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Sample records for geophysical techniques applied

  1. Geophysical techniques applied to urban planning in complex near surface environments. Examples of Zaragoza, NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo-Anchuela, Ó.; Casas-Sainz, A. M.; Soriano, M. A.; Pocoví-Juan, A.

    Complex geological shallow subsurface environments represent an important handicap in urban and building projects. The geological features of the Central Ebro Basin, with sharp lateral changes in Quaternary deposits, alluvial karst phenomena and anthropic activity can preclude the characterization of future urban areas only from isolated geomechanical tests or from non-correctly dimensioned geophysical techniques. This complexity is here analyzed in two different test fields, (i) one of them linked to flat-bottomed valleys with irregular distribution of Quaternary deposits related to sharp lateral facies changes and irregular preconsolidated substratum position and (ii) a second one with similar complexities in the alluvial deposits and karst activity linked to solution of the underlying evaporite substratum. The results show that different geophysical techniques allow for similar geological models to be obtained in the first case (flat-bottomed valleys), whereas only the application of several geophysical techniques can permit to correctly evaluate the geological model complexities in the second case (alluvial karst). In this second case, the geological and superficial information permit to refine the sensitivity of the applied geophysical techniques to different indicators of karst activity. In both cases 3D models are needed to correctly distinguish alluvial lateral sedimentary changes from superimposed karstic activity.

  2. Geological-geophysical techniques applied to urban planning in karst hazardous areas. Case study of Zaragoza, NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo Anchuela, O.; Soriano, A.; Casas Sainz, A.; Pocoví Juan, A.

    2009-12-01

    Industrial and urban growth must deal in some settings with geological hazards. In the last 50 years, the city of Zaragoza (NE Spain) has developed an increase of its urbanized area in a progression several orders higher than expected from its population increase. This fast growth has affected several areas around the city that were not usually used for construction. Maps of the Zaragoza city area at the end of the XIXth century and beginning of the XXth reveal the presence of karst hazards in several zones that can be observed in more modern data, as aerial photographs taken during a period ranging from 1927 to present. The urban and industrial development has covered many of these hazardous zones, even though potential risks were known. The origins of the karst problems are related to the solution of evaporites (mainly gypsum, glauberite and halite) that represent the Miocene substratum of the Zaragoza area underlying the Quaternary terraces and pediments related to the Ebro River and its tributaries. Historical data show the persistence of subsidence foci during long periods of time while in recent urbanized areas this stability is not shared, observing the increase of activity and/or radius affection in short periods of time after building over. These problems can be related to two factors: i) urban development over hazardous areas can increase the karst activity and ii) the affection radius is not properly established with the commonly applied methods. One way to develop these detailed maps can be related to the geophysical approach. The applied geophysical routine, dependent on the characteristics of the surveyed area, is based on potential geophysical techniques (magnetometry and gravimetry) and others related to the application of induced fields (EM and GPR). The obtained results can be related to more straightforward criteria as the detection of cavities in the subsoil and indirect indicators related to the long-term activity of the subsidence areas

  3. Near-surface applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Everett, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Just a few meters below the Earth's surface lie features of great importance, from geological faults which can produce devastating earthquakes, to lost archaeological treasures! This refreshing, up-to-date book explores the foundations of interpretation theory and the latest developments in near-surface techniques, used to complement traditional geophysical methods for deep-exploration targets. Clear but rigorous, the book explains theory and practice in simple physical terms, supported by intermediate-level mathematics. Techniques covered include magnetics, resistivity, seismic reflection and refraction, surface waves, induced polarization, self-potential, electromagnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, magnetic resonance, interferometry, seismoelectric and more. Sections on data analysis and inverse theory are provided and chapters are illustrated by case studies, giving students and professionals the tools to plan, conduct and analyze a near-surface geophysical survey. This is an important textbook fo...

  4. Numerical simulation in applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Juan Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the theory of waves propagation in a fluid-saturated porous medium (a Biot medium) and its application in Applied Geophysics. In particular, a derivation of absorbing boundary conditions in viscoelastic and poroelastic media is presented, which later is employed in the applications. The partial differential equations describing the propagation of waves in Biot media are solved using the Finite Element Method (FEM). Waves propagating in a Biot medium suffer attenuation and dispersion effects. In particular the fast compressional and shear waves are converted to slow diffusion-type waves at mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities (on the order of centimeters), effect usually occurring in the seismic range of frequencies. In some cases, a Biot medium presents a dense set of fractures oriented in preference directions. When the average distance between fractures is much smaller than the wavelengths of the travelling fast compressional and shear waves, the medium behaves as an effective viscoelastic an...

  5. SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience): Learning Geophysics by Doing Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiracek, G. R.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Gilpin, B. E.; Pellerin, L.

    2005-12-01

    SAGE, a field-based educational program in applied geophysical methods has been an REU site for 16 years and completed its 23rd year of operation in July 2005. SAGE teaches the major geophysical exploration methods (including seismics, gravity, magnetics, and electromagnetics) and applies them to the solution of specific local and regional geologic problems. These include delineating buried hazardous material; mapping archaeological sites; and studying the structure, tectonics, and water resources of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico. Nearly 600 graduates, undergraduates, and professionals have attended SAGE since 1983. Since 1990 REU students have numbered 219 coming from dozens of different campuses. There have been 124 underrepresented REU students including 100 women, 14 Hispanics, 7 Native Americans, and 3 African Americans. Tracking of former REU students has revealed that 81% have gone on to graduate school. Keys to the success of SAGE are hands-on immersion in geophysics for one month and a partnership between academia, industry, and a federal laboratory. Successful approaches at SAGE include: 1) application of the latest equipment by all students; 2) continued updating of equipment, computers, and software by organizing universities and industry affiliates; 3) close ties with industry who provide supplemental instruction, furnish new equipment and software, and alert students to the current industry trends and job opportunities; 4) two-team, student data analysis structure that simultaneously addresses specific geophysical techniques and their integration; and 5) oral and written reports patterned after professional meetings and journals. An eight member, 'blue ribbon' advisory panel from academia, industry, and the federal government has been set up to maintain the vitality of SAGE by addressing such issues as funding, new faculty, organization, and vision. SAGE is open to students from any university (or organization) with backgrounds including

  6. The Expanding Marketplace for Applied Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, N.; Sirles, P.

    2012-12-01

    While the image of geophysics for the proverbial "layman" often seems limited to volcanoes and earthquakes, and to the geoscientist this image enlarges to include oil or minerals exploration and whole earth studies, there has been a steady increase in the application of geophysics into the realm of "daily life", such as real estate deals, highway infrastructure, and flood protection. This expansion of applications can be attributed to the improved economics from advances in equipment and interpretation. Traditional geophysical methods that at one time often only fit within the budgets of oil, gas, and minerals exploration programs can now be economically applied to much smaller scale needs like contaminant mapping, landfill delineation, and levee investigations. A real-world, economic example of this expanding marketplace is our company, which began very small and was aimed almost exclusively at the minerals exploration market. Most of our growth has been in the last 10 years, when we have expanded to five offices and a staff with almost 40 geoscientist degrees (21 in geophysics); much of this growth has been in the non-oil, non-minerals arenas. While much of our work still includes minerals exploration, other projects this year include wind-farm foundation studies, cavity detection above underground nuclear tests, landfill studies, acid mine drainage problems, and leaks in evaporation ponds. A methodology example of this expanding market is the induced polarization (IP) survey, once primarily used for minerals exploration, particularly large porphyry copper deposits, but now efficient enough to also use in environmental studies. The IP method has been particularly useful in delineating and characterizing old, poorly documented landfills, and recent research suggests it may also be useful in monitoring the accelerated biodegradation processes used in some cases to rehabilitate the sites. Compared to temperature monitoring systems, IP may be more useful in providing

  7. Digital Underground (Shh. It's really Applied Geophysics!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, B. G.

    2003-12-01

    Digital Underground (Geology/Physics 241) at Vassar College is an applied geophysics course designed for a liberal arts curriculum, and has nothing to do with Shock G and Tupac Shakur. Applied geophysics courses have a history of using geophysical methods on environmental contamination-type applications (underground storage tanks, leach fields, etc.). Inspired in large part by the Keck Geology Consortium project run by Franklin and Marshall College geophysicist (Robert Sternberg) and archaeologist (James Delle) in an old slave village in Jamaica in 1999, this class examines the history of slavery in New York's Hudson Valley region by way of its forgotten African-American graveyards. This multidisciplinary approach to an issue draws students from across the curriculum- we have had our compliments of geologists and physicists, along with students from sociology, environmental studies, history, and Africana studies. The name of the class and content are designed to attract a non-traditional student of geophysics.- The project-based nature of the class appeals to student yearning for an out-of-classroom experience. The uncontrolled nature of the class demonstrates the complications that occur in real-word situations. The class has in the past broken itself into two teams- a surveying team and an archival research team. Archival research is done (usually by the social scientists in the class) to add a human dimension to the geophysical. The surveying equipment used in delineating these forgotten graveyards includes a Total Station surveyor, an electrical resistivity meter, a magnetometer, and a ground penetrating radar. All students must have a rudimentary understanding of the physics behind the equipment (to the level of where they can explain it to the general public), and the methods used by those studying the archives. This is a project-based class, where the instructor acts as a project manager, and the students make the decisions regarding the survey itself. Every

  8. GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES IN DETECTION TO RIVER EMBANKMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chao; LIU Jian-ping; XU Shun-fang; XIA Jiang-hai

    2004-01-01

    Geophysical technologies are very effective in environmental, engineering and groundwater applications. Parameters of delineating nature of near-surface materials such as compressional-wave velocity, shear-wave velocity can be obtained using shallow seismic methods. Electric methods are primary approaches for investigating groundwater and detecting leakage. Both of the methods are applied to detect embankment in hope of obtaining evidence of the strength and moisture inside the body. A technological experiment has been done for detecting and discovering the hidden troubles in the embankment of Yangtze River,Songzi, Hubei, China in 2003. Surface-wave and DC multi-channel array resistivity sounding techniques were used to detect hidden trouble inside and under dike like pipe-seeps. This paper discusses the exploration strategy and the effect of geological characteristics. A practical approach of combining seismic and electric resistivity measurements was applied to locate potential pipe-seeps in embankment in the experiment. The method presents a potential leak factor based on the shear-wave velocity and the resistivity of the medium to evaluate anomalies. An anomaly found in a segment of embankment detected was verified, where occurred a pipe-seep during the 98′ flooding.

