mobilization potential of a contaminant in the unsaturated zone. Moreover, these data also suggest that HgCl[sub 2], a seed dressing for corn, medial bacteriacide, and embalming fluid ingredient, is more mobile in the environment than dissolved elemental Hg. Consequently, the ground water contamination potential appears to be greater for HgCl[sub 2] than for elemental Hg.

  8. Estimating nitrate concentrations in groundwater at selected wells and springs in the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer, Dougherty Plain and Marianna Lowlands, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama, 2002-50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Christy A.; Katz, Brian G.; Berndt, Marian P.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater from the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer in the Dougherty Plain and Marianna Lowlands in southwestern Georgia, northwestern Florida, and southeastern Alabama is affected by elevated nitrate concentrations as a result of the vulnerability of the aquifer, irrigation water-supply development, and intensive agricultural land use. The region relies primarily on groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer for drinking-water and irrigation supply. Elevated nitrate concentrations in drinking water are a concern because infants under 6 months of age who drink water containing nitrate concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen can become seriously ill with blue baby syndrome. In response to concerns about water quality in domestic wells and in springs in the lower Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River Basin, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection funded a study in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey to examine water quality in groundwater and springs that provide base flow to the Chipola River. A three-dimensional, steady-state, regional-scale groundwater-flow model and two local-scale models were used in conjunction with particle tracking to identify travel times and areas contributing recharge to six groundwater sites—three long-term monitor wells (CP-18A, CP-21A, and RF-41) and three springs (Jackson Blue Spring, Baltzell Springs Group, and Sandbag Spring) in the lower Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River Basin. Estimated nitrate input to groundwater at land surface, based on previous studies of nitrogen fertilizer sales and atmospheric nitrate deposition data, were used in the advective transport models for the period 2002 to 2050. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater samples collected from the six sites during 1993 to 2007 and groundwater age tracer data were used to calibrate the transport aspect of the simulations

  9. Assessment of Physical, Chemical, and Hydrologic Factors Affecting the Infiltration of Treated Wastewater in theNew Jersey Coastal Plain, with Emphasis on theHammonton Land Application Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Tessler, Steven; Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    A hydrogeologic and water-quality investigation of the Hammonton Land Application Facility (Hammonton LAF) in Hammonton, New Jersey, was conducted to determine the factors that impede the infiltration of treated wastewater and to assess the potential for similar conditions to exist elsewhere in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey (particularly within the Pinelands National Reserve). Gamma logs, sediment cores, and hydraulic-profile testing indicate that extensive fine-grained strata and iron-cemented sands underlying the Hammonton LAF may impede infiltration and lead to the perching of diluted treated wastewater. Perched water was observed in augured holes adjacent to infiltration trenches, and analysis of wastewater loading and infiltration data indicates that infiltration trenches may receive lateral flow from multiple perched-water sources. Analysis of water-quality properties characteristic of treated wastewater show that although infiltrated wastewater is reaching the underlying aquifer, lengthy holding times and a long recharge pathway greatly reduce the concentrations of nitrate, boron, and many organic compounds typical of wastewater. Conditions at two currently operating facilities and one potential future facility in the New Jersey Coastal Plain were compared to those at the Hammonton Land Application Facility (LAF). Facilities operating as designed are not underlain by the restrictive strata that exist at the Hammonton LAF. Careful characterization of the geology and hydrology of the unsaturated zone underlying infiltration structures of future facilities in the New Jersey Coastal Plain and similar hydrogeologic settings will help to avoid constructing infiltration structures over or within low-hydraulic-conductivity strata that will decrease infiltration rates.

  10. POTENTIALLY TOXIC ELEMENT CYCLES AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTIPLE SOURCES IN THE IRRIGATION DITCHES FROM THE RAVENNA COASTAL PLAIN THROUGH TRACE ELEMENTS AND ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available While monitoring the physico-chemical characteristics, trace elements and O-H-Sr-B isotopic data were obtained in superficial waters from a number of irrigations canals and ditches in the Ravenna coastal plain, in order to highlight the cycling of potentially toxic elements and the different sources of the solutes. Surveys were conducted during March and July 2008, and considered as representative of the waters in winter and summer, respectively. In summer, the water mass balance in the network is mostly controlled by the ingression of freshwaters from the Canale Emiliano Romagnolo (CER. The O-H isotopic data indicated that, in winter, waters are primarily recharged from Apennine catchments and undergo evaporation to different extents.The boron isotopic signature indicates the important role played by the marine component. A major seawater contribution was evidenced in canals close to the coastline; however, the process controlling the origin of dissolved boron is not solely related to direct mixing with sea water but comprises an additional source probably related to water-soil exchanges and boron of marine origin leaching, owing to the prolonged exposure of alluvial sediments to sea water. An additional boron contribution from the agricultural practice was is also evidenced. Calculation based on the conservative behaviour of chloride ions indicated that in canals and ditches not directly connected with the sea up to the 80% of the Sr budget did not originate from seawater, indicating a source from Al-silicate minerals and supporting the hypothesis of significant soil-water interactions and chemical exchanges.The positive correlation between pH and dissolved oxygen in winter waters is likely to reflect CO2 consumption during algal photosynthesis, favouring the in-situ generation of colloidal particles due to the oxidative precipitation of ferric iron oxy-hydroxides and probably small carbonate particles able to adsorb trace metals on their

  11. Life of the Aquifer: Improving Earth Science Education for Teachers and Students in High Schools of Under-represented Groups on the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, M. B.; Phillips, P. L.; McBroom, R.

    2007-12-01

    Life of the Aquifer is a program to improve Earth Science education in local public high schools. Geologic awareness among the local population is low because southeastern N.C. are on the Coastal Plain where rocks are not visible. This has made instruction in Earth Science, now required in North Carolina high schools, difficult. Our approach is to use groundwater, source of local public water, as a theme to organize instruction in geology. More than 70% of the student population in Robeson County, a rural low-wealth area, is from groups under- represented in the geosciences (46% Native American and 31% African American). Linking basic concepts in geology to groundwater is a way to show how geology is real and affects society. Our project engages teachers and students in active inquiry of the functioning of local aquifers from recharge to groundwater production. Although data on water levels in the Black Creek aquifer have been collected, there has been little formal investigation because serious problems with groundwater have not been noted to date. Nonetheless, the hydraulic head of Black Creek Aquifer wells has been declining. We started by improving skills of local Earth Science teachers, because most have had no formal education in geology. The teachers attended workshops on basic geology, groundwater, and exercises based on local groundwater data. The workshops also included field trips to outcrops exposing the local aquifer, 100 km away in South Carolina. We also showed teachers how each topic addresses Competency Goals in the Standard Course of Study. By using our instructional modules, the teachers assist their students to develop spatial reasoning skills by analyzing maps. Student geologic knowledge is increased by learning how the components of a groundwater system form as a result of geologic processes and collecting data from the Internet on changes in groundwater systems over time. Our remaining implementation activity is installation of wells to

  12. Ice-Wedge Polygon Formation Impacts Permafrost Carbon Storage and Vulnerability to Top-Down Thaw in Arctic Coastal Plain Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrow, J. D.; Matamala, R.; Ping, C. L.; Vugteveen, T. W.; Lederhouse, J. S.; Michaelson, G. J.; Mishra, U.

    2017-12-01

    Ice-wedge polygons are ubiquitous, patterned ground features throughout Arctic coastal plains and river deltas. The progressive expansion of ice wedges influences polygon development and strongly affects cryoturbation and soil formation. Thus, we hypothesized that polygon type impacts the distribution and composition of soil organic carbon (C) stocks across the landscape and that such information can improve estimates of permafrost C stocks vulnerable to active layer thickening and increased decomposition due to climatic change. We quantified the distribution of soil C across entire polygon profiles (2-m depth) for three developmental types - flat-centered (FCP), low-centered (LCP), and high-centered (HCP) polygons (3 replicates of each) - formed on glaciomarine sediments within and near the Barrow Environmental Observatory at the northern tip of Alaska. Active layer thickness averaged 45 cm and did not vary among polygon types. Similarly, active layer C stocks were unaffected by polygon type, but permafrost C stocks increased from FCPs to LCPs to HCPs despite greater ice volumes in HCPs. These differences were due to a greater presence of organic horizons in the upper permafrost of LCPs and, especially, HCPs. On average, C stocks in polygon interiors were double those of troughs, on a square meter basis. However, HCPs were physically smaller than LCPs and FCPs, which affected estimates of C stocks at the landscape scale. Accounting for the number of polygons per unit area and the proportional distribution of troughs versus interiors, we estimated permafrost C stocks (2-m depth) increased from 259 Mg C ha-1 in FCPs to 366 Mg C ha-1 in HCPs. Active layer C stocks did not differ among polygon types and averaged 328 Mg C ha-1. We used our detailed polygon profiles to investigate the impact of active layer deepening as projected by Earth system models under future climate scenarios. Because HCPs have a greater proportion of upper permafrost C stocks in organic horizons

  13. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Geomorphology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, and shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with geomorphic map units interpreted from, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2007. Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Geomorphology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to...

  14. Geology, Surficial, Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with geomorphic map units interpreted fro, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2007. Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain...

  15. Geology, Surficial, Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - DRG �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with geomorphic map units interpreted from, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - DRG �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain...

  16. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Surficial Geology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with surficial geology interpreted from LI, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2007. Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Surficial Geology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to...

  17. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, and shallow aquifers and confining units; Excel spread sheet with core names, coordinates, and data co, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize...

  18. Georgia - Energy Rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Gustavson Associates was retained by Millennium Challenge Georgia (MCG) to prepare a model to calculate the economic rate of return (ERR) for rehabilitation work...

  19. Mineralisation of low concentrations of organic compounds and microbial biomass in surface and vadose zone soils from the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzmann, P. D.; Zappia, L. R.; Patterson, B. M.; Rayner, J.L.; Davis, G. B.

    1998-01-01

    Mineralisation rates for ring-labelled 14 C-atrazine, benzene, and toluene were determined for a number of Swan Coastal Plain soils which had not been previously in contact with these contaminants. Microbial biomass was estimated by phospholipid techniques in soil samples from the same sites. Mineralisation rates for the volatile aromatic hydrocarbons in the thin (up to 30 cm) surface soils (23.4-42.6 μmol/kg . day when fitted to zeroth-order rate kinetics) were appreciably faster than the mineralisation rates measured in soils collected from a depth of 1 m (0.11-3.0 μmol/kg per day). The pesticide atrazine was degraded slowly, with degradation rates in surface soils ranging from 1.22x10 -3 to 2.78x10 -4 μmol/kg . day, and those in soils at 1 m ranging from 5. 13x10 -4 to 3.1610 -4 μmol/kg per day. When mineralisation data were fitted to first-order kinetics then half-lives for atrazine mineralisation ranged from about 1 year in surface soils to 3.1-5.1 years in soils at 1 m. These rates were comparable to atrazine mineralisation rates measured in soils that had not been previously in contact with atrazine, as reported by others. The extent of mineralisation of the organic compounds v. time generally fitted better to zeroth-order kinetics than to first-order kinetics. Confidence in the determination of the mineralisation rate at slow rates of mineralisation was low (r 2 as low as 0.2 in plots of the extent of mineralisation v. time in zeroth-order and first-order plots for samples that showed slow mineralisation). Biomass, expressed as stationary phase Escherichia coli equivalents (SPEE), ranged from 1.4 x10 7 to 1x2x10 8 SPEE/g dry weight for surface soils, and from 8.6x10 5 to 7.3x10 6 SPEE/g dry weight for soils at 1 m. The phospholipids extracted from surface soils tended to contain higher proportions of unsaturated and hydroxy fatty acids than soils at 1 m, which contained higher relative concentrations of branched fatty acids, which is consistent with the

  20. Caracterização de óxidos de ferro de solos do ambiente tabuleiros costeiros Characterizing iron oxides from coastal and central plain soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Metri Correa

    2008-06-01

    apresentou correlação com algumas propriedades cristalográficas das goethitas dos solos estudados, mostrando-se ser uma técnica promissora para o estudo dos óxidos de ferro.There have been several papers in the literature studying the genesis and consequences of particles cohesion in Argisols (Ultisols and Latosols (Oxisols from the Brazilian Inner and Coastal Plains. Just a few, however, provide insights into the clay fraction mineralogy, specially, the iron oxides complete characterization. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical and crystallographic characteristics of iron oxides in red and yellow soils derived from the sediments of the Barreiras Formation or Pre-Cambrian rocks in the region of the coastal and central plateaus of several Brazilian states. The following research procedures were used: X-ray diffraction analyses in iron oxide-concentrated samples; successive extractions with CBD, and ammonium oxalate extraction in clay samples; spectral characterization by DRS; estimation of the crystallographic properties of goethite; quantification of isomorphic substitution of Fe for Al; and electronic transmission microscopy. According to the results, the following conclusions were drawn: (a goethite was the predominant iron oxide in all soils, even in those with 2.5YR hues, of which the hematite value was below 2.5 dag kg-1 clay; (b the values of the isomorphic Fe substitution by Al were 3 to 6 times higher for goethites than for hematites. These values did not agree with those estimated by mathematical models proposed in the scientific literature, which indicates the need for further studies of the relationships between crystallographic parameters of natural goethites and their chemical properties; (c the results obtained by X ray diffractometry and chemical dissolution analysis revealed that the goethites in the soils differ from those cited, to date, in the literature; (d the position of the bands obtained in the spectra of the diffuse

  1. Forests of Georgia, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Brandeis; Consuelo Brandeis; Andy Hartsell; KaDonna Randolph; Sonja Oswalt

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Georgia based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Georgia Forestry Commission. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly....

  2. Forests of Georgia, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Brandeis; Andy Hartsell

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Georgia based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Georgia Forestry Commission. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly....

  3. Interpretations from multichannel seismic-reflection profiles of the deep crust crossing South Carolina and Georgia from the Appalachian Mountains to the Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been investigating the cause of the Charleston, S.C., earthquake of 1886 and the likelihood of future earthquakes of similar magnitude (mb 6.9–7.2, Bollinger, 1977). As part of that work, multichannel reflection surveys were started in 1979 in the Charleston area, on 1 and (Behrendt and others, 1981; Hamilton and others, 1983) and offshore (Behrendt and others, 1983). The data for lines across the continental margin were tied into the USGS offshore seismic grid in the area discussed by Dillon and others (1979). At about the same time (1978–79), Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP) lines in Georgia and in the Charleston, S. C., area were recorded (Cook and others, 1979; Cook and others, 1981; Schilt and others, 1983). The COCORP data for Georgia (Cook and others, 1979) and other reflection data to the northeast, as discussed by Harris and Bayer (1979), indicated the presence of the Appalachian décollement, extending seaward from the Appalachian Mountains. The authors of these papers inferred that the Appalachian décollement might extend across the Piedmont and Coastal Plain to the continental shelf. Subsequently, Iverson and Smithson (1982) suggested, on the basis of their reprocessing of the COCORP line in Georgia, that the décollement was rooted in the area of the Kings Mountain and the Carolina slate belts.

  4. Cultural intensity and planting density effects on individual tree stem growth, stand and crown attributes, and stand dynamics in thinned loblolly pine plantations during the age 12- to age 15- year period in the Upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan Johnson; Michael Kane; Dehai Zhao; Robert Teskey

    2015-01-01

    Three existing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) installations in the Plantation Management Research Cooperative's Upper Coastal Plain/Piedmont Culture Density Study were used to examine the effects of two cultural intensities, four initial planting densities, and their interactions on stem growth at the individual tree level from age 12 to 15 years and at the stand...

  5. Vertisoles hidromórficos de la planicie costera del Río de La Plata, Argentina Hydromorphic vertisols of the Rio de La Plata coastal plain, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Imbellone

    2011-12-01

    .Hydromorphic Vertisols are the dominant soils in the coastal plain of the la Plata river, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Four repre-sentative soils in the districts of La Plata, Ensenada and Berazategui were studied. Pedological and sedimentological properties are described and analyzed. The purpose of this contribution is to discuss: a the grain size distribution and mineralogy of hydromorphic Vertisols in the rio de la Plata «mudflat»; b the influence of these properties on the generation of morphological features and c the associated pedogenic processes that take place. The morphology of the soil is related to vertic and hydromorphic features in the upper and middle horizons of the soil. Moderate and strong wedge-shaped and angular aggregates are abundant in the solum, with interpedal slickensides, sometimes striated, visible at various levels of observation. The matrix can be moderately or dominantly anisotropic and shows zones of optical anisotropism that run through the fine material with variegated patterns or anisotropic aureoles surrounding the pores. Hydromorphism is favoured by frequent pluvial flooding, the level landscape and the high water table, which is generally between 0.80 and 1.20 m deep. Therefore, endosa-turation or episaturation can occur at different times of the year. Soils have a variety of redoximorphic features, mainly reduced matrices (2.5Y, 5Y hues; chromas of 2 or less, redox concentrations of manganese and iron as nodules and concretions, surface impregnations of sesquioxides on the peds and some dark subsurface accumulations and ramifications through the matrix; there are also some depleted zones in the matrix. Concretions are hard in hand specimens and occur within the matrix; segregations are soft in hand specimens and they appear in thin sections as impregnations of the matrix with diffuse boundaries. They appear as mottles in the field. Soil textural class is clay. Fine clay markedly predominates over coarse clay. Soils are illitic Vertisols

  6. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-12-31

    Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates proposed a three-phase, focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling (Phase I) and a field demonstration project (Phases II and III) at Womack Hill Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. Phase I of the project has been completed. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The major tasks of the project included reservoir characterization, recovery technology analysis, recovery technology evaluation, and the decision to implement a demonstration project. Reservoir characterization consisted of geoscientific reservoir characterization, petrophysical and engineering property characterization, microbial characterization, and integration of the characterization data. Recovery technology analysis included 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and microbial core experiments. Recovery technology evaluation consisted of acquiring and evaluating new high quality 2-D seismic data, evaluating the existing pressure maintenance project in the Womack Hill Field Unit, and evaluating the concept of an immobilized enzyme technology project for the Womack Hill Field Unit. The decision to implement a demonstration project essentially resulted in the decision on whether to conduct an infill drilling project in Womack Hill Field. Reservoir performance

  7. Census plan of environmental and cultural heritage of Latium Region. The Pontina and Fondi coastal plains; I beni culturali a carattere geologico del Lazio. La Pianura Pontina, Fondana e i Monti Ausoni meridionali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casto, L. [Regione Lazio, Rome (Italy). Assessorato alle Politiche per la Promozione della Cultura, dello Spettacolo, del Turismo e dello Sport. Centro Regionale di Documentazione; Zarlenga, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente. Settore Informazione e Diffusione

    1997-12-31

    The geological heritage also indicated as `Geosites` or `Geotopes` in the `Area 4` defined in the Census Plan of Environmental and Cultural Heritage of Latium Region (Delivery R.C. n. 642/1979) in this paper is hereby described. In this area the Pontina and Fondi coastal plains, the Alban Hills Volcanic District Northward, the Mounts Volsci Range Eastward and Southward the Circeo Promontory is present. The geological context is described referring to the geomorphology and the landscape, the paleontology, the stratigraphy, the hydrogeology and the building materials. The museums set in the area also described. Geological history began during Upper Trias (Volsci Range and Circeo promontory) has continued until recent times (Pontina and Fondi plains and Alban Hills Volcanic District). The Mount Volsci Range is mostly constituted by carbonatic rocks (`Latium-Abruzzi series`) with shelf facies, ranging in age from the Upper Trias to the Paleocene, with scarce evidence of the Miocene transgression. From a structural point of view the Volsci chain shows main tectonic alignments trending NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S, folds and overthrusts verging NE.

  8. Georgia Public Health Laboratory, Decatur, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-12-01

    This case study was prepared as one in a series for the Laboratories for the 21st Century program, a joint endeavor of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. The goal of this program is to foster greater energy efficiency in new and retrofit laboratory buildings in both the public and the private sectors. The energy-efficient elements of the laboratory featured in this case study-the Georgia Public Health Laboratory, Decatur, Georgia-include sustainable design features, light-filled interior spaces for daylighting, closely grouped loads (such as freezers), the use of recirculated air in administrative areas, direct digital controls for heating and cooling equipment, sunscreens, and low-emissivity window glazing. These elements, combined with an attractive design and well-lighted work spaces, add up to a building that ranks high in comfort and low in energy use.

