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Sample records for geophysics building e5032

  1. Integrated Research and Capacity Building in Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Nyblade, A.

    2008-05-01

    There have been special opportunities over the past several years to improve the ways that newly-constructed geophysical observatories in Southeast Asia and the Americas are linked with educational and civil institutions. Because these opportunities have been only partially fulfilled, there remains the possibility that new networks will not fully address desired goals or even lose operational capabilities. In contrast, the AfricaArray project continues to progress towards goals for linkages among education, research, mitigation and observatories. With support from the Office of International Science and Education at the US National Science Foundation, we convened a workshop to explore lessons learned from the AfricaArray experience and their relevance to network development opportunities in other regions. We found closer parallels than we expected between geophysical infrastructure in the predominantly low income countries of Africa with low risk of geophysical disasters and the mostly middle-income countries of Southeast Asia and the Americas with high risk of geophysical disasters. Except in larger countries of South America, workshop participants reported that there are very few geophysicists engaged in research and observatory operations, that geophysical education programs are nearly non-existent even at the undergraduate university level, and that many monitoring agencies continue to focus on limited missions even though closer relationships researchers could facilitate new services that would make important contributions to disaster mitigation and sustainable operations. Workshop participants began discussing plans for international research collaborations that, unlike many projects of even the recent past, would include long-term capacity building and disaster mitigation among their goals. Specific project objectives would include national or regional hazard mapping, development of indigenous education programs, training to address the needs of local

  2. Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-08-01

    Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill

  3. Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained

  4. Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging

  5. Geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolt, Bruce

    1973-01-01

    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 13: Geophysics is a 10-chapter text that focuses with the theoretical solid-earth geophysics. This volume specifically covers the general topics of terrestrial magnetism and electricity, the Earth's gravity field, tidal deformations, dynamics of global spin, spin processing, and convective models for the deep interior. This volume surveys first the construction of mathematical models, such as the representation of the geomagnetic field by assuming arrangements of multipole sources in the core and the fast computer evaluation of two- and three-dimensiona

  6. Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. H.; Cassen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Four areas of investigation, each dealing with the measurement of a particular geophysical property, are discussed. These properties are the gravity field, seismicity, magnetism, and heat flow. All are strongly affected by conditions, past or present, in the planetary interior; their measurement is the primary source of information about planetary interiors.

  7. Interim progress report -- geophysics: Decommissioning of Buildings E5974 and E5978, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-11-01

    Buildings E5974 and E5978, located near the mouth of Canal Creek, were among 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Westwood and Canal Creek areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeters of the buildings to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The magnetic anomalies and the electrically conductive areas around these buildings have a spatial relationship similar to that observed in low-lying sites in the Canal Creek area; they are probably associated with construction fill. Electrically conductive terrain is dominant on the eastern side of the site, and resistive terrain predominates on the west. The smaller magnetic anomalies are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. The high resistivities in the northwest quadrant are believed to be caused by a natural sand lens. The causes of three magnetic anomalies in the high-resistivity area are unidentified, but they are probably anthropogenic

  8. Interim progress report -- geophysics: Decommissioning of Buildings E5974 and E5978, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-11-01

    Buildings E5974 and E5978, located near the mouth of Canal Creek, were among 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Westwood and Canal Creek areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeters of the buildings to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The magnetic anomalies and the electrically conductive areas around these buildings have a spatial relationship similar to that observed in low-lying sites in the Canal Creek area; they are probably associated with construction fill. Electrically conductive terrain is dominant on the eastern side of the site, and resistive terrain predominates on the west. The smaller magnetic anomalies are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. The high resistivities in the northwest quadrant are believed to be caused by a natural sand lens. The causes of three magnetic anomalies in the high-resistivity area are unidentified, but they are probably anthropogenic.

  9. Robust Library Building for Autonomous Classification of Downhole Geophysical Logs Using Gaussian Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversides, Katherine L.; Melkumyan, Arman

    2017-03-01

    Machine learning techniques such as Gaussian Processes can be used to identify stratigraphically important features in geophysical logs. The marker shales in the banded iron formation hosted iron ore deposits of the Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia, form distinctive signatures in the natural gamma logs. The identification of these marker shales is important for stratigraphic identification of unit boundaries for the geological modelling of the deposit. Machine learning techniques each have different unique properties that will impact the results. For Gaussian Processes (GPs), the output values are inclined towards the mean value, particularly when there is not sufficient information in the library. The impact that these inclinations have on the classification can vary depending on the parameter values selected by the user. Therefore, when applying machine learning techniques, care must be taken to fit the technique to the problem correctly. This study focuses on optimising the settings and choices for training a GPs system to identify a specific marker shale. We show that the final results converge even when different, but equally valid starting libraries are used for the training. To analyse the impact on feature identification, GP models were trained so that the output was inclined towards a positive, neutral or negative output. For this type of classification, the best results were when the pull was towards a negative output. We also show that the GP output can be adjusted by using a standard deviation coefficient that changes the balance between certainty and accuracy in the results.

  10. Structural geology and geophysics as a support to build a hydrogeologic model of granite rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesús; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Gómez, Paloma; Bajos, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    A method developed for low-permeability fractured media was applied to understand the hydrogeology of a mine excavated in a granitic pluton. This method includes (1) identifying the main groundwater-conducting features of the medium, such as the mine, dykes, and large fractures, (2) implementing this factors as discrete elements into a three-dimensional numerical model, and (3) calibrating these factors against hydraulic data . A key question is how to identify preferential flow paths in the first step. Here, we propose a combination of several techniques. Structural geology, together with borehole sampling, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, and local hydraulic tests aided in locating all structures. Integration of these data yielded a conceptual model of the site. A preliminary calibration of the model was performed against short-term (Model validity was tested by blind prediction of a long-term (4 months) large-scale (1 km) pumping test from the mine, which yielded excellent agreement with the observations. Model results confirmed the sparsely fractured nature of the pluton, which has not been subjected to glacial loading-unloading cycles and whose waters are of Na-HCO3 type.

  11. Environmental Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Geophysics website features geophysical methods, terms and references; forward and inverse geophysical models for download; and a decision support tool to guide geophysical method selection for a variety of environmental applications.

  12. Environmental geophysics: Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489 decommissioning - the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, L.D.; Thompson, M.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1994-06-01

    Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489, referred to informally as the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, are potentially contaminated sites in the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, EM-31, EM-61, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted to assist a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling of the buildings. The buildings are located on a marginal wetland bordering the west branch of Canal Creek. The dominant geophysical signature in the open-quotes Ghost Town close quotes complex is a pattern of northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast anomalies that appear to be associated with a trench/pipe/sewer system, documented by the presence of a manhole. Combinations of anomalies suggest that line sources include nonmetallic and ferromagnetic materials in trenches. On the basis of anomaly associations, the sewer lines probably rest in a trench, back-filled with conductive, amphibolitic, crushed rock. Where the sewer lines connect manholes or junctions with other lines, ferromagnetic materials are present. Isolated, unidentified magnetic anomalies litter the area around Building E5487, particularly to the north. Three small magnetic sources are located east of Building E5487

  13. Exploration Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  14. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  15. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    development and geophysics' in Journal of Geophysics and Engineering is a response to the call for the development of novel geophysical techniques especially applicable to city settings. It consists of 11 papers which are selected and expanded from a collection of papers presented to the special sessions on 'Sustainable Urban Development and Geophysics' (U14A, U15A, and U41B) in the Union section of the Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting held in Beijing, China, on 22-27 July 2006 [3]. This indicates that new and innovative geophysical applications in urban settings have emerged, and these innovations may be potentially useful for the planning, implementation, and maintenance of urban infrastructure systems. These 11 research papers can be divided into three groups: (1) geophysics and urban infrastructure; (2) geophysics and urban environment; and (3) geophysical investigations associated with geological hazards. The first group of papers focuses on urban infrastructure. Fred Stumm et al reported a geohydrologic assessment of fractured crystalline bedrock with borehole radar in Manhattan, New York in preparation for the construction of a new water tunnel. Using GPR, Xie et al conducted a quality control study of the walls of the river-crossing highway tunnel in Shanghai. For the same purpose, S Liu et al investigated the effect of concrete cracks on GPR signatures using a numerical simulation technique. Sun et al, using seismic surface waves, investigated road beds and the degree of weathering of the marble fence in the Forbidden City, Beijing. In the second group of papers, using a numerical simulation technique, L Liu et al studied the effect of a building coordinate error on sound wave propagation with the aim of locating sound sources in urban settings. Chan et al studied the abundance of radio elements in weathered igneous bedrock in Hong Kong for the purpose of the promotion of public health in the urban environment. The third group includes five papers on geo

  16. Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani kumar

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses existing development scenario and issues to accommodate future development in hill towns located in Indian Himalayan region, also highlights the state of existing building regulations through an in-depth study of building regulations in major hill towns, and briefly discuses possible approaches to change existing building regulations for achieving contextually appropriate development.

  17. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  18. Advances in geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    The critically acclaimed serialized review journal for over 50 years, Advances in Geophysics is a highly respected publication in the field of geophysics. Since 1952, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. Now in its 54th volume, it contains much material still relevant today--truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of geophysics.Key features: * Contributions from leading authorities * Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

  19. Waterberg coalfield airborne geophysics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Geophysics Project Number: 1.5.5 Sub Committee: Geology and Geophysics Presenter: Dr. Stoffel Fourie Co-Workers: Dr. George Henry & Me. Leonie Marè Collaborators: Coaltech & CSIR Project Objectives Major Objectives: circle5 Initiate Semi...-Regional Exploration of the Waterberg Coalfield to the benefit of the Industry. circle5 Generate a good quality Airborne Geophysical Dataset. circle5 Generate a basic lineament and surface geology interpretation of the Ellisras Basin. circle5 Generate a basic...

  20. A ''model'' geophysics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993, I tested a radio-controlled airplane designed by Jim Walker of Brigham Young University for low-elevation aerial photography. Model-air photography retains most of the advantages of standard aerial photography --- the photographs can be used to detect lineaments, to map roads and buildings, and to construct stereo pairs to measure topography --- and it is far less expensive. Proven applications on the Oak Ridge Reservation include: updating older aerial records to document new construction; using repeated overflights of the same area to capture seasonal changes in vegetation and the effects of major storms; and detecting waste trench boundaries from the color and character of the overlying grass. Aerial photography is only one of many possible applications of radio-controlled aircraft. Currently, I am funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development to review the state of the art in microavionics, both military and civilian, to determine ways this emerging technology can be used for environmental site characterization. Being particularly interested in geophysical applications, I am also collaborating with electrical engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design a model plane that will carry a 3-component flux-gate magnetometer and a global positioning system, which I hope to test in the spring of 1994

  1. Seismic and Geophysical Characterization of Northern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    SEISMIC AND GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NORTHERN ASIA Kevin Mackey1, Hans Hartse2, Kazuya Fujita1, Michael Pasyanos3, and Michael Begnaud2...improve the calibration of northern Asia for nuclear explosion monitoring purposes. This project builds off previous work, and is a cooperative...propagation characteristics in northern Asia . Our work will further improve location and detection and discrimination capabilities, crustal and upper

  2. Geophysical Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, E.

    2003-11-01

    The geophysical field theory includes the basic principles of electromagnetism, continuum mechanics, and potential theory upon which the computational modelling of geophysical phenomena is based on. Vector analysis is the main mathematical tool in the field analyses. Electrostatics, stationary electric current, magnetostatics, and electrodynamics form a central part of electromagnetism in geophysical field theory. Potential theory concerns especially gravity, but also electrostatics and magnetostatics. Solid state mechanics and fluid mechanics are central parts in continuum mechanics. Also the theories of elastic waves and rock mechanics belong to geophysical solid state mechanics. The theories of geohydrology and mass transport form one central field theory in geophysical fluid mechanics. Also heat transfer is included in continuum mechanics. (orig.)

  3. Radioactivity and geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvanyi, P.

    1992-01-01

    The paper recalls a few steps of the introduction of radioactivity in geophysics and astrophysics: contribution of radioelements to energy balance of the Earth, age of the Earth based on radioactive disintegration and the discovery of cosmic radiations

  4. Geophysical Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geophysical Research Facility (GRF) is a 60 ft long × 22 ft wide × 7 ft deep concrete basin at CRREL for fresh or saltwater investigations and can be temperature...

  5. Geophysical borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, D.; Barton, K.J.; Hearn, K.

    1981-08-01

    Most of the available literature on geophysical borehole logging refers to studies carried out in sedimentary rocks. It is only in recent years that any great interest has been shown in geophysical logging in boreholes in metamorphic and igneous rocks following the development of research programmes associated with geothermal energy and nuclear waste disposal. This report is concerned with the programme of geophysical logging carried out on the three deep boreholes at Altnabreac, Caithness, to examine the effectiveness of these methods in crystalline rock. Of particular importance is the assessment of the performance of the various geophysical sondes run in the boreholes in relation to the rock mass properties. The geophysical data can be used to provide additional in-situ information on the geological, hydrogeological and engineering properties of the rock mass. Fracturing and weathering in the rock mass have a considerable effect on both the design parameters for an engineering structure and the flow of water through the rock mass; hence, the relation between the geophysical properties and the degree of fracturing and weathering is examined in some detail. (author)

  6. Predictive geophysics: geochemical simulations to geophysical targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopping, R. G.; Cleverley, J.

    2017-12-01

    With an increasing focus on deep exploration for covered targets, new methods are required to target mineral systems under cover. Geophysical responses are driven by physical property contrasts; for example, density contrasts provide a gravity signal, acoustic impedance contrasts provide a seismic reflection signal. In turn, the physical properties for basement, crystalline rocks which host the vast majority of mineral systems are determined almost wholly by the mineralogy of the rocks in question. Mineral systems, through the transport of heat and reactive fluids, will serve to modify the physical properties of country rock as they chemically alter the hosting strata. To understand these changes, we have performed 2D reactive transport modelling that simulates the formation of Archean gold deposits of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. From this, we derive a model of mineralogy that we can use to predict the density, magnetic susceptibility and seismic reflection changes associated with ore formation. It is then possible to predict the gravity, magnetic and seismic reflection responses associated with these deposits. Scenario mapping, such as testing the ability to resolve buried ore bodies or the geophysical survey spacing required to resolve the mineral system, can be performed to produce geophysical targets from these geochemical simulations. We find that there is a gravity response of around 9% of the unaltered response for deposits even buried by 1km of cover, and there is a magnetic spike associated with proximal alteration of the ore system. Finally, seismic reflection response is mostly characterised by additional reflections along faults that plumb the alteration system.

  7. Inverse problems of geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives an overview and the mathematical formulation of geophysical inverse problems. General principles of statistical estimation are explained. The maximum likelihood and least square fit methods, the Backus-Gilbert method and general approaches for solving inverse problems are discussed. General formulations of linearized inverse problems, singular value decomposition and properties of pseudo-inverse solutions are given

  8. Device for geophysical exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergashev S.F.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article a device is offered for geophysical secret service, resulted block chart and temporal diagrams. It is experimentally set, the use of detonation generators allowed to use more high-frequency harmonic constituents of echo-signals for determination of object on a depth a to 100 m.

  9. Experimental investigation on multidisciplinary geophysical characterization of deep underground structure using multi-scale, multi-mode seismic profiling for the evaluation of ground motion and seismic model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in data acquisition and velocity estimation for multi-mode, multiscale seismic exploration were explained along with the basic concept of strategic geophysical surveys for NPP siting assessment. Then, as a case study using this concept, multidisciplinary geophysical characterization results pertaining to the deep underground structure beneath the JNES Kashiwazaki Center were explained in detail. At the site, reflection/refraction surveys and magnetotelluric/gravity surveys were also conducted. It was shown that these surveys can be used complementary because at the upsurge part, where clear images cannot be obtained by reflection/refraction surveys, magnetotelluric /gravity surveys can be used to obtain clear images. (author)

  10. Geophysical investigations in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, R.L.; Andreasen, G.E.; Gettings, M.E.; El-Kaysi, K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of geophysical investigations have been undertaken in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to provide data for understanding the tectonic framework, the pattern of seismicity, earthquake hazards and geothermal resources of the country. Both the historical seismic record and the observed recent seismicity point to the dominance of the Dead Sea Rift as the main locus of seismic activity but significant branching trends and gaps in the seismicity pattern are also seen. A wide variety of focal plane solutions are observed emphasizing the complex pattern of fault activity in the vicinity of the rift zone. Geophysical investigations directed towards the geothermal assessment of the prominent thermal springs of Zerga Ma'in and Zara are not supportive of the presence of a crustal magmatic source. ?? 1990.

  11. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  12. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  13. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which I and my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same ti...

  14. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which land my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same tim...

  15. Geophysical investigation of abandoned back-filled railway line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A geophysical investigation was carried out on a back-filled segment of an abandoned railway route at Okebadan Estate, Ibadan using electrical resistivity imaging. The study is aimed at depicting the cause(s) of settlement that led to building foundation failure. Five profile lines were established during the study and the ...

  16. Geophysics on Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    A priority for both NSF and AGU is the communication of scientific knowledge to the public. One way of determining where the public is looking for information is to search for geophysical terms on Google. Often the first hit is a Wikipedia site. Wikipedia is often the first place that high school students look. Yet there are few geophysicists who contribute to Wikipedia pages. This is particularly true of paleomagnetism and related subjects. In this project, efforts to improve the extent and quality of paleomagnetism coverage are described. The state of the Wikipedia articles at the beginning of this project is compared with their current state. The process of organizing the large number of articles and prioritizing them is described, along with ways to form collaborations on Wikipedia between geophysicists.

  17. Geophysics of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A physical model of Mars is presented on the basis of light-scattering observations of the Martian atmosphere and surface and interior data obtained from observations of the geopotential field. A general description of the atmosphere is presented, with attention given to the circulation and the various cloud types, and data and questions on the blue haze-clearing effect and the seasonal darkening wave are summarized and the Mie scattering model developed to explain these observations is presented. The appearance of the planet from earth and spacecraft through Mariner 9 is considered, and attention is given to the preparation of topographical contour maps, the canal problem and large-scale lineaments observed from Mariner 9, the gravity field and shape of the planet and the application of Runcorn's geoid/convection theory to Mars. Finally, a summary of Viking results is presented and their application to the understanding of Martian geophysics is discussed.

  18. Sampling functions for geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacaglia, G. E. O.; Lunquist, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    A set of spherical sampling functions is defined such that they are related to spherical-harmonic functions in the same way that the sampling functions of information theory are related to sine and cosine functions. An orderly distribution of (N + 1) squared sampling points on a sphere is given, for which the (N + 1) squared spherical sampling functions span the same linear manifold as do the spherical-harmonic functions through degree N. The transformations between the spherical sampling functions and the spherical-harmonic functions are given by recurrence relations. The spherical sampling functions of two arguments are extended to three arguments and to nonspherical reference surfaces. Typical applications of this formalism to geophysical topics are sketched.

  19. Numerical studies in geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hier Majumder, Catherine Anne

    2003-10-01

    This thesis focuses on the use of modern numerical techniques in the geo- and environmental sciences. Four topics are discussed in this thesis: finite Prandtl number convection, wavelet analysis, inverse methods and data assimilation, and nuclear waste tank mixing. The finite Prandtl number convection studies examine how convection behavior changes as Prandtl numbers are increased to as high as 2 x 104, on the order of Prandtl numbers expected in very hot magmas or mushy ice diapirs. I found that there are significant differences in the convection style between finite Prandtl number convection and the infinite Prandtl number approximation even for Prandtl numbers on the order of 104. This indicates that the infinite Prandtl convection approximation might not accurately model behavior in fluids with large, but finite Prandtl numbers. The section on inverse methods and data assimilation used the technique of four dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-VAR) developed by meteorologists to integrate observations into forecasts. It was useful in studying the predictability and dependence on initial conditions of finite Prandtl simulations. This technique promises to be useful in a wide range of geological and geophysical fields, including mantle convection, hydrogeology, and sedimentology. Wavelet analysis was used to help image and scrutinize at small-scales both temperature and vorticity fields from convection simulations and the geoid. It was found to be extremely helpful in both cases. It allowed us to separate the information in the data into various spatial scales without losing the locations of the signals in space. This proved to be essential in understanding the processes producing the total signal in the datasets. The nuclear waste study showed that techniques developed in geology and geophysics can be used to solve scientific problems in other fields. I applied state-of-the-art techniques currently employed in geochemistry, sedimentology, and mantle

  20. Serious games for Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Valerio; Rubbia, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    Childhood stage is indispensable in the education of human beings and especially critical to arise scientific interest in children. We discuss the participatory design of a didactic videogame, i.e. a "serious" game to teach geophysics and Earth sciences to high and low-school students. Geophysics is the application of the laws and techniques of physics to uncover knowledge about the earth's dynamic processes and subsurface structure. It explores phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis to improve our understanding of the earth's physical processes and our ability to predict reoccurrences. Effective mitigation of risks from catastrophic geologic hazards requires knowledge and understanding of local geology and geologic processes. Scientific outreach can be defined as discourse activity, whose main objective is to communicate some knowledge previously produced in scientific contexts to a non-expert massive audience. One of the difficulties science educators need to overcome is to explain specific concepts from a given discipline in a language simple and understandable for their audience. Digital games today play a large role in young people's lives. Games are directly connected to the life of today's adolescents. Therefore, digital games should be included and broached as a subject in the classroom. The ardor and enthusiasm that digital games evoke in teenagers has indeed brought many researchers, school leaders and teachers to the question "how video games" can be used to engage young people and support their learning inside the classroom. Additionally, studies have shown that digital games can enhance various skills such as the ability to concentrate, stamina, tactical aptness, anticipatory thinking, orientation in virtual spaces, and deductive reasoning. Thus, videogames become an effective didactic mechanism and should have a place in the classroom. The project aims to explore the potentials of entertainment technologies in educational processes

  1. Developments in geophysical exploration methods

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    One of the themes in current geophysical development is the bringing together of the results of observations made on the surface and those made in the subsurface. Several benefits result from this association. The detailed geological knowledge obtained in the subsurface can be extrapolated for short distances with more confidence when the geologi­ cal detail has been related to well-integrated subsurface and surface geophysical data. This is of value when assessing the characteristics of a partially developed petroleum reservoir. Interpretation of geophysical data is generally improved by the experience of seeing the surface and subsurface geophysical expression of a known geological configuration. On the theoretical side, the understanding of the geophysical processes themselves is furthered by the study of the phenomena in depth. As an example, the study of the progress of seismic wave trains downwards and upwards within the earth has proved most instructive. This set of original papers deals with some of ...

  2. ANNALS OF GEOPHYSICS: AD MAJORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Florindo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Annals of Geophysics is a bimonthly international journal, which publishes scientific papers in the field of geophysics sensu lato. It derives from Annali di Geofisica, which commenced publication in January 1948 as a quarterly periodical devoted to general geophysics, seismology, earth magnetism, and atmospheric studies. The journal was published regularly for a quarter of a century until 1982 when it merged with the French journal Annales de Géophysique to become Annales Geophysicae under the aegis of the European Geophysical Society. In 1981, this journal ceased publication of the section on solid earth geophysics, ending the legacy of Annali di Geofisica. In 1993, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING, founder of the journal, decided to resume publication of its own journal under the same name, Annali di Geofisica. To ensure continuity, the first volume of the new series was assigned the volume number XXXVI (following the last issue published in 1982. In 2002, with volume XLV, the name of the journal was translated into English to become Annals of Geophysics and in consequence the journal impact factor counter was restarted. Starting in 2010, in order to improve its status and better serve the science community, Annals of Geophysics has instituted a number of editorial changes including full electronic open access, freely accessible online, the possibility to comment on and discuss papers online, and a board of editors representing Asia and the Americas as well as Europe. [...

  3. GEOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Low energy perturbations used in geophysical methods provide insightful information about constant-fabric soil properties and their spatial variability. There are causal links between soil type, index properties, elastic wave velocity, electromagnetic wave parameters and thermal properties. Soil type relates to the stress-dependent S-wave velocity, thermal and electrical conductivity and permittivity. The small strain stiffness reflects the state of stress, the extent of diagenetic cementation and/or freezing. Pore fluid chemistry, fluid phase and changes in either fluid chemistry or phase manifest through electromagnetic measurements. The volumetric water content measured with electromagnetic techniques is the best predictor of porosity if the water saturation is 100%. Changes in water saturation alter the P-wave velocity when Srà100%, the S-wave velocity at intermediate saturations, and the thermal conductivity when the saturation is low Srà0%. Finally, tabulated values suffice to estimate heat capacity and latent heat for engineering design, however thermal conductivity requires measurements under proper field conditions.

  4. Karoo airborne geophysical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.J.; Stettler, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty four uranium anomalies were selected for ground follow-up from the analogue spectrometer records of Block 4 of the Karoo Airborne Geophysical Survey. The anomalies were plotted on 1:50 000 scale topographic maps and to 1:250 000 scale maps which are included in this report. The anomaly co-ordinates are tabulated together with the farms on which they occur. Results of the ground follow-up of the aerial anomalies are described. Twenty two anomalies are related to uranium mineralisation of which seventeen occur over baked mudstone adjacent to a dolerite intrusion. Five are located over fluvial channel sandstone of the Beaufort Group and subsurface mineralised sandstone may be present. The other twelve anomalies are spurious. Of the anomalies located over baked mudstone, fifteen emanate from ferruginous mudstone of the Whitehill Formation west of longitude 21 degrees 15 minutes. One of the two remaining anomalies over baked mudstone occurs over the Prince Albert Formation and the other anomaly is over baked mudstone and calcareous nodules of the Beaufort Group. The general low uranium values (less than 355 ppm eU3O8) render the occurrences uneconomic

  5. A review of nuclear geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Schweitzer, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of nuclear geophysics in scientific and technological content and in range from its beginnings early in this century to the present day. We note that the early work in nuclear geophysics was originally referred to under the umbrella of open-quotes isotope applicationsclose quotes and the origin of the term open-quotes nuclear geophysicsclose quotes (which is seen to clarify and to focus work in this area) is exposed in this paper. The current expansion of nuclear geophysics front its original concern with oil well logging is an important trend because much of the underlying science, technology, and instrumentation is common ground. A review of nuclear geophysics would be a barren document without reference to long-term and, in some cases, short-term commercial and economic as well as to technological considerations, since these factors are the principal motivation for further development

  6. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The broad objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of the solid planets by combining results from analytical and computational modeling, and geophysical data analysis of gravity, topography and tectonic surface structures. During the past year we performed two quite independent studies in the attempt to explain the Mariner 10 magnetic observations of Mercury. In the first we revisited the possibility of crustal remanence by studying the conditions under which one could break symmetry inherent in Runcorn's model of a uniformly magnetized shell to produce a remanent signal with a dipolar form. In the second we applied a thin shell dynamo model to evaluate the range of intensity/structure for which such a planetary configuration can produce a dipole field consistent with Mariner 10 results. In the next full proposal cycle we will: (1) develop numerical and analytical and models of thin shell dynamos to address the possible nature of Mercury s present-day magnetic field and the demise of Mars magnetic field; (2) study the effect of degree-1 mantle convection on a core dynamo as relevant to the early magnetic field of Mars; (3) develop models of how the deep mantles of terrestrial planets are perturbed by large impacts and address the consequences for mantle evolution; (4) study the structure, compensation, state of stress, and viscous relaxation of lunar basins, and address implications for the Moon s state of stress and thermal history by modeling and gravity/topography analysis; and (5) use a three-dimensional viscous relaxation model for a planet with generalized vertical viscosity distribution to study the degree-two components of the Moon's topography and gravity fields to constrain the primordial stress state and spatial heterogeneity of the crust and mantle.

  7. Global status of and prospects for protection of terrestrial geophysical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Eric W; Segan, Daniel B; Watson, James E M

    2015-06-01

    Conservation of representative facets of geophysical diversity may help conserve biological diversity as the climate changes. We conducted a global classification of terrestrial geophysical diversity and analyzed how land protection varies across geophysical diversity types. Geophysical diversity was classified in terms of soil type, elevation, and biogeographic realm and then compared to the global distribution of protected areas in 2012. We found that 300 (45%) of 672 broad geophysical diversity types currently meet the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target 11 of 17% terrestrial areal protection, which suggested that efforts to implement geophysical diversity conservation have a substantive basis on which to build. However, current protected areas were heavily biased toward high elevation and low fertility soils. We assessed 3 scenarios of protected area expansion and found that protection focused on threatened species, if fully implemented, would also protect an additional 29% of geophysical diversity types, ecoregional-focused protection would protect an additional 24%, and a combined scenario would protect an additional 42%. Future efforts need to specifically target low-elevation sites with productive soils for protection and manage for connectivity among geophysical diversity types. These efforts may be hampered by the sheer number of geophysical diversity facets that the world contains, which makes clear target setting and prioritization an important next step. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Basic elements of nuclear geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordemann, D.J.R.; Pereira, E.B.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear Geophysics applies the nuclear radiation detection methodology to the geosciences, specially to study the dynamical processes of the lithosphere, the hydrosphere and the atmosphere as well as some aspects of planetology and astrophysics. Here the main methods are described: alpha-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry, the interaction of alpha and gamma radiation with matter and the detectors used (grid chambers, surface barrier silicon detector for alpha radiation; and sodium iodide thallium activated phosphors, hyperpure and lithium drifted germanium semiconductor detectors for gamma radiation). The principal applications of Nuclear Geophysics are given as examples to ilustrate the use of the methods described. (AUthor) [pt

  9. Gas dynamics an introduction with examples from astrophysics and geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Achterberg, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    This book lays the foundations of gas- and fluid dynamics. The basic equations are developed from first principles, building on the (assumed) knowledge of Classical Mechanics. This leads to the discussion of the mathematical properties of flows, conservation laws, perturbation analysis, waves and shocks. Most of the discussion centers on ideal (frictionless) fluids and gases. Viscous flows are discussed when considering flows around obstacles and shocks. Many of the examples used to illustrate various processes come from astrophysics and geophysical phenomena.

  10. Conceptual Design of Geophysical Microsatellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matviyenko, S.A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the issue of Earth gravitational field (EGF parameters measurement from space. The radiophysical method of measurement of gravitational frequency shift of electromagnetic radiation using existent GNSS and its two variants are developed by the author. The designlayout drawing of geophysical microsatellite, which implements the radiophysical method of EGF measurement and provides Earth plasmasphere and magnetosphere monitoring, is offered.

  11. Correcting Geophysical Fallacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbat, W. N.

    2013-12-01

    The escape velocity from a Big Bang explosion would greatly exceed the speed of light, which is impossible; William Tifft's (1976-77) observations of a common stepwise decline in photon size of 72.5 km/sec replaces a universal Doppler Red Shift, so the universe is not expanding; and the idea that all the mass and energy of the universe were instantly created is unscientific. Joseph Larmor's 1897 equation relates the radiation of photons from a moving electric charge to the square of a change of the acceleration of the charge. Hence the continual centripetal acceleration of orbiting electrons continually radiates low grade photon heat (Zero Point Energy). Shpenkov and Kreidik (2008) found that the heat source which sustains the Cosmic Background Energy at the measured peak blackbody temperature of 2.725+/-0.002K must be due to radiation from the orbital electron motion of hydrogen at its fundamental period, which they calculated to be 2.7289K. Cosmic Background Energy is not left over from a Big Bang 13 billion years ago. Of course, if nature can create energy, then it is reasonable to expect that man can create energy too. Importantly, the creation of photons by orbiting electrons and spinning protons also creates mass. Isaac Newton showed in Book 3 of Opticks that light rays bend as they pass closely over a sharp knife edge, and that the closer the ray is to the knife edge, the more the light path bends. Newton thus showed that corpuscles of light (photons) obey the law of gravitation, so photons possess mass. Photon creation inside stars builds up intense heat and pressure, splitting photons into electrons and positrons. A large positron and photon can apparently combine into a three lump particle with a charge of plus one, making a new proton. Hollow electrons can apparently surround a proton, making a neutron for fission. A small spun-off star advances up the main sequence until a buildup of iron cools and shrinks the core from its hydrogen envelope, leaving a

  12. Geophysical Institute. Biennial report, 1993-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The 1993-1994 Geophysical Institute Biennial Report was published in November 1995 by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. It contains an overview of the Geophysical Institute, the Director`s Note, and research presentations concerning the following subjects: Scientific Predictions, Space Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, Snow, Ice and Permafrost, Tectonics and Sedimentation, Seismology, Volcanology, Remote Sensing, and other projects.

  13. Geophysical Measurements at Merseburg Cathedral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Thomas; Erkul, Ercan; Schulte-Kortnack, Detlef; Sobott, Robert; Hilbert, Helene; Esel, Yunus; Tesch, Marcel; Wiemann, Timo

    2017-04-01

    Merseburg Cathedral has been founded in 1015 by Bishop Thietmar von Merseburg and has been converted into a gothic cathedral from 1510 to 1517 by Bishop Thilo von Trotha. The cathedral together with the cloister, the castle and several appurtenant buildings are well preserved. The entire complex represents one of the most complete examples of medieval royal palaces and bishop's sees in Germany northeast of the Roman Limes. Here we present examples of geophysical measurements at the cathedral namely ultrasonic surface measurements, ground penetrating radar (GPR) as well as thermographic measurements. Ultrasonic surface measurements have been carried out at epitaphs made of sandstone to quantify changes in stone properties due to weathering. The 95 measurements reveal a strong variability in Rayleigh wave velocities ranging from about 800 m/s to 2000 m/s. Unweathered parts of the sandstone epitaphs show Rayleigh wave velocities of about 1500 m/s. A reduction in Rayleigh wave velocities hints at loosening of the rock surface whereas an increase is due to surficial black crusts with pores filled mainly by gypsum. Waveform inversion of the dispersed Rayleigh waveform yields depth profiles of the shear-wave velocity indicating the thickness of altered surficial layers. Also a loosening below the black crust may be detected non-destructively. A number of measurements have been repeated after one year and after a rainy day. Statistical analysis shows that random errors in Rayleigh wave velocities are less than about 3 %. Increase of moisture in porous sandstones leads to stronger damping of the Rayleigh wave and consequently to a reduction in Rayleigh wave velocities by up to about 10 %. At strongly altered epitaphs a reduction in Rayleigh wave velocity by up to 20 % has been observed within one year. Within one day an increase of up to about 7 % may indicate stiffening of black crusts due to moisture absorption. GPR measurements have been performed at several locations

  14. Geophysical interpretation using integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Eskola, L

    1992-01-01

    Along with the general development of numerical methods in pure and applied to apply integral equations to geophysical modelling has sciences, the ability improved considerably within the last thirty years or so. This is due to the successful derivation of integral equations that are applicable to the modelling of complex structures, and efficient numerical algorithms for their solution. A significant stimulus for this development has been the advent of fast digital computers. The purpose of this book is to give an idea of the principles by which boundary-value problems describing geophysical models can be converted into integral equations. The end results are the integral formulas and integral equations that form the theoretical framework for practical applications. The details of mathematical analysis have been kept to a minimum. Numerical algorithms are discussed only in connection with some illustrative examples involving well-documented numerical modelling results. The reader is assu­ med to have a back...

  15. Mathematics applied to nuclear geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.; Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the powerful auxiliary to nuclear geophysics is the obtention and interpretation of the alpha and gamma radiation spectra. This work discuss, qualitative and quantitative, the lost information problem, motivated by the noise in the process of information codification. The decodification process must be suppield by the appropriate mathematical model on the measure system to recovery the information from nuclear source. (C.D.G.) [pt

  16. News Letter: European Geophysical Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    GLOWACKA, E.; ARELLANO, F. Land subsidence measurements at Cerro Prieto geothermal field (Baja California, Mexico ) using SAR interferometry 126...topics’ of ionospheric research, written by specialists in their respective fields . Useful as a textbook for students as well as for research...Geophysics thus have available mature, thoughtful reviews of recent developments in their own field , and they may be confident of keeping abreast in

  17. SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience): Learning Geophysics by Doing Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiracek, G. R.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Gilpin, B. E.; Pellerin, L.

    2005-12-01

    SAGE, a field-based educational program in applied geophysical methods has been an REU site for 16 years and completed its 23rd year of operation in July 2005. SAGE teaches the major geophysical exploration methods (including seismics, gravity, magnetics, and electromagnetics) and applies them to the solution of specific local and regional geologic problems. These include delineating buried hazardous material; mapping archaeological sites; and studying the structure, tectonics, and water resources of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico. Nearly 600 graduates, undergraduates, and professionals have attended SAGE since 1983. Since 1990 REU students have numbered 219 coming from dozens of different campuses. There have been 124 underrepresented REU students including 100 women, 14 Hispanics, 7 Native Americans, and 3 African Americans. Tracking of former REU students has revealed that 81% have gone on to graduate school. Keys to the success of SAGE are hands-on immersion in geophysics for one month and a partnership between academia, industry, and a federal laboratory. Successful approaches at SAGE include: 1) application of the latest equipment by all students; 2) continued updating of equipment, computers, and software by organizing universities and industry affiliates; 3) close ties with industry who provide supplemental instruction, furnish new equipment and software, and alert students to the current industry trends and job opportunities; 4) two-team, student data analysis structure that simultaneously addresses specific geophysical techniques and their integration; and 5) oral and written reports patterned after professional meetings and journals. An eight member, 'blue ribbon' advisory panel from academia, industry, and the federal government has been set up to maintain the vitality of SAGE by addressing such issues as funding, new faculty, organization, and vision. SAGE is open to students from any university (or organization) with backgrounds including

  18. Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures at Los Alamos National Laboratory is committed to promoting and supporting high quality, cutting-edge...

  19. Open Access to Geophysical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyeva, Nataliya A.; Zabarinskaya, Ludmila P.

    2017-04-01

    Russian World Data Centers for Solar-Terrestrial Physics & Solid Earth Physics hosted by the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences are the Regular Members of the ICSU-World Data System. Guided by the principles of the WDS Constitution and WDS Data Sharing Principles, the WDCs provide full and open access to data, long-term data stewardship, compliance with agreed-upon data standards and conventions, and mechanisms to facilitate and improve access to data. Historical and current geophysical data on different media, in the form of digital data sets, analog records, collections of maps, descriptions are stored and collected in the Centers. The WDCs regularly fill up repositories and database with new data, support them up to date. Now the WDCs focus on four new projects, aimed at increase of data available in network by retrospective data collection and digital preservation of data; creation of a modern system of registration and publication of data with digital object identifier (DOI) assignment, and promotion of data citation culture; creation of databases instead of file system for more convenient access to data; participation in the WDS Metadata Catalogue and Data Portal by creating of metadata for information resources of WDCs.

  20. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier

  1. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION - COMPENDIUM DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUCKER DF; MYERS DA

    2011-10-04

    This report documents the evolution of the surface geophysical exploration (SGE) program and highlights some of the most recent successes in imaging conductive targets related to past leaks within and around Hanford's tank farms. While it is noted that the SGE program consists of multiple geophysical techniques designed to (1) locate near surface infrastructure that may interfere with (2) subsurface plume mapping, the report will focus primarily on electrical resistivity acquisition and processing for plume mapping. Due to the interferences from the near surface piping network, tanks, fences, wells, etc., the results of the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of electrical resistivity was more representative of metal than the high ionic strength plumes. Since the first deployment, the focus of the SGE program has been to acquire and model the best electrical resistivity data that minimizes the influence of buried metal objects. Toward that goal, two significant advances have occurred: (1) using the infrastructure directly in the acquisition campaign and (2) placement of electrodes beneath the infrastructure. The direct use of infrastructure was successfully demonstrated at T farm by using wells as long electrodes (Rucker et al., 2010, 'Electrical-Resistivity Characterization of an Industrial Site Using Long Electrodes'). While the method was capable of finding targets related to past releases, a loss of vertical resolution was the trade-off. The burying of electrodes below the infrastructure helped to increase the vertical resolution, as long as a sufficient number of electrodes are available for the acquisition campaign.

  2. Surface Geophysical Exploration - Compendium Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, D.F.; Myers, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the evolution of the surface geophysical exploration (SGE) program and highlights some of the most recent successes in imaging conductive targets related to past leaks within and around Hanford's tank farms. While it is noted that the SGE program consists of multiple geophysical techniques designed to (1) locate near surface infrastructure that may interfere with (2) subsurface plume mapping, the report will focus primarily on electrical resistivity acquisition and processing for plume mapping. Due to the interferences from the near surface piping network, tanks, fences, wells, etc., the results of the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of electrical resistivity was more representative of metal than the high ionic strength plumes. Since the first deployment, the focus of the SGE program has been to acquire and model the best electrical resistivity data that minimizes the influence of buried metal objects. Toward that goal, two significant advances have occurred: (1) using the infrastructure directly in the acquisition campaign and (2) placement of electrodes beneath the infrastructure. The direct use of infrastructure was successfully demonstrated at T farm by using wells as long electrodes (Rucker et al., 2010, 'Electrical-Resistivity Characterization of an Industrial Site Using Long Electrodes'). While the method was capable of finding targets related to past releases, a loss of vertical resolution was the trade-off. The burying of electrodes below the infrastructure helped to increase the vertical resolution, as long as a sufficient number of electrodes are available for the acquisition campaign.

  3. Under the pile. Understanding subsurface dynamics of historical cities trough geophysical models interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Paulo; Pereira, Bruno; Alves, Mafalda; Fontes, Luís; Sousa, Andreia; Martins, Manuela; Magalhães, Fernanda; Pimenta, Mário

    2017-04-01

    Braga is one of the oldest cities of the Iberian NW and as of so, the research team's studying the city's historical core for the past 40 years is often confronted with the unpredictability factor laying beneath an urban site with such a long construction history. In fact, Braga keeps redesigning its urban structure over itself on for the past 2000 years, leaving us with a research object filled with an impressive set of construction footprints from the various planning decisions that were taken in the city along its historical path. Aiming for a predicting understanding of the subsoil, we have used near surface geophysics as an effort of minimizing the areas of intervention for traditional archaeological survey techniques. The Seminário de Santiago integrated geophysical survey is an example of the difficulties of interpreting geophysical models in very complex subsurface scenarios. This geophysical survey was planned in order to aid the requalification project being designed for this set of historical buildings, that are estimated to date back to the 16h century, and that were built over one of the main urban arteries of both roman and medieval layers of Braga. We have used both GPR as well as ERT methods for the geophysical survey, but for the purpose of this article, we will focus in the use of the ERT alone. For the interpretation of the geophysical models we've cross-referenced the dense knowledge existing over the building's construction phases with the complex geophysical data collected, using mathematical processing and volume-based visualization techniques, resorting to the use of Res2Inv©, Paraview© and Voxler® software's. At the same time we tried to pinpoint the noise caused by the past 30 year's infrastructural interventions regarding the replacement of the building's water and sanitation systems and for which we had no design plants, regardless of its recent occurring. The deep impact of this replacement actions revealed by the archaeological

  4. Geological and geophysical methods for monitoring of heritage structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulynych, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Using the analysis of geological and geophysical survey of the soil conditions of the site where the architectural landmarks of Kyiv are concentrated the research proposes to develop an optimal set of geological and geophysical studies aimed at monitoring and evaluating the impact of underflooding, risk of landslide and increase of seismic magnitude on the upper portion of geological cross-section. The research offers suggestions concerning the establishment of a monitoring system for the principal sites where the architectural heritage is located. As the earthquake origins are not scattered randomly but located within the relatively narrow zones of active faults, that is, the places most exposed to rapid geodynamic shifts, active faults and blocks they form are one of the main signs for identifying potential seismogenic areas. From the point of view of the present geodynamic instability the morphostructural neotectonic points characterized by the high degree of tectonic fragmentation, including within the upper portion of the sedimentary cover, the high values of relief energy and activation of exogenous processes deserve special attention. The research develops the comparison of areas with increased seismic impacts allocated according to geophysical data with neotectonic structural plan, allows to conclude about their suitability for morphostructural neotectonic points and some sections of active faults exactly that is important to consider when constructing new buildings and protecting the existing ones.

  5. Redesigning Curricula in Geology and Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, D. W.; Ewing, R. C.; Fowler, D.; Macik, M.; Marcantonio, F.; Miller, B.; Newman, J.; Olszewski, T.; Reece, R.; Rosser, S.

    2015-12-01

    In the summer of 2014, the Texas A&M Department of Geology and Geophysics partnered with the Texas A&M Center for Teaching Excellence to implement TAMU's curriculum revision process: a data-informed, faculty-driven, educational-developer-supported rebuilding of our degree programs and course offerings. The current curricula (B.S. and B.A. in Geology, B.S. in Geophysics) were put into place in 1997, following the merger of two separate departments. The needs and capabilities of the Department and the student body have changed significantly since that time: more than 50% turnover of the faculty, a rapidly-changing job climate for geologists and geophysicists, and a nearly five-fold increase in the undergraduate population to over 500 majors in Fall 2015. Surveys of former students, employers and faculty at other universities revealed more reasons to address the curriculum. Some of the most desired skills are also those at which our graduates feel and are perceived to be least prepared: oral communication and the ability to learn software packages (skills that are most challenging to teach with growing class sizes). The challenge facing the Department is to accommodate growing student numbers while maintaining strength in traditional instructor-intensive activities such as microscopy and field mapping, and also improving our graduates' non-geological skills (e.g., communication, software use, teamwork, problem-solving) to insulate them from volatility in the current job market. We formed the Curriculum Study Group, consisting of faculty, graduate students, advisors and curriculum experts, to gather and analyze data and define the knowledge and skill base a graduate of our department must have. In addition to conducting external surveys, this group interviewed current students and faculty to determine the strengths and weaknesses of our program. We developed program learning goals that were further specified into over fifty criteria. For each criteria we defined

  6. A tool for Exploring Geophysical Data: The VGEE-IDV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.; Murray, D.

    2002-12-01

    The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) is a suite of computer tools and accompanying online curricular units that enable students to develop physical insight from geophysical data sets. The VGEE curriculum is inquiry and visualization based. The curriculum begins by asking students to compare visualizations they construct from authentic geosciences data to their own conception of the geophysical phenomenon. This comparison encourages students to identify and challenge their own prior conceptions of the phenomenon, a necessary prerequisite to successful learning. Students then begin building correct understandings by identifying patterns and relationships within their visualizations. Students use idealized concept models that highlight physical principles to explain these patterns and relationships. Research, however, has shown that the physical insight gained from these idealized models isn't often applied to either the real world or to the data visualized. To address this, students can easily embed these idealized concept models into their visualizations; there the idealized models respond to the real physical conditions of the geophysical data. The entire inquiry process is built around multi-dimensional and multi-variable visualizations of real geophysical data. Advantages of visualization include its using a natural human talent and its removing mathematics as a barrier to insight. Multi-dimensional and multi-variable visualizations offer the additional advantage of integrated perspectives; rather than asking learners to mentally combine two-dimensional representations of different variables, the learners can navigate through a three-dimensional time-varying representation and get a holistic view. Finally, learner constructed visualizations offer the students a experience with scientific tools, a chance to tailor their investigation to their own misconceptions, and the potential for more robust understanding than prepared visualizations. The

  7. Responsibilities, opportunities and challenges in geophysical exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytle, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Geophysical exploration for engineering purposes is conducted to decrease the risk in encountering site uncertainties in construction of underground facilities. Current responsibilities, opportunities and challenges for those with geophysical expertise are defined. These include: replacing the squiggly line format, developing verification sites for method evaluations, applying knowledge engineering and assuming responsibility for crucial national problems involving rock mechanics expertise

  8. Agricultural Geophysics: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods are becoming an increasingly valuable tool for agricultural applications. Agricultural geophysics investigations are commonly (although certainly not always) focused on delineating small- and/or large-scale objects/features within the soil profile (~ 0 to 2 m depth) over very lar...

  9. Symmetries in geology and geophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, D L; Newman, W I

    1996-12-10

    Symmetries have played an important role in a variety of problems in geology and geophysics. A large fraction of studies in mineralogy are devoted to the symmetry properties of crystals. In this paper, however, the emphasis will be on scale-invariant (fractal) symmetries. The earth's topography is an example of both statistically self-similar and self-affine fractals. Landforms are also associated with drainage networks, which are statistical fractal trees. A universal feature of drainage networks and other growth networks is side branching. Deterministic space-filling networks with side-branching symmetries are illustrated. It is shown that naturally occurring drainage networks have symmetries similar to diffusion-limited aggregation clusters.

  10. Numerical simulation in applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Juan Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the theory of waves propagation in a fluid-saturated porous medium (a Biot medium) and its application in Applied Geophysics. In particular, a derivation of absorbing boundary conditions in viscoelastic and poroelastic media is presented, which later is employed in the applications. The partial differential equations describing the propagation of waves in Biot media are solved using the Finite Element Method (FEM). Waves propagating in a Biot medium suffer attenuation and dispersion effects. In particular the fast compressional and shear waves are converted to slow diffusion-type waves at mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities (on the order of centimeters), effect usually occurring in the seismic range of frequencies. In some cases, a Biot medium presents a dense set of fractures oriented in preference directions. When the average distance between fractures is much smaller than the wavelengths of the travelling fast compressional and shear waves, the medium behaves as an effective viscoelastic an...