  9. Applying geophysical techniques to investigate a segment of a creeping fault in the urban area of San Gregorio di Catania, southern flank of Mt. Etna (Sicily - Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imposa, S.; De Guidi, G.; Grassi, S.; Scudero, S.; Barreca, G.; Patti, G.; Boso, D.

    2015-12-01

    In an especially built-up area, such as the lower slopes of Etna volcano, the effects of surface faulting, caused by coseismic ruptures and aseismic creep, contribute significantly to increase the risk to towns and villages and their related infrastructure. This study aims to couple the geophysical and structural characteristics of an active fault zone, joining surficial and deep information, in the area of San Gregorio di Catania (Sicily - Italy). The occurrence of this structure and its associated fracture field were related to variations in the physical and mechanical properties of the hosting rocks. Surface structural survey detected a fracture zone with maximum width of 40 m, characterized with fractures oriented consistently with the kinematics of the fault. The geophysical surveys (ground penetrating radar, seismic tomography, and refraction microtremor), enabled to detect highly fractured rock volumes at variable depth whose occurrence has been linked to the presence of the fault at surface. The integration of various techniques, with different spatial resolution and depth range, allowed to fully reconstruct the 3D geological structure of the site down to about 15 m.

  10. Teaching Computational Geophysics Classes using Active Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keers, H.; Rondenay, S.; Harlap, Y.; Nordmo, I.

    2016-12-01

    We give an overview of our experience in teaching two computational geophysics classes at the undergraduate level. In particular we describe The first class is for most students the first programming class and assumes that the students have had an introductory course in geophysics. In this class the students are introduced to basic Matlab skills: use of variables, basic array and matrix definition and manipulation, basic statistics, 1D integration, plotting of lines and surfaces, making of .m files and basic debugging techniques. All of these concepts are applied to elementary but important concepts in earthquake and exploration geophysics (including epicentre location, computation of travel time curves for simple layered media plotting of 1D and 2D velocity models etc.). It is important to integrate the geophysics with the programming concepts: we found that this enhances students' understanding. Moreover, as this is a 3 year Bachelor program, and this class is taught in the 2nd semester, there is little time for a class that focusses on only programming. In the second class, which is optional and can be taken in the 4th or 6th semester, but often is also taken by Master students we extend the Matlab programming to include signal processing and ordinary and partial differential equations, again with emphasis on geophysics (such as ray tracing and solving the acoustic wave equation). This class also contains a project in which the students have to write a brief paper on a topic in computational geophysics, preferably with programming examples. When teaching these classes it was found that active learning techniques, in which the students actively participate in the class, either individually, in pairs or in groups, are indispensable. We give a brief overview of the various activities that we have developed when teaching theses classes.

  11. Integrated Geophysical Methods Applied to Geotechnical and Geohazard Engineering: From Qualitative to Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Near-Surface is a region of day-to-day human activity on the earth. It is exposed to the natural phenomena which sometimes cause disasters. This presentation covers a broad spectrum of the geotechnical and geohazard ways of mitigating disaster and conserving the natural environment using geophysical methods and emphasizes the contribution of geophysics to such issues. The presentation focusses on the usefulness of geophysical surveys in providing information to mitigate disasters, rather than the theoretical details of a particular technique. Several techniques are introduced at the level of concept and application. Topics include various geohazard and geoenvironmental applications, such as for earthquake disaster mitigation, preventing floods triggered by tremendous rain, for environmental conservation and studying the effect of global warming. Among the geophysical techniques, the active and passive surface wave, refraction and resistivity methods are mainly highlighted. Together with the geophysical techniques, several related issues, such as performance-based design, standardization or regularization, internet access and databases are also discussed. The presentation discusses the application of geophysical methods to engineering investigations from non-uniqueness point of view and introduces the concepts of integrated and quantitative. Most geophysical analyses are essentially non-unique and it is very difficult to obtain unique and reliable engineering solutions from only one geophysical method (Fig. 1). The only practical way to improve the reliability of investigation is the joint use of several geophysical and geotechnical investigation methods, an integrated approach to geophysics. The result of a geophysical method is generally vague, here is a high-velocity layer, it may be bed rock, this low resistivity section may contain clayey soils. Such vague, qualitative and subjective interpretation is not worthwhile on general engineering design works

  12. Applied Geophysics Opportunities in the Petroleum Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgaard, D. L.; Tikku, A.; Roberts, J. C.; Martinez, A.

    2012-12-01

    Meeting the increasing global demand for energy over the next several decades presents daunting challenges to engineers and scientists, including geoscientists of all disciplines. Many opportunities exist for geophysicists to find and produce oil and gas in a safe, environmentally responsible and affordable manner. Successful oil and gas exploration involves a 'Plates to Pores' approach that integrates multi-scale data from satellites, marine and land seismic and non-seismic field surveys, lab experiments, and even electron microscopy. The petroleum industry is at the forefront of using high performance computing to develop innovative methods to process and analyze large volumes of seismic data and perform realistic numerical modeling, such as finite element fluid flow and rock deformation simulations. Challenging and rewarding jobs in exploration, production and research exist for students with BS/BA, MS and PhD degrees. Geophysics students interested in careers in the petroleum industry should have a broad foundation in science, math and fundamental geosciences at the BS/BA level, as well as mastery of the scientific method, usually gained through thesis work at MS and PhD levels. Field geology or geophysics experience is also valuable. Other personal attributes typical for geoscientists to be successful in industry include a passion for solving complex geoscience problems, the flexibility to work on a variety of assignments throughout a career and skills such as teamwork, communication, integration and leadership. In this presentation we will give examples of research, exploration and production opportunities for geophysicists in petroleum companies and compare and contrast careers in academia vs. industry.

  13. Hands-On Teaching through a Student Field Project in Applied Geophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasner, John Samuel; Crockett, Jeffrey Jon; Horton, Kimberly Beth; Poe, Michele Daun; Wollert, Matthew Todd

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Proffit Mountain project, part of a senior-level class in applied geophysics that provides students with hands-on experience in applying principles and techniques learned in class. Students conduct magnetic, gravity, and radiometric studies over a diabase body which intrudes rhyolite at Proffitt Mountain in southeast Missouri.…

  14. Applied Research Projects Geology Hydrogeology Geophysical Prospecting Techniques%滑坡工程地质水文地质勘察中物探技术的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周中成

    2015-01-01

    The application of geophysical techniques in landslide hydrogeologic survey conducted in-depth Research, and groundwater monitoring changes in the role of geophysical technology has a simple, with an aim to further promote the development of geophysical technology in hydrogeological survey.%对物探技术在滑坡地质水文地质勘察中的应用进行了深入研究,并对物探技术具有的地下水变化监测作用进行了简单探讨,旨在进一步推动物探技术在水文地质勘察中的应用发展。

  15. Spectral analysis and filter theory in applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Buttkus, Burkhard

    2000-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the fundamentals and methods of spectral analysis and filter theory and their appli­ cations in geophysics. The principles and theoretical basis of the various methods are described, their efficiency and effectiveness eval­ uated, and instructions provided for their practical application. Be­ sides the conventional methods, newer methods arediscussed, such as the spectral analysis ofrandom processes by fitting models to the ob­ served data, maximum-entropy spectral analysis and maximum-like­ lihood spectral analysis, the Wiener and Kalman filtering methods, homomorphic deconvolution, and adaptive methods for nonstation­ ary processes. Multidimensional spectral analysis and filtering, as well as multichannel filters, are given extensive treatment. The book provides a survey of the state-of-the-art of spectral analysis and fil­ ter theory. The importance and possibilities ofspectral analysis and filter theory in geophysics for data acquisition, processing an...

  16. Applied ALARA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  17. Laser techniques in high-pressure geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, R. J.; Bell, P. M.; Mao, H. K.

    1987-01-01

    Laser techniques in conjunction with the diamond-anvil cell can be used to study high-pressure properties of materials important to a wide range of problems in earth and planetary science. Spontaneous Raman scattering of crystalline and amorphous solids at high pressure demonstrates that dramatic changes in structure and bonding occur on compression. High-pressure Brillouin scattering is sensitive to the pressure variations of single-crystal elastic moduli and acoustic velocities. Laser heating techniques with the diamond-anvil cell can be used to study phase transitions, including melting, under deep-earth conditions. Finally, laser-induced ruby fluorescence has been essential for the development of techniques for generating the maximum pressures now possible with the diamond-anvil cell, and currently provides a calibrated in situ measure of pressure well above 100 gigapascals.

  18. Laser techniques in high-pressure geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, R. J.; Bell, P. M.; Mao, H. K.