  9. Saltwater intrusion in the Floridan aquifer system near downtown Brunswick, Georgia, 1957–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Peck, Michael

    2017-02-16

    IntroductionThe Floridan aquifer system (FAS) consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA), an intervening confining unit of highly variable properties, and the Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA). The UFA and LFA are primarily composed of Paleocene- to Oligocene-age carbonate rocks that include, locally, Upper Cretaceous rocks. The FAS extends from coastal areas in southeastern South Carolina and continues southward and westward across the coastal plain of Georgia and Alabama, and underlies all of Florida. The thickness of the FAS varies from less than 100 feet (ft) in aquifer outcrop areas of South Carolina to about 1,700 ft near the city of Brunswick, Georgia.Locally, in southeastern Georgia and the Brunswick– Glynn County area, the UFA consists of an upper water-bearing zone (UWBZ) and a lower water-bearing zone (LWBZ), as identified by Wait and Gregg (1973), with aquifer test data indicating the upper zone has higher productivity than the lower zone. Near the city of Brunswick, the LFA is composed of two permeable zones: an early middle Eocene-age upper permeable zone (UPZ) and a highly permeable lower zone of limestone (LPZ) of Paleocene and Late Cretaceous age that includes a deeply buried, cavernous, saline water-bearing unit known as the Fernandina permeable zone. Maslia and Prowell (1990) inferred the presence of major northeast–southwest trending faults through the downtown Brunswick area based on structural analysis of geophysical data, northeastward elongation of the potentiometric surface of the UFA, and breaches in the local confining unit that influence the area of chloride contamination. Pronounced horizontal and vertical hydraulic head gradients, caused by pumping in the UFA, allow saline water from the FPZ to migrate upward into the UFA through this system of faults and conduits.Saltwater was first detected in the FAS in wells completed in the UFA near the southern part of the city of Brunswick in late 1957. By the 1970s, a plume of groundwater

  10. The Impact of Late Holocene Land Use Change, Climate Variability, and Sea Level Rise on Carbon Storage in Tidal Freshwater Wetlands on the Southeastern United States Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Miriam C.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Krauss, Ken W.; Noe, Gregory B.

    2017-12-01

    This study examines Holocene impacts of changes in climate, land use, and sea level rise (SLR) on sediment accretion, carbon accumulation rates (CAR), and vegetation along a transect of tidal freshwater forested wetlands (TFFW) to oligohaline marsh along the Waccamaw River, South Carolina (four sites) and along the Savannah River, Georgia (four sites). We use pollen, plant macrofossils, accretion, and CAR from cores, spanning the last 1,500-6,000 years to test the hypothesis that TFFW have remained stable throughout the late Holocene and that marshes transitioned from TFFW during elevated SLR during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, with further transformation resulting from colonial land use change. Results show low and stable accretion and CAR through much of the Holocene, despite moderate changes associated with Holocene paleoclimate. In all records, the largest observed change occurred within the last 400 years, driven by colonial land clearance, shifting terrigenous sediment into riparian wetlands, resulting in order-of-magnitude increases in accretion and C accumulation. The oligohaline marshes transitioned from TFFW 300-500 years ago, coincident with colonial land clearance. Postcolonial decreases in CAR and accretion occur because of watershed reforestation over the last century. All sites show evidence of recent (decades to century) swamp forest decline due to increasing salinity and tidal inundation from SLR. This study suggests that allochthonous sediment input during colonialization helped maintain TFFW but that current SLR rates are too high for TFFW to persist, although higher accretion rates in oligohaline marshes increase the resilience of tidal wetlands as they transition from TFFW to marsh.

  11. Short and long-term soil carbon accumulation in marsh salinity types of the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain: implications for future global climate change and coastal restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baustian, M. M.; Stagg, C. L.; Perry, C. L.; Moss, L.; Carruthers, T.; Allison, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The vegetation community and environmental characteristics of marsh habitats influence how carbon is produced, decomposed, and accumulated. In coastal Louisiana, marsh habitats have historically been classified as fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline based on their position along the salinity gradient. Changing environmental conditions, such as sea-level rise and coastal restoration activities, may change the relative extent of the four marsh habitats and how soil carbon is accumulated in the short and long term. Soil cores (100 cm) were collected at each of 24 sites within the four marsh habitats in two coastal Louisiana basins, Terrebonne and Barataria. Each core was sectioned into 2-cm depth intervals and analyzed for bulk density, organic matter, and radionuclide geochronology (137Cs and 210Pb). Feldspar marker horizon data was utilized to estimate short-term accretion rates. Short-term total carbon accumulation rates (using the top 10 cm soil properties and feldspar horizon markers) among marsh type categories were not significantly different (mean ± std. err of 190 ± 27 g TC m-2 yr-1, n = 15). However, regression analysis, on measured salinity at individual sites, indicated that mean annual salinity had a significant negative relationship suggesting that more saline marshes may be accumulating less carbon in the short term. Coastal Louisiana marsh area (1,433,700 ha) soils store in the short term about 2.7 to 3.3 Tg C yr-1. Long-term carbon accumulation rates of classified marsh type categories also did not differ (mean ± std. err of 80.0 ±8.9 g TC m-2 yr-1, n = 16) and were over two times lower than short-term accumulation rates. Coast-wide, in Louisiana, these soils bury approximately 1.2 Tg TC yr-1 in the long term and contribute about 1-5% of the global marsh/mangrove carbon sink budget. Carbon accumulation and storage rates tend to decrease over long time periods and estimating these rates from varying soil core depths (10 vs. 100 cm) has

  12. Calibration of amino acid racemization (AAR) kinetics in United States mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain Quaternary mollusks using 87Sr/ 86Sr analyses: Evaluation of kinetic models and estimation of regional Late Pleistocene temperature history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmiller, J. F.; Harris, W.B.; Boutin, B.S.; Farrell, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of amino acid racemization (AAR) for estimating ages of Quaternary fossils usually requires a combination of kinetic and effective temperature modeling or independent age calibration of analyzed samples. Because of limited availability of calibration samples, age estimates are often based on model extrapolations from single calibration points over wide ranges of D/L values. Here we present paired AAR and 87Sr/ 86Sr results for Pleistocene mollusks from the North Carolina Coastal Plain, USA. 87Sr/ 86Sr age estimates, derived from the lookup table of McArthur et al. [McArthur, J.M., Howarth, R.J., Bailey, T.R., 2001. Strontium isotopic stratigraphy: LOWESS version 3: best fit to the marine Sr-isotopic curve for 0-509 Ma and accompanying Look-up table for deriving numerical age. Journal of Geology 109, 155-169], provide independent age calibration over the full range of amino acid D/L values, thereby allowing comparisons of alternative kinetic models for seven amino acids. The often-used parabolic kinetic model is found to be insufficient to explain the pattern of racemization, although the kinetic pathways for valine racemization and isoleucine epimerization can be closely approximated with this function. Logarithmic and power law regressions more accurately represent the racemization pathways for all amino acids. The reliability of a non-linear model for leucine racemization, developed and refined over the past 20 years, is confirmed by the 87Sr/ 86Sr age results. This age model indicates that the subsurface record (up to 80m thick) of the North Carolina Coastal Plain spans the entire Quaternary, back to ???2.5Ma. The calibrated kinetics derived from this age model yield an estimate of the effective temperature for the study region of 11??2??C., from which we estimate full glacial (Last Glacial Maximum - LGM) temperatures for the region on the order of 7-10??C cooler than present. These temperatures compare favorably with independent paleoclimate information

  13. Evidence for an Alleghanian (Early Carboniferous to Late Permian) tectonothermal event in the New Jersey Coastal Plain basement from 40Ar/39Ar biotite data, geochemistry and gravity modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, T.J.; Volkert, R.A.; Swisher, C. C.; Sheridan, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite from felsic orthogneiss recovered from the -3890-foot level of the Island Beach State Park (IBSP) well beneath the outer New Jersey Coastal Plain was accomplished using CO2 laser incremental-heating techniques. Over 75% of the Ar released from the incremental-heating experiment form a well-behaved plateau with a calculated age of 243.98 ?? 0.10 Ma. The new 244 Ma biotite age reported here is a cooling age younger than the metamorphic event that crystallized or reheated the biotite. We consider reheating of older biotite to be unlikely because the concordant 40Ar/39Ar spectrum upon repeated incremental laser heating showed a well-developed plateau. Thus, biotites from the IBSP gneiss are interpreted as having crystallized during a single thermal event, followed by cooling to below 300 ??C. The IBSP well falls on a structural and geophysical anomaly trend that is along strike with rocks of the Bronson Hill anticlinorium to the north of the IBSP gneiss. Locally graphitic metasedimentary schists and gneisses recovered from New Jersey wells inboard of the IBSP well gneiss correlate to similar lithologies of the Connecticut Valley synclinorium west of the Hartford basin. Our reinterpretation of the IBSP gneiss as metamorphosed dacite or dacitic tuff is consistent with a correlation to some rocks of the Bronson Hill magmatic arc east of the Hartford basin. If correct, this would imply a Late Ordovician age for the protolith of the IBSP gneiss. Reported 40Ar/39Ar biotite ages of 235-253 Ma from southwestern Rhode Island, and of 238-247 Ma from southeastern Connecticut, are interpreted as cooling ages following a tectonothermal event associated with the Alleghanian orogeny (Early Carboniferous to Late Permian). Cooling ages of Alleghanian age (Early Carboniferous to Late Permian) are not recognized west of the Bronson Hill volcanic arc in either central Connecticut or in Massachusetts. Therefore, the 244 Ma cooling age presented here, and the

  14. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  15. Wind Power in Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Georgia has good wind power potential. Preliminary analyses show that the technical wind power potential in Georgia is good. Meteorological data shows that Georgia has four main areas in Georgia with annual average wind speeds of over 6 m/s and two main areas with 5-6 m/s at 80m. The most promising areas are the high mountain zone of the Great Caucasus, The Kura river valley, The South-Georgian highland and the Southern part of the Georgian Black Sea coast. Czech company Wind Energy Invest has recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Georgian authorities for development of the first wind farm in Georgia, a 50MW wind park in Paravani, Southern Georgia, to be completed in 2014. Annual generation is estimated to 170.00 GWh and the investment estimated to 101 million US$. Wind power is suited to balance hydropower in the Georgian electricity sector Electricity generation in Georgia is dominated by hydro power, constituting 88% of total generation in 2009. Limited storage capacity and significant spring and summer peaks in river flows result in an uneven annual generation profile and winter time shortages that are covered by three gas power plants. Wind power is a carbon-free energy source well suited to balance hydropower, as it is available (often strongest) in the winter and can be exported when there is a surplus. Another advantage with wind power is the lead time for the projects; the time from site selection to operation for a wind power park (approximately 2.5 years) is much shorter than for hydro power (often 6-8 years). There is no support system or scheme for renewable sources in Georgia, so wind power has to compete directly with other energy sources and is in most cases more expensive to build than hydro power. In a country and region with rapidly increasing energy demands, the factors described above nevertheless indicate that there is a commercial niche and a role to play for Georgian wind power. Skra: An example of a wind power development

  16. Late quaternary sea level changes of Gabes coastal plain and shelf: Identification of the MIS 5c and MIS 5a onshore highstands, southern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gzam, Maher; Mejdoub, Noureddine El; Jedoui, Younes

    2016-02-01

    The continental shelf of the Gulf of Gabes is outlined, during the MIS 5c and MIS 5a onshore highstands, by the genesis of forced regressive beach ridges situated respectively at -19 m b.s.l/100 ka and -8 m b.s.l/80 ka. This area, considered as a stable domain since at least the last 130 ka (Bouaziz et al. 2003), is a particular zone for the reconstruction of the late quaternary sea-level changes in the region. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and field observations are highlighted to deduce interaction between hydrodynamic factors and antecedent topography. Variations in geomorphology were attributed to geological inheritance. Petrography and sedimentary facies of the submerged coastal ridges reveal that the palaeocoastal morphology was more agitated than today and the fluvial discharges are consistent. Actual morphologic trend deduced from different environment coasts (sandy coasts, sea cliffs and tidal flat) is marked by accumulation of marine sands and progradation.

  17. My Classroom: Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Khatuna Kharkheli is an English language teacher in the Faculty of Education, Exact, and Natural Sciences at Gori State Teaching University (GSTU) in Gori, Georgia. With her passion for developing innovative and creative lessons and with her commitment to professional development, Ms. Kharkheli works to inspire her students to achieve success both…

  18. Georgia's Teacher Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Anne Marie; Wetherington, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Like most states, Georgia until recently depended on an assessment of content knowledge to award teaching licenses, along with a licensure recommendation from candidates' educator preparation programs. While the content assessment reflected candidates' grasp of subject matter, licensure decisions did not hinge on direct, statewide assessment of…

  19. Georgia Street Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Georgia Street between Conseco Fieldhouse and the Indiana Convention Center has been completely rebuilt to function as the centerpiece for the 2012 Super Bowl Village. It showcases “green” infrastructure components and is complete with outdoor dining and entertainment, as well as overhead sound and lighting systems.

  20. Georgia: natural energy resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chomakhidze, Demur

    2007-01-01

    This article examines Georgia's natural fuel and energy resources (FER), both conventional (hydropower, oil, gas, coal) and non-conventional (alternative). Special attention is paid to hydropower and to alternative energy sources. The author assesses the current level of their development in the republic.

  1. Ecological behavior and effects of energy related pollutants. Progress report, June 1976--August 1977. [SO2 impact on survival and stability of plant species; fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in Southeastern Coastal Plain ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, R.B.; Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.; Shure, D.J.

    1977-10-25

    The impact of SO/sub 2/ on the survival and stability of plant populations and communities was studied. The results to date have an important bearing on the adequacy of current permissible ambient air levels for SO/sub 2/. Atmospheric SO/sub 2/ concentrations at near permissible levels had a significant adverse effect on sexual reproduction processes, which results in a reduced number of viable seeds, in all 8 populations tested. Implications for both natural and agricultural plant species and possible significant losses of fruit production are discussed. An ecological implication of the invisible effect of fruit and seed mortality is postulated since the life cycle of many insects and the trophic relations of numerous animals depend, at least in part, on fruit production by trees and shrubs. Hence, there is a potential for disruptive effects on ecosystem level processes. Results are also reported from four systems-oriented studies within the Lower Three Runs Creek Watershed, Savannah River Plant, to examine fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in ecological systems characteristic of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. These studies were carried out within the stream and its floodplains, within floodplains along the stream gradient, in upland aquatic systems (Carolina Bays), and in the upland scrub-oak forest system. Results are discussed.

  2. Utopia Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    5 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dark-toned, cratered plain in southwest Utopia Planitia. Large, light-toned, windblown ripples reside on the floors of many of the depressions in the scene, including a long, linear, trough. Location near: 30.3oN, 255.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  3. Quantitative Estimation of Coastal Changes along Selected Locations of Karnataka, India: A GIS and Remote Sensing Approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayaraj, P.; Johnson, G.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; SanilKumar, V.; Gowthaman, R.

    are studied at each station. Significant morphological changes in landforms like spit, channel Island, coastal plain, tidal flat, lateritic plain, alluvial plain and sand bar within and adjacent to estuarine river mouths of Kali, Sharavathi, Kollur...

  4. A brief geological history of Cockspur Island at Fort Pulaski National Monument, Chatham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.; Seefelt, Ellen L.; Parker, Mercer

    2018-03-09

    Fort Pulaski National Monument is located on Cockspur Island in Chatham County, Georgia, within the Atlantic Coastal Plain province. The island lies near the mouth of the Savannah River, and consists of small mounds (hummocks), salt marshes, and sediment dredged from the river. A 1,017-foot (ft) (310-meter [m])-deep core drilled at Cockspur Island in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey revealed several sedimentary units ranging in age from 43 million years old to present. Sand and mud are present at drilling depths from 0 to 182 ft (56 m), limestone is present at depths from 182 ft (56 m) to 965 ft (295 m), and glauconitic sand is present at depths from 965 ft (295 m) to 1,017 ft (310 m). The limestone and the water within the limestone are referred to collectively as the Floridan aquifer system, which is the primary source of drinking water for the City of Savannah and surrounding communities. In addition to details of the subsurface geology, this fact sheet identifies the following geologic materials used in the construction of Fort Pulaski: (1) granite, (2) bricks, (3) sandstone, and (4) lime mud with oyster shells.

  5. Energy balance of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demur Chomakhidze

    2016-09-01

    It is shown that, traditionally, the energy balance of Georgia is in deep deficit. The suggestions for its improvement are provided in the Article. The country imports almost all amount of oil and natural gas. Electricity balance is relatively stable. In the recent years, some amount of electricity is exported to the neighboring countries. Generally, the country satisfies only 30–35% of own energy consumption by local generation, and the rest amount of resources are imported from abroad. The reason of deficit to some extent is irrational and wasteful consumption of energy resources. The article examines the organizational difficulties in drawing up energy balance of Georgia and statistical problems of recording of energy production and consumption at the initial stage of market economy.

  6. NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) orthorectified mosaic image tiles for Brunswick, Kings Bay and Fernandina Beach, and Savannah and the Savannah River, Georgia, 2009-2010 (NODC Accession 0092435)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains orthorectified true color (RGB) and infrared (IR) image mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping...

  7. Performance of Denitrifying Bioreactors at Reducing  Agricultural Nitrogen Pollution in a Humid  Subtropical Coastal Plain Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Rosen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Denitrifying bioreactors are an agricultural best management practice developed in the  midwestern United States to treat agricultural drainage water enriched with nitrate‐nitrogen (NO3N. The practice is spreading rapidly to agricultural regions with poor water quality due to nutrient  enrichment. This makes it imperative to track bioreactor NO3‐N reduction efficiency as this practice  gets deployed to new regions. This study evaluated the application and performance of denitrifying  bioreactors in the humid subtropical coastal plain environment of the Chesapeake Bay catchment to  provide data about regionally specific NO3‐N reduction efficiencies. NO3‐N samples were taken  before  and  after  treatment  at  three  denitrifying  bioreactors,  in  addition  to  other  nutrients  (orthophosphate‐phosphorus,  PO4‐P;  ammonium‐nitrogen,  NH4‐N;  total  nitrogen,  TN;  total  phosphorus,  TP  and  water  quality  parameters  (dissolved  oxygen,  DO;  oxidation  reduction  potential,  ORP;  pH;  specific  conductance,  SPC.  Total  removal  ranged  drastically  between  bioreactors from 10 to 133 kg N, with removal efficiencies of 9.0% to 62% and N removal rates of  0.21 to 5.36 g N removed per m3 of bioreactor per day. As the first bioreactor study in the humid  subtropical coastal plain, this data provides positive proof of concept that denitrifying bioreactor is  another tool for reducing N loads in agricultural tile drainage in this region.

  8. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources: Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations, United States Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and State waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    The Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations were assessed as part of the 2007 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of Tertiary strata of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Basin onshore and State waters. The Frio Formation, which consists of sand-rich fluvio-deltaic systems, has been one of the largest hydrocarbon producers from the Paleogene in the Gulf of Mexico. The Anahuac Formation, an extensive transgressive marine shale overlying the Frio Formation, contains deltaic and slope sandstones in Louisiana and Texas and carbonate rocks in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. In downdip areas of the Frio and Anahuac Formations, traps associated with faulted, rollover anticlines are common. Structural traps commonly occur in combination with stratigraphic traps. Faulted salt domes in the Frio and Anahuac Formations are present in the Houston embayment of Texas and in south Louisiana. In the Frio Formation, stratigraphic traps are found in fluvial, deltaic, barrier-bar, shelf, and strandplain systems. The USGS Tertiary Assessment Team defined a single, Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) for the Gulf Coast basin, based on previous studies and geochemical analysis of oils in the Gulf Coast basin. The primary source rocks for oil and gas within Cenozoic petroleum systems, including Frio Formation reservoirs, in the northern, onshore Gulf Coastal region consist of coal and shale rich in organic matter within the Wilcox Group (Paleocene–Eocene), with some contributions from the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group (Eocene). The Jurassic Smackover Formation and Cretaceous Eagle Ford Formation also may have contributed substantial petroleum to Cenozoic reservoirs. Modeling studies of thermal maturity by the USGS Tertiary Assessment Team indicate that downdip portions of the basal Wilcox Group reached sufficient thermal maturity to generate hydrocarbons by early Eocene; this early maturation is the result of rapid sediment accumulation in the early

  9. IDPs in the new Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya von Groote

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Secession of the Abkhazia and South Ossetia regions of Georgia in the early 1990s displaced over a quarter of a million Georgians, many of whom remain in collective shelters. As Georgia embraces democracy, what can be done to resolve the country’s protracted IDP crisis?