  11. Geophysical Research Abstracts. Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The EGU general assembly 2008 brought together geoscientists and space and planetary scientists from all over Europe and the rest of the world into one meeting covering all disciplines of the earth and planetary sciences: geology, geomorphology, geochemistry, geophysics, geobiology and hazards research as well as planetary and space sciences. Its scientific program included oral and poster sessions on disciplinary and interdisciplinary topics such as atmospheric sciences; climate: past, present, future; energy; resources and the environment; isotopes in geosciences: instrumentation and data systems; magnetism, palaeomagnetism, rock physics and geomaterials; ocean sciences; soil system sciences and solar-terrestrial sciences among others. Those presentations which belong to the subject scope of INIS database are indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  12. Fractals in geology and geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

  13. Strainmeters and tiltmeters in geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulty, N. R.

    1976-01-01

    Several types of sensitive strainmeters and tiltmeters have been developed, and it is now becoming clear which geophysical applications are most suitable for these instruments. In general, strainmeters and tiltmeters are used for observing ground deformation at periods of minutes to days. Small-scale lateral inhomogeneities at the instrument sites distort signals by a few percent, although the effects of large structures can be calculated. In earth tide work these lateral inhomogeneities and unknown ocean loading signals prevent accurate values of the regional tide from being obtained. This limits tidal investigations to looking for temporal variations, possibly associated with pre-earthquake dilatancy, and spatial variations caused by gross elasticity contrasts in the local geological structure. Strainmeters and tiltmeters are well suited for observing long-period seismic waves, seismic slip events on faults and volcano tumescence, where small site-induced distortions in the measured signals are seldom important.

  14. Agricultural geophysics: Past/present accomplishments and future advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods have become an increasingly valuable tool for application within a variety of agroecosystems. Agricultural geophysics measurements are obtained at a wide range of scales and often exhibit significant variability both temporally and spatially. The three geophysical methods predomi...

  15. Cyclic Investigation of Geophysical Studies in the Exploration and Discovery of Natural Resources in Our Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonulalan, A. U.

    2007-01-01

    Although the methods of exploration geophysics were first utilized after the discovery of an oil field in 1921, they have also applied in the old centuries. Likewise, the half of the total production in the United States of America is covered by new oil fields discovered by utilizing geophysical methods. The industry's energy necessity increases the interest to oil. The investments in the field of geophysics by the companies which makes large amount of money in order to discover new oil fields, widespread use of computers, the developments of space technology and world-wide nuclear competition even though its great danger for human beings have great share in the development of geophysics. Our country has 18 different types mines which has more than 10 billion $ potential. Geophysical engineers have great Kowledge and labor in the discovery of 1,795 trillion wealth from borax to building stone, and 60 billion $ oil and gas. On the other hand, as 1,5 billion investment in the field of geophysics is only 0.08 % of total investments, the increase of investments will add more contribution

  16. Geophysical Anomalies and Earthquake Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    Finding anomalies is easy. Predicting earthquakes convincingly from such anomalies is far from easy. Why? Why have so many beautiful geophysical abnormalities not led to successful prediction strategies? What is earthquake prediction? By my definition it is convincing information that an earthquake of specified size is temporarily much more likely than usual in a specific region for a specified time interval. We know a lot about normal earthquake behavior, including locations where earthquake rates are higher than elsewhere, with estimable rates and size distributions. We know that earthquakes have power law size distributions over large areas, that they cluster in time and space, and that aftershocks follow with power-law dependence on time. These relationships justify prudent protective measures and scientific investigation. Earthquake prediction would justify exceptional temporary measures well beyond those normal prudent actions. Convincing earthquake prediction would result from methods that have demonstrated many successes with few false alarms. Predicting earthquakes convincingly is difficult for several profound reasons. First, earthquakes start in tiny volumes at inaccessible depth. The power law size dependence means that tiny unobservable ones are frequent almost everywhere and occasionally grow to larger size. Thus prediction of important earthquakes is not about nucleation, but about identifying the conditions for growth. Second, earthquakes are complex. They derive their energy from stress, which is perniciously hard to estimate or model because it is nearly singular at the margins of cracks and faults. Physical properties vary from place to place, so the preparatory processes certainly vary as well. Thus establishing the needed track record for validation is very difficult, especially for large events with immense interval times in any one location. Third, the anomalies are generally complex as well. Electromagnetic anomalies in particular require

  17. Faculty receives Excellence in Geophysical Education Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Sarah; Baldridge, W. Scott; Biehler, Shawn; Braile, Lawrence W.; Ferguson, John F.; Gilpin, Bernard E.; Jiracek, George R.

    “The second AGU Excellence in Geophysical Education Award was presented to the faculty of the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE): Scott Baldridge, Shawn Biehler, Larry Braile, John Ferguson, Bernard Gilpin, and George Jiracek. The persistence and commitment of this group has provided the geophysical community with a superb educational program for over 16 years, reaching nearly 400 students, including undergraduates, graduates, and professionals. The award was presented at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on December 8, 1998, in San Francisco, California.

  18. Calibration and Confirmation in Geophysical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werndl, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    For policy decisions the best geophysical models are needed. To evaluate geophysical models, it is essential that the best available methods for confirmation are used. A hotly debated issue on confirmation in climate science (as well as in philosophy) is the requirement of use-novelty (i.e. that data can only confirm models if they have not already been used before. This talk investigates the issue of use-novelty and double-counting for geophysical models. We will see that the conclusions depend on the framework of confirmation and that it is not clear that use-novelty is a valid requirement and that double-counting is illegitimate.

  19. Bayesian Model Selection in Geophysics: The evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrugt, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Bayesian inference has found widespread application and use in science and engineering to reconcile Earth system models with data, including prediction in space (interpolation), prediction in time (forecasting), assimilation of observations and deterministic/stochastic model output, and inference of the model parameters. Per Bayes theorem, the posterior probability, , P(H|D), of a hypothesis, H, given the data D, is equivalent to the product of its prior probability, P(H), and likelihood, L(H|D), divided by a normalization constant, P(D). In geophysics, the hypothesis, H, often constitutes a description (parameterization) of the subsurface for some entity of interest (e.g. porosity, moisture content). The normalization constant, P(D), is not required for inference of the subsurface structure, yet of great value for model selection. Unfortunately, it is not particularly easy to estimate P(D) in practice. Here, I will introduce the various building blocks of a general purpose method which provides robust and unbiased estimates of the evidence, P(D). This method uses multi-dimensional numerical integration of the posterior (parameter) distribution. I will then illustrate this new estimator by application to three competing subsurface models (hypothesis) using GPR travel time data from the South Oyster Bacterial Transport Site, in Virginia, USA. The three subsurface models differ in their treatment of the porosity distribution and use (a) horizontal layering with fixed layer thicknesses, (b) vertical layering with fixed layer thicknesses and (c) a multi-Gaussian field. The results of the new estimator are compared against the brute force Monte Carlo method, and the Laplace-Metropolis method.

  20. Fundamentals of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, James C.

    2006-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere and oceans exhibit complex patterns of fluid motion over a vast range of space and time scales. These patterns combine to establish the climate in response to solar radiation that is inhomogeneously absorbed by the materials comprising air, water, and land. Spontaneous, energetic variability arises from instabilities in the planetary-scale circulations, appearing in many different forms such as waves, jets, vortices, boundary layers, and turbulence. Geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) is the science of all these types of fluid motion. This textbook is a concise and accessible introduction to GFD for intermediate to advanced students of the physics, chemistry, and/or biology of Earth's fluid environment. The book was developed from the author's many years of teaching a first-year graduate course at the University of California, Los Angeles. Readers are expected to be familiar with physics and mathematics at the level of general dynamics (mechanics) and partial differential equations. Covers the essential GFD required for atmospheric science and oceanography courses Mathematically rigorous, concise coverage of basic theory and applications to both oceans and atmospheres Author is a world expert; this book is based on the course he has taught for many years Exercises are included, with solutions available to instructors from solutions@cambridge.org

  1. Hydro geophysical Investigation for Groundwater Development at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    lateritic sand, shale/clay, weathered layer, fractured basement and fresh basement respectively. Geo-electric sounding ... numerical modeling solutions. The electrical geophysical survey method is the detection of the surface effects produced by the.

  2. Exploring the oceans- The geophysical way

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.

    The evolution of the eastern continental margin of India (ECMI), the Bengal Fan and the Central Indian Basin (CIB) is a consequence of the breakup of India from the eastern Gondwanaland in Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Recent marine geophysical...

  3. Geophysical field disturbances and quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Geophysical phenomena considered here have no clear and consistent interpretation in the context of classical physics. We attempt to involve the recent achievements of quantum physics namely the quantum entanglement between elementary particles implicated in considered phenomena.

  4. COLLADA Computing for Geophysical Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The COLLADATM open industry XML standard for 3D Graphics Exchange is applied for representation, combination and analysis of geophysical information from disparate...

  5. Marine geophysical data management and presentation system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.

    The Geophysical Data Management and Presentation System (GPDMPS) constitutes an integral part of the large Geological Oceanographic Database (GODBASE) which is under development at the Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre (INODC...

  6. A field guide to geophysics in archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Oswin, John

    2009-01-01

    Geophysics operations in archaeology have become well known through exposure on television. However, the technique is presented as the action of specialists and something of a mystery, where people walk about with strange contraptions, and results appear from a computer. This is not the case, however. Some scientific knowledge is needed in order to understand how the machines work and what they detect but otherwise it is only necessary to know how to handle the instruments, how to survey a field and how to interpret the computer results. This book provides all the relevant information. It explains geophysics operations in archaeology, describes the science that gives the soil properties to measure and the means by which the instruments make their measurements. Dr John Oswin is in charge of the geophysics operation of the Bath and Camerton Archaeological Society and his work has recently been the subject of a television programme. He has taught many students how to use geophysical equipment.

  7. Tabletop Models for Electrical and Electromagnetic Geophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Charles T.

    2002-01-01

    Details the use of tabletop models that demonstrate concepts in direct current electrical resistivity, self-potential, and electromagnetic geophysical models. Explains how data profiles of the models are obtained. (DDR)

  8. A geological and geophysical data collection system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sudhakar, T.; Afzulpurkar, S.

    A geological and geophysical data collection system using a Personal Computer is described below. The system stores data obtained from various survey systems typically installed in a charter vessel and can be used for similar applications on any...

  9. Multiscale geophysical imaging of the critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsekian, Andy; Singha, Kamini; Minsley, Burke J.; Holbrook, W. Steven; Slater, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Details of Earth's shallow subsurface—a key component of the critical zone (CZ)—are largely obscured because making direct observations with sufficient density to capture natural characteristic spatial variability in physical properties is difficult. Yet this inaccessible region of the CZ is fundamental to processes that support ecosystems, society, and the environment. Geophysical methods provide a means for remotely examining CZ form and function over length scales that span centimeters to kilometers. Here we present a review highlighting the application of geophysical methods to CZ science research questions. In particular, we consider the application of geophysical methods to map the geometry of structural features such as regolith thickness, lithological boundaries, permafrost extent, snow thickness, or shallow root zones. Combined with knowledge of structure, we discuss how geophysical observations are used to understand CZ processes. Fluxes between snow, surface water, and groundwater affect weathering, groundwater resources, and chemical and nutrient exports to rivers. The exchange of gas between soil and the atmosphere have been studied using geophysical methods in wetland areas. Indirect geophysical methods are a natural and necessary complement to direct observations obtained by drilling or field mapping. Direct measurements should be used to calibrate geophysical estimates, which can then be used to extrapolate interpretations over larger areas or to monitor changing processes over time. Advances in geophysical instrumentation and computational approaches for integrating different types of data have great potential to fill gaps in our understanding of the shallow subsurface portion of the CZ and should be integrated where possible in future CZ research.

  10. The remote sensing needs of Arctic geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    The application of remote sensors for obtaining geophysical information of the Arctic regions is discussed. Two significant requirements are to acquire sequential, synoptic imagery of the Arctic Ocean during all weather and seasons and to measure the strains in the sea ice canopy and the heterogeneous character of the air and water stresses acting on the canopy. The acquisition of geophysical data by side looking radar and microwave sensors in military aircraft is described.

  11. Non-Seismic Geophysical Approaches to Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoversten, G.M.; Gasperikova, Erika

    2004-09-01

    This chapter considers the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration of CO2. The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, electromagnetic (EM) and streaming potential (SP) geophysical techniques as monitoring tools are examined. An example of tilt measurements illustrates another potential monitoring technique, although it has not been studied to the extent of other techniques in this chapter. This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques on two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO2 enhance oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. The second scenario is of a pilot DOE CO2 sequestration experiment scheduled for summer 2004 in the Frio Brine Formation in South Texas, USA. Numerical flow simulations of the CO2 injection process for each case were converted to geophysical models using petrophysical models developed from well log data. These coupled flow simulation geophysical models allow comparrison of the performance of monitoring techniques over time on realistic 3D models by generating simulated responses at different times during the CO2 injection process. These time-lapse measurements are used to produce time-lapse changes in geophysical measurements that can be related to the movement of CO2 within the injection interval.

  12. Geophysics of Small Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik I.

    1998-01-01

    As a SETI Institute PI from 1996-1998, Erik Asphaug studied impact and tidal physics and other geophysical processes associated with small (low-gravity) planetary bodies. This work included: a numerical impact simulation linking basaltic achondrite meteorites to asteroid 4 Vesta (Asphaug 1997), which laid the groundwork for an ongoing study of Martian meteorite ejection; cratering and catastrophic evolution of small bodies (with implications for their internal structure; Asphaug et al. 1996); genesis of grooved and degraded terrains in response to impact; maturation of regolith (Asphaug et al. 1997a); and the variation of crater outcome with impact angle, speed, and target structure. Research of impacts into porous, layered and prefractured targets (Asphaug et al. 1997b, 1998a) showed how shape, rheology and structure dramatically affects sizes and velocities of ejecta, and the survivability and impact-modification of comets and asteroids (Asphaug et al. 1998a). As an affiliate of the Galileo SSI Team, the PI studied problems related to cratering, tectonics, and regolith evolution, including an estimate of the impactor flux around Jupiter and the effect of impact on local and regional tectonics (Asphaug et al. 1998b). Other research included tidal breakup modeling (Asphaug and Benz 1996; Schenk et al. 1996), which is leading to a general understanding of the role of tides in planetesimal evolution. As a Guest Computational Investigator for NASA's BPCC/ESS supercomputer testbed, helped graft SPH3D onto an existing tree code tuned for the massively parallel Cray T3E (Olson and Asphaug, in preparation), obtaining a factor xIO00 speedup in code execution time (on 512 cpus). Runs which once took months are now completed in hours.

  13. Ore and rock mass characterization using borehole geophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Wänstedt, Stefan

    1997-01-01

    A geophysical log represents the measurement of a geophysical parameter along a borehole, plotted against time or depth. A variety of geophysical logging tools exist that measure different geophysical parameters. Some geophysical instruments react to the lithological changes along the borehole, others to the fluid within or around the borehole, but very few react solely to a single feature. In every case the user must determine what effect the borehole and its surroundings have on the measure...

  14. Geophysical Investigations in the Caucasus (1925 - 2012): Initial, Basic and Modern Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2012-04-01

    testing different geophysical methods and methodologies in complicated environments. Airborne magnetic and gravity surveys covered all the Caucasus, regional seismic and magnetotelluric studies were used as reference profiles for deep structure investigation. Numerous effective applications of geophysical methods for searching ore, oil&gas deposits, building raw, fresh water localization, solving engineering, etc. was demonstrated. Seismological investigations (including different methods) were widely applied throughout the entire Caucasian region. Satellite geophysical examinations were successfully combined with other methods. Finally, destruction of the former Soviet Union in 1991 (beginning of the modern stage) caused a sharp common decreasing of the geophysical activity in this region. Only foreign oil-&gas companies (mainly American and England) demonstrated some industrial geophysical activity basically in the Caspian Sea. In the last few years the situation began to straighten out, especially in the field of seismology. This presentation is based of the author's experience (e.g., Eppelbaum, 1989, 1991, 2009; Eppelbaum et al., 1987; Eppelbaum and Finkelstein, 1998; Eppelbaum and Khesin, 1988, 1992, 2002, 2004, 2011, 2012; Eppelbaum and Mishne, 2011; Eppelbaum et al., 2003, 2004; Khesin et al., 1988, 1993a, 1993b, 1996, 1997; Khesin and Eppelbaum, 1986, 1994, 1997, 2007; Pilchin and Eppelbaum, 1997, 2011) and corresponding publications and reviews of other authors.

  15. Generalized rheology and geophysical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Michele

    1985-06-01

    In some portions of the Earthś crust one finds stresses and creeps which are incompatible with the local geologic history and/or the generally accepted rheological models of Voigt, or Maxwell or Standard linear solid. Also there is no reason to accept that the rheology of the Earth is represented by mathematical formulae modeling combinations of simplicistic springs and dash pots which lead to represent the phenomenon by means of first order time derivatives of stress and/or strains. We describe here an attempt to obtain a rheological model for the lithosphere which is more realistic and flexible than the Voigt, the Maxwell and the Standard linear solid models which are generally used in geophysics and geology. In this model the first-order derivatives of Maxwell stress-strain relations are replaced by z-order derivatives; the resulting creep rates are variable functions of time as indicated by laboratory observations. In the one-dimensional case as well as in the case of the sphere the relaxation rate after a given time is a decreasing function of time. A small value of z could explain the residual deviatoric stress present in the Fennoscandia and Canadian Shields (Herget, 1980; Leijon et al., 1981) and the deviatoric stress present in the Rocky Mountains and in the Appalachian Range (Caputo et al., 1985) which seem stable and were formed many tens of millions of years ago. A small value of z would also explain why the seismicity is decreasing with lithospheric age (Stein, 1979; Bergman and Solomon, 1980) but is still present 100 millions of years after the origin of the lithosphere which implies a relevant residual shear stress after long time. If one wants to take into account the effect of temperature then one should consider that there is evidence that in some materials the creep rate is linearly increasing with temperature in the range between 100°C to 400°C (Caputo, 1983) and that it is independent of the confining pressure; then one would infer that the

  16. The Environmental Geophysics Web Site and Geophysical Decision Support System (GDSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product provides assistance to project managers, remedial project managers, stakeholders, and anyone interested in on-site investigations or environmental geophysics. The APM is the beta version of the new U.S. EPA Environmental Geophysics Web Site which includes the Geophys...

  17. Geophysical System Verification (GSV): A Physics-Based Alternative to Geophysical Prove-Outs for Munitions Response. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-24

    FINAL REPORT Geophysical System Verification (GSV): A Physics-Based Alternative to Geophysical Prove-Outs for Munitions Response July 2009...NUMBER (Include area code) 15-07-2009 Final Report July 2009 GEOPHYSICAL SYSTEM VERIFICATION (GSV): A PHYSICS-BASED ALTERNATIVE TO GEOPHYSICAL PROVE-OUTS...Arlington, Virginia 22203 SERDP/ESTCP N/A Unlimited distribution This document highlights a more rigorous physics-based alternative to geophysical

  18. Geophysical System Verification (GSV): A Physics-Based Alternative to Geophysical Prove-Outs for Munitions Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-24

    FINAL REPORT Geophysical System Verification (GSV): A Physics-Based Alternative to Geophysical Prove-Outs for Munitions Response July 2009...NUMBER (Include area code) 15-07-2009 Final Report July 2009 GEOPHYSICAL SYSTEM VERIFICATION (GSV): A PHYSICS-BASED ALTERNATIVE TO GEOPHYSICAL PROVE-OUTS...Arlington, Virginia 22203 SERDP/ESTCP N/A Unlimited distribution This document highlights a more rigorous physics-based alternative to geophysical

  19. From Geophysics to Microgeophysics for Engineering and Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Cosentino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodologies of microgeophysics have been derived from the geophysical ones, for the sake of solving specific diagnostic and/or monitoring problems regarding civil engineering and cultural heritage studies. Generally, the investigations are carried out using different 2D and 3D tomographic approaches as well as different energy sources: sonic and ultrasonic waves, electromagnetic (inductive and impulsive sources, electric potential fields, and infrared emission. Many efforts have been made to modify instruments and procedures in order to improve the resolution of the surveys as well as to significantly reduce the time of the measurements without any loss of information. This last point has been achieved by using multichannel systems. Finally, some applications are presented, and the results seem to be very promising and promote this new branch of geophysics. Therefore, these methodologies can be used even more to diagnose, monitor, and safeguard not only engineering buildings and/or large structures, but also ancient monuments and cultural artifacts, such as pottery, statues, and so forth.

  20. Geophysical images of basement rocks. Geophysical images in the Guianese basement. Airborne geophysical campaign in French Guiana - 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delor, C.; Perrin, J.; Truffert, C.; Asfirane, F.; Rossi, Ph.; Bonjoly, D.; Dubreuihl, J.; Chardon, D.

    1998-01-01

    The French Office for Geological and Mining Research (BRGM) has carried out a high sensitivity airborne geophysical survey of northern French Guiana during the second half of 1996. The aim was to realize a high resolution magnetic and gamma spectrometric mapping for future prospecting, land use and environment management. This paper describes in details the geophysical campaign, the material used, the navigation techniques, the processing of magnetic data, the gamma radiation sources used, the spectrometric calibrations and the geologic interpretation of the results. (J.S.)

  1. Geophysical survey of the Burnum archaeological site (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Federica; Campedelli, Alessandro; Giorgi, Enrico; Lepore, Giuseppe; de Maria, Sandro

    2010-05-01

    A multidisciplinary geophysical investigation has been carried out at the site of Burnum (Krka Valley, Croatia) by the University of Bologna, in the context of an international agreement between the University of Zadar, the Civic Museum of Drniš, and the Centre for the Study of the Adriatic Sea Archaeology (Ravenna). The Burnum Project aims at improving our knowledge and preserve the important roman castrum, transformed in a municipium at the beginning of the 2nd century AD. Since 2005, different geophysical techniques have been applied to the site, such as magnetometry, electrical resistivity studies and ground penetrating radar, making the investigated area an interesting case history of a multidisciplinary approach applied to archaeology. After different field works, the geophysical mapping of the southern part of the castrum is almost complete, whereas the northern one will be completed during next planned campaigns. Magnetic data have been collected with the gradient technique, using an Overhauser system and an optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer, configured with a vertical sensor distance of 1.50 m. The resistivity method has been applied using the ARP© (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) and the OhM Mapper systems. GPR surveys have been carried out testing different systems and antennas. During 2009, a special emphasis was given to the acquisition, processing and interpretation of the optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer data. As a result, a clear image of the settlement configuration was obtained, improving our knowledge of the forum-basilica complex and possibly discovering a second auxiliary castrum. Direct exploration by archaeological excavations of selected areas has correctly confirmed the geophysical results and the archaeological interpretation proposed. The features of the building materials, brought to the light and analysed after the excavations, were coherent with the instrumental responses of all the applied

  2. Geophysics: creativity and the archaeological imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Ferraby

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper article explores archaeology as a creative practice by engaging specifically with the processes and visuals of geophysics. An area of archaeology considered highly scientific, a different way of looking reveals geophysics to be a poetic form of landscape study. The processes used to collect, alter, interpret and visualize visualise the data are creative acts that have parallels with more easily recognizable recognisable arts practices such as painting, drawing or photography. The paper article explores the ideas behind ways of seeing, the archaeological imagination, technologies and process. The section that follows explores the different elements of work and the ways of seeing and thinking they inspire. The paper article ends by showcasing how other arts practices can give alternative perspectives on geophysics and how these can in turn influence fine art.

  3. Geophysical Investigations at the Hanna's Town Cemetery, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ashley D.

    Hanna's Town (36WM203), an 18th century site located in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, was a major frontier settlement that was attacked and destroyed by a force of British and Native Americans in 1782. The town never fully recovered, and by the early 1800s, no buildings remained from the settlement. The land was repurposed for agricultural use until it was purchased by the Westmoreland County Historical Society, who reconstructed the town for tourism and educational purposes. In addition to the town, the site also contains a cemetery that currently has five headstones. There are several stone fragments in storage that are no longer associated with burials, providing evidence that the cemetery may contain unmarked graves. Geophysical investigations using ground penetrating radar, magnetometry, and electrical resistance were performed to examine the presence of additional grave shafts in and adjacent to the present-day cemetery.

  4. Geophysical methods for evaluation of plutonic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, R.A.; Scott, J.S.

    1986-04-01

    Geophysical methods are systematically described according to the physical principle and operational mode of each method, the type of information produced, limitations of a technical and/or economic nature, and the applicability of the method to rock-mass evaluation at Research Areas of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The geophysical methods fall into three categories: (1) airborne and other reconnaissance surveys, (2) detailed or surface (ground) surveys, and (3) borehole or subsurface surveys. The possible roles of each method in the site-screening and site-evaluation processes of disposal vault site selection are summarized

  5. Geophysical characterization from Itu intrusive suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascholati, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The integrated use of geophysical, geological, geochemical, petrographical and remote sensing data resulted in a substantial increase in the knowledge of the Itu Intrusive Suite. The main geophysical method was gamma-ray spectrometry together with fluorimetry and autoradiography. Three methods were used for calculation of laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry data. For U, the regression method was the best one. For K and Th, equations system and absolute calibration presented the best results. Surface gamma-ray spectrometry allowed comparison with laboratory data and permitted important contribution to the study of environmental radiation. (author)

  6. Nonlinear regularization with applications in geophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Eva Ann-Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    geophysical inverse problems: a seismic tomography problem, and a geoelectrical sounding problem. We found that all four methods gave reasonable solutions for the two geophysical problem. However, the inexact Gauss-Newton method converged faster than the others for the seismic tomography problem......, and the inexact Gauss-Newton method and the IRGN method work better than the other two for the geoelectrical sounding problem. However, for the nonlinear Hammerstein integral equation the inexact Gauss-Newton method diverges, and the IRGN method converges fastest. The work presented here also considers linear ill...

  7. Annals of the International Geophysical Year solar radio emission during the International Geophysical Year

    CERN Document Server

    Smerd, S F

    1969-01-01

    Annals of the International Geophysical Year, Volume 34: Solar Radio Emission During the International Geophysical Year covers the significant solar radio emission events observed during the International Geophysical Year (IGY). This book is composed of six chapters, and begins with a summary of tabulated quantities describing solar radio emission during the IGY. The tabulated figures illustrate the method of recording the position of radio sources on the sun, the use of symbols in describing the structure of bursts observed at single frequencies, and the different types used in a spectral

  8. Practices to enable the geophysical research spectrum: from fundamentals to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S.; Cockett, R.; Heagy, L. J.; Oldenburg, D.

    2016-12-01

    In a geophysical survey, a source injects energy into the earth and a response is measured. These physical systems are governed by partial differential equations and their numerical solutions are obtained by discretizing the earth. Geophysical simulations and inversions are tools for understanding physical responses and constructing models of the subsurface given a finite amount of data. SimPEG (http://simpeg.xyz) is our effort to synthesize geophysical forward and inverse methodologies into a consistent framework. The primary focus of our initial development has been on the electromagnetics (EM) package, with recent extensions to magnetotelluric, direct current (DC), and induced polarization. Across these methods, and applied geophysics in general, we require tools to explore and build an understanding of the physics (behaviour of fields, fluxes), and work with data to produce models through reproducible inversions. If we consider DC or EM experiments, with the aim of understanding responses from subsurface conductors, we require resources that provide multiple "entry points" into the geophysical problem. To understand the physical responses and measured data, we must simulate the physical system and visualize electric fields, currents, and charges. Performing an inversion requires that many moving pieces be brought together: simulation, physics, linear algebra, data processing, optimization, etc. Each component must be trusted, accessible to interrogation and manipulation, and readily combined in order to enable investigation into inversion methodologies. To support such research, we not only require "entry points" into the software, but also extensibility to new situations. In our development of SimPEG, we have sought to use leading practices in software development with the aim of supporting and promoting collaborations across a spectrum of geophysical research: from fundamentals to applications. Designing software to enable this spectrum puts unique

  9. GEOPHYSICAL AND WELL CORELLATION ANALYSIS OF OGO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A suite of geophysical wire line logs were run in hole. The wells data were acquired from bottom to top and not top to bottom. Basically, we have the qualitative and the quantitative evaluation techniques.Qualitative means is usually used for identification of the type of lithology and also for the component of the formation.

  10. GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION OF GROUND SUBSIDENCE: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A geophysical investigation involving the electrical resistivity and gravity methods was carried out within the premises of a Beverage Factory in Edo State. The investigation was to enable the determination of the cause(s) of a ground subsidence within the premises of the boilers. The vertical electrical sounding interpretation ...

  11. Geophysical investigations for groundwater in the middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, geophysical investigations were carried out in twelve (12) communities in the Up-per Denkyira District located in the Birimian and the Tarkwaian Formations of the Central Re-gion of Ghana with the aim of delineating groundwater potential zones, drilling the selected sites, and subsequently comparing the ...

  12. Integrated geophysical approach in groundwater exploration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A combined geophysical investigation comprising electromagnetic (EM) and resistivity depth sounding carried out around Gwoza area indicate that the area is suitable for borehole development. The electromagnetic results along six profiles identified five locations that are favorable for detail vertical electrical sounding ...

  13. Hydrogeological and geophysical study for deeper groundwater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrical resistivity method is a versatile and economical technique for groundwater prospecting in different geological settings due to wide spectrum of resistivity compared to other geophysical parameters. Exploration and exploitation of groundwater, a vital and precious resource, is a challenging task in hard rock, which ...

  14. Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered Structures That ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study uses geophysical method (aeromagnetic) to identify hydrothermally altered structures which favour the inflow of hydrothermal fluid that usually brings about gold mineralisation in Egbe-Isanlu Schist Belt Area, North Central Nigeria. The application of data enhancement filtering algorithm such as ...

  15. Early geophysical maps published by A. Petermann

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozák, Jan; Vaněk, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2012), s. 1109-1122 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : August Petermann * Geographische Mitteilungen * geophysical maps Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2012

  16. Some geological and geophysical aspects in electric rock breaking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Henry, G

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This presentation looks at the way rocks break and the geological and geophysical aspects thereof. It it important to know that rocks are much weaker under tension (10 times) than under compression. Geological and geophysical factors play...

  17. A portable marine geophysical data access and management system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Narvekar, P.

    The marine Geophysical Data Access and Management System (GPDAMS) is a portable software system designed for computerized storage, selective retrieval and management of marine geophysical data. It constitutes an integral part of the larger...

  18. Geophysics applications in critical zone science: emerging topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical studies have resulted in remarkable advances in characterization of critical zone. The geophysics applications uncover the relationships between structure and function in subsurface as they seek to define subsurface structural units with individual properties of retention and trans...

  19. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  20. Merging information in geophysics: the triumvirat of geology, geophysics, and petrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revil, A.

    2016-12-01

    We know that geophysical inversion is non-unique and that many classical regularization techniques are unphysical. Despite this, we like to use them because of their simplicity and because geophysicists are often afraid to bias the inverse problem by introducing too much prior information (in a broad sense). It is also clear that geophysics is done on geological objects that are not random structures. Spending some time with a geologist in the field, before organizing a field geophysical campaign, is always an instructive experience. Finally, the measured properties are connected to physicochemical and textural parameters of the porous media and the interfaces between the various phases of a porous body. .Some fundamental parameters may control the geophysical observtions or their time variations. If we want to improve our geophysical tomograms, we need to be risk-takers and acknowledge, or rather embrqce, the cross-fertilization arising by coupling geology, geophysics, and ptrophysics. In this presentation, I will discuss various techniques to do so. They will include non-stationary geostatistical descriptors, facies deformation, cross-coupled petrophysical properties using petrophysical clustering, and image-guided inversion. I will show various applications to a number of relevant cases in hydrogeophysics. From these applications, it may become clear that there are many ways to address inverse or time-lapse inverse problems and geophysicists have to be pragmatic regarding the methods used depending on the degree of available prior information.

  1. 25 CFR 211.56 - Geological and geophysical permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geological and geophysical permits. 211.56 Section 211.56... FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations and Appeals § 211.56 Geological and geophysical permits. Permits to conduct geological and geophysical operations on Indian lands which do not...

  2. 36 CFR 902.59 - Geological and geophysical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geological and geophysical information. 902.59 Section 902.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT... Geological and geophysical information. Any geological or geophysical information and data (including maps...

  3. 25 CFR 212.56 - Geological and geophysical permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geological and geophysical permits. 212.56 Section 212.56... FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.56 Geological and geophysical permits. (a) Permits to conduct geological and geophysical operations on Indian lands which do not...

  4. Geophysical methods for road construction and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Hedi; Karlson, Caroline; Jamali, Imran; Earon, Robert; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Infrastructure, such as road transportation, is a vital in civilized societies; which need to be constructed and maintained regularly. A large part of the project cost is attributed to subsurface conditions, where unsatisfactory conditions could increase either the geotechnical stabilization measures needed or the design cost itself. A way to collect information of the subsurface and existing installations which can lead to measures reducing the project cost and damage is to use geophysical methods during planning, construction and maintenance phases. The moisture in road layers is an important factor, which will affect the bearing capacity of the construction as well as the maintenances. Moisture in the road is a key factor for a well-functioning road. On the other hand the excessive moisture is the main reason of road failure and problems. From a hydrological point of view geophysical methods could help road planners identify the water table, geological strata, pollution arising from the road and the movement of the pollution before, during and after construction. Geophysical methods also allow road planners to collect valuable data for a large area without intrusive investigations such as with boreholes, i.e. minimizing the environmental stresses and costs. However, it is important to specify the investigation site and to choose the most appropriate geophysical method based on the site chosen and the objective of the investigation. Currently, numerous construction and rehabilitation projects are taking places around the world. Many of these projects are focused on infrastructural development, comprising both new projects and expansion of the existing infrastructural network. Geophysical methods can benefit these projects greatly during all phases. During the construction phase Ground Penetrating radar (GPR) is very useful in combination with Electrical Resistivity (ER) for detecting soil water content and base course compaction. However, ER and Electromagnetic

  5. Review of geophysical characterization methods used at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GV Last; DG Horton

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a review of geophysical methods used at Hanford in two parts: (1) shallow surface-based geophysical methods and (2) borehole geophysical methods. This review was not intended to be ''all encompassing'' but should represent the vast majority (>90% complete) of geophysical work conducted onsite and aimed at hazardous waste investigations in the vadose zone and/or uppermost groundwater aquifers. This review did not cover geophysical methods aimed at large-scale geologic structures or seismicity and, in particular, did not include those efforts conducted in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. This review focused primarily on the more recent efforts

  6. Review of geophysical characterization methods used at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GV Last; DG Horton

    2000-03-23

    This paper presents a review of geophysical methods used at Hanford in two parts: (1) shallow surface-based geophysical methods and (2) borehole geophysical methods. This review was not intended to be ``all encompassing'' but should represent the vast majority (>90% complete) of geophysical work conducted onsite and aimed at hazardous waste investigations in the vadose zone and/or uppermost groundwater aquifers. This review did not cover geophysical methods aimed at large-scale geologic structures or seismicity and, in particular, did not include those efforts conducted in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. This review focused primarily on the more recent efforts.

  7. Geophysical field disturbances and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Quantum processes impact into physics of geophysical field disturbances is discussed here in examples of phenomena such as an earthquake with processes preceding and accompanying it, volcanoes eruptions and diamond exploding pipes. Physics of shock waves generation in ionosphere and atmosphere, mechanism of atmosphere phenomena in supercooled clouds recorded by a stormglass is considered. The report treats of physics of ball and dark lightning, of generating in atmosphere the high-energy particles involved in sprites occurrence, and so on. Geophysical phenomena considered here have no clear and consistent interpretation in the context of classical physics. We attempt to involve the recent achievements of quantum physics namely the quantum entanglement between elementary particles implicated in considered phenomena.

  8. Geophysical and atmospheric evolution of habitable planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Frank; Chassefière, Eric; Breuer, Doris; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Kulikov, Yuri N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Biernat, Helfried K; Leblanc, Francois; Kallio, Esa; Lundin, Richard; Westall, Frances; Bauer, Siegfried J; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gröller, Hannes; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Hausleitner, Walter; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Leitzinger, Martin; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Motschmann, Uwe; Odert, Petra; Paresce, Francesco; Parnell, John; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rauer, Heike; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Spohn, Tilman; Stadelmann, Anja; Stangl, Günter; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and activity, orbit location of the habitable zone, and the planet's initial water inventory. Depending on the host star's radiation and particle flux evolution, the composition in the thermosphere, and the availability of an active magnetic dynamo, the atmospheres of Earth-like planets within their habitable zones are differently affected due to thermal and nonthermal escape processes. For some planets, strong atmospheric escape could even effect the stability of the atmosphere.

  9. Introduction to the JEEG Agricultural Geophysics Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Barry J.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Near-surface geophysical methods have become increasingly important tools in applied agricultural practices and studies. The great advantage of geophysical methods is their potential rapidity, low cost, and spatial continuity when compared to more traditional methods of assessing agricultural land, such as sample collection and laboratory analysis. Agricultural geophysics investigations commonly focus on obtaining information within the soil profile, which generally does not extend much beyond 2 meters beneath the ground surface. Although the depth of interest oftentimes is rather shallow, the area covered by an agricultural geophysics survey can vary widely in scale, from experimental plots (10 s to 100 s of square meters), to farm fields (10 s to 100 s of hectares), up to the size of watersheds (10 s to 100 s of square kilometers). To date, three predominant methods—resistivity, electromagnetic induction (EMI), and ground-penetrating radar (GPR)—have been used to obtain surface-based geophysical measurements within agricultural settings. However, a recent conference on agricultural geophysics (Bouyoucos Conference on Agricultural Geophysics, September 8–10, 2009, Albuquerque, New Mexico; www.ag-geophysics.org) illustrated that other geophysical methods are being applied or developed. These include airborne electromagnetic induction, magnetometry, seismic, and self-potential methods. Agricultural geophysical studies are also being linked to ground water studies that utilize deeper penetrating geophysical methods than normally used.

  10. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These simulations of atmospheric flow use the same experimental parameters but started with slightly different initial conditions in the model. The simulations were part of data analysis for the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC), a planet in a test tube apparatus flown on Spacelab to mimic the atmospheres on gas giant planets and stars. (Credit: Dr. Tim Miller of Global Hydrology and Climate Center at the Marshall Space Flight Center)

  11. Airborne geophysics in Australia: the government contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.

    1997-01-01

    Airborne geophysical data sets provide important cost-effective information for resource exploration and land management. Improved techniques, developed recently, now enable high-resolution aeromagnetic and gamma-ray surveys to be used extensively by the resource industries to improve the cost effectiveness of exploration and by governments to encourage resource development and sustainable management of natural resources. Although airborne geophysical techniques have been used extensively and are now used almost routinely by mineral explorers, it is only in the last few years that governments have been involved as major players in the acquisition of data. The exploration industry pioneered the imaging of high-resolution airborne geophysical data sets in the early 1980s and, at the same time, the Northern Territory Government started a modest program of flying the Northern Territory, at 500 m flight-line spacing, to attract mineral exploration. After the start of the National Geoscience Mapping Accord in 1990, the then BMR and its State/Territory counterparts used the new high-resolution data as an essential ingredient to underpin mapping programs. These new data sets proved so valuable that, starting in 1992/93, the annual expenditure by the Commonwealth and States/Northern Territory increased from roughly $2 million per year to a massive $10 million per year. These investments by governments, although unlikely to be permanently sustainable, have been made to encourage and expand exploration activity by providing new high-quality data sets in industry at very low cost. There are now approximately 11 million line-km of airborne geophysical data available in databases held by the Commonwealth, States and Northern Territory. The results so far have seen a significant increase in exploration activity in States that have embarked on this course (e.g. South Australia and Victoria), and the information provided from these surveys is proving crucial to understanding the

  12. GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION OF MARBLE OCCURRENCE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The outline of the deposit and its plunge direction were confirmed by drilling from which borehole logs show marble thicknesses of 1.3-2.7m at the edges and 16.0 and 19.6m within the marble outlined zone. KeyWords: Marble, Abuja, geophysical investigation, Plunge. [Global Jnl Geol. Sci. Vol.1(1) 2003: 51-62] ...

  13. Symmetries in geology and geophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Turcotte, Donald L.; Newman, William I.

    1996-01-01

    Symmetries have played an important role in a variety of problems in geology and geophysics. A large fraction of studies in mineralogy are devoted to the symmetry properties of crystals. In this paper, however, the emphasis will be on scale-invariant (fractal) symmetries. The earth’s topography is an example of both statistically self-similar and self-affine fractals. Landforms are also associated with drainage networks, which are statistical fractal trees. A unive...

  14. Application of geophysical methods for fracture characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.; Majer, E.L.; McEvilly, T.V.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; Morrison, H.F.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1990-01-01

    One of the most crucial needs in the design and implementation of an underground waste isolation facility is a reliable method for the detection and characterization of fractures in zones away from boreholes or subsurface workings. Geophysical methods may represent a solution to this problem. If fractures represent anomalies in the elastic properties or conductive properties of the rocks, then the seismic and electrical techniques may be useful in detecting and characterizing fracture properties. 7 refs., 3 figs

  15. Geophysical fluid dynamics: whence, whither and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallis, Geoffrey K

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses the role of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) in understanding the natural environment, and in particular the dynamics of atmospheres and oceans on Earth and elsewhere. GFD, as usually understood, is a branch of the geosciences that deals with fluid dynamics and that, by tradition, seeks to extract the bare essence of a phenomenon, omitting detail where possible. The geosciences in general deal with complex interacting systems and in some ways resemble condensed matter physics or aspects of biology, where we seek explanations of phenomena at a higher level than simply directly calculating the interactions of all the constituent parts. That is, we try to develop theories or make simple models of the behaviour of the system as a whole. However, these days in many geophysical systems of interest, we can also obtain information for how the system behaves by almost direct numerical simulation from the governing equations. The numerical model itself then explicitly predicts the emergent phenomena-the Gulf Stream, for example-something that is still usually impossible in biology or condensed matter physics. Such simulations, as manifested, for example, in complicated general circulation models, have in some ways been extremely successful and one may reasonably now ask whether understanding a complex geophysical system is necessary for predicting it. In what follows we discuss such issues and the roles that GFD has played in the past and will play in the future.

  16. Initial building investigations at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Objectives and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Dougherty, J.M.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1994-12-01

    As part of an environmental-contamination source-definition program at Aberdeen Proving Ground, detailed internal and external inspections of 23 potentially contaminated buildings are being conducted to describe and characterize the state of each building as it currently exists and to identify areas potentially contaminated with toxic or other hazardous substances. In addition, a detailed geophysical investigation is being conducted in the vicinity of each target building to locate and identify subsurface structures, associated with former building operations, that are potential sources of contamination. This report describes the objectives of the initial building inspections, including the geophysical investigations, and discusses the methodology that has been developed to achieve these objectives.

  17. Geophysical investigations in the territory of Bolgar state historical and architectural museum-reserve in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brednikov Konstantin I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of geophysical investigations which was carried out in 2014 in the territory of Bolgar State Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve are reviewed in the article. Territory of Bolgar State Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve is part of the UNESCO protected sites. The set of works included wide range of geophysical investigations: magnetometry, gravimetry, electrical prospecting and georadar. The main goal of investigations was detecting and localization of archaeological objects remnant (houses, mausoleums, kilns, etc.. Magnetometry was the basic method during carrying out the works. Magnetic measurements are used in the practice of archaeological investigations very widely due to the high informativeness and productiveness of this method. The major search objects are the brick bases and building walls, accumulation of fired ceramic, the remnants of furnace construction for various purposes. Georadar survey, gravity and electrical prospecting were used for localization of nonmagnetic objects. It is identified a line of objects differing in its properties and purpose as a result of research. There are furnaces, mausoleum bases, remains of domestic buildings. Methodology for conducting of field experiments has been refined and optimized in the process of carrying out of geophysical investigations.

  18. Geophysical Hunt for Chromite in Ophiolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubarik Ali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ophiolite of Oman are famous world over, and are favorite for exploring chromite, which is a source of chromium that is used widely in steel, nichrome, and plating and painting industries. The best known chromite deposits are found in the Bushveld complex of South africa, however countries like Pakistan and Oman are also contributing but less than 2% of the world production. Chromite is found in the mantle rocks such as peridotite and its altered products. Large economic deposits are generally found in stratiform structure and the smaller ones in pod-like or tabular lenses. In Oman the chromite deposits occur in Oman ophiolite (Semile, mainly in the mantle sequence comprising harzburgite and dunite. The mining efforts for chromite in Oman are in progress but not on scientific grounds. On a site called Izki (670 m asl the chromite was expected on the top of a hill in a small area (150x50 m of ophiolite, and mining through pitting procedure was tried over there but remained unsuccessful. Geophysical methods were applied in the same area to search out the possibility of the existence of the ore. Since chromite is denser, more conductive and magnetically less susceptible deposit as compared to the host rocks harzburgite and serpentinite, it is expected that the existence of a shallow sizable ore body would generate favorable gravity, magnetic, and resistivity signals. The integrated geophysical study (gravity, magnetic and resistivity reveals the probability of chromite within 30 m depth. For confirmation the drilling was recommended on a point upto a depth of 35 meters. The drilling could not be continued beyond 12 meters depth due to reasons known to the lease owner. The drilling showed harzburgite up to 8 meters depth, then a chromite layer of 0.7 meter thickness, after that harzburgite started for the next 3 meters depth. This state of affairs confirms not only the presence of chromite but also the revealing power of geophysics.

  19. Applications of geophysical methods to volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Dzurisin, Daniel; Finn, Carol A.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Lahusen, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The array of geophysical technologies used in volcano hazards studies - some developed originally only for volcano monitoring - ranges from satellite remote sensing including InSAR to leveling and EDM surveys, campaign and telemetered GPS networks, electronic tiltmeters and strainmeters, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, short-period and broadband seismic monitoring, even microphones tuned for infrasound. They include virtually every method used in resource exploration except large-scale seismic reflection. By “geophysical ” we include both active and passive methods as well as geodetic technologies. Volcano monitoring incorporates telemetry to handle high-bandwith cameras and broadband seismometers. Critical geophysical targets include the flux of magma in shallow reservoir and lava-tube systems, changes in active hydrothermal systems, volcanic edifice stability, and lahars. Since the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State in 1980, and the eruption at Pu’u O’o in Hawai’i beginning in 1983 and still continuing, dramatic advances have occurred in monitoring technology such as “crisis GIS” and lahar modeling, InSAR interferograms, as well as gas emission geochemistry sampling, and hazards mapping and eruption predictions. The on-going eruption of Mount St. Helens has led to new monitoring technologies, including advances in broadband Wi-Fi and satellite telemetry as well as new instrumentation. Assessment of the gap between adequate monitoring and threat at the 169 potentially dangerous Holocene volcanoes shows where populations are dangerously exposed to volcanic catastrophes in the United States and its territories . This paper focuses primarily on Hawai’ian volcanoes and the northern Pacific and Cascades volcanoes. The US Geological Survey, the US National Park System, and the University of Utah cooperate in a program to monitor the huge Yellowstone volcanic system, and a separate observatory monitors the restive Long Valley

  20. Large natural geophysical events: planetary planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.; Smith, J.V.

    1984-09-01

    Geological and geophysical data suggest that during the evolution of the earth and its species, that there have been many mass extinctions due to large impacts from comets and large asteroids, and major volcanic events. Today, technology has developed to the stage where we can begin to consider protective measures for the planet. Evidence of the ecological disruption and frequency of these major events is presented. Surveillance and warning systems are most critical to develop wherein sufficient lead times for warnings exist so that appropriate interventions could be designed. The long term research undergirding these warning systems, implementation, and proof testing is rich in opportunities for collaboration for peace

  1. Predictability of extreme values in geophysical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Sterk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme value theory in deterministic systems is concerned with unlikely large (or small values of an observable evaluated along evolutions of the system. In this paper we study the finite-time predictability of extreme values, such as convection, energy, and wind speeds, in three geophysical models. We study whether finite-time Lyapunov exponents are larger or smaller for initial conditions leading to extremes. General statements on whether extreme values are better or less predictable are not possible: the predictability of extreme values depends on the observable, the attractor of the system, and the prediction lead time.

  2. Surface exploration geophysics applied to the moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ander, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    With the advent of a permanent lunar base, the desire to explore the lunar near-surface for both scientific and economic purposes will arise. Applications of exploration geophysical methods to the earth's subsurface are highly developed. This paper briefly addresses some aspects of applying this technology to near surface lunar exploration. It is noted that both the manner of application of some techniques, as well as their traditional hierarchy as assigned on earth, should be altered for lunar exploration. In particular, electromagnetic techniques may replace seismic techniques as the primary tool for evaluating near-surface structure

  3. ''Radon-emanometry'' applied to internal geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, J.L.

    1982-02-01

    An experimental set-up for in ground radon 222 measurements has been realised with solid state track detectors (cellulose nitrates CN85 and LR115). A preliminary study of radon activity variations has been conducted over various sites expecting using radon as one of forerunner geophysical parameters of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes predictions. The first data obtained in the field are presented: Etna (Sicily), Krafla (Iceland), Poas and Arenal (Costa Rica), Colima and Paricutin (Mexico) for active volcanoes, Ech Cheliff (Algeria) and Alsace (France) for sismotectonic areas [fr

  4. Parallel block inversion of geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Victor L.

    1993-12-01

    We present an automatic blocking algorithm for some medium size nonlinear least squares problems that arise in the inversion of travel time data in geophysics. This blocking leads to a nonlinear Gauss-Seidel type iteration which can be distributed to a network of computers. The low dimensional blocks are also amenable to global optimization methods which leads to further parallelization. All this is necessary because the original problem is generally non- convex, ill-conditioned, with a goal functional that is very expensive to evaluate.

  5. Large natural geophysical events: planetary planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.B.; Smith, J.V.

    1984-09-01

    Geological and geophysical data suggest that during the evolution of the earth and its species, that there have been many mass extinctions due to large impacts from comets and large asteroids, and major volcanic events. Today, technology has developed to the stage where we can begin to consider protective measures for the planet. Evidence of the ecological disruption and frequency of these major events is presented. Surveillance and warning systems are most critical to develop wherein sufficient lead times for warnings exist so that appropriate interventions could be designed. The long term research undergirding these warning systems, implementation, and proof testing is rich in opportunities for collaboration for peace.