    1987-01-01

    Laser techniques in conjunction with the diamond-anvil cell can be used to study high-pressure properties of materials important to a wide range of problems in earth and planetary science. Spontaneous Raman scattering of crystalline and amorphous solids at high pressure demonstrates that dramatic changes in structure and bonding occur on compression. High-pressure Brillouin scattering is sensitive to the pressure variations of single-crystal elastic moduli and acoustic velocities. Laser heating techniques with the diamond-anvil cell can be used to study phase transitions, including melting, under deep-earth conditions. Finally, laser-induced ruby fluorescence has been essential for the development of techniques for generating the maximum pressures now possible with the diamond-anvil cell, and currently provides a calibrated in situ measure of pressure well above 100 gigapascals.

  19. New Geophysical Techniques for Offshore Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwani, Manik

    1983-01-01

    New seismic techniques have been developed recently that borrow theory from academic institutions and technology from industry, allowing scientists to explore deeper into the earth with much greater precision than possible with older seismic methods. Several of these methods are discussed, including the seismic reflection common-depth-point…

  20. Identification and Description of Geophysical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    counter-tension applied with a knob necessary to return the beam to its stable position. While the principle of the gravimeter is simple, design ...thermal neutron , and neutron - epithermal neutron logs. The first type responds to gamma rays produced by slow neutron absorption, but is influenced by...three, the neutron - epithermal neutron type is the most accurate and least sensitive to external effects. The neutron log can be used to infer

  1. Geophysical techniques for low enthalpy geothermal exploration in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soengkono, Supri; Bromley, Chris; Reeves, Robert; Bennie, Stewart; Graham, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    Shallow warm water resources associated with low enthalpy geothermal systems are often difficult to explore using geophysical techniques, mainly because the warm water creates an insufficient physical change from the host rocks to be easily detectable. In addition, often the system also has a limited or narrow size. However, appropriate use of geophysical techniques can still help the exploration and further investigation of low enthalpy geothermal resources. We present case studies on the use of geophysical techniques for shallow warm water explorations over a variety of settings in New Zealand (mostly in the North Island) with variable degrees of success. A simple and direct method for the exploration of warm water systems is shallow temperature measurements. In some New Zealand examples, measurements of near surface temperatures helped to trace the extent of deeper thermal water. The gravity method was utilised as a structural technique for the exploration of some warm water systems in New Zealand. Our case studies show the technique can be useful in identifying basement depths and tracing fault systems associated with the occurrence of hot springs. Direct current (DC) ground resistivity measurements using a variety of electrode arrays have been the most common method for the exploration of low enthalpy geothermal resources in New Zealand. The technique can be used to detect the extent of shallow warm waters that are more electrically conductive than the surrounding cold groundwater. Ground resistivity investigations using the electromagnetic (EM) techniques of audio magnetotellurics (AMT or shallow MT), controlled source audio magnetotellurics (CSAMT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) methods have also been used. Highly conductive clays of thermal or sedimentary origin often limit the penetration depth of the resistivity techniques and can create some interpretation difficulties. Interpretation of resistivity anomalies needs to be treated in a site specific

  2. The innovative application of surface geophysical techniques for remedial investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, W.R. [OYO Geospace, Fort Myers, FL (United States); Smith, S. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Boston, MA (United States); Gilmore, P. [Fishbeck, Thomson, Carr and Huber, Aida, MI (United States); Cox, S. [Blasland, Bouck, and Lee, Edison, NJ (United States)

    1993-03-01

    When researchers are investigating potential subsurface contamination at hazardous waste landfills, the surface geophysical techniques they may use are often limited. Many geophysical surveys are concerned with areas next to and not directly within the landfill units. The highly variable properties of the materials within the landfill may result in geophysical data that are either difficult or impossible to interpret. Therefore, contamination at these sites may not be detected until substantial lateral migration away from the unit has occurred. In addition, because of the poor resolution of some techniques, the landfill as a whole must be considered as a source, where discrete disposal areas within landfill units may be the actual point sources of contaminants. In theory, if specific sources within the landfill are identified and isolated, then reduced time, effort, and expenditures will be required for remediation activities. In the summer of 1989, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated a small potentially hazardous waste landfill to determine if contaminant hot spots could be identified within the landfill and to determine if significant vertical and lateral migration of contaminants was occurring away from these locations. Based on the present hydrogeologic conditions, researchers anticipated that subsurface flow would be primarily vertical, with the zone of saturation at a depth greater than 150 meters. This necessitated that the survey be performed, for the most part, directly on the capped portion of the landfill. Focused geophysical surveys conducted off the landfill would not have provided useful information concerning conditions directly beneath the landfill. This paper discusses the planning, application, and analysis of four combined sensing methods: two methods of electromagnetic induction [low induction (Em) and time domain (TEM)], ground penetrating radar (GPR), and soil gas.

  3. GEOPHYSICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152233 An Zhenchang(Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics,Institute of Geology and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100029,China);Peng Fenglin Inspection and Study on the Geomagnetic Survey,Charts and Models during 1683~1949in China(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,57(11),2014,p.3795-3803,60refs.)

  4. GEOPHYSICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080091 Cheng Luying(Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Wuhan 430077,China);Xu Houze Rotation of the Gravity Potential on the Earth’s Gravity Field Recovery(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,49(1),2006,p.93-98,3 illus.,24 refs.,with English abstract)

  5. GEOPHYSICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111476 Chen Bin(Institute of Geophysics,China Earthquake Administration,Beijing 100081,China);Gu Zuowen Study of Geomagnetic Secular Variation in China(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,53(9),2010,p.2144-2154,6 illus.,4 tables,38 refs.)Key words:secular variations of geomagnetic field,China

  6. DVS-SOFTWARE: An Effective Tool for Applying Highly Parallelized Hardware To Computational Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, I.; Herrera, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Most geophysical systems are macroscopic physical systems. The behavior prediction of such systems is carried out by means of computational models whose basic models are partial differential equations (PDEs) [1]. Due to the enormous size of the discretized version of such PDEs it is necessary to apply highly parallelized super-computers. For them, at present, the most efficient software is based on non-overlapping domain decomposition methods (DDM). However, a limiting feature of the present state-of-the-art techniques is due to the kind of discretizations used in them. Recently, I. Herrera and co-workers using 'non-overlapping discretizations' have produced the DVS-Software which overcomes this limitation [2]. The DVS-software can be applied to a great variety of geophysical problems and achieves very high parallel efficiencies (90%, or so [3]). It is therefore very suitable for effectively applying the most advanced parallel supercomputers available at present. In a parallel talk, in this AGU Fall Meeting, Graciela Herrera Z. will present how this software is being applied to advance MOD-FLOW. Key Words: Parallel Software for Geophysics, High Performance Computing, HPC, Parallel Computing, Domain Decomposition Methods (DDM)REFERENCES [1]. Herrera Ismael and George F. Pinder, Mathematical Modelling in Science and Engineering: An axiomatic approach", John Wiley, 243p., 2012. [2]. Herrera, I., de la Cruz L.M. and Rosas-Medina A. "Non Overlapping Discretization Methods for Partial, Differential Equations". NUMER METH PART D E, 30: 1427-1454, 2014, DOI 10.1002/num 21852. (Open source) [3]. Herrera, I., & Contreras Iván "An Innovative Tool for Effectively Applying Highly Parallelized Software To Problems of Elasticity". Geofísica Internacional, 2015 (In press)

  7. Geophysical Techniques for Monitoring CO2 Movement During Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erika Gasperikova; G. Michael Hoversten

    2005-11-15

    The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques for two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.

  8. Geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolt, Bruce

    1973-01-01

    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 13: Geophysics is a 10-chapter text that focuses with the theoretical solid-earth geophysics. This volume specifically covers the general topics of terrestrial magnetism and electricity, the Earth's gravity field, tidal deformations, dynamics of global spin, spin processing, and convective models for the deep interior. This volume surveys first the construction of mathematical models, such as the representation of the geomagnetic field by assuming arrangements of multipole sources in the core and the fast computer evaluation of two- and three-dimensiona

  9. GEOPHYSICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150056 Gao Yanguang(School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing 100087,China);Li Yonghua Crustal Thickness and Vp/Vsin the Northeast China-North China Region and Its Geological Implication(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,57(3),2014,p.847-857,7illus.,58 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:crust,Poisson’s ration,Northeast China,North China20150057 He Lijuan(State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution,Institute of Geology and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sci-

  10. GEOPHYSICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122208 Chen Shi ( Institute of Geophysics,China Earthquake Administration,Beijing 100081,China );Wang Qianshen Thermal Isostasy of North China and Its Gravity Isostasy and Deep Structure ( Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074 / P,54 ( 11 ), 2011,p.2864-2875,8illus.,1 table,37refs. ) Key words:gravity field,Bouguer anomaly,isostasy theory,North China In this paper,based on the up to date global free-air gravity anomaly dataset ( TopexV18.1 ),

  11. Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. H.; Cassen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Four areas of investigation, each dealing with the measurement of a particular geophysical property, are discussed. These properties are the gravity field, seismicity, magnetism, and heat flow. All are strongly affected by conditions, past or present, in the planetary interior; their measurement is the primary source of information about planetary interiors.