  10. Landslide Hazard in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaprindashvili, George; Tsereteli, Emil; Gaprindashvili, Merab

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades of the XX century, protect the population from geological hazards, to maintain land and safe operation of the engineering facilities has become the most important social - economic, demographic, political and environmental problems for the whole world. Georgia, with its scales of origination of the natural-catastrophic processes (landslide, mudflow, rockfall, erosion and etc.), their re-occurrence and with the negative results inflicted by these processes to the population, agricultural lands and engineering objects, is one of the most complex mountainous region. The extremely sensitive conditions were conditioned by: 1. Activation of highly intense earthquakes; 2. Activation of the negative meteorological events provoking the disaster processes on the background of global climatic changes and their abnormally frequent occurrence (mostly increased atmospheric precipitations, temperature and humidity); 3. Large-scale Human impact on the environment. Following the problem urgency, a number of departmental and research institutions have made their operations more intense in the given direction within the limits of their competence. First of all, the activity of the Department of Geology of Georgia (which is at present included in the National Environmental Agency of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection), which mapped, identified and cataloged the hazardous processes on the territory of the country and identified the spatial limits and developmental regularities of these processes for tens of years. The increased risk of Geological catastrophes in Georgia first of all is caused by insufficient information between society and responsible persons toward this event. The existed situation needs the base assessment of natural disasters level, the identification of events, to determine their caused reasons, to develop special maps in GIS system, and continuous functioning of geo monitoring researches for develop safety early

  11. Bauxite and Kaolin Deposits of the Irwinton district, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Walter B.; Warren, Walter C.; Thompson, Raymond M.; Overstreet, Elizabeth F.

    1965-01-01

    The Irwinton district is in the central part of Georgia at the inner margin of the Coastal Plain province. The oldest rocks exposed in the district are crystalline rocks of the Piedmont province. They are unconformably overlain by nonmarine sedimentary strata of Late Cretaceous age, including gravel, micaceous sand, and lenses of kaolin. Bauxite has been found in a few of the kaolin lenses near the top of the sequence of these strata. During a long period prior to deposition of the over- lying marine beds of the Claiborne and Jackson Groups (middle and upper Eocene), the Upper Cretaceous strata were subjected to subaerial erosion. The bauxite deposits are considered to have formed during this period. They range in thickness from a few inches to more than 10 feet and occupy areas ranging from a few square feet to more than 5 acres. Most of the known bauxite deposits lie along the valleys of Commissioners Creek and Big Sandy Creek in Wilkinson County. The kaolin lenses are much larger than the bauxite deposits; some of the lenses underlie more than 200 acres and are more than 20 feet thick. Bauxite was discovered in the district in 1907 and was mined from 1910 to 1928. A few additional carloads of ore were shipped in 1941 and 1942, but no ore has been mined since that time. Reserves of high-grade bauxite are very small. Reserves of all grades of bauxite plus bauxitic clay may be about 400,000 long tons. The Irwinton district is the principal source of high-grade kaolin in the United States. The presence of kaolin here has been known since early colo- nial time, and it has been mined continuously since 1897. Production in 1959 was 1,940,279 short tons. The reserves of kaolin are very large but have never been adequately measured. Reserves of first and second grade kaolin may be 67 to 84 million short tons. Kaolin of lower grade is present in larger quantity.

  12. USGS assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the Oligocene Frio and Anahuac formations, U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and state waters: Review of assessment units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Warwick, Peter D.; Kennan, Lorcan; Pindell, James; Rosen, Norman C.

    2007-01-01

    The Oligocene Frio and Anahuac formations were examined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of an assessment of technically recoverable undiscovered conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon resources in Paleogene and Neogene strata underlying the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and state waters. Work included the identification of structural, stratigraphic, and tectonic relations between petroleum source rocks and migration pathways to Frio and Anahuac reservoirs; preliminary evaluation of the potential for shallow (less than 3,000 ft) biogenic gas accumulations; and evaluation of the potential for deep, undiscovered gas and oil accumulations in slope and basin floor areas. All assessments were conducted using USGS methodology (http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/oilgas/noga/methodology.html). Final products from the USGS assessment of the Paleogene and Neogene were reported in USGS fact sheets (Dubiel et al., 2007; Warwick et al., 2007).Five assessment units for the Frio Formation were defined, and three of these were based on the character of the reservoirs in relation to growth faults and other related factors: (1) the Frio stable shelf oil and gas assessment unit, which contains thin (average thickness of 34 ft) and shallow reservoirs (average depth of 4,834 ft); (2) the Frio expanded fault zone oil and gas assessment unit, which contains thick (average thickness of 56 ft) and deep reservoirs (average depth of 9,050 ft) in over-pressured intervals; and (3) the Frio slope and basin floor gas assessment unit, which has potential for deep gas (greater than 15,000 ft) and extends from the downdip boundary of the expanded fault zone to the offshore State/Federal water boundary. The fourth Frio assessment unit is the Hackberry oil and gas assessment unit. The Hackberry embayment of southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana consists of a slope facies in the middle part of the Frio Formation. The fifth unit, the Frio basin margin assessment unit, extends from the

  13. Deposition of pyromagnetically-enhanced Marlboro Clay offset from spherule peak at onset of CIE and Paleocene-Eocene boundary at the midshelf Millville core site (NJ Coastal Plain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, D. V.; Lanci, L.; Wang, H.; Wright, J.

    2017-12-01

    Wilson Lake B and Millville are the two core sites on the NJ Coastal Plain where an impact spherule layer was discovered at the base of the Marlboro Clay, coinciding with the onset of the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) that identifies the Paleocene-Eocene boundary (Schaller+2016 Science). At the more proximal Wilson Lake site ( 35 m paleowater depth, 20 km from the paleoshore), enhanced magnetization of the Marlboro Clay marked by a dramatic increase in concentration of submicron magnetic particles closely coincided with the sharp peak in abundance of the spherules (Kent+2017 EPSL). Discounting magnetotactic bacteria and impact plume condensate as significant sources of the magnetic nanoparticles that dominate the magnetization of the 10 m-thick Marlboro Clay, a pyrogenetic origin was postulated whereby a widespread and intense conflagration over the hinterlands, quite possibly impact-induced, produced magnetic nanoparticles in the heated soils, a process long known from wildfires and laboratory heating experiments. The pyromagnetically-enhanced kaolinite-rich soils would have been swept from the denuded landscape and deposited across the adjoining shelf, perhaps as mudwaves, to become the Marlboro Clay. The Millville site at double the paleowater depth and distance to the paleoshore compared to Wilson Lake (Makarova+2017 Paleoceanography) shows a similar enhancement in magnetization of the Marlboro Clay. However, the increase in magnetization in Millville starts well above ( 50 cm) the spherule peak and the onset of the CIE, which coincide with a sharp drop in what little carbonate content there is in the Marlboro Clay, resulting in a zone barren of foraminifers (Makarova+2017 op. cit.). The offset in deposition might be due to added barren zone or a longer transit of the soil muds to the more distant Millville site but would not be expected if the magnetic nanoparticles were produced in more direct response to the onset of the CIE, as from proliferation of

  14. O gênero Hantzschia Grunow (Nitzschiaceae, Bacillariophyta em ambientes lacustres na Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Genus Hantzschia Grunow (Nitzschiaceae, Bacillariophyta in lacustrine environments of the Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do gênero Hantzschia em amostragens realizadas em lagoas, banhados, canal e açudes na Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul (30°40´-30°10´ S e 50°30´-51°30´ W, no outono e primavera de 2003, revelou a presença de um táxon específico e seis infra-específicos, a saber: Hantzschia amphioxys (Ehrenberg Grunow, suas variedades (var. amphioxys e var. vivax Grunow e forma (f. capitata O. Müller, H. elongata (Hatzsch Grunow com duas variedades (var. elongata e var. linearis O. Müller, H. virgata (Roper Grun. e Hantzschia sp. São apresentadas descrições, ilustrações, chave de identificação e comentários sobre as variações morfológicas e a distribuição dos táxons. Cabe ressaltar a presença de H. elongata var. linearis e Hantzschia sp. como novos registros para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.The study of the genus Hantzschia in samples from lakes, wetlands, canals and ponds in the Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plain (30°40'-30°10' S; 50°30'-50°30' W, during fall and spring of 2003, revealed the presence of one specific and six infra-specific taxa, as follows: Hantzschia amphioxys (Ehrenberg Grunow, its varieties (var. amphioxys and var. vivax Grunow and form (f. capitata O. Müller, H. elongata (Hatzsch Grunow with two varieties (var. elongata and var. linearis O. Müller, H. virgata (Roper Grunow and Hantzschia sp. Descriptions, illustrations, identification keys and comments on morphological variation and the distribution of the taxa are presented. It is worth mentioning the presence of H. elongata var. linearis and Hantzschia sp. recorded for the first time in the state of Rio Grande do Sul.

  15. Some aspects of integrated coastal zone management in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Subtle_Issues_Coastal_Mgmt_2000_21.pdf.txt stream_source_info Subtle_Issues_Coastal_Mgmt_2000_21.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  16. Areas of research and manpower development for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  17. Fire blight in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dali L. Gaganidze

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight is distinguished among the fruit tree diseases by harmfulness. Fire blight damages about 180 cultural and wild plants belonging to the Rosaceae family. Quince, apple and pear are the most susceptible to the disease. At present, the disease occurs in over 40 countries of Europe and Asia. Economic damage caused by fire blight is expressed not only in crop losses, but also, it poses threat of eradication to entire fruit tree gardens. Erwinia amylovora, causative bacteria of fire blight in fruit trees, is included in the A2 list of quarantine organisms. In 2016, the employees of the Plant Pest Diagnostic Department of the Laboratory of the Georgian Ministry of Agriculture have detected Erwinia amylovora in apple seedlings from Mtskheta district. National Food Agency, Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia informed FAO on pathogen detection. The aim of the study is detection of the bacterium Erwinia amylovora by molecular method (PCR in the samples of fruit trees, suspicious on fire blight collected in the regions of Eastern (Kvemo Kartli, Shida Kartli and Kakheti and Western Georgia (Imereti.The bacterium Erwinia amylovora was detected by real time and conventional PCR methods using specific primers and thus the fire blight disease confirmed in 23 samples of plant material from Shida Kartli (11 apples, 6 pear and 6 quince samples, in 5 samples from Kvemo Kartli (1 quince and 4 apple samples, in 2 samples of apples from Kakheti region and 1 sample of pear collected in Imereti (Zestafoni. Keywords: Fire blight, Erwinia amylovora, Conventional PCR, Real time PCR, DNA, Bacterium

  18. SMEX03 Vegetation Data: Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes data collected over the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03) area of Georgia, USA between 16 June and 21 July 2003. The parameters measured...

  19. 2009 Chatham County Georgia Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR generated point cloud acquired in spring 2009 for Chatham County, Georgia for the Metropolitan Planning Commission. The data are classified as follows: Class 1...

  20. Stream buffer effectiveness in an agriculturally influenced area, southwestern Georgia: responses of water quality, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenz, Tara K; Golladay, Stephen W; Vellidis, George; Smith, Lora L

    2006-01-01

    To determine useful metrics for assessing stream water quality in the Southeastern Coastal Plain, we examined differences among two buffered and three unbuffered streams in an agricultural landscape in southwestern Georgia. Potential indicators included amphibian diversity and abundance, aquatic macroinvertebrate populations, riparian vegetative structure, water quality, and stream physical parameters. Variability among sites and treatments (buffered vs. unbuffered) existed, with sites in the same treatment as most similar, and disturbances from a nearby eroding gully strongly affecting one unbuffered site. Of the invertebrate metrics examined, percentages of clingers, Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera (EPT), Elmidae (Coleoptera), Crustacea (Decapoda and Amphipoda), and dipterans were found to be possible indicators of stream health for perennial streams within this region. Overall, buffered sites showed higher percentages of sensitive invertebrate groups and showed lower and more stable concentrations of nitrate N, suspended solids, and fecal coliforms (FCs). Percent canopy cover was similar among sites; however, riparian vegetative coverage and percent leaf litter were greatest at buffered sites. No differences in amphibian abundance, presence, and absence within the riparian area were apparent between sites; however, instream larval salamanders were more abundant at buffered streams. In this study, stream buffers appeared to decrease nutrient and sediment loads to adjacent streams, enhancing overall water quality. Selected benthic macroinvertebrate metrics and amphibian abundance also appeared sensitive to agricultural influences. Amphibians show potential as indicator candidates, however further information is needed on their responses and tolerances to disturbances from the microhabitat to landscape levels.

  1. New distributional records of the stygobitic crayfish Cambarus cryptodytes (Decapoda: Cambaridae) in the Floridan Aquifer System of southwestern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenolio, Dante B.; Niemiller, Matthew L.; Gluesenkamp, Andrew G.; Mckee, Anna; Taylor, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    Cambarus cryptodytes (Dougherty Plain Cave Crayfish) is an obligate inhabitant of groundwater habitats (i.e., a stygobiont) with troglomorphic adaptations in the Floridan aquifer system of southwestern Georgia and adjacent Florida panhandle, particularly in the Dougherty Plain and Marianna Lowlands. Documented occurrences of Dougherty Plain Cave Crayfish are spatially distributed as 2 primary clusters separated by a region where few caves and springs have been documented; however, the paucity of humanly accessible karst features in this intermediate region has inhibited investigation of the species' distribution. To work around this constraint, we employed bottle traps to sample for Dougherty Plain Cave Crayfish and other groundwater fauna in 18 groundwater-monitoring wells that access the Floridan aquifer system in 10 counties in southwestern Georgia. We captured 32 Dougherty Plain Cave Crayfish in 9 wells in 8 counties between September 2014 and August 2015. We detected crayfish at depths ranging from 17.9 m to 40.6 m, and established new county records for Early, Miller, Mitchell, and Seminole counties in Georgia, increasing the number of occurrences in Georgia from 8 to 17 sites. In addition, a new US Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Unit Code 8 (HUC8) watershed record was established for the Spring Creek watershed. These new records fill in the distribution gap between the 2 previously known clusters in Georgia and Jackson County, FL. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that deployment of bottle traps in groundwater-monitoring wells can be an effective approach to presence—absence surveys of stygobionts, especially in areas where surface access to groundwater is limited.

  2. Contribuição de material amorfo na gênese de horizontes coesos em Argissolos dos Tabuleiros Costeiros do Ceará Contribution of amorphous material in the genesis of cohesive horizons of Ultisols in Ceara Coastal Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Matos Vieira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os Tabuleiros Costeiros, com ocorrência nas regiões Norte, Nordeste e Sudeste do Brasil, apresentam solos com horizontes coesos, os quais podem ocasionar impedimentos físicos à penetração das raízes e à dinâmica da água. No entanto, a gênese desses horizontes ainda é muito questionada. Desta forma, objetivou-se avaliar a influência do material amorfo na coesão desses solos, estudando-se uma topossequência no município de Trairi - CE. Foram descritos e caracterizados (física e quimicamente três perfis de solos com caráter coeso (P2; P3 e P4 e um perfil (P1 não coeso. Para a avaliação do efeito do material amorfo na coesão dos solos, foram utilizadas amostras dos horizontes Bt1 dos 4 perfis, com e sem extração de material amorfo. Três ciclos de umedecimento e secagem foram aplicados nas amostras e, em seguida, a resistência à penetração (RP foi determinada. Com base nos resultados, os solos foram enquadrados, taxonomicamente, nas subordens dos Argissolos Amarelos (P1; P2 e P3 e Acinzentados (P4. A maior expressão do caráter coeso foi encontrada em P4, situado na posição mais baixa da paisagem, sugerindo a influência do relevo na intensificação do caráter coeso. Apesar dos baixos teores de argila e de destorroamento, os solos retomaram uma alta RP após apenas três ciclos de umedecimento e secagem. Após a extração de material amorfo, os horizontes coesos dos perfis P2 e P4 apresentaram uma significativa redução da resistência à penetração, indicando que estes compostos atuam na gênese de horizontes coesos.The coastal plains, in the North, Northeast and Southeast Brazil, soils with cohesive layer are common, and can cause physical impediment to root and water. However, the genesis of these horizons is still unknown. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of amorphous materials on the cohesion processes with cohesive layers from a toposequence in Trairi - CE. Four soil profiles

  3. Relation of Mercury to Other Chemical Constituents in Ground Water in the Kirkwood-Cohansey Aquifer System, New Jersey Coastal Plain, and Mechanisms for Mobilization of Mercury from Sediments to Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Julia L.; MacLeod, Cecilia L.

    2001-01-01

    Water from 265 domestic wells that tap the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey contained concentrations of mercury that are equal to or exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 ug/L (micrograms per liter). The wells range in depth from 50 to 200 feet, and are located in 32 discrete, mostly residential, areas that were developed primarily on former agricultural land during the 1950?s through the 1970?s. Concentrations in two other areas exceeded 1 ug/L. Naturally occurring mercury concentrations in ground water from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system typically are less than 0.01 ug/L, but concentrations in water from some wells were as much as 42 ug/L. No evidence currently exists that conclusively links known point sources such as landfills, industrial operations, or commercial enterprises to most of the elevated concentrations of mercury in ground water in the residential areas. Possible sources of the mercury include pesticides and atmospheric deposition. Analysis of water from wells in 6 of the 34 areas for other constituents indicates that nitrate concentrations also commonly are elevated above background levels (which typically are undetectable at 0.01 milligrams per liter), and exceed the MCL of 10 milligrams per liter in some samples. Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including chloroform, also have been measured in water from wells at many of the 34 sites. Analytical results for water samples collected at several depths from boreholes at 2 of the 34 sites indicate elevated concentrations of calcium, magnesium, barium, strontium, nitrate, and chloride, which may be related to both agricultural chemical applications and septic-system effluent. Determinations of tritium and helium concentrations indicate that water containing elevated concentrations of mercury recharged the aquifer between 9.4 and 79 years ago, which includes the period during which many of the 34

  4. Methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods for urban and small, rural streams in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Gotvald, Anthony J.; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2014-01-01

    detection of multiple potentially influential low outliers. Streamgage basin characteristics were determined using geographical information system techniques. Initial ordinary least squares regression simulations reduced the number of basin characteristics on the basis of such factors as statistical significance, coefficient of determination, Mallow’s Cp statistic, and ease of measurement of the explanatory variable. Application of generalized least squares regression techniques produced final predictive (regression) equations for estimating the 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flows for urban and small, rural ungaged basins for three hydrologic regions (HR1, Piedmont–Ridge and Valley; HR3, Sand Hills; and HR4, Coastal Plain), which previously had been defined from exploratory regression analysis in the Southeast rural flood-frequency investigation. Because of the limited availability of urban streamgages in the Coastal Plain of Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, additional urban streamgages in Florida and New Jersey were used in the regression analysis for this region. Including the urban streamgages in New Jersey allowed for the expansion of the applicability of the predictive equations in the Coastal Plain from 3.5 to 53.5 square miles. Average standard error of prediction for the predictive equations, which is a measure of the average accuracy of the regression equations when predicting flood estimates for ungaged sites, range from 25.0 percent for the 10-percent annual exceedance probability regression equation for the Piedmont–Ridge and Valley region to 73.3 percent for the 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability regression equation for the Sand Hills region.

  5. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-17

    Energy used by Georgia single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  6. Fighting Corruption in Georgia's Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janashia, Natia

    2004-01-01

    In the Republic of Georgia, about 240 institutions of higher education serve a population of 5 million. On the surface, these numbers suggest a prosperous, highly educated society. Behind this facade, however, lies a reality of degraded standards, crumbling infrastructure, rampant academic fraud, and deteriorating educational quality. At the…

  7. Northern Plains Buried Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    22 December 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows three circular features on the martian northern plains near 70.7oN, 311.7oW. These circular features are the locations of meteor impact craters that have been buried beneath the plains. Much of the northern plains shares this story, in which thousands of old craters have been filled or partially filled and then thinly buried beneath textured plains. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  8. The Perception of National Security in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merabishvili Gela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the on-going confrontation between Russia and the West affects perceptions of security in Georgia. Our angle is twofold: in addition to comparing previous National Security Concepts of Georgia we examine both governmental and public perceptions of security in the light of Georgia’s foreign policy priorities, its relationship with neighbouring countries and conflict resolution policy. Since Georgia declares 20 per cent of its territory to be occupied, the article focuses particularly on the crisis in Ukraine and its effect on security debates in Georgia. As the upcoming parliamentary elections in Georgia in autumn 2016 are highly important to maintain the current foreign policy course and secure achievements, the paper also tries to answer how these global and regional developments may be interpreted and reflected in the next National Security Concept of Georgia (whenever it might be published.