  6. Geophysical borehole logging test procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of geophysical borehole logging from the At-Depth Facility (ADF) is to provide information which will assist in characterizing the site geologic conditions and in classifying the engineering characteristics of the rock mass in the vicinity of the ADF. The direct goals of borehole logging include identification of lithologic units and their correlation from hole to hole, identification of fractured or otherwise porous or permeable zones, quantitative or semi-quantitative estimation of various formation properties, and evaluation of factors such as the borehole diameter and orientation. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Assessment of Subsurface Conditions in a Coastal Area of Lagos using Geophysical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Oyedele

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical and geotechnical survey was carried out at Magodo Estate, Lagos, Nigeria. The buildings in this area are either sinking or intensively affected by severe cracks showing structural instability. The survey was aimed at characterizing the shallow subsurface in order to delineate features that may have caused structural instability that led to cracking and sinking of the residential buildings in the area. To image the subsurface, resistivity profiling (2-D using a Wenner array and Cone Penetration Test (CPT was carried out on five profiles of length 180 m each. The acquired data were processed and interpreted integrally to image the shallow geotechnical setting of the site. Integrated interpretation led to the delineation of low resistivity, low bearing capacity clay which is identified as the main cause of instability that resulted in potentially dangerous cracking and sinking of residential buildings in the area.

  8. Artificial intelligence and dynamic systems for geophysical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gvishiani, Alexei

    2002-01-01

    The book presents new clustering schemes, dynamical systems and pattern recognition algorithms in geophysical, geodynamical and natural hazard applications. The original mathematical technique is based on both classical and fuzzy sets models. Geophysical and natural hazard applications are mostly original. However, the artificial intelligence technique described in the book can be applied far beyond the limits of Earth science applications. The book is intended for research scientists, tutors, graduate students, scientists in geophysics and engineers

  9. Geophysical Limitations on the Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, L.; Van Hoolst, T.

    2015-10-01

    Planets are typically classified as potentially life-bearing planets (i.e. habitable planets) if they are rocky planets and if a liquid (e.g. water) could exist at the surface. The latter depends on several factors, like for example the amount of available solar energy, greenhouse effects in the atmosphere and an efficient CO2-cycle. However, the definition of the habitable zone should be updated to include possible geophy-sical constraints, that could potentially influence the CO2-cycle. Planets like Mars without plate tectonics and no or only limited volcanic events can only be considered to be habitable at the inner boundary of the habitable zone, since the greenhouse effect needed to ensure liquid surface water farther away from the sun is strongly reduced. We investigate how these geophysical processes depend on the mass and interior structure of terrestrial planets. We find that plate tectonics, if it occurs, always leads to sufficient volcanic outgassing and therefore greenhouse effect needed for the outer boundary of the habitable zone (several tens of bar CO2). One-plate planets, however, may suffer strong volcanic limitations if their mass and/or iron content exceeds a critical value, reducing their possible surface habitability.

  10. SIGKit: Software for Introductory Geophysics Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, S.; Bank, C. G.; Esmaeili, S.; Jazayeri, S.; Liu, S.; Stoikopoulos, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Software for Introductory Geophysics Toolkit (SIGKit) affords students the opportunity to create model data and perform simple processing of field data for various geophysical methods. SIGkit provides a graphical user interface built with the MATLAB programming language, but can run even without a MATLAB installation. At this time SIGkit allows students to pick first arrivals and match a two-layer model to seismic refraction data; grid total-field magnetic data, extract a profile, and compare this to a synthetic profile; and perform simple processing steps (subtraction of a mean trace, hyperbola fit) to ground-penetrating radar data. We also have preliminary tools for gravity, resistivity, and EM data representation and analysis. SIGkit is being built by students for students, and the intent of the toolkit is to provide an intuitive interface for simple data analysis and understanding of the methods, and act as an entrance to more sophisticated software. The toolkit has been used in introductory courses as well as field courses. First reactions from students are positive. Think-aloud observations of students using the toolkit have helped identify problems and helped shape it. We are planning to compare the learning outcomes of students who have used the toolkit in a field course to students in a previous course to test its effectiveness.

  11. Geophysical forecast: industry expects busy winter season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwick, J.

    1997-11-01

    Survey results by the Canadian Association of Geophysical Contractors were discussed. According to the survey, all of the sector`s 65 crews will be fully utilized this winter, although no activity records are expected. Charges are likely to be slightly higher than last year. At least some of the increase will go towards increased pay to attract more workers into the field in an effort to counter the labour shortage in the seismic industry. Contractors must compete with other sectors such as construction, which is booming as a result of Alberta`s burgeoning economy. The Slave Lake and Rocky Mountain House regions are expected to be the hottest in Alberta. Southeastern Saskatchewan also promises to be the site of increased activity due to the growing interest in the Red River oil play. Another reason for the increased activity may be the use of innovative technology such as that employed by Enertec Geophysical Service Limited. It will pilot-test its newly acquired PowerProbe technology, which is said to be able to immediately detect the presence of hydrocarbons.

  12. Geophysical investigation and characterization with USRADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, C.R.; Blair, M.S.; Nyquist, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes two recent case histories in which commercially available geophysical instruments were used with an innovative tracking and mapping system called USRADS (UltraSonic Ranging And Data System) that automates data location and collection. USRADS uses ultrasonics to provide real-time surveyor positioning and radio links to transmit the surveyor data to an on-site computer for storage and real-time display. USRADS uses a standard 386 computer for data collection and includes real-time color display of the findings. It also includes numerous analysis and display formats for on-site, as well as utilities to facilitate post-process analysis of the findings. The objective of one project was to locate several suspect waste disposal trenches and to map their boundaries. The second was to locate and map the presence of subsurface unexploded ordinance (UXO) at a suspect artillery impact area. A Geonics EM31 terrain conductivity meter interfaced to USRADS was used to map the suspect trenches. A Schonstedt GA-52C magnetometer interfaced to USRADS was used to map the subsurface UXO. Correlation of findings to known site features and additional knowledge about the sites indicates that these efforts did locate and map the geophysical features including the suspect waste trenches and the subsurface UXO. Images of the findings generated on-site and during post-processing are included

  13. Using Geophysical Data to Improve Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G. E.

    2002-12-01

    Although relatively few students will become professional geoscientists (i.e. producers of scientific information), essentially every student is a future consumer of scientific information. Government agencies, environmental organizations, businesses, and special interest groups use scientific arguments to set policy, create legislation, and develop international agreements. Often, decisions must be made even though the data are incomplete, ambiguous, or contradictory. In addition, such decisions frequently have severe social, economic, and political consequences. At Princeton University, we have developed courses designed to make students sophisticated consumers of scientific information. The courses are among the most popular and top rated courses in the University. Through a series of actual case studies that use geophysical data, students learn how to make decisions using scientific information in concert with engineering, economic, political, and social considerations. For each issue, they analyze the scientific arguments, evaluate the geophysical data upon which they are based, and determine the scientific credibility, political feasibility, and economic consequences of the various options. The class's actions are then compared against those of the actual decision-makers, and the accuracy of their predictions is evaluated against the outcome. Students gain first-hand experience with concepts such as valid inference, representative sampling, boundary values, and data discrimination.

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of geophysical disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters of all kinds (meteorological, hydrological, geophysical, climatological and biological are increasingly becoming part of everyday life of modern human. The consequences are often devastating, to the life, health and property of people, as well to the security of states and the entire international regions. In this regard, we noted the need for a comprehensive investigation of the phenomenology of natural disasters. In addition, it is particularly important to pay attention to the different factors that might correlate with each other to indicate more dubious and more original facts about their characteristics. However, as the issue of natural disasters is very wide, the subject of this paper will be forms, consequences, temporal and spatial distribution of geophysical natural disasters, while analysis of other disasters will be the subject of our future research. Using an international database on natural disasters of the centre for research on the epidemiology of disasters (CRED based in Brussels, with the support of the statistical analysis (SPSS, we tried to point out the number, trends, consequences, the spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and dry mass movements in the world, from 1900 to 2013.

  15. Nuclear geophysics for studying oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, F.A.; Golovatskaya, I.V.; Gulin, Yu.A.; Dvorkin, I.L.; Dyad'kin, I.G.; Srebrodol'skij, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the theory of nuclear geophysics and analytical methods to be used in the study of neutron and gamma-quantum fields. The following questions of nuclear geology are discussed: the regularities of radioactive element distributions in oil/gas bearing sedimentary deposits of oils and underground waters; applications of natural gamma-radiation spectrometry in the study of sedimentary processes and etc. Also described are the nuclear geophysics stationary methods (gamma-logging, gamma-gamma-logging, neutron logging) to be followed when developing geological documentation for borehole profiles; the use and efficiency of stationary and impulse techniques in monitoring an oil minig in different geological/technical conditions; the technique to be used for an additional prospecting of layers (carbonate, primarily) in old cased-off holes; the methods to be used in performing a quality inspection of pipe casing cementation and making measurements of their inner diameter and wall thickness. The investigation technique data are provided to examine boreholes with the aid of radioactive isotopes

  16. Geophysical investigations of the Romuvaara area, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.; Paananen, M.

    1991-06-01

    In the study area of Romuvaara, investigations have been carried out during 1987 - 90 with the aim of finding out whether the polyphasically deformed Precambrian gneiss complex is suitable for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The bedrock has been studied by geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods. Airborne, ground and borehole geophysical surveys were used in studying the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre. Airborne surveys (magnetic, radiometric and two electromagnetic methods) and ground surveys (VLF and VLF-R, magnetic and soil radar methods) were useful in distinguishing the metadiabases, amphibolites and granodiorites from the less magnetized migmatites. The electromagnetic and seismic refraction surveys were used in locating crushed and fractured zones. The rock type distribution was studied by single-hole logging of susceptibility, natural γ radiation and radiometric γ-γ -density. Electrical and acoustic logging served the mapping of fractures and the interpretation of water injection tests. The flow conditions in the boreholes were studied by fluid logging and tube-wave sounding. The rock volume surrounding the boreholes was mapped by borehole radar with a frequency of 22 MHz. The upper parts of the boreholes were also studied by vertical radar profiling (VRP). Larger volumes of rock were mapped by vertical seismic profiling (VSP) using 4 - 5 transmitter shotholes per borehole

  17. Applications of geophysics to LLRW sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olhoeft, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    There are many geophysical techniques which noninvasively acquire information about hazardous waste sites. Waste buried in metal drums can be located using magnetic and electromagnetic methods. Ground penetrating radar can provide detailed cross-sectional imagery of the ground to locate metallic and nonmetallic objects, and to delineate water tables and geologic structure. Complex resistivity can locate clay horizons or clay liners and detect organic reactions that may increase the permeability of the clay. Seismic refraction and reflection techniques can detail hydrology and stratigraphy. Microgravity techniques can find local density anomalies that may indicate voids or future subsidence problems. Radiometric techniques can directly detect near-surface radioisotope migration. Nothing works all the time, however. Magnetics cannot detect a badly corroded drum. Complex resistivity cannot detect clay-organic reactions if there are no clays. Ground penetrating radar cannot penetrate high conductivity or high clay content soils. Seismic cannot penetrate loose fill. Each technique has advantages and disadvantages inherent to the method and equipment as well as limitations imposed by the geohydrology at the site of application. Examples from both the Radioactive Waste and Hazardous Chemical Waste programs illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of geophysical methods

  18. New perspectives on superparameterization for geophysical turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majda, Andrew J.; Grooms, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This is a research expository paper regarding superparameterization, a class of multi-scale numerical methods designed to cope with the intermittent multi-scale effects of inhomogeneous geophysical turbulence where energy often inverse-cascades from the unresolved scales to the large scales through the effects of waves, jets, vortices, and latent heat release from moist processes. Original as well as sparse space–time superparameterization algorithms are discussed for the important case of moist atmospheric convection including the role of multi-scale asymptotic methods in providing self-consistent constraints on superparameterization algorithms and related deterministic and stochastic multi-cloud parameterizations. Test models for the statistical numerical analysis of superparameterization algorithms are discussed both to elucidate the performance of the basic algorithms and to test their potential role in efficient multi-scale data assimilation. The very recent development of grid-free seamless stochastic superparameterization methods for geophysical turbulence appropriate for “eddy-permitting” mesoscale ocean turbulence is presented here including a general formulation and illustrative applications to two-layer quasigeostrophic turbulence, and another difficult test case involving one-dimensional models of dispersive wave turbulence. This last test case has randomly generated solitons as coherent structures which collapse and radiate wave energy back to the larger scales, resulting in strong direct and inverse turbulent energy cascades

  19. Geophysical mapping of palsa peatland permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Y.; Marklund, P.; Pettersson, R.; Lyon, S. W.

    2015-03-01

    Permafrost peatlands are hydrological and biogeochemical hotspots in the discontinuous permafrost zone. Non-intrusive geophysical methods offer a possibility to map current permafrost spatial distributions in these environments. In this study, we estimate the depths to the permafrost table and base across a peatland in northern Sweden, using ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography. Seasonal thaw frost tables (at ~0.5 m depth), taliks (2.1-6.7 m deep), and the permafrost base (at ~16 m depth) could be detected. Higher occurrences of taliks were discovered at locations with a lower relative height of permafrost landforms, which is indicative of lower ground ice content at these locations. These results highlight the added value of combining geophysical techniques for assessing spatial distributions of permafrost within the rapidly changing sporadic permafrost zone. For example, based on a back-of-the-envelope calculation for the site considered here, we estimated that the permafrost could thaw completely within the next 3 centuries. Thus there is a clear need to benchmark current permafrost distributions and characteristics, particularly in under studied regions of the pan-Arctic.

  20. Geophysics From Terrestrial Time-Variable Gravity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Michel; de Viron, Olivier; Watlet, Arnaud; Meurers, Bruno; Francis, Olivier; Caudron, Corentin

    2017-12-01

    In a context of global change and increasing anthropic pressure on the environment, monitoring the Earth system and its evolution has become one of the key missions of geosciences. Geodesy is the geoscience that measures the geometric shape of the Earth, its orientation in space, and gravity field. Time-variable gravity, because of its high accuracy, can be used to build an enhanced picture and understanding of the changing Earth. Ground-based gravimetry can determine the change in gravity related to the Earth rotation fluctuation, to celestial body and Earth attractions, to the mass in the direct vicinity of the instruments, and to vertical displacement of the instrument itself on the ground. In this paper, we review the geophysical questions that can be addressed by ground gravimeters used to monitor time-variable gravity. This is done in relation to the instrumental characteristics, noise sources, and good practices. We also discuss the next challenges to be met by ground gravimetry, the place that terrestrial gravimetry should hold in the Earth observation system, and perspectives and recommendations about the future of ground gravity instrumentation.

  1. Digital Underground (Shh. It's really Applied Geophysics!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, B. G.

    2003-12-01

    Digital Underground (Geology/Physics 241) at Vassar College is an applied geophysics course designed for a liberal arts curriculum, and has nothing to do with Shock G and Tupac Shakur. Applied geophysics courses have a history of using geophysical methods on environmental contamination-type applications (underground storage tanks, leach fields, etc.). Inspired in large part by the Keck Geology Consortium project run by Franklin and Marshall College geophysicist (Robert Sternberg) and archaeologist (James Delle) in an old slave village in Jamaica in 1999, this class examines the history of slavery in New York's Hudson Valley region by way of its forgotten African-American graveyards. This multidisciplinary approach to an issue draws students from across the curriculum- we have had our compliments of geologists and physicists, along with students from sociology, environmental studies, history, and Africana studies. The name of the class and content are designed to attract a non-traditional student of geophysics.- The project-based nature of the class appeals to student yearning for an out-of-classroom experience. The uncontrolled nature of the class demonstrates the complications that occur in real-word situations. The class has in the past broken itself into two teams- a surveying team and an archival research team. Archival research is done (usually by the social scientists in the class) to add a human dimension to the geophysical. The surveying equipment used in delineating these forgotten graveyards includes a Total Station surveyor, an electrical resistivity meter, a magnetometer, and a ground penetrating radar. All students must have a rudimentary understanding of the physics behind the equipment (to the level of where they can explain it to the general public), and the methods used by those studying the archives. This is a project-based class, where the instructor acts as a project manager, and the students make the decisions regarding the survey itself. Every

  2. GPR survey, as one of the best geophysical methods for social and industrial needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Anatolii

    2016-04-01

    This paper is about ways and methods of applying non-invasive geophysical method - Ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey in different spheres of science, industry, social life and culture. Author would like to show that geological methods could be widely used for solving great variety of industrial, human safety and other problems. In that article, we take GPR survey as an example of such useful geophysical methods. It is a fact that investigation of near surface underground medium is important process, which influence on development of different spheres of science and social life: investigation of near surface geology (layering, spreading of rock types, identification of voids, etc.), hydrogeology (depth to water horizons, their thickness), preparation step for construction of roads and buildings (civil geology, engineering geology), investigation of cultural heritage (burial places, building remains,...), ecological investigations (land slides, variation in underground water level, etc.), glaciology. These tasks can be solved by geological methods, but as usual, geophysical survey takes a lot of time and energy (especially electric current and resistivity methods, seismic survey). Author claims that GPR survey can be performed faster than other geophysical surveys and results of GPR survey are informative enough to make proper conclusions. Some problems even cannot be solved without GPR. For example, identification of burial place (one of author's research objects): results of magnetic and electric resistivity tomography survey do not contain enough information to identify burial place, but according to anomalies on GPR survey radarograms, presence of burial place can be proven. Identification of voids and non-magnetic objects also hardly can be done by another non-invasive geophysics surveys and GPR is applicable for that purpose. GPR can be applied for monitoring of dangerous processes in geological medium under roads, buildings, parks and other places of human

  3. GEO activities towards improved Geophysical monitoring. A key input to Disaster Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achache, J.; Rum, G.

    2007-05-01

    GEO has been established in 2005 with the main objective to put in place a Global, Coordinated, Comprehensive and Sustained System of Observing Systems (GEOSS) to serve 9 Social Benefit Areas, among which Disaster Risk Reduction. The paper will first set up the reference GEO framework, through a brief description of GEOSS key features, architectural functions and capacity building, and then will recall the value of the Geophysical observations, coming both from in situ and remote (satellite) systems, and, even more important, of their integration. GEO activities related to Geophysical monitoring and the use of related observation to foster social benefits in the Disaster Risk Reduction area will then be shortly described, together with the on-going key actions, including specific examples on key scientific/technical and data sharing aspects associated to GEOSS implementation. Special attention will be devoted on how Capacity Building strategy and activities are addressed through GEOSS development, building on infrastructure and programs under consolidation within GEO framework, such as the GEOSS Information collection and dissemination systems under development (GEONETCast, GEO Web Portal, GEO Clearinghouse) and the UN programs such as SPIDER (SPace based Information for Disaster management and Emergency Response) and UNOSAT. The paper will provide recommendations on the way forward for the implementation of Disaster Risk Management provisions as an integral part of sustainable development, also with the objective of creating within GEO a supporting framework to UNDP and World Bank activities on Risk Identification and Assessment.

  4. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  5. Building calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Christian; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion......Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion...

  6. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  7. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Ouden, C.; Steemers, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  8. Auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, I.; Lestyan, E.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear power station represents a complicated and a particular industrial project. Consequently, the design of the auxiliary buildings serving the power station (offices, kitchen, refreshment room, workshops, depots, water treatment plant building, boiler houses, etc.) requires more attention than usual. This chapter gives a short survey of the auxiliary buildings already completed and discusses the problems of their design, location and structure. (author)

  9. Using Grand Challenges For Innovative Teaching in Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wysession, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    An innovative approach to teaching involves using the "Big Ideas" or "Grand Challenges" of a field, as determined by the research community in that area, as the basis for classroom activities. There have been several recent efforts in the areas of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics to determine these Grand Challenges, including the areas of seismology ("Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems"), mineral physics ("Unlocking the Building Blocks of the Planet"), EarthScope-related science ("Unlocking the Secrets of the North American Continent: An EarthScope Science Plan for 2010-2020"), and structural geology and tectonics (at the Structural Geology and Tectonics Forum held at Williams College in June, 2012). These research community efforts produced frameworks of the essential information for their fields with the aim of guiding future research. An integral part of this, however, is training the next generation of scientists, and using these Big Ideas as the basis for course structures and activities is a powerful way to make this happen. When activities, labs, and homeworks are drawn from relevant and cutting-edge research topics, students can find the material more fascinating and engaging, and can develop a better sense of the dynamic process of scientific discovery. Many creative ideas for incorporating the Grand Challenges of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics in the classroom were developed at a Cutting Edge workshop on "Teaching Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics in the 21st Century" held at the University of Tennessee in July, 2012.

  10. Educational Geophysics at INGV, Rome (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dida Working Group Ingv,.

    2002-12-01

    Italy is a country prone to Earth phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods and landslides that left a trace in the memory of people. About 60% of the Italian territory is classified in the current seismic hazard maps, and large cities as Neaples and Catania are located close to the two largest active volcanoes of Europe (Mt. Vesuvius and Mt. Etna, respectively). Nevertheless, school programs are often inadequate about the natural hazards of the country. For this reason there are many requests from schoolteachers to visit with their classes the academic Institutions and to attend geophysical talks. The working group for educational activities of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica and Vulcanologia promotes and realizes Earth science outreach programs devoted to increase the knowledge of geophysical topics. The educational activity is one of the most important tasks of our Institution together with the research activities and the 24-hours survey of the Italian Seismic Network. The INGV hosts in its headquarter of Rome many visits of primary, secondary and high schools with an increasing demand year by year. Every year about 3,000 students visit our Institute over more than 60 open-days, and we participate to exhibitions and outreach projects organized by several Institutions. We show here what has been done at INGV for the geophysical education, underlining the problems and the successes of these activities. We describe also an educational project developed together with a teacher's team of secondary-school. Aim of this experience was to stimulate the interest of 12-year-old kids to unfamiliar arguments like seismology. The class was introduced to physical topics as waves and wave propagation by means of simple experiments. Then they visited the INGV were the research activities were shown, with emphasis on seismological studies; they were also thought how the Italian Seismic Network monitors earthquakes and how to use the P and S waves for their

  11. Geophysical subsurface imaging and interface identification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendley, Kevin; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Day, David Minot; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Weiss, Chester Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Electromagnetic induction is a classic geophysical exploration method designed for subsurface characterization--in particular, sensing the presence of geologic heterogeneities and fluids such as groundwater and hydrocarbons. Several approaches to the computational problems associated with predicting and interpreting electromagnetic phenomena in and around the earth are addressed herein. Publications resulting from the project include [31]. To obtain accurate and physically meaningful numerical simulations of natural phenomena, computational algorithms should operate in discrete settings that reflect the structure of governing mathematical models. In section 2, the extension of algebraic multigrid methods for the time domain eddy current equations to the frequency domain problem is discussed. Software was developed and is available in Trilinos ML package. In section 3 we consider finite element approximations of De Rham's complex. We describe how to develop a family of finite element spaces that forms an exact sequence on hexahedral grids. The ensuing family of non-affine finite elements is called a van Welij complex, after the work [37] of van Welij who first proposed a general method for developing tangentially and normally continuous vector fields on hexahedral elements. The use of this complex is illustrated for the eddy current equations and a conservation law problem. Software was developed and is available in the Ptenos finite element package. The more popular methods of geophysical inversion seek solutions to an unconstrained optimization problem by imposing stabilizing constraints in the form of smoothing operators on some enormous set of model parameters (i.e. ''over-parametrize and regularize''). In contrast we investigate an alternative approach whereby sharp jumps in material properties are preserved in the solution by choosing as model parameters a modest set of variables which describe an interface between adjacent regions in

  12. Modeling and Evaluation of Geophysical Methods for Monitoring and Tracking CO2 Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Jeff

    2012-11-30

    Geological sequestration has been proposed as a viable option for mitigating the vast amount of CO{sub 2} being released into the atmosphere daily. Test sites for CO{sub 2} injection have been appearing across the world to ascertain the feasibility of capturing and sequestering carbon dioxide. A major concern with full scale implementation is monitoring and verifying the permanence of injected CO{sub 2}. Geophysical methods, an exploration industry standard, are non-invasive imaging techniques that can be implemented to address that concern. Geophysical methods, seismic and electromagnetic, play a crucial role in monitoring the subsurface pre- and post-injection. Seismic techniques have been the most popular but electromagnetic methods are gaining interest. The primary goal of this project was to develop a new geophysical tool, a software program called GphyzCO2, to investigate the implementation of geophysical monitoring for detecting injected CO{sub 2} at test sites. The GphyzCO2 software consists of interconnected programs that encompass well logging, seismic, and electromagnetic methods. The software enables users to design and execute 3D surface-to-surface (conventional surface seismic) and borehole-to-borehole (cross-hole seismic and electromagnetic methods) numerical modeling surveys. The generalized flow of the program begins with building a complex 3D subsurface geological model, assigning properties to the models that mimic a potential CO{sub 2} injection site, numerically forward model a geophysical survey, and analyze the results. A test site located in Warren County, Ohio was selected as the test site for the full implementation of GphyzCO2. Specific interest was placed on a potential reservoir target, the Mount Simon Sandstone, and cap rock, the Eau Claire Formation. Analysis of the test site included well log data, physical property measurements (porosity), core sample resistivity measurements, calculating electrical permittivity values, seismic data

  13. Integrated, flexible, and rapid geophysical surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Thompson, M.D.; Tome, C.

    1993-01-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), in the state of Maryland (Figure 1), is currently managing a comprehensive Installation Restoration Program involving more than 360 solid-waste managing units contained within 13 study areas. The Edgewood area and two landfills in the Aberdeen area appear on the National Priority List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Therefore, APG has entered into an interagency agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency to address the listed areas. The West Branch of the Canal Creek area (Figure 1), located within the Edgewood area, is one of the areas that requires a Source Definition Study because there is an ongoing release of volatile organic compounds into the creek. A report prepared by EAI Corporation (1989) included a list of 29 potentially contaminated buildings in the Edgewood area. Sixteen of the buildings contain known contaminants, nine buildings contain unknown contaminants, and four of the buildings are potentially clean. The EAI report recommended that a sampling and monitoring program be established to verify contamination levels in and around each building. Thirteen of the potentially contaminated buildings are in the West Branch of the Canal Creek area and are potential sources of volatile organic compounds. Operations have ceased and the buildings have been abandoned, but processing equipment, sumps, drains, ventilation systems, and underground storage tanks remain. These appurtenances may contain liquid, solid, or vapor contaminants of unknown nature

  14. Overview of Effective Geophysical Methods Used in the Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    combined data analysis techniques as a means to enhance the characterization effort. In addition, it is ... coincided with improvements in the resolution, acquisition and interpretation of. Geophysical Data. This process is ongoing; therefore, outlines of Geophysical. Techniques .... vibrations, large line lengths are needed.

  15. Solar Wind Monitor--A School Geophysics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Described is an established geophysics project to construct a solar wind monitor based on a nT resolution fluxgate magnetometer. Low-cost and appropriate from school to university level it incorporates elements of astrophysics, geophysics, electronics, programming, computer networking and signal processing. The system monitors the earth's field in…

  16. Rožňava ore field - geophysical works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géczy Július

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The article prowides a review of geophysical works in the ore field Rožňava conducted up to date. Magnetometric and geoelectric methods and gravimetric measurements have been used. Geophysical works were focused to the solving regional problems whose contribution to the prospecting of vein deposits is not essential.

  17. Introduction to the JEEG Agricultural Geophysics special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advancements such as the availability of personal computers, technologies to store/process large amounts of data, the GPS, and GIS have now made geophysical methods practical for agricultural use. Consequently, there has been a rapid expansion of agricultural geophysics research just over the...

  18. Avalanches in functional materials and geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Avadh; Planes, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    This book provides the state-of-the art of the present understanding of avalanche phenomena in both functional materials and geophysics. The main emphasis of the book is analyzing these apparently different problems within the common perspective of out-of-equilibrium phenomena displaying spatial and temporal complexity that occur in a broad range of scales. Many systems, when subjected to an external force, respond intermittently in the form of avalanches that often span over a wide range of sizes, energies and durations. This is often related to a class of critical behavior characterized by the absence of characteristic scales. Typical examples are magnetization processes, plastic deformation and failure occuring in functional materials. These phenomena share many similarities with seismicity arising from the earth crust failure due to stresses that originate from plate tectonics.

  19. Geophysical examinations of deposits and old sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Geomagnetic total field measurements by proton magnetometers with memories form the systematic exploration of suspected surfaces of old sites and old sites of an important, flexible and reasonably priced geophysical process. From experience, there are two important main applications. These are firstly the detailed work on location problems jointly with and supplementing multi-temporal evaluations of the air picture and secondly to locate iron in deposits. The particular advantage of geo-magnetics is that even in the most difficult measurement conditions, with the aid of the suitable analytical method evaluation, clear results and practically usable information can be obtained. In comparison with this, other high resolution methods of measurement, such as electromagnetic charting, for example (problem of integral anomaly pictures which cannot be evaluated) and geo-radar (loam covering, trickled water saturation) are limited to a considerably narrower measurement and evaluation spectrum in practical applications. (orig.) [de

  20. Multigroup neutron data base for nuclear geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworak, D.; Loskiewicz, J.

    1989-01-01

    The average group constants for the total, elastic, inelastic and capture cross sections as well as the average cosine of the scattering angle for elastic scattering and the average logarithmic energy decrement for elastic scattering have been obtained at two temperatures (300 and 400 deg K), using the ENDF/B-4 data and the IAEA-NDS pre-processing codes. The extended Abagyan group structure and the weighting spectrum of type 1/E were applied in course of the calculations. Self-shielding effect was not taken into account. All cross sections were Doppler broadened for both, 300 and 400 deg K temperatures. Under above assumptions, the average group constants were obtained for exactly 22 ENDF materials, which are of special importance for nuclear geophysics applications. 10 refs., 15 figs., 44 tabs. (author)

  1. Cosmic Muon Detection for Geophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Oláh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A portable cosmic muon detector has been developed for environmental, geophysical, or industrial applications. The device is a tracking detector based on the Close Cathode Chamber, an MWPC-like technology, allowing operation in natural underground caves or artificial tunnels, far from laboratory conditions. The compact, low power consumption system with sensitive surface of 0.1 m2 measures the angular distribution of cosmic muons with a resolution of 10 mrad, allowing for a detailed mapping of the rock thickness above the muon detector. Demonstration of applicability of the muon telescope (REGARD Muontomograph for civil engineering and measurements in artificial underground tunnels or caverns are presented.

  2. The geology and geophysics of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The current state of knowledge concerning the regional geology and geophysics of Mars is summarized. Telescopic observations of the planet are reviewed, pre-Mariner models of its interior are discussed, and progress achieved with the Mariner flybys, especially that of Mariner 9, is noted. A map of the Martian geological provinces is presented to provide a summary of the surface geology and morphology. The contrast between the northern and southern hemispheres is pointed out, and the characteristic features of the surface are described in detail. The global topography of the planet is examined along with its gravitational field, gravity anomalies, and moment of inertia. The general sequence of events in Martian geological history is briefly outlined.

  3. Geophysical methods in radon risk studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocka, Malgorzata; Kotyrba, Andrzej; Chalupnik, Stanislaw; Skowronek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The results of the studies presented in the paper have shown that in the Upper Silesian Region in Poland, radon indoor concentration levels depend first of all on the geological structure of the subsurface layers. The essential factors influencing radon migration ability are the mining-induced transformations of a rock mass. In some cases, significant variations of radon potential have been found at sites featuring similar geological structures and experiencing comparable mining effects. To find out the causes of these variations, studies involving geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity profiling (PE) and electrical resisitivity sounding (VES) were used. These studies have shown that the measurements made using the electrical resistivity method can be helpful in evaluating radon potential of both the tectonically disturbed areas and the mining-transformed ones.

  4. Geophysical characterization of contaminated muddy sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, I. R.; English, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    A non-intrusive, seismic subbottom profile survey of pond sediments was conducted on a former U.S.Naval Facility at Argentia, Newfoundland, to characterize the nature and extent of contamination. An IKB Seistec boomer was used in conjunction with C-CORE's HI-DAPT digital data acquisition and processing system and differential GPS system. The survey was successful in locating regions of soft muddy sediments and in determining the thickness of these deposits. Subsurface buried objects, which are potential sources of pollution, were also identified. Intrusive profiling of the sediment was done with a new tool, the Soil Stiffness Probe, which combines two geophysical measurement systems to determine bulk density and shear stiffness. The muddy sediments were found to be highly 'fluidized', indicating that they could be easily removed with a suction dredge. 4 refs., 5 figs

  5. Symmetries in geology and geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Donald L.; Newman, William I.

    1996-01-01

    Symmetries have played an important role in a variety of problems in geology and geophysics. A large fraction of studies in mineralogy are devoted to the symmetry properties of crystals. In this paper, however, the emphasis will be on scale-invariant (fractal) symmetries. The earth’s topography is an example of both statistically self-similar and self-affine fractals. Landforms are also associated with drainage networks, which are statistical fractal trees. A universal feature of drainage networks and other growth networks is side branching. Deterministic space-filling networks with side-branching symmetries are illustrated. It is shown that naturally occurring drainage networks have symmetries similar to diffusion-limited aggregation clusters. PMID:11607719

  6. Geophysical couples” Discuss jobs, marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some 90 participants attended an open forum, “Dual Career Couples: Challenges and Opportunities,” on December 9 at the AGU Fall 1991 Meeting in San Francisco. Several couples summarized their experiences in “geophysical marriages” while the audience contributed questions and comments.Being forced to live apart was a common complaint among the married panelists. One couple on the panel—Karen Prestegaard of the University of Maryland and Jim Luhr of the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Mineral Physics—have been able to live together only 2 years out of the last 10. Although employer guidelines do not officially prohibit hiring couples, Prestegaard and Luhr expressed frustration that many institutions not only will not do so, but also will not help the second partner find a job nearby.

  7. Applied Geophysics Opportunities in the Petroleum Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgaard, D. L.; Tikku, A.; Roberts, J. C.; Martinez, A.

    2012-12-01

    Meeting the increasing global demand for energy over the next several decades presents daunting challenges to engineers and scientists, including geoscientists of all disciplines. Many opportunities exist for geophysicists to find and produce oil and gas in a safe, environmentally responsible and affordable manner. Successful oil and gas exploration involves a 'Plates to Pores' approach that integrates multi-scale data from satellites, marine and land seismic and non-seismic field surveys, lab experiments, and even electron microscopy. The petroleum industry is at the forefront of using high performance computing to develop innovative methods to process and analyze large volumes of seismic data and perform realistic numerical modeling, such as finite element fluid flow and rock deformation simulations. Challenging and rewarding jobs in exploration, production and research exist for students with BS/BA, MS and PhD degrees. Geophysics students interested in careers in the petroleum industry should have a broad foundation in science, math and fundamental geosciences at the BS/BA level, as well as mastery of the scientific method, usually gained through thesis work at MS and PhD levels. Field geology or geophysics experience is also valuable. Other personal attributes typical for geoscientists to be successful in industry include a passion for solving complex geoscience problems, the flexibility to work on a variety of assignments throughout a career and skills such as teamwork, communication, integration and leadership. In this presentation we will give examples of research, exploration and production opportunities for geophysicists in petroleum companies and compare and contrast careers in academia vs. industry.

  8. When tsunamology and geophysics clash, throw geophysics in the trash (Sergey Soloviev Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synolakis, Costas

    2014-05-01

    Tsunami science has evolved differently from research on other extreme natural hazards, primarily because of the unavailability, until recently, of instrumental recordings of tsunamis in the open ocean. Recordings and observations have catapulted tsunamology into a rapidly evolving high-interdisciplinary field spanning geology, geophysics, oceanography, coastal engineering, hydrodynamics and social science. I will discuss progress in tsunami geology and geophysics in the past thirty years, and describe the evolution of numerical codes and analytical results. I will describe field observations which, while counter-intuitive at first, they later helped explain complex dynamics and assisted us in improving tsunami hazard mitigation. While the grand science synthesis remains elusive, we are converging to where we can reduce tsunami-related fatalities and injuries by about one half in the next few years.

  9. The Run-up to Volcanic Eruption Unveiled by Forensic Petrology and Geophysical Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, D. J.; Plank, T. A.; Roman, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanoes often warn of impending eruptions. However, one of the greatest challenges in volcano research is translating precursory geophysical signals into physical magmatic processes. Petrology offers powerful tools to study eruption run-up that benefit from direct response to magmatic forcings. Developing these tools, and tying them to geophysical observations, will help us identify eruption triggers (e.g., magmatic recharge, gas build-up, tectonic events) and understand the significance of monitored signals of unrest. We present an overview of petrologic tools used for studying eruption run-up, highlighting results from our study of the 1999 eruption of Shishaldin volcano. Olivine crystals contain chemical gradients, the consequence of diffusion following magma mixing events, which is modeled to determine mixing timescales. Modeled timescales provide strong evidence for at least three mixing events, which were triggered by magmatic recharge. Petrologic barometers indicate these events occurred at very shallow depths (within the volcanic edifice). The first mixing event occurred nine months before eruption, which was signaled by a swarm of deep-long period earthquake. Minor recharge events followed over two months, which are indicated by a second deep-long period earthquake swarm and a change in the local stress orientation measured by shear-wave splitting. Following these events, the system was relatively quiet until a large mixing event occurred 45 days prior to eruption, which was heralded by a large earthquake (M5.2). Following this event, geophysical signals of unrest intensified and became continuous. The final mixing event, beginning roughly a week before eruption, represents the final perturbation to the system before eruption. Our findings point to a relatively long run-up, which was subtle at first and intensified several weeks before eruption. This study highlights the strong link between geophysical signals of volcanic unrest and magmatic events, and

  10. Near-surface geophysical investigations inside the cloister of an historical palace in Lecce, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, L.; Quarta, T.

    2009-04-01

    Near-surface geophysics can play a major role in the framework of the Cultural Heritages diagnostics as the recourse to non-invasive geophysical methods is usually the only way to gain information on subsurface properties that can affect the stability of historical structures and accelerate degradation processes. In most cases the deterioration of ancient buildings is due to various causes: external, such as pollution, biological degradation and adverse climatic or microclimatic conditions; internal, such as a particular geological or hydro-geological setting or a combination of both. Therefore, being able to discriminate between the different sources and to identify the main process of decay becomes essential for the development of effective remediation actions. The present case study shows the main results of an integrated geophysical campaign performed inside the cloister of an important palace in Lecce, Southern Italy, in order to investigate the possible subsurface causes of deterioration affecting its pillars and walls and, more importantly, some altars of the annexed church. The historical building, named Palazzo dei Celestini, was formerly a monastery directly connected to the Basilica of Santa Croce and nowadays is the head office of the Province of Lecce Administration and the Prefecture. With its rich baroque façade, Palazzo dei Celestini and Santa Croce is the most famous architectural complex of the historical centre of Lecce. Its foundations generally rest on a very shallow and sometimes outcropping wet calcarenitic basement, evidenced by previous geophysical surveys performed in the nearby. The high capillarity of the local fine-grained calcarenitic stone used as building and ornamental material for the historical complex was thought to be responsible for the deterioration problems evidenced at some altars of the church and in the lower portion of the walls and pillars of the palace, although a previous microclimatic study inside the Basilica had

  11. Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course Offered by The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, D.; Davis, M. B.; Allison, M. A.; Gulick, S. P.; Goff, J. A.; Saustrup, S.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers an intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. Now in year six, the course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization. Techniques covered include high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples (e.g., core description, grain size analysis, x-radiography, etc.). Students participate in an initial period of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area (which changes each year) along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. Our field sites at Port Aransas and Galveston, Texas, and Grand Isle, Louisiana, have provided ideal locations for students to investigate coastal and sedimentary processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf through application of geophysical techniques. In the field, students rotate between two research vessels: one vessel, the 22' aluminum-hulled R/V Lake Itasca, owned and operated by UTIG, is used principally for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA's R/V Manta or the R/V Acadiana, operated by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, and is used primarily for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibrocoring. While at sea, students assist with survey design, learn instrumentation set up, acquisition parameters, data quality control, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval. In teams of three, students work in onshore field labs preparing sediment samples for

  12. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available have controllable internal blinds and external solar shading which can be used to maximise internal daylight quality and avoid glare and solar gain. • Ecological: Green building envelopes aim to support the development of ecosystems and plant... problems such as large solar heat gains which can only be solved through mechanical plant. • Large sections: 1:10 sections of building envelopes are very useful in understanding the design of a building envelope and should be developed early...

  13. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  14. National Geophysical Data Center Tsunami Data Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroker, K. J.; Dunbar, P. K.; Brocko, R.

    2008-12-01

    NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Center for Geophysics and Marine Geology long-term tsunami data archive provides data and derived products essential for tsunami hazard assessment, forecast and warning, inundation modeling, preparedness, mitigation, education, and research. As a result of NOAA's efforts to strengthen its tsunami activities, the long-term tsunami data archive has grown from less than 5 gigabyte in 2004 to more than 2 terabytes in 2008. The types of data archived for tsunami research and operation activities have also expanded in fulfillment of the P.L. 109-424. The archive now consists of: global historical tsunami, significant earthquake and significant volcanic eruptions database; global tsunami deposits and proxies database; reference database; damage photos; coastal water-level data (i.e. digital tide gauge data and marigrams on microfiche); bottom pressure recorder (BPR) data as collected by Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys. The tsunami data archive comes from a wide variety of data providers and sources. These include the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers, NOAA National Data Buoy Center, NOAA National Ocean Service, IOC/NOAA International Tsunami Information Center, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Geological Survey, tsunami catalogs, reconnaissance reports, journal articles, newspaper articles, internet web pages, and email. NGDC has been active in the management of some of these data for more than 50 years while other data management efforts are more recent. These data are openly available, either directly on-line or by contacting NGDC. All of the NGDC tsunami and related databases are stored in a relational database management system. These data are accessible over the Web as tables, reports, and interactive maps. The maps provide integrated web-based GIS access to individual GIS layers including tsunami sources, tsunami effects, significant earthquakes

  15. Report of the Cerro Chato ultrabasic geophysical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.; Mari, C.; Lema, F.; Valverde, C.; Haut, R.

    1987-01-01

    This report refers to the obtained results of geophysical practiced during the year 1985 in the area of the ultrabasic of Cerro Chato, located in the area called Puntas del Malbajar in Durazno province. The aim was rehearsed an answer of an ultrabasic behaviour of the geophysical prospecting methods.They were carried out studies in magnetometry, induced polarization, electromagnetism and resistivity measurements in electric vertical sound. As well conclusions as recommendations express that applied geophysical methods allow to make ultrabasic charts or maps.

  16. TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN GEOPHYSICAL FIELDS AND EARTHQUAKE FORECASTING ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Parovyshny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the experimental long-term monitoring programme are presented. It is aimed at studying natural geophysical fields located above the gas deposit in the zone impacted by the active regional fault, and its objectives are to reveal how such fields are changing with time and to establish a relationship between the temporal changes and seismicity. According to the database it determines several typical indicators of variations in the geophysical fields, which take place only above the gas deposit. It is concluded that periods, when natural geophysical fields located above the gas deposit are unstable, are preceding the final phase of preparation of seismic events.

  17. Geophysical phenomena classification by artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, M. P.; Bruckner, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Space science information systems involve accessing vast data bases. There is a need for an automatic process by which properties of the whole data set can be assimilated and presented to the user. Where data are in the form of spectrograms, phenomena can be detected by pattern recognition techniques. Presented are the first results obtained by applying unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN's) to the classification of magnetospheric wave spectra. The networks used here were a simple unsupervised Hamming network run on a PC and a more sophisticated CALM network run on a Sparc workstation. The ANN's were compared in their geophysical data recognition performance. CALM networks offer such qualities as fast learning, superiority in generalizing, the ability to continuously adapt to changes in the pattern set, and the possibility to modularize the network to allow the inter-relation between phenomena and data sets. This work is the first step toward an information system interface being developed at Sussex, the Whole Information System Expert (WISE). Phenomena in the data are automatically identified and provided to the user in the form of a data occurrence morphology, the Whole Information System Data Occurrence Morphology (WISDOM), along with relationships to other parameters and phenomena.

  18. Geophysical constraints on Washington convergent margin structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, C.

    1990-01-01

    Gravity and magnetic maps of western Washington reveal the lateral structure and fabric of the Washington Coast Range, Puget Basin, and southern Washington Cascade Range. Two-dimensional gravity and magnetic modeling constrained with geological and other geophysical data indicate that the Coast Range Province rocks are about 1 km thick at the coast, thickening to as much as 30 km near their postulated eastern edge. A composition largely of basalt and gabbro with little interbedded sediments is suggested. Under these rocks may be mantle or a subduction complex composed of dense mafic, ultramafic, and sedimentary rocks like that proposed to underlie Vancouver Island. The Washington model requires that the proposed subduction complex be more dense than the trench sediments and, therefore, that material denser than sediments be incorporated within it. The absence of continental mantle and the modeled wedge shape of the Coast Range Province upper crust suggest that erosion of the bottom of the overriding plate by subduction processes may have occurred. -from Author

  19. Geophysical Surveys Over a Terminal Moraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, L. R.; Langston, G.; Hayashi, M.

    2007-12-01

    Alpine watersheds represent the headwaters of many major rivers in western Canada. Consequently, understanding the hydrological cycle within these watersheds is critical for modeling the effects of climate change on water resources in western Canada and for developing informed water management strategies. Terminal moraines represent a significant hydrological response unit within many alpine watersheds in western Canada. Recent studies suggest that these features may provide sites for water storage. The preliminary results of a geophysical survey of a terminal moraine exhibiting geomorphological characteristics suggesting an ice-core will be presented. It is hypothesized that bedrock topography and the presence of ice creates barriers and channels groudwater flow. The focus of the survey was to delineate the hydrologically significant features within the moraine using electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), seismic refraction, and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Buried ice was easily detected using ERI due to high resistivity of over 1 MOhm-m. However, it was not as extensive as expected. Seismic refraction proved to be most useful in detecting the underlying bedrock. GPR images showed many reflection fragments but were noisy and difficult to interpret. Regions of relatively high electrical conductivity suggest some degree of channelization of groundwater in the vicinity of a tarn.

  20. Geophysical exploration of the Kalahari Suture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, J. S.; Mason, R.; Smith, P. H.

    2000-04-01

    Fancamp Resources Limited of Montreal, Canada, commenced exploration of the Kalahari Suture Zone in southwest Botswana in 1996, following the interpretation of airborne magnetic surveys covering 400 km of strike along the Kalahari Suture Zone. Initial focus was on mafic/ultramafic intrusions associated with the Tshane Complex as potential targets for CuNiPGM mineralization, but these targets are now considered to be too deeply buried (> 700 m) to be of economic significance at this time. The exploration focus has been redirected to several prospective large coincident magnetic/gravity anomalies. These are considered prospective targets for Olympic Dam-type CuCo mineralisation associated with alkaline intrusive complexes, and/or NiCuCoPGM mineralisation associated with basic intrusive complexes. The two most important and prospective targets are the so-called 'Great Red Spot' and Tsetseng Complex. Additional ground geophysical surveys and deep drilling are planned for the next phase of exploration. These large targets are of high priority and represent tremendous potential for mineral development in the sparsely populated area of western Botswana.

  1. Novel geophysical ground monitoring of SAGD effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibi, Mehran [Quantec Geoscience Limited (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a novel geophysical ground monitoring of SAGD effectiveness. First, a brief introduction to the resistivity method is given, followed by a presentation of Quantec's current Titan 3D technology with its customizable array configuration allowing true 3D sampling of the subsurface. The Titan 3D system as configured for this survey produced well over 100,000 data samples. This resolution is not achievable with traditional survey methodology. A 3D resistivity survey can be used to detect the fluid (water/oil) displacement within a reservoir that can be caused by SAGD extraction/injection in an active oil field. A 3D survey is conducted and establishes a reference time (zero-time) of the subsurface resistivity distribution. A repeated 3D survey over the same area then produces a late time (time-lapse) snap-shot of the subsurface resistivity and the percentage difference map is calculated using two-different time-lapse images. Lateral resolutions are found to be accurate while vertical resolution weakens with depth. The percentage difference technique is very robust against the noise in the measurements.

  2. Satellite gravity gradient grids for geophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Johannes; Ebbing, Jörg; Fuchs, Martin; Sebera, Josef; Lieb, Verena; Szwillus, Wolfgang; Haagmans, Roger; Novak, Pavel

    2016-02-11

    The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite aimed at determining the Earth's mean gravity field. GOCE delivered gravity gradients containing directional information, which are complicated to use because of their error characteristics and because they are given in a rotating instrument frame indirectly related to the Earth. We compute gravity gradients in grids at 225 km and 255 km altitude above the reference ellipsoid corresponding to the GOCE nominal and lower orbit phases respectively, and find that the grids may contain additional high-frequency content compared with GOCE-based global models. We discuss the gradient sensitivity for crustal depth slices using a 3D lithospheric model of the North-East Atlantic region, which shows that the depth sensitivity differs from gradient to gradient. In addition, the relative signal power for the individual gradient component changes comparing the 225 km and 255 km grids, implying that using all components at different heights reduces parameter uncertainties in geophysical modelling. Furthermore, since gravity gradients contain complementary information to gravity, we foresee the use of the grids in a wide range of applications from lithospheric modelling to studies on dynamic topography, and glacial isostatic adjustment, to bedrock geometry determination under ice sheets.

  3. Understanding biogeobatteries: Where geophysics meets microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revil, A.; Mendonca, C.A.; Atekwana, E.A.; Kulessa, B.; Hubbard, S.S.; Bohlen, K.