  12. GEOPHYSICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140634 Cao Lingmin(Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment,Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Qingdao 266071,China);Xu Yi Finite Difference Tomography of the Crustal Velocity Structure in Tengchong,Yunnan Province(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,56(4),2013,p.1159-1167,6illus.,35refs.,with English abstract)

  13. Applied Geophysics in the world of tomorrow - Microfabrication arrives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Instrument manufacturers have a unique perspective on the design and use of geophysical equipment. The field instrument must provide reliable and repeatable performance in every climate condition and environmental extreme. The gear must be easy to use and more importantly easy to understand for non-native English speakers. I have traveled the world installing, repairing, commissioning and demonstrating geophysical survey systems. Everywhere I have traveled there is one unassailable fact - our geophysicist compatriots in developed and developing countries are hungry for information and hungry for technology. They want more and better systems to help improve their understanding of the subsurface. And they want to serve their countries by helping to exploit natural resources. I hold up for your review the first highly successful portable magnetometer, the G-856. Designed in 1981 with over 5000 sold, it is still produced in record numbers today for use all over the world. How could it be that a rather simple device could be so long lived, and make such an impact in exploration programs for 32 years? The answer is in producing reliable and easy to use equipment that is affordable. One might compare it to the iPad or Android device of today. The innovative and no-frills interface has attracted users from all markets including mining, oil/gas, archaeology, environmental, UXO/military and forensics. Powerful ancillary software to process the data has always been included at no charge, offering geoscientists a solution rather than a black box. Many of our technologies are poised for dramatic breakthroughs in miniaturization and interconnectivity. I point specifically to the micro-fabrication of the cesium vapor magnetometer. Initiated 5 years ago in conjunction with NIST, Geometrics has embarked on a high stakes game of minimizing size, weight, power consumption and price while eliminating dead zones and maintaining or increasing sensitivity and sample speed. These new

  14. GEOPHYSICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091452 Cai Xuelin(School of Earth Science,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Cao Jiaming Lithospheric and Asthenospheric Structures of the Koktokay of Xinjiang to Jianyang of Sichuan Geoscience Transect(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,35(3),2008,p.375-391,8 illus.,2 tables,64 refs.)Key words:lithosphere,asthenosphere,Xinjiang,SichuanBy using the theory and method of modern structural analysis,this paper analyzes the explosion seismic sounding profiling and natural seismic surface wave tomographic imaging in the Koktokay of Xinjiang to Jianyang of Sichuan geoscience transect and integrates the results of research on geology,geochemistry,structural petrology of deep-seated xenoliths and geophysical signs.The studies indicate that the geometric structure pattern of high-speed blocks or mantle block tectonics is one of the basic conditions for controlling the lithospheric tectonic pattern and tectonic deformation of the lithospheric surface.

  15. Integrated Geophysical Techniques for Exploring Deep Volcanic Rock Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXuejun; UDechun; ZhangChangjiang; RanXuefeng

    2003-01-01

    The Carboniferous and Pre-Carboniferous formations in Ludong, Zhungar basin, contain favorable oil/gas reservoirs. The Carboniferous formations, however, are complex in structure and exhibit lateral variations in lithology. Seismic reflections from Pre-Triassic formations are poor and the volcanic reservoirs are very difficult to identify. The analysis of physical properties concluded that the major targets in this region, i.e., the top of the Jurassic and Carboniferous formations, provide distinct density interfaces. The basic, intermediate and acid volcanic rocks were also different in density,resulting in distinguishable gravity anomalies. The differences in magnetism in this region existed not only between the volcanic rocks and clastic sedimentary rocks but also among volcanic rocks with different compositions. All formations and volcanic rocks of different lithologies presented high and low resistance interbeds, which are characterized by regional trends.The modeling study demonstrated that non-seismic integrated geophysical techniques should be feasible in this region, especiaUy the high-precision gravity/magnetic methods combined with long offset transient electromagnetic sounding.

  16. Modern Radar Techniques for Geophysical Applications: Two Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiasamy, B. J.; Bianchi, C.; Sciacca, U.; Tutone, G.; Zirizzotti, A.; Zuccheretti, E.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade of the evolution of radar was heavily influenced by the rapid increase in the information processing capabilities. Advances in solid state radio HF devices, digital technology, computing architectures and software offered the designers to develop very efficient radars. In designing modern radars the emphasis goes towards the simplification of the system hardware, reduction of overall power, which is compensated by coding and real time signal processing techniques. Radars are commonly employed in geophysical radio soundings like probing the ionosphere; stratosphere-mesosphere measurement, weather forecast, GPR and radio-glaciology etc. In the laboratorio di Geofisica Ambientale of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome, Italy, we developed two pulse compression radars. The first is a HF radar called AIS-INGV; Advanced Ionospheric Sounder designed both for the purpose of research and for routine service of the HF radio wave propagation forecast. The second is a VHF radar called GLACIORADAR, which will be substituting the high power envelope radar used by the Italian Glaciological group. This will be employed in studying the sub glacial structures of Antarctica, giving information about layering, the bed rock and sub glacial lakes if present. These are low power radars, which heavily rely on advanced hardware and powerful real time signal processing. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  17. Using geophysical techniques to control in situ thermal remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, S.; Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.; Wilt, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Goldman, R.; Kayes, D.; Kenneally, K.; Udell, K. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Hunter, R. [Infraseismic, Inc., Bakersfield, CA (United States)

    1994-01-22

    Monitoring the thermal and hydrologic processes that occur during thermal environmental remediation programs in near real-time provides essential information for controlling the process. Geophysical techniques played a crucial role in process control as well as for characterization during the recent Dynamic Underground Stripping Project demonstration in which several thousand gallons of gasoline were removed from heterogeneous soils both above and below the water table. Dynamic Underground Stripping combines steam injection and electrical heating for thermal enhancement with ground water pumping and vacuum extraction for contaminant removal. These processes produce rapid changes in the subsurface properties including changes in temperature fluid saturation, pressure and chemistry. Subsurface imaging methods are used to map the heated zones and control the thermal process. Temperature measurements made in wells throughout the field reveal details of the complex heating phenomena. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) provides near real-time detailed images of the heated zones between boreholes both during electrical heating and steam injection. Borehole induction logs show close correlation with lithostratigraphy and, by identifying the more permeable gravel zones, can be used to predict steam movement. They are also useful in understanding the physical changes in the field and in interpreting the ERT images. Tiltmeters provide additional information regarding the shape of the steamed zones in plan view. They were used to track the growth of the steam front from individual injectors.

  18. Near surface geophysical techniques on subsoil contamination: laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; Giampaolo, Valeria; Rizzo, Enzo

    2016-04-01

    Hydrocarbons contamination of soil and groundwater has become a serious environmental problem, because of the increasing number of accidental spills caused by human activities. The starting point of any studies is the reconstruction of the conceptual site model. To make valid predictions about the flow pathways following by hydrocarbons compound is necessary to make a correct reconstruction of their characteristics and the environment in which they move. Near-surface geophysical methods, based on the study of electrical and electromagnetic properties, are proved to be very useful in mapping spatial distribution of the organic contaminants in the subsurface. It is well known, in fact, that electrical properties of the porous media are significantly influenced by hydrocarbons because, when contaminants enter the rock matrix, surface reaction occur between the contaminant and the soil grain surface. The main aim of this work is to investigate the capability of near-surface geophysical methods in mapping and monitoring spatial distribution of contaminants in a controlled setting. A laboratory experiment has been performed at the Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA (Marsico Nuovo, PZ) where a box-sand has been contaminated by diesel. The used contaminant is a LNAPL, added to the sand through a drilled pipe. Contaminant behaviour and its migration paths have been monitored for one year by Electrical Resistivity measurements. In details, a Cross Borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography techniques were used to characterize the contamination dynamics after a controlled hydrocarbon spillage occurring in the vadose zone. The approach with cross-borehole resistivity imaging provide a great advantage compared to more conventional surface electrical resistivity tomography, due to the high resolution at high depth (obviously depending on the depth of the well instrumented for the acquisition). This method has been shown to provide good information on the distribution of

  19. Review of Geophysical Techniques to Define the Spatial Distribution of Subsurface Properties or Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Truex, Michael J.

    2005-08-22

    This is a letter report to Fluor Hanford, Inc. The purpose of this report is to summarize state-of-the-art, minimally intrusive geophysical techniques that can be used to clarify subsurface geology, structure, moisture, and chemical composition. The technology review focused on geophysical characterization techniques that provide two- or three-dimensional information about the spatial distribution of subsurface properties and/or contaminants.

  20. Geophysical techniques in the study of Hydrocarbon contamination: lab experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Valeria; Rizzo, Enzo; Straface, Salvatore; Votta, Mario; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Remediation of sites contaminated by hydrocarbon, due to blow out, leakage from tank or pipe and oil spill, is an environmental problem because infiltrated oil can persist in the ground for a long time and the actual method are invasive and expansive . In the last years there was a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods for environmental monitoring (Greenhouse et al., 1993; Daily and Ramirez, 1995; Lendvay et al., 1998; Atekwana et al., 2000; Chambers et al., 2004; Song et al., 2005; French et al., 2009), and there have been several recent study that relate self-potential measurements to subsurface contaminants (Perry et al., 1996; Naudet et al., 2003; Naudet et al., 2004). Infact, this method is a valid tool for site characterization and monitoring because it is sensitive to contaminant chemistry and redox processes generated by bacteria during the biodegradation phase (Atekwana et al., 2004; Naudet and Revil, 2005). Therefore the goal of this investigation is to characterize underground contaminant distributions using minimally invasive geophysical methods (electrical resistivity tomography and self-potential), in combination with hydrochemical measurements, and to develop fundamental constitutive relations between soil physical and degradation activity parameters and geophysically measurable parameters, in order to improve site remediation efficiency. These tests have been realized at a PVC pool situated in the Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA. The pool is completely filled with ~ 0.80 m3 of an homogeneous medium (quartz-rich sand with a medium-high hydraulic conductivity in the order of 10-5 m/s), to simulate the space and time dynamics of an artificial aquifer; besides it has been endowed of a sensors network at surface and in borehole, to measure self-potential and electrical resistivity. The experiments consist in geophysical measurements to monitor a simulated oil spill into sand-box following by water rain. The experiment was able to obtain

  1. Geophysical techniques to aquifer locating and monitoring for industrial zones in North Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Nguyen; Duan, Nguyen; Thanh, Le; Hida, Noboru

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical methods were applied for hydrogeological targets in many countries including Vietnam. This paper presents results of using complex geophysical techniques as well as 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), vertical electrical sounding (VES), very low frequency (VLF), and seismic refraction for geological structure investigation for locating the aquifers and assessing the hydrogeological conditions for groundwater potential in industrial zones of North Hanoi, Vietnam. The locations of two aquifers are determined by their depth and thickness on the basis of resistivity and seismic velocity values which were proved by stratifications of three boreholes to 40-60 m of depth on the study area. There are connections from surface water to shallow aquifer by hydraulic windows, as follows from VLF data. The deeper aquifer can be considered as a potential groundwater supply, but the water level is descending in time, as shown by hydrological monitoring. However, with careful use and by reducing sources of pollution, groundwater can continue to be an important natural resource for future.