  9. 3D characterization of Holocene peat in the Netherlands : Implications for coastal-deltaic subsidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, K.

    2017-01-01

    Human-induced subsidence threatens many coastal-deltaic plains, due to the amplifying effects it has on sea-level rise and flood risk. In the coastal-deltaic plain of the Netherlands, subsidence is primarily caused by the compression and oxidation of Holocene peat. The understanding of subsidence in

  10. Simulation and Particle-Tracking Analysis of Selected Ground-Water Pumping Scenarios at Vogtle Electric Generation Plant, Burke County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Clarke, John S.

    2007-01-01

    The source of ground water to production wells at Vogtle Electric Generation Plant (VEGP), a nuclear power plant in Burke County, Georgia, was simulated under existing (2002) and potential future pumping conditions using an existing U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) MODFLOW ground-water flow model of a 4,455-square-mile area in the Coastal Plain of Georgia and South Carolina. Simulation results for three steady-state pumping scenarios were compared to each other and to a 2002 Base Case condition. The pumping scenarios focused on pumping increases at VEGP resulting from projected future demands and the addition of two electrical-generating reactor units. Scenarios simulated pumping increases at VEGP ranging from 1.09 to 3.42 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), with one of the scenarios simulating the elimination of 5.3 Mgal/d of pumping at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a U.S. Department of Energy facility located across the Savannah River from VEGP. The largest simulated water-level changes at VEGP were for the scenario whereby pumping at the facility was more than tripled, resulting in drawdown exceeding 4-8 feet (ft) in the aquifers screened in the production wells. For the scenario that eliminated pumping at SRS, water-level rises of as much as 4-8 ft were simulated in the same aquifers at SRS. Results of MODFLOW simulations were analyzed using the USGS particle-tracking code MODPATH to determine the source of water and associated time of travel to VEGP production wells. For each of the scenarios, most of the recharge to VEGP wells originated in an upland area near the county line between Burke and Jefferson Counties, Georgia, with none of the recharge originating on SRS or elsewhere in South Carolina. An exception occurs for the scenario whereby pumping at VEGP was more than tripled. For this scenario, some of the recharge originates in an upland area in eastern Barnwell County, South Carolina. Simulated mean time of travel from recharge areas to VEGP wells for the

  11. 76 FR 25330 - Georgia Power Company; Project No. 485-063-Georgia and Alabama, Bartletts Ferry Hydroelectric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Georgia Power Company; Project No. 485-063--Georgia and Alabama, Bartletts Ferry Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service... Ferry Hydroelectric Project. The Programmatic Agreement, when executed by the Commission, the Georgia...

  12. sRecovery Act: Geologic Characterization of the South Georgia Rift Basin for Source Proximal CO2 Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, Michael [South Carolina Research Foundation, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2015-02-10

    appears to be porosity in the J/TR section based on neutron log porosity values. The only zones in Rizer #1 that appear to be porous were fractured diabase units where saline formation water was flowing into the borehole. Two geocellular models were created for the SC and GA study area. Flow simulation modeling was performed on the SC data set. The injection simulation used the newly acquired basin data as well as the Petrel 3-D geologic model that included geologic structure. Due to the new basin findings as a result of the newly acquired data, during phase two of the modeling the diabase unit was used as reservoir and the sandstone units were used as caprock. Conclusion are: 1) the SGR basin is composed of numerous sub-basins, 2) this study only looked at portions of two sub-basins, 3) in SC, 30 million tonnes of CO2 can be injected into the diabase units if the fracture network is continuous through the units, 4) due to the severity of the faulting there is no way of assuring the injected CO2 will not migrate upward into the overlying Coastal Plain aquifers, 5) in Georgia there appears to porous zones in the J/TR sandstones, 6) as in SC there is faulting in the sub-basin and the seismic suggest the faulting extends upward into the Coastal Plain making that area not suitable for CO2 sequestration, 7) the complex faulting observed at both study areas appear to be associated with transfer fault zones (Heffner 2013), if sub-basins in the Georgia portion of the SGR basin can be located that are far away from the transfer fault zones there is a strong possibility of sequestering CO2 in these areas, and 9) the SGR basin covers area in three states and this project only studied two small areas so there is enormous potential for CO2 sequestration in other portions the basin and further research needs to be done to find these areas.

  13. The agrarian zones of Georgia according to the map by Ivane Javakhishvili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davit Sartania

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Map of Botanical-Agrarian Areas of Georgia compiled by Ivane Javakhishvili in 1930 is much valuable to study not only the ancient economic relations on the territory of our country, but the political history, as well, as the political and economic history are closely interwoven, and it is the natural environment and the style of the economic life of the country having formed Georgia as one body. The article shows the economic links, which, in the opinion of Ivane Javakhishvili, made for the formation of the statehood of Georgia. As the Map shows, there are 6 botanical-agrarian areas in Georgia with different natural environments and agricultural destinations: a Pomelo-and-Bitter Orange, Rice-Cotton, vineyard-and-fruity, non-vineyard-or-fruity, Grass-Flowery and Winter Pastures. In the view of Ivane Javakhishvili, in the ancient times, the demarcation of the mountains and lowland was done both, in the geographical and agricultural respects. Therefore, the identification of the areas of the mountains and plains (and consequently, the nature of some or other plants, animals, settled areas, economic activities, etc. in the old sources, the ancient practice of drawing hypsometric boundaries between them (however, with some exceptions must be taken into account.

  14. Absorption spectroscopy of colored dissolved organic carbon in Georgia (USA rivers: the impact of molecular size distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle McELVAINE

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was collected in six rivers that transect the coastal plain of Georgia in July 1999 and February 2000. DOC concentrations ranged from 4.9 to 40.7 g m-3 and from 7.1 to 40.5 g m-3, respectively. The absorption coefficient at 440 nm was highly correlated with DOC concentration, suggesting that the optical parameter may be utilized for rapid estimation of DOC in these waters. The isolated DOC was separated into fractions of operationally defined molecular size, using an ultrafiltration technique that yielded three fractions: 50 ("large" kilodalton. The smallest fraction was the most abundant (>50% in 4 rivers in July and in all rivers in February, and considerably more abundant than in previous years. The wavelength-dependent absorption of the total DOC and its fractions showed approximately uniform shape of a curve declining exponentially with the increase of wavelength. The average slope of logarithmically transformed curves was 0.0151 and 0.0159 nm-1, for the material collected in July and February, respectively and showed a dependence on DOC molecular size. In unfractionated DOC samples, the mass-specific light absorption determined at 440 nm was on average 0.33 m2 g-1 in July, and 0.26 m2 g-1 in February. The mass-specific absorption coefficient in all fractions ranged between 0.085 and 1.347 m2 g-1 in July and between 0.085 and 1.877 m2 g-1 in February, and was positively correlated with the molecular size of the measured samples. The results of the reported study clearly suggest that the specific absorption coefficient of the yellow substance is an outcome of the relative contribution of its different size fractions.

  15. Business Education in Georgia: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Papiashvili

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge-based society rests on the knowledge triangle that refers to the interaction between research, education, and innovation. The presented paper discusses efficiency of business education in Georgia. SWOT analysis and a questionnaire held by the author show challenges and opportunities of business education in Georgia.

  16. 2013 Coastal Georgia 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of half-foot pixel resolution, natural color orthoimages covering the urban area footprint. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in...

  17. The Plains of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  18. Demonstration Exercise of a Validated Sample Collection Method for Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents in Georgia 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, B.

    2007-01-01

    August 7, 2006 the state of Georgia conducted a collaborative sampling exercise between the Georgia National Guard 4th Civil Support Team Weapons of Mass Destruction (CST-WMD) and the Georgia Department of Human Resources Division of Public Health demonstrating a recently validated bulk powder sampling method. The exercise was hosted at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) at Glynn County, Georgia and involved the participation of the Georgia Emergency Management Agency (GEMA), Georgia National Guard, Georgia Public Health Laboratories, the Federal Bureau of Investigation Atlanta Office, Georgia Coastal Health District, and the Glynn County Fire Department. The purpose of the exercise was to demonstrate a recently validated national sampling standard developed by the American Standards and Test Measures (ASTM) International; ASTM E2458 S tandard Practice for Bulk Sample Collection and Swab Sample Collection of Visible Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents from Nonporous Surfaces . The intent of the exercise was not to endorse the sampling method, but to develop a model for exercising new sampling methods in the context of existing standard operating procedures (SOPs) while strengthening operational relationships between response teams and analytical laboratories. The exercise required a sampling team to respond real-time to an incident cross state involving a clandestine bio-terrorism production lab found within a recreational vehicle (RV). Sample targets consisted of non-viable gamma irradiated B. anthracis Sterne spores prepared by Dugway Proving Ground. Various spore concentration levels were collected by the ASTM method, followed by on- and off-scene analysis utilizing the Center for Disease Control (CDC) Laboratory Response Network (LRN) and National Guard Bureau (NGB) CST mobile Analytical Laboratory Suite (ALS) protocols. Analytical results were compared and detailed surveys of participant evaluation comments were examined. I will

  19. Grãos de pólen de angiospermas do Holoceno (7908±30 anos AP-atual da Planície Costeira sul-catarinense, Brasil Catalogue of angiosperm pollen from Holocene sediments of the Coastal Plain, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues Cancelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta as descrições palinotaxonômicas, a partir da análise palinológica de sedimentos de duas seções turfáceas na Planície Costeira sul do estado de Santa Catarina, nos municípios de Santa Rosa do Sul e São João do Sul. Uma amostra da porção basal dos testemunhos foi datada em (14C em 7908±33 anos AP para Santa Rosa do Sul e 7817±41 anos AP para São João do Sul, ambos referente ao Holoceno inferior. Foram descritos 62 tipos de grãos de pólen relacionados a 49 famílias de angiospermas atuais, que expressam diferentes habitats e hábitos ecológicos. O presente trabalho juntamente com a primeira parte, que trata das descrições palinotaxonômicas de fungos, criptógamas e outros palinomorfos recuperados de sedimentos, contribui com o reconhecimento da vegetação que abrigava a Planície Costeira sul-catarinense, durante o Holoceno. As análises palinotaxonômicas constituem a base das interpretações paleoambientais e paleoclimáticas neste setor da costa brasileira.This paper presents palinotaxonomic descriptions, from a pollen analysis of sediments from two cores taken from the southern Coastal Plain of Santa Catarina State (in the municipalities of Santa Rosa do Sul and São João do Sul. A basal sample from the Santa Rosa do Sul and São João do Sul had a 14C age of 7908±33 and 7817±41 yr BP for the Lower Holocene, respectively. Sixty-two types of pollen grains were described from 49 angiosperm families, which are associated with different habitats and ecological habits. This work is published in association with Part I, which comprises palinotaxonomic descriptions of fungi, cryptogams and other palynomorphs recovered from the sediments, and contributes to the identification of vegetation that occurred on the Coastal Plain of southern Santa Catarina during the Holocene. Palinotaxonomic analyses form the basis of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental interpretations in this region of the Brazilian

  20. Species Profile: Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palis, John

    1997-01-01

    .... Fish and Wildlife Service. The species inhabits the lower Southeastern Coastal Plain from southern South Carolina to northern Florida, and westward through Georgia to extreme southwestern Alabama...

  1. 77 FR 67639 - Liberty Energy (Georgia) Corp.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Energy (Georgia) Corp.; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 25, Liberty Energy (Georgia) Corp. (Liberty Georgia), 2845 Bristol Circle, Oakville, Ontario... Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area within which Liberty Georgia may, without...

  2. A 3000 yr paleostorm record from St. Catherines Island, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Erick; Meyer, Brian; Deocampo, Daniel; Kiage, Lawrence M.

    2017-09-01

    Tropical cyclones (hurricanes in the northern hemisphere) are amongst the most devastating of the world's natural disasters and cause billions of dollars in damage every year. Data on the likelihood of a coastal site being struck by a major hurricane strike can potentially aid in planning and mitigation efforts that could save money and lives. However, forecasting requires data that are currently insufficient for the Georgia Bight. This study provides information to enhance the paleohurricane record by analysis of a 467 cm thick vibracore raised from St. Catherines Island, GA. Sediment geochemistry and foraminiferal assemblages indicate deposits attributable to seven paleohurricane events, five of which were likely major hurricanes when they made landfall on St. Catherines. Magnitudes were estimated by comparison to the overwash deposit left by ;The Sea Islands hurricane of 1893;, a major hurricane recorded by the recent sediment of St. Catherines Island. The St. Catherines record also shows a change in the activity levels on the Georgia coast with two distinct activity regimes over the past 3000 years.

  3. Progression and Impact of Laurel Wilt Disease within Redbay and Sassafras Populations in Southeast Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Scott Cameron; James Hanula; Stephen Fraedrich; Chip Bates

    2015-01-01

    Laurel wilt disease (LWD), caused by the fungus Raffaelea lauricola and transmitted by Xyleborus glabratus (Redbay Ambrosia Beetle [RAB]), has killed millions of Persea borbonia (Redbay) trees throughout the southeastern Coastal Plain. Laurel wilt also has been...

  4. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  5. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  6. Relacionamento entre anfíbios anuros e bromélias da restinga de Regência, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brasil Relationship between anuran amphibians and bromeliads of the sandy coastal plain of Regência, linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto P. Schineider

    Full Text Available Some anuran amphibians use the bromeliads during the entire life cycle and others only as diurnal shelter. At the sandy coastal plain of Linhares, State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, 676 bromeliads were examined, of which 303 of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker L. B. Smith., 1955, 287 of Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb., 1864, and 86 of Vrisea procera (Mart. Ex Schult. f. Wittm, 1891. The morphometric and physical-chemical analysis of different bromeliads evidenced variations among plants. During the period sampled, six anuran species were found inside the plant axils. The hylid frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Wied, 1824 was the most abundant species (260 specimens. Its abundance was higher in the epiphyte bromeliad Vrisea procera. Phyllodytes luteolus had higher occurrences in bromeliads located at a transitional area between open and under the shrub vegetation. Specimens of Scinax alterus (Lutz, B., 1973 and Aparasphenodon brunoi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, were more frequent mainly in transitional areas; Bufo granulosus Spix, 1824 occurred in open and transitional areas, whereas Gastrotheca fissipis (Boulenger, 1888 and Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 were found only in bromeliads located in open areas.

  7. Similarity of Cross-Sectional Characteristics of Costal Plain Streams of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, W. S.; Parola, A. C.

    2005-05-01

    The Coastal Plain physiographic region of the southeastern United States encompasses over 1.2 million km2. Analysis of data from six separate geomorphic studies conducted in five of the 19 states having a Coastal Plain region suggests that streams of the Coastal Plain region have very similar correlations betweein bankfull cross section area (R2 = 0.92, n = 123) and discharge (R2 = 0.85, n = 77) with drainage basin area, despite geographic and hydrologic differences. Analysis of these data also shows that bankfull cross section area for southeastern Coastal Plain streams is 47% less than that indicated for other eastern US rivers by Dunne and Leopold (1978). Furthermore, estimates of bankfull discharge have an average return period of 1.14 years on the annual series. These bankfull flows range from 6.2-90% of the 1.5-year flow, often considered to represent the bankfull flow condition, and 4.4-75% of the 2-year flow, which some have suggested for restoration design. The strong correlation of these data supports the concept of using regional morphologic data for initiating assessments and should be considered as an important component of restoration design for streams of the southeastern Coastal Plain.

  8. National Seismic Network of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanova, N.; Kakhoberashvili, S.; Omarashvili, V.; Tserodze, M.; Akubardia, D.

    2016-12-01

    Georgia, as a part of the Southern Caucasus, is tectonically active and structurally complex region. It is one of the most active segments of the Alpine-Himalayan collision belt. The deformation and the associated seismicity are due to the continent-continent collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Seismic Monitoring of country and the quality of seismic data is the major tool for the rapid response policy, population safety, basic scientific research and in the end for the sustainable development of the country. National Seismic Network of Georgia has been developing since the end of 19th century. Digital era of the network started from 2003. Recently continuous data streams from 25 stations acquired and analyzed in the real time. Data is combined to calculate rapid location and magnitude for the earthquake. Information for the bigger events (Ml>=3.5) is simultaneously transferred to the website of the monitoring center and to the related governmental agencies. To improve rapid earthquake location and magnitude estimation the seismic network was enhanced by installing additional 7 new stations. Each new station is equipped with coupled Broadband and Strong Motion seismometers and permanent GPS system as well. To select the sites for the 7 new base stations, we used standard network optimization techniques. To choose the optimal sites for new stations we've taken into account geometry of the existed seismic network, topographic conditions of the site. For each site we studied local geology (Vs30 was mandatory for each site), local noise level and seismic vault construction parameters. Due to the country elevation, stations were installed in the high mountains, no accessible in winter due to the heavy snow conditions. To secure online data transmission we used satellite data transmission as well as cell data network coverage from the different local companies. As a result we've already have the improved earthquake location and event magnitudes. We

  9. Eleventh-year response of loblolly pine and competing vegetation to woody and herbaceous plant control on a Georgia flatwoods site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Zutter; James H. Miller

    1998-01-01

    Through 11 growing seasons, growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) increased after control of herbaceous, woody, or both herbaceous and woody vegetation (total control) for the first 3 years after planting on a bedded site in the Georgia coastal flatwoods. Gains in stand volume index from controlling either herbaceous or woody vegetation alone were approximately two-...

  10. Tietkens Plain karst - Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    The Tietkens Plain karst is located to the north of Maralinga village which is on the crest of the Ooldea Range on the north and east margin of the Nullarbor Plain in western South Australia. The geology of the carbonate rocks in the Maralinga area is summarised. On Tietkens Plain from 1955 to 1963 nuclear weapons tests dispersed radioactive materials over the Maralinga area. Six nuclear devices were detonated in the air and one was exploded a few metres below the surface. The effect such explosions have on the karst and the possible rate of recovery of its surface are discussed. This report is the record of a visit to the Maralinga area from the 15th -21st November 1986 which involved an inspection of the karst surface together with collection of water, soil and rock samples. Results of the measurements made in order to assess water quality and water contamination by radioactive nuclides are presented. The implications arising from the presence of radioactive materials on the surface and the possibility of their entering and contaminating the groundwater in the area are discussed in the context of the chemistry of uranium and plutonium. The potential for transmission of contaminants through groundwater conduits and aquifers in the dolomite is discussed. Evidence is produced to show that the caves of the Nullabor Plain are not contaminated at present and are unlikely to be so in the future. 21 refs., 2 figs. 3 tabs., ills

  11. 2013 Athens-Clarke County, Georgia Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5 foot pixel resolution, four band (RGB, Near IR) orthoimages covering Athens-Clarke Georgia. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data...

  12. 2012 Oconee County, Georgia ADS80 Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All imagery was collected during the 2012 Spring flying season during leaf-off conditions for deciduous vegetation in the State of Georgia. The sun angle was at...

  13. The problems of nuclear security in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabakhtiani, N.

    2006-01-01

    Georgia is carrying out activities to improve nuclear security according to the demands of international standards and rules. The support of developed countries and international organisations is very important to solve the associated problems. (author)

  14. Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) leadership academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Public agencies like the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) are continually challenged with : reduced staff levels, reduced budgets, increased workloads and expectations for services provided. In : addition, the current economic and politica...

  15. Strait of Georgia chinook and coho fishery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Argue, A. W

    1983-01-01

    The chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon fishery in the Strait of Georgia, between Vancouver Island and the mainland of British Columbia, is a valuble sport and commercial resource...