    2009-08-15

    Although recent research suggests that contaminant plumes behave as geobatteries that produce an electrical current in the ground, no associated model exists that honors both geophysical and biogeochemical constraints. Here, we develop such a model to explain the two main electrochemical contributions to self-potential signals in contaminated areas. Both contributions are associated with the gradient of the activity of two types of charge carriers, ions and electrons. In the case of electrons, bacteria act as catalysts for reducing the activation energy needed to exchange the electrons between electron donor and electron acceptor. Possible mechanisms that facilitate electron migration include iron oxides, clays, and conductive biological materials, such as bacterial conductive pili or other conductive extracellular polymeric substances. Because we explicitly consider the role of biotic processes in the geobattery model, we coined the term 'biogeobattery'. After theoretical development of the biogeobattery model, we compare model predictions with self-potential responses associated with laboratory and field-scale conducted in contaminated environments. We demonstrate that the amplitude and polarity of large (>100 mV) self-potential signatures requires the presence of an electronic conductor to serve as a bridge between electron donors and acceptors. Small self-potential anomalies imply that electron donors and electron acceptors are not directly interconnected, but instead result simply from the gradient of the activity of the ionic species that are present in the system.

  4. Fluctuations and Response in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Valerio

    The climate is a complex, chaotic, non-equilibrium system featuring a limited horizon of predictability, variability on a vast range of temporal and spatial scales, instabilities resulting into energy transformations, and mixing and dissipative processes resulting into entropy production. Despite great progresses, we still do not have a complete theory of climate dynamics able to account for instabilities, equilibration processes, response to changing parameters of the system, and multiscale effects. We will outline some possible applications of the response theory developed by Ruelle for non-equilibrium statistical mechanical systems, showing how it allows for setting on firm ground and on a coherent framework concepts like climate sensitivity, climate response, and climate tipping points, and to construct parametrizations for unresolved processes. We will show results for comprehensive global climate models. The results are promising in terms of suggesting new ways for approaching the problem of climate change prediction and for using more efficiently the enormous amounts of data produced by modeling groups around the world. Ref: V. Lucarini, R. Blender, C. Herbert, F. Ragone, S. Pascale, J. Wouters, Mathematical and Physical Ideas for Climate Science, Reviews of Geophysics 52, 809-859 (2014)

  5. Methodology of Detailed Geophysical Examination of the Areas of World Recognized Religious and Cultural Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2010-05-01

    the low altitudes (3-5 meters) will help geophysical cover all the studied area with a regular observation step (Eppelbaum, 2008). At the final step all these measurements (including results of the previous works) could be compiled to 4D models of different geophysical parameters (Eppelbaum and Ben-Avraham, 2002; Eppelbaum et al., 2010). Analysis of temperature field in the boreholes drilled in the vicinity of the studied site will permit to estimate the temperature (e.g., Eppelbaum et al., 2006c) in the historical period when this artifact was constructed and, correspondingly, utilize this characteristic for investigation of mechanical and other properties of the ancient building material. Studying of temporal variations of magnetic (e.g., Finkelstein and Eppelbaum) and VLF fields can be also used for determination of nature of some buried ancient remains. The geophysical investigations must be combined with geochemical, paleostructural, paleobiogeographical, paleomorphological and other methods (Eppelbaum et al., 2010). Application of informational parameters (Khesin et al., 1996; Eppelbaum et al., 2003b) will permit to present all available data by the use of integral convolution units. REFERENCES Eppelbaum, L.V., 1999. Quantitative interpretation of resistivity anomalies using advanced methods developed in magnetic prospecting. Trans. of the XXIV General Assembly of the Europ. Geoph. Soc., Strasburg 1 (1), p.166. Eppelbaum, L.V., 2000. Applicability of geophysical methods for localization of archaeological targets: An introduction. Geoinformatics, 11, No.1, 19-28. Eppelbaum, L.V., 2005. Multilevel observations of magnetic field at archaeological sites as additional interpreting tool. Proceed. of the 6th Conference of Archaeological Prospection, Roma, Italy, 4 pp. Eppelbaum, L.V., 2008. Remote operated vehicle geophysical survey using magnetic and VLF methods: proposed schemes for data processing and interpretation. Proceed. of the Symp. on the Application of

  6. Unified Geophysical Cloud Platform (UGCP) for Seismic Monitoring and other Geophysical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synytsky, R.; Starovoit, Y. O.; Henadiy, S.; Lobzakov, V.; Kolesnikov, L.

    2016-12-01

    We present Unified Geophysical Cloud Platform (UGCP) or UniGeoCloud as an innovative approach for geophysical data processing in the Cloud environment with the ability to run any type of data processing software in isolated environment within the single Cloud platform. We've developed a simple and quick method of several open-source widely known software seismic packages (SeisComp3, Earthworm, Geotool, MSNoise) installation which does not require knowledge of system administration, configuration, OS compatibility issues etc. and other often annoying details preventing time wasting for system configuration work. Installation process is simplified as "mouse click" on selected software package from the Cloud market place. The main objective of the developed capability was the software tools conception with which users are able to design and install quickly their own highly reliable and highly available virtual IT-infrastructure for the organization of seismic (and in future other geophysical) data processing for either research or monitoring purposes. These tools provide access to any seismic station data available in open IP configuration from the different networks affiliated with different Institutions and Organizations. It allows also setting up your own network as you desire by selecting either regionally deployed stations or the worldwide global network based on stations selection form the global map. The processing software and products and research results could be easily monitored from everywhere using variety of user's devices form desk top computers to IT gadgets. Currents efforts of the development team are directed to achieve Scalability, Reliability and Sustainability (SRS) of proposed solutions allowing any user to run their applications with the confidence of no data loss and no failure of the monitoring or research software components. The system is suitable for quick rollout of NDC-in-Box software package developed for State Signatories and aimed for

  7. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, D.; Davis, M. B.; Goff, J. A.; Gulick, S. P. S.; McIntosh, K. D.; Saustrup, S., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers a three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. The course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples. Students participate in an initial three days of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. Our field sites at Port Aransas, and Galveston, TX, and Grand Isle, LA, provide ideal locations for students to investigate coastal processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf through application of geophysical techniques in an exploratory mode. At sea, students assist with survey design and instrumentation set up while learning about acquisition parameters, data quality control, trouble-shooting, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval. In teams of four, students work in onshore field labs preparing sediment samples for particle size analysis and data processing. During the course's final week, teams return to the classroom where they integrate, interpret, and visualize data in a final project using industry-standard software such as Echos, Landmark, Caris, and Fledermaus. The course concludes with a series of final presentations and discussions in which students examine geologic history and/or sedimentary processes represented by the Gulf Coast continental shelf with academic and industry supporters. Students report a greater understanding of marine geology and geophysics through the course's intensive, hands-on, team approach and low instructor to student ratio (sixteen

  8. Geophysics applications in critical zone science: emerging topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Y. A.; Martinez, G.; Guber, A.; Walthall, C. L.; Vereecken, H.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical studies have resulted in remarkable advances in characterization of critical zone. The geophysics applications uncover the relationships between structure and function in subsurface as they seek to define subsurface structural units with individual properties of retention and transmission of water, energy, solutes, electrical charge, etc. Several focal points of the research have emerged as the knowledge base of the critical zone geophysics grows. Time-lapse or multiple geophysical surveys admittedly improve the subsurface characterization. One of intriguing possibilities here is to use the temporal variation in geophysical parameters among time-lapse surveys directly to model spatial variation in soil properties affecting soil-water contents. Because critical phenomena causing erratic routing have been recently discovered in hillslope subsurface flow networks, it remains to be seen whether the time-lapse imagery depicts the same flow network if weather conditions are seemingly similar. High-frequency network observations usually reveal the temporal stability patterns in soil variables, including water contents, CO2 fluxes, etc. It becomes clear that these patterns can be described with spatiotemporal geostatistics models, and the opportunity arises to infer the spatial correlation structure of soil parameters from temporal variations of soil dynamic variables. There are indications that the spatial correlation structures of the geophysical parameters and soil/plant variables can be similar even though the correlations between these parameters are low. This may open additional avenues for mapping sparsely measured soil and plant variables. Fallacies of scale in geophysical depicting subsurface structural units and patterns are far from being understood. Soil state variables affect geophysical retrieval in nonlinear ways, and therefore scale effects in retrievals are warranted. For this reason, the strength and type of dependencies between geophysical

  9. Geophysical Surveys in Archaeology: Guidance for Surveyors and Sponsors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Somers, Lewis

    2003-01-01

    The last few years have seen a significant increase in the use of geophysical techniques by archaeologists in the United States working in both academic settings and Cultural Resources Management (CRM). Since 1995...

  10. Geophysical investigations at ORNL solid waste storage area 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothschild, E.R.; Switek, J.; Llopis, J.L.; Farmer, C.D.

    1985-07-01

    Geophysical investigations at ORNL solid waste storage area 3 have been carried out. The investigations included very-low-frequency-electromagnetic resistivity (VLF-EM), electrical resistivity, and seismic refraction surveys. The surveys resulted in the measurement of basic geophysical rock properties, as well as information on the depth of weathering and the configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the study area. Survey results also indicate that a number of geophysical anomalies occur in the shallow subsurface at the site. In particular, a linear feature running across the geologic strike in the western half of the waste disposal facility has been identified. This feature may conduct water in the subsurface. The geophysical investigations are part of an ongoing effort to characterize the site's hydrogeology, and the data presented will be valuable in directing future drilling and investigations at the site. 10 refs., 6 figs

  11. The influence of geophysical processes on the Earth's rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastula, J.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of the influence of geophysical processes on the Earth's rotation is presented. The role of these processes in the variations of the length of day is described in this part. 27 refs., 19 figs. (author)

  12. The geology and geophysics of the Oslo rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The regional geology and geophysical characteristics of the Oslo graben are reviewed. The graben is part of a Permian age failed continental rift. Alkali olivine, tholefitic, and monzonitic intrusives as well as basaltic lavas outline the extent of the graben. Geophysical evidence indicates that rifting activity covered a much greater area in Skagerrak Sea as well as the Paleozoic time, possibly including the northern Skagerrak Sea as well as the Oslo graben itself. Much of the surficial geologic characteristics in the southern part of the rift have since been eroded or covered by sedimentation. Geophysical data reveal a gravity maximum along the strike of the Oslo graben, local emplacements of magnetic material throughout the Skagerrak and the graben, and a slight mantle upward beneath the rift zone. Petrologic and geophysical maps which depict regional structure are included in the text. An extensive bibliography of pertinent literature published in English between 1960 and 1980 is also provided.

  13. Astronaut-Deployable Geophysical and Environmental Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzewich, S. D.; Bleacher, J. E.; Smith, M. D.; Khayat, A.; Conrad, P.

    2017-02-01

    Geophysical and environmental monitoring stations could be deployed by astronauts exploring Mars, the Moon, or asteroids, and create a broad network that would collect high-value scientific information while also enhancing astronaut safety.

  14. Airborne Geophysical/Geological Mineral Inventory CIP Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne-Geophysical/Geological Mineral Inventory project is a special multi-year investment to expand the knowledge base of Alaska's mineral resources and catalyze private-sector mineral development...

  15. Solar Geophysical Data (SGD) Reports (1955-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Solar-Geophysical Data (SGD) reports were a comprehensive compilation of many different kinds of observational data of the sun's activity and its effects on the...

  16. Geophysical applications for arctic/subarctic transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report describes a series of geophysical surveys conducted in conjunction with : geotechnical investigations carried out by the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public : Facilities. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the value of an...

  17. Comparison study of selected Geophysical and geotechnical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    Successful foundation of constructions relies on accurate characterization of the geotechnical properties of the subsurface. By implementing data from geophysical surveys, the placement of geotechnical drillings can be significantly improved, potentially reducing the number of required drillings....

  18. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae.

    1990-01-01

    At least one valve rack is disposed in a reactor building, on which pipeways to a main closure valve, valves and bypasses of turbines are placed and contained. The valve rack is fixed to the main body of the building or to a base mat. Since the reactor building is designed as class A earthquake-proofness and for maintaining the S 1 function, the valve rack can be fixed to the building main body or to the base mat. With such a constitution, the portions for maintaining the S 1 function are concentrated to the reactor building. As a result, the dispersion of structures of earthquake-proof portion corresponding to the reference earthquake vibration S 1 can be prevented. Accordingly, the conditions for the earthquake-proof design of the turbine building and the turbine/electric generator supporting rack are defined as only the class B earthquake-proof design conditions. In view of the above, the amount of building materials can be saved and the time for construction can be shortened. (I.S.)

  19. A multi-method high-resolution geophysical survey in the Machado de Castro museum, central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeia, Carlos; Matias, Manuel; Figueiredo, Fernando; Hermozilha, Hélder; Carvalho, Pedro; Silva, Ricardo

    2011-06-01

    Restoration of historical buildings is a delicate operation as they are often built over more ancient and important structures. The Machado de Castro Museum, Coimbra, Central Portugal, has suffered several interventions in historical times and lies over the ancient Roman forum of Coimbra. This building went through a restoration project. These works were preceded by an extensive geophysical survey that aimed at investigating subsurface stratigraphy, including archeological remains, and the internal structure of the actual walls. Owing to the needs of the project, geophysical data interpretation required not only integration but also high resolution. The study consisted of data acquisition over perpendicular planes and different levels that required detailed survey planning and integration of data from different locations that complement images of the surveyed area. Therefore a multi-method, resistivity imaging and a 3D ground probing radar (GPR), high-resolution geophysical survey was done inside the museum. Herein, radargrams are compared with the revealed stratigraphy so that signatures are interpreted, characterized and assigned to archeological structures. Although resistivity and GPR have different resolution capabilities, their data are overlapped and compared, bearing in mind the specific characteristics of this survey. It was also possible to unravel the inner structure of the actual walls, to establish connections between walls, foundations and to find older remains with the combined use and spatial integration of the GPR and resistivity imaging data.

  20. A multi-method high-resolution geophysical survey in the Machado de Castro museum, central Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grangeia, Carlos; Matias, Manuel; Hermozilha, Hélder; Figueiredo, Fernando; Carvalho, Pedro; Silva, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Restoration of historical buildings is a delicate operation as they are often built over more ancient and important structures. The Machado de Castro Museum, Coimbra, Central Portugal, has suffered several interventions in historical times and lies over the ancient Roman forum of Coimbra. This building went through a restoration project. These works were preceded by an extensive geophysical survey that aimed at investigating subsurface stratigraphy, including archeological remains, and the internal structure of the actual walls. Owing to the needs of the project, geophysical data interpretation required not only integration but also high resolution. The study consisted of data acquisition over perpendicular planes and different levels that required detailed survey planning and integration of data from different locations that complement images of the surveyed area. Therefore a multi-method, resistivity imaging and a 3D ground probing radar (GPR), high-resolution geophysical survey was done inside the museum. Herein, radargrams are compared with the revealed stratigraphy so that signatures are interpreted, characterized and assigned to archeological structures. Although resistivity and GPR have different resolution capabilities, their data are overlapped and compared, bearing in mind the specific characteristics of this survey. It was also possible to unravel the inner structure of the actual walls, to establish connections between walls, foundations and to find older remains with the combined use and spatial integration of the GPR and resistivity imaging data

  1. Near-surface geophysical investigations inside the cloister of the historical palace 'Palazzo dei Celestini' in Lecce, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuzzo, Luigia; Quarta, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Non-invasive geophysical investigations are usually the only way to gain information on subsurface properties that can affect the stability of historical structures and accelerate degradation processes. A combined multi-frequency ground-penetrating radar (GPR) geoelectrical and induced polarization (IP) survey was performed in the cloister of 'Palazzo dei Celestini', Lecce, southern Italy, in order to investigate possible subsurface causes of deterioration. The historical palace was originally a convent connected to the Basilica of 'Santa Croce' and is now the head office of the Province of Lecce Administration and the Prefecture. Built in Pietra Leccese, a fine-grained calcarenite, Santa Croce and Palazzo dei Celestini is the most famous baroque architectural complex of the historical centre of Lecce. The high capillarity of the building material causes deterioration problems especially at some altars of the church and in the lower portion of the walls and pillars of the monumental building. The integrated geophysical survey yielded a detailed description of the shallow stratigraphical and hydro-geological setting of the area and an accurate location of ancient and modern drainage systems. The geophysical information was essential for identifying natural or anthropogenic causes of the local increase in subsoil moisture that could accelerate the degradation process and for developing effective remediation activities

  2. Development of Geophysical Ideas and Institutions in Ottoman Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcep, Ferhat; Ozcep, Tazegul

    2015-04-01

    In Anatolia, the history of geophysical sciences may go back to antiquity (600 BC), namely the period when Thales lived in Magnesia (Asia Minor). In the modern sense, geophysics started with geomagnetic works in the 1600s. The period between 1600 and 1800 includes the measurement of magnetic declination, inclination and magnetic field strength. Before these years, there is a little information, such as how to use a compass, in the Kitab-i Bahriye (the Book of Navigation) of Piri Reis, who is one of the most important mariners of the Ottoman Empire. However, this may not mean that magnetic declination was generally understood. The first scientific book relating to geophysics is the book Fuyuzat-i Miknatissiye that was translated by Ibrahim Müteferrika and printed in 1731. The subject of this book is earth's magnetism. There is also information concerning geophysics in the book Cihannuma (Universal Geography) that was written by Katip Celebi and in the book Marifetname written by Ibrahim Hakki Erzurumlu, but these books are only partly geophysical books. In Istanbul the year 1868 is one of the most important for geophysical sciences because an observatory called Rasathane-i Amire was installed in the Pera region of this city. At this observatory the first systematic geophysical observations such as meteorological, seismological and even gravimetrical were made. There have been meteorological records in Anatolia since 1839. These are records of atmospheric temperature, pressure and humidity. In the Ottoman Empire, the science of geophysics is considered as one of the natural sciences along with astronomy, mineralogy, geology, etc., and these sciences are included as a part of physics and chemistry.

  3. Notes on the history of geophysics in the Ottoman Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcep, F.; Ozcep, T.

    2014-09-01

    In Anatolia, the history of geophysical sciences may go back to antiquity (600 BC), namely the period when Thales lived in Magnesia (Asia Minor). In the modern sense, geophysics started with geomagnetic works in the 1600s. The period between 1600 and 1800 includes the measurement of magnetic declination, inclination and magnetic field strength. Before these years, there is a little information, such as how to use a compass, in the Kitab-i Bahriye (the Book of Navigation) of Piri Reis, who is one of the most important mariners of the Ottoman Empire. However, this may not mean that magnetic declination was generally understood. The first scientific book relating to geophysics is the book Fuyuzat-i Miknatissiye that was translated by Ibrahim Müteferrika and printed in 1731. The subject of this book is earth's magnetism. There is also information concerning geophysics in the book Cihannuma (Universal Geography) that was written by Katip Celebi and in the book Marifetname written by Ibrahim Hakki Erzurumlu, but these books are only partly geophysical books. In Istanbul the year 1868 is one of the most important for geophysical sciences because an observatory called Rasathane-i Amire was installed in the Pera region of this city. At this observatory the first systematic geophysical observations such as meteorological, seismological and even gravimetrical were made. There have been meteorological records in Anatolia since 1839. These are records of atmospheric temperature, pressure and humidity. In the Ottoman Empire, the science of geophysics is considered as one of the natural sciences along with astronomy, mineralogy, geology, etc., and these sciences are included as a part of physics and chemistry.

  4. Segmentation of complex geophysical structures with well data

    OpenAIRE

    Gout , Christian; Le Guyader , Carole

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In many problems of geophysical interest, when trying to segment images (i.e., to locate interfaces between different regions on the images), one has to deal with data that exhibit very complex structures. This occurs, for instance, when describing complex geophysical images (with layers, faults,...); in that case, segmentation is very difficult. Moreover, the segmentation process requires to take into account well data to interpolate, which implies integrating interpo...

  5. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    ‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which......, which gives the book a challenging contribution to the existing body of knowledge....

  6. Making Place for a Viking Fortress. An archaeological and geophysical reassessment of Aggersborg, Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Brown

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits the archaeology of the Viking-age settlement and ring fortress at Aggersborg, Denmark, based on a large-scale geophysical survey using magnetic gradiometry and ground-penetrating radar, as well as legacy excavation data. Late 10th-century Aggersborg, the largest known fortress in Viking-age Scandinavia, commanded a key position at the narrow strait of the Limfjord, a principal sailing route between the Baltic and the North Sea. Previous excavations established that this location was on the site of an earlier settlement, which was burned-down prior to the construction of the fortress. The character and extent of this prior activity, however, have hitherto remained ill-defined. The geophysical survey identifies previously unknown elements of the fortress structures and elucidates the extent and character of the earlier settlement. The analysis is combined with a comprehensive reconsideration of primary data from early excavations, and demonstrates how this evidence can guide the interpretation of geophysical data to yield a detailed reassessment of spatial structure, and even suggest chronological phasing. The excavation trenches show dense traces of occupation with a large number of sunken-featured buildings (SFBs. Anomalies consistent with similar features are mapped in the geophysical surveys, and their distribution is shown to complement results from the excavations, demonstrating the important contribution of non-invasive survey to our knowledge of scheduled monuments. The surveys suggest that the total number of SFBs may be as high as 350, equal to or exceeding the largest number of such buildings previously identified at any site in Scandinavia. The ring fortress, by implication, must have replaced a site of particular function or importance, albeit of a very different organisation. An interpretation of the communication landscape is combined with a visibility analysis to argue that the long-term significance of the

  7. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppenjan, S.; Martinez, M.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE's Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a ''chirped'' FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site

  8. A Geophysical Investigation at Potrillo Maar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada Gutierrez, Manuel

    The Potrillo Volcanic Field (PVF) is a unique geological site located in Dona Ana County the southernmost part of New Mexico, and part of northern part of Chihuahua, Mexico. The main feature of the southern PVF is Potrillo Maar. This maar-volcano straddles the international boundary between United States and Mexico and lies within the southern part of the Rio Grande Rift. The Potrillo Maar was formed about 20,000 years ago in three major events that formed basalt lava flows and ejecta deposits that consist of crustal and mantle xenoliths. The purpose of this thesis is to determine the area of the maar-diatreme, the severely fractured rock created by the explosion where the crater was made, and to estimate the thickness of its basalt layers using gravity, magnetics, and resistivity tomography surveys. These Potential field methods also provided a better understanding of the shallower structures of the near diatreme. All the geophysical data was analyzed using the GM-SYS software package in order to create 2D cross section models to differentiate the diatreme, basalts and surrounding structures. Forward modeling has revealed a complex subsurface maar structure. Modeling of 2-D cross-sections requires bodies with very low negative susceptibilities adequately match observations and error. These negative susceptibilities suggest that part of this diatreme composed of pre-maar volcanic that are older than the latest geomagnetic reversal. The diatreme has a depth of 125 m in the deepest part of the sections. A basaltic feeder dike for the Potrillo maar was also imaged. The main dike is located in the center of the crater where three scoria cones are exposed at the surface. Other smaller dikes are located within the diatreme.

  9. Building Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — Explore real estate information about buildings in the Town of Cary.This file is created by the Town of Cary GIS Group. It contains data from both the Wake, Chatham...

  10. Unleashing Geophysics Data with Modern Formats and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Alex; Brodie, Ross C.; Druken, Kelsey; Bastrakova, Irina; Evans, Ben; Kemp, Carina; Richardson, Murray; Trenham, Claire; Wang, Jingbo; Wyborn, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    Geoscience Australia (GA) is the national steward of large volumes of geophysical data extending over the entire Australasian region and spanning many decades. The volume and variety of data which must be managed, coupled with the increasing need to support machine-to-machine data access, mean that the old "click-and-ship" model delivering data as downloadable files for local analysis is rapidly becoming unviable - a "big data" problem not unique to geophysics. The Australian Government, through the Research Data Services (RDS) Project, recently funded the Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) to organize a wide range of Earth Systems data from diverse collections including geoscience, geophysics, environment, climate, weather, and water resources onto a single High Performance Data (HPD) Node. This platform, which now contains over 10 petabytes of data, is called the National Environmental Research Data Interoperability Platform (NERDIP), and is designed to facilitate broad user access, maximise reuse, and enable integration. GA has contributed several hundred terabytes of geophysical data to the NERDIP. Historically, geophysical datasets have been stored in a range of formats, with metadata of varying quality and accessibility, and without standardised vocabularies. This has made it extremely difficult to aggregate original data from multiple surveys (particularly un-gridded geophysics point/line data) into standard formats suited to High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. To address this, it was decided to use the NERDIP-preferred Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) 5, which is a proven, standard, open, self-describing and high-performance format supported by extensive software tools, libraries and data services. The Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) 4 API facilitates the use of data in HDF5, whilst the NetCDF Climate & Forecasting conventions (NetCDF-CF) further constrain NetCDF4/HDF5 data so as to provide greater inherent interoperability

  11. Investigation of problems of closing of geophysical cracks in thermoelastic media in the case of flow of fluids with impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, A. N.; Davtyan, A. V.; Dinunts, A. S.; Martirosyan, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate a problem of closing cracks by building up a layer of sediments on surfaces of a crack in an infinite thermoelastic medium in the presence of a flow of fluids with impurities. The statement of the problem of closing geophysical cracks in the presence of a fluid flow is presented with regard to the thermoelastic stress and the influence of the impurity deposition in the liquid on the crack surfaces due to thermal diffusion at the fracture closure. The Wiener–Hopf method yields an analytical solution in the special case without friction. Numerical calculations are performed in this case and the dependence of the crack closure time on the coordinate is plotted. A similar spatial problem is also solved. These results generalize the results of previous studies of geophysical cracks and debris in rocks, where the closure of a crack due to temperature effects is studied without taking the elastic stresses into account.

  12. Building a capacity building manual

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clinton, DD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available ? Capacity building in developed nations ? renewal stage HOW can capacity be developed and maintained? Through mentoring , training, education, physical projects, the infusion of financial and other resources and more importantly the motivation...

  13. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M. B.; Gulick, S. P.; Allison, M. A.; Goff, J. A.; Duncan, D. D.; Saustrup, S.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers an intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. Now in year five, the course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization. Techniques covered include high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples (e.g., core description, grain size analysis, x-radiography, etc.). Students seek to understand coastal and sedimentary processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf through application of these techniques in an exploratory mode. Students participate in an initial three days of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area (which changes each year) along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. In the field, students rotate between two small research vessels: one vessel, the 22' aluminum-hulled R/V Lake Itasca, owned and operated by UTIG, is used principally for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA's R/V Manta or the R/V Acadiana, operated by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, is used primarily for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibracoring. While at sea, students assist with survey design, learn instrumentation set up, acquisition parameters, data quality control, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval. In teams of three, students work in onshore field labs preparing sediment samples for particle size analysis and initial data processing. During the course's final week, teams

  14. Assessing subsurface strata using geophysical and geotechnical methods for designing structures near ground cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFouzan, F.; Dafalla, M.; Mutaz, E.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a combined approach using both geophysical and geotechnical approaches to study and evaluate the subsurface strata near ground for sites suffering from faults and cracks. It demonstrates how both techniques can be utilized to gather useful information for design geotechnical engineers. The safe distance for construction close to a ground crack is mainly dependant on the subsurface stratification and the engineering properties of underlying soils or rocks. Other factors include the area geology and concepts of safety margins. This study is carried out for a site in Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. This type of faults and cracks can normally occur due to a geological or physical event or due to the nature and properties of the subsurface material. The geotechnical works included advancing rotary boreholes to depths of 25m to 31m with sampling and testing. The geophysical method used included performing 2D electrical resistivity profiles. The results of geophysical and geotechnical works showed good and close agreement. The use of 2D electrical resistivity was found useful to establish the layer thicknesses of shale and highly plastic clay. This cannot be determined without deep and expensive direct boring investigation. The results showed that a thick layer of expansive soil, which is considered a high-risk soil type containing large percentage of highly plastic clay materials, underlies the site. The volume changes due to humidity variations can result in either swelling or shrinking. These changes can have significant impact on engineering structures such as light buildings and roads. The logic of placing structures in close vicinity of the cracks is based on lateral stresses exerted on the crack face. The layer thickness is a detrimental factor to establish a safe design distance. Stress distribution analysis procedure is explained.

  15. PREFACE: Padjadjaran Earth Dialogues: International Symposium on Geophysical Issues, PEDISGI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosandi, Y.; Urbassek, H. M.; Yamanaka, H.

    2016-01-01

    This issue of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science contains selected papers presented at the Padjadjaran Earth Dialogues: International Symposium on Geophysical Issues, PEDISGI. The meeting was held from June 8 to 10, 2015, at the Bale-Sawala of Universitas Padjadjaran in Jatinangor, Indonesia. The PEDISGI is a symposium to accommodate communication between researchers, in particular geophysicists and related scientists, and to enable sharing of knowledge and research findings concerning local and global geophysical issues. The symposium was attended by 126 participants and 64 contributors from Indonesian universities and the neighbouring countries in four categories, viz. Theoretical and Computational Geophysics, Environmental Geophysics, Geophysical Explorations, and Geophysical Instrumentations and Methods. The symposium was accompanied by a dialog, discussing a chosen topic regarding environmental and geological problems of relevance for the Indonesian archipelago and the surrounding regions. For this first event the topic was ''The formation of Bandung-Basin between myths and facts: Exemplary cultural, geological and geophysical study on the evolution of the earth surface'', presented by invited speakers and local experts. This activity was aimed at extending our knowledge on this particular subject, which may have global impact. This topic was augmented by theoretical background lectures on the earth's surface formation, presented by the invited speakers of the symposium. The meeting would not have been successful without the assistance of the local organizing committee. We want to specially thank Irwan A. Dharmawan for managing the programme, Anggie Susilawati and Mia U. Hasanah for the conference administration, and Dini Fitriani for financial management. We also thank the National Geographic Indonesia for its support via the Business to Business Collaboration Program. The conference photograph can be viewed in the PDF.

  16. Ceres' Geophysical Evolution Inferred from Dawn Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bowling, Timothy; Ermakov, Anton I.; Fu, Roger; Park, Ryan; Raymond, Carol; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Prettyman, Thomas H.; Y McSween, Harry; Toplis, Michael J.; Russell, Christopher T.; Dawn Team

    2016-10-01

    If Ceres formed as an ice-rich body, as suggested by its low density and the detection of ammoniated phyllosilicates [1], then it should have differentiated an ice-dominated shell, analogous to large icy satellites [2]. Instead, Dawn observations revealed an enrichment of Ceres' shell in strong materials, either a rocky component and/or salts and gas hydrates [3, 4, 5, 6]. We have explored several scenarios for the emplacement of Ceres' surface. Endogenic processes cannot account for its overall homogeneity. Instead we suggest that Ceres differentiated an icy shell upon freezing of its early ocean that was removed as a consequence of frequent exposure by impacting after the dwarf planet migrated from a cold accretional environment to the warmer outer main belt (or when the solar nebula dissipated, if Ceres formed in situ). This scenario implies that Ceres' current surface represents the interface between the original ice shell and the top of the frozen ocean, a region that is extremely rich chemistry-wise, as illustrated by the mineralogical observations returned by Dawn [7]. Thermal modeling shows that the shell could remain warm over the long term and offer a setting for the generation of brines that may be responsible for the emplacement of Ahuna Mons [8] and Occator's bright spots [7] on an otherwise homogeneous surface [9]. An important implication is that Ceres' surface offers an analog for better understanding the deep interior and chemical evolution of large ice-rich bodies.References: [1] De Sanctis et al., Nature, 2015; [2] McCord and Sotin, Journal of Geophysical Research, 2005; [3] Park et al., Nature, 2016 (in press); [4] Hiesinger et al., Science (submitted); [5] Bland et al., Nature Geoscience, 2016 (in press); [6] Fu et al., AGU Fall Meeting, 2015 [7] De Sanctis et al., Nature, 2016 (in press); [8] Ruesch et al., Science, in revision; [9] Ammannito et al., Science, 2016 (accepted).Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet

  17. THE SMALL BODY GEOPHYSICAL ANALYSIS TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Benjamin; McMahon, Jay

    2017-10-01

    The Small Body Geophysical Analysis Tool (SBGAT) that we are developing aims at providing scientists and mission designers with a comprehensive, easy to use, open-source analysis tool. SBGAT is meant for seamless generation of valuable simulated data originating from small bodies shape models, combined with advanced shape-modification properties.The current status of SBGAT is as follows:The modular software architecture that was specified in the original SBGAT proposal was implemented in the form of two distinct packages: a dynamic library SBGAT Core containing the data structure and algorithm backbone of SBGAT, and SBGAT Gui which wraps the former inside a VTK, Qt user interface to facilitate user/data interaction. This modular development facilitates maintenance and addi- tion of new features. Note that SBGAT Core can be utilized independently from SBGAT Gui.SBGAT is presently being hosted on a GitHub repository owned by SBGAT’s main developer. This repository is public and can be accessed at https://github.com/bbercovici/SBGAT. Along with the commented code, one can find the code documentation at https://bbercovici.github.io/sbgat-doc/index.html. This code documentation is constently updated in order to reflect new functionalities.SBGAT’s user’s manual is available at https://github.com/bbercovici/SBGAT/wiki. This document contains a comprehensive tutorial indicating how to retrieve, compile and run SBGAT from scratch.Some of the upcoming development goals are listed hereafter. First, SBGAT's dynamics module will be extented: the PGM algorithm is the only type of analysis method currently implemented. Future work will therefore consists in broadening SBGAT’s capabilities with the Spherical Harmonics Expansion of the gravity field and the calculation of YORP coefficients. Second, synthetic measurements will soon be available within SBGAT. The software should be able to generate synthetic observations of different type (radar, lightcurve, point clouds

  18. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences...... on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  19. Field Geophysics at SAGE: Strategies for Effective Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, L. W.; Baldridge, W. S.; Jiracek, G. R.; Biehler, S.; Ferguson, J. F.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D. K.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Hasterok, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) is a unique program of education and research in geophysical field methods for undergraduate and graduate students from any university and for professionals. The core program is held for 4 weeks each summer in New Mexico and for an additional week in the following academic year in San Diego for U.S. undergraduates supported by the NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program. Since SAGE was initiated in 1983, 730 students have participated in the program. NSF REU funding for SAGE began in 1990 and 319 REU students have completed SAGE through 2011. The primary objectives of SAGE are to teach the major geophysical exploration methods (seismic, gravity, magnetics, electromagnetics); apply these methods to the solution of specific problems (environmental, archaeological, hydrologic, geologic structure and stratigraphy); gain experience in processing, modeling and interpretation of geophysical data; and integrate the geophysical models and interpretations with geology. Additional objectives of SAGE include conducting research on the Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico, and providing information on geophysics careers and professional development experiences to SAGE participants. Successful education, field and research strategies that we have implemented over the years include: 1. learn by doing; 2. mix lecture/discussion, field work, data processing and analysis, modeling and interpretation, and presentation of results; 3. a two-tier team approach - method/technique oriented teams and interpretation/integration teams (where each team includes persons representing different methods), provides focus, in-depth study, opportunity for innovation, and promotes teamwork and a multi-disciplinary approach; 4. emphasis on presentations/reports - each team (and all team members) make presentation, each student completes a written report; 5. experiment design discussion - students help design field program and consider

  20. An Integral, Multidisciplinary and Global Geophysical Field Experience for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, O.; Carrillo, D. J.; Pérez-Campos, X.

    2007-05-01

    The udergraduate program of Geophysical Engineering at the School of Engineering, of the Univesidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), went through an update process that concluded in 2006. As part of the program, the student takes three geophysical prospecting courses (gravity and magnetics, electric, electromagnetics, and seismic methods). The older program required a three-week field experience for each course in order to gradute. The new program considers only one extended field experience. This work stresses the importance of international academic exchange, where undergraduate students could participate, such as the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE), and interaction with research programs, such as the MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment (MASE). Also, we propose a scheeme for this activity based on those examples; both of them have in common real geophysical problems, from which students could benefit. Our proposal covers academic and logistic aspects to be taken into account, enhancing the relevance of interaction between other academic institutions, industry, and UNAM, in order to obtain a broader view of geophysics.

  1. The teaching of geophysics in Latin America: An updated assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencio, Daniel A.; Schneider, Otto

    The situation of geophysics in developing countries has been the subject of discussions and analysis by diverse international organizations. It was also discussed in some articles in Eos [e.g., Lomnitz, 1982; Urrutia Fucugauchi, 1982; Bolt, 1982]. We have been requested to contribute a current evaluation of the problem, with particular reference to geophysical education in Latin America.In the following report on specialized training of geophysicists in Latin American countries, we consider the “exact earth sciences” in the broader sense, i.e., the mathematical and physical (and, to a certain extent, chemical) aspects of the planet earth as a whole, including its fluid portions, as opposed to the more restricted concept of just solid earth geophysics. In other words, our inquiry follows the scope of both AGU and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), so geodesy, although not explicitly covered, will still be mentioned occasionally. We will also consider the applied branches, especially exploration geophysics, since these areas furnish powerful motivation for fostering our sciences, both in the governmental circles of developing countries and among the young people looking for a promising professional future.

  2. Geophysical methods in protected environments. Electrical resistivity tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio Sánchez-Aguililla, F.M.; Ramiro-Camacho, A.; Ibarra Torre, P.

    2017-01-01

    There is a strong interest in protecting the environment with the aim of its long term preservation. Sometimes the heritage value of these natural areas is related to their biodiversity as there are restricted ecosystems that depend directly on them. In other cases there a singular geological record might exist, essential for the understanding of certain processes affecting the planet, such as volcanic events or glacial periods. To achieve the protection and conservation of these areas it is necessary to generate knowledge about the distribution of geological materials and groundwater masses, to study the parameters that dominate the behaviour of these systems and then define those elements that require special protection or attention. In these protected environments, research methods with a minimal environmental impact should be used. Therefore, indirect methods, such as geophysical techniques, are reliable and complementary tools with a minimum environmental impact and are therefore useful for research these unique areas. The IGME has conducted several geophysical surveys in different protected environments in Spain with the aim of achieving a better understanding, and thus facilitate their preservation and exploitation in a sustainable manner. In this paper we present a review of some case studies where geophysical methods have been used. In all the cases electrical resistivity tomography has been the axis of the geophysical research and stands out due to its great effectiveness. The main objective of this communication is to divulgate and increase awareness of the important role that these geophysical methods can play in the sustainable study of these unique places. [es

  3. Scientists of tomorrow - Geophysics School Lab for Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschämmer, Ellen; Bohlen, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Starting in 2012, the Geophysical Institute (GPI) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) developed several geophysical experiments for secondary school students which are now part of the Geophysics School Lab at the GPI. Usually, the students visit the School Lab as a class together with their teacher (Physics, Geography, Science), but the School Lab can also be used for extracurricular learning of individual students. The experiments carried out deal with the topics Seismology, Geoelectrics, and Fluid Dynamics: A horizontal seismometer is decoupled from its registration unit for the time of the visit of the students. With this setup, the students can measure the natural period of the pendulum, and adjust the seismometer accordingly. At different experimental stations, students can analyse seismic data registered with this unit, locate earthquakes, or get to know and understand an accelerometer. The accelerometer is attached to a registration unit and data can be visualized in real time. In another experimental setup, the students can measure the viscosity of a fluid as a function of temperature in order to get a better understanding of different magma types and their viscosity. Furthermore, a geoelectric experiment is carried out in a sandbox: The students experience with non-destructive testing, and try to reveal the subsurface structure. For our experiments, secondary school teachers can receive free supportive materials for the preparation of the visit. The aim of the Geophysics School Lab is to encourage and acquaint secondary school students to the concepts of Geophysics, and to enthuse them with the applied issues of Geosciences.

  4. Exploring the geophysical signatures of microbial processes in the earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, L.; Atekwana, E.; Brantley, S.; Gorby, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Knight, R.; Morgan, D.; Revil, A.; Rossbach, S.; Yee, N.

    2009-05-15

    AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics; Portland, Maine, 13-16 October 2008; Geophysical methods have the potential to detect and characterize microbial growth and activity in subsurface environments over different spatial and temporal scales. Recognition of this potential has resulted in the development of a new subdiscipline in geophysics called 'biogeophysics,' a rapidly evolving Earth science discipline that integrates environmental microbiology, geomicrobiology, biogeochemistry, and geophysics to investigate interactions that occur between the biosphere (microorganisms and their products) and the geosphere. Biogeophysics research performed over the past decade has confirmed the potential for geophysical techniques to detect microbes, microbial growth/biofilm formation, and microbe-mineral interactions. The unique characteristics of geophysical data sets (e.g., noninvasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) present opportunities to explore geomicrobial processes outside of the laboratory, at unique spatial scales unachievable with microbiological techniques, and possibly in remote environments such as the deep ocean. In response to this opportunity, AGU hosted a Chapman Conference with a mission to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community, and generate a road map for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of Earth science research. For more information on the conference, see http://www.agu.org/meetings/chapman/2008/fcall/.

  5. Canonical Models of Geophysical and Astrophysical Flows: Turbulent Convection Experiments in Liquid Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Ribeiro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Planets and stars are often capable of generating their own magnetic fields. This occurs through dynamo processes occurring via turbulent convective stirring of their respective molten metal-rich cores and plasma-based convection zones. Present-day numerical models of planetary and stellar dynamo action are not carried out using fluids properties that mimic the essential properties of liquid metals and plasmas (e.g., using fluids with thermal Prandtl numbers Pr < 1 and magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm ≪ 1. Metal dynamo simulations should become possible, though, within the next decade. In order then to understand the turbulent convection phenomena occurring in geophysical or astrophysical fluids and next-generation numerical models thereof, we present here canonical, end-member examples of thermally-driven convection in liquid gallium, first with no magnetic field or rotation present, then with the inclusion of a background magnetic field and then in a rotating system (without an imposed magnetic field. In doing so, we demonstrate the essential behaviors of convecting liquid metals that are necessary for building, as well as benchmarking, accurate, robust models of magnetohydrodynamic processes in Pm ≪  Pr < 1 geophysical and astrophysical systems. Our study results also show strong agreement between laboratory and numerical experiments, demonstrating that high resolution numerical simulations can be made capable of modeling the liquid metal convective turbulence needed in accurate next-generation dynamo models.

  6. Environmental geophysics: Locating and evaluating subsurface geology, geologic hazards, groundwater contamination, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical surveys can be used to help delineate and map subsurface geology, including potential geologic hazards, the water table, boundaries of contaminated plumes, etc. The depth to the water table can be determined using seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods, and hydrogeologic and geologic cross sections of shallow alluvial aquifers can be constructed from these data. Electrical resistivity and GPR data are especially sensitive to the quality of the water and other fluids in a porous medium, and these surveys help to identify the stratigraphy, the approximate boundaries of contaminant plumes, and the source and amount of contamination in the plumes. Seismic, GPR, electromagnetic (VLF), gravity, and magnetic data help identify and delineate shallow, concealed faulting, cavities, and other subsurface hazards. Integration of these geophysical data sets can help pinpoint sources of subsurface contamination, identify potential geological hazards, and optimize the location of borings, monitoring wells, foundations for building, dams, etc. Case studies from a variety of locations will illustrate these points. 20 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Geophysics Fatally Flawed by False Fundamental Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. S.

    2004-05-01

    volcanoes, that enable planetary expansion the same way cranial sutures permit human skulls to grow to maturity. Expansion is shown by the Asian and Australian trenches, from Kamchatka to the Marianas, and from Samoa to the tip of Macquarie Ridge south of New Zealand, that are mirror images of the western coasts of North and South America. This is clear evidence neither the Atlantic nor the Pacific Ocean existed 250 Ma when Earth was much smaller. In just 250 Ma external accretion and internal core expansion increased Earth's diameter from 7640 km to 12,735 km and increased total surface area to 361,060,000 sq. km, the area occupied by today's oceans-oceans that did not exist 250 Ma when Earth was slightly larger than Mars is today \\(6787 km\\). The fallacy of the nebular hypothesis did not become apparent until after Oliver and Isacks introduced the concept of subduction in 1967. Subduction was based on the false assumption that Earth's diameter is constant and unchanging, and spawned the theory of Plate Tectonics that "revolutionized" geophysics in a short period of time-a "revolution" destined for failure. Evidence is presented showing all solar bodies originate as comets \\(fragments of supernovae explosions\\) captured by the Sun that become meteoroids or asteroids by external accretion of meteorites and dust from over 370 known meteor streams.\\(Terentjeva, 1964\\) Accreation replaces the nebular hypothesis and rejuvenates Carey's Earth Expansion theory that, unfortunately, was pushed aside by plate tectonics because it lacked a plausible mechanism. However, expansion carries an ultimate threat to Mankind's tenure on Earth and exploration of Mars as the future home of Mankind takes on added significance.

  8. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...

  9. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...

  10. Building Sandcastles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø; Korsgaard, Steffen; Shumar, Wes

    of entrepreneurship education. Our theoretical and methodological approach builds on Actor-Network Theory. The empirical settings of our study consist of two entrepreneurship courses which differ in terms of temporal extension and physical setting. Data is collected using observation and interview techniques. Our...

  11. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  12. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency improvement...

  13. An electric and electromagnetic geophysical approach for subsurface investigation of anthropogenic mounds in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Tapete, Deodato; Cappuccini, Luca; Fanti, Riccardo

    2016-11-01

    Scientific interest in mounds as geomorphological features that currently represent topographic anomalies in flat urban landscapes mainly lies on the understanding of their origin, either purely natural or anthropogenic. In this second circumstance, another question is whether traces of lost buildings are preserved within the mound subsurface and can be mapped as remnants testifying past settlement. When these landforms have been modified in centuries for civilian use, structural stability is a further element of concern. To address these issues we applied a geophysical approach based on a very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) technique and two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (2D-ERT) and integrated it with well-established surface survey methods within a diagnostic workflow of structural assessment. We demonstrate the practical benefits of this method in the English Cemetery of Florence, Italy, whose mixed nature and history of morphological changes are suggested by archival records. The combination of the two selected geophysical techniques allowed us to overcome the physical obstacles caused by tomb density and to prevent interference from the urban vehicular traffic on the geophysical signals. Eighty-two VLF-EM profiles and five 2D-ERTs were collected to maximise the spatial coverage of the subsurface prospection, while surface indicators of instability (e.g., tomb tilt, location, and direction of ground fractures and wall cracks) were mapped by standard metric survey. High resistive anomalies (> 300 and 400 Ωm) observed in VLF-EM tomographies are attributed to remnants of the ancient perimeter wall that are still buried along the southern side of the mound. While no apparent correlation is found between the causes of tomb and ground movements, the crack pattern map supplements the overall structural assessment. The main outcome is that the northern portion of the retaining wall is classed with the highest hazard rate. The impact of this

  14. The Nirex Sellafield site investigation: the role of geophysical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir Wood, R.; Woo, G.; MacMillan, G.

    1992-01-01

    This report reviews the methods by which geophysical data are interpreted, and used to characterize the 3-D geology of a site for potential storage of radioactive waste. The report focuses on the NIREX site investigation at Sellafield, for which geophysical observations provide a significant component of the structural geological understanding. In outlining the basic technical principles of seismic data processing and interpretation, and borehole logging, an attempt has been made to identify errors, uncertainties, and the implicit use of expert judgement. To enhance the reliability of a radiological probabilistic risk assessment, recommendations are proposed for independent use of the primary NIREX geophysical site investigation data in characterizing the site geology. These recommendations include quantitative procedures for undertaking an uncertainty audit using a combination of statistical analysis and expert judgement. (author)

  15. Use of electrical geophysical methods for supporting agricultural practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditama, Iqbal F.; Widodo, Setiawan, Tedy; Bijaksana, Satria; Sanny, Teuku A.

    2017-07-01

    Geophysical methods have been increasingly popular for shallow and environmental studies worldwide. In particular an electrical geophysical method is helpful in soil investigation which focuses on an interval from the ground surface down to a depth of 2 meters. The instrument of electrical geophysics were developed and successfully applied to assist in precision agricultural practices worldwide, i.e. Europe, Russia, and US. Our group from Indonesia has modified a resistivity instrument that integrates with other components and could increase mobility in soil mapping. The instrument measures electrical resistivity, conductivity, and potential that can be used for agricultural applications. In addition, we created forward modelsto help us understand and detect limits of our target.

  16. Geophysical Investigations of Archaeological Resources in Southern Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda Ringe Pace; Gail Heath; Clark Scott; Carlan McDaniel

    2005-10-01

    At the Idaho National Laboratory and other locations across southern Idaho, geophysical tools are being used to discover, map, and evaluate archaeological sites. A variety of settings are being explored to expand the library of geophysical signatures relevant to archaeology in the region. Current targets of interest include: prehistoric archaeological features in open areas as well as lava tube caves, historical structures and activity areas, and emigrant travel paths. We draw from a comprehensive, state of the art geophysical instrumentation pool to support this work. Equipment and facilities include ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic and magnetic sensors, multiple resistivity instruments, advanced positioning instrumentation, state of the art processing and data analysis software, and laboratory facilities for controlled experiments.

  17. GEOPHYSICS. Layered deformation in the Taiwan orogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T-Y; Gung, Y; Kuo, B-Y; Chiao, L-Y; Chen, Y-N

    2015-08-14

    The underthrusting of continental crust during mountain building is an issue of debate for orogens at convergent continental margins. We report three-dimensional seismic anisotropic tomography of Taiwan that shows a nearly 90° rotation of anisotropic fabrics across a 10- to 20-kilometer depth, consistent with the presence of two layers of deformation. The upper crust is dominated by collision-related compressional deformation, whereas the lower crust of Taiwan, mostly the crust of the subducted Eurasian plate, is dominated by convergence-parallel shear deformation. We interpret this lower crustal shearing as driven by the continuous sinking of the Eurasian mantle lithosphere when the surface of the subducted plate is coupled with the orogen. The two-layer deformation clearly defines the role of subduction in the formation of the Taiwan mountain belt. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Teaching Computational Geophysics Classes using Active Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keers, H.; Rondenay, S.; Harlap, Y.; Nordmo, I.