  2. Computational optimization techniques applied to microgrids planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamarra, Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    appear along the planning process. In this context, technical literature about optimization techniques applied to microgrid planning have been reviewed and the guidelines for innovative planning methodologies focused on economic feasibility can be defined. Finally, some trending techniques and new...

  3. Investigation of novel geophysical techniques for monitoring CO2 movement during sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoversten, G. Michael; Gasperikova, Erika

    2003-10-31

    Cost effective monitoring of reservoir fluid movement during CO{sub 2} sequestration is a necessary part of a practical geologic sequestration strategy. Current petroleum industry seismic techniques are well developed for monitoring production in petroleum reservoirs. The cost of time-lapse seismic monitoring can be born because the cost to benefit ratio is small in the production of profit making hydrocarbon. However, the cost of seismic monitoring techniques is more difficult to justify in an environment of sequestration where the process produces no direct profit. For this reasons other geophysical techniques, which might provide sufficient monitoring resolution at a significantly lower cost, need to be considered. In order to evaluate alternative geophysical monitoring techniques we have undertaken a series of numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} sequestration scenarios. These scenarios have included existing projects (Sleipner in the North Sea), future planned projects (GeoSeq Liberty test in South Texas and Schrader Bluff in Alaska) as well as hypothetical models based on generic geologic settings potentially attractive for CO{sub 2} sequestration. In addition, we have done considerable work on geophysical monitoring of CO{sub 2} injection into existing oil and gas fields, including a model study of the Weyburn CO{sub 2} project in Canada and the Chevron Lost Hills CO{sub 2} pilot in Southern California (Hoversten et al. 2003). Although we are specifically interested in considering ''novel'' geophysical techniques for monitoring we have chosen to include more traditional seismic techniques as a bench mark so that any quantitative results derived for non-seismic techniques can be directly compared to the industry standard seismic results. This approach will put all of our finding for ''novel'' techniques in the context of the seismic method and allow a quantitative analysis of the cost/benefit ratios of the newly

  4. Geophysical technique for mineral exploration and discrimination based on electromagnetic methods and associated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov; Michael S.

    2008-01-29

    Mineral exploration needs a reliable method to distinguish between uneconomic mineral deposits and economic mineralization. A method and system includes a geophysical technique for subsurface material characterization, mineral exploration and mineral discrimination. The technique introduced in this invention detects induced polarization effects in electromagnetic data and uses remote geophysical observations to determine the parameters of an effective conductivity relaxation model using a composite analytical multi-phase model of the rock formations. The conductivity relaxation model and analytical model can be used to determine parameters related by analytical expressions to the physical characteristics of the microstructure of the rocks and minerals. These parameters are ultimately used for the discrimination of different components in underground formations, and in this way provide an ability to distinguish between uneconomic mineral deposits and zones of economic mineralization using geophysical remote sensing technology.

  5. Statistical techniques using NURE airborne geophysical data and NURE geochemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Katherine

    Some standard techniques in multivariate analysis are used to describe the relationships among remotely sensed observations (Landsat and airborne geophysical data) and between these variables and hydrogeochemical and stream sediment analyses. Gray-level pictures of such factors make the analytic results more accessible and easier to interpret.

  6. Technique development of PC104 embedded module and its application in the geophysical instrument design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕云田; 张炼; 王彦; 刘晓芹; 马延妮

    2002-01-01

    The mainstream embedded resolutions widely adopted in the geophysical observation device are discussed in this paper. The advantages and its applicability of the PC104 embedded module are demonstrated through its performance description, technique development and its applications in the design of the fluxgate magnetometer, the movable seismograph and the GPS steering device.

  7. Integrated geophysical techniques for high resolution archaeological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipan, M.; Forte, E.; Finetti, I.

    2003-04-01

    We exploit the integration of linear multi-fold Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques, magnetic gradiometry, resistivity measurements and seismic tomography for the high-resolution non-invasive study of archaeological sites. Tests of the proposed integrated procedure are shown from archaeological sites in Italy and Egypt. We perform in particular the integrated subsurface reconstruction of an Iron Age tumulus, the study of high contrast ruins in alluvial sediments, the identification of low contrast remains in a desert area. Multi-fold GPR datasets are processed using pre-stack wave equation based imaging, which effectively tackles the rapid lateral velocity variations that normally characterize archaeological sites. Further image enhancement is achieved by means of proprietary Wavelet Transform based algorithms to compute the instantaneous attributes of the radar trace. The subsurface models are further verified by means of comparison with numerical simulations by FDTD modelling algorithms. Test excavations finally validate all the results. The multi-fold datasets allow image enhancement and characterization of material properties not attainable by conventional GPR methods. In particular, the comparison of conventional and multi-fold data from the desert area gives evidence of the image enhancement attainable in hostile soil conditions. Velocity fields obtained from pre-stack velocity analysis provides further information on material properties. The subsurface model is further constrained by the results of seismic, resistivity and magnetic surveys. Joint interpretation of high resolution multi-fold GPR data, after pre-stack processing and imaging, and seismic tomography allows to constrain the subsurface model and classify the targets of potential archaeological interest in the case of the Iron Age Tumulus. Details of the inner structure are evidenced by the integrated interpretation of seismic and GPR data. In particular, location of the burial chamber and of

  8. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  9. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics' Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course: A Hand-On Education Approach to Applied Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M. B.; Goff, J.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Fernandez, R.; Duncan, D.; Saustrup, S.

    2016-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, Jackson School of Geosciences, offers a 3-week marine geology and geophysics field course. The course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling and analysis. Students first participate in 3 days of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work at locations that provide an opportunity to investigate coastal and continental shelf processes. Teams of students rotate between UTIG's 26' R/V Scott Petty and NOAA's 82' R/V Manta. They assist with survey design, instrumentation set up, and learn about acquisition, quality control, and safe instrument deployment. Teams also process data and analyze samples in onshore field labs. During the final week teams integrate, interpret, and visualize data in a final project using industry-standard software. The course concludes with team presentations on their interpretations with academic and industry supporters. Students report a greater understanding of marine geology and geophysics through the course's intensive, hands-on, team approach and high instructor/student ratio (sixteen students, three faculty, and three teaching assistants). Post-class, students may incorporate course data in senior honors or graduate thesis and are encouraged to publish and present results at national meetings. This course (to our knowledge) remains the only one of its kind, satisfies field experience requirements for some degree programs, and provides an alternative to land-based field courses. Alumni note the course's applicability to energy, environmental, and geotechnical industries as well as coastal restoration/management fields.

  10. An application of geophysical techniques to the study of man-made cavities of historical importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Pietro; Martimucci, Vincenzo; Parise, Mario; Sammarco, Mariangela

    2010-05-01

    Geophysical techniques, based on different methodologies (Ground Penetrating Radar, electric tomography), are very useful to integrate the classical archaeological investigations, and may provide important results to be combined with other surveys. In this study, the geophysical prospections are applied aimed at gaining a better knowledge of a cultural heritage site in the inner part of Apulia region, in southern Italy. The study area is located near Altamura, in a rural area of the Murge plateau, and specifically in the immediate surroundings of Masseria Jesce (masseria is the typical countryside mansion in the region), which first settlement dates back to the end of 1500. There, five man-made cavities are present, two being located in front of the main facade of the mansion, whilst the remaining three are at its back. They are related to different activities carried out in the centuries at the site: from shelters for animals, to sites of production of milk and cheese, works for water collection and distribution, etc. All the man-made cavities are of high historical value but the most important is probably an hypogean crypt, site of christian worship, which walls are decorated with several frescoes dating back to the 14th century. Within the framework of a project dedicated to reach a better knowledge of the area, and to partial restoration of the site as well, geophysical techniques have been used in combination with direct speleological surveys to detect the known artificial caves, and to help in the identification of the probable, further ones. Main goal of the survey was in fact to obtain detailed information on the development and features of the underground cavities, and to verify their likely continuation. At Masseria Jesce the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) prospecting was carried out by means of a SIR20 GSSI system with GSSI 270 Mhz antenna, that provides a good compromise between resolution and depth of investigation. The data were subsequently processed

  11. Digital image processing applied to analysis of geophysical and geochemical data for southern Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinness, E. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Leff, C. E.; Edwards, M. H.; Bindschadler, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Digital image-processing techniques have been used to analyze a variety of geophysical and geochemical map data covering southern Missouri, a region with important basement and strata-bound mineral deposits. Gravity and magnetic anomaly patterns, which have been reformatted to image displays, indicate a deep crustal structure cutting northwest-southeast through southern Missouri. In addition, geologic map data, topography, and Landsat multispectral scanner images have been used as base maps for the digital overlay of aerial gamma-ray and stream sediment chemical data for the 1 x 2-deg Rolla quadrangle. Results indicate enrichment of a variety of elements within the clay-rich alluvium covering many of the interfluvial plains, as well as a complicated pattern of enrichment for the sedimentary units close to the Precambrian rhyolites and granites of the St. Francois Mountains.