  16. Explaining the gender wage gap in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Khitarishvili, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  17. Groundwater flow in the Brunswick/Glynn County area, Georgia, 2000-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    An existing regional steady-state model for coastal Georgia, and parts of South Carolina and Florida, was revised to evaluate the local effects of pumping on the migration of high chloride (saline) water in the Upper Floridan aquifer located in the Brunswick/Glynn County, Georgia (Ga.) area. Revisions were focused on enhancing the horizontal and vertical resolution of the regional model grid in the vicinity of saline water. Modifications to the regional model consisted of (1) limiting grid size to a maximum of 500 feet (ft) per side in the vicinity of chloride contamination; (2) representing the upper and lower Brunswick aquifers with distinct model layers; (3) similarly, representing upper and lower water-bearing zones of the Upper Floridan aquifer with distinct model layers in Glynn and Camden Counties, Ga.; and (4) establishing new hydraulic-property zones in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The revised model simulated steady-state conditions that were assumed to exist during 2000 and 2004.

  18. Cracked Plain, Buried Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    4 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a cracked plain in western Utopia Planitia. The three circular crack patterns indicate the location of three buried meteor impact craters. These landforms are located near 41.9oN, 275.9oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  19. Análise faciológica e estratigráfica da planície costeira de Soure (margem leste da ilha de Marajó-PA, no trecho compreendido entre o canal do Cajuúna e o estuário Paracauari Faciological and stratigraphical analysis of Soure's coastal plain (eastern Marajó island-Pará, between Cajuúna channel and Paracauari estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmena Ferreira de França

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A planície costeira de Soure, na margem leste da ilha de Marajó (Pará, é constituída por áreas de acumulação lamosa e arenosa, de baixo gradiente, sujeitas a processos gerados por marés e ondas. Suas feições morfológicas são caracterizadas por planícies de maré, estuários, canais de maré e praias-barreiras. A análise faciológica e estratigráfica de seis testemunhos a vibração, com profundidade média de 4 m, e de afloramentos de campo permitiu a caracterização dos ambientes deposicionais, sua sucessão temporal e sua correlação lateral, a elaboração de seções estratigráficas e a definição de uma coluna estratigráfica. Foram identificadas cinco associações de facies: (1 facies de planície de maré, (2 facies de manguezal, (3 facies de barra de canal de maré, (4 facies de praia e (5 facies de duna. A história sedimentar da planície costeira de Soure é representada por duas sucessões estratigráficas: (1 a sucessão progradacional, constituída pelas associações de facies de planície de maré, manguezal e barra de canal de maré; e (2 a sucessão retrogradacional, formada pelas associações de facies de praia e de duna. Essas sucessões retratam uma fase de expansão das planícies de maré e manguezais, com progradação da linha de costa (Holoceno médio a superior, e uma posterior fase de retrogradação, com migração dos ambientes de praias e dunas sobre depósitos lamosos de manguezal e planície de maré, no Holoceno atual. A história deposicional da planície costeira de Soure é condizente com o modelo de evolução holocênica das planícies costeiras do nordeste paraense.Soures's coastal plain, eastern Marajó island (Pará, is formed by muddy and sandy deposits, low gradient areas submitted to tidal and wave processes. The morphological features are tidal flats, estuaries, tidal channels and barrier-beach ridges . The faciological and stratigraphical analysis of six vibra-core with medium

  20. Exploring Homophobia in Tbilisi, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestvirishvili, Maia; Zurabishvili, Tinatin; Iakobidze, Tamar; Mestvirishvili, Natia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine statistical predictors of homophobic attitudes among the residents of Tbilisi, Georgia. We analyze 2013 survey data from a representative sample of the Tbilisi adult population. Residents were asked about their attitudes, beliefs, and political and social values in the context of the May 17, 2013 attack on LGBT activists on the International Day Against Homophobia and Transphobia (IDAHOT). Findings show that homophobia is significantly predicted by male gender, lower levels of education, acceptance of social inequality, nonliberal attitudes, and perceiving homosexuals as a "threat to national security." However, psychological perceptions and personal experiences also indirectly influence homophobic attitudes: the findings suggest that males report homophobic attitudes more often than females do and tend to be even more homophobic when they believe that homosexuality is inborn rather than acquired. The study also found that people without liberal attitudes tend to be more homophobic when they have personal contacts with homosexuals. This article highlights the need for a more comprehensive approach to education and the promotion of liberal values as well as legal equality for LGBTQ individuals to decrease the level of homophobia in Georgian society and, specifically, in Tbilisi.

  1. Coastal Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelvink, J.A.; Steetzel, H.J.; Bliek, A.; Rakhorst, H.D.; Roelse, P.; Bakker, W.T.

    1998-01-01

    This book deals on "Coastal Dynamics", which will be defined in a narrow sense as a mathematical theory, which starts from given equations of motion for the sediment, which leads with the continuity equation and given boundary conditions to a calculated (eventually schematized) coastal topography,

  2. Importance of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezo Goradze

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic downturn in the 1990s and early 2000s associated with the break-up of the Soviet Union had a negative impact on Georgian fisheries. Both marine and freshwater fisheries and aquaculture suffered considerable decline. The Georgian fishing fleet deteriorated. The role of state institutions in fisheries management weakened and funding of scientific research diminished. Economic and institutional problems had a negative effect on the state of aquatic bio-resources. The excessive and relentless use of living resources, use of illegal fishing gear and degradation of coastal ecosystems led to a considerable reduction in fish stocks, while the number of vulnerable and endangered species increased. Starting from the new millennium the attitude has changed. In 2004-2005 the 15-year plan for the development of the ecosystem approach to fisheries in Georgia was initiated with support from the FAO. A Georgian law on fisheries and aquaculture has been introduced. Discussions on responsible fisheries and an aquaculture code have also started, but are still pending. On the other hand, the fisheries department of the Ministry of Agriculture was abolished and the single fisheries research institute met a similar fate. Fisheries regulation came under the authority of the ministry of environment. There is still a lot to be done in order to establish an ecosystem approach to fisheries in Georgia. First of all, the legislative base must be addressed, including the Georgian law on fisheries, which would consider such issues as long-term sustainable development of fisheries, a responsible code of conduct for fishermen, monitoring and management structures at the national level, allocation of resources and application of scientific approaches in development of fisheries, aquaculture and mariculture.

  3. A Failed Experiment: Georgia's Tax Credit Scholarships for Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Georgia is one of seven states that currently allow tax credits for scholarships to private schools. Georgia's law was enacted in May 2008 in order to assist low income students to transfer out of low performing public schools. Operations under the new act began in late 2008. The law permits taxpayers in Georgia to reduce their annual state taxes…

  4. The Geographic Reference Atlas of Georgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liparteliani, Guliza; Kurtubadze, Manana; Sologhashvili, Nato

    2017-01-01

    Developing the national atlases as a main goal of geography has been determined by the 18th International Geographical Congress in Rio-de-Janeiro in 1965. The interest to create thematic complex atlases was increased. The first and the second National Atlases of Georgia show a high level of the e......Developing the national atlases as a main goal of geography has been determined by the 18th International Geographical Congress in Rio-de-Janeiro in 1965. The interest to create thematic complex atlases was increased. The first and the second National Atlases of Georgia show a high level...... of the exploration of the nature, population, economy and history of Georgia. Both, the first and the second atlases are scientific by the content, the purpose and the design. Nowadays, Georgian society requires to understand country not only from maps, but also from photos, related text annotations and graphic...

  5. Chapter 16 - conservation and use of coastal wetland forests in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Faulkner; Jim L. Chambers; William H. Conner; Richard F. Keim; John W. Day; Emile S. Gardiner; Melinda S. Hughes; Sammy L. King; Kenneth W. McLeod; Craig A. Miller; J. Andrew Nyman; Gary P. Shaffer

    2007-01-01

    The natural ecosystems of coastal Louisiana reflect the underlying geomorphic processes responsible for their formation. The majority of Louisiana's wetland forests are found in the lower reaches of the Mississipp Alluvial Valley and the Deltaic Plain. The sediments, water, and energy of the Mississippi River have shaped the Deltaic Plain as natural deltas have...

  6. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain; Levantamento dos niveis de radioatividade natural em aguas do alto Vale da Ribeira a planicie costeira do litoral sul do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-07-01

    freshwater/saltwater mixing). Thus, the Ra isotopes provide fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of {sup 228}Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of {sup 228}Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of {sup 228}Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate

  7. Coastal ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.9_1.pdf.txt stream_source_info Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.9_1.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  8. African swine fever virus isolate, Georgia, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Rebecca J; Michaud, Vincent; Heath, Livio; Hutchings, Geoff; Oura, Chris; Vosloo, Wilna; Dwarka, Rahana; Onashvili, Tinatin; Albina, Emmanuel; Dixon, Linda K

    2008-12-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is widespread in Africa but is rarely introduced to other continents. In June 2007, ASF was confirmed in the Caucasus region of Georgia, and it has since spread to neighboring countries. DNA fragments amplified from the genome of the isolates from domestic pigs in Georgia in 2007 were sequenced and compared with other ASF virus (ASFV) isolates to establish the genotype of the virus. Sequences were obtained from 4 genome regions, including part of the gene B646L that encodes the p72 capsid protein, the complete E183L and CP204L genes, which encode the p54 and p30 proteins and the variable region of the B602L gene. Analysis of these sequences indicated that the Georgia 2007 isolate is closely related to isolates belonging to genotype II, which is circulating in Mozambique, Madagascar, and Zambia. One possibility for the spread of disease to Georgia is that pigs were fed ASFV-contaminated pork brought in on ships and, subsequently, the disease was disseminated throughout the region.

  9. The attitude to nuclear energy in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saralidze, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Georgia, as a new independent state, is facing new problems regarding energy sources in the conditions of market economy. Great attention is given by the Government to search for various ways and versions to overcome the energy crisis. While nuclear energy may be an option for some reasons detailed in the paper, a nuclear power plant is not officially considered as an alternative. (author)

  10. Ibsen in Georgia: milestones in the reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakhaber Loria

    2015-02-01

    Ibsen was and is constantly referred to in Georgian literary studies, not least in connection with Georgian writers. In post-Soviet Georgia, Ibsen is very much on the agenda, and his plays are produced and discussed as they always have been.

  11. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  12. Snapshots of biodiversity in Georgia agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia agricultural landscapes are composed of a diversity of commodities. Here we present biodiversity and biotic interaction data from multiple agricultural systems including: cotton, corn, peanut, blueberry and non-cropping wildflower areas over multiple years. Our goal is to better understand t...

  13. Geological hazard monitoring system in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaprindashvili, George

    2017-04-01

    Georgia belongs to one of world's most complex mountainous regions according to the scale and frequency of Geological processes and damage caused to population, farmlands, and Infrastructure facilities. Geological hazards (landslide, debrisflow/mudflow, rockfall, erosion and etc.) are affecting many populated areas, agricultural fields, roads, oil and gas pipes, high-voltage electric power transmission towers, hydraulic structures, and tourist complexes. Landslides occur almost in all geomorphological zones, resulting in wide differentiation in the failure types and mechanisms and in the size-frequency distribution. In Georgia, geological hazards triggered by: 1. Activation of highly intense earthquakes; 2. Meteorological events provoking the disaster processes on the background of global climatic change; 3. Large-scale Human impact on the environment. The prediction and monitoring of Geological Hazards is a very wide theme, which involves different researchers from different spheres. Geological hazard monitoring is essential to prevent and mitigate these hazards. In past years in Georgia several monitoring system, such as Ground-based geodetic techniques, Debrisflow Early Warning System (EWS) were installed on high sensitive landslide and debrisflow areas. This work presents description of Geological hazard monitoring system in Georgia.

  14. Deregulation of natural gas in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Natural Gas Competition and Deregulation Act of 1997 in Georgia is discussed. New legislation passed the Natural Gas Consumer Relief Act in 2002 legislative session to provide additional protection and increase competition. This Act and its impacts are discussed in detail. Additional commission responsibilities are summarized. (R.P.)

  15. Climate change vulnerability assessment in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binita KC; J. Marshall Shepherd; Cassandra Johnson Gaither

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is occurring in the Southeastern United States, and one manifestation is changes in frequency and intensity of extreme events. A vulnerability assessment is performed in the state of Georgia (United States) at the county level from 1975 to 2012 in decadal increments. Climate change vulnerability is typically measured as a function of exposure to physical...

  16. 40 CFR 81.311 - Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.311 Georgia... X Evans County X Fannin County X Fayette County X Floyd County X Forsyth County X Franklin County X... X Evans County X Fannin County X Fayette County X Floyd County X Forsyth County X Franklin County X...

  17. Dollarization in emerging markets: evidence from Georgia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau-Aslanidi, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2012), s. 70-84 ISSN 1540-496X Grant - others:UK(CZ) GAUK 259027 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : dollarization * Georgia * money-in-utility function Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.190, year: 2012

  18. O gênero Strombomonas (Euglenophyceae pigmentadas em ambientes lênticos na Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil The genus Strombomonas (pigmented Euglenophyceae in lentic environments of the Coastal Plains of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Alves-da-Silva

    2009-12-01

    . Defl. var. conspersa (Skv. Defl.; new records for South America are: S. maxima var. oviformis and S. tuberosa var. conspersa. Strombomonas scabra var. ovata f. minor Tell & Conf. and S. verrucosa (Daday Defl. were the only taxa found in both areas. The range of environmental variables for taxa of Strombomonas is registered on the Coastal Plains and compared to other aquatic environments of the state.

  19. Do Otters Occasionally Visit Israel’s Coastal Plain?

    OpenAIRE

    Kronfeld-Schor N.; Saltz D.; Dolev A.; Guter A.

    2006-01-01

    Signs of otters have been found on three occasions in recent years - in 1986, 2000 and 2006. This probably indicates sporadic transient otters from the Lebanese coast, and may represent an important source of genetic variability for the largely isolated Israeli otter population.

  20. Phosphorus runoff from Coastal Plain forest soil in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although not a common practice, poultry litter (PL) may be used for forest fertilization. Despite usually low soil phosphorus (P) and runoff under forest, repeated or high rates of PL application may cause appreciable P loss. Phosphorus in natural runoff under loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) fertiliz...

  1. Prediction of characteristics of coastal plain soils using terrain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil properties determined include depth, sand, silt, clay, electrical and hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, pH, exchangeable calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and acidity, available phosphorus, organic carbon, base saturation, crystalline and amorphous iron and aluminium oxides. The terrain attributes derived ...

  2. Mapping forest soil organic matter on New Jersey's coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Clough; Edwin J. Green; Richard B. Lathrop

    2012-01-01

    Managing forest soil organic matter (SOM) stocks is a vital strategy for reducing the impact of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. However, the SOM pool is highly variable, and developing accurate estimates to guide management decisions has remained a difficult task. We present the results of a spatial model designed to map soil organic matter for all forested...

  3. Thresholds of gully erosion in the coastal plains sands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of geomorphic threshold as applied in gully erosion studies assumes that water erosion occurs when the combined power of the rainfall energy and overland flow exceeds the resistance of surface materials to detachment and entrainment. This line of reasoning presupposes that certain environmental factors ...

  4. thresholds of gully erosion in the coastal plains sands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    estimating thresholds for gully initiation and sustenance. The entire 413. Km2 Ikpa River basin was covered with grids 1km2 and random number table was used to select 15% of the target population in the basin. The pair-wise correlation technique was employed to establish the threshold values of vegetation cover, organic ...

  5. Determining soil erosion from roads in coastal plain of Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFero Grace; W.J. Elliot

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports soil losses and observed sediment deposition for 16 randomly selected forest road sections in the National Forests of Alabama. Visible sediment deposition zones were tracked along the stormwater flow path to the most remote location as a means of quantifying soil loss from road sections. Volumes of sediment in deposition zones were determined by...

  6. Forest statistics for the Southern Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel D. Cost

    1968-01-01

    This report presents the principal findings of the fourth Forest Survey in the Piedmont of South Carolina, completed in February 1967. Findings of the three earlier surveys, completed in 1936, 1947, and 1958, provide the basis for measuring the changes that have occurred and the trends that have developed over the past 30 years.

  7. thresholds of gully erosion in the coastal plains sands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    The concept of geomorphic threshold as applied in gully erosion studies assumes that water erosion occurs when the combined power of the rainfall energy and overland flow exceeds the resistance of surface materials to detachment and entrainment. This line of reasoning presupposes that certain environmental factors ...

  8. Assessment of groundwater, soil-gas, and soil contamination at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    respective method detection levels were found at any of the sampling locations. The same four locations that were sampled for explosives and chemical agents were selected for the collection of soil samples. A fifth location also was selected on the basis of the elevated contaminant mass of the soil-gas survey. No metals that exceeded the Regional Screening Levels for Industrial Soils as classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were detected at any of the five VATF locations. The soil samples also were compared to values from the ambient, uncontaminated (background) levels for soils in South Carolina, as classified by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. Because South Carolina is adjacent to Georgia and the soils in the coastal plain are similar, these comparisons are valid. No similar values are available for Georgia to use for comparison purposes. The metals that were detected above the ambient background levels for South Carolina, as classified by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, include aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, nickel, potassium, sodium, and zinc.

  9. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Georgia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2011 Georgia State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Georgia.

  11. Biogeochemical cycling in the Strait of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, S C; Macdonald, R W; Burd, B; van Roodselaar, A

    2008-12-01

    The papers in this special issue present the results of a five-year project to study sedimentary biogeochemical processes in the Strait of Georgia, with special emphasis on the near-field of a large municipal outfall. Included in this special issue are overviews of the sedimentology, benthic biology, status of siliceous sponge reefs and distribution of organic carbon in the water column. Other papers address the cycling of contaminants (PCBs, PBDEs) and redox metals in the sediment, a method to map the extent of the influence of municipal effluent from staining on benthic bivalves, and the relationships among geochemical conditions and benthic abundance and diversity. The latter set of papers addresses the role of municipal effluent as a pathway of organic carbon and other contaminants into the Strait of Georgia and the effect of the effluent on benthic geochemistry and biology.

  12. Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumeraci, H.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rouck, J. De

    1995-01-01

    The paper attempts to present an overview of five research projects supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XII, under the MAST 2- Programme (Marine Sciences and Technology), with the overall objective of contributing to the development of improved rational me...... methods for the design of coastal structures....

  13. Overview of solar energy developments in Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekelia, B.; Ramishvili, G.; Shanidze, N. [PA Government Services (PA Consulting Group), Tbilisi (Georgia)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of current state and future development prospects for solar energy technologies in Georgia. It gives a brief description of climatic and geographical location advantages/drawbacks of the country and provides the authors' views on possibilities for various solar energy applications in the given area. It also gives an overview of currently used technologies and companies present on the Georgian market. (orig.)

  14. Food security problems in post Soviet Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Meskhia, I.E.

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduces new insights into category content of national food security within the context of other components included into the unified system of the economic security of the country. Basic (Pilot) indicators of food security have been studied and there have been made a conclusion that these indicators showed a great deterioration in post-Soviet Georgia. In response to ineffective agricultural policy, food self-sufficiency ratio is low and import ratio in a consumer basket is high....

  15. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis for Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsereteli, N. S.; Varazanashvili, O.; Sharia, T.; Arabidze, V.; Tibaldi, A.; Bonali, F. L. L.; Russo, E.; Pasquaré Mariotto, F.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, seismic hazard studies are developed in terms of the calculation of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Spectral Acceleration (SA), Peak Ground Velocity (PGV) and other recorded parameters. In the frame of EMME project PSH were calculated for Georgia using GMPE based on selection criteria. In the frame of Project N 216758 (supported by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation (SRNF)) PSH maps were estimated using hybrid- empirical ground motion prediction equation developed for Georgia. Due to the paucity of seismically recorded information, in this work we focused our research on a more robust dataset related to macroseismic data,and attempted to calculate the probabilistic seismic hazard directly in terms of macroseismicintensity. For this reason, we started calculating new intensity prediction equations (IPEs)for Georgia taking into account different sets, belonging to the same new database, as well as distances from the seismic source.With respect to the seismic source, in order to improve the quality of the results, we have also hypothesized the size of faults from empirical relations, and calculated new IPEs also by considering Joyner-Boore and rupture distances in addition to epicentral and hypocentral distances. Finally, site conditions have been included as variables for IPEs calculation Regarding the database, we used a brand new revised set of macroseismic data and instrumental records for the significant earthquakes that struck Georgia between 1900 and 2002.Particularly, a large amount of research and documents related to macroseismic effects of individual earthquakes, stored in the archives of the Institute of Geophysics, were used as sources for the new macroseismic data. The latter are reported in the Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnikmacroseismic scale (MSK64). For each earthquake the magnitude, the focal depth and the epicenter location are also reported. An online version of the database, with therelated metadata,has been produced for the 69

  16. Solar Data Mining at Georgia State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angryk, R.; Martens, P. C.; Schuh, M.; Aydin, B.; Kempton, D.; Banda, J.; Ma, R.; Naduvil-Vadukootu, S.; Akkineni, V.; Küçük, A.; Filali Boubrahimi, S.; Hamdi, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    In this talk we give an overview of research projects related to solar data analysis that are conducted at Georgia State University. We will provide update on multiple advances made by our research team on the analysis of image parameters, spatio-temporal patterns mining, temporal data analysis and our experiences with big, heterogeneous solar data visualization, analysis, processing and storage. We will talk about up-to-date data mining methodologies, and their importance for big data-driven solar physics research.