    2016-12-01

    We give an overview of our experience in teaching two computational geophysics classes at the undergraduate level. In particular we describe The first class is for most students the first programming class and assumes that the students have had an introductory course in geophysics. In this class the students are introduced to basic Matlab skills: use of variables, basic array and matrix definition and manipulation, basic statistics, 1D integration, plotting of lines and surfaces, making of .m files and basic debugging techniques. All of these concepts are applied to elementary but important concepts in earthquake and exploration geophysics (including epicentre location, computation of travel time curves for simple layered media plotting of 1D and 2D velocity models etc.). It is important to integrate the geophysics with the programming concepts: we found that this enhances students' understanding. Moreover, as this is a 3 year Bachelor program, and this class is taught in the 2nd semester, there is little time for a class that focusses on only programming. In the second class, which is optional and can be taken in the 4th or 6th semester, but often is also taken by Master students we extend the Matlab programming to include signal processing and ordinary and partial differential equations, again with emphasis on geophysics (such as ray tracing and solving the acoustic wave equation). This class also contains a project in which the students have to write a brief paper on a topic in computational geophysics, preferably with programming examples. When teaching these classes it was found that active learning techniques, in which the students actively participate in the class, either individually, in pairs or in groups, are indispensable. We give a brief overview of the various activities that we have developed when teaching theses classes.

  19. Learning about hydrothermal volcanic activity by modeling induced geophysical changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currenti, Gilda M.; Napoli, Rosalba

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by ongoing efforts to understand the nature and the energy potential of geothermal resources, we devise a coupled numerical model (hydrological, thermal, mechanical), which may help in the characterization and monitoring of hydrothermal systems through computational experiments. Hydrothermal areas in volcanic regions arise from a unique combination of geological and hydrological features which regulate the movement of fluids in the vicinity of magmatic sources capable of generating large quantities of steam and hot water. Numerical simulations help in understanding and characterizing rock-fluid interaction processes and the geophysical observations associated with them. Our aim is the quantification of the response of different geophysical observables (i.e. deformation, gravity and magnetic field) to hydrothermal activity on the basis of a sound geological framework (e.g. distribution and pathways of the flows, the presence of fractured zones, caprock). A detailed comprehension and quantification of the evolution and dynamics of the geothermal systems and the definition of their internal state through a geophysical modeling approach are essential to identify the key parameters for which the geothermal system may fulfill the requirements to be exploited as a source of energy. For the sake of illustration only, the numerical computations are focused on a conceptual model of the hydrothermal system of Vulcano Island by simulating a generic 1-year unrest and estimating different geophysical changes. We solved (i) the mass and energy balance equations of flow in porous media for temperature, pressure and density changes, (ii) the elastostatic equation for the deformation field and (iii) the Poisson’s equations for gravity and magnetic potential fields. Under the model assumptions, a generic unrest of 1-year engenders on the ground surface low amplitude changes in the investigated geophysical observables, that are, however, above the accuracies of the modern

  20. Solar wind monitor—a school geophysics project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian

    2018-05-01

    Described is an established geophysics project to construct a solar wind monitor based on a nT resolution fluxgate magnetometer. Low-cost and appropriate from school to university level it incorporates elements of astrophysics, geophysics, electronics, programming, computer networking and signal processing. The system monitors the earth’s field in real-time uploading data and graphs to a website every few minutes. Modular design encourages construction and testing by teams of students as well as expansion and refinement. The system has been tested running unattended for months at a time. Both the hardware design and software is published as open-source [1, 10].

  1. Annals of the international geophysical year ionospheric drift observations

    CERN Document Server

    Rawer, K; Beloussov, V V; Beynon, W J G

    2013-01-01

    Annals of the International Geophysical Year, Volume 33: Results of Ionospheric Drift Observations describes the systematic changes in individual ionospheric observations during the International Geophysical Year (IGY). This book is composed of four chapters, and begins with a presentation of the general data on stations and the lists of publications concerning drift work during IGY/IGC. The next chapter contains the results obtained mainly by intercomparison of the time shift between fadings observed on three antenna separated by a distance of roughly a wavelength. These data are followed by

  2. The relationship of fractals in geophysics to 'the new science'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Many phenomena in geophysics satisfy fractal statistics, examples range from the frequency-area statistics of earthquakes to the time series of the earth's magnetic field. Solutions to classical differential equations cannot give this type of behavior. Several 'cellular automata' models have successfully reproduced the observed statistics. For example, the slider-block model for earthquakes. Stephen Wolfram's recent book A New Kind of Science sets forth a 'new science' based on cellular automata. This paper discusses the role of cellular automata in geophysics

  3. Integrated Geophysical Survey on Deák Ferenc Sluice in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanli, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    ALI ISMET KANLI1*, G. TALLER2, Z. PRONAY2, P. TILDY2, P. NAGY3, E. TOROS2 *1Istanbul University, Turkey, kanli@istanbul.edu.tr, 2Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary,3MinGeo, Hungary The Ferenc Channel is one of the main irrigation and ship channel in south of Hungary, existing from 1801. The water level is controlled by the Deák Ferenc Sluice in the channel which was constructed in 1875. At that time, the sluice was unique in Europe with its two channels and brick-walls. The west channel was used for controlling the amount of water and the east channel was used for shipping. In the study, before starting to the restoration and reinforcement plannings at the sluice, non-destructive geophysical investigations were executed. In the first stage, ultra-high frequency seismic (80 kHz) and acoustic (5 kHz) investigations of the floor slab were carried out from a boat on the water level. Due to the water level was approximately 2 m, we could use the advantage of the water ensuring very good coupling with seismic sensors for high frequency seismic and acoustic measurements. In the second stage, resistivity measurements were carried out in the eastern part of the sluice which was used as the shipping channel. Three profiles were measured to map the resistivity distribution of the slab. In the third stage, for better understanding the stability conditions of the walls and easy to compare with the data of GPR measurements, the wall of the sluice were investigated by a simple seismic direct wave method using seismic P-waves for mapping seismic velocities. The last stage of the survey was the GPR measurements that were carried out both on the walls and on the slab of the sluice. During the investigation, the channels were empty and without water. The integrated survey and the interpretation of the results showed us that there were some faults, cracks and voids in the slab existed in the whole grossness of the slab and the brick walls were builded from inhomogenous

  4. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  5. Towards an Operational Use of Geophysics for Archaeology in Henan (China: Methodological Approach and Results in Kaifeng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Masini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues in buried archeological sites especially if characterized by intense human activity, complex structures, and several constructive phases, is: to what depth conduct the excavation? The answer depends on a number of factors, among these one of the most important is the a priori and reliable knowledge of what the subsoil can preserve. To this end, geophysics (if used in strong synergy with archaeological research can help in the planning of time, depth, and modes of excavation also when the physical characteristics of the remains and their matrix are not ideal for archaeo-geophysical applications. This is the case of a great part of the archaeological sites in Henan, the cradle of the most important cultures in China and the seat of several capitals for more than two millennia. There, the high depth of buried remains covered by alluvial deposits and the building materials, mainly made by rammed earth, did not favor the use of geophysics. In this paper, we present and discuss the GPR and ERT prospection we conducted in Kaifeng (Henan, China, nearby a gate of the city walls dated to the Northern Song Dynasty. The integration of GPR and ERT provided useful information for the identification and characterization of archaeological remains buried at different depths. Actually, each geophysical technique, GPR frequency (used for the data acquisition as well as each way to analyze and visualize the results (from radargrams to time slice only provided partial information of little use if alone. The integration of the diverse techniques, data processing and visualization enabled us to optimize the penetration capability, the resolution for the detection of archaeological features and their interpretation. Finally, the results obtained from the GPR and ERT surveys were correlated with archaeological stratigraphy, available nearby the investigated area. This enabled us to further improve the interpretation of results from GPR and ERT

  6. Intercomparison of IRS-P4-MSMR derived geophysical products ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ∗e-mail: atul−varma@hotmail.com. In this paper, MSMR geophysical products like Integrated Water Vapour (IWV), Ocean Surface. Wind Speed (OWS) and Cloud Liquid Water (CLW) in different grids of 50, 75 and 150kms are compared with similar products available from other satellites like DMSP-SSM/I and TRMM-. TMI.

  7. Solvable Model for Dynamic Mass Transport in Disordered Geophysical Media

    KAUST Repository

    Marder, M.

    2018-03-29

    We present an analytically solvable model for transport in geophysical materials on large length and time scales. It describes the flow of gas to a complicated absorbing boundary over long periods of time. We find a solution to this model using Green\\'s function techniques, and apply the solution to three absorbing networks of increasing complexity.

  8. Geophysical Study of Lithologies Attributes At Isihor Village, Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These attributes include depth, thickness of lithologies or rock types beneath the sea level or earth's surface. Geophysical prospect of lithologies in this studied area is vital for many economic and environmental reasons for examples a large portion of the world's fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal are found in stratified ...

  9. Addressing the difficulty of changing fields in geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civilini, F.; Savage, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysics is a wonderfully diverse field of study, encompassing a variety of disciplines greatly different from one other. Even within the same discipline, various branches of study can have drastically different vocabulary and methodologies. The difficulty of breaking this "jargon" barrier is also an important reminder for scientists of how critical it is to clearly and concisely convey information. This presentation will focus on strategies that students can focus on to ease a transition between fields in geophysics. I believe that a student changing disciplines should proceed in the following steps: [1] Do a cursory literature review to find a review paper of the desired topic and work backwards through the details until a level of understanding or recognition is reached, [2] Obtain a clear physical understanding of the data and methods of the proposed study, and [3] Establish a support network through the research group or elsewhere which will recognize the areas in which the student is behind and offer remedies in a supportive and productive manner. These strategies are based on my own personal experience changing from music to geophysics in my undergrad and working on projects spanning various subdisciplines of geophysics during my Masters and PhD. It is worthwhile for research groups to spend the time to mentor students switching from other disciplines because those students will in time be able to observe the research in a different way than their peers, and easily adapt to changes of direction within the research.

  10. Informing groundwater models with near-surface geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herckenrath, Daan

    CHI-approach was developed, called CHI-P (Parameter), which applies coupling constraints between the geophysical and hydrologic model parameters. A CHI-P was used to estimate hydraulic conductivities and geological layer elevations for a synthetic groundwater model using Time-Domain Electromagnetic...

  11. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Program report, 1990--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.; Albritton, J.R.; MacGregor, P.M.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes research programs from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory from 1990--1991 in atmospheric chemistry and geophysics. Programs such as mathematical modeling of atmospheric dispersions of pollutants and radionuclides,tropospheric chemistry, clouds, climate models, and the effects of atmospheric trace constiuents on ozone are described

  12. Geophysical outlook. Part 8. Interactive interpretation comes of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.R. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    Computer-aided analysis is the obvious solution to handling the large volumes of geophysical data being generated by today's explorationists. When coupled with new developments in display devices, computer technology is particularly relevant to interactive interpretation of seismic data, particularly for mapping, three-dimensional graphics, and color-coding purpposes.

  13. Comparing plume characteristics inferred from cross-borehole geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Eline Bojsen; Binley, Andrew; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms

    2012-01-01

    significantly influences results of the moment analysis. We compare results of three cross-borehole geophysical approaches for imaging tracer migration arising from a point injection of water in the unsaturated zone: three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), two-dimensional ground...

  14. Hydrogeological-Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Site Characterization - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Yoram

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to increase water savings and show better ecological control of natural vegetation by developing hydrogeological-geophysical methods for characterizing the permeability and content of water in soil. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) tool was developed and used as the surface geophysical method for monitoring water content. Initial results using the tool suggest that surface GPR is a viable technique for obtaining precision volumetric water content profile estimates, and that laboratory-derived petrophysical relationships could be applied to field-scale GPR data. A field-scale bacterial transport study was conducted within an uncontaminated sandy Pleistocene aquifer to evaluate the importance of heterogeneity in controlling the transport of bacteria. Geochemical, hydrological, geological, and geophysical data were collected to characterize the site prior to and after chemical and bacterial injection experiments. Study results shows that, even within the fairly uniform shallow marine deposits of the narrow channel focus area, heterogeneity existed that influenced the chemical tracer transport over lateral distances of a few meters and vertical distances of less than a half meter. The interpretation of data suggest that the incorporation of geophysical data with limited hydrological data may provide valuable information about the stratigraphy, log conductivity values, and the spatial correlation structure of log conductivity, which have traditionally been obtainable only by performing extensive and intrusive hydrological sampling.

  15. Prediction of gravity anomalies for geophysical exploration | Idowu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where the density of the available gravity anomalies is not enough, for a particular purpose of geophysical exploration, more gravity stations can be established within the surveyed area and the gravity anomalies observed for these stations. In some cases, where observations of gravity anomalies are not possible due, ...

  16. Geophysical investigation of the causes of highway failures in Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is hereby recommended that the clay zones be replaced with more competent sands. The road should be built to specification with high quality materials and also drainage be included in the ongoing expansion and construction work. Keywords: Highway, Geophysical Survey, Failed portion, Stable portion, Geological ...

  17. Geophysical characterisation of the groundwater-surface water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, P. J.; Chambers, J. E.; Uhlemann, S. S.; Binley, A.

    2017-11-01

    Interactions between groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) have important implications for water quantity, water quality, and ecological health. The subsurface region proximal to SW bodies, the GW-SW interface, is crucial as it actively regulates the transfer of nutrients, contaminants, and water between GW systems and SW environments. However, geological, hydrological, and biogeochemical heterogeneity in the GW-SW interface makes it difficult to characterise with direct observations. Over the past two decades geophysics has been increasingly used to characterise spatial and temporal variability throughout the GW-SW interface. Geophysics is a powerful tool in evaluating structural heterogeneity, revealing zones of GW discharge, and monitoring hydrological processes. Geophysics should be used alongside traditional hydrological and biogeochemical methods to provide additional information about the subsurface. Further integration of commonly used geophysical techniques, and adoption of emerging techniques, has the potential to improve understanding of the properties and processes of the GW-SW interface, and ultimately the implications for water quality and environmental health.

  18. Overview of Effective Geophysical Methods Used in the Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Application of various Geophysical Techniques for the assessment of the extent of environmental, groundwater and soil contamination by hazardous wastes have received the attention of a number of studies using various techniques some of which are ineffective. Consequently, this paper identified nine more effective ...

  19. Geophysics report of Santa Rosa place Canelones province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.; Mari, C.; Lema, F.

    1985-01-01

    The Geophysical Division of the DINAMIGE has carried out several vertical electric well of long reach, with the purpose of estimating the basaltic mantel power of Arapey Formation , the thickness of the deep Tacuarembo Yaguari aquifer and the depth of the crystalline basement.

  20. Analysis Of Pore Pressure Using Geophysical Methods | Dosumnu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many methods have been devised for predicting and evaluating the values of pore pressure in oil and gas formations. The present work employs geophysical approach for prediction of formation pore pressure in Niger Delta. This involved the use of seismic derived data before drilling operation, which was correlated with ...

  1. Geophysics of an Oceanic Ice Shell on Snowball Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    Kirschvink proposed Precambrian low-latitude glaciation could result in an albedo-driven catastrophic runaway to a "Snowball Earth" state in which pack ice up to 1 km thick covered the world ocean. The geophysical state of an ice crust on a Snowball Earth is examined.

  2. Intercomparison of IRS-P4-MSMR derived geophysical products ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, MSMR geophysical products like Integrated Water Vapour (IWV), Ocean Surface Wind Speed (OWS) and Cloud Liquid Water (CLW) in different grids of 50, 75 and 150 kms are compared with similar products available from other satellites like DMSP-SSM/I and TRMM- TMI. MSMR derived IWV, OWS and CLW ...

  3. Aspects of Geophysical Exploration for Groundwater Using Vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A geophysical survey using vertical electrical sounding (VES) was undertaken within the University of Benin (Ugbowo Campus) in an attempt to ascertain aspects of the hydrogeological parameters for groundwater exploitation. Six (6) vertical electrical soundings with electrode spacing of 215m AB/2 were occupied along ...

  4. The application of geophysics in environmental impact assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical study using the Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding (VES) was conducted with half current electrode spacing ranging from 1-215m. Also five boreholes were drilled to the depths, 15.2-30m close to five of the VES locations for the purpose of comparing the derived geoelectric sections from VES curves with ...

  5. Geophysical investigation of the old Gaborone dumpsite, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A surface geophysical investigation consisting of electromagnetic (EM) and resistivity survey techniques was carried out on the Gaborone old dumpsite that was commissioned in 1982 and decommissioned in 1992. The aim of the study was to map the physical boundaries of the decommissioned dumpsite, map the ...

  6. Geophysical Study of Aquifer Properties at Isihor Village of Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten (10) vertical electrical sounding (VES) (uniformly distributed) based on electrical resistivity method was carried out in a geophysical survey in order to study aquifer properties. These properties include depth, thickness and nature of soil above the aquifer. Schlumberger array of VES was conducted in Isihor Village and ...

  7. Geophysical study of the aquifer characteristics along River Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical survey was carried out in order to study aquifer characteristics (such as the depth, thickness and nature of soil materials above it) in the major communities along River Nigeria. Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding was conducted at Anieze, Obeza, Asaba-Okpai, Akashakpu, Obobo-Oyibo, Okpai, Oluchi, ...

  8. Engineering geophysical study of the convocation square, Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical investigation for engineering studies was carried out at the convocation square of Kaduna State University (KASU) main campus, Kaduna state, which falls within the Basement Complex of North-Western Nigeria. The study is aimed at assisting in the planning and development process of civil engineering ...

  9. Geophysical Monitoring of Two types of Subsurface Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nano-scale particles of zero-valent iron (ZVI) were injected into the subsurface at the 100-D area of the DOE Hanford facility. The intent of this iron injection was to repair a gap in the existing in-situ redox manipulation barrier located at the site. A number of geophysical me...

  10. Geophysical Assessment of Two Collapsed and Concealed Septic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A geophysical study was carried out in the vicinity of two collapsed and concealed septic tanks to delineate the structures responsible for their failure. Two-dimensional resistivity and seismic refraction tomography data were collected along a profile laid across the septic tanks. The data were collected using ABEM ...

  11. Impacts of geo-physical factors and human disturbance on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the Xiaomengyang Section of Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve (XNR) using multivariate analysis to understand the impacts of geo-physical factors and human disturbance on vegetation along the highway corridor. We found that native forests were the best habitat for protected/endangered species and native species.

  12. Geophysical and geotechnical evaluation of foundation conditions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical and geotechnical evaluation of foundation conditions of a site in Ago-Iwoye area, southwestern Nigeria. NO Adebisi, MO Oluruntola. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 42(1) 2006: 79-84. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  13. Detecting Underground Mine Voids Using Complex Geophysical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, V. F.; Harbert, W. P.; Hammack, R. W.; Ackman, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    In July 2006, the National Energy Technology Laboratory in collaboration with Department of Geology and Planetary Science, University of Pittsburgh conducted complex ground geophysical surveys of an area known to be underlain by shallow coal mines. Geophysical methods including electromagnetic induction, DC resistivity and seismic reflection were conducted. The purpose of these surveys was to: 1) verify underground mine voids based on a century-old mine map that showed subsurface mine workings georeferenced to match with present location of geophysical test-site located on the territory of Bruceton research center in Pittsburgh, PA, 2) deliniate mine workings that may be potentially filled with electrically conductive water filtrate emerging from adjacent groundwater collectors and 3) establish an equipment calibration site for geophysical instruments. Data from electromagnetic and resistivity surveys were further processed and inverted using EM1DFM, EMIGMA or Earthimager 2D capablilities in order to generate conductivity/depth images. Anomaly maps were generated, that revealed the locations of potential mine openings.

  14. Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A review. IB Osazuwa, NK Abdulahi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol. 20 (1) 2008: pp.163-174. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. Marine geophysical studies off Karwar, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Ramana, M.V.; SubbaRaju, L.V.

    Geophysical studies of the southwestern continental margin revealed significant surface and subsurface topographic highs (ridges) trending NNW-SSE to NW-Se beyond the shelf break. Residual magnetic anomaly map depicts prominent NNW-SSE, NW-SE and E...

  16. Geophysical fingerprints of shallow cultural structures from microgravity and GPR measurements in the Church of St. George, Svätý Jur, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panisova, Jaroslava; Murín, Igor; Pašteka, Roman; Haličková, Jana; Brunčák, Peter; Pohánka, Vladimír; Papčo, Juraj; Milo, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Recording of the historic edifice using the state-of-the-art geodetic and geophysical techniques brings easier visualisation in form of a three-dimensional (3D) model, thus allowing better understanding of its historical construction by the public and non-experts. We have applied this approach at the Church of St. George, one of the most significant religious buildings in south-western Slovakia, which dominates a silhouette of the town Svätý Jur. The geodetic survey allowed to record the actual state of the church. The church exterior was surveyed using a total station. Due to the intricate shape of the interior components of the church, it was decided to use a terrestrial laser scanner to generate the point cloud data, which were processed into floor plan, elevations, sectional 2D drawings and 3D model. The geophysical survey was carried out in the interior of the church in order to identify potential subsurface anthropogenic structures. Microgravity and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were selected as the most effective geophysical tools for such task. In microgravity data processing we focused on the calculation and removal of the gravitational effects of the building masses. The main negative gravity anomalies of interest in the nave, which also have been confirmed by GPR measurements, are interpreted as medieval crypts. Another very important outcome of the geophysical survey is the discovery of the west wall foundations of the oldest Romanesque construction. From each geophysical data acquired we derived 3D polygonal models, which are compared to achieve more realistic picture of the subsurface structures. Verification of these structures by means of archaeological excavation has not been carried out yet.

  17. COTHERM: Geophysical Modeling of High Enthalpy Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grab, Melchior; Maurer, Hansruedi; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2014-05-01

    In recent years geothermal heating and electricity generation have become an attractive alternative energy resource, especially natural high enthalpy geothermal systems such as in Iceland. However, the financial risk of installing and operating geothermal power plants is still high and more needs to be known about the geothermal processes and state of the reservoir in the subsurface. A powerful tool for probing the underground system structure is provided by geophysical techniques, which are able to detect flow paths and fracture systems without drilling. It has been amply demonstrated that small-scale features can be well imaged at shallow depths, but only gross structures can be delineated for depths of several kilometers, where most high enthalpy systems are located. Therefore a major goal of our study is to improve geophysical mapping strategies by multi-method geophysical simulations and synthetic data inversions, to better resolve structures at greater depth, characterize the reservoir and monitor any changes within it. The investigation forms part of project COTHERM - COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geoTHERMal systems - in which a holistic and synergistic approach is being adopted to achieve multidisciplinary cooperation and mutual benefit. The geophysical simulations are being performed in combination with hydrothermal fluid flow modeling and chemical fluid rock interaction modeling, to provide realistic constraints on lithology, pressure, temperature and fluid conditions of the subsurface. Two sites in Iceland have been selected for the study, Krafla and Reykjanes. As a starting point for the geophysical modeling, we seek to establish petrophysical relations, connecting rock properties and reservoir conditions with geophysical parameters such as seismic wave speed, attenuation, electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility with a main focus on seismic properties. Therefore, we follow a comprehensive approach involving

  18. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  19. MLS/Aura L2 Diagnostics, Geophysical Parameter Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2DGG is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) product containing geophysical diagnostic quantities pertaining directly to the standard geophysical data...

  20. MLS/Aura L2 Diagnostics, Geophysical Parameter Grid V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2DGG is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) product containing geophysical diagnostic quantities pertaining directly to the standard geophysical data...

  1. Report of geophysical raising of the amethyst and agate in two quarries in Artigas district Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitmayr, G.; Gonzalez, C.; Torterolo, M.

    1989-01-01

    In a geophysical raising of amethyst and agate was studied the possibility to apply a better suitable geophysical method. The conclusion was that the electromagnetic VLF method was suitable to identify the zones.

  2. The application of geophysics in South African coal mining and exploration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available and miners has resulted in a shift in attitude towards the application of geophysics in local coal mining and exploration. Furthermore, technological advances have contributed to geophysics being embraced more readily by the coal mining industry, compared...

  3. MLS/Aura Level 2 Diagnostics, Geophysical Parameter Grid V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2DGG is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) product containing geophysical diagnostic quantities pertaining directly to the standard geophysical data...

  4. Sustainable building versus ecological building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available and sensitivity to a site that are required to efficiently meet the energy needs of a building and occupants with renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal, etc), designers must apply holistic design principles and take advantage of the free, naturally... monumental waste: the product which they deliver requires resources such as energy and water to operate over its entire life-cycle, a period measured in decades, and often in centuries. Throughout this process, construction activities often result...

  5. Integrating geophysics and hydrology for reducing the uncertainty of groundwater model predictions and improved prediction performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nikolaj Kruse; Christensen, Steen; Ferre, Ty

    constructed from geological and hydrological data. However, geophysical data are increasingly used to inform hydrogeologic models because they are collected at lower cost and much higher density than geological and hydrological data. Despite increased use of geophysics, it is still unclear whether......, ‘true’, hydrogeological and geophysical systems. The two types of ‘true’ systems can be used together with corresponding forward codes to generate hydrological and geophysical datasets, respectively. These synthetic datasets can be interpreted using any hydrogeophysical inversion scheme...

  6. Optimized Enhanced Bioremediation Through 4D Geophysical Monitoring and Autonomous Data Collection, Processing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    ER-200717) Optimized Enhanced Bioremediation Through 4D Geophysical Monitoring and Autonomous Data Collection, Processing and Analysis...N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optimized Enhanced Bioremediation Through 4D Geophysical Monitoring and Autonomous Data...8 2.1.2 The Geophysical Signatures of Bioremediation ......................................... 8 2.2 PRIOR

  7. Information-Theoretic Perspectives on Geophysical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Grey

    2016-04-01

    To test any hypothesis about any dynamic system, it is necessary to build a model that places that hypothesis into the context of everything else that we know about the system: initial and boundary conditions and interactions between various governing processes (Hempel and Oppenheim, 1948, Cartwright, 1983). No hypothesis can be tested in isolation, and no hypothesis can be tested without a model (for a geoscience-related discussion see Clark et al., 2011). Science is (currently) fundamentally reductionist in the sense that we seek some small set of governing principles that can explain all phenomena in the universe, and such laws are ontological in the sense that they describe the object under investigation (Davies, 1990 gives several competing perspectives on this claim). However, since we cannot build perfect models of complex systems, any model that does not also contain an epistemological component (i.e., a statement, like a probability distribution, that refers directly to the quality of of the information from the model) is falsified immediately (in the sense of Popper, 2002) given only a small number of observations. Models necessarily contain both ontological and epistemological components, and what this means is that the purpose of any robust scientific method is to measure the amount and quality of information provided by models. I believe that any viable philosophy of science must be reducible to this statement. The first step toward a unified theory of scientific models (and therefore a complete philosophy of science) is a quantitative language that applies to both ontological and epistemological questions. Information theory is one such language: Cox' (1946) theorem (see Van Horn, 2003) tells us that probability theory is the (only) calculus that is consistent with Classical Logic (Jaynes, 2003; chapter 1), and information theory is simply the integration of convex transforms of probability ratios (integration reduces density functions to scalar

  8. Hydro/Engineering Geophysical Parameters and Design Response Spectrum for Sustainable Development in Ras Muhammed National Park, Sinai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed H.; Gamal, Mohamed A.

    2016-06-01

    The Egyptian government is preparing a sustainable development master plan for the Ras Muhammed National Park (RMNP), south Sinai. Noteworthy, the scarcity of the freshwater resources and close proximity to the active seismic zones of the Gulf of Aqaba implicate geophysical investigations for the fresh groundwater aquifers and construct a design response spectrum, respectively. Accordingly, 14 VESs, hydro/engineering geophysical analysis, pumping tests, downhole seismic test, a design response spectrum for buildings, and borehole data were carried out in the study area. The unconfined freshwater aquifer was effectively depicted with true resistivities, thickness, and EC ranged from 56 to 135 Ω m, 11 to 112 m, and 1.4 to 7.1 mS/m, respectively. The Northeastern part was characterized by higher aquifer potentiality, where coarser grains size, highest thickness (112 m), high true resistivity (135 Ω m), groundwater flow (0.074 m3/day), tortuosity (1.293-1.312), formation resistivity factor (4.1-4.6), and storativity (0.281-0.276). An increase in pumping rate was accompanied by an increase in well loss, increase in aquifer losses, decrease in well specific capacity, and decrease in well efficiency. Design response spectrum prognosticated the short buildings (<7 floors) in RMNP to be suffering from a high peak horizontal acceleration and shear forces for acceleration between 0.25 and 0.35 g. Therefore, appropriate detailing of shear reinforcement is indispensable to reduce the risk of structural damages at RMNP.

  9. Influence of different fertiliztion and cultivation on geophysical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werban, U.; Kuka, K.; Ines, M.

    2007-12-01

    Applications of geophysical methods for agricultural use increased during the last years. Since there is mostly an indirect relationship between geophysical and soil parameters, geophysical measurements within soils lead generally to ambiguous results with respect to the desired information. Our investigations were conducted at the Static Experiment' Bad Lauchstaedt, which was laid out in 1902 with a major focus on examining the influence of organic and mineral fertilization on yield and quality of crops as well as on soil fertility. This site gives an excellent opportunity to study the correlations between geophysical measurements and soil parameters. The systematic design of the experiment consists of 18 fields with different management suited to investigate influence of mineral and organic fertiliztion, different developed carbon stocks and the impact of plants in terms of water availability on geophysical measurements. In our study we will present results from DC-geoelectrical measurements (profile length 80-160 m, electrode distance 0.5 m) at two different times, in August after harvest and in January. Additionally electromagnetical investigations with an EM38DD were conducted in January and extensive data sets of soil parameters (e.g., soil water content, particle sizes, carbon stocks) are available. Geophysical measurements show pattern that correlate with different fertilization. For investigation of parameter relationships a multicriterial evaluation of data sets is necessary. The analysis is performed with respect to the complex parameter dependencies; for example higher carbon content tends to a higher water storage capacity. Thus, at higher soil moisture contents a lower resistivity is measured. On the other side the surface plant growth is increased with a better supply level and the plants can take up more water. This water comes rather from the upper layers of the soil. The consequence is a higher resistivity despite higher carbon content or mineral

  10. Learning about Hydrothermal Volcanic Activity by Modeling Induced Geophysical Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda M. Currenti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by ongoing efforts to understand the nature and the energy potential of geothermal resources, we devise a coupled numerical model (hydrological, thermal, mechanical, which may help in the characterization and monitoring of hydrothermal systems through computational experiments. Hydrothermal areas in volcanic regions arise from a unique combination of geological and hydrological features which regulate the movement of fluids in the vicinity of magmatic sources capable of generating large quantities of steam and hot water. Numerical simulations help in understanding and characterizing rock-fluid interaction processes and the geophysical observations associated with them. Our aim is the quantification of the response of different geophysical observables (i.e., deformation, gravity, and magnetic fields to hydrothermal activity on the basis of a sound geological framework (e.g., distribution and pathways of the flows, the presence of fractured zones, caprock. A detailed comprehension and quantification of the evolution and dynamics of the geothermal systems and the definition of their internal state through a geophysical modeling approach are essential to identify the key parameters for which the geothermal system may fulfill the requirements to be exploited as a source of energy. For the sake of illustration only, the numerical computations are focused on a conceptual model of the hydrothermal system of Vulcano Island by simulating a generic 1-year unrest and estimating different geophysical changes. We solved (i the mass and energy balance equations of flow in porous media for temperature, pressure and density changes, (ii the elastostatic equation for the deformation field and (iii the Poisson's equations for gravity and magnetic potential fields. Under the model assumptions, a generic unrest of 1-year engenders on the ground surface low amplitude changes in the investigated geophysical observables, that, being above the accuracies of

  11. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics' Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course: A Hand-On Education Approach to Applied Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M. B.; Goff, J.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Fernandez, R.; Duncan, D.; Saustrup, S.

    2016-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, Jackson School of Geosciences, offers a 3-week marine geology and geophysics field course. The course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling and analysis. Students first participate in 3 days of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work at locations that provide an opportunity to investigate coastal and continental shelf processes. Teams of students rotate between UTIG's 26' R/V Scott Petty and NOAA's 82' R/V Manta. They assist with survey design, instrumentation set up, and learn about acquisition, quality control, and safe instrument deployment. Teams also process data and analyze samples in onshore field labs. During the final week teams integrate, interpret, and visualize data in a final project using industry-standard software. The course concludes with team presentations on their interpretations with academic and industry supporters. Students report a greater understanding of marine geology and geophysics through the course's intensive, hands-on, team approach and high instructor/student ratio (sixteen students, three faculty, and three teaching assistants). Post-class, students may incorporate course data in senior honors or graduate thesis and are encouraged to publish and present results at national meetings. This course (to our knowledge) remains the only one of its kind, satisfies field experience requirements for some degree programs, and provides an alternative to land-based field courses. Alumni note the course's applicability to energy, environmental, and geotechnical industries as well as coastal restoration/management fields.

  12. Application of fuzzy C-means clustering to geophysical transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allshouse, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Lagrangian techniques have been used to identify the underlying structures of time varying flows. The fuzzy C-means trajectory clustering is one such approach, which is based on the partitioning of trajectories into sets that remain close in Euclidean space throughout the interval of study. We apply this method first to an analytic geophysical system to determine a procedure that produces robust clusters and to determine characteristics of systems suitable for fuzzy C-means analysis. One challenge of the method is the initial seeding dependence of clustering results, which requires multiple implementations to confirm robustness. Direct comparison with the spectral clustering method demonstrates the limitations of applying the fuzzy C-means method to systems with a large number of coherent structures. We then apply our procedure to a geophysical fluid dynamics numerical simulation to visualize the dominant mechanism of transport.

  13. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Buoyant Convection in Geophysical Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorovich, E; Viegas, D; Wyngaard, J

    1998-01-01

    Studies of convection in geophysical flows constitute an advanced and rapidly developing area of research that is relevant to problems of the natural environment. During the last decade, significant progress has been achieved in the field as a result of both experimental studies and numerical modelling. This led to the principal revision of the widely held view on buoyancy-driven turbulent flows comprising an organised mean component with superimposed chaotic turbulence. An intermediate type of motion, represented by coherent structures, has been found to play a key role in geophysical boundary layers and in larger scale atmospheric and hydrospheric circulations driven by buoyant forcing. New aspects of the interaction between convective motions and rotation have recently been discovered and investigated. Extensive experimental data have also been collected on the role of convection in cloud dynamics and microphysics. New theoretical concepts and approaches have been outlined regarding scaling and parameteriz...

  14. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This report contains the results of a three year, three-phase project whose long-range goal has been to create a means for the more detailed and accurate definition of the near-surface (0--300 ft) geology beneath a site that had been subjected to environmental pollution. The two major areas of research and development have been: improved geophysical field data acquisition techniques; and analytical tools for providing the total integration (fusion) of all site data. The long-range goal of this project has been to mathematically, integrate the geophysical data that could be derived from multiple sensors with site geologic information and any other type of available site data, to provide a detailed characterization of thin clay layers and geological discontinuities at hazardous waste sites

  15. Spectral analysis and filter theory in applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Buttkus, Burkhard

    2000-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the fundamentals and methods of spectral analysis and filter theory and their appli­ cations in geophysics. The principles and theoretical basis of the various methods are described, their efficiency and effectiveness eval­ uated, and instructions provided for their practical application. Be­ sides the conventional methods, newer methods arediscussed, such as the spectral analysis ofrandom processes by fitting models to the ob­ served data, maximum-entropy spectral analysis and maximum-like­ lihood spectral analysis, the Wiener and Kalman filtering methods, homomorphic deconvolution, and adaptive methods for nonstation­ ary processes. Multidimensional spectral analysis and filtering, as well as multichannel filters, are given extensive treatment. The book provides a survey of the state-of-the-art of spectral analysis and fil­ ter theory. The importance and possibilities ofspectral analysis and filter theory in geophysics for data acquisition, processing an...

  16. Application of comprehensive geophysical prospecting method in groundwater exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Gao, Pengju; Li, Dong; Ma, Hanwen; Cheng, Guoliang

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of shortage of water resources in northern Shaanxi, we selected rectangular large loop source transient electromagnetic method with high water affinity, and radioactive α measurement method which can delineate the water storage structure, comprehensive geophysical prospecting methods to look for groundwater. Algorithm has established a forward model, and compared all-time apparent resistivity in late-time apparent resistivity is better than late. We can find out the exact location of the groundwater and thus improving wells rate by comparatively using these two kinds of geophysical prospecting method. Hydrogeology drilling confirmed water inflow of a single well can be up to 40 m 3/h, it can fully cover native Domestic and Agricultural water, and provide an important basis for groundwater exploration.

  17. Simulated geophysical monitoring of radioactive waste repository barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukov, Anton

    Estimation of attenuation of the elastic waves in clays and high clay-content rocks is important for the quality of geophysical methods relying on processing the recorded waveforms. Time-lapse imaging is planned to be employed for monitoring of the condition of high-radioactive waste repositories. Engineers can analyze and optimize configuration of the monitoring system using numerical modelling tools. The reliability of modeling requires proper calibration. The purpose of this thesis is threefold: (i) propose a calibration methodology for the wave propagation tools based on the experimental data, (ii) estimate the attenuation in bentonite as a function of temperature and water content, and (iii) investigate the feasibility of active sonic monitoring of the engineered barriers. The results suggest that pronounced inelastic behavior of bentonite has to be taken into account in geophysical modeling and analysis. The repository--scale models confirm that active sonic monitoring is capable of depicting physical changes in the bentonite barrier.

  18. Site investigation - equipment for geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Fridh, B.; Johansson, B.E.; Sehlstedt, M.

    1986-11-01

    The investigations are performed within a site investigation program. In total about 60,000 m of cored 56 mm boreholes have been drilled and investigated at eight study sites. A summarized description of the main investigation methods is included. Instruments for geophysical investigations contains equipment for ground measurements as well as for borehole logging. The Geophysical investigations including the borehole radar measurements, are indirect methods for the geological and hydrogeological characterization of the rock formation. Great effort has been laid on the development of hydrogeological instruments for hydraulic tests and groundwater head measurements. In order to obtain hydrochemical investigations with high quality, a complete system for sampling and analysis of ground water has been developed. (orig./PW)

  19. Geophysical study in waste landfill localized above fractured rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariveltom Cosme da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical survey is an important method for investigation of contaminated areas used in the characterization of contrasting physical properties in the presence of pollutants. This work applied the geophysical methods of Electrical Resistivity and Self Potential in waste landfill, located in Caçapava do Sul city, RS. The landfill is located over fractured metamorphic rocks. Eight lines of electrical profiling with 288 measures of self potential were done. In addition, 83 measurements of direction and dip of fractures were taken. The application of spontaneous potential method permitted to detect the direction of groundwater flow. The electrical resistivity measurements allowed the identification of low-intensity anomalies associated with the presence of leachate. There is a relationship between anomalous zones and the directions of fractures.

  20. Use of the radon gas as a natural geophysical tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Balcazar, M.; Flores R, J.H.; Lopez M, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work it is denoted the applications of the radon gas like a natural geophysical radiotracer in the different branches of the Earth Sciences (Geology, geophysics and geochemistry). It importance resides in its employment like one additional tool to register the possible occurrence of seismic events by means of radon anomalies that are presented in land movements (volcanic eruptions and presence of geothermal areas), as well as its potential in environmental works whose purpose is the evaluation of the feather of contamination in the underground water and the porous media for spills of hydrocarbons. The measurement techniques to determine the concentration of radon was carried out by means of Solid Detectors of Nuclear tracks, as well as by Liquid scintillation, Clipperton, Honeywell, AlphaGUARD. The towns where these techniques its were applied were: Mexico City, Estado de Mexico (Toluca, ININ), Jalisco (The Spring), Guerrero coast. (Author)

  1. SIAM conference on inverse problems: Geophysical applications. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This conference was the second in a series devoted to a particular area of inverse problems. The theme of this series is to discuss problems of major scientific importance in a specific area from a mathematical perspective. The theme of this symposium was geophysical applications. In putting together the program we tried to include a wide range of mathematical scientists and to interpret geophysics in as broad a sense as possible. Our speaker came from industry, government laboratories, and diverse departments in academia. We managed to attract a geographically diverse audience with participation from five continents. There were talks devoted to seismology, hydrology, determination of the earth`s interior on a global scale as well as oceanographic and atmospheric inverse problems.

  2. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report contains the results of a three year, three-phase project whose long-range goal has been to create a means for the more detailed and accurate definition of the near-surface (0--300 ft) geology beneath a site that had been subjected to environmental pollution. The two major areas of research and development have been: improved geophysical field data acquisition techniques; and analytical tools for providing the total integration (fusion) of all site data. The long-range goal of this project has been to mathematically, integrate the geophysical data that could be derived from multiple sensors with site geologic information and any other type of available site data, to provide a detailed characterization of thin clay layers and geological discontinuities at hazardous waste sites.

  3. Geophysical borehole logging. Final disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhiainen, P.

    1984-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (Industrial Power Company Ltd.) will take precautions for final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. The first stage of the site selection studies includes drilling of a deep borehole down to approximately 1000 meters in the year 1984. The report deals with geophysical borehole logging methods, which could be used for the studies. The aim of geophysical borehole logging methods is to descripe specially hydrogeological and structural features. Only the most essential methods are dealt with in this report. Attention is paid to the information produced with the methods, derscription of the methods, interpretation and limitations. The feasibility and possibilities for the aims are evaluated. The evaluations are based mainly on the results from Sweden, England, Canada and USA as well as experiencies gained in Finland

  4. TU1208 Open Database of Radargrams: The Dataset of the IFSTTAR Geophysical Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Dérobert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a wide dataset of ground penetrating radar (GPR profiles recorded on a full-size geophysical test site, in Nantes (France. The geophysical test site was conceived to reproduce objects and obstacles commonly met in the urban subsurface, in a completely controlled environment; since the design phase, the site was especially adapted to the context of radar-based techniques. After a detailed description of the test site and its building process, the GPR profiles included in the dataset are presented and commented on. Overall, 67 profiles were recorded along eleven parallel lines crossing the test site in the transverse direction; three pulsed radar systems were used to perform the measurements, manufactured by different producers and equipped with various antennas having central frequencies from 200 MHz to 900 MHz. An archive containing all profiles (raw data is enclosed to this paper as supplementary material. This dataset is the core part of the Open Database of Radargrams initiative of COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action TU1208 “Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar”. The idea beyond such initiative is to share with the scientific community a selection of interesting and reliable GPR responses, to enable an effective benchmark for direct and inverse electromagnetic approaches, imaging methods and signal processing algorithms. We hope that the dataset presented in this paper will be enriched by the contributions of further users in the future, who will visit the test site and acquire new data with their GPR systems. Moreover, we hope that the dataset will be made alive by researchers who will perform advanced analyses of the profiles, measure the electromagnetic characteristics of the host materials, contribute with synthetic radargrams obtained by modeling the site with electromagnetic simulators, and more in general share results achieved by applying their techniques on

  5. CzechGeo/EPOS - Distributed System of Permanent Observatory Measurements and Temporary Monitoring of Geophysical Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejda, Pavel; Čápová, Dana; Fischer, Tomáš; Kaláb, Zdeněk; Kostelecký, Jakub; Plicka, Vladimír; Stemberk, Josef; Špaček, Petr

    2016-04-01

    CzechGeo/EPOS is a distributed network of geoscience observations operated by the Czech research institutions and universities. The system consists of permanent observatories usually incorporated in global data networks, local stations or networks in areas significant in the long-term for basic research or applications and mobile stations which serve for repeated observations at selected points, or for field measurements, usually within the scope of large international projects. CzechGeo/EPOS is closely connected with the large European research infrastructure EPOS (European Plate Observing System) and its service covers continuous monitoring of geophysical fields on Czech territory and in selected areas abroad via long uninterrupted series of measurements on fixed sites, which are vital for understanding of Earth interior processes. The infrastructure is organized in 5 sections: Seismology, GNSS and Gravimetry, Geodynamics, Geomagnetism, Geological and Geophysical Databases. CzechGeo/EPOS provides user-friendly data access to global or regional data bases/repositories, including real-time data access whenever possible, transmits access to high-level products (e.g. waveform data, seismological bulletins and regional catalogues, geomagnetic indices) and integrates data in the frame of the Implementation Phase of the EPOS Project. CzechGeo/EPOS involves nearly all observational activities related to the solid Earth carried out by the Czech geoscience institutions and thus is indispensable for any geoscience research on our territory. Through participation in more than twenty global or regional networks CzechGeo/EPOS builds up close cooperation with European partners and contributes substantially to better understanding of the processes in the Earth's interior.

  6. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put......There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...

  7. SQUID use for Geophysics: finding billions of dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    Soon after their discovery, Jim Zimmerman saw the potential of using Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices, SQUIDs, for the study of Geophysics and undertook experiments to understand the magnetic phenomena of the Earth. However his early experiments were not successful. Nevertheless up to the early 1980's, some research effort in the use of SQUIDs for geophysics continued and many ideas of how you could use SQUIDs evolved. Their use was not adopted by the mining industry at that time for a range of reasons. The discovery of high temperature superconductors started a reinvigoration in the interest to use SQUIDs for mineral exploration. Several groups around the world worked with mining companies to develop both liquid helium and nitrogen cooled systems. The realisation of the achievable sensitivity that contributed to successful mineral discoveries and delineation led to real financial returns for miners. By the mid 2000's, SQUID systems for geophysics were finally being offered for sale by several start-up companies. This talk will tell the story of SQUID use in geophysics. It will start with the early work of the SQUID pioneers including that of Jim Zimmerman and John Clarke and will also cover the development since the early 1990's up to today of a number of magnetometers and gradiometers that have been successfully commercialised and used to create significant impact in the global resources industry. The talk will also cover some of the critical technical challenges that had to be overcome to succeed. It will focus mostly on magnetically unshielded systems used in the field although some laboratory-based systems will be discussed.

  8. Solution of reverse problems in nuclear geophysics (equivalent field method)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenbaum, A.A.; Polyachenko, A.L.; Yakubson, K.I.

    1982-06-01

    The approach to the solution of reverse problems in nuclear geophysics based on special integration of two nuclear methods of near similar physical nature is theoretically substantiated. Taking into account the required accuracy of the reverse problem solution such an approach substantially simplifies the interpretation algorithm. The effectiveness of the approach is illustrated by numerical calculations on the example of several complexes of nuclear methods.

  9. nuclear fuel strategies and environmental geophysics in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueksel, F. A.; Kanli, A. I.

    1997-01-01

    Geophysicists contribute their knowledge to the solution of many societal problems-seismic and volcanic risk, exploration and mapping to name a few. A field of special demand which has recently grown important is nuclear waste disposal. This article summarizes the background of nuclear waste disposal problem and how geophysicists are contributing to its solution and what kind of geophysical techniques are used to solve the nuclear waste disposal problem

  10. Modeling of Geological Objects and Geophysical Fields Using Haar Wavelets

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Dolgal

    2014-01-01

    This article is a presentation of application of the fast wavelet transform with basic Haar functions for modeling the structural surfaces and geophysical fields, characterized by fractal features. The multiscale representation of experimental data allows reducing significantly a cost of the processing of large volume data and improving the interpretation quality. This paper presents the algorithms for sectionally prismatic approximation of geological objects, for preliminary estimation of th...