  12. Developing a complex independent component analysis technique to extract non-stationary patterns from geophysical time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Geodetic/geophysical observations, such as the time series of global terrestrial water storage change or sea level and temperature change, represent samples of physical processes and therefore contain information about complex physical interactionswith many inherent time scales. Extracting relevant information from these samples, for example quantifying the seasonality of a physical process or its variability due to large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions, is not possible by rendering simple time series approaches. In the last decades, decomposition techniques have found increasing interest for extracting patterns from geophysical observations. Traditionally, principal component analysis (PCA) and more recently independent component analysis (ICA) are common techniques to extract statistical orthogonal (uncorrelated) and independent modes that represent the maximum variance of observations, respectively. PCA and ICA can be classified as stationary signal decomposition techniques since they are based on decomposing the auto-covariance matrix or diagonalizing higher (than two)-order statistical tensors from centered time series. However, the stationary assumption is obviously not justifiable for many geophysical and climate variables even after removing cyclic components e.g., the seasonal cycles. In this paper, we present a new decomposition method, the complex independent component analysis (CICA, Forootan, PhD-2014), which can be applied to extract to non-stationary (changing in space and time) patterns from geophysical time series. Here, CICA is derived as an extension of real-valued ICA (Forootan and Kusche, JoG-2012), where we (i) define a new complex data set using a Hilbert transformation. The complex time series contain the observed values in their real part, and the temporal rate of variability in their imaginary part. (ii) An ICA algorithm based on diagonalization of fourth-order cumulants is then applied to decompose the new complex data set in (i

  13. Integrated geophysical and geological investigations applied to sedimentary rock mass characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Negri

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Salento Peninsula (south-eastern Italy is characterized by sedimentary rocks. The carbonatic nature of the rocks means they are affected by karst phenomena, forming such features as sinkholes, collapsed dolines and caverns, as a result of chemical leaching of carbonates by percolating water. The instability of these phenomena often produces land subsidence problems. The importance of these events is increasing due to growing urbanization, numerous quarries affecting both the subsoil and the surface, and an important coastline characterized by cliffs. This paper focuses on geological and geophysical methods for the characterization of soft sedimentary rock, and presents the results of a study carried out in an urban area of Salento. Taking the Q system derived by Barton (2002 as the starting point for the rock mass classification, a new approach and a modification of the Barton method are proposed. The new equation proposed for the classification of sedimentary rock mass (Qsrm takes account of the permeability of the rock masses, the geometry of the exposed rock face and their types (for example, quarry face, coastal cliff or cavity, the nature of the lithotypes that constitute the exposed sequence, and their structure and texture. This study revises the correlation between Vp and Q derived by Barton (2002, deriving a new empirical equation correlating P-wave velocities and Qsrm values in soft sedimentary rock. We also present a case history in which stratigraphical surveys, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT, and seismic surveys were applied to in situ investigations of subsidence phenomena in an urban area to estimate rock mass quality. Our work shows that in the analysis of ground safety it is important to establish the rock mass quality of the subsurface structures; geophysical exploration can thus play a key role in the assessment of subsidence risk.

  14. Geophysical technique and groundwater monitoring in the surrounding area of a sanitary landfill, Londrina (PR-Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, D. D.; Silva, S. M. C. P.; Fernandes, F.; Texeira, R. S.; Celligoi, A.; Dall' Antonia, L. H.

    2009-07-01

    The use of non-invasive techniques such as surface geophysics usually allows a preliminary mapping providing information that will guide the use of invasive techniques of soil investigation. surface geophysics also helps the location of unconfined aquifer and monitoring wells (Mondelli 2004). However is necessity to point out that results obtained through surface geophysics are not conclusive, and their combination with data from monitoring wells is indicated in order to identify or confirm the behavior of the underground resistivity, which in turn may change according to some conditions such as: intrinsic porosity of rock and sediment, air and aqueous fluid content and variations of the groundwater chemical composition. (Author)

  15. fuzzy control technique fuzzy control technique applied to modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ABSTRACT. In this paper, fuzzy control technique is applied to the modified mathematical model for malaria control presented ... be devised for rule-based systems that deals with continuous ... necessary to use fuzzy logic as it is not easy to follow a particular .... point movement and control is realized and designed. (e.g. α1 ...

  16. Geophysical investigation of earth dam using the electrical tomography resistivity technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lemos Camarero

    Full Text Available Abstract Dams are structures that dam rivers and streams for a variety of purposes. These structures often need to be sturdy to withstand the force of the impoundment and the high values of accumulated water load. The constant maintenance of these structures is essential, since a possible accident can lead to damage of catastrophic proportions. This research presents an alternative cheap and quick application for investigating water seepage in earth dams, through the application of the DC resistivity geophysical method from the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT technique in Wenner array. Three ERT lines were placed parallel to the longitudinal axis of a dam formed by clay soil from the decomposition of diabase. The data are presented in 2D and pseudo-3D geophysical images with electrical resistivity values modeled. Based on the physical principle of electrolytic conduction, that is, decrease in electrical resistance in materials or siliceous minerals in moisture conditions as compared to the material in the dry state, the results revealed low-resistivity zones restricted to some points, associated with water infiltration in the transverse direction of the dam. The absence of evidence as water upwelling on the front of the dam together with geophysical evidence indicate saturation restricted to some points and low probability at the present time, for installation of piping processes.

  17. Combined geophysical techniques for detailed groundwater flow investigation in tectonically deformed fractured rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Alexopoulos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a combination of several near surface geophysical investigation techniques with high resolution remote sensing image interpretations, in order to define the groundwater flow paths and whether they can be affected by future seismic events. A seasonal spring (Amvrakia located at the foot of Meteora pillars near the village of Kastraki (Greece was chosen as a test site. The Meteora conglomeratic formations crop out throughout the study area and are characterized by large discontinuities caused by post Miocene till present tectonic deformation [Ferriere et al. 2011, Royden and Papanikolaou 2011]. A network of groundwater pathways has been developed above the impermeable marls underlying the conglomeratic strata. Our research aims to define these water pathways in order to investigate and understand the exact mechanism of the spring by mapping the exposed discontinuity network with classic field mapping and remote sensing image interpretation and define their underground continuity with the contribution of near surface geophysical techniques. Five Very Low Frequency (VLF profiles were conducted with different directions around the spring aiming to detect possible conductive zones in the conglomeratic formations that the study area consists of. Moreover, two Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT sections of a total length of 140m were carried out parallel to the VLF profiles for cross-checking and verifying the geophysical information. Both techniques revealed important conductive zones (<200 Ohm m within the conglomerate strata, which we interpret as discontinuities filled with water supplying the spring, which are quite vulnerable to displacements as the hydraulic connections between them might be easily disturbed after a future seismic event.

  18. Assessment of diesel contamination in groundwater using electromagnetic induction geophysical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Song; Fallgren, Paul; Cooper, Jeffrey; Morris, Jeffrey; Urynowicz, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Determining hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater is typically accomplished through the installation of extensive monitoring wells. Issues of scale and site heterogeneities tend to introduce errors in delineating the extent of contamination and environmental impact. In this study, electromagnetic induction survey was investigated as an alternative technique for mapping petroleum contaminants in the subsurface. The surveys were conducted at a coal mining site near Gillette, Wyoming, using the EM34-XL ground conductivity meter. Data from this survey were validated with known concentrations of diesel compounds detected in groundwater from the study site. Groundwater data correlated well with the electromagnetic survey data, which was used to generate a site model to identify subsurface diesel plumes. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to use electromagnetic survey techniques for mapping hydrocarbon contamination in groundwater. Results from this study indicate that this geophysical technique can be an effective tool for assessing subsurface petroleum hydrocarbon sources and plumes at contaminated sites.

  19. Scaling filtering and multiplicative cascade information integration techniques for geological, geophysical and geochemical data processing and geological feature recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q.

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces several techniques recently developed based on the concepts of multiplicative cascade processes and multifractals for processing exploration geochemical and geophysical data for recognition of geological features and delineation of target areas for undiscovered mineral deposits. From a nonlinear point of view extreme geo-processes such as cloud formation, rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, landslides, earthquakes, igneous activities, tectonics and mineralization often show singular property that they may result in anomalous amounts of energy release or mass accumulation that generally are confined to narrow intervals in space or time. The end products of these non-linear processes have in common that they can be modeled as fractals or multifractals. Here we show that the three fundamental concepts of scaling in the context of multifractals: singularity, self-similarity and fractal dimension spectrum, make multifractal theory and methods useful for geochemical and geophysical data processing for general purposes of geological features recognition. These methods include: a local singularity analysis based on a area-density (C-A) multifractal model used as a scaling high-pass filtering technique capable of extracting weak signals caused by buried geological features; a suite of multifractal filtering techniques based on spectrum density - area (S-A) multifractal models implemented in various domain including frequency domain can be used for unmixing geochemical or geophysical fields according to distinct generalized self-similarities characterized in certain domain; and multiplicative cascade processes for integration of diverse evidential layers of information for prediction of point events such as location of mineral deposits. It is demonstrated by several case studies involving Fe, Sn, Mo-Ag and Mo-W mineral deposits that singularity method can be utilized to process stream sediment/soil geochemical data and gravity/aeromagnetic data as high

  20. Non-invasive characterization of water-bearing strata using a combination of geophysical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Lin, Tingting; Ji, Yanju; Chen, Zubin; Zhao, Yiping; Li, Haisheng

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogeological investigations were carried out in an arid area of Inner-Mongolia to determine the locations of future water supply resources. The first geophysical survey was conducted near Baiqi to identify favorable boreholes using magnetic resonance sounding (MRS). The yield capacities of 43 sites were investigated, and the extent of the potential groundwater storage was determined. Previous studies have indicated that a major tectonic structure may have a significant impact on the groundwater flow and well yield in the study area. Therefore, high-resolution seismic surveys were applied in the second stage of the investigation to determine the fault locations. After the regional identification, a major structure was investigated in detail to map the fracture patterns. Based on the assumption that the hydraulic conductivity of this formation is similar along the entire strike of the fracture, we proposed drilling a borehole (BQ3) in the zone. However, this well has a yield of only 0.8 L/s, falling short of the required flow rate of 3.0 L/s. Therefore, the objective of the final stage of exploration was to accurately define the attitude and extension of the aquifer and to select a more favorable borehole site that would meet the required water flow rate. The geophysical exploration was carried out using time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) and MRS methods. The MRS results suggest optimal locations for water supply boreholes within the subsurface structures mapped by the TDEM inversion method. The data obtained by drilling and coring are in agreement with the predicted aquifer thickness from the TDEM data. Pumping tests indicate that the water discharge of borehole BQ4 was 3.5 L/s. Our results demonstrate that the delineation of the groundwater body using a combined application of three geophysical methods (the MRS, TDEM and 2D seismic methods) was successful.