  17. Biodiversity studies in three Coastal Wetlands in Ghana, West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant biodiversity studies of three coastal wetlands in Ghana were made. The wetlands are the Sakumo, Muni-Pomadze and Densu Delta Ramsar sites. Each wetland is made up of a flood plain which consists of salt marsh (about 20%), mangrove swamps (between 15 and 30%), fresh water swamp (about 40 - 45%), and in ...

  18. Remote sensing and aerial photography for coastal geomorphology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    -15 m. The older dunes are marked by very dark tone. These dunes extend to about 1 to 2 kIn inland. Remote sensing data can be used as an effective tool for identitying coastal geomorphic features. Above data proves that the coastal geomorphological...-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 :;. RmOTE 5mBIN(; AND AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY FOR COASTAL GIDMORPHOLOGY By B. G. Wagle National Institute of Oceanography Dona Paula, Goa -~o:;DOL,. • : " In this lecture I will discuss the use ofRemote~. Sensing data...

  19. Hidrófitas fanerogâmicas de ecossistemas aquáticos temporários da planície costeira do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Phanerogamic hydrophytes from the temporary swampy environments of coastal plains of northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Petean Bove

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento florístico das hidrófitas fanerogâmicas de ambientes aquáticos temporários da planície costeira do norte fluminense. O material botânico foi coletado em 27 expedições entre setembro/1998 a julho/2001, herborizado e identificado segundo a metodologia tradicional. As exsicatas foram depositadas no Herbário da Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (HUNI. Foram encontrados 113 táxons, distribuídos em 40 famílias. Os ambientes estudados podem ser caracterizados floristicamente pela família Cyperaceae, representada por 23 táxons (cerca de 20%; seguida pelas famílias Fabaceae e Onagraceae (sete táxons, Poaceae (seis táxons, Asteraceae e Scrophulariaceae (cinco táxons e Apiaceae, Lentibulariaceae e Polygonaceae (quatro táxons. Estes ambientes sofrem alterações fitofisionômicas marcantes relacionadas com a hidrogeologia. Algumas espécies são anuais, desaparecendo completamente na estiagem; outras suportam a seca, mas têm a população profundamente reduzida, alterando substancialmente a paisagem. Algumas espécies consideradas exclusivamente aquáticas foram encontradas em solo úmido, inclusive em floração. Isto demonstra a necessidade da inclusão de espécies anfíbias nos estudos da flora aquática pois, algumas vezes, a delimitação dos tipos biológicos não é muito definida, além de caracterizar de forma mais adequada estes ambientes.A floristic inventory of phanerogamic hydrophytes from the temporary swampy environments of coastal plains of northern of Rio de Janeiro State was made. The botanical vouchers were collected in 27 expeditions between September/1998 and July/2001. They were herborized and identified by the traditional methodology. The exsicatae were deposited in the UNIRIO herbarium (HUNI. One hundred and thirteen taxa, distributed among 40 families were found. The environment analyzed could be floristically characterized by the Cyperaceae, represented by 23 taxa (ca. 20%, followed

  20. Coastal erosion problem, modelling and protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Nihal; Balas, Lale; İnan, Asu

    2015-09-01

    Göksu Delta, located in the south of Silifke County of Mersin on the coastal plain formed by Göksu River, is one of the Specially Protected Areas in Turkey. Along the coastal area of the Delta, coastline changes at significant rates are observed, concentrating especially at four regions; headland of İncekum, coast of Paradeniz Lagoon, river mouth of Göksu and coast of Altınkum. The coast of Paradeniz Lagoon is suffering significantly from erosion and the consequent coastal retreating problem. Therefore, the narrow barrier beach which separates Paradeniz Lagoon from the Mediterranean Sea is getting narrower, creating a risk of uniting with the sea, thus causing the disappearance of the Lagoon. The aim of this study was to understand the coastal transport processes along the coastal area of Göksu Delta to determine the coastal sediment transport rates, and accordingly, to propose solutions to prevent the loss of coastal lands in the Delta. To this end, field measurements of currents and sediment grain sizes were carried out, and wind climate, wave climate, circulation patterns and longshore sediment transport rates were numerically modeled by HYDROTAM-3D, which is a three dimensional hydrodynamic transport model. Finally, considering its special importance as an environmentally protected region, some coastal structures of gabions were proposed as solutions against the coastal erosion problems of the Delta. The effects of proposed structures on future coastline changes were also modeled, and the coastlines predicted for the year 2017 are presented and discussed in the paper.

  1. Coastal resuspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1991-11-01

    There are several potential mechanisms for the suspension in air of radioactive or other pollutants from coastal sea water, beaches, mud banks and salt marshes. Available measurements rarely allow these mechanisms to be distinguished. The limited data show a broad spread of results. When normalised by the concentration of radionuclides in beach sediments most of the data indicate concentrations equivalent to 1 to 30 μg m -3 of sediment suspended in air, both for sampling sites on open coasts and near estuaries. Limited evidence for sampling sites located on salt marshes indicates about 0.2 μg m -3 of suspended sediment. These values represent the aggregate effect of the mechanisms that operate at a limited number of coastal locations. At other locations it is possible that additional mechanisms will contribute to the suspension of sediment. (Author)

  2. Corruption Risks of Private Tutoring: Case of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on teacher-supplied private tutoring in the context of post-Soviet Georgia, and elucidates the ways in which teacher-supplied private tutoring can be related to educational corruption. The paper draws on data from in-depth interviews of 18 school teachers in different parts of Georgia in 2013. The findings of the qualitative…

  3. Georgia Health Policy Center Child Policy Briefs, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    This set of briefs discusses state public policy and implications as they pertain to children in Georgia. The five briefs each address a single policy issue: kinship care, dental care, child care, special health care needs, and school health practice in Georgia. Each two-page brief provides background information on the issue, details the types of…

  4. Abkhazia"s status as part of Georgia: historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lordkipanidze, Mariam; Otkhmezuri, Georgi

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at Abkhazia's status as part of Georgia and the establishment of the Abkhazian nation, which moved in the 15th-18th centuries from the Northern Caucasus to Western Georgia (Abkhazia); this ethnic group calls itself "Apsua," while the Georgians call them "Abkhazians."

  5. Physical activity in Georgia state parks: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the role of Georgia State Parks in the promotion of physical activity among different racial/ethnic and age groups. Data were collected at three state parks in north Georgia during the summer of 2009 using two research methods: behavior observations (N=2281) and intercept surveys (N=473).

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Georgia Water Science Center and City of Brunswick- Glynn County Cooperative Water Program-Summary of Activities, July 2005 through June 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1959, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted a cooperative water resources program (CWP) with the City of Brunswick and Glynn County in the Brunswick, Georgia, area. Since the late 1950s, the salinity of ground water in the Upper Floridan aquifer near downtown Brunswick, Georgia, has been increasing, and its occurrence has been detected across an area of increasing size. Pumping of the Upper Floridan aquifer near downtown Brunswick has lowered water levels in the aquifer and resulted in an upward hydraulic gradient between the highly saline parts of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the normally fresh Upper Floridan aquifer. Saltwater likely enters the Upper Floridan aquifer through localized, vertically oriented conduits of relatively high permeability and moves laterally in response to the distribution of stresses within the aquifer. The Brunswick-Glynn County CWP for fiscal year 2006 includes the operation and maintenance of 12 continuous water-level recorders. In addition, water-level data were collected from 52 wells and water from 70 wells was analyzed for chloride concentration during June 2005. Geophysical logs were obtained from one well to assess whether the cause of elevated chloride concentration could be due to leaky well casing. A summary of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division (GaEPD) Georgia Coastal Sound Science Initiative (CSSI) activities that directly benefit the CWP-Brunswick-Glynn County is included in this report. The GaEPD CSSI is a program of scientific and feasibility studies to support development of a final strategy to protect the Upper Floridan aquifer from saltwater contamination. These data presented in this report are needed by State and local authorities to manage water resources effectively in the coastal area of Georgia.

  7. Georgia's forests, 1989. Forest Service resource bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.M.; Johnson, T.G.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1982, areas of timberland in Georgia declined by less than 1 percent and currently total 23.6 million acres. Nonindustrial private owners control 68 percent of the State's timberland. Volume of softwood growing stock declined 6 percent, whereas hardwood growing-stock volume increased 5 percent. Softwood net annual growth dropped 15 percent to 818 million cubic feet, and hardwood growth declined 11 percent to 457 million cubic feet. Annual removals of softwood and hardwood growing stock increased 16 and 50 percent, respectively. Annual softwood mortality was down 5 percent, while hardwood mortality increased 40 percent

  8. Astronomical Beliefs in Medieval Georgia: Innovative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Jefferson; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F.

    2014-01-01

    Written sources from medieval Georgia show, among other things, how astronomical ideas were adapted on the periphery of the Byzantine and Islamic worlds. In this paper, we investigate a number of Georgian beliefs about the heavens from a calendrical work and a celestial prognostication text, but also from less expected sources including the medieval life of a saint and an epic poem. For the most part, these sources were derived from Byzantine or Persian models. We show the extent to which the sources nevertheless conform to a specifically Georgian view of the cosmos. We argue that, in so doing, medieval Georgian authors employed several innovative approaches hitherto unnoticed by modern scholars.

  9. Georgia’s Brightest Future Includes Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    during the Olympics.” 33 Barnes, Julian E and Hodge, Nathan, “Military Faces Historic Shift,” Jan 6, 2012, Wall Street Journal , discusses Army...Security Concept,” Tbilisi, Georgia, unpublished, 2012 44 Mauldin, William, “Putin Pitches Russia to CEOs,” October 18, 2011, Wall Street Journal , Putin...Russia to CEOs,” October 18, 2011, Wall Street Journal , Chart in the article, with Source being Russia’s Federal Statistics Service, shows FDI peaking in

  10. Georgia Power Company's college degree program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggin, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe Georgia Power Company's on-site college degree program for nuclear power plant personnel. In February 1986, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a policy statement concerning engineering expertise on shift (Generic Letter 86-04), which appeared in Volume 50, Number 208 of the October 28, 1985 Federal Register. One of the options available to nuclear power plant personnel to meet the requirement was the combined senior reactor operator/shift technical adviser position. One of the methods for meeting the option included a bachelor's degree in engineering technology for an accredited institution, including course work in the physical, mathematical, or engineering sciences

  11. Ecologically Enhancing Coastal Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Arthur, Mairi; Naylor, Larissa; Hansom, Jim; Burrows, Mike; Boyd, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Hard engineering structures continue to proliferate in the coastal zone globally in response to increasing pressures associated with rising sea levels, coastal flooding and erosion. These structures are typically plain-cast by design and function as poor ecological surrogates for natural rocky shores which are highly topographically complex and host a range of available microhabitats for intertidal species. Ecological enhancement mitigates some of these negative impacts by integrating components of nature into the construction and design of these structures to improve their sustainability, resilience and multifunctionality. In the largest UK ecological enhancement trial to date, 184 tiles (15x15cm) of up to nine potential designs were deployed on vertical concrete coastal infrastructure in 2016 at three sites across the UK (Saltcoats, Blackness and Isle of Wight). The surface texture and complexity of the tiles were varied to test the effect of settlement surface texture at the mm-cm scale of enhancement on the success of colonisation and biodiversity in the mid-upper intertidal zone in order to answer the following experimental hypotheses: • Tiles with mm-scale geomorphic complexity will have greater barnacle abundances • Tiles with cm-scale geomorphic complexity will have greater species richness than mm-scale tiles. A range of methods were used in creating the tile designs including terrestrial laser scanning of creviced rock surfaces to mimic natural rocky shore complexity as well as artificially generated complexity using computer software. The designs replicated the topographic features of high ecological importance found on natural rocky shores and promoted species recruitment and community composition on artificial surfaces; thus enabling us to evaluate biological responses to geomorphic complexity in a controlled field trial. At two of the sites, the roughest tile designs (cm scale) did not have the highest levels of barnacle recruits which were

  12. Coastal Inlet Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Inlet Model Facility, as part of the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an idealized inlet dedicated to the study of coastal inlets and equipped...

  13. Vascular flora of saline lakes in the southern high plains of Texas and eastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David J.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Caskey, Amber D.

    2013-01-01

    Saline lakes and freshwater playas form the principal surface hydrological feature of the High Plains of the Southern Great Plains. Saline lakes number less than 50 and historically functioned as discharge wetlands with relatively consistent water availability due to the presence of one or more springs. Currently, less than ten saline lakes contain functional springs. A survey of vascular plants at six saline lakes in the Southern High Plains of northwest Texas and one in eastern New Mexico during May and September 2009 resulted in a checklist of 49 species representing 16 families and 40 genera. The four families with the most species were Asteraceae (12), Amaranthaceae (8), Cyperaceae (5), and Poaceae (12). Non-native species (Bromus catharticus, Poa compressa, Polypogon monspeliensis, Sonchus oleraceus, Kochia scoparia, and Tamarix ramosissima) accounted for 10% of the total species recorded. Whereas nearly 350 species of vascular plants have been identified in playas in the Southern High Plains, saline lakes contain a fraction of this species richness. The Southern High Plains saline lake flora is regionally unique, containing taxa not found in playas, with species composition that is more similar to temperate desert wetlands of the Intermountain Region and Gulf Coastal Plain of North America.

  14. Groundwater conditions in the Brunswick-Glynn County area, Georgia, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Peck, Michael F.; Painter, Jaime A.; Stayton, Welby L.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer is contaminated with saltwater in a 2-square-mile area of downtown Brunswick, Georgia. The presence of this saltwater has limited the development of the groundwater supply in the Glynn County area. Hydrologic, geologic, and water-quality data are needed to effectively manage water resources. Since 1959, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted a cooperative water program with the City of Brunswick and Glynn County to monitor and assess the effect of groundwater development on saltwater intrusion within the Floridan aquifer system. The potential development of alternative sources of water in the Brunswick and surficial aquifer systems also is an important consideration in coastal areas.

  15. Introduction to coastal engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D' Angremond, K.; Pluim-van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    Lecture notes on genesis of the coastline, climatology, oceanography, coastal morphology, coastal formations, coastalzonde management, tidal inlets and estuaries, pollution and density problems, practical problems and common solutions.

  16. Georgia fishery study: implications for dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, M.D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Fish consumption will contribute a major portion of the estimated individual and population doses from L-Reactor liquid releases and Cs-137 remobilization in Steel Creek. It is therefore important that the values for fish consumption used in dose calculations be as realistic as possible. Since publication of the L-Reactor Environmental Information Document (EID), data have become available on sport fishing in the Savannah River. These data provide SRP with site-specific sport fish harvest and consumption values for use in dose calculations. The Georgia fishery data support the total population fish consumption and calculated dose reported in the EID. The data indicate, however, that both the EID average and maximum individual fish consumption have been underestimated, although each to a different degree. The average fish consumption value used in the EID is approximately 3% below the lower limit of the fish consumption range calculated using the Georgia data. A fish consumption value of 11.3 kg/yr should be used to recalculate dose to the average individual from L-Reactor restart. Maximum fish consumption in the EID has been underestimated by approximately 60%, and doses to the maximum individual should also be recalculated. Future dose calculations should utilize an average fish consumption value of 11.3 kg/yr, and a maximum fish consumption value of 34 kg/yr

  17. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Biological Data for Three Water Bodies, Texas Gulf Coast Plain, 2000-2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    East, Jeffery W; Hogan, Jennifer L

    2003-01-01

    During July 2000 September 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed site-specific hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data in Dickinson Bayou, Armand Bayou, and the San Bernard River in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas...

  18. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to the...

  19. Bugaboo Fire Rages in Georgia and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Subtropical Storm Andrea apparently did little to quench numerous large wildfires burning in the U.S. Southeast in early May 2007. On May 11, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Terra satellite captured this image, the remnants of the storm had dwindled to a small ball of clouds in the Atlantic Ocean, and huge plumes of smoke snaked across Georgia, Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico. Areas where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. A huge fire is burning in and near the Okefenokee Swamp, which straddles the state line between Georgia and Florida. For logistical purposes, fire officials are calling the part of the fire in Florida the Florida Bugaboo Fire and the part in Georgia the Bugaboo Scrub Fire. The distinction is simply administrative, however; in reality, it is single, continuous swath of burning timber, swamp land, grass, and scrubland. The blaze was more than 133,000 thousand acres as of May 11, and it appeared to be spreading on virtually all perimeters at the time of the image, with active fire locations detected in a circle that surrounds an already burned (or partially burned) area. According to reports form the Southern Area Coordination Center, the fire grew by at least 20,000 acres on May 10. Numerous communities were threatened and hundreds of people were evacuated, while parts of Interstate 10 were closed to all but emergency vehicles. To the northeast of the Bugaboo Fire, other large wildfires were burning in Georgia as well. The Floyds Prairie Fire, to the immediate north, was threatening endangered species and their habitat, while farther north the 116,000-plus-acre Sweat Farm Road/Big Turnaround Complex Fire was still burning in the area south of the city of Waycross, nearly a month after the fires first started in mid-April. Southern Georgia and Florida are in the grip of moderate to extreme drought. The state line area where the Bugaboo Fire is burning is one of the areas in extreme drought. The

  20. Composição florística e estrutura do componente arbóreo de uma Floresta Paludosa na planície costeira da bacia do rio Itaguaré, Bertioga, SP, Brasil. Floristic composition andstructure of an arboreal component of the Paludal Forest in the coastal plain of the Itaguaré river basin, Bertioga (São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Regina de Gouveia SOUZA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As Florestas Paludosas costeiras ou “caxetais” ocorrem no Domínio Atlântico, em geral associadas a depressões paleolagunares, cujos terrenos são permanentemente encharcados. Essas florestas se caracterizam por apresentar elevada densidade de indivíduos da espécie Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam. DC., conhecida popularmente por “caxeta”. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido em uma Floresta Paludosa situada na planície costeira do rio Itaguaré, município de Bertioga, Baixada Santista, Estado de São Paulo. A composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica foram investigadas através da amostragem por parcelas, sendo incluídos todos os indivíduos com 10 cm ou mais de diâmetro a 1,3 m de altura do peito (DAP. Foram registradas 20 espécies e 11 famílias botânicas, resultando em uma densidade total de 450 ind./ha-1. A família com maior riqueza de espécies foi Myrtaceae, com quatro espécies. A análise de similaridade indicou dois grupos florísticos. Tabebuia cassinoides foi, de fato, a espécie mais importante, apresentando grande densidade e dominância de indivíduos, o que reforça sua posição de espécie indicadora deste tipo vegetacional, conforme difundido na literatura. The coastal Paludal Forest or “Caxetal” occurs on the Atlantic Domain, associated to wetlands within palaeolagoonal depressions. It is characterized by a high density of individuals of Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam. DC., which is popularly known as “caxeta”. A Paludal Forest located in the Itaguaré river coastal plain, in the municipality of Bertioga, Santos Lowland, São Paulo State, Brazil was studied. The floristic composition and phytossociological structure was investigated through a plot method including all individuals with diameter at 1.3 m (DBH ≥ 10 cm. A total of 20species and 11 botanic families were sampled, resulting in a total density of 450 ind./ha-1. Myrtaceae showed the highest species richness. The similarity index indicated

  1. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-09-26

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used in climate

  2. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jish Prakash

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, ion chromatography (IC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and laser particle size analysis (LPSA. We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models

  3. Conference Report: 5th Annual Georgia Conference on Information Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ziegler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The 5th annual Georgia Conference on Information Literacy took place in Savannah, Georgia on October 3-4, 2008. Since its inception, this conference has drawn participants from across the United States and even a few from abroad. Jointly sponsored by the Zach S. Henderson Library, the Department of Writing and Linguistics, the College of Education, and the Center for Continuing Education at Georgia Southern University, the conference offers both theoretical and practical discussions of the complex issues involved in teaching students how to find, interpret and use information in emerging electronic technologies against the backdrop of one of America’s loveliest cities.