  11. Geophysical Investigation in Support of Beaver Dam Comprehensive Seepage Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    versus distance) or as isoconductivity contours if data are obtained in a grid form. A more thorough discussion of the EM induction theory and...variations in the intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field and is defined as 10" oersteds . For reference, the nominal Earth’s magnetic field is...1965. Interoretation Theory in ADplied Geoohvsics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. Greenhouse, J. P. and Monier-Williams, M. 1985. "Geophysical

  12. Coherence between geophysical excitations and celestial pole offsets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ron, Cyril; Vondrák, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2011), s. 243-247 ISSN 1214-9705. [Czech-Polish Workshop on Recent Geodynamics of the Sudeten and Adjacent Areas. Třešť, 04.11.2010-06.11. 2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : geophysical excitations * celestial pole offsets * coherence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011

  13. Geophysical excitation of nutation - comparison of different models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jan; Ron, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2014), s. 193-200 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15943S Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : rotation of the Earth * geophysical excitations * geomagnetic jerks * celestial pole offsets * free core nutation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2014

  14. Smartphones - the Geophysics Lab in Your Students' Pocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaree, A.; Stein, S.; Saloor, N.; Elling, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Many interesting topics are hard to demonstrate in geophysics classes without costly equipment and logistic hassles. For instance, the speed of P-waves in the Earth's crust is usually calculated using printed seismic sections from published studies, giving students little insight into the recording process. This is mainly due to the complex, costly, and weather-dependent logistics of conducting seismic reflection experiments using arrays of - either purchased or borrowed - expensive seismometers and recording units. Smartphones, which students own and are (perhaps unduly) comfortable with, have many otherwise expensive instruments as built-in sensors. These instruments are nifty tools that make labs easier, faster, and more fun. We use smartphones in several labs in an introductory geophysics class. In one, students use their phones to measure the latitude and longitude of a point on campus. Combining the data shows a nice spread of positions illustrating the precision of measurements, spatial trends in the scatter, and even differences between Android and iPhone data. Hence concepts about data that are often presented with ideal theoretical examples emerge from the students' measurements. Another uses the phones' accelerometers and available software to measure the speed of P-waves using a linear array of smartphones/seismometers along a table, similar to the procedure used in reflection seismology. In a third, students used their smartphones in an elevator to measure the acceleration of gravity in a moving reference frame, and thus explore key concepts that arise in many geophysical applications. These three applications illustrate the potential for using smartphones in a wide variety of geophysics teaching, much as their value is being increasingly recognized in other educational applications. Here are some links to an instructions document and a video from the seismic experiment: Instructions: http://www.earth.northwestern.edu/ amir/202/smartphone

  15. Fusion of Geophysical Images in the Study of Archaeological Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitrou, A. A.; Petrou, M.; Tsokas, G. N.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents results from different fusion techniques between geophysical images from different modalities in order to combine them into one image with higher information content than the two original images independently. The resultant image will be useful for the detection and mapping of buried archaeological relics. The examined archaeological area is situated in Kampana site (NE Greece) near the ancient theater of Maronia city. Archaeological excavations revealed an ancient theater, an aristocratic house and the temple of the ancient Greek God Dionysus. Numerous ceramic objects found in the broader area indicated the probability of the existence of buried urban structure. In order to accurately locate and map the latter, geophysical measurements performed with the use of the magnetic method (vertical gradient of the magnetic field) and of the electrical method (apparent resistivity). We performed a semi-stochastic pixel based registration method between the geophysical images in order to fine register them by correcting their local spatial offsets produced by the use of hand held devices. After this procedure we applied to the registered images three different fusion approaches. Image fusion is a relatively new technique that not only allows integration of different information sources, but also takes advantage of the spatial and spectral resolution as well as the orientation characteristics of each image. We have used three different fusion techniques, fusion with mean values, with wavelets by enhancing selected frequency bands and curvelets giving emphasis at specific bands and angles (according the expecting orientation of the relics). In all three cases the fused images gave significantly better results than each of the original geophysical images separately. The comparison of the results of the three different approaches showed that the fusion with the use of curvelets, giving emphasis at the features' orientation, seems to give the best fused image

  16. Geophysical fluids, geomagnetic jerks, and their impact on Earth orientation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jan; Ron, Cyril

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 1 (2017), s. 51-60 ISSN 0373-3742. [National Conference of Astronomers of Serbia /17./. Belgrade, 23.09.2014-27.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15943S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Earth orientation * geophysical fluids * geomagnetic jerks Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography

  17. Geophysical survey at archaeological sites in northeastern Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Mateiciucová, Inna; Milo, Peter; Tencer, Tomáš; Vlach, Marek

    2011-01-01

    From August 25 to September 4, 2008, geophysical surveys were carried out at the Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze and Iron Age tell- and non-tell settlements in the Khabur region in Northeastern Syria (Syrian-Polish-Czech expedition) (Fig. 1). Four sites were prospected: Tell Arbid Abyad, Tell Arbid (West-hill), Khirbet Shane, Khirbet Bezi. The Scintrex Navmag SM-5 – Caesium Magnetometer was used for the measurement of the vertical gradient of the local magnetic field. The measurement resoluti...

  18. Cost-effective geophysical survey systems for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasbrouck, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    When planning a uranium exploration survey the question always arises as to how to take advantage of the different exploration methods and equipment for maximum probability of success. Discussed here are the choice of radiometric geophysical equipment, its effectiveness in identifying targets, its limitations, and the criteria for selection. Particular attention is given to systems that are suitable for the exploration programmes of small size and on a small budget, that are common in Latin America. (author)

  19. Geophysics-based method of locating a stationary earth object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM; Rohde, Steven B [Corrales, NM; Novak, James L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-05-20

    A geophysics-based method for determining the position of a stationary earth object uses the periodic changes in the gravity vector of the earth caused by the sun- and moon-orbits. Because the local gravity field is highly irregular over a global scale, a model of local tidal accelerations can be compared to actual accelerometer measurements to determine the latitude and longitude of the stationary object.

  20. Integrating geophysics and hydrology for reducing the uncertainty of groundwater model predictions and improved prediction performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nikolaj Kruse; Christensen, Steen; Ferre, Ty

    constructed from geological and hydrological data. However, geophysical data are increasingly used to inform hydrogeologic models because they are collected at lower cost and much higher density than geological and hydrological data. Despite increased use of geophysics, it is still unclear whether...... the integration of geophysical data in the construction of a groundwater model increases the prediction performance. We suggest that modelers should perform a hydrogeophysical “test-bench” analysis of the likely value of geophysics data for improving groundwater model prediction performance before actually...... collecting geophysical data. At a minimum, an analysis should be conducted assuming settings that are favorable for the chosen geophysical method. If the analysis suggests that data collected by the geophysical method is unlikely to improve model prediction performance under these favorable settings...

  1. Geophysical monitoring as an information source of rock massif behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Bláha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical measurements are an integral part of engineering-geological investigation where theypresent a wide range of useful information about the tested geological medium and about its geotechnicalqualities. Lately, repeated geophysical measurements in different time intervals have been used to judgethe changes occurring in the rock massif. These measurements bear the characteristics of total monitoring.This total monitoring contains series of repeated measurements and further an integrated spectrum of linkedactivities including evaluation, comparison with the warning state and making a decision about takingprecautions. From the range of geophysical methods and methodologies used for monitoring in full sensewe may mention, for example, continuous seismoacoustic measurements in mining constructions; (whichmay result even in recalling of the personnel, and further, also seismic measurements in the surroundingsof atomic power stations and measurements considering the protection against radioactive elements and their decay components.As a full monitoring we may also classify measurements in dumping sites with the aid of repeated geoelectrical measurements in the system of fixed electrodes under impermeable foils.These measurements are mostly carried out from time to time followed by taking immediate action when the foil is found damaged. In practice the term monitoring is used, although not very correctly, for all periodically repeated measurements, which do not result in taking action or interference, but supply a wide range of information about the rock massif behavior in time.

  2. Space Geodesy Monitoring Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere-solid Earth-core system (the 'global geophysical fluids') are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, oceanic and solid tides, hydrological water and idsnow redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. The temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have proven to be an effective tool in monitorihg certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in observing and understanding of these geodynamic effects. This paper will use several prominent examples to illustrate the triumphs in research over the past years under a 'Moore's law' in space geodesy. New space missions and projects promise to further advance our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as of the solid Earth's response to such changes in terms of Earth's mechanical properties.

  3. WLS software for the Los Alamos geophysical instrumentation truck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ideker, C.D.; LaDelfe, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's capabilities for special downhole geophysical well logging has increased steadily over the past few years. Software was developed originally for each individual tool as it became operational. With little or no standardization for tool software modules, software development became redundant, time consuming, and cost ineffective. With long-term use and the rapid evolution of well logging capacity in mind. Los Alamos and EG and G personnel decided to purchase a software system. The system was designed to offer: wide-range use and programming flexibility; standardization subroutines for tool module development; user friendly operation which would reduce training time; operator error checking and alarm activation; maximum growth capacity for new tools as they are added to the inventory; and the ability to incorporate changes made to the computer operating system and hardware. The end result is a sophisticated and flexible software tool and for transferring downhole geophysical measurement data to computer disk files. This paper outlines the need, design, development, and implementation of the WLS software for geophysical data acquisition. A demonstration and working examples are included in the presentation

  4. Reconsidering Volcanic Ocean Island Hydrology: Recent Geophysical and Drilling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. M.; Pierce, H. A.; Lautze, N. C.

    2017-12-01

    Recent results of geophysical surveys and exploratory drilling in Hawaii have suggested that Hawaii's hydrogeology may be more complex than has been generally recognized. Instead of a more-or-less homogeneous pile of highly permeable eruptive basalts that are intermittently punctuated by volcanic dikes confined to calderas and rift zones, we are finding that dike compartmentalization is occurring outside of recognized rift zones, leading to significantly higher volumes of stored groundwater within the island. Analysis of recent geophysical surveys have shown local water table elevations that are substantially higher than can be accounted for by the high hydraulic conductivities of Hawaiian basalts. Recent diamond wireline drilling results have also shown that sub-horizontal variations in permeability, associated with significant changes in eruptive character (e.g. explosive vs effusive activity) are acting as significant perching and confining bodies over significant aerial extents and suggest that these features also contribute to increased storage of recharge. Not only is storage much higher than previously assumed, these features appear to impact subsurface groundwater flow in ways that are not accounted for in traditional methods of computing sustainable yields for near shore aquifers: where buried confining formations extend to depths well below sea level, higher elevation recharge is being intercepted and diverted to deep submarine groundwater discharge well below depths that are typically investigated or quantified. We will provide a summary of the recent geophysical survey results along with a revised conceptual model for groundwater circulation within volcanic ocean islands.

  5. A positioning and data logging system for surface geophysical surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Blair, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) developed at ORNL is being adapted to work with two commercially available geophysical instruments: a magnetometer and an EM31 terrain conductivity meter. Geophysical surveys have proven an important preliminary step in investigating hazardous waste sites. Magnetometers and terrain conductivity meters are used to locate buried drums, trenches, conductive contaminant plumes and map regional changes in geology. About half the field time of a typical geophysical investigation is spent surveying the position of the grid points at which the measurements will be made. Additional time is lost and errors may be made recording instrument values in field notebooks and transcribing the data to a computer. Developed for gamma radiation surveys, the USRAD system keeps track of the surveyor's position automatically by triangulating on an ultrasonic transmitter carried in a backpack. The backpack also contains a radio transmitter that sends the instrument's reading coincident with the ultrasonic pulse. The surveyor's position and the instrument's reading are recorded by a portable computer which can plot the data to check the survey's progress. Electronic files are stored in a form compatible with AutoCAD to speed report writing. 7 refs., 3 figs

  6. Bringing 3D Printing to Geophysical Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghosian, A.; Turrin, M.; Porter, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    3D printing technology has been embraced by many technical fields, and is rapidly making its way into peoples' homes and schools. While there is a growing educational and hobbyist community engaged in the STEM focused technical and intellectual challenges associated with 3D printing, there is unrealized potential for the earth science community to use 3D printing to communicate scientific research to the public. Moreover, 3D printing offers scientists the opportunity to connect students and the public with novel visualizations of real data. As opposed to introducing terrestrial measurements through the use of colormaps and gradients, scientists can represent 3D concepts with 3D models, offering a more intuitive education tool. Furthermore, the tactile aspect of models make geophysical concepts accessible to a wide range of learning styles like kinesthetic or tactile, and learners including both visually impaired and color-blind students.We present a workflow whereby scientists, students, and the general public will be able to 3D print their own versions of geophysical datasets, even adding time through layering to include a 4th dimension, for a "4D" print. This will enable scientists with unique and expert insights into the data to easily create the tools they need to communicate their research. It will allow educators to quickly produce teaching aids for their students. Most importantly, it will enable the students themselves to translate the 2D representation of geophysical data into a 3D representation of that same data, reinforcing spatial reasoning.

  7. Seismic reliability of Reinforced Concrete buildings erected on hard soil nearby epicenter (case of Guerrero, Mexico)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Gómez , David ,

    2009-01-01

    With real information provided by Mexican Institution, we begin this research. The objective is to measure the indexes of reliability of reinforced concrete buildings subjected to real seismic forces with near epicenter, erected on hard soil. There is a need to assess the uncertainty affecting the buildings in the State of Guerrero, since geophysical researches estimate a GAP of area of 220x90 2 km , which will generate an earthquake of Magnitude Mw=8.4. We expect that the predominant period ...

  8. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  9. GeoFramework: A Modeling Framework for Solid Earth Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnis, M.; Aivazis, M.; Tromp, J.; Tan, E.; Thoutireddy, P.; Liu, Q.; Choi, E.; Dicaprio, C.; Chen, M.; Simons, M.; Quenette, S.; Appelbe, B.; Aagaard, B.; Williams, C.; Lavier, L.; Moresi, L.; Law, H.

    2003-12-01

    As data sets in geophysics become larger and of greater relevance to other earth science disciplines, and as earth science becomes more interdisciplinary in general, modeling tools are being driven in new directions. There is now a greater need to link modeling codes to one another, link modeling codes to multiple datasets, and to make modeling software available to non modeling specialists. Coupled with rapid progress in computer hardware (including the computational speed afforded by massively parallel computers), progress in numerical algorithms, and the introduction of software frameworks, these lofty goals of merging software in geophysics are now possible. The GeoFramework project, a collaboration between computer scientists and geoscientists, is a response to these needs and opportunities. GeoFramework is based on and extends Pyre, a Python-based modeling framework, recently developed to link solid (Lagrangian) and fluid (Eulerian) models, as well as mesh generators, visualization packages, and databases, with one another for engineering applications. The utility and generality of Pyre as a general purpose framework in science is now being recognized. Besides its use in engineering and geophysics, it is also being used in particle physics and astronomy. Geology and geophysics impose their own unique requirements on software frameworks which are not generally available in existing frameworks and so there is a need for research in this area. One of the special requirements is the way Lagrangian and Eulerian codes will need to be linked in time and space within a plate tectonics context. GeoFramework has grown beyond its initial goal of linking a limited number of exiting codes together. The following codes are now being reengineered within the context of Pyre: Tecton, 3-D FE Visco-elastic code for lithospheric relaxation; CitComS, a code for spherical mantle convection; SpecFEM3D, a SEM code for global and regional seismic waves; eqsim, a FE code for dynamic

  10. Virtual Geophysics Laboratory: Exploiting the Cloud and Empowering Geophysicsts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Ryan; Vote, Josh; Goh, Richard; Cox, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Over the last five decades geoscientists from Australian state and federal agencies have collected and assembled around 3 Petabytes of geoscience data sets under public funding. As a consequence of technological progress, data is now being acquired at exponential rates and in higher resolution than ever before. Effective use of these big data sets challenges the storage and computational infrastructure of most organizations. The Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (VGL) is a scientific workflow portal addresses some of the resulting issues by providing Australian geophysicists with access to a Web 2.0 or Rich Internet Application (RIA) based integrated environment that exploits eResearch tools and Cloud computing technology, and promotes collaboration between the user community. VGL simplifies and automates large portions of what were previously manually intensive scientific workflow processes, allowing scientists to focus on the natural science problems, rather than computer science and IT. A number of geophysical processing codes are incorporated to support multiple workflows. For example a gravity inversion can be performed by combining the Escript/Finley codes (from the University of Queensland) with the gravity data registered in VGL. Likewise, tectonic processes can also be modeled by combining the Underworld code (from Monash University) with one of the various 3D models available to VGL. Cloud services provide scalable and cost effective compute resources. VGL is built on top of mature standards-compliant information services, many deployed using the Spatial Information Services Stack (SISS), which provides direct access to geophysical data. A large number of data sets from Geoscience Australia assist users in data discovery. GeoNetwork provides a metadata catalog to store workflow results for future use, discovery and provenance tracking. VGL has been developed in collaboration with the research community using incremental software development practices and open

  11. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  12. Building trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Meriel

    1995-01-01

    'Activate' is the energy magazine for secondary schools and is part of the Education Programme which is managed on behalf of the British Nuclear Industry Forum by AEA Technology. activate is the flagship communication device between the British Nuclear Industry Forum's Education Programme and secondary schools in the UK. It was developed from a previous publication, Nuclear Bulletin. There is a need for the nuclear industry to build trust with teachers and students in the UK, where for a long time, everything that the industry has said, written or printed has been disregarded by school teachers as propaganda. Over the last few years the industry has put in a great deal of effort to position itself as a provider of educationally sound and socially acceptable information. 'Activate' was an evolution of this idea and there was a hole in the market for a lively, activity and article based magazine that could be used in the classroom. The target audience is principally teachers of science, mathematics and geography, but also includes teachers of art,, English and history with students of between 11 and 18. The results were very positive in that teachers appreciated the colourful and lively nature of activate and they felt that it provided information and opinions in an un biased and non-propagandist way. Their comments about layout, number of activities style of presentation were taken into account and during the summer of 1994 activate was remodelled ready for re launch in September. The feedback so far is good with more teachers signing up every week to receive their own free copy

  13. A Hands-on Approach to Teaching Geophysics through the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, D.; Davis, M. B.; Goff, J.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Fernandez-Vasquez, R. A.; Saustrup, S.

    2017-12-01

    The three week field course is offered to graduate and upper-level undergraduate students as hands-on instruction and training for marine geology and geophysics applications. Instructors provide theoretical and technical background of high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples in the initial phase of the course. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. Over the last 10 years, field sites at Freeport, Port Aransas, and Galveston, TX, and Grand Isle, LA, have provided ideal locations for students to explore and investigate coastal and continental shelf processes through the application of geophysical techniques. Students with various backgrounds work in teams of four and rotate between two marine vessels: the R/V Scott Petty, a 26' vessel owned and operated by UTIG, and the R/V Manta, an 82' vessel owned and operated by NOAA. They assist with survey design, instrumentation setup and breakdown, data acquisition, trouble-shooting, data quality control, and safe instrumentation deployment and recovery. Teams also process data and sediment samples in an onshore field lab. During the final week, students visualize, integrate and interpret data for a final project using industry software. The course concludes with final presentations and discussions wherein students examine Gulf Coast geological history and sedimentary processes with academic and industry supporters. Students report a greater understanding of marine geology and geophysics through the course's intensive, hands-on, team approach and low instructor to student ratio (sixteen students, three faculty, and three teaching assistants). Post-class, students may incorporate course data in senior honors or graduate thesis and are encouraged to publish and present results at national meetings. This course satisfies field experience requirements for

  14. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    Israel is a country with diverse and rapidly changeable environments where is localized a giant number of archaeological objects of various age, origin and size. The archaeological remains occur in a complex (multi-layered and variable) geological-archaeological media. It is obvious that direct archaeological excavations cannot be employed at all localized and supposed sites taking into account the financial, organizational, ecological and other reasons. Therefore, for delineation of buried archaeological objects, determination their physical-geometrical characteristics and classification, different geophysical methods are widely applied. The number of employed geophysical methodologies is constantly increasing and now Israeli territory may be considered as a peculiar polygon for various geophysical methods testing. The geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel could be tentatively divided on three stages: (1) past [- 1990] (e.g., Batey, 1987; Ben-Menahem, 1979; Dolphin, 1981; Ginzburg and Levanon, 1977; Karcz et al., 1977; Karcz and Kafri, 1978; Tanzi et al., 1983; Shalem, 1949; Willis, 1928), (2) present [1991 - 2008] (e.g., Bauman et al., 2005; Ben-Dor et al., 1999; Ben-Yosef et al., 2008; Berkovitch et al., 2000; Borradaile, 2003; Boyce et al., 2004; Bruins et al., 2003; Daniels et al., 2003; Ellenblum et al., 1998; Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000a, 2000b, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2008b; Eppelbaum and Ben-Avraham, 2002; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2000, 2001; 2003, 2009; Eppelbaum et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2003b, 2004a, 2004b; 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c, 2006d, 2007, 2009a, 2009b; Ezersky et al., 2000; Frumkin et al., 2003; Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1998; Itkis, 2003; Itkis et al., 2002, 2003, 2008; Jol et al., 2003, 2008; Kamai and Hatzor, 2007; Khesin et al., 1996; Korjenkov and Mazor, 1999; Laukin et al., 2001; McDermott et al., 1993; Marco, 2008; Marco et al., 2003; Nahas et al., 2006; Neishtadt et al., 2006; Nur and Ron, 1997; Paparo, 1991; Porat

  15. Building Energy Asset Score for Building Owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2015-01-01

    The Building Energy Asset Score is a national standardized tool for evaluating the physical and structural energy efficiency of commercial and multifamily residential buildings. The Asset Score generates a simple energy efficiency rating that enables comparison among buildings, and identifies opportunities for users to invest in energy efficiency upgrades. It is web-based and free to use. This fact sheet discusses the value of the score for building owners.

  16. Geophysical Methods for Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederleithinger, E.

    2013-12-01

    Many non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for civil engineering (e. g. ultrasonics, radar) are similar to geophysical techniques. They just differ in scale, material under investigation and vocabulary used. In spite of the fact that the same principles of physics and mathematics apply to both fields, exchange has been limited in the past. But since a few years more and more geophysical knowledge is used in civil engineering. One of the focal points in research is to improve ultrasonic testing of concrete to be able to image the inside even of large, complex structures and to detect any deterioration as early as possible. One of the main issues is the heterogeneity of concrete, including aggregates, reinforcement, cracks and many other features. Our current research focuses on three points. One is the application of state of the art geophysical migration techniques as Reverse Time Migration (RTM) to image vertical faces or the backside of voids and ducts in thick concrete structures, which isn't possible with conventional techniques used in NDT. Second, we have started to use seismic interferometric techniques to interpolate ultrasonic traces, which can't be measured directly for technical reasons. Third, we are using coda wave interferometry to detect concrete degradation due to load, fatigue, temperature or other influences as early as possible. Practical examples of the application of these techniques are given and potential future research directions will be discussed. It will be shown, how a subset of these techniques can be used for innovative monitoring systems for civil infrastructure. Imaging the interior of a concrete body by ultrasonics and reverse time migration(simulated data).

  17. Some problems in inference from time series of geophysical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2010-05-01

    Due to the complexity of geophysical processes, their modelling and the conducting of typical tasks, such as estimation, prediction and hypothesis testing, heavily rely on available data series and their statistical processing. The classical statistical approaches, which are often used in geophysical modelling, are based upon several simplifying assumptions, which are invalidated in natural processes. Central among these is the (usually tacit) time independence assumption which is regarded to simplify modelling and statistical testing at no substantial cost for the validity of results. Moreover, the perception of the general behaviour of the natural processes and the implied uncertainty is heavily affected by the classical statistical paradigm that is in common use. However, the study of natural behaviours reveals the dominance of change at a multitude of time scales, which in statistical terms is translated in strong time dependence, decaying very slowly with lag time. In its simplest form, this dependence, and equivalently the multi-scale change, can be described by a Hurst-Kolmogorov process using a single parameter additional to those of the marginal distribution. Remarkably, the Hurst-Kolmogorov stochastic dynamics results in much higher uncertainty in comparison to either nonstationary descriptions, or to typical stationary descriptions with independent random processes and common Markov-type processes. In addition, as far as typical statistical estimation is concerned, the Hurst-Kolmogorov dynamics implies dramatically higher intervals in the estimation of location statistical parameters (e.g., mean) and highly negative bias in the estimation of dispersion parameters (e.g., standard deviation), not to mention the bias and uncertainty in higher order moments. Surprisingly, all these differences are commonly unaccounted for in most studies of geophysical processes, which may result in inappropriate modelling, wrong inferences and false claims about the

  18. Geophysical and geological investigations of the Boda area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waenstedt, S. [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-04-15

    The studies conducted in the Boda area exhibit the presence of a severely fractured rock mass with occasional caves. The Boda area appears to be intersected by a few significant zones, obvious from a study of the topography but do appear in some of the geophysical investigations as well. The structures in the area have quite efficiently isolated the rock plint where the caves are located. It is not possible from these investigations, however, to draw far-reaching conclusions about the age and genesis of the zones or about their continuation towards depth. The geological investigation shows, apart from the caves, no unusual features. The rock types in the investigated area correspond with rock types found elsewhere in the region. The area is highly unsuitable for geophysical surface investigations. Part of the area consists of scattered and quite large blocks that constitute obstacles when making measurements in the area. Since there is little or no soil between the blocks some measurements (e.g. resistivity) are not possible to carry out. Furthermore, the scattered blocks cause unwanted reflections and other difficulties that deteriorate the quality of the geophysical data. The radar measurements with two different frequencies show an interesting result of importance not only to this investigation. The lower frequency appears to penetrate through the rocky overburden and is able to detect the soil-rock interface. The higher frequency is severely disturbed by the overburden but caves show much more clearly in this data. The fractured rock around Boda appears to be a shallow feature, since the radar measurements show a quite significant feature throughout most of the profiles, which appears to be the upper boundary of the bedrock. There are, however, some occasional strong reflectors below the interface between fractured and competent rock.

  19. Released geophysical and geological reports : Newfoundland offshore area September 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This two-part publication contains a list of geophysical and geological data acquired by the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board (C-NOPB). It is made available to the public in accordance with a subsection of the Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation Act which states that such data can be released five years after the date of completion of a program. The programs for which the data has been released are listed in chronological order by completion date. A list of wells drilled within the C-NOPB's jurisdictional area is also included along with a map showing the area of jurisdiction. The well data includes category 1 information from exploratory wells, delineation wells, and development wells. It includes factual data obtained directly from well drilling which must be made available for public examination 2 years after well completion. Category 1 data refers to drill cuttings, well fluid samples, open-hole logs, formation stimulation data, petroleum analyses, drill mud reports, and well site survey information. The interpretive geological and geophysical reports are based on industry data from exploratory programs conducted in the Newfoundland offshore area. They include information from synthetic seismograms, velocity surveys, vertical seismic profiles, petrological reports, geochemical reports, and cyberlook logs. The jurisdictional areas include Western Newfoundland, South Grand Banks, North Grand Banks, the Northeast Newfoundland Shelf, and the Labrador Shelf. Program numbers are coded to contain the geographic region to which the program relates, the type of proposed geophysical or geological work, the company operating the program, and the sequential number of that type of program operated by each company. 8 tabs

  20. Geophysical and geological investigations of the Boda area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waenstedt, S.

    2000-04-01

    The studies conducted in the Boda area exhibit the presence of a severely fractured rock mass with occasional caves. The Boda area appears to be intersected by a few significant zones, obvious from a study of the topography but do appear in some of the geophysical investigations as well. The structures in the area have quite efficiently isolated the rock plint where the caves are located. It is not possible from these investigations, however, to draw far-reaching conclusions about the age and genesis of the zones or about their continuation towards depth. The geological investigation shows, apart from the caves, no unusual features. The rock types in the investigated area correspond with rock types found elsewhere in the region. The area is highly unsuitable for geophysical surface investigations. Part of the area consists of scattered and quite large blocks that constitute obstacles when making measurements in the area. Since there is little or no soil between the blocks some measurements (e.g. resistivity) are not possible to carry out. Furthermore, the scattered blocks cause unwanted reflections and other difficulties that deteriorate the quality of the geophysical data. The radar measurements with two different frequencies show an interesting result of importance not only to this investigation. The lower frequency appears to penetrate through the rocky overburden and is able to detect the soil-rock interface. The higher frequency is severely disturbed by the overburden but caves show much more clearly in this data. The fractured rock around Boda appears to be a shallow feature, since the radar measurements show a quite significant feature throughout most of the profiles, which appears to be the upper boundary of the bedrock. There are, however, some occasional strong reflectors below the interface between fractured and competent rock

  1. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  2. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  3. Improved extraction of hydrologic information from geophysical data through coupled hydrogeophysical inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinnell, A.C.; Ferre, T.P.A.; Vrugt, J.A.; Huisman, J.A.; Moysey, S.; Rings, J.; Kowalsky, M.B.

    2009-11-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of multiple measurement types, including indirect (geophysical) methods, to constrain hydrologic interpretations. To date, most examples integrating geophysical measurements in hydrology have followed a three-step, uncoupled inverse approach. This approach begins with independent geophysical inversion to infer the spatial and/or temporal distribution of a geophysical property (e.g. electrical conductivity). The geophysical property is then converted to a hydrologic property (e.g. water content) through a petrophysical relation. The inferred hydrologic property is then used either independently or together with direct hydrologic observations to constrain a hydrologic inversion. We present an alternative approach, coupled inversion, which relies on direct coupling of hydrologic models and geophysical models during inversion. We compare the abilities of coupled and uncoupled inversion using a synthetic example where surface-based electrical conductivity surveys are used to monitor one-dimensional infiltration and redistribution.

  4. Activities and Plan of the Center for Geophysics (Beijing from WDC to WDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report we introduce the development of the WDC for Geophysics, Beijing included our activities in the electronic Geophysical Year (eGY and in the transition period from WDC to WDS. We also present our future plans. We have engaged in the development of geophysical informatics and related data science. We began the data visualization of geomagnetic fields in the GIS system. Our database has been expanded from geomagnetic data to the data of solid geophysics, including geothermal data, gravity data, and the records of aurora sightings in ancient China. We also joined the study of the history of the development of geophysics in China organized by the Chinese Geophysical Society (CGS.

  5. Geophysical Exploration on the Structure of Volcanoes: Two Case Histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furumoto, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    Geophysical methods of exploration were used to determine the internal structure of Koolau Volcano in Hawaii and of Rabaul Volcano in New Guinea. By use of gravity and seismic data the central vent or plug of Koolau Volcano was outlined. Magnetic data seem to indicate that the central plug is still above the Curie Point. If so, the amount of heat energy available is tremendous. As for Rabaul Volcano, it is located in a region characterized by numerous block faulting. The volcano is only a part of a large block that has subsided. Possible geothermal areas exist near the volcano but better potential areas may exist away from the volcano.

  6. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division Program Report, 1988--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    In 1990, the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division begins its 17th year as a division. As the Division has grown over the years, its modeling capabilities have expanded to include a broad range of time and space scales ranging from hours to decades and from local to global. Our modeling is now reaching out from its atmospheric focus to treat linkages with the oceans and the land. In this report, we describe the Division's goal and organizational structure. We also provide tables and appendices describing the Division's budget, personnel, models, and publications. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The value of DCIP geophysical surveys for contaminated site investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbarini, Nicola; Rønde, Vinni Kampman; Maurya, Pradip Kumar

    Geophysical methods are increasingly being used in contaminant hydrogeology to map lithology, hydraulic properties, and contaminant plumes with a high ionic strength. Advances in the Direct Current resistivity and Induced Polarization (DCIP) method allow the collection of high resolution three...... dimensional (3D) data sets. The DC resistivity can describe both soil properties and the water electrical conductivity, while the IP can describe the lithology and give information on hydrogeological properties. The aim of the study was to investigate a large contaminant plume discharging to a stream from...

  8. High-resolution geophysical characterization of shallow-water wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansoor, N; Slater, L; Artigas, F

    2006-01-01

    as lithologiclogs from across the wetland, to constrain interpretation ofthe geophysical data. The inverted sediment conductivity describesa pattern of contamination probably attributable toleachates from adjacent landfills and/or to saltwater ingressfrom a partial tidal connection that is not obvious...... in the surface-water data. Magnetic-gradiometry values and the inphasecomponent of an EM31 response both reflect primarilythe distribution of junk metal associated with a legacy of illegaldumping. Historic aerial photographs suggest that thisdistribution reflects land-use history and defines the maximumprevious...... extent of an adjacent landfill and a pattern ofdumping correlated with historic roadways....

  9. NGDC Marine Geophysical Data Systems: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, G. F.; Divins, D. L.; Metzger, D. R.; Campagnoli, J. G.

    2001-12-01

    For the past quarter century, the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has disseminated marine geophysical data previously submitted to the national archive which NGDC maintains for the scientific community. Beginning in 1977, with a conference of users to establish an exchange format, GEODAS(GEOphysical DAta System) has been a tool for describing, distributing, and exchanging marine geophysical data. In the last decade CD-ROM technology permitted distribution of entire databases along with GEODAS software. Described in Sharman, et al., Surveying and Land Information Systems, 58,3(1998)pp.141-146, GEODAS is an integrated, home-grown system developed to address a particular class of data in the absence of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) solutions. GEODAS has evolved to index the location and quality of multibeam data as well as providing a 1-minute, vertical beam derivative for those who did not wish to deal with the full array of data. NGDC's Coastal Relief Model (CRM) and Global Relief (ETOPO2) are also delivered with the GEODAS software as the primary management tool. The CRM represents a new evolution of NGDC data practice, delivering a gridded data product derived from, rather than, the primary data. Customer-demand for data easily imported into increasingly popular Geographic Information Systems(GIS) drove this change. Our delivery of the CRM includes "canned" graphic images with a web-structured CD-ROM delivery accessed by Web browsers, thus allowing COTS solutions for multi-platform access. GEODAS software permits resampling, joining, and otherwise reformatting the data for export. Future developments include two proposals to deliver high volume data sets (e.g. multibeam, and acoustic imagery/side scan) and data in a spatially enabled format via the Web. Both will begin using COTS solutions that accommodate the needs of a specialized MGG community and their data. Future directions include increasing use of COTS packages, when applicable, to manage and

  10. Combination of Geophysical Methods to Support Urban Geological Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabàs, A.; Macau, A.; Benjumea, B.; Bellmunt, F.; Figueras, S.; Vilà, M.

    2014-07-01

    Urban geological mapping is a key to assist management of new developed areas, conversion of current urban areas or assessment of urban geological hazards. Geophysics can have a pivotal role to yield subsurface information in urban areas provided that geophysical methods are capable of dealing with challenges related to these scenarios (e.g., low signal-to-noise ratio or special logistical arrangements). With this principal aim, a specific methodology is developed to characterize lithological changes, to image fault zones and to delineate basin geometry in the urban areas. The process uses the combination of passive and active techniques as complementary data: controlled source audio-magnetotelluric method (CSAMT), magnetotelluric method (MT), microtremor H/V analysis and ambient noise array measurements to overcome the limitations of traditional geophysical methodology. This study is focused in Girona and Salt surrounding areas (NE of Spain) where some uncertainties in subsurface knowledge (maps of bedrock depth and the isopach maps of thickness of quaternary sediments) need to be resolved to carry out the 1:5000 urban geological mapping. These parameters can be estimated using this proposed methodology. (1) Acoustic impedance contrast between Neogene sediments and Paleogene or Paleozoic bedrock is detected with microtremor H/V analysis that provides the soil resonance frequency. The minimum value obtained is 0.4 Hz in Salt city, and the maximum value is the 9.5 Hz in Girona city. The result of this first method is a fast scanner of the geometry of basement. (2) Ambient noise array constrains the bedrock depth using the measurements of shear-wave velocity of soft soil. (3) Finally, the electrical resistivity models contribute with a good description of lithological changes and fault imaging. The conductive materials (1-100 Ωm) are associated with Neogene Basin composed by unconsolidated detrital sediments; medium resistive materials (100-400 Ωm) correspond to

  11. Modeling of Geological Objects and Geophysical Fields Using Haar Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dolgal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a presentation of application of the fast wavelet transform with basic Haar functions for modeling the structural surfaces and geophysical fields, characterized by fractal features. The multiscale representation of experimental data allows reducing significantly a cost of the processing of large volume data and improving the interpretation quality. This paper presents the algorithms for sectionally prismatic approximation of geological objects, for preliminary estimation of the number of equivalent sources for the analytical approximation of fields, and for determination of the rock magnetization in the upper part of the geological section.

  12. Geophysics report of Santa Rosa place Canelones province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.

    1984-01-01

    The Hydrogeology Section required to Geophysics Department of the DINAMIGE to carry out this report for Education and Culture Ministery, to study the feasibility of the exploration and exploitation of underground waters located in three properties zones in Santa Rosa's town, Canelones province. By means of the geoeletric methods it was possible to estimate the alluviums thickness ,sedimentary deposits or alteration mantels. The purpose of the present work has been to establish geologic and structural features through vertical electric well by means of which is been able to study the vertical variations of the resistivity .

  13. Geophysics and nutritional science: toward a novel, unified paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Martin, Pamela A

    2009-05-01

    This article discusses a few basic geophysical processes, which collectively indicate that several nutritionally adverse elements of current Western diets also yield environmentally harmful food consumption patterns. We address oceanic dead zones, which are at the confluence of oceanography, aquatic chemistry, and agronomy and which are a clear environmental problem, and agriculture's effects on the surface heat budget. These exemplify the unknown, complex, and sometimes unexpected large-scale environmental effects of agriculture. We delineate the significant alignment in purpose between nutritional and environmental sciences. We identify red meat, and to a lesser extent the broader animal-based portion of the diet, as having the greatest environmental effect, with clear nutritional parallels.

  14. Introduction to the geophysical methods applicable to coal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 2, it is the differences in the magnetic susceptibility of rocks that are exploited by the magnetic method. Units and terminology The internationally accepted unit for the magnetic field strength or intensity is the Tesla (named after Nikola Tesla..., the famous Serbian-American engineer and inventor). The Tesla is too large a unit for practical purposes and the nanotesla (nT, one billionth of a Tesla) is used in geophysical magnetic exploration. The name gamma (γ) was previously used instead...

  15. The magnetic universe geophysical and astrophysical dynamo theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rüdiger, Günther

    2004-01-01

    Magnetism is one of the most pervasive features of the Universe, with planets, stars and entire galaxies all having associated magnetic fields. All of these fields are generated by the motion of electrically conducting fluids, the so-called dynamo effect. The precise details of what drives the motion, and indeed what the fluid consists of, differ widely though. In this work the authors draw upon their expertise in geophysical and astrophysical MHD to explore some of these phenomena, and describe the similarities and differences between different magnetized objects. They also explain why magn

  16. EGS Richardson AGU Chapman NVAG3 Conference: Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    1994-01-01

    International audience; 1. The conference The third conference on "Nonlinear VAriability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes" (NVAG 3) was held in Cargese, Corsica, Sept. 10-17, 1993. NVAG3 was joint American Geophysical Union Chapman and European Geophysical Society Richardson Memorial conference, the first specialist conference jointly sponsored by the two organizations. It followed NVAG1 (Montreal, Aug. 1986), NVAG2 (Paris, June 1988; Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991), five conse...

  17. EGS Richardson AGU Chapman NVAG3 Conference: Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes

    OpenAIRE

    D. Schertzer; S. Lovejoy; S. Lovejoy

    1994-01-01

    1. The conference The third conference on "Nonlinear VAriability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes" (NVAG 3) was held in Cargese, Corsica, Sept. 10-17, 1993. NVAG3 was joint American Geophysical Union Chapman and European Geophysical Society Richardson Memorial conference, the first specialist conference jointly sponsored by the two organizations. It followed NVAG1 (Montreal, Aug. 1986), NVAG2 (Paris, June 1988; Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991), five consecutive annual ...

  18. Application of the geophysical and geochemical methods to the research for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.M.; Collin, C.R.; Grimbert, A.; Sanselme, H.

    1958-01-01

    Since 1954, at the Commissariat a l'energie atomique, geophysics and geochemistry have been added to routine geological surveying and radiometric observations. Geophysical prospecting reveals the tectonic structures linked with French uranium deposits and gives an idea of favorable zones. Geochemistry adds to the geophysical indirect methods further details on the distribution of uranium traces in the soils. This method is direct and specific. Uranium assay in waters and alluvial deposits find its use in preliminary exploration. (author) [fr

  19. SAGEEP '96: Proceedings of the symposium on the application of geophysics to engineering and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.S.; Cramer, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems which was held on April 28-May 2, 1996 in Keystone, Colorado, USA. Topics covered in the presentations include: Innovations in Electrical and Electromagnetic Methods, Near surface Seismic Applications, Environmental Aspects of Abandoned and Inactive Mines, Hydrogeology, The Search for Buried Objects, GPR Applications, Geotechnical Applications, Computer Applications and Advancements, Borehole and Tomographic Studies,Site Assessments, and Environmental Geophysics in Finland. Poster presentations also covered a variety of topics including electromagnetic mapping of karstic aquifers, mapping of mine subsidence, geophysical surveys of abandoned reactor sites, and several other applications of geophysics

  20. The International Geophysical Month: Short periods of cooperative study can consolidate the gains of the International Geophysical Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, R A; Martin, L H

    1961-12-01

    For convenience, we summarize below some of the main advantages of the IGM concept. 1) Most organizations can mount and support intensive field operations for short periods. 2) High-quality data would be obtained, and the data could be processed more promptly than in long-term projects. 3) Laboratory equipment could in many instances be mnade available for field operations. 4) Top-caliber researchers would be available for field operations. 5) The participation of small research groups and of research workers from government and industry would be fostered. 6) Student participation would improve educational programs in, and attract needed talent to, the geophysical sciences. 7) Ship, satellite, and rocket observations could be scheduled for IGM's. 8) International scientific conferences scheduled to follow IGM's would attract working scientists. It is not suggested that these short-term exercises should replace the long synoptic programs characteristic of the IGY. Rather it is proposed that they supplement and guide any such future long-term program. If adopted, they would produce many data of value for the planning and timing of the International Year of the Quiet Sun. To bring emphasis on special observations during the IQSY, International Geophysical Months might well be scheduled to coincide with the June and December solstices, to be followed by an IGM at an equinoctial period. This would provide periods for concentrated sampling-periods in somewhat the same category as the Regular World Intervals adopted during the IGY. The more elaborate experiments could be confined to the International Geophysical Months, so that only those studies for which continuous observations are essential would be scheduled for the entire period. The duration of an International Geophysical Month would be sufficient for carrying out experiments requiring moving platforms such as ships, rockets, or satellites. It is recommended that every effort be made to schedule the first IGM

  1. Geophysical and geochemical regional evaluation and geophysical model for uranium exploration in the western part of Yanliao region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tengyao; Cui Huanmin; Chen Guoliang; Zhai Yugui

    1992-01-01

    The western part of Yanliao region is an important uranium metallogenic region. This paper summarizes the regional geophysical model for uranium exploration composed of prediction model for favourable area of mineralization and evaluation model for anomalies on the basis of aeromagnetic and aeroradiometric data interpretation and analysis of the data from carborane and ground gamma spectrometric survey, high accurate magnetic survey, VLF survey and α-collected film survey in mult-displiary research work. The prospective prediction for uranium metallogenesis in this region was also conducted

  2. The lithospheric structure beneath Ireland and surrounding areas from integrated geophysical-petrological modelling of magnetic and other geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykiev, E.; Guerri, M.; Fullea, J.

    2017-12-01

    The availability of unprecedented resolution aeromagnetic data in Ireland (Tellus project, http://www.tellus.ie/) in conjunction with new satellite magnetic data (e.g., ESÁs Swarm mission) has opened the possibility of detailed modelling of the Irish subsurface magnetic structure. A detailed knowledge of the magnetic characteristics (susceptibility, magnetite content) of the crust is relevant for a number of purposes, including geological mapping and mineral and geothermal energy prospection. In this work we model the magnetic structure of Ireland and surrounding areas using primarily aeromagnetic and satellite observations but also other geophysical data sets. To this aim we use a geophysical-petrological modelling tool (LitMod) in which key properties of rocks (i.e., density, electrical conductivity and seismic velocities) that can be inferred from geophysical data (gravity, seismic, EM) are self consistently determined based on the thermochemical conditions (using the software Perple_X). In contrast to the mantle, where thermodynamic equilibrium is prevalent, in the crust metastable conditions are dominant, i.e. rock properties may not be representative of the current, in situ, temperature and pressure conditions. Instead, the rock properties inferred from geophysical data may be reflecting the mineralogy stable at rock formation conditions. In addition, temperature plays a major role in the distribution of the long wavelength crustal magnetic anomalies. Magnetite retains its magnetic properties below its Curie temperature (585 ºC) and the depth of Curie's isotherm provides an estimate of the thickness of the magnetic crust. Hence, a precise knowledge of the crustal geotherm is required to consistently model crustal magnetic anomalies. In this work LitMod has been modified to account for metastable crustal lithology, to predict susceptibility in the areas below Curie's temperature, and to compute magnetic anomalies based on a magnetic tesseroid approach. The

  3. Geophysical approach to gas hydrates studies in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, A.; Mizukoshi, I. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Studies are under way to estimate by geophysical approaches the saturation of gasses and gas hydrates in the sedimentary rock. Gasses and gas hydrates under stable strata are deemed to be fossil fuel resources. If the characteristics of sonic or elastic waves are related to the amount of gasses or gas hydrates, it will be possible to assess quantitatively the said resources by geophysical approaches. This is the reason why studies have been started for the acquisition of data of a wider frequency range by seismic exploration and about stratum models concerned. In relation to the mean elastic moduli of mixed materials, studies have been made about the applicability of several theories to data from wire-line test boring, to data from seismic exploration, and to pits in zones of perpetual frost. The effort to acquire data of a wider frequency range by seismic exploration aims at filling up the gap between the now-available seismic exploration data and laboratory data. It is believed that these will enable a quantitative assessment of the said resources. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geophysics, petrophysics and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerson, D.W.; Mills, K.J.; Hallett, M.S.; Cao, L.Q.; Miyakawa, K.

    1992-01-01

    The geophysical and geological field work at Koongarra (including borehole core logging) showed that the site itself is a folded, faulted, variably fractured Precambrian psammitic and pelitic schist sequence with a quasi-horizontal weathered zone superimposed on the steeply dipping rock fabric. The site is flanked by a high resistivity younger sandstone unit to the northwest and by a magnetic amphibolite/ferricrete sequence to the far southeast. The data interpretations elicited the essential structural and broad lithological elements. Gravity, magnetic and electrical laboratory and field studies confirmed a broad folded fractured sequence of dipping layered host rocks weathered in their upper parts and trending in a southwest-northeast direction. Qualitatively interpreted anomalies indicated the trend of the main groundwater movement to the south where dolomites are thought to act as a sink. These drainage features have SP, resistivity and radiometric expression. The roles of the Kombolgie Sandstone as a source of water and the Koongarra Fault as a barrier or otherwise were not established owing to the lack of sufficient samples for testing and also on account of the difficulty of geophysical access over the site's rugged escarpment. 40 refs., 13 tabs., 69 figs

  5. Palaeomagnetism principles and applications in geology, geophysics and archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Tarling, D H

    1983-01-01

    Palaeomagnetism and archaeomagnetism are fascinating specialized studies because they are applicable to such a wide range of problems in geology, archaeology and geophysics. They can also be undertaken cheaply, when compared with most other geophysical techniques, and, at first sight, simply. In fact, real comprehension of the magnetic processes that have occurred in rocks and other types of material over several thousands or many millions of years is still extremely difficult to assess and measure. On this basis, this book cannot explain all such features, nor can it attempt to cover all the actual and potential applications of the method. All that can be attempted is to give an impression of the ways in which such techniques can be used in a wide variety of fields, and how these techniques are usually applied. The magnetization of rocks is, in fact, one of the earliest of the true sciences, but we are still not in a position to answer many of the problems posed. Consequently some of the examples given of ap...

  6. Geophysical Techniques for Monitoring CO2 Movement During Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erika Gasperikova; G. Michael Hoversten

    2005-11-15

    The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques for two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.

  7. Geological and geophysical investigations at Sierra del Medio massif - Argentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perucca, J.C.; Llambias, E.; Puigdomenech, H.H.; Cebrelli, E.; Castro, C.E.; Grassi, I.; Salinas, L.I.

    1987-01-01

    Geological investigations were performed at Sierra del Medio (Chubut Province), a mountainous massif of about 25 km by 8 km of migmatic origin, which emerges from a depressed tectonic trench or graben called Pampa de Gastre. The most ancient rocks belong to biotitic and anphibolic schist that passed almost entirely to tonalitoid migmatites with a second process producing granitic rocks. Boreholes were drilled on the basis of conclusions from Landsat satellites imagery and aerial photographic sets, folowed by field work on geological, petrographic, geophysical and hydrogeological features at surface, structural interpretation supported by geostatistical computations. Two sets of boreholes were drilled to investigate subsurface rock behaviour al 300 m depth and 800 m depth respectively, beginning at peripheral places and ending at the central part or selected site. Basic purposes of boreholes were to define structural and petrographic features of the rock massif by a good comprehension of master joints and faulting distribution with its belts of alteration mylonitization or brecciation, mechanical properties of samples, chemical composition and varitions, petrographic facies and mineralogy. Boreholes provided data to investigate joints, faults and dikes as general discontinuities for hydraulic research like permeability or effective hydraulic conductivity, and their geostatistical modelling. Boreholes are also being prepared for geophysical logging from which logthermal ones have already been completed. (Author) [es

  8. Beyond multifractional Brownian motion: new stochastic models for geophysical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lévy Véhel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multifractional Brownian motion (mBm has proved to be a useful tool in various areas of geophysical modelling. Although a versatile model, mBm is of course not always an adequate one. We present in this work several other stochastic processes which could potentially be useful in geophysics. The first alternative type is that of self-regulating processes: these are models where the local regularity is a function of the amplitude, in contrast to mBm where it is tuned exogenously. We demonstrate the relevance of such models for digital elevation maps and for temperature records. We also briefly describe two other types of alternative processes, which are the counterparts of mBm and of self-regulating processes when the intensity of local jumps is considered in lieu of local regularity: multistable processes allow one to prescribe the local intensity of jumps in space/time, while this intensity is governed by the amplitude for self-stabilizing processes.

  9. Beyond multifractional Brownian motion: new stochastic models for geophysical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy Véhel, J.

    2013-09-01

    Multifractional Brownian motion (mBm) has proved to be a useful tool in various areas of geophysical modelling. Although a versatile model, mBm is of course not always an adequate one. We present in this work several other stochastic processes which could potentially be useful in geophysics. The first alternative type is that of self-regulating processes: these are models where the local regularity is a function of the amplitude, in contrast to mBm where it is tuned exogenously. We demonstrate the relevance of such models for digital elevation maps and for temperature records. We also briefly describe two other types of alternative processes, which are the counterparts of mBm and of self-regulating processes when the intensity of local jumps is considered in lieu of local regularity: multistable processes allow one to prescribe the local intensity of jumps in space/time, while this intensity is governed by the amplitude for self-stabilizing processes.

  10. Chronology of petroleum geophysics; Sekiyu butsuri tansa nenpyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kametani, T.

    1996-10-01

    A table, chronology of petroleum geophysics in overseas and in Japan, has been prepared for the convenience of checking events, which are thought to be important as notable affairs in application, success, and technical innovation. In overseas, successes in the 1920s were remarkable, when the US modern geophysical exploration made a start. Successes in determining the position of exploratory drilling by means of the gravity torsion balance, fan shooting seismic refraction method, and seismic reflection method occurred one after another. The USA has kept its situation stably as the number one by the seismic reflection method occurred most lately, and its life has been further elongated by adopting digital techniques. The CDP technique which became to be used simultaneously, and the seismic sources without using explosives, such as vibro-seismic source and air gun, extended the success of digital techniques drastically. In the future, the progress of 3-D exploration technology is expected. In Japan, about 18 years lag in the seismic reflection method is observed when compared with the USA. Japan has provided leading techniques in the shallow layer seismic reflection method and S-wave exploration. 40 refs., 1 tab.