  1. Exploratory assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Abi, southeastern Nigeria, using geophysical and geological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Anthony E; Ebong, Ebong D; Emeka, Chimezie N

    2015-04-01

    The geophysical-based integrated electrical conductivity (IEC) and the groundwater hydraulic confinement-overlying strata-depth to water table (GOD) techniques were used to assess vulnerability levels of aquifers and the extent of aquifer protection in Abi, Nigeria. The IEC indices was generated from constrained one dimensional (1D) inversion of vertical electrical sounding (VES) and two dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data, acquired randomly in the area. The GOD indices were sourced from existing geologic data within the area. Results showed that IEC values vary from 2.0 S in the strongly protected areas. The GOD indices vary from groundwater resources in the area need to be properly managed for sustainability and such management practices have been suggested.

  2. Airborne Geophysics and Remote Sensing Applied to Study Greenland Ice Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csatho, Beata M.

    2003-01-01

    Overview of project: we combined and jointly analysed geophysical, remote sensing and glaciological data for investigating the temporal changes in ice flow and the role of geologic control on glacial drainage. The project included two different studies, the investigation of recent changes of the Kangerlussuaq glacier and the study of geologic control of ice flow in NW Greenland, around the Humboldt, Petermann and Ryder glaciers.

  3. pplication of Fractal Technique for Analysis of Geophysical - Geochemical Databases in Tekieh Pb-Zn Ore Deposit (SE of Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Mehrnia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Tekieh Lead-Zinc ore deposit that is located in the Sanandaj-Sirjan structural zone has been recognized as one of the most important mineralized regions in Malayer-Isfahan metallogenic sub-state, south east of Arak (Momenzadeh and Ziseman, 1981. Carbonate host units have been developed along (or across the Vishan-Tekieh anticline as the main structure extended in NW-SE trends (Annells et al, 1985. According to geochemical investigations (Salehi, 2004, the element content of the mineralized regions has originated from Alpine post-volcanisms and subsequently it has migrated toward early Cretaceous formations (dolomitic limestones among several hypogenic stages (Torkashvand et a.2009. Also echelon type structures consisting of folded systems and inversed faulting of structures are the most common features in western and eastern parts of ore deposit regions (Annells et al, 1985. Syngenetic enrichments beside limited (rarely developed epigenetic mineralization have been known as two main phases which are closely relevant to ore forming processes in the massive lenses and vein type occurrences, respectively (Momenzadeh and Ziseman, 1981. Material and Methods In this research, two statistical techniques that consist of classical and fractal equations (Mandelbrot, 2005 were applied in geochemical (Torkashvand et al., 2009 and geophysical (Jafari, 2007 databases for obtaining the linear and nonlinear distributions of geochemical elements (Tekieh Pb-Zn content in association with resistivity variations and induction polarization measurements (Calagari, 2010. According to linear statistical techniques (Torkashvand et al., 2009, the main central parameters such as mean, median and mode in addition to variances and standard deviations as distribution tendencies could be used for obtaining the regression coefficients of the databases. However, in fractal statistics, a reliable regression between geoelectrical - geochemical anomalies should be

  4. Borehole Geophysical Logging Program: Incorporating New and Existing Techniques in Hydrologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Michael A.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    The borehole geophysical logging program at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) provides subsurface information needed to resolve geologic, hydrologic, and environmental issues in Florida. The program includes the acquisition, processing, display, interpretation, and archiving of borehole geophysical logs. The borehole geophysical logging program is a critical component of many FISC investigations, including hydrogeologic framework studies, aquifer flow-zone characterization, and freshwater-saltwater interface delineation.

  5. EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072109 An Yong(Key Lab of Geophysics Exploration under CNPC,China University of Petroleum,Beijing 102249,China);Wei Lichun Most Homogeneous Dip-Scanning Method Using Edge Preserving Smoothing for Seismic Noise Attenuation(Applied Geophysics,ISSN1672-7975,CN11-5212/O,3(4),2006,p.210-217,17 illus.,3 refs.)Key words:seismic exploration,denoising

  6. Geoid Recovery using Geophysical Inverse Theory Applied to Satellite to Satellite Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.; Frey, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a new method for determination of the geopotential. The analysis is aimed at the GRACE mission. This Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) mission is viewed as a mapping mission The result will be maps of the geoid. The elements of potential theory, celestial mechanics, and Geophysical Inverse Theory are integrated into a computation architecture, and the results of several simulations presented Centimeter accuracy geoids with 50 to 100 km resolution can be recovered with a 30 to 60 day mission.

  7. Comparison of the Tangent Linear Properties of Tracer Transport Schemes Applied to Geophysical Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, James; Holdaway, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A number of geophysical applications require the use of the linearized version of the full model. One such example is in numerical weather prediction, where the tangent linear and adjoint versions of the atmospheric model are required for the 4DVAR inverse problem. The part of the model that represents the resolved scale processes of the atmosphere is known as the dynamical core. Advection, or transport, is performed by the dynamical core. It is a central process in many geophysical applications and is a process that often has a quasi-linear underlying behavior. However, over the decades since the advent of numerical modelling, significant effort has gone into developing many flavors of high-order, shape preserving, nonoscillatory, positive definite advection schemes. These schemes are excellent in terms of transporting the quantities of interest in the dynamical core, but they introduce nonlinearity through the use of nonlinear limiters. The linearity of the transport schemes used in Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5), as well as a number of other schemes, is analyzed using a simple 1D setup. The linearized version of GEOS-5 is then tested using a linear third order scheme in the tangent linear version.

  8. Seismic site-response characterization of high-velocity sites using advanced geophysical techniques: application to the NAGRA-Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, V.; Burjanek, J.; Michel, C.; Fäh, D.

    2017-08-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has recently finalised the installation of ten new seismological broadband stations in northern Switzerland. The project was led in cooperation with the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) and Swissnuclear to monitor micro seismicity at potential locations of nuclear-waste repositories. To further improve the quality and usability of the seismic recordings, an extensive characterization of the sites surrounding the installation area was performed following a standardised investigation protocol. State-of-the-art geophysical techniques have been used, including advanced active and passive seismic methods. The results of all analyses converged to the definition of a set of best-representative 1-D velocity profiles for each site, which are the input for the computation of engineering soil proxies (traveltime averaged velocity and quarter-wavelength parameters) and numerical amplification models. Computed site response is then validated through comparison with empirical site amplification, which is currently available for any station connected to the Swiss seismic networks. With the goal of a high-sensitivity network, most of the NAGRA stations have been installed on stiff-soil sites of rather high seismic velocity. Seismic characterization of such sites has always been considered challenging, due to lack of relevant velocity contrast and the large wavelengths required to investigate the frequency range of engineering interest. We describe how ambient vibration techniques can successfully be applied in these particular conditions, providing practical recommendations for best practice in seismic site characterization of high-velocity sites.

  9. What's down below? Current and potential future applications of geophysical techniques to identify subsurface permafrost conditions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, T. A.; Bjella, K.; Campbell, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    For infrastructure design, operations, and maintenance requirements in the North the ability to accurately and efficiently detect the presence (or absence) of ground ice in permafrost terrains is a serious challenge. Ground ice features including ice wedges, thermokarst cave-ice, and segregation ice are present in a variety of spatial scales and patterns. Currently, most engineering applications use borehole logging and sampling to extrapolate conditions at the point scale. However, there is high risk of over or under estimating the presence of frozen or unfrozen features when relying on borehole information alone. In addition, boreholes are costly, especially for planning linear structures like roads or runways. Predicted climate warming will provide further challenges for infrastructure development and transportation operations where permafrost degradation occurs. Accurately identifying the subsurface character in permafrost terrains will allow engineers and planners to cost effectively create novel infrastructure designs to withstand the changing environment. There is thus a great need for a low cost rapidly deployable, spatially extensive means of 'measuring' subsurface conditions. Geophysical measurements, both terrestrial and airborne, have strong potential to revolutionize our way of mapping subsurface conditions. Many studies in continuous and discontinuous permafrost have used geophysical measurements to identify discrete features and repeatable patterns in the subsurface. The most common measurements include galvanic and capacitive coupled resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and multi frequency electromagnetic induction techniques. Each of these measurements has strengths, weaknesses, and limitations. By combining horizontal geophysical measurements, downhole geophysics, multispectral remote sensing images, LiDAR measurements, and soil and vegetation mapping we can start to assemble a holistic view of how surface conditions and standoff measurements

  10. Use of noninvasive geophysical techniques for the In Situ Vitrification Program. Volume 1, Literature review: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josten, N.E.; Marts, S.T.; Carpenter, G.S.