  4. Georgia-Armenia Transboarder seismicity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoladze, T.; Tvaradze, N.; Javakishvili, Z.; Elashvili, M.; Durgaryan, R.; Arakelyan, A.; Gevorgyan, M.

    2012-12-01

    In the presented study we performed Comprehensive seismic analyses for the Armenian-Georgian transboarder active seismic fault starting on Armenian territory, cutting the state boarder and having possibly northern termination on Adjara-Triealeti frontal structure in Georgia. In the scope of International projects: ISTC A-1418 "Open network of scientific Centers for mitigation risk of natural hazards in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia" and NATO SfP- 983284 Project "Caucasus Seismic Emergency Response" in Akhalkalaki (Georgia) seismic center, Regional Summer school trainings and intensive filed investigations were conducted. Main goal was multidisciplinary study of the Javakheti fault structure and better understanding seismicity of the area. Young scientists from Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia were participated in the deployment of temporal seismic network in order to monitor seisimity on the Javakheti highland and particularly delineate fault scarf and identify active seismic structures. In the scope of international collaboration the common seismic database has been created in the southern Caucasus and collected data from the field works is available now online. Javakheti highland, which is located in the central part of the Caucasus, belongs to the structure of the lesser Caucasus and represents a history of neotectonic volcanism existed in the area. Jasvakheti highland is seismicalu active region devastating from several severe earthquakes(1088, 1283, 1899…). Hypocenters located during analogue network were highly scattered and did not describe real pattern of seismicity of the highland. We relocated hypocenters of the region and improved local velocity model. The hypocenters derived from recently deployed local seismic network in the Javakheti highland, clearly identified seismically active structures. Fault plane solutions of analogue data of the Soviet times have been carefully analyzed and examined. Moment tensor inversion were preformed

  5. Plain Polynomial Arithmetic on GPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Sardar Anisul; Maza, Marc Moreno

    2012-01-01

    As for serial code on CPUs, parallel code on GPUs for dense polynomial arithmetic relies on a combination of asymptotically fast and plain algorithms. Those are employed for data of large and small size, respectively. Parallelizing both types of algorithms is required in order to achieve peak performances. In this paper, we show that the plain dense polynomial multiplication can be efficiently parallelized on GPUs. Remarkably, it outperforms (highly optimized) FFT-based multiplication up to degree 2 12 while on CPU the same threshold is usually at 2 6 . We also report on a GPU implementation of the Euclidean Algorithm which is both work-efficient and runs in linear time for input polynomials up to degree 2 18 thus showing the performance of the GCD algorithm based on systolic arrays.

  6. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  7. The radiological accidents in Tbilisi, Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramidze, S.; Katamadze, N.; Cruz Suares, R.; Bilbao Alfonso, A.

    1998-01-01

    On october 1997, a facsimile message was received by the IAEA from the Georgian Minister of Health stating that servicemen of the Lilo Training Detachment of Frontier Troops had developed local radiation-induced skin diseases on various parts of their body. Details were sent of the medical diagnoses of the mine victims , as well as information on the radiation sources and dose rates that had caused the exposures. The Georgian Minister of Health requested the IAEAs assistance in the examination and treatment of the patients. An Investigation had revealed that several Cs 137, Co-60 radiation sources and some beta emitters had been found, and that in some places high dose rates had been detected. The Government of Georgia requested the IAEA to send an emergency team to evaluate the radiological conditions at the Lilo Training Centre. The present paper summarizes the findings and lessons learned

  8. Measuring Innovative Capacities of the Georgia Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Gogodze

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available European Union (EU experience reveal that the composite indicators are probably the most useful instruments for measuring the innovative capacities at the regional (sub-national level. However, some gap exists in the current literature with respect to the elaboration of composite indicators for regional innovation systems (RISs of developing countries. This article introduces the composite indicators GRIS and GCLS for measuring the regional innovative capacities (for GNUTS1 and GNUTS2 territorial classification levels, respectively. Georgia is a useful case-subject because its smallscale developing economy presents special challenges for elaborating the composite indicators for RISs. This article also includes a brief analysis using these composite indicators and indicates the significant heterogeneity among the innovative capacities of the Georgian regions.

  9. Food security problems in post Soviet Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. Meskhia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces new insights into category content of national food security within the context of other components included into the unified system of the economic security of the country. Basic (Pilot indicators of food security have been studied and there have been made a conclusion that these indicators showed a great deterioration in post-Soviet Georgia. In response to ineffective agricultural policy, food self-sufficiency ratio is low and import ratio in a consumer basket is high. Due to low income bracket and rise in food prices, majority of the population can't get necessary amount of calories determined by physical standards. There have been revealed strengths and weaknesses of endogenous and exogenous factors influencing food security of the country. There has been researched how increase in local food production influences the macroeconomic security, especially momentary security of the country. Proposals and recommendations are drafted on strengthening food security of the country.

  10. Savannah, Georgia Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Savannah, Georgia Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  11. Water-Level Analysis for Cumberland Sound, Georgia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraus, Nicholas

    1997-01-01

    Cumberland Sound, Georgia, is a large and complex estuary covering an area of approximately 240 square miles, which is connected to the Atlantic Ocean through a dredged inlet channel called St Marys Entrance. St...

  12. Institutional and financial analysis of weigh station performance in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report examines the State of Georgias commercial vehicle oversize and overweight enforcement : program over the past 10 years. An overview of the federal and state regulations for both oversize and overweight : vehicles is presented, which in...

  13. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Georgia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric soil moisture, volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and surface and soil temperature for the Georgia study...

  14. Implementing communities of practice in the Georgia Department of Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This study explored strategies through which the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) can develop communities of : practice to help managers facilitate critical exchanges of knowledge, support organization learning, and ultimately achieve : im...

  15. Radiation sources and materials safety and security in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandjgaladze, G.; Tsitskishvili, M.; Abramidze, Sh.; Katamadze, N.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explains the problems of safety and security in Georgia, the most important incidents and accidents, their consequences (including severe injuries and deaths) and governmental actions for prevention and mitigation. (author)

  16. 76 FR 32985 - Georgia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... certain areas of the State of Georgia resulting from severe storms, tornadoes, straight line winds, and... State, and any other forms of assistance under the Stafford Act that you deem appropriate subject to...

  17. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric soil moisture, volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and surface and soil temperature for the Georgia study...

  18. Implementation of an enhanced COPACES for Georgia's counties and cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) has been successfully carrying out IT-based pavement : management and maintenance on its 18,000-centerline-mile highways since 1998. To leverage GDOTs : knowledge and experience and extend it to Geor...

  19. Georgia Public Expenditure Review : Building a Sustainable Future

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This Public Expenditure Review (PER) was prepared at the request of the Ministry of Finance of Georgia; its analysis of public spending is designed to inform the Georgian authorities on the fiscal policies that support growth and equity. As Georgia strives to meet the challenges of a fluid global economic environment, this PER is intended to support the government’s efforts to secure macro...

  20. The Geographic Reference Atlas of Georgia: Basic Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liparteliani, Guliza; Kurtubadze, Manana; Sologhashvili, Nato

    2017-01-01

    Developing the national atlases as a main goal of geography has been determined by the 18th International Geographical Congress in Rio-de-Janeiro in 1965. The interest to create thematic complex atlases was increased. The first and the second National Atlases of Georgia show a high level...... representations. These requirements are well answered with a new Geographic Reference Atlas of Georgia and this is the first time this type of atlas is being prepared....

  1. Spatial variability of the shallow groundwater level and its chemistry characteristics in the low plain around the Bohai Sea, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zaiming; Zhang, Guanghui; Yan, Mingjiang; Wang, Jinzhe

    2012-06-01

    To characterize the spatial distribution of groundwater level (GWL) and its chemistry characteristics in the low plain around the Bohai Sea, shallow groundwater depth of 130 wells were determined. Water soluble ions composition, total dissolved solid (TDS), electric conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH), total alkalinity (TA), and total salt content (TS) of 128 representative groundwater samples were also measured. Classical statistics, geostatistical method combined with GIS technique were then used to analyze the spatial variability and distribution of GWL and groundwater chemical properties. Results show that GWL, TDS, EC, TH, TA, and TS all presented a lognormal distribution and could be fitted by different semivariogram models (spherical, exponential, and Gaussian). Spatial structure of GWL, TDS, EC, TH, TA, and TS changed obviously. GWL decreased from west inland plain to the east coastal plain, however, TDS, EC, and TS increased from west to east, TH and TA were higher in the middle and coastal plain area. Groundwater chemical type in the coastal plain was SO (4) (2-) ·Cl(-)-Na(+) while chemical types in the inland plain were SO (4) (2-) ·Cl(-)-Ca(2+)·Mg(2+) and HCO (3) (-) -Ca(2+)·Mg(2+).

  2. Assessment of groundwater, soil-gas, and soil contamination at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    detected above their respective method detection levels were naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, tridecane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethylene. After the results of the 71 soil-gas samplers were received, 31 additional passive soil-gas samplers were deployed on July 14, 2011, and retrieved on July 18, 2011. These 31 samplers were deployed on a larger areal scale to better define the extent of the contamination. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected above their method detection level at all 31 samplers, whereas BTEX was detected above its method detection level at 17 of the 31 samplers. Other organic compounds detected above their method detection levels were naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, octane, undecane, tridecane, pentadecane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, chloroform, and perchloroethylene. Subsequent to the 2010 soil-gas survey, four areas determined to have elevated contaminant mass were selected and sampled for explosives and chemical agents. No detections of explosives or chemical agents above their respective method detection levels were found at any of the sampling locations. The same four locations that were sampled for explosives and chemical agents were selected for the collection of soil samples. A fifth location also was selected on the basis of the elevated contaminant mass of the soil-gas survey. No metals that exceeded the Regional Screening Levels for Industrial Soils, as classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, were detected at any of the five VATF locations. The soil samples also were compared to values from the ambient, uncontaminated (background) levels for soils in South Carolina, as classified by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. Because South Carolina is adjacent to Georgia and the soils in the Coastal Plain are similar, these comparisons are valid. No similar values are available for Georgia to use for comparison purposes. The metals that were detected above the

  3. Simulation of ground-water flow and stream-aquifer relations in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site, Georgia and South Carolina, predevelopment through 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; West, Christopher T.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water flow and stream-aquifer relations were simulated for seven aquifers in Coastal Plain sediments in the vicinity of the U.S. Department of Energy, Savannah River Site (SRS), in Georgia and South Carolina to evaluate the potential for ground water containing hazardous materials to migrate from the SRS into Georgia through aquifers underlying the Savannah River (trans-river flow). The work was completed as part of a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Department of Energy, and Georgia Department of Natural Resources. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW, was used to simulate ground-water flow in three aquifer systems containing seven discrete aquifers: (1) the Floridan aquifer system, consisting of the Upper Three Runs and Gordon aquifers in sediments of Eocene age; (2) the Dublin aquifer system, consisting of the Millers Pond, and upper and lower Dublin aquifers in sediments of Paleocene and Late Cretaceous age; and (3) the Midville aquifer system, consisting of the upper and lower Midville aquifers of sediments in Late Cretaceous age. Ground-water flow was simulated using a series of steady-state simulations of predevelopment (pre-1953) conditions and six pumping periods--1953-60, 1961-70, 1971-75, 1976-80, 1981-86, and 1987-92--results are presented for predevelopment (prior to 1953) and modern-day (1987-92) conditions. Total simulated predevelopment inflow is 1,023 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), of which 76 percent is contributed by leakage from the Upper Three Runs aquifer. Over most of the study area, pumpage induced changes in ground-water levels, ground-water discharge to streams, and water-budget components were small during 1953-92, and changes in aquifer storage were insignificant. Simulated drawdown between predevelopment and modern-day conditions is small (less than 7 feet) and of limited areal extent--the largest simulated declines occur in the upper and

  4. Radio monitoring of the Sozh-river flood plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, V.A.; Generalova, V.A.; Kol'nenkov, V.P.; Glaz, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Periodic radiation monitoring supervision is the important parameter of the radioactivity level time control with reference to concrete landscapes, estimation and their ecological radiochemistry conditions forecast in order to accept practical measures for the risk radiation danger reduction. The early monitoring supervision was carried out in the area of radioactive anomalies in Sozh-river flood plain. The new data received in 1998 and 2000 are cited below. The radiation situation of the last landscape appropriating to conditions in central and near terrace Sozh-river flood plain, more than in 10 years, is nowadays characterized by the data of the structure of Veprin one. In coastal flood plain the maximal radioactivity is dated to meadow vegetable layer in downturn of relief or to humus horizon of actual soil on coastal shaft. In central flood plain it remains rather high with the tendency of accumulation in meliorative channels, which are nowadays strongly overgrown, in 1,6-1,9 times exceeding earlier supervision. Down the Sozh near the village Gronovo in 1988 the level of gamma activity meadow vegetable layer changed. Radioactive situation is low here nowadays: on meadow vegetable layer almost in 5 times lower than former one. It is explained by the active hydro mode snow melt flood streams at the abrupt bend of Sozh channel, resulting in meadows washing and silt material washout. The deepening of Cs-137 reaches 0,20 m and connects with the accumulation of isotope in the top part of humus horizon where it is fixed in the fixed form. Monitoring supervision on radio strontium in the section of Sozh-river flood plain near the village Gronovo shows, that in 1995 its maximal concentration is observed in humusided loamy sand under meadow vegetable layer; the main mass of isotope - up to 80 % - was concentrated in the top 30-sm layer. It is remarkable, that with depth, reducing the contents almost twice and not being marked in underlaying sands, this isotope

  5. Coastal archaeological heritage in relation to geomorphology of cliffs, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    -Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Coastal archaeological heritage in relation to geomorphology of cliffs, West coast of India Antotlio Mascarenhas National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa Etrlail: arztmns@nio.org Abstract... of disintegration, and some are crumbling. Coastal geomorphology, lithology of rocky coasts, location of structure and near- shore geological processes are some of the factors that seem to influence the stability of cliffs, and hence of forts. With the above...

  6. Entrepreneur for Equality: Governor Rufus Brown Bullock and the Politics of Race and Commerce in Post-Civil War Georgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncan, Russell

    Rufus Bullock, reconstruction, Georgia, United States history, African American, race relations, Gilded age......Rufus Bullock, reconstruction, Georgia, United States history, African American, race relations, Gilded age...

  7. Coastal zone - Terra (and aqua) incognita - Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, R. D.; Velikova, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    In the Black Sea coastal states (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has no properly established legal and institutional framework. The term "coastal zone" is undefined in national (reportedly with the exception of Bulgaria) and regional legislative documents. The interface between science and policy within ICZM remains poorly developed. Policies for streamlining efforts have been ill-managed and decisions taken in functional zoning and the balanced use and protection of coastal zones have often been shown to be incorrect. The observed proliferation of consultative committees and councils has not been much helpful, public participation has been widely neglected. Illegal practices are in place, and coastal developments continue being largely unsustainable. These problems are often explained by the low awareness of ICZM benefits, and hence, a shortage of political good will, but also by the lack of appropriate Black Sea scientific research, which would ensure a fundamental knowledge-base. There are hundreds of organizations involved in collection of data and information of relevance for ICZM, although there is a distinct lack of coordination. Consequently, there is a substantial overlap of activities, whilst important scientific and policy questions remain unanswered. We review the status of ICZM or mismanagement (ICZmisM) in the Black Sea region, building links between environmental problems and policy measures in response, and providing appropriate examples. Recommendations are put forward with regard to major gaps in ICZM at levels of its theoretical development and practical implementation within the region. The review is intended to remind of major disastrous consequences of present complacency and laissez-faire in the management of the Black Sea. This paper calls for urgent implementation of ICZM in the Black Sea at national and regional levels.

  8. High prevalence of cattle fascioliasis in coastal areas of Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga Thi; LE, Thinh Cong; Vo, Minh Duc Co; VAN Cao, Hoang; Nguyen, Ly Thi; Ho, Khanh Thi; Nguyen, Quyet Ngoc; Tran, Vui Quang; Matsumoto, Yasunobu

    2017-06-16

    In Vietnam, especially central Vietnam, patients with fascioliasis are increasingly being reported. Since the fascioliasis is zoonotic, survey on the cattle fascioliasis should be informative for the control of human fascioliasis. In this study, the prevalence of cattle fascioliasis as well as the density of the intermediate host snails, Lymnaea swinhoei and L. viridis, were studied in Thua Thien Hue (TTH) province during 2014-2015. A total of 572 cattle feces were examined from 27 communes in 9 districts. Fasciola eggs were detected in cattle from 24 communes with an average prevalence of 23.4% (134/ 572). The highest prevalence was detected in cattle in the coastal plain terrain (31.0%) followed by plain (25.5%), mountain (21.7%), and low hilly (16.2%) terrains. The highest proportion of heavy infection (>200 EPG) was observed in the coastal plain terrain (36.1%), followed by mountains (20.0%), low hills (13.0%), and plains (8.9%). Low number of heavy infection, as well as relatively low prevalence in low hills and plains were associated with the extensive use of anti-fluke treatments. High number of intermediate host snails in low hilly and plain terrains also indicate high risk of fascioliasis. In this study, the density of Lymnaea snails in the coastal plain terrain was found to be very high (17.3 snails/m 2 ) compared to that in previous studies. This is the first report indicating the recent expansion of cattle fascioliasis in the coastal region in Vietnam.

  9. Influence of physical, chemical and biological conditions on the infiltration rate of highway stormwater runoff : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Double-ring infiltrometer tests were used to measure infiltration rates in situ at three sites in the Piedmont physiographic province and one site in the Coastal Plain physiographic province of Georgia. The accuracy of predicting saturated hydraulic ...

  10. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  11. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  12. 78 FR 21703 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cherokee and Forsyth Counties, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cherokee and Forsyth Counties, Georgia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States... INFORMATION CONTACT: Chetna P. Dixon, Environmental Coordinator, Federal Highway Administration Georgia...

  13. A projection of motor fuel tax revenue and analysis of alternative revenue sources in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Motor fuel tax revenue currently supplies the majority of funding for : transportation agencies at the state and federal level. Georgia uses excise and sales taxes : to generate revenue for the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT). Inflation a...

  14. 76 FR 79192 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From the Georgia Hospital Association...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From the Georgia Hospital Association Research and Education Foundation Patient Safety Organization (GHA-PSO) AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS... The Georgia Hospital Association Research and Education Foundation Patient Safety Organization (GHA...

  15. Coastal zones in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name ICG_Occasional_Paper_Ser_2000_1_1.pdf.txt stream_source_info ICG_Occasional_Paper_Ser_2000_1_1.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  16. Coastal microbial processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    stream_size 10 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Coast_Zone_Manage_1991_93.pdf.txt stream_source_info Coast_Zone_Manage_1991_93.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  17. Sensitive coastal marine ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    stream_size 1 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_95.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_95.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  18. Preliminary assessment report for National Guard Training Center, Georgia Army National Guard, Fort Stewart, Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard (GAARNG) facility near Hinesville, Georgia, known as the National Guard Training Center (NGTC). Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a priority basis for completing corrective actions (where necessary) in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining previous site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the NGTC. Preliminary assessment site score sheet information is also provided for the NGTC. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of Fort Stewart completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on the NGTC area for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of Fort Stewart

  19. Georgia's Economy in the Space of Contradictions Regional Powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Degtev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the economic ties between Georgia and four countries neighbouring the Caucasus region: Russia, Turkey, Iran, and Kazakhstan. The authors focus their attention on regional analysis and, for comparison, give figures on Georgia's relations with three global players: the USA, the EU, and the PRC. The authors postulate at least three challenges to Russia’s interests in Georgia. First, both Georgian establishment and society regard integration with the EU and NATO as main goal of the state, which in case of NATO evidently contradicts Russian national interests. Second, from the economic point of view, the USA is no longer a financial driver of Georgian reforms. The EU, main trade partner of Georgia for the past 15 years, has replaced it. The CIS surpasses the EU in commodity turnover with Georgia, however it is in fact an amorphous organization that formally combines its member-states and lacks for common economic policy, unlike the European Union that acts as an integration association. Third, Chinese investment in Georgian infrastructure within the "New Silk Way" project serves as a ponderable alternative to Russian financial flow. For a comprehensive analysis of the situation the authors used some figures concerning commodity trade, FDI, cross-border financial flows, tourism, and transport development. Major pipeline branches, including the planned projects, are taken into account as well. The findings are based on the results of desk research, and on empirical data obtained through meetings with Georgian government officials.