  11. How Collecting and Freely Sharing Geophysical Data Broadly Benefits Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, A.; Woodward, R.; Detrick, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Valuable but often unintended observations of environmental and human-related processes have resulted from open sharing of multidisciplinary geophysical observations collected over the past 33 years. These data, intended to fuel fundamental academic research, are part of the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and has provided a community science facility supporting earthquake science and related disciplines since 1984. These community facilities have included arrays of geophysical instruments operated for EarthScope, an NSF-sponsored science initiative designed to understand the architecture and evolution of the North American continent, as well as the Global Seismographic Network, Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network, a repository of data collected around the world, and other community assets. All data resulting from this facility have been made openly available to support researchers across any field of study and this has expanded the impact of these data beyond disciplinary boundaries. This presentation highlights vivid examples of how basic research activities using open data, collected as part of a community facility, can inform our understanding of manmade earthquakes, geomagnetic hazards, climate change, and illicit testing of nuclear weapons.

  12. Shallow geophysical investigations at the Akhmim archaeological site, Suhag, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Mahfooz A.; Atya, Magdy A.; Hassan, Azza M.; Sato, Motoyuki; Wonik, Thomas; El-Kenawy, Abeer A.

    2008-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic terrain conductivity, and electric tomography have proven to be effective tools if they are combined together to investigate archeological sites. We have conducted a geophysical survey at the Akhmim archaeological site, the main objective of our survey is to locate additional buried structures for further excavation. Geophysical data were acquired in the area using the GEM-300 multi-frequency terrain conductivity profiler, the SIR 2000 ground penetrating radar, and the Syscal R2 resistivity meter systems. The results of the integrated interpretation show a number of buried features and a strong linear zone about 1 m wide that coincides with the suspected trend of a buried wall. There appears to be two parallel ridges of strong reflections on either side, indicating two parallel walls extended East-West and a room is identified at the bottom left corner of the site. Moreover, the interpretation results of some selected GPR and dipoledipole resistivity profiles adjacent to the open-air museum suggest the existence of a second statue of Ramses II to the right of the previously discovered statue which could still be buried in the sand.

  13. Geophysics and the search of freshwater bodies: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Rachael; Ruffell, Alastair; Hughes, David; Pringle, Jamie

    2010-09-01

    Geophysics may assist scent dogs and divers in the search of water bodies for human and animal remains, contraband, weapons and explosives by surveying large areas rapidly and identifying targets or environmental hazards. The most commonly applied methods are described and evaluated for forensic searches. Seismic reflection or refraction and CHIRPS are useful for deep, open water bodies and identifying large targets, yet limited in streams and ponds. The use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) on water (WPR) is of limited use in deep waters (over 20 m) but is advantageous in the search for non-metallic targets in small ditches and ponds. Large metal or metal-bearing targets can be successfully imaged in deep waters by using towfish magnetometers: in shallow waters such a towfish cannot be used, so a non-metalliferous boat can carry a terrestrial magnetometer. Each device has its uses, depending on the target and location: unknown target make-up (e.g. a homicide victim with or without a metal object) may be best located using a range of methods (the multi-proxy approach), depending on water depth. Geophysics may not definitively find the target, but can provide areas for elimination and detailed search by dogs and divers, saving time and effort. Copyright © 2009 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Post-injection geophysical evaluation of the Winding Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackman, T.; Current, R.

    1998-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from underground mines is a major environmental problem. The disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCB) is also a major national problem due to the large volumes produced annually and the economics associated with transportation and environmentally safe disposal. The concept of returning large volumes of the CCB to their point of origin, underground mines, and using the typically alkaline and pozzolanic attributes of the waste material for the remediation of AMD has been researched rather diligently during the past few years by various federal and state agencies and universities. As the result, the State of Maryland initiated a full-scale demonstration of this concept in a small, 5-acre, unmapped underground mine located near Friendsville, MD. Through a cooperative agreement between the State of Maryland and the US Department of Energy, several geophysical techniques were evaluated as potential tools for the post-injection evaluation of the underground mine site. Three non-intrusive geophysical surveys, two electromagnetic (EM) techniques and magnetometry, were conducted over the Frazee Mine, which is located on Winding Ridge near Friendsville, MD. The EM surveys were conducted to locate ground water in both mine's void and overburden. The presence of magnetite, which is naturally inherent to CCB's due to the combustion process and essentially transparent in sedimentary rock, provided the reason for using magnetometry to locate the final resting place of the 100% CCB grout

  15. Geophysical investigations in the Veitsivaara area, Finland summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, E.; Saksa, P.; Hinkkanen, H.

    1991-10-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO carries out site investigations in Finland for final disposal of nuclear high level waste during 1987-2000. Investigations by geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods were carried out in the Veitsivaara area in 1987-90 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity. Airborne surveys were performed by magnetic, radiometric and two electromagnetic methods and ground investigations by VLF magnetic and resistivity, magnetic and impulse radar methods. Electromagnetic and seismic refraction surveys were used to locate crushed and fracture zones. The properties of weak electrical conductors, e.g. their depth dimensions, were studied by direct current resistivity measurements. The rock type distribution was studied by single-hole logging of susceptibility, natural γ-radiation and radiometric γ γ-density. Electrical and acoustic logging allowed water bearing fractures to be mapped and the results of water injection tests to be interpreted. Flow conditions in the boreholes were studied by both fluid logging and tube wave sounding

  16. Geophysical mapping of deep permafrost change after disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, B. J.; Pastick, N. J.; Wylie, B. K.; Kass, A.; Brown, D. N.; Rey, D.; Bloss, B. R.; Ebel, B. A.; Walvoord, M. A.; Emond, A.; Daanen, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Disturbance related to fire or hydrologic processes can cause degradation of deep (greater than 1 m) permafrost. These changes in deep permafrost have the potential to impact landscapes and infrastructure, alter the routing and distribution of surface water or groundwater, and may contribute to the flux of carbon to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, characterization of deep permafrost over large areas and with high spatial resolution is not possible with traditional remote sensing or surface observations. We make use of multiple ground-based and airborne geophysical methods, as well as numerical simulations, to better understand the distribution of permafrost and how it has changed after disturbance. At the local scale, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements are used to identify changes in permafrost characteristics to depths of up to 15 m along more than 40 100-200 m-long transects collected in interior Alaska. At select locations along these profiles, measurements of downhole nuclear magnetic resonance were made to depths of 2 m belowground in order to quantify in situ unfrozen water content and soil texture that help to constrain ERT interpretations. At the regional scale, airborne and ground-based electromagnetic data have been acquired to map the complex distribution of deep permafrost beneath and adjacent to the many lakes and streams in parts of interior Alaska. Together, these geophysical datasets help to fill a critical gap in understanding permafrost landscapes and their response to disturbance.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Piezoelectric and Seismoelectric Anomalies in Subsurface Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2017-04-01

    The piezoelectric and seismo-electrokinetic phenomena are manifested by electrical and electromagnetic processes that occur in rocks under the influence of elastic oscillations triggered by shots or mechanical impacts (hits) (e.g., Neishtadt and Osipov, 1958; Neishtadt, 1961; Parkhomenko, 1971; Neishtadt et al., 1986; Maxwell et al., 1992; Butler et al., 1994; Kepic et al., 1995; Neishtadt et al., 1996; Mikhalov et al., 1997; Boulytchov, 2000; Dupuis et al., 2009; Schakel et al., 2011; Neishtadt and Eppelbaum, 2012; Jouniaux and Zyserman, 2016). The developed classification divides the above phenomena into the following types: (1) the seismo-electrokinetic (electrokinetic) phenomenon E, which occurs in polyphase media due to the mutual displacement of the solid and liquid phases; (2) the piezoelectric phenomenon, which occurs in rocks that contain piezoactive minerals; (3) the shot-triggered phenomenon, which is observed in rocks in the vicinity of a shot or hit point; (4) the seismoelectric phenomenon I, manifested by the change of the electric current passing through rocks, and (5) high-frequency impulse electromagnetic radiation, which is generated by massive base-metal bodies. This paper describes the above phenomena in detail, describing their nature, manifestation patterns, and registration techniques. Because the manifestation patterns of the above phenomena are different in different rocks, these phenomena can be used as a basis for geophysical exploration techniques. The piezoelectric method is an example of a successful application of piezoelectric and seismo-electrokinetic phenomena in exploration geophysics. It has been successfully applied in mineral exploration and environmental features research in Russia, USA, Canada, Australia, Belorussia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Israel and other countries. This method uses comparatively new geophysical parameter - piezoelectric activity of rocks, ores, and minerals. It enables direct exploration for pegmatite

  18. Advances in Airborne and Ground Geophysical Methods for Uranium Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    through the use of effective exploration techniques. Geophysical methods with the capability of mapping surface and subsurface parameters in relation to uranium deposition and accumulation are proving to be vital components of current exploration efforts around the world. There is continuous development and improvement of technical and scientific disciplines using measuring instruments and spatially referenced data processing techniques. Newly designed geophysical instruments and their applications in uranium exploration are contributing to an increased probability of successful discoveries. Dissemination of information on advances in geophysical techniques encourages new strategies and promotes new approaches toward uranium exploration. Meetings and conferences organized by the IAEA, collecting the experience of participating countries, as well as its publications and the International Nuclear Information System, play an important role in the dissemination of knowledge of all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. The purpose of this report is to highlight advances in airborne and ground geophysical techniques, succinctly describing modern geophysical methods and demonstrating the application of techniques through examples. The report also provides some basic concepts of radioactivity, nuclear radiation and interaction with matter.

  19. Engineering Geophysical Correlation of Foundation Soils in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *

    An extension to the existing Geology Department Building, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria is under construction. The construction site which covers an area of about 3000 m2 is located west of the existing Building within the University Campus. A case study is presented here, in order to attempt a correlation ...

  20. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....

  1. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...

  2. An overview of geophysical technologies appropriate for characterization and monitoring at fractured-rock sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Slater, Lee D; Robinson, Judy; Johnson, Carole D; Terry, Neil; Werkema, Dale

    2017-12-15

    Geophysical methods are used increasingly for characterization and monitoring at remediation sites in fractured-rock aquifers. The complex heterogeneity of fractured rock poses enormous challenges to groundwater remediation professionals, and new methods are needed to cost-effectively infer fracture and fracture-zone locations, orientations and properties, and to develop conceptual site models for flow and transport. Despite the potential of geophysical methods to "see" between boreholes, two issues have impeded the adoption of geophysical methods by remediation professionals. First, geophysical results are commonly only indirectly related to the properties of interest (e.g., permeability) to remediation professionals, and qualitative or quantitative interpretation is required to convert geophysical results to hydrogeologic information. Additional demonstration/evaluation projects are needed in the site remediation literature to fully transfer geophysical methods from research to practice. Second, geophysical methods are commonly viewed as inherently risky by remediation professionals. Although it is widely understood that a given method may or may not work at a particular site, the reasons are not always clear to end users of geophysical products. Synthetic modeling tools are used in research to assess the potential of a particular method to successfully image a target, but these tools are not widely used in industry. Here, we seek to advance the application of geophysical methods to solve problems facing remediation professionals with respect to fractured-rock aquifers. To this end, we (1) provide an overview of geophysical methods applied to characterization and monitoring of fractured-rock aquifers; (2) review case studies showcasing different geophysical methods; and (3) discuss best practices for method selection and rejection based on synthetic modeling and decision support tools. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Global Building Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper...

  4. Global building physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote...

  5. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    component systems that are accessed and integrated in the real world of building use in different contexts. The ICT systems may be physically or virtually embedded in the building. Already in 1982 AT&T established the 'intelligent buildings', IB, concept due to marketing reasons and the Informart building...... with focus on virtual building models support, new services and user environment definitions and development, virtual spaces and augmented reality, intelligent building components, application ontologies, and ICT systems integration to illustrate ICT enhanced buildings potentials and R&D needs.  ...

  6. An Attempt to Integration of Different Geophysical Methods (Magnetic, GPR and ERT; A Case Study From the Late Roman Settlement On the Island of Rab in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welc Fabian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2016 within the RED Project Roman Economy in Dalmatia: production, distribution and demand in the light of pottery workshops, 5 selected areas around the Podšilo Bay were geophysically surveyed. During the fieldworks in the Lopar protected area, located in the northeastern part of the Island of Rab a gradiometer, ground-penetrating radar (GPR and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT were used. The main aim of the project was to document presence of the Roman architecture in two areas of the bay’s hinterland as suggested earlier by finds of pottery and glass. Geophysical studies conducted in the Lopar area revealed presence of underground remains of ancient structures, probably from the late Roman period and connected with a ceramic production centre at the present seashore. The most interesting results were obtained for the area no. 4, the site where magnetic, georadar and ERT surveys revealed an ancient regular building at 0.4-0.6 m depth. The survey performed in the Lopar area clearly indicates that integration of different geophysical methods enables detailed and effective identification of buried archaeological structures.

  7. Oman Drilling Project Phase I Borehole Geophysical Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, J. M.; Pezard, P. A.; Henry, G.; Brun, L.; Célérier, B.; Lods, G.; Robert, P.; Benchikh, A. M.; Al Shukaili, M.; Al Qassabi, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Oman Drilling Project (OmanDP) drilled six holes at six sites in the Samail ophiolite in the southern Samail and Tayin massifs. 1500-m of igneous and metamorphic rocks were recovered at four sites (GT1, GT2, GT3 and BT1) using wireline diamond core drilling and drill cuttings at two sites (BA1, BA2) using air rotary drilling, respectively. OmanDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, NASA, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, and with in-kind support in Oman from Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University and the German University of Technology. A comprehensive borehole geophysical survey was conducted in all the OmanDP Phase I boreholes shortly after drilling in April 2017. Following geophysical wireline logs, using slim-hole borehole logging equipment provided and run by the Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Université de Montpellier/ Géosciences Montpellier, and logging trucks from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, were collected in most of the holes: electrical resistivity (dual laterolog resistivity, LLd and LLs), spectral gamma ray (K, U, and Th contents), magnetic susceptibility, total natural gamma ray, full waveform sonic (Vp and Vs), acoustic borehole wall imaging, optical borehole wall imaging, borehole fluid parameters (pressure, temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, redox potential, non-polarized spontaneous electrical potential), and caliper (borehole diameter). In addition, spinner flowmeter (downhole fluid flow rate along borehole axis) and heatpulse flow meter logs (dowhole fluid flow rate along borehole axis) were collected in BA1 to characterize downhole fluid flow rates along borehole axis. Unfortuantely, only incomplete wireline logs are available for

  8. Deep Interior: The first comprehensive geophysical investigation of an asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, E.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; McFadden, L.; Ostro, S.; Safaeinili, A.; Scheeres, D.; Sunshine, J.; Yeomans, D.

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) come closer to Earth than any other celestial body, and their compositions are represented on Earth by thousands of well-studied meteorites. Yet we understand neither their origin, evolution, nor their geophysical behavior. These secrets are locked up in their unexplored interiors. Goal 1 of the NASA Strategic Plan emphasizes the requirement to catalogue and understand NEOs down to 1 km diameter. Goal 4 urges us to understand natural processes at work in the low gravity environment. Goal 5 expresses the need to explore the solar system and to learn how planets originated and evolved. In response to the NASA Strategic Plan we are proposing a NASA Discovery mission whose primary science objective is to greatly advance the realization of these Goals by conducting the first investigation of the global geophysics of an asteroid. Radio reflection data from 5 km orbit about a 1 km NEO will provide a tomographic 3D image of electromagnetic properties. Mechanical properties will be examined in the simplest possible way, using explosions to initiate seismic cratering events and to expose diverse interior units for spectroscopic analysis. Deep Interior is the lowest-risk, lowest cost path towards attaining the required characterization of NEOs. It breaks new ground for future missions to asteroids and comets and facilitates the design of reliable NEO technologies. Our science goals are as follows, and the techniques (radio science, imaging, IR spectroscopy, active surface science) will be described at this meeting: Asteroid Interiors. Radio, gravity, and seismology experiments give a complete first picture of an asteroid's deep interior, resolving inclusions, voids and unit boundaries at ˜ 30 m scales, and determining global and regional mechanical properties. Surface Geophysics. Blast experiments explore the structure and mechanics of the upper meters, demonstrate microgravity cratering, trigger natural geomorphic events, and expose subsurface

  9. The geophysical signal of the martian global dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    1992-01-01

    A first-order tectonic question for Mars is the origin and nature of the global dichotomy (GD) separating approximately the northern and southern hemispheres of the planet. It is appropriate to focus on hypotheses for the origin of the GD as well as on geophysical models of related internal structure that are constrained by present-day observations. There are basic planetary scale observations that relate to the GD: (1) the dichotomy boundary separates two fundamentally different elevations on the planet, as the terrain to the north is lower by an average of about 3 km; (2) the boundary separates terrain of regionally distinct crater ages, heavily cratered (older) in the south and sparsely cratered (younger) in the north; (3) the amount of ancient crust apparently removed from north of the dichotomy boundary cannot be accounted for by simple surface erosion and deposition in the south, and the constraint becomes particularly severe if isostatic adjustment is presumed to have accompanied this process. This last point leads to the supposition that some type of interior process must have been responsible for the creation of the GD. An obvious way to create the observed elevation difference between the two hemispheres is with a thinner crust in the north, although a denser cust would also work. Hypotheses for producing a thinner northern crust include preferential sub-crustal erosion, a giant impact, and simply invoking the crustal thickness difference as a primordial feature of the planet. If the GD represents a fundamental change in the crustal thickness of Mars, then there should be geophysical evidence of this. The center-of-figure to center-of-mass offset of the planet may be related to the GD, but the Tharsis topography must certainly also contribute. If the Tharsis and GD effects can be separated, then a crustal thickness model can be tested, though the results will not be unique. The gravity field provides another geophysical constraint on GD models. A simple

  10. Geophysical Surveys of the Hydrologic Basin Underlying Yosemite Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, E. L.; Shaw, K. A.; Carey, C.; Dunn, M. E.; Whitman, S.; Bourdeau, J.; Eckert, E.; Louie, J. N.; Stock, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    UNR students in an Applied Geophysics course conducted geophysical investigations in Yosemite Valley during the months of March and August 2017. The goal of the study is to understand better the depth to bedrock, the geometry of the bedrock basin, and the properties of stratigraphy- below the valley floor. Gutenberg and others published the only prior geophysical investigation in 1956, to constrain the depth to bedrock. We employed gravity, resistivity, and refraction microtremor(ReMi) methods to investigate the interface between valley fill and bedrock, as well as shallow contrasts. Resistivity and ReMi arrays along three north-south transects investigated the top 50-60m of the basin fill. Gravity results constrained by shallow measurements suggest a maximum depth of 1000 m to bedrock. ReMi and resistivity techniques identified shallow contrasts in shear velocity and electrical resistivity that yielded information about the location of the unconfined water table, the thickness of the soil zone, and spatial variation in shallow sediment composition. The upper several meters of sediment commonly showed shear velocities below 200 m/s, while biomass-rich areas and sandy river banks could be below 150 m/s. Vs30 values consistently increased towards the edge of the basin. The general pattern for resistivity profiles was a zone of relatively high resistivity, >100 ohm-m, in the top 4 meters, followed by one or more layers with decreased resistivity. According to gravity measurements, assuming either -0.5 g/cc or -0.7 g/cc density contrast between bedrock and basin sediments, a maximum depth to bedrock is found south of El Capitan at respectively, 1145 ± 215 m or 818 ± 150 m. Longitudinal basin geometry coincides with the basin depth geometry discussed by Gutenberg in 1956. Their results describe a "double camel" shape where the deepest points are near El Capitan and the Ahwahnee Hotel and is shallowest near Yosemite Falls, in a wider part of the valley. An August Deep

  11. Joint Inversion Modelling of Geophysical Data From Lough Neagh Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozar, J.; Moorkamp, M.; Jones, A. G.; Rath, V.; Muller, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-dimensional modelling of geophysical data collected in the Lough Neagh Basin is presented in the frame of the IRETHERM project. The Permo-Triassic Lough Neagh Basin, situated in the southeastern part of Northern Ireland, exhibits elevated geothermal gradient (~30 °C/km) in the exploratory drilled boreholes. This is taken to indicate good geothermal exploitation potential in the Sherwood Sandstone aquifer for heating, and possibly even electricity production, purposes. We have used a 3-D joint inversion framework for modelling the magnetotelluric (MT) and gravity data collected to the north of the Lough Neagh to derive robust subsurface geological models. Comprehensive supporting geophysical and geological data (e.g. borehole logs and reflection seismic images) have been used in order to analyze and model the MT and gravity data. The geophysical data sets were provided by the Geological Survey of Northern Ireland (GSNI). Considering correct objective function weighting in favor of noise-free MT response functions is particularly important in joint inversion. There is no simple way how to correct distortion effects the 3-D responses as can be done in 1-D or 2-D case. We have used the Tellus Project airborne EM data to constrain magnetotelluric data and correct them for near surface effects. The shallow models from airborne data are used to constrain the uppermost part of 3-D inversion model. Preliminary 3-D joint inversion modeling reveals that the Sherwood Sandstone Group and the Permian Sandstone Formation are imaged as a conductive zone at the depth range of 500 m to 2000 m with laterally varying thickness, depth, and conductance. The conductive target sediments become shallower and thinner to the north and they are laterally continuous. To obtain better characterization of thermal transport properties of investigated area we used porosity and resistivity data from the Annaghmore and Ballymacilroy boreholes to estimate the relations between porosity

  12. Geochemical and Geophysical Signatures of Poas Volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M.; van Bergen, M.; Fernandez, E.; Takano, B.; Barboza, V.; Saenz, W.

    2007-05-01

    Among many research fields in volcanology, prediction of eruptions is the most important from the hazard- mitigation point of view. Most geophysicists have sought for the best physical parameters for this objective: various kinds of wave signals and geodesic data are two of such parameters. Being able to be remotely monitored gives them advantage over many other practical methods for volcano monitoring. On the other hand, increasing volcanic activity is always accompanied by mass transfer. The most swiftly-moving materials are volcanic gases which are the target geochemists have intensively studied although monitoring gases is rather tedious and limited for active volcanoes hosting crater lakes. A Japanese group lead by Bokuichiro Takano has recently developed an indirect method for monitoring gas injection into volcanic crater lakes. Polythionates are formed when SO2 and H2S are injected into the lake from subaqueous fumaroles. Such polythionates consist of chains of 4 to 6 sulphur atoms, the terminal ones of which are bonded with three oxygen atoms. The general formula for these anions is SxO62- (x= 4 to 6). Important to note is that SO2 input into the lake also depends upon the plumbing system of the volcanoes: conduits, cracks and hydrothermal reservoirs beneath the lake that usually differ from volcano to volcano. Despite such site-specific characters some general statements can be made on the behaviour of these chemical species. For example, at low volcanic activity S6O62- predominates while S4O62- and S5O62- become predominant with increasing SO2 that increases with volcanic activity. At higher SO2 input and high temperature polythionates disappear in the lake through interaction with aqueous SO2 (sulfitolysis). Thus, the ratios of the three polythionates or their absence serve as an indicator for various stages of volcanic activity. Monitoring polythionates is an independent method that can be compared with results from geophysical methods. However, it

  13. Using ground-based geophysics to rapidly and accurately map sub-surface acidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vanessa; Triantafilis, John; Johnston, Scott; Nhan, Terence; Page, Donald; Wege, Richard; Hirst, Phillip; Slavich, Peter

    2013-04-01

    sulfuric and sulfidic layers (oxidised and reduced ASS), acidic shallow groundwater, and features of the infilled palaeovalley (Triantafilis et al. 2012). Accurate soil maps with high spatial resolution are required to develop appropriate management strategies for ASS and other soil types associated with low-lying coastal floodplains. The classes identified in this study form sensible soil management zones across the study area related to defined geomorphic units. EM data can then be used to build below-ground 3D models to inform practical targeted management strategies on coastal floodplains to improve land and water quality outcomes. References Triantafilis J, Wong V, Santos FAM, Page D, Wege R (2012) Modeling the electrical conductivity of hydrogeological strata using joint-inversion of loop-loop electromagnetic data. Geophysics 77(4): WB99-WB107

  14. Joint Inversion of Geochemical Data and Geophysical Logs for Lithology Identification in CCSD Main Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chengxiang; Pan, Heping; Luo, Miao

    2017-12-01

    The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) main hole is located in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) belt, providing significant opportunities for studying the metamorphic strata structure, kinetics process and tectonic evolution. Lithology identification is the primary and crucial stage for above geoscientific researches. To release the burden of log analyst and improve the efficiency of lithology interpretation, many algorithms have been developed to automate the process of lithology prediction. While traditional statistical techniques, such as discriminant analysis and K-nearest neighbors classifier, are incompetent in extracting nonlinear features of metamorphic rocks from complex geophysical log data; artificial intelligence algorithms are capable of solving nonlinear problems, but most of the algorithms suffer from tuning parameters to be global optimum to establish model rather than local optimum, and also encounter challenges in making the balance between training accuracy and generalization ability. Optimization methods have been applied extensively in the inversion of reservoir parameters of sedimentary formations using well logs. However, it is difficult to obtain accurate solution from the logging response equations of optimization method because of the strong overlapping of nonstationary log signals when applied in metamorphic formations. As oxide contents of each kinds of metamorphic rocks are relatively less overlapping, this study explores an approach, set in a metamorphic formation model and using the Broyden Fletcher Goldfarb Shanno (BFGS) optimization algorithm to identify lithology from oxide data. We first incorporate 11 geophysical logs and lab-collected geochemical data of 47 core samples to construct oxide profile of CCSD main hole by using backwards stepwise multiple regression method, which eliminates irrelevant input logs step by step for higher statistical significance and accuracy. Then we establish oxide response

  15. Detection of Hazardous Cavities Below a Road Using Combined Geophysical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giorgi, L.; Leucci, G.

    2014-07-01

    Assessment of the risk arising from near-surface natural hazard is a crucial step in safeguarding the security of the roads in karst areas. It helps authorities and other related parties to apply suitable procedures for ground treatment, mitigate potential natural hazards and minimize human and economic losses. Karstic terrains in the Salento Peninsula (Apulia region—South Italy) is a major challenge to engineering constructions and roads due to extensive occurrence of cavities and/or sinkholes that cause ground subsidence and both roads and building collapse. Cavities are air/sediment-filled underground voids, commonly developed in calcarenite sedimentary rocks by the infiltration of rainwater into the ground, opening up, over a long period of time, holes and tunnels. Mitigation of natural hazards can best be achieved through careful geoscientific studies. Traditionally, engineers use destructive probing techniques for the detection of cavities across regular grids or random distances. Such probing is insufficient on its own to provide confidence that cavities will not be encountered. Frequency of probing and depth of investigation may become more expensive. Besides, probing is intrusive, non-continuous, slow, expensive and cannot provide a complete lateral picture of the subsurface geology. Near-surface cavities usually can be easily detected by surface geophysical methods. Traditional and recently developed measuring techniques in seismic, geoelectrics and georadar are suitable for economical investigation of hazardous, potentially collapsing cavities. The presented research focused on an integrated geophysical survey that was carried out in a near-coast road located at Porto Cesareo, a small village a few kilometers south west of Lecce (south Italy). The roads in this area are intensively affected by dangerous surface cracks that cause structural instability. The survey aimed to image the shallow subsurface structures, including karstic features, and evaluate

  16. Exploration of Tunnel Alignment using Geophysical Methods to Increase Safety for Planning and Minimizing Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Bodo; Orlowsky, Dirk; Misiek, Rüdiger

    2010-02-01

    Engineering geophysics provides valuable and continuous information for the planning and execution of tunnel construction projects. For geotechnical purposes special high-resolution geophysical methods have been developed during the last decades. The importance of applying geophysical methods in addition to usually used geological and geotechnical exploration techniques is increasing. The main goal is to achieve an accurate and continuous model of the subsurface in a relative short period of operation time. The routine application of engineering geophysical methods will increase in the coming years. Due to the high acceptance of engineering geophysics at construction sites, much wider application of geophysical investigations is expected. The combination of different methods—geophysics, geology, and geotechnics as well as the so-called joint interpretation techniques—will be of essential importance. Engineering geophysics will play an important role during the three phases: geological investigation, tunnel planning, and execution of tunnel construction. If hazards are well known in advance of a tunnel project the safety of workers will essentially be increased and geological risks will be minimized by means of successful and interdisciplinary cooperation.

  17. Context in caves, caves in context : Experimental geophysical research in four caves in Central Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Neef, Wieke

    2017-01-01

    Archaeological cave research is a highly specialized discipline with a strong focus on local detail, in which geophysical methods are only marginally applied for prospection. This article presents an experimental project to test the application of two common geophysical techniques, ground

  18. 36 CFR 1256.62 - Geological and geophysical information relating to wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geological and geophysical... MATERIALS General Restrictions § 1256.62 Geological and geophysical information relating to wells. (a) In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), NARA may withhold information in records that relates to geological and...

  19. 77 FR 19321 - Geological and Geophysical Exploration on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Geological and Geophysical Exploration on the Atlantic Outer... environmental effects of multiple Geological and Geophysical (G&G) activities in the Mid- and South Atlantic...-sonar surveys, electromagnetic surveys, geological and geochemical sampling, and remote sensing. The...

  20. Geophysics: The Earth in Space. A Guide for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

    Geophysics is the application of physics, chemistry, and mathematics to the problems and processes of the earth, from its innermost core to its outermost environs in space. Fields within geophysics include the atmospheric sciences; geodesy; geomagnetism and paleomagnetism; hydrology; oceanography; planetology; seismology; solar-planetary…

  1. Development of geophysical and geochemical data processing software based on component GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Dan; Yu Xiang; Wu Qubo; Han Shaoyang; Li Xi

    2013-01-01

    Based on component GIS and mixed programming techniques, a software which combines the basic GIS functions, conventional and unconventional data process methods for the regional geophysical and geochemical data together, is designed and developed. The software has many advantages, such as friendly interface, easy to use and utility functions and provides a useful platform for regional geophysical and geochemical data processing. (authors)

  2. The Bolmen tunnel project - evaluation of geophysical site investigation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanfors, R.

    1987-12-01

    The report presents geophysical measurements along and adjacent to the tunnel and an evaluation of the ability of the various methods to permit prediction of rock mass parameters of significance to stability and water bearing ability. The evaluation shows that, using airborne electro-magnetic surveys, it was possible to indicate about 80% of alla the zones of weakness more than 50 m wide in the tunnel. Airborne magnetic surveys located about 90% of all dolerite dykes more than 10 m wide. Ground-level VLF and Slingram methods of electro-magnetic measurement indicated 75% and 85% respectively of all zones of weakness more than 50 m wide. Resistivity methods were successfully used to locate clay filled and water-bearing fracture zones. About 75% of the length of tunnel over which resistivity values below 500 ohm m were measured required shotcrete support and pre-grouting. (orig./DG)

  3. Health physics coverage during the 1993 Maralinga geophysical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.

    1994-01-01

    Between September and November 1993 geophysical examinations of various types were carried out at Maralinga. These examinations were intended to provide information for the planning of strategies for the planning of strategies for the clean up of most contaminated areas at Maralinga. Approximately 40 people were involved in the project at different times, with the majority working inside controlled areas where Plutonium-239, Americium-241 or Uranium-238 contamination was present. Health physics procedures and monitoring programs were put in place to minimise the radiation exposure to the work force. These procedures and programs were similar to those which might be found in a number of different stations. However, the location and nature of the work did lead to the need for some slightly different solutions to routine Health Physics problems. This paper, and poster presentation, describes the procedures and programs used at Maralinga and indicates their effectiveness. 1 ref

  4. Health physics coverage during the 1993 Maralinga geophysical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.

    1994-01-01

    Between September and November 1993 geophysical examinations of various types were carried out at Maralinga. These examinations were intended to provide information for the planning of strategies for the clean up of most contaminated areas at Maralinga. Approximately 40 people were involved in the project at different times, with the majority working inside controlled areas where Plutonium-239, Americium-241 or Uranium-238 contamination was present. Health physics procedures and monitoring programs were put in place to minimise the radiation exposure to the work force. These procedures and programs were similar to those which might be found in a number of different stations. However, the location and nature of the work did lead to the need for some slightly different solutions to routine Health Physics problems. This paper, and the poster presentation, describes the procedures and programs used at maralinga and indicates their effectiveness

  5. Geophysical and geochemical characterisation of groundwater resources in Western Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Banda, Kawawa Eddy; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    Zambia’s rural water supply system depends on groundwater resources to a large extent. However, groundwater resources are variable in both quantity and quality across the country and a national groundwater resources assessment and mapping program is presently not in place. In the Machile area...... in South-Western Zambia, groundwater quality problems are particularly acute. Saline groundwater occurrence is widespread and affects rural water supply, which is mainly based on shallow groundwater abstraction using hand pumps. This study has mapped groundwater quality variations in the Machile area using...... both ground-based and airborne geophysical methods as well as extensive water quality sampling. The occurrence of saline groundwater follows a clear spatial pattern and appears to be related to the palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi, whose northernmost extension reached into the Machile area. Because the lake...

  6. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division: Program report, FY 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    In 1988 the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division began its 15th year as a division. As the Division has grown over the years, its modeling capabilities have expanded to include a broad range of time and space scales ranging from hours to years, and from kilometers to global, respectively. For this report, we have chosen to show a subset of results from several projects to illustrate the breadth, depth, and diversity of the modeling activities that are a major part of the Division's research, development, and application efforts. In addition, the recent reorganization of the Division, including the merger of another group with the Division, is described, and the budget, personnel, models, and publications are reviewed. 95 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Particle-laden flow from geophysical to Kolmogorov scales

    CERN Document Server

    Clercx, Herman; Uijttewaal, Wim

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion of particles in a flow is of central importance in various geophysical and environmental problems. The spreading of aerosols and soot in the air, the growth and dispersion of plankton blooms in seas and oceans, or the transport of sediment in rivers, estuaries and coastal regions are striking examples. These problems are characterized by strong nonlinear coupling between several dynamical mechanisms. As a result, processes on widely different length and time scales are simultaneously of importance. The multiscale nature of this challenging field motivated the EUROMECH colloquium on particle-laden flow that was held at the University of Twente in 2006. This book contains a selection of the papers that were presented.

  8. Inverse problems basics, theory and applications in geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    The overall goal of the book is to provide access to the regularized solution of inverse problems relevant in geophysics without requiring more mathematical knowledge than is taught in undergraduate math courses for scientists and engineers. From abstract analysis only the concept of functions as vectors is needed. Function spaces are introduced informally in the course of the text, when needed. Additionally, a more detailed, but still condensed introduction is given in Appendix B. A second goal is to elaborate the single steps to be taken when solving an inverse problem: discretization, regularization and practical solution of the regularized optimization problem. These steps are shown in detail for model problems from the fields of inverse gravimetry and seismic tomography. The intended audience is mathematicians, physicists and engineers having a good working knowledge of linear algebra and analysis at the upper undergraduate level.

  9. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division: Program report, FY 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    In 1988 the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division began its 15th year as a division. As the Division has grown over the years, its modeling capabilities have expanded to include a broad range of time and space scales ranging from hours to years, and from kilometers to global, respectively. For this report, we have chosen to show a subset of results from several projects to illustrate the breadth, depth, and diversity of the modeling activities that are a major part of the Division's research, development, and application efforts. In addition, the recent reorganization of the Division, including the merger of another group with the Division, is described, and the budget, personnel, models, and publications are reviewed. 95 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. The Earth's heterogeneous mantle a geophysical, geodynamical, and geochemical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Amir

    2015-01-01

    This book highlights and discusses recent developments that have contributed to an improved understanding of observed mantle heterogeneities and their relation to the thermo-chemical state of Earth's mantle, which ultimately holds the key to unlocking the secrets of the evolution of our planet. This series of topical reviews and original contributions address 4 themes. Theme 1 covers topics in geophysics, including global and regional seismic tomography, electrical conductivity and seismic imaging of mantle discontinuities and heterogeneities in the upper mantle, transition zone and lower mantle. Theme 2 addresses geochemical views of the mantle including lithospheric evolution from analysis of mantle xenoliths, composition of the deep Earth and the effect of water on subduction-zone processes. Theme 3 discusses geodynamical perspectives on the global thermo-chemical structure of the deep mantle. Theme 4 covers application of mineral physics data and phase equilibrium computations to infer the regional-scale ...

  11. Geophysical investigation of the ''Thimble,'' 100-H Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the geophysical investigations conducted as part of the characterization of the buried ''Thimble'' site. The site is located just south of the 116-H-2 Crib and is in the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit. Available documentation has it located between, and at the convergence of, two railroad spurs that run north-south. A concrete monument is believed to mark the site. The burial ground is suspected of containing a vertical safety rod thimble that is reportedly 40 ft long. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) were the two techniques used in the investigation. The methods were selected because they are non-intrusive, relatively fast, economical, and have been used successfully in other similar investigations on the Hanford Site. The objective of the investigation was to locate the buried thimble

  12. Geophysical mapping of complex glaciogenic large-scale structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Anne-Sophie

    2013-01-01

    , and is situated near the town Ølgod on Varde hill-island in the western part of Jutland, Denmark. The area was chosen because of the complex geology encountered in existing boreholes and pits. Information from the pits formed the background for the earlier proposed glaciotectonic deformation in the area. A unique...... geophysical data set has been collected in this study consisting of: high-resolution seismic data, airborne transient electromagnetic data (SkyTEM), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and geoelectrical data. Furthermore, data from around 600 boreholes are available, but since the majority of these are very short......, a deep investigation borehole was drilled in the framework of the study. Two fundamentally different methods, Seismic and SkyTEM, play a part in all the studies. The methods measure different parameters and therefore provide information on different properties. It can thus be beneficial to acquire both...

  13. Geophysical Conceptual Model for Benthic Flux and Submarine Groundwater Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J. N.

    2010-12-01

    Numerous investigators characterize benthic flux and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) using a geochemical conceptual model that relies on the estimation of tracer fluxes into and out of a control volume. (Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of any water body, per unit area of bed. Benthic flux is a vector that includes both discharge and recharge components. SGD is a benthic water discharge flux to a marine water body.) For the geochemical approach, benthic discharge flux or SGD is estimated by summing the flux of tracer into or out of the control volume---a water body or portion of a water body---and deducing that tracer deficiency within the control volume must be explained by SGD. Typically, estimated or measured fluxes include advection and mixing in surface-water, diffusion, evasion across the air-water interface, production, and decay. The geochemical model, however, does not account for fluxes that do not transport tracer. For example, investigators found equivalent (the upper 30 cm of sediment in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, in June and July 2003. At this location, a surface-gravity wave with a five-centimeter amplitude and one-second period in 0.5 m of water forced a 12-cm-per-day SGD. The radon tracer technique may not characterize SGD forced by the one-second wave due to the time scale of the wave, the absence of a radon activity gradient between bed medium and surface water, and the the wave affects the flow field within the porous medium. A new geophysical conceptual model for benthic flux is proposed. The model parses benthic flux into components driven by individual forcing mechanisms. The model recognizes that benthic flux components may interact in a constructive or destructive manner, such that benthic flux generated by multiple forcing mechanisms at the same location may not be equivalent to the linear sum of benthic flux generated by single forcing mechanisms. Restated: the whole may be different than the sum of the parts

  14. Proposed geologic model based on geophysical well logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz C, S.; Puente C, I.; de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation of the subsurface based on a qualitative interpretation of well logs was carried out at Cerro Prieto to obtain information on the distribution of the different lithofacies that make up a deltaic depositional system. The sedimentological interpretation derived from the resistivity and spontaneous potential are shown in several cross-sections of the field. In addition to the sedimentological interpretation, a map of the structural geology of the region based on well logs and available geophysical information was prepared, including the results of gravity and seismic refraction surveys. The depth to the zone of hydrothermal alteration described by Elders (1980) was found by means of temperature, electrical, and radioactive logs. Two maps showing the configuration of the top of this anomaly show a clear correlation with the gravity anomalies found in the area.

  15. Geophysical constraints on geodynamical processes at convergent margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Shulgin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Convergent margins, being the boundaries between colliding lithospheric plates, form the most disastrous areas in the world due to intensive, strong seismicity and volcanism. We review global geophysical data in order to illustrate the effects of the plate tectonic processes at convergent margins......, at least, one of the plates is oceanic. However, the oldest oceanic plate in the Pacific ocean has the smallest convergence rate. (2) The presence of an oceanic plate is, in general, required for generation of high-magnitude (M>8.0) earthquakes and for generating intermediate and deep seismicity along...... on the crustal and upper mantle structure, seismicity, and geometry of subducting slab. We present global maps of free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies, heat flow, seismicity, seismic Vs anomalies in the upper mantle, and plate convergence rate, as well as 20 profiles across different convergent margins...

  16. A geophysical experiment on Newton's inverse-square law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achilli, V.; Errani, M.; Focardi, S.; Palmonari, F.; Pedrielli, F.

    1997-01-01

    A geophysical experiment consisting of measurement of the gravitational effect produced by a large water mass was performed in order to verify Newton's law. The use of a superconducting gravimeter lead to a precision of about 0.1 % in the final result. the ratio between the measured and the expected gravitational effect differs from 1 by more than 9 standard deviations. This may be explained by adding to the Newtonian potential a Yukawa repulsive term. The experimental result leads to constraints for the relationship between the relative magnitude (α) of the new term and the range (λ) of the interaction. In the region 20 m < λ < 500 m, α ranges from 2.6 % to 1.3 %

  17. Advanced airborne geophysics for site and watershed characterization and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.; Hodges, G. [Fugro Airborne Surveys, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2007-04-01

    Airborne geophysics systems now have the ability to make accurately map the conductivity of the earth's subsurface. This article provided details of various site characterization surveys conducted using helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) surveys. Recent improvements in computer software, the use of global positioning systems (GPS), lasers, and fiber optics have increased the ability of HEM systems to accurately map ground conditions. Airborne electromagnetic survey techniques were used to characterize the geological features and lithology of the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM) on the eastern shore of Clear Lake in California. Natural conduits for the movement of groundwater were identified. Data showed that acidic water and mercury from the mine were contaminating the lake. The data showed good agreement with results obtained from previous conventional geologic and hydrologic investigations. HEM surveys were also used to characterize conductive mine pools and groundwater plumes at areas in the eastern United States that contained abandoned surface and underground coal mines. HEM was used to delineate source areas and flow paths for acidic, metal-containing groundwater, and data obtained from the surveys were used to plan mitigation activities. The survey identified 11 mine pools, as well as flooded workings that had previously not been mapped. HEM surveys were also used to map water-bearing fractures in areas of crystalline bedrock in drought-ridden regions in Brazil. Information from the surveys was used to locate drill targets for water wells. A test survey was used to identify wellheads leaking methane in a privately-owned gas field in Wyoming. Five methane leakage plumes were detected as a result of the survey. HEM geophysical surveys have also been used to map conductivity variations due to changes in water salinity at the Biscayne aquifer in the Florida everglades. It was concluded that airborne and HEM surveys provide significant cost savings when

  18. investigating the use of geophysical techniques to detect hydrocarbon seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somwe, Vincent Tambwe

    In the Cement oil field, seeps occur in the Hydrocarbon Induced Diagenetic Aureole (HIDA).This 14 square km diagenetic alteration region is mainly characterized by the: (1) secondary carbonate minerals deposition that tends to form ridges throughout the oil field; (2) disseminated pyrite in the vicinity of the fault zones; (3) uranium occurrence and the change in color pattern from red to bleached red sandstone. Generally the HIDA of the Cement oil field is subdivided into four zones: (1) carbonate cemented sandstone zone (zone 1), (2) altered sandstone zone (zone 2), (3) sulfide zone (zone 3) and (4) unaltered sandstone zone (zone 4). This study investigated the use of geophysical techniques to detect alteration zones over the Cement oil field. Magnetic and electromagnetic data were acquired at 5 m interval using the geometric G858 magnetometer and the Geonics EM-31 respectively. Both total magnetic intensity and bulk conductivity were found to decrease across boundaries between unaltered and altered sandstones. Boundaries between sulfide and carbonate zones, which in most cases were located in fault zones, were found to be characterized by higher magnetic and bulk conductivity readings. The contrast between the background and the highest positive peak was found to be in the range of 0.5-10% for total magnetic intensity and 258-450% for bulk conductivity respectively; suggesting that the detection of hydrocarbon seeps would be more effective with EM techniques. The study suggests that geophysical techniques can be used to delineate contact between the different alteration zones especially where metallic minerals such as pyrite are precipitated. The occurrence of carbonate cemented sandstone in the Cement oil field can be used as a pathfinder for hydrocarbon reservoir. The change in color in the altered sandstone zone can still be useful in the hydrocarbon exploration.

  19. Temporal associations of life with solar and geophysical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Breus

    Full Text Available In biology, circadian rhythms with a period of one cycle in 20–28 h are known to be ubiquitous and partly endogenous. Rhythms with a frequency lower than one cycle per day are called 'infradian rhythms'. Among them are components with one cycle in about 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 days, the multiseptans, which, like the circadians, must be regarded as a general characteristic of life: they characterize unicells as well as much more differentiated organisms. We hypothesize that heliogeophysical factors other than the solar visible light, held responsible for the evolution of circadian periodicity, underlie the infradian rhythms of biosystems. The periodicities in the solar wind and variations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF which are associated with the solar rotation are very similar in length to the biological periodicities. We investigate the temporal relations of variations in solar activity and in biological systems to test associations between events in the IMF, in geomagnetic disturbance, in myocardial infarction and in physiology. By cross-spectral analysis, we also find relations at certain frequencies between changes in human physiology on the one hand, and (1 the vertical component of the induction vector of the IMF, Bz, and (2 a global index of geomagnetic disturbance, Kp, on the other hand. We wish to stimulate interest in these periodicities of both biological systems and geophysical endpoints among physicists and biologists alike, so that problems relevant to clinicians and other biologists, including evolutionists, are eventually solved by their cooperation with the geophysical community.

  20. Optimizing the design of geophysical experiments: Is it worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Andrew; Maurer, Hansruedi

    Determining the structure, composition, and state of the Earth's subsurface from measured data is the principal task of many geophysical experiments and surveys. Standard procedures involve the recording of appropriate data sets followed by the application of data analysis techniques to extract the desired information. While the importance of new tools for the analysis stage of an experiment is well recognized, much less attention seems to be paid to improving the data acquisition.A measure of the effort allocated to data analysis research relative to that devoted to data acquisition research is presented in Figure 1. Since 1955 there have been more than 10,000 publications on inversion methods alone, but in the same period only 100 papers on experimental design have appeared in journals. Considering that the acquisition component of an experiment defines what information will be contained in the data, and that no amount of data analysis can compensate for the lack of such information, we suggest that greater effort be made to improve survey planning techniques. Furthermore, given that logistical and financial constraints are often stringent and that relationships between geophysical data and model parameters describing the Earths subsurface are generally complicated, optimizing the design of an experiment may be quite challenging. Here we review experimental design procedures that optimize the benefit of a field survey, such that maximum information about the target structures is obtained at minimum cost. We also announce a new Web site and e-mail group set up as a forum for communication on survey design research and application.

  1. Human responses to the geophysical daily, annual and lunar cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Russell G; Roenneberg, Till

    2008-09-09

    Collectively the daily, seasonal, lunar and tidal geophysical cycles regulate much of the temporal biology of life on Earth. The increasing isolation of human societies from these geophysical cycles, as a result of improved living conditions, high-quality nutrition and 24/7 working practices, have led many to believe that human biology functions independently of them. Yet recent studies have highlighted the dominant role that our circadian clock plays in the organisation of 24 hour patterns of behaviour and physiology. Preferred wake and sleep times are to a large extent driven by an endogenous temporal program that uses sunlight as an entraining cue. The alarm clock can drive human activity rhythms but has little direct effect on our endogenous 24 hour physiology. In many situations, our biology and our society appear to be in serious opposition, and the damaging consequences to our health under these circumstances are increasingly recognised. The seasons dominate the lives of non-equatorial species, and until recently, they also had a marked influence on much of human biology. Despite human isolation from seasonal changes in temperature, food and photoperiod in the industrialised nations, the seasons still appear to have a small, but significant, impact upon when individuals are born and many aspects of health. The seasonal changes that modulate our biology, and how these factors might interact with the social and metabolic status of the individual to drive seasonal effects, are still poorly understood. Lunar cycles had, and continue to have, an influence upon human culture, though despite a persistent belief that our mental health and other behaviours are modulated by the phase of the moon, there is no solid evidence that human biology is in any way regulated by the lunar cycle.

  2. Geophysical Investigations of Habitability in Ice-Covered Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Steven D.; Panning, Mark P.; Stähler, Simon; Cammarano, Fabio; Bills, Bruce G.; Tobie, Gabriel; Kamata, Shunichi; Kedar, Sharon; Sotin, Christophe; Pike, William T.; Lorenz, Ralph; Huang, Hsin-Hua; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Banerdt, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Geophysical measurements can reveal the structures and thermal states of icy ocean worlds. The interior density, temperature, sound speed, and electrical conductivity thus characterize their habitability. We explore the variability and correlation of these parameters using 1-D internal structure models. We invoke thermodynamic consistency using available thermodynamics of aqueous MgSO4, NaCl (as seawater), and NH3; pure water ice phases I, II, III, V, and VI; silicates; and any metallic core that may be present. Model results suggest, for Europa, that combinations of geophysical parameters might be used to distinguish an oxidized ocean dominated by MgSO4 from a more reduced ocean dominated by NaCl. In contrast with Jupiter's icy ocean moons, Titan and Enceladus have low-density rocky interiors, with minimal or no metallic core. The low-density rocky core of Enceladus may comprise hydrated minerals or anhydrous minerals with high porosity. Cassini gravity data for Titan indicate a high tidal potential Love number (k2>0.6), which requires a dense internal ocean (ρocean>1,200 kg m-3) and icy lithosphere thinner than 100 km. In that case, Titan may have little or no high-pressure ice, or a surprisingly deep water-rock interface more than 500 km below the surface, covered only by ice VI. Ganymede's water-rock interface is the deepest among known ocean worlds, at around 800 km. Its ocean may contain multiple phases of high-pressure ice, which will become buoyant if the ocean is sufficiently salty. Callisto's interior structure may be intermediate to those of Titan and Europa, with a water-rock interface 250 km below the surface covered by ice V but not ice VI.

  3. Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Compelling Issues for Geophysical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbari, M.; Grigg, N. S.; Waskom, R.

    2014-12-01

    The joint security of water, food, and energy systems is an urgent issue everywhere, and strong drivers of development and land use change, exacerbated by climate change, require new knowledge to achieve integrated solution using a nexus-based approach to assess inter-dependencies. Effective research-based decision support tools are essential to identify the major issues and interconnections to help in implementation of the nexus approach. The major needs are models and data to clearly and unambiguously present decision scenarios to local cooperative groups of farmers, electric energy generators and water officials for joint decisions. These can be developed by integrated models to link hydrology, land use, energy use, cropping simulation, and optimization with economic objectives and socio-physical constraints. The first step in modeling is to have a good conceptual model and then to get data. As the linking of models increases uncertainties, each one should be supplied with adequate data at suitable spatial and temporal resolutions. Most models are supplied with data by geophysical scientists, such as hydrologists, geologists, atmospheric scientists, soil scientists, and climatologists, among others. Outcomes of a recently-completed project to study the water-energy-food nexus will be explained to illuminate the model and data needs to inform future management actions across the nexus. The project included a workshop of experts from government, business, academia, and the non-profit sector who met to define and explain nexus interactions and needs. An example of the findings is that data inconsistencies among sectors create barriers to integrated planning. A nexus-based systems model is needed to outline sectoral inter-dependencies and identify data demands and gaps. Geophysical scientists can help to create this model and take leadership on designing data systems to facilitate sharing and enable integrated management.

  4. Geophysical prospection in vicinity of the Southern Harz Mountains, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Burkart; Kaufmann, Georg; Meyer, Michael; Kniess, Rudolf; Zöllner, Henning

    2010-05-01

    The Free University of Berlin and the Humboldt University of Berlin hosts the excellence cluster 264 Topoi, "The Formation and Transformation of Space and Knowledge in Ancient Civilizations". The Excellence Cluster pursues the goal of researching the interdependence of space and knowledge in the civilizations of the Ancient Near East, the Mediterranean, and Black Sea region and parts of the Eurasian steppe from the 6th millennium BC to around AD 500. Within this excellence cluster, the project A-I-10 "Settlement History of the South Harz Mountains" combines archaeological, geophysical, and geographical methods to identify the settlement history during the iron-age period. The southern Harz Mountains were on the northern periphery of the Latène culture, which was organized around central sites. Here, towards the end of the 2nd century B.C., settlements of the Przeworsk culture are present, providing evidence of a process of migration into a limited "cultural island". From the geophysical perspective in this project, we discuss results of large-scale magnetic mapping and geoelectric surveys, which were used to determine localities, where subsequently archaeological excavations have been carried out. Magnetic prospecting has been performed with an eight-sensor gradiometer array mounted on a chart. Using a newly developed 10-channel-data logger LEA supporting a GPS-unit for accurate real time positioning high resolution measurements of 1 ha/h became possible. Geoelectric measurements have then been performed over selected sites to add more information on the sub-surface from a different perspective.

  5. Geophysical Monitoring of Geodynamic Processes of Central Armenia Earth Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetyan, R.; Pashayan, R.

    2016-12-01

    The method of geophysical monitoring of earth crust was introduced. It allows by continuous supervision to track modern geodynamic processes of Armenia. Methodological practices of monitoring come down to allocation of a signal which reflects deformation of rocks. The indicators of deformations are not only deviations of geophysical indicators from certain background values, but also parameters of variations of these indicators. Data on changes of parameters of barometric efficiency and saw tooth oscillations of underground water level before seismic events were received. Low-amplitude periodic fluctuations of water level are the reflection of geodynamic processes taking place in upper levels of earth crust. There were recorded fluctuations of underground water level resulting from luni-solar tides and enabling to control the systems of borehole-bed in changes of voluminous deformations. The slow lowering (raising) of underground water level in the form of trend reflects long-period changes of stress-deformative state of environment. Application of method promotes identification of medium-term precursors on anomalous events of variations of geomagnetic field, change of content of subsoil radon, dynamics of level of underground water, geochemistry and water temperature. Increase of activity of geodynamic processes in Central Armenian tectonic complex is observed to change macro component Na+, Ca2+, Mg2-, CL-, SO42-, HCO3-, H4SiO4, pH and gas - CO2 structure of mineral water. Modern geodynamic movements of earth crust of Armenia are the result of seismic processes and active geodynamics of deep faults of longitudinal and transversal stretching. Key Words: monitoring, hydrogeodynamics, geomagnetic field, seismicity, deformation, earth crust

  6. Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional and geophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, Freddy; Venaille, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical study of the self-organization of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows is addressed based on statistical mechanics methods. This review is a self-contained presentation of classical and recent works on this subject; from the statistical mechanics basis of the theory up to applications to Jupiter’s troposphere and ocean vortices and jets. Emphasize has been placed on examples with available analytical treatment in order to favor better understanding of the physics and dynamics. After a brief presentation of the 2D Euler and quasi-geostrophic equations, the specificity of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulence is emphasized. The equilibrium microcanonical measure is built from the Liouville theorem. Important statistical mechanics concepts (large deviations and mean field approach) and thermodynamic concepts (ensemble inequivalence and negative heat capacity) are briefly explained and described. On this theoretical basis, we predict the output of the long time evolution of complex turbulent flows as statistical equilibria. This is applied to make quantitative models of two-dimensional turbulence, the Great Red Spot and other Jovian vortices, ocean jets like the Gulf-Stream, and ocean vortices. A detailed comparison between these statistical equilibria and real flow observations is provided. We also present recent results for non-equilibrium situations, for the studies of either the relaxation towards equilibrium or non-equilibrium steady states. In this last case, forces and dissipation are in a statistical balance; fluxes of conserved quantity characterize the system and microcanonical or other equilibrium measures no longer describe the system.

  7. Research on Integrated Geophysics Detect Potential Ground Fissure in City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, R.

    2017-12-01

    North China confined aquifer lied 70 to 200 meters below the earth's surface has been exploited for several decades, which resulted in confined water table declining and has generated a mass of ground fissure. Some of them has reached the surface and the other is developing. As it is very difficult to stop the ground fissure coming into being, measures of avoiding are often taken. It brings great potential risk to urban architecture and municipal engineering. It is very important to find out specific distribution and characteristic of potential ground fissure in city with high resolution. The ground fissure is concealed, therefor, geophysical method is an important technology to detecting concealed ground fissure. However, it is very difficult to detect the characteristics of the superficial part of ground fissure directly, as it lies dozens of meters below and has only scores of centimeters fault displacement. This paper studies applied ground penetration radar, surface wave and shallow refleciton seismic to detect ground fissure. It sets up model of surface by taking advantage of high resolution of ground penetrating radar data, constrains Reilay wave inversion and improves its resolution. The high resolution reflection seismic is good at detecting the geology structure. The data processing and interpretation technique is developmented to avoid the pitfall and improve the aliability of the rusult. The experiment has been conducted in Shunyi District, Beijing in 2016. 5 lines were settled to collect data of integrated geophysical method. Development zone of concealed ground fissure was found and its ultra shallow layer location was detected by ground penetrating radar. A trial trench of 6 meters in depth was dug and obvious ground fissure development was found. Its upper end was 1.5 meters beneath the earth's surface with displacement of 0.3 meters. The favorable effect of this detection has provided a new way for detecting ground fissure in cities of China, such

  8. A New Multiscale Technique for Time-Accurate Geophysics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Y. A.; Karimabadi, H.

    2006-12-01

    Large-scale geophysics systems are frequently described by multiscale reactive flow models (e.g., wildfire and climate models, multiphase flows in porous rocks, etc.). Accurate and robust simulations of such systems by traditional time-stepping techniques face a formidable computational challenge. Explicit time integration suffers from global (CFL and accuracy) timestep restrictions due to inhomogeneous convective and diffusion processes, as well as closely coupled physical and chemical reactions. Application of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to such systems may not be always sufficient since its success critically depends on a careful choice of domain refinement strategy. On the other hand, implicit and timestep-splitting integrations may result in a considerable loss of accuracy when fast transients in the solution become important. To address this issue, we developed an alternative explicit approach to time-accurate integration of such systems: Discrete-Event Simulation (DES). DES enables asynchronous computation by automatically adjusting the CPU resources in accordance with local timescales. This is done by encapsulating flux- conservative updates of numerical variables in the form of events, whose execution and synchronization is explicitly controlled by imposing accuracy and causality constraints. As a result, at each time step DES self- adaptively updates only a fraction of the global system state, which eliminates unnecessary computation of inactive elements. DES can be naturally combined with various mesh generation techniques. The event-driven paradigm results in robust and fast simulation codes, which can be efficiently parallelized via a new preemptive event processing (PEP) technique. We discuss applications of this novel technology to time-dependent diffusion-advection-reaction and CFD models representative of various geophysics applications.

  9. Integrated geophysical study of the northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Meng, X.; Guo, L.

    2011-12-01

    Tibetan Plateau, the so-called "Roof of the World", is a direct consequence of collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate starting in the early Cenozoic time. The continent-continent collision is still going on. The northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau is the front part of the Tibetan Plateau extends to mainland and favorable area for studying uplift and deformation of the Tibetan Plateau. In the past decades, a variety of geophysical methods were conducted to study geodynamics and geological tectonics of this region. We assembled satellite-derived free-air gravity anomalies with a resolution of one arc-minute from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and reduced them to obtain Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies. Then we gridded Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies on a regular grid, and subsequently processed them with the preferential continuation method to attenuate high-frequency noise and analyzed regional and residual anomalies. We also calculated tilt-angle derivative of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies to derive clearer geological structures with more details. Then we calculated the depth distribution of the Moho discontinuity surface in this area by 3D density interface inversion. From the results of preliminary processing, we analyzed the main deep faults and geological tectonics in this region. We extracted seven important profiles' data of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies in this area, and then did forward modeling and inversion on each profile with constraints of geological information and other geophysical data. In the future, we will perform 3D constrained inversion of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies in this region for better understanding deep structure and tectonics of the northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of the SinoProbe project (201011039), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2010ZY26 2011PY0184), and the National Natural Science Foundation

  10. Geophysical and geochemical signatures of Gulf of Mexico seafloor brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Joye

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical, temperature, and discrete depth-stratified geochemical data illustrate differences between an actively venting mud volcano and a relatively quiescent brine pool in the Gulf of Mexico along the continental slope. Geophysical data, including laser-line scan mosaics and sub-bottom profiles, document the dynamic nature of both environments. Temperature profiles, obtained by lowering a CTD into the brine fluid, show that the venting brine was at least 10°C warmer than the bottom water. At the brine pool, thermal stratification was observed and only small differences in stratification were documented between three sampling times (1991, 1997 and 1998. In contrast, at the mud volcano, substantial temperature variability was observed, with the core brine temperature being slightly higher than bottom water (by 2°C in 1997 but substantially higher than bottom water (by 19°C in 1998. Detailed geochemical samples were obtained in 2002 using a device called the 'brine trapper' and concentrations of dissolved gases, major ions and nutrients were determined. Both brines contained about four times as much salt as seawater and steep concentration gradients of dissolved ions and nutrients versus brine depth were apparent. Differences in the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and potassium between the two brine fluids suggest that the fluids are derived from different sources, have different dilution/mixing histories, or that brine-sediment reactions are more important at the mud volcano. Substantial concentrations of methane, ammonium, and silicate were observed in both brines, suggesting that fluids expelled from deep ocean brines are important sources of these constituents to the surrounding environment.

  11. Applied building physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hens, Hugo S L C

    2012-01-01

    The energy crises of the 1970s, persisting moisture problems, complaints about sick buildings, thermal, visual and olfactory discomfort, and the move towards more sustainability in building construction have pushed Building Physics to the forefront of building innovation. The societal pressure to diminish energy consumption in buildings without impairing usability acted as a trigger to activate the whole notion of performance based design and construction. As with all engineering sciences, Building Physics is oriented towards application, which is why, after a first book on fundamentals this s

  12. Radioisotope Tracers in Industry and Geophysics. Proceedings of the Symposium on Radioisotope Tracers in Industry and Geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Prague, 21 - 25 November 1966, at the invitation of the Czechoslovak Government. The meeting was attended by 170 participants from 25 countries and one international organization. Contents: Industrial application of radioactive tracers (2 papers); Friction and wear studies (6 papers); Geophysical applications (6 papers); Dispersion of effluent (4 papers); Miscellaneous applications (3 papers); Plant kinetics (26 papers). Each paper is in its original language (33 English, 10 French and 4 Russian) with the exception of two Russian papers which are printed in English. Each paper is preceded by an abstract in English and one in the original language if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  13. Immersive, hands-on, team-based geophysical education at the University of Texas Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saustrup, S.; Gulick, S. P.; Goff, J. A.; Davis, M. B.; Duncan, D.; Reece, R.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG), part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers a unique and intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring/summer semester intersession. Now entering its seventh year, the course transitions students from a classroom environment through real-world, hands-on field acquisition, on to team-oriented data interpretation, culminating in a professional presentation before academic and industry employer representatives. The course is available to graduate students and select upper-division undergraduates, preparing them for direct entry into the geoscience workforce or for further academic study. Geophysical techniques used include high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, sediment coring, grab sampling, data processing, and laboratory analysis of sediments. Industry-standard equipment, methods, software packages, and visualization techniques are used throughout the course, putting students ahead of many of their peers in this respect. The course begins with a 3-day classroom introduction to the field area geology, geophysical methods, and computing resources used. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of hands-on field and lab work aboard two research vessels: UTIG's 22-foot, aluminum hulled Lake Itasca; and NOAA's 82-foot high-speed catamaran R/V Manta. The smaller vessel handles primarily shallow, inshore targets using multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and grab sampling. The larger vessel is used both inshore and offshore for multichannel seismic, CHIRP profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibracoring. Field areas to date have included Galveston and Port Aransas, Texas, and Grand Isle, Louisiana, with further work in Grand Isle scheduled for 2014. In the field, students work in teams of three, participating in survey design, instrument set-up, field deployment

  14. Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaves, Helen; Graham, Colin

    2010-05-01

    countries. This makes the direct use of primary data in an integrated way very difficult and also hampers use of the data sets in a harmonised way to produce multidisciplinary data products and services. To ensure interoperability with other marine environmental data types Geo-Seas ISO19115 metadata, OGC and GeoSciML standards will be used as the basis for the metadata profiles for the geological and geophysical data. This will be largely achieved by modifying the SeaDataNet metadata standard profile (Common Data Index or CDI), which is itself based upon the ISO19115 standard, to accommodate the requirements of the Geo-Seas project. The overall objective of Geo-Seas project is to build and deploy a unified marine geoscientific data infrastructure within Europe which will in effect provide a data grid for the sharing of marine geological and geophysical data. This will result in a major improvement in the locating, accessing and delivery of federated marine geological and geophysical data and data products from national geological surveys and research institutes across Europe. There is an emphasis on interoperability both with other disciplines as well as with other key framework projects including the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet) and One Geology - Europe. In addition, a key objective of the Geo-Seas project is to underpin European directives such as INSPIRE as well as recent framework programmes on both the global and European scale, for example Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), all of which are intended to encourage the exchange of data and information. Geo-Seas consortium partners: NERC-BGS (United Kingdom), NERC-BODC (United Kingdom), NERC-NOCS (United Kingdom), MARIS (Netherlands), IFREMER (France), BRGM (France), TNO (Netherlands), BSH (Germany), IGME (Spain), INETI (Portugal), IGME (Greece), GSI (Ireland), BGR (Germany), OGS (Italy), GEUS (Denmark), NGU (Norway), PGI

  15. Creating a Research Experience in an Undergraduate Geophysics Course: Integrated Geophysical Study of the Silver Creek Fault, Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D. L.; Williams, R.

    2006-12-01

    An undergraduate geophysics course at the San Jose State University was redesigned to focus on providing students with an integrated research experience that included both formative and summative assessments of learning. To this end, the students carried out four geophysical studies (gravity, magnetic, refraction, and reflection) across the inferred location of the Silver Creek fault, which is buried by the Quaternary alluvium of the Santa Clara Valley within walking distance of the university. The seismic experiments were made possible with equipment loaned by Geometrics Inc. and seismic and borehole data first acquired during a joint study by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Santa Clara Valley Water District. Three field reports, one produced after each of the first three field experiments, provided formative assessment of each student's understanding of the geophysical method, its application to the primary research objective of defining the location and structure of the Silver Creek fault, and their ability to produce a manuscript of professional quality. After each of the field reports, students were required to rewrite the report, based on feedback provided by the instructor, as well as incorporate the analysis and interpretation of the subsequent geophysical study. Students also modified conclusions of the preceding surveys in order to produce an internally consistent interpretation with each new analysis. Regional geologic relations and borehole data provided additional constraints to interpretations based on the geophysical analyses. For summative assessment, students submitted a final manuscript that had undergone three revisions as well as presented an integrated geophysical study of the Silver Creek fault based on the four geophysical experiments. The quality of the field reports showed marked improvement with each successive submission during the semester and were significantly better than in previous versions of the course, which featured various

  16. Demonstration of Advanced Geophysics and Classification Methods on Munitions Response Sites - East Fork Valley Range Complex, Former Camp Hale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Technical Report Demonstration of Advanced Geophysics and Classification Methods on Munitions Response Sites - East Fork Valley...AECOM Distribution Statement A FINAL REPORT Demonstration of Advanced Geophysics and Classification Methods on Munitions Response Sites East...NUMBER (Include area code) 12-06-2013 Final Report May - November 2014 Demonstration of Advanced Geophysics and Classification Methods on Munitions

  17. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically

  18. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  19. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  20. Introduction: Green Building Handbook

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By recognising the specific environmental challenges facing South Africa, mindful of the government‘s commitment to reducing South Africa‘s Greenhouse gas emissions, and acknowledging the need to build social cohesion, the Green Building Handbook...

  1. Green Building Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  2. Building the Korogwe Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Richard, Jean Pierre

    2011-01-01

    An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania.......An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania....

  3. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  4. Building Blueprints: Making Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Depicts how Cornell University renovated its civil engineering and architecture building to include space for musical performances, teaching, and rehearsals. The article highlights the facility's contemporary design, which also compliments the form and massing of the original building. (GR)

  5. Building Design & Construction - Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-11-01

    Offers a brief history of green building; presents the results of a specially commissioned survey; and analyzes the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building.

  6. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go undetected...

  7. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    , and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... for the possibilities of a sustainable building design: orientation and access to infrastructure are important factor. And the building design is decisive in making the city truly compact: dense in activities. In future, the interaction between the technical infrastructure, the buildings and their users will become......The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark...

  8. State Capitol Buildings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This shapefile will display the locations of the fifty state capitol buildings as well as the territorial capitol buildings for the US Virgin Islands, Guam, Northern...

  9. Energy performance in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'O, Giuliano; Galante, Annalisa; Pitera, Luca

    2006-01-01

    The adoption of the building sector regulations strongly oriented to the energy sustainability becomes more effective, also on the economic plan, if placed by one spread of the energetic certification of the buildings [it

  10. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    2004-01-01

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  11. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  12. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    for the possibilities of a sustainable building design: orientation and access to infrastructure are important factor. And the building design is decisive in making the city truly compact: dense in activities. In future, the interaction between the technical infrastructure, the buildings and their users will become......The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...

  13. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  14. Management Of Building Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Niko Majdandzic; Tadija Lovric; Vido Peric

    2006-01-01

    In this work we have shown the concept of logistic support in management in building production and in building of objects, which is realised in Enterprise resource Planning – ERP system ERPINSG, developed in Informatic firm Informatic engineering – ININ in Slavonski Brod, and in cooperation with scientists of catedra for informatics of Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and users from building firms.

  15. Dutch Building Decree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.

    2000-01-01

    On the 1 October 1992 a change in the Dutch building legislation took effect: the revised Housing Act, the Building Decree and the technical documents related to this legislation came into force. This publication contains an English translation of the Building Decree. In order to give an idea of the

  16. Library Buildings and Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oringdulph, Robert E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Six articles discuss library buildings and construction: (1) library buildings and their parts; (2) the North Campus Library of California State University at Long Beach in 1995; (3) new structures for teaching libraries; (4) construction standards for California public libraries; (5) Sick (Library) Building Syndrome; and (6) using focus-group…

  17. Concepts in Building Firesafety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, M. David

    The goal of this book is to present in a graphical format the principles of design for building firesafety. The book's more than 270 illustrations represent the core of its coverage of factors affecting fire ignition and spread in buildings, building site planning for fire suppression and occupant rescue operations, protection by building…

  18. Building founding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Seiya; Hirako, Shizuka.

    1996-01-01

    The lower portion of a reactor building is buried at a level of a base rock. In the step of building construction, the base rock around the building is dug of keeping a construction space. The base rock present between the digging line and the building is replaced with an artificial base rock comprising aggregates and cement having a building constraining force substantially equal with that of the lower supporting base rock to obtain constraining force for the side portion of the building. The building itself is made of concrete steels. As the material for replacing the base rock between the digging line and the building, non-reinforced concrete having no steels may provide sufficient function. The burying depth is determined so as to align the surface of the base rock with the level of the base floor of the building. With such procedures, since it is not necessary to increase the area of the lower portion of the building, the amount of the materials for the building can be reduced. In addition, the earthquakes stability can be ensured without changing the shape of the building. (I.N.)

  19. The role of the geophysical template and environmental regimes in controlling stream-living trout populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Railsback, Steve F.; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, S.; Bilby, Richard E.; Skaugset, Arne E.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of multiple processes and instream factors to aquatic biota has been explored extensively, but questions remain about how local spatiotemporal variability of aquatic biota is tied to environmental regimes and the geophysical template of streams. We used an individual-based trout model to explore the relative role of the geophysical template versus environmental regimes on biomass of trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii). We parameterized the model with observed data from each of the four headwater streams (their local geophysical template and environmental regime) and then ran 12 simulations where we replaced environmental regimes (stream temperature, flow, turbidity) of a given stream with values from each neighboring stream while keeping the geophysical template fixed. We also performed single-parameter sensitivity analyses on the model results from each of the four streams. Although our modeled findings show that trout biomass is most responsive to changes in the geophysical template of streams, they also reveal that biomass is restricted by available habitat during seasonal low flow, which is a product of both the stream’s geophysical template and flow regime. Our modeled results suggest that differences in the geophysical template among streams render trout more or less sensitive to environmental change, emphasizing the importance of local fish–habitat relationships in streams.

  20. Applied Geophysics in the world of tomorrow - Microfabrication arrives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Instrument manufacturers have a unique perspective on the design and use of geophysical equipment. The field instrument must provide reliable and repeatable performance in every climate condition and environmental extreme. The gear must be easy to use and more importantly easy to understand for non-native English speakers. I have traveled the world installing, repairing, commissioning and demonstrating geophysical survey systems. Everywhere I have traveled there is one unassailable fact - our geophysicist compatriots in developed and developing countries are hungry for information and hungry for technology. They want more and better systems to help improve their understanding of the subsurface. And they want to serve their countries by helping to exploit natural resources. I hold up for your review the first highly successful portable magnetometer, the G-856. Designed in 1981 with over 5000 sold, it is still produced in record numbers today for use all over the world. How could it be that a rather simple device could be so long lived, and make such an impact in exploration programs for 32 years? The answer is in producing reliable and easy to use equipment that is affordable. One might compare it to the iPad or Android device of today. The innovative and no-frills interface has attracted users from all markets including mining, oil/gas, archaeology, environmental, UXO/military and forensics. Powerful ancillary software to process the data has always been included at no charge, offering geoscientists a solution rather than a black box. Many of our technologies are poised for dramatic breakthroughs in miniaturization and interconnectivity. I point specifically to the micro-fabrication of the cesium vapor magnetometer. Initiated 5 years ago in conjunction with NIST, Geometrics has embarked on a high stakes game of minimizing size, weight, power consumption and price while eliminating dead zones and maintaining or increasing sensitivity and sample speed. These new

  1. Investigation of subrosion processes using an integrated geophysical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miensopust, Marion; Hupfer, Sarah; Kobe, Martin; Schneider-Löbens, Christiane; Wadas, Sonja

    2017-04-01

    Subrosion, i.e., leaching of readily soluble rocks, is usually of natural origin but can be enhanced by anthropogenic interferences. In recent years, public awareness of subrosion processes in terms of the in parts catastrophic implications and incidences increased. Especially the sinkholes in Schmalkalden, Tiefenort and Nordhausen (Germany) are three dramatic examples. They show that the knowledge of those processes and therefore, the predictability of such events is insufficient. The complexity of subrosion processes requires an integrated geophysical approach, which investigates the interlinking of structure, hydraulics, leaching, and mechanics. This contributes to a better understanding of the processes by reliable imaging and characterisation of subrosion structures. At LIAG an inter-sectional group is engaged in geophysical investigation of subrosion processes. The focus is application, enhancement and combination of various geophysical methods both at surface and in boreholes. This includes the monitoring of surface deformation and the application of time-lapse gravity as well as seismic, geoelectric and electromagnetic methods. Petrophysical investigations (with focus on Spectral Induced Polarisation - SIP) are conducted to characterise the processes on pore scale. Numerical studies are applied to advance the understanding of void forming processes and the mechanical consequences in the dynamic interaction. Since March 2014, quarterly campaigns are conducted to monitor changes in gravity acceleration at 15 stations in the urban area of Bad Frankenhausen. The standard deviations of the adjusted gravity differences are in the single-digit µGal range. The gravity acceleration changes in the range of 0 to 15 µGal over a timespan of three years and the accompanying levelling locally shows continuous subsidence in the mm/year-range. Sixteen SH-wave and four P-wave reflection seismic profiles together with three VSṔs were surveyed in the city of Bad

  2. The use of Near-surface Geophysics in Evaluating and Assessing Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, L.

    2007-12-01

    mountain terrain. GPR, electrical resistivity and EM methods have been used successfully to map permafrost and massive ground ice. The stability of these materials has impact on building and development within these regions. Mass movements in lowland permafrost terrain, which have implications for climate change, are being monitoring with thermal borehole measurements. Whether in times of flood or draught, understanding our watersheds is an important use of near surface geophysics. Satellite-based remote sensing methods are used to efficiently obtain soil moisture measurements over large regions. Ground-based conductivity meters are used to map soil types that play a fundamental role affecting the pattern of stream flow response. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is used to directly measure surface deformation, which can be related to subsurface hydrological conditions, aseismic deformation or landslides. Resolution of fine as 2mm/year can be obtained from satellite-based measurements. This level of resolutions aids in seismic risk assessment and allows the extent of landslides to be mapped and monitored efficiently. A series of national probabilistic seismic shaking hazard maps are being produced by the US Geological Survey using gravity, magnetic and seismic data in addition to other information. They can be used as input for many policy decisions on building codes and land use, and to estimate the probabilities of strong earthquakes, detailed maps of shaking amplification and susceptibility to liquefaction and landslides, and planning scenarios of large urban earthquakes.

  3. Genetic algorithms and their use in Geophysical Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Paul B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs), global optimization methods that mimic Darwinian evolution are well suited to the nonlinear inverse problems of geophysics. A standard genetic algorithm selects the best or ''fittest'' models from a ''population'' and then applies operators such as crossover and mutation in order to combine the most successful characteristics of each model and produce fitter models. More sophisticated operators have been developed, but the standard GA usually provides a robust and efficient search. Although the choice of parameter settings such as crossover and mutation rate may depend largely on the type of problem being solved, numerous results show that certain parameter settings produce optimal performance for a wide range of problems and difficulties. In particular, a low (about half of the inverse of the population size) mutation rate is crucial for optimal results, but the choice of crossover method and rate do not seem to affect performance appreciably. Optimal efficiency is usually achieved with smaller (< 50) populations. Lastly, tournament selection appears to be the best choice of selection methods due to its simplicity and its autoscaling properties. However, if a proportional selection method is used such as roulette wheel selection, fitness scaling is a necessity, and a high scaling factor (> 2.0) should be used for the best performance. Three case studies are presented in which genetic algorithms are used to invert for crustal parameters. The first is an inversion for basement depth at Yucca mountain using gravity data, the second an inversion for velocity structure in the crust of the south island of New Zealand using receiver functions derived from teleseismic events, and the third is a similar receiver function inversion for crustal velocities beneath the Mendocino Triple Junction region of Northern California. The inversions demonstrate that genetic algorithms are effective in solving problems

  4. Geophysical characterization of Range-Front Faults, Snake Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Theodore H.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, collected audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data along two profiles on the eastern flank of the Snake Range near Great Basin National Park to refine understanding of the subsurface geology. Line 1 was collected along Baker Creek, was approximately 6.7-km long, and recorded subsurface geologic conditions to approximately 800-m deep. Line 2, collected farther to the southeast in the vicinity of Kious Spring, was 2.8-km long, and imaged to depths of approximately 600 m. The two AMT lines are similar in their electrical response and are interpreted to show generally similar subsurface geologic conditions. The geophysical response seen on both lines may be described by three general domains of electrical response: (1) a shallow (mostly less than 100-200-m deep) domain of highly variable resistivity, (2) a deep domain characterized by generally high resistivity that gradually declines eastward to lower resistivity with a steeply dipping grain or fabric, and (3) an eastern domain in which the resistivity character changes abruptly at all depths from that in the western domain. The shallow, highly variable domain is interpreted to be the result of a heterogeneous assemblage of Miocene conglomerate and incorporated megabreccia blocks overlying a shallowly eastward-dipping southern Snake Range detachment fault. The deep domain of generally higher resistivity is interpreted as Paleozoic sedimentary rocks (Pole Canyon limestone and Prospect Mountain Quartzite) and Mesozoic and Cenozoic plutonic rocks occurring beneath the detachment surface. The range of resistivity values within this deep domain may result from fracturing adjacent to the detachment, the presence of Paleozoic rock units of variable resistivities that do not crop out in the vicinity of the lines, or both. The eastern geophysical domain is interpreted to be a section of Miocene strata at depth, overlain by Quaternary alluvial

  5. Preliminary Result of Geophysical Some Studieson the Nariinsukhait Coal Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norov, B.; Purevjav, N.; Roy, D. K., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Nariinsukhait coal deposit has a strategic importance on Mongolian national economic development. The deposit is located in Gurvan-tes of the Umnu-gobi province, as 849 km south-west away from Ulaanbaatar. The deposit in geographically, belongs to Gobi Altai region region of the Altai mountain region. The area contains Permian, Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic age of sediments. Sediments are red or sedimentary cover on some part of area (Minjin. Ch., Batnyam. D., Rentsendorj. S (Baatarkhuyag. A., Altantsetseg. D., 2015). The coal deposit is located in the center portion of the Nariinsukhait basin. The age of coal hosted sedimentary rock is Jurassic estimated by Paleo-botanic methodology, using examination of a total 59 kind of plants, 288 pollen grains (Baatarkhuyag. A., Altantsetseg. D., 2015). The thickness of coal hosted sedimentary sequence is approximately 1105.5m and named as Orgilohbulag formation. In case of geophysical exploration, preliminary interpretation of the coal basin has been done by 3 geophysical methodologies which commonly applying during exploration stage of coal. The interpretations are given below. Natural Gamma Sonde /NGRS 4140/: use to determine natural gamma activation on rock by radionuclides content (238U; 235U; 232Th; 40K). During measurements well contrasted coal bedding and, value indicate between 0-15cps. And depending on the rock type it has been changed, in case of siltstone, argillite, conglomerate value fluctuated between 15-40cps. However, those rocks natural gamma values are difference little, therefore not showing much contrast between rock types. Formation Density Sonde Version B /FDSB 4036/: The Nariinsukhait coal deposit Open holes and protective pipes of density is 0.5-1.5 g/cm3, 1.2-2.3 g/cm3 respectively. Not well contrasted during measurement due to some of sedimentary rock density range is so low as such sandstone, siltstone, and conglomerate. Therefore, applied resistivity methodology and done interpretation. DLL3

  6. Haar wavelets, fluctuations and structure functions: convenient choices for geophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lovejoy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical processes are typically variable over huge ranges of space-time scales. This has lead to the development of many techniques for decomposing series and fields into fluctuations Δv at well-defined scales. Classically, one defines fluctuations as differences: (Δvdiff = v(xx-v(x and this is adequate for many applications (Δx is the "lag". However, if over a range one has scaling Δv ∝ ΔxH, these difference fluctuations are only adequate when 0 < H < 1. Hence, there is the need for other types of fluctuations. In particular, atmospheric processes in the "macroweather" range ≈10 days to 10–30 yr generally have −1 < H < 0, so that a definition valid over the range −1 < H < 1 would be very useful for atmospheric applications. A general framework for defining fluctuations is wavelets. However, the generality of wavelets often leads to fairly arbitrary choices of "mother wavelet" and the resulting wavelet coefficients may be difficult to interpret. In this paper we argue that a good choice is provided by the (historically first wavelet, the Haar wavelet (Haar, 1910, which is easy to interpret and – if needed – to generalize, yet has rarely been used in geophysics. It is also easy to implement numerically: the Haar fluctuation (ΔvHaar at lag Δx is simply equal to the difference of the mean from x to x+ Δx/2 and from xx/2 to xx. Indeed, we shall see that the interest of the Haar wavelet is this relation to the integrated process rather than its wavelet nature per se.

    Using numerical multifractal simulations, we show that it is quite accurate, and we compare and contrast it with another similar technique, detrended fluctuation analysis. We find that, for estimating scaling exponents, the two methods are very similar, yet

  7. Dehydration Kinetics of Chlorite at High Temperatures and Geophysical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, K.; Wang, D.; Liu, T.

    2017-12-01

    A significant amount of water is released from hydrous phases in subduction zones and the brought into the earth's interior. The resulting flux may trigger earthquakes and arc magmatism. Chlorite is one of the most important hydrous minerals with a high water content of 13.0 wt.% in the deep subduction zones, and the dehydration of chlorites are thought to be associated with many anomalies geophysical observations. To understand the nature of the geology and geophysical phenomenon, further research on the dehydration of chlorite should be carried out. Here we report the new results on dehydration kinetics of chlorite at high temperatures. We investigated the dehydration kinetics of chlorite using thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The dehydration experiments were conducted with heating rates of 15, 20, 25 K/min up to 1466K. The fitted TGA data results indicate that the probable dehydroxylation mechanism of chlorite is a three-dimensional diffusion reaction with the Fick's second law. The results reveal that the dehydroxylation reaction can be divided into two stages corresponding to the hydroxyls in the two different layers: the first stage between 853 K and 973 K is related to the dehydroxylation of the interlayer hydroxide with the activation energy (Ea) of 159 kJ/ mol and pre-exponential factor (D0) value of 1.53x10-5 m2/s; the second stage between 973 K and 1093 K with an Ea value of 189 kJ/mol and D0 of 2.1x10-5 m2/s is due to the dehydroxylation of the `talc' layer. The mineral reactions and products were observed by high-temperature X-ray diffraction. There are metastable phases during reactions and product phases exhibited a topotactic relationship. The dehydroxylation reaction of chlorite is controlled by an inhomogeneous mechanism. We determine that the fluid production rates of chlorite are 2.7x10-4s-1, 4.5x10-4s-1, 7.3x10-4s-1, 1.2x10-3s-1, 1.7x10-4s-1, at 863 K, 883 K, 903 K, 923 K, 943 K for isothermal dehydration reaction. Our

  8. Topological inversion for solution of geodesy-constrained geophysical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltogianni, Vasso; Stiros, Stathis

    2015-04-01

    Geodetic data, mostly GPS observations, permit to measure displacements of selected points around activated faults and volcanoes, and on the basis of geophysical models, to model the underlying physical processes. This requires inversion of redundant systems of highly non-linear equations with >3 unknowns; a situation analogous to the adjustment of geodetic networks. However, in geophysical problems inversion cannot be based on conventional least-squares techniques, and is based on numerical inversion techniques (a priori fixing of some variables, optimization in steps with values of two variables each time to be regarded fixed, random search in the vicinity of approximate solutions). Still these techniques lead to solutions trapped in local minima, to correlated estimates and to solutions with poor error control (usually sampling-based approaches). To overcome these problems, a numerical-topological, grid-search based technique in the RN space is proposed (N the number of unknown variables). This technique is in fact a generalization and refinement of techniques used in lighthouse positioning and in some cases of low-accuracy 2-D positioning using Wi-Fi etc. The basic concept is to assume discrete possible ranges of each variable, and from these ranges to define a grid G in the RN space, with some of the gridpoints to approximate the true solutions of the system. Each point of hyper-grid G is then tested whether it satisfies the observations, given their uncertainty level, and successful grid points define a sub-space of G containing the true solutions. The optimal (minimal) space containing one or more solutions is obtained using a trial-and-error approach, and a single optimization factor. From this essentially deterministic identification of the set of gridpoints satisfying the system of equations, at a following step, a stochastic optimal solution is computed corresponding to the center of gravity of this set of gridpoints. This solution corresponds to a

  9. Site Effects estimation in the Po Plain area (Northern Italy): correlation between passive geophysical surveys and stratigraphic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascandola, Claudia; Massa, Marco; Barani, Simone; Argnani, Andrea; Poggi, Valerio; Martelli, Luca; Albarello, Dario; Pergalani, Floriana; Compagnoni, Massimo; Lovati, Sara

    2017-04-01

    results, this amplification peak seems related to a velocity discontinuity, located in general between 100 m and 300 m of depth, where the Vs exceed 800 m/s. This interface can be ascribed to the seismic bedrock according to the actual seismic code (NTC 2008, Vs> 800 m/s, class A) and may be related to different stratigraphic discontinuities moving from East to West. In order to verify the supposed correspondence between geophysical and geological data, also the H/V ratio where inverted, considering the Sanchez-Sesma method and the nearest array velocity profile as indicative for the target inversion. Finally, an empirical relation between amplified frequencies and depths was calculated, allowing to preliminary map, at regional scale, the most important geological discontinuities for the site effects evaluation. An example of site-specific hazard analysis was performed in correspondence of the INGV seismic station CTL8 in terms of displacement response spectra for periods up to 10 s. The results show that neglecting the effects of the deep discontinuities implies underestimation in hazard evaluation of up to about 49% for MRP of 475 years and about 57% for MRP of 2,475 years, with possible consequences on the design of very tall buildings and large bridges.

  10. Danish building typologies and building stock analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    energy savings in residential buildings. The intension with this analysis was to investigate the possible energy reduction in Denmark if the same approach had been taken for the entire Danish building stock. The report concludes that the ZeroHome initiative clearly results in energy savings, but far from......This report provides a summary of the national input from Denmark to the EPISCOPE project supported by Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the EU. The strategic objective of EPISCOPE was to make the energy refurbishment processes in the European housing sector more transparent and effective...... enough to meet the government’s plan to make Danish buildings free from use of fossil fuels by 2035. This will probably require around 50 % energy savings in the Danish building stock as a whole. However, the project has proven that dedicated engagement of locals can speed up market penetration...

  11. Geophysical methods for fracture characterization in and around potential sites for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, E.L.; Lee, K.H.; Morrison, H.F.

    1992-08-01

    Historically, geophysical methods have been used extensively to successfully explore the subsurface for petroleum, gas, mineral, and geothermal resources. Their application, however, for site characterization, and monitoring the performance of near surface waste sites or repositories has been somewhat limited. Presented here is an overview of the geophysical methods that could contribute to defining the subsurface heterogeneity and extrapolating point measurements at the surface and in boreholes to volumetric descriptions in a fractured rock. In addition to site characterization a significant application of geophysical methods may be in performance assessment and in monitoring the repository to determine if the performance is as expected

  12. Producing Coordinate Time Series for Iraq's CORS Site for Detection Geophysical Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oday Yaseen Mohamed Zeki Alhamadani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS have become an integral part of wide range of applications. One of these applications of GNSS is implementation of the cellular phone to locate the position of users and this technology has been employed in social media applications. Moreover, GNSS have been effectively employed in transportation, GIS, mobile satellite communications, and etc. On the other hand, the geomatics sciences use the GNSS for many practical and scientific applications such as surveying and mapping and monitoring, etc. In this study, the GNSS raw data of ISER CORS, which is located in the North of Iraq, are processed and analyzed to build up coordinate time series for the purpose of detection the Arabian tectonic plate motion over seven years and a half. Such coordinates time series have been produced very efficiently using GNSS Precise Point Positioning (PPP. The daily PPP results were processed, analyzed, and presented as coordinate time series using GPS Interactive Time Series Analysis. Furthermore, MATLAB (V.2013a is used in this study to computerize GITSA with Graphic User Interface (GUI. The objective of this study was to investigate both of the homogeneity and consistency of the Iraq CORSs GNSS raw data for detection any geophysical changes over long period of time. Additionally, this study aims to employ free online PPP services, such as CSRS_PPP software, for processing GNSS raw data for generation GNSS coordinate time series. The coordinate time series of ISER station showed a +20.9 mm per year, +27.2 mm per year, and -11.3 mm per year in the East, North, and up-down components, respectively. These findings showed a remarkable similarity with those obtained by long-term monitoring of Earth's crust deformation and movement based on global studies and this highlights the importance of using GNSS for monitoring the movement of tectonic plate motion based on CORS and online GNSS data processing services over long period of

  13. Analyzing soil electrical and strength parameters using geophysical and geotechnical methods in Sungai Batu, Kedah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Nabila; Nordiana, M. M.; Azwin, I. N.; Saidin, Mokhtar

    2017-07-01

    Engineering structures require strong foundations to prevent hazards occur due to lack of understanding the subsurface soil. Geophysical and geotechnical surveys were conducted in Sungai Batu, Kedah to determine the effectiveness of correlating electrical parameters for vertical resolution and to evaluate soil strength by integrating Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Standard Penetration Test (SPT). Results from ERT and GPR showed heterogeneity in the subsurface stratigraphy from surface to 8.6 m depth. The inversion model showed two zones of saturated (150 Ωm). The integration of ERT, GPR and SPT is applied at the borehole position which is at distance of 9.5 m of the survey line. The resistivity values at distance of 9.5 m range from 7 - 30 Ωm due to soil formed by sedimentation originated from fluvial system (sandy clay and clay). Calculated electrical conductivity values from GPR radargram coincide and in range with values from ERT. At distance of 9.5 m, the electrical conductivity range from 32 - 148 mS/m. The N-value from SPT showed low value with range of 12 - 20. The correlation of electrical parameters from ERT and GPR showed good agreement which is effective for vertical resolution. Low resistivity (high conductivity), low N-value and heterogeneity of the soil denote unstable subsurface. Sandy clay/clay in Sungai Batu are detrimental for shallow foundation as the soil material is susceptible to subsidence and has irregular characteristics influenced by the weather. Hence, the soils up to 8 m depth were u nstable, weak and may cause harm to building structure.

  14. Whole earth modeling: developing and disseminating scientific software for computational geophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, a great deal of specialized scientific software for modeling and data analysis has been developed by individual researchers or small groups of scientists working on their own specific research problems. As the magnitude of available data and computer power has increased, so has the complexity of scientific problems addressed by computational methods, creating both a need to sustain existing scientific software, and expand its development to take advantage of new algorithms, new software approaches, and new computational hardware. To that end, communities like the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) have been established to support the use of best practices in scientific computing for solid earth geophysics research and teaching. Working as a scientific community enables computational geophysicists to take advantage of technological developments, improve the accuracy and performance of software, build on prior software development, and collaborate more readily. The CIG community, and others, have adopted an open-source development model, in which code is developed and disseminated by the community in an open fashion, using version control and software repositories like Git. One emerging issue is how to adequately identify and credit the intellectual contributions involved in creating open source scientific software. The traditional method of disseminating scientific ideas, peer reviewed publication, was not designed for review or crediting scientific software, although emerging publication strategies such software journals are attempting to address the need. We are piloting an integrated approach in which authors are identified and credited as scientific software is developed and run. Successful software citation requires integration with the scholarly publication and indexing mechanisms as well, to assign credit, ensure discoverability, and provide provenance for software.

  15. Tracking groundwater discharge to a large river using tracers and geophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Glenn A; Gardner, W Payton; Munday, Tim J

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated large reaches of rivers in which multiple sources of groundwater are responsible for maintaining baseflow. This paper builds upon previous work undertaken along the Fitzroy River, one of the largest perennial river systems in north-western Australia. Synoptic regional-scale sampling of both river water and groundwater for a suite of environmental tracers ((4) He, (87) Sr/(86) Sr, (222) Rn and major ions), and subsequent modeling of tracer behavior in the river, has enabled definition and quantification of groundwater input from at least three different sources. We show unambiguous evidence of both shallow "local" groundwater, possibly recharged to alluvial aquifers beneath the adjacent floodplain during recent high-flow events, and old "regional" groundwater introduced via artesian flow from deep confined aquifers. We also invoke hyporheic exchange and either bank return flow or parafluvial flow to account for background (222) Rn activities and anomalous chloride trends along river reaches where there is no evidence of the local or regional groundwater inputs. Vertical conductivity sections acquired through an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey provide insights to the architecture of the aquifers associated with these sources and general groundwater quality characteristics. These data indicate fresh groundwater from about 300 m below ground preferentially discharging to the river, at locations consistent with those inferred from tracer data. The results demonstrate how sampling rivers for multiple environmental tracers of different types-including stable and radioactive isotopes, dissolved gases and major ions-can significantly improve conceptualization of groundwater-surface water interaction processes, particularly when coupled with geophysical techniques in complex hydrogeological settings. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  16. Variations of Oceanic Crust in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico From Integrated Geophysical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Filina, I.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic history of the Gulf of Mexico remains a subject of debate due to structural complexity of the area and lack of geological constraints. In this study, we focus our investigation on oceanic domain of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico to characterize the crustal distribution and structures. We use published satellite derived potential fields (gravity and magnetics), seismic refraction data (GUMBO3 and GUMBO4) and well logs to build the subsurface models that honor all available datasets. In the previous study, we have applied filters to potential fields grids and mapped the segments of an extinct mid-ocean ridge, ocean-continent boundary (OCB) and several transform faults in our study area. We also developed the 2D potential fields model for seismic profile GUMBO3 (Eddy et al., 2014). The objectives of this study are: 1) to develop a similar model for another seismic profile GUMBO 4 (Christeson, 2014) and derive subsurface properties (densities and magnetic susceptibilities), 2) to compare and contrast the two models, 3) to establish spatial relationship between the two crustal domains. Interpreted seismic velocities for the profiles GUMBO 3 and GUMBO 4 show significant differences, suggesting that these two profiles cross different segments of oceanic crust. The total crustal thickness along GUMBO 3 is much thicker (up to 10 km) than the one for GUMBO 4 (5.7 km). The upper crustal velocity along GUMBO 4 (6.0-6.7 km/s) is significantly higher than the one for GUMBO 3 ( 5.8 km/s). Based our 2D potential fields models along both of the GUMBO lines, we summarize physical properties (seismic velocities, densities and magnetic susceptibilities) for different crustal segments, which are proxies for lithologies. We use our filtered potential fields grids to establish the spatial relationship between these two segments of oceanic crust. The results of our integrated geophysical analysis will be used as additional constraints for the future tectonic reconstruction of

  17. Courthouse Prototype Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    As part of DOE's support of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 and IECC, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) apply a suite of prototype buildings covering 80% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S. for new construction. Efforts have started on expanding the prototype building suite to cover 90% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S., by developing prototype models for additional building types including place of worship, public order and safety, public assembly. Courthouse is courthouse is a sub-category under the “Public Order and Safety" building type category; other sub-categories include police station, fire station, and jail, reformatory or penitentiary.ORNL used building design guides, databases, and documented courthouse projects, supplemented by personal communication with courthouse facility planning and design experts, to systematically conduct research on the courthouse building and system characteristics. This report documents the research conducted for the courthouse building type and proposes building and system characteristics for developing a prototype building energy model to be included in the Commercial Building Prototype Model suite. According to the 2012 CBECS, courthouses occupy a total of 436 million sqft of floor space or 0.5% of the total floor space in all commercial buildings in the US, next to fast food (0.35%), grocery store or food market (0.88%), and restaurant or cafeteria (1.2%) building types currently included in the Commercial Prototype Building Model suite. Considering aggregated average, courthouse falls among the larger with a mean floor area of 69,400 sqft smaller fuel consumption intensity building types and an average of 94.7 kBtu/sqft compared to 77.8 kBtu/sqft for office and 80 kBtu/sqft for all commercial buildings.Courthouses range in size from 1000 sqft to over a million square foot building gross square feet and 1 courtroom to over 100 courtrooms. Small courthouses

  18. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  19. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    building operation as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using 'green accounting', by applying policies for sustainability etc. The paper is based on case studies...... of sustainable building operation and a survey amongst building administrators from the private and the social housing sector. Our results show that there are many good examples on sustainable building operation in Danish housing estates, where local building managers, residents etc. have gained impressive...... results. In the broader sense, however, there is a limited used of available methods and technologies. Barriers for the use of sustainable building operation have been identified, and related to different types of ownership (social housing, private rented, owner-occupied and private co-ops). The survey...

  20. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.