  20. The “Soft Power” policy of Turkey towards Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Mgerovna Aleksanyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available South Caucasus throughout history was at the epicenter of clashes of different religions, civilizations, nations and states. At present moment the interests of both regional (Turkey, Iran and global actors (the United States, NATO, the EU, Russia and others. intersect in the region. Global transformations, changing power relations in international relations have their direct influence on the political processes taking place in the region. These processes are also linked with the activities of Turkey, which aspire to regional leadership. It is Georgia, which serves as a corridor between Turkey and states of Central Asia and the South Caucasus. Turkey spreads its influence in Georgia in almost all areas using economic, military and political tools, as well as the Russian-Georgian deteriorated relations. To achieve its goals, Turkey is actively pursuing a strategy of "soft power", which further strengthens its influence in the country. Public diplomacy is a part of soft power, which also ensures the formation of a positive and attractive image of Turkey in Georgia. This article investigates the contemporary policy of "soft power" of Turkey towards Georgia. It analyses the basic tools, institutions and the direction of this policy, actively implemented by the Republic of Turkey. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the Gulen Movement in Georgia. The author makes general conclusions regarding the effectiveness of this policy.

  1. Environmental Assessment Addressing the Expansion of Sortie-Operations at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Homerville 2,681 Georgia Moody 1 and Moody 2 North MOAs Blakely 5,176 Georgia Moody 3 MOA Live Oak 7,169 Florida Live Oak MOA Louisville 2,711 Georgia...Wildlife Management Area Newton George T. Bagby State Park Fort Gaines Kolomoki Mounds State Park Blakely Georgia Moody 3 MOA Lake Walter F. George...emphasizes the prevention of pollution of groundwater. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act ( SARA ) of 1986 mandates strong clean-up standards

  2. Occurrence and Diversity of Clinically Important Vibrio Species in the Aquatic Environment of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokashvili, Tamar; Whitehouse, Chris A.; Tskhvediani, Ana; Grim, Christopher J.; Elbakidze, Tinatin; Mitaishvili, Nino; Janelidze, Nino; Jaiani, Ekaterine; Haley, Bradd J.; Lashkhi, Nino; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.; Tediashvili, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Among the more than 70 different Vibrio species inhabiting marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems, 12 are recognized as human pathogens. The warm subtropical climate of the Black Sea coastal area and inland regions of Georgia likely provides a favorable environment for various Vibrio species. From 2006 to 2009, the abundance, ecology, and diversity of clinically important Vibrio species were studied in different locations in Georgia and across seasons. Over a 33-month period, 1,595 presumptive Vibrio isolates were collected from the Black Sea (n = 657) and freshwater lakes around Tbilisi (n = 938). Screening of a subset of 440 concentrated and enriched water samples by PCR-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (PCR-ESI/MS) detected the presence of DNA from eight clinically important Vibrio species: V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi, V. metschnikovii, and V. cincinnatiensis. Almost 90% of PCR/ESI-MS samples positive for Vibrio species were collected from June through November. Three important human-pathogenic Vibrio species (V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus) were detected in 62.8, 37.8, and 21.4% of samples testing positive for Vibrios, respectively. The results of these activities suggest that natural reservoirs for human-pathogenic Vibrios exist in Georgian aquatic environments. Water temperature at all sampling sites was positively correlated with the abundance of clinically important Vibrio spp. (except V. metschnikovii), and salinity was correlated with species composition at particular Black Sea sites as well as inland reservoirs. PMID:26528464

  3. Administrative Needs Assessment in Georgia: Summary, Trends, and State Policy Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Malcolm; Kimbrough, Ralph B.

    From 1985 through 1989, studies were made annually of the administrative needs of school leaders in Georgia. This document functions as a guide for the Georgia Education Leadership Academy, as it looks ahead to the future of staff development for Georgia's school leaders. In 1985-87 and 1989, superintendents were asked to rate 61 common…

  4. 77 FR 17465 - Georgia Power Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    .... Date Filed: February 10, 2012. d. Applicant: Georgia Power Company. e. Name of Project: Middle... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2177-090] Georgia Power... Counties, Georgia, and Lee and Russell Counties, Alabama. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C...

  5. A Failed Experiment: Georgia's Tax Credit Scholarships for Private Schools. Special Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Georgia is one of seven states that currently allow tax credits for scholarships to private schools. The law permits individual taxpayers in Georgia to reduce annual state taxes up to $2,500 for joint returns when they divert funds to a student scholarship organization (SSO). Georgia's law providing tax credits for private school tuition grants or…

  6. Using Radon and Radium isotopes to trace submarine groundwater discharge in Yilan Plain, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Kai; Su, Chih-Chieh

    2015-04-01

    The Yilan Plain which located in the northeast Taiwan was selected for submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) study. The geomorphic and climatic conditions induce lush rain drenched mountains and create abundant groundwater resource in the Yilan Plain. The annual precipitation in 2014 is 2025 mm with most of the precipitation concentrated on autumn (from September to November). In this study, radon and radium isotopes are used as tracers for SGD survey. The 224Ra (t1/2 =3.6 days) was measured by a delayed coincidence counter (RaDeCC). The 222Rn (t1/2 =3.8 days) was measured by RAD-7 equipped with RAD H2O and RAD AQUA system. The river-water samples were collected from the main stream of Lanyang River and its tributaries from upstream to river mouth. The spring-water samples were collected at 8 sites in April, July and October 2014. Ten surface seawater samples along the coastline of the Yilan Plain were collected in August 2014. Our results show the activities of 222Rn and 224Ra in springs ranging from 3400 to 30850 Bq/m3 and 0.02 to 0.29 Bq/m3, and there are no significant differences between wet and dry seasons. Unexpectedly, the springs are characterized with high 222Rn and low 224Ra activities. For river samples, the activities of 224Ra in downstream and river mouth (0.18 to 1.48 Bq/m3) are higher than upstream (0 to 0.3 Bq/m3). The average activity of 224Ra in downstream samples which collected in April (0.98 Bq/m3) has the highest value than other seasons (0.41-0.51 Bq/m3). In coastal seawater, the activities of 222Rn and 224Ra ranged from 0 to 366 Bq/m3 and 0.10 to 1.14 Bq/m3 in August 2014. In summary, this study points out in some coastal regions of the Yilan Plain, where without riverine input, have high 222Rn and 224Ra activities in seawater. We suggest the SGD plays an important role on land-sea exchange along the coastline of the Yilan Plain. Compare with the spring water samples, the 224Ra activities in coastal seawater are 3-4 times higher than

  7. Wetland education through cooperative programs between coastal Carolina University and Horry County public schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon L. Gilman

    2000-01-01

    Horry County, in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, isapproximately 50 percent wetlands. The Waccamaw Region (Horry, Georgetown, and Williamsburg Counties) has experienced a 58-percent population increase during theperiod from 1960 to 1990. Population growth trends suggest that from 1990 to 2020, the total daily population will increase by 125 percent, representing...

  8. Decline of Sweetgrass Spurs Restoration of Coastal Prairie Habitat (South Carolina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela C. Halfacre; Zachary Hart

    2003-01-01

    A muhly grass, locally known as sweetgrass (Muhlenbergia filipes Curtis; Prinson and Batson 1971), is a culturally valued and historically important component of the coastal prairie ecosystems in the South Atlantic Coast Plain region of the United States. In the 18th century, enslaved Africans began collecting sweetgrass and other native plants to...

  9. Evaluating the SWAT model for a low-gradient forested watershed in coastal South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Amatya; M.K. Jha.

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the hydrology of low�]gradient forested watersheds on shallow, poorly drained soils of the coastal plain is a challenging task due to complexities in watershed delineation, microtopography, evapotranspiration, runoff generation processes and pathways including flooding and submergence caused by tropical storms, and complexity of vegetation species....

  10. Flow dynamics of three experimental forested watersheds in coastal South Carolina (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Artur Radecki-Pawlik

    2008-01-01

    Three first-, second- and third-order experimental forested watersheds located within the Francis Marion National Forest in the lower coastal plain of South Carolina were monitored for rainfall and stream outflows. The largest watershed (WS 78) with some open lands, roads and wetlands gave higher annual water yields compared to the two other smaller ones (WS 79, WS 80...

  11. Towards sustainable management of Louisiana's coastal wetland forests: problems, constraints, and a new beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Chambers; W.H. Conner; R.F. Keim; S.P. Faulkner; J.W. Day; E.S. Gardiner; M.S. Hughes; S.L. King; K.W. McLeod; C.A. Miller; J.A. Nyman; G.P. Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Over 345,000 ha of forested swamps occur throughout the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. Natural and anthropogenic changes in hydrology and geomorphology at local and landscape levels have reduced the productivity in many of these coastal wetland forests areas and have caused the complete loss of forest cover in some places. A summary and interpretation of the...

  12. Grapevine phenology and climate change in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cola, G; Failla, O; Maghradze, D; Megrelidze, L; Mariani, L

    2017-04-01

    While the climate of Western Europe has been deeply affected by the abrupt climate change that took place in the late '1980s of the twentieth century, a similar signal is detected only few years later, in 1994, in Georgia. Grapevine phenology is deeply influenced by climate and this paper aimed to analyze how phenological timing changed before and after the climatic change of 1994. Availability of thermal resources in the two climatic phases for the five altitudinal belts in the 0-1250-m range was analyzed. A phenological dataset gathered in two experimental sites during the period 2012-2014, and a suitable thermal dataset was used to calibrate a phenological model based on the normal approach and able to describe BBCH phenological stages 61 (beginning of flowering), 71 (fruit set), and 81 (veraison). Calibration was performed for four relevant Georgian varieties (Mtsvane Kakhuri, Rkatsiteli, Ojaleshi, and Saperavi). The model validation was performed on an independent 3-year dataset gathered in Gorizia (Italy). Furthermore, in the case of variety Rkatsiteli, the model was applied to the 1974-2013 thermal time series in order to obtain phenological maps of the Georgian territory. Results show that after the climate change of 1994, Rkatsiteli showed an advance, more relevant at higher altitudes where the whole increase of thermal resource was effectively translated in phenological advance. For instance the average advance of veraison was 5.9 days for 250-500 m asl belt and 18.1 days for 750-1000 m asl). On the other hand, at lower altitudes, phenological advance was depleted by superoptimal temperatures. As a final result, some suggestions for the adaptation of viticultural practices to the current climatic phase are provided.

  13. Demographic manipulation in the Caucasus (with special reference to Georgia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, B G

    1995-01-01

    The author discusses political developments in the Caucasus region since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The focus is on the events in Georgia that led to the war in South Ossetia (particularly in Abkhazia), and the author suggests that this development is the latest in a 200-year history of demographic manipulation of minority peoples by the region's two major powers, Russia and Georgia. Parallels are drawn between the Georgian war in Abkhazia and Russia's war in Chechenia. The author questions the value of the principle of territorial integrity, and suggests that alternative principles safeguarding the rights of ethnic minorities would be more appropriate in these circumstances.

  14. Plateaus and sinuous ridges as the fingerprints of lava flow inflation in the Eastern Tharsis Plains of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Orr, Tim R.; de Wet, Andrew P.; Zimbelman, James R.; Hamilton, Christopher W.; Brent Garry, W.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Williams, David A.

    2017-08-01

    The Tharsis Montes rift aprons are composed of outpourings of lava from chaotic terrains to the northeast and southwest flank of each volcano. Sinuous and branching channel networks that are present on the rift aprons suggest the possibility of fluvial processes in their development, or erosion by rapidly emplaced lavas, but the style of lava flow emplacement throughout rift apron development is not clearly understood. To better characterize the style of lava emplacement and role of fluvial processes in rift apron development, we conducted morphological mapping of the Pavonis Mons southwest rift apron and the eastern Tharsis plains using images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), Context Camera (CTX), Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) along with the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Precision Experiment Data Records (PEDRs) and gridded data. Our approach was to: (1) search for depositional fans at the slope break between the rift apron and adjacent low slope plains; (2) determine if there is evidence that previously formed deposits might have been buried by plains units; (3) characterize the Tharsis plains morphologies east of Pavonis Mons; and (4) assess their relationship to the rift apron units. We have not identified topographically significant depositional fans, nor did we observe evidence to suggest that plains units have buried older rift apron units. Flow features associated with the rift apron are observed to continue across the slope break onto the plains. In this area, the plains are composed of a variety of small fissures and low shield vents around which broad channel-fed and tube-fed flows have been identified. We also find broad, flat-topped plateaus and sinuous ridges mixed among the channels, tubes and vents. Flat-topped plateaus and sinuous ridges are morphologies that are analogous to those observed on the coastal plain of Hawai'i, where lava

  15. Simulation of selected ground-water pumping scenarios at Fort Stewart and Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    A regional MODFLOW ground-water flow model of parts of coastal Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina was used to evaluate the effects of current and hypothetical groundwater withdrawal, and the relative effects of pumping in specific areas on ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan aquifer near Fort Stewart and Hunter Army Airfield (HAAF), coastal Georgia. Simulation results for four steady-state pumping scenarios were compared to each other and to a Base Case condition. The Base Case represents year 2000 pumping rates throughout the model area, with the exception that permitted annual average pumping rates for the year 2005 were used for 26 production wells at Fort Stewart and HAAF. The four pumping scenarios focused on pumping increases at HAAF resulting from projected future demands and additional personnel stationed at the facility and on reductions in pumping at Fort Stewart. Scenarios A and B simulate 1- and 2-million-gallon-perday (Mgal/d) increases, respectively, at HAAF. Simulated water-level change maps for these scenarios indicate an area of influence that extends into parts of Bryan, Bulloch, Chatham, Effingham, and Liberty Counties, Ga., and Beaufort and Jasper Counties, S.C., with maximum drawdowns from 0.5 to 4 feet (ft) for scenario A and 1 to 8 ft for Scenario B. For scenarios C and D, increases in pumping at HAAF were offset by decreases in pumping at Fort Stewart. Scenario C represents a 1-Mgal/d increase at HAAF and a 1-Mgal/d decrease at Fort Stewart; simulated water-level changes range from 0.4 to -4 ft. Scenario D represents a 2-Mgal/d increase at HAAF and 2-Mgal/d decrease at Fort Stewart; simulated water-level changes range from 0.04 to -8 ft. The simulated water-level changes indicate an area of influence that extends into parts of Bryan, Bulloch, Chatham, Effingham, Liberty, and McIntosh Counties, Ga., and Jasper and Beaufort Counties, S.C. In general, decreasing pumping at Fort Stewart by an equivalent amount to pumping increases at HAAF

  16. Coastal geoindicators of environmental change in the humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The primary geoindicators appropriate for monitoring environmental changes in the humid tropics are transitory surface water levels, shoreline position, wetlands distribution, coral reefs, landforms, and sediment sequence and composition. Lateral zonations and temporal successions of vegetation also can be used as geoindicators of riverine and shoreline changes. All of these coastal geoindicators are sensitive to regional tectonic processes and anthropogenic alterations and they typically reflect significant changes in coastal conditions such as fluvial processes, coastal energy, water quality, relative sea level, and sediment supply. Where humid tropical coasts coincide with active tectonic margins, indicators of seismic activity are critical to understanding Coastal changes associated with co-seismic subsidence or uplift, tsunamis, and liquefaction of coastal sediments. Coastal landforms and sedimentary deposits that record late Quaternary environmental changes include perched fluvial and marine terraces, delta-plain morphologies, crevassesplay deposits, peats and other paleosols, beach ridges, mud capes, and mud volcanoes. Although these features and deposits typically reflect environmental changes spanning more than 100 years, they are relevant to modern processes, management of coastal lands and resources, and prediction of future conditions. In some regions of the humid tropics, large coastal areas are unaffected by hurricanes or typhoons. Nevertheless, these tropical coasts are vulnerable to other non-storm processes, such as El Nin??o events, tsunamis, and monsoons that increase water levels, and cause widespread flooding and beach erosion. The environmental and political significance of coastal geoindicators increases when they are integrated and applied to issues of human safety and health such as hazards mapping, risk assessment, and dispersion of contaminated sediments. However, to be relevant, those socio-environmental applications demand accurate

  17. Climate variability and Great Plains agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Katz, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ways in which inhabitants of the Great Plains, including Indians, early settlers, and 20th century farmers, have adapted to climate changes on the Great Plains are explored. The climate of the Great Plains, because of its variability and extremes, can be very stressful to plants, animals and people. It is suggested that agriculture and society on the Great Plains have, during the last century, become less vulnerable to the stresses imposed by climate. Opinions as to the sustainability of agriculture on the Great Plains vary substantially. Lockeretz (1981) suggests that large scale, high cost technologies have stressed farmers by creating surpluses and by requiring large investments. Opie (1989) sees irrigation as a climate substitute, however he stresses that the Ogallala aquifer must inevitably become depleted. Deborah and Frank Popper (1987) believe that farming on the Plains is unsustainable, and destruction of shelterbelts, out-migration of the rural population and environmental problems will lead to total collapse. With global warming, water in the Great Plains is expected to become scarcer, and although improvements in irrigation efficiency may slow depletion of the Ogallala aquifer, ultimately the acreage under irrigation must decrease to levels that can be sustained by natural recharge and reliable surface flows. 23 refs., 2 figs

  18. Coastal Economic Trends for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These market data provide a comprehensive set of measures of changes in economic activity throughout the coastal regions of the United States. In regard to the...

  19. Stratigraphy of Atlantic coastal margin of United States north of Cape Hatteras; brief survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, W.J.; Minard, J.P.; Weed, E.G.A.; Robbins, E.I.; Rhodehamel, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    A synthesis of studies of sea-floor outcrops of the sedimentary wedge beneath the northeastern United States continental shelf and slope and a reassessment of coastal plain Mesozoic stratigraphy, particularly of the coastal margin, provide insight for estimating the oil and gas potential and provide geologic control for marine seismic investigations of the Atlantic continental margin. The oldest strata known to crop out on the continental slope are late Campanian in age. The Cretaceous-Tertiary contact along the slope ranges from a water depth of 0.6 to 1.5 km south of Georges Bank to 1.8 km in Hudson Canyon. Few samples are available from Tertiary and Late Cretaceous outcrops along the slope. Sediments of the Potomac Group, chiefly of Early Cretaceous age, constitute a major deltaic sequence in the emerged coastal plain. This thick sequence lies under coastal Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, southeastern New Jersey, and the adjacent continental shelf. Marine sands associated with this deltaic sequence may be present seaward under the outer continental shelf. South of the Norfolk arch, under coastal North Carolina, carbonate rocks interfinger with Lower Cretaceous clastic strata. From all available data, Mesozoic correlations in coastal wells between coastal Virginia and Long Island have been revised. The Upper-Lower Cretaceous boundary is placed at the transition between Albian and Cenomanian floras. Potential hydrocarbon source beds are present along the coast in the subsurface sediments of Cretaceous age. Potential reservoir sandstones are abundant in this sequence.

  20. Plio-Pleistocene landscape and vegetation reconstruction of the coastal area of the Tjörnes Peninsula, Northern Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhoeven, Koen; Louwye, Stephen; Eiriksson, Jón

    2013-01-01

    of the lowest Tapes Zone (PZ 1) and the lower part of the overlying Mactra Zone (PZ 2). Local pollen from marshland, levee and foothill forests was deposited on a large coastal plain. The pollen spectrum reflects transgression and deepening during the second part of the Mactra Zone (PZ 3) and the lower part...... of the Serripes Zone (PZ 4). Gymnosperm pollen derived from the higher inland plateau increases in PZ 3. This background pollen was of minor importance during periods with an extensive coastal plain (PZ 1, 2, 4, 6). PZ 5 did not yield sufficient pollen for analysis. The pollen analysis allowed refinement...