    1991-11-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a waste pit remediation technology that can potentially eliminate the need for pit excavation. The ISV program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) funded this study to evaluate geophysical techniques that might be useful for performing detailed screening of the materials, soil conditions, and local geology of waste pits targeted for remediation. The evaluation focuses on a specific set of characterization objectives developed by ISV engineers. The objectives are based on their assessment of safety, environmental, and cost efficiency issues associated with the ISV process. A literature review of geophysical case histories was conducted and a geophysical survey was performed at the INEL simulated waste pit so that the evaluation could be based on demonstrable results.

  11. Nuclear radioactive techniques applied to materials research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, João Guilherme; Wahl, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review materials characterization techniques using radioactive isotopes at the ISOLDE/CERN facility. At ISOLDE intense beams of chemically clean radioactive isotopes are provided by selective ion-sources and high-resolution isotope separators, which are coupled on-line with particle accelerators. There, new experiments are performed by an increasing number of materials researchers, which use nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Mössbauer, Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC), beta-NMR and Emission Channeling with short-lived isotopes not available elsewhere. Additionally, diffusion studies and traditionally non-radioactive techniques as Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy, Hall effect and Photoluminescence measurements are performed on radioactive doped samples, providing in this way the element signature upon correlation of the time dependence of the signal with the isotope transmutation half-life. Current developments, applications and perspectives of using radioactive ion beams and tech...

  12. Applying Mixed Methods Techniques in Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    In its most basic form, strategic planning is a process of anticipating change, identifying new opportunities, and executing strategy. The use of mixed methods, blending quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques and data, in the process of assembling a strategic plan can help to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, the author…

  13. Applying Mixed Methods Techniques in Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    In its most basic form, strategic planning is a process of anticipating change, identifying new opportunities, and executing strategy. The use of mixed methods, blending quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques and data, in the process of assembling a strategic plan can help to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, the author…

  14. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  15. Digital Speckle Technique Applied to Flow Visualization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Digital speckle technique uses a laser, a CCD camera, and digital processing to generate interference fringes at the television framing rate. Its most obvious advantage is that neither darkroom facilities nor photographic wet chemical processing is required. In addition, it can be used in harsh engineering environments. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of three digital speckle methodologies. (1) Digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) uses an optical polarization phase shifter for visualization and measurement of the density field in a flow field. (2) Digital shearing speckle interferometry (DSSI) utilizes speckle-shearing interferometry in addition to optical polarization phase shifting. (3) Digital speckle photography (DSP) with computer reconstruction. The discussion describes the concepts, the principles and the experimental arrangements with some experimental results. The investigation shows that these three digital speckle techniques provide an excellent method for visualizing flow fields and for measuring density distributions in fluid mechanics and thermal flows.

  16. Karst characterization in a semi-arid region using gravity, seismic, and resistivity geophysical techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhart, Kevin Scott

    2013-10-01

    We proposed to customize emerging in situ geophysical monitoring technology to generate time-series data during sporadic rain events in a semi-arid region. Electrodes were to be connected to wireless \

  17. Near surface geophysics techniques and geomorphological approach to reconstruct the hazard cave map in historical and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, M.; Loperte, A.; Perrone, A.

    2009-04-01

    This work, carried out with an integrated methodological approach, focuses on the use of near surface geophysics techniques, such as ground penetrating radar GPR and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and geomorphological analysis, in order to reconstruct the cave distribution and geometry in a urban context and, in particular, in historical centres. In fact, there are a lot of historical Mediterranean sites born on an original rupestrian settlement, of which often the new generations forgot the memory and new urban areas built on them burying any marks. The interaction during recent centuries between human activity (caves excavation, birth and growth of an urban area) and the characters of the natural environment were the reasons of a progressive increase in hazard and vulnerability levels of several sites. The reconstruction of a detailed cave map distribution is the first step to define the anthropic and geomorphological hazard in urban areas, fundamental basis for planning and assessing the risk. The integrated near surface geophysics and geomorphological techniques have been applied to the case study of Tursi hilltop town and its older nucleus called Rabatana, located in the south-western sector of the Basilicata (southern Italy), representing an interesting example of the deep bond between natural and man-made environments such as precious cultural heritage. The history of this settlement has always been deeply connected with the characteristics of the neighbouring environment and it seems possible that the first settlement was built by excavating the slopes of the sandy relief. It was a typical rupestrian settlement, where meteoric water was stored inside some cisterns excavated on the slopes. During recent centuries, the increase in territory development by humans produced an increase in cave excavation in the Tursi-Rabatana urban area. To reconstruct the extremely complex near-surface hypogeal environment excavated in the sandy layers, a geophysical

  18. Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Barczi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching how to solve problems – from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks – has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might be useful. The present article describes part of an experiment that was designed to determine the effects of cooperative teaching techniques on the development of problem-solving skills.

  19. Neural networks techniques applied to reservoir engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, M. [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia (Mexico); Barragan, C. [RockoHill de Mexico, Indiana (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    Neural Networks are considered the greatest technological advance since the transistor. They are expected to be a common household item by the year 2000. An attempt to apply Neural Networks to an important geothermal problem has been made, predictions on the well production and well completion during drilling in a geothermal field. This was done in Los Humeros geothermal field, using two common types of Neural Network models, available in commercial software. Results show the learning capacity of the developed model, and its precision in the predictions that were made.

  20. Autoadjustable sutures and modified seldinger technique applied to laparoscopic jejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pili, Diego; Ciotola, Franco; Riganti, Juan Martín; Badaloni, Adolfo; Nieponice, Alejandro

    2015-02-01

    This is a simple technique to be applied to those patients requiring an alternative feeding method. This technique has been successfully applied to 25 patients suffering from esophageal carcinoma. The procedure involves laparoscopic approach, suture of the selected intestinal loop to the abdominal wall and jejunostomy using Seldinger technique and autoadjustable sutures. No morbidity or mortality was reported.

  1. Special Issue on geophysics applied to detection and discrimination of unexploded ordnance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, Erika; Gasperikova, Erika; Beard, Les P.

    2007-01-15

    Unexploded ordnance (UXO) presents serious problems in Europe, Asia, as well as in the United States. Explosives and mines from World War I and World War II still turn up at European and Asian construction sites, backyard gardens, beaches, wildlife preserves and former military training grounds. The high rate of failure among munitions from 60-90 years ago is cited as one of the main reasons for such a high level of contamination. Apart from war activities, military training has resulted in many uncovered ordnance. It is especially true in the United States, where most UXO has resulted from decades of military training, exercises, and testing of weapons systems. Such UXO contamination prevents civilian land use, threatens public safety, and causes significant environmental concern. In light of this problem, there has been considerable interest shown by federal, state, and local authorities in UXO remediation at former U.S. Department of Defense sites. The ultimate goal of UXO remediation is to permit safe public use of contaminated lands. A Defense Science Board Task Force Report from 1998 lists some 1,500 sites, comprising approximately 15 million acres, that potentially contain UXO. The UXO-related activity for these sites consists of identifying the subareas that actually contain UXO, and then locating and removing the UXO, or fencing the hazardous areas off from the public. The criteria for clearance depend on the intended land end-use and residual hazard risk that is deemed acceptable. Success in detecting UXO depends on the ordnance's size, metal content, and depth of burial, as well as on the ability of geophysical systems to detect ordnance in the presence of metallic fragments from exploded UXO and other metal clutter.

  2. EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072798 Chen Fengyun(China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Hang Yuan Algorithm and Application of the Coherency/Variance Cube Technique(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,30(3),2006,p.250-253,257,7 illus.,7 refs.)Key words:seismic exploration The coherency/variance cube technique has been developed in recent years as a new technique of seismic data interpretation.

  3. Neglected knowledge in geophysics: Patents - how to find them, how to use them and how to apply for them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, K. G.

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical departments of universities or major geophysical research institutes around the world hardly ever file for a patent, even if pioneering and marketable work is done - this is what research in patent databases shows. Patents for methods, apparatuses or scientific instruments developed during scientific projects are mostly filed by companies, i.e. more than 90% of approximately 185,000 patent documents added by May 2013 to the International Patent Classification (IPC) class G01V, which the United Nations' World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) has set up mainly for inventions with key aspects in geophysics. Even inventions born of cooperations between research institutes or universities and well-known geophysical companies where both act as equal partners almost never make it to the G01V. University departments responsible for intellectual property management explain that geoscientists prefer to publish their results in journals rather than in the form of patent applications even if these departments support them and parallel publication is protected legally. This means geoscientists miss the opportunity to protect their intellectual work and to tap its economic potential. But even if scientists don't want to apply for patents, patent documents constitute a wealth of knowledge that should be used much more frequently in research e.g. to stay on top of developments in one's own scientific field. Most important databases are for free, search functionality is self-explanatory and the amount of information to be extracted is enormous. All in all, about 80 million multilingual patent documents are currently available online e.g. in DEPATIS database from the German Patent and Trade Mark Office (DPMA) or ESPACENET from the European Patent Office (EPO). From a researcher's perspective, they might also be interesting for detailed technical background information, interdisciplinary solutions for similar problems, to learn about inventions too advanced for

  4. Seismic response analysis of NAGRA-Net stations using advanced geophysical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Valerio; Edwards, Benjamin; Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Keller, Lorenz; Fäh, Donat

    2015-04-01

    In cooperation with the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has recently completed the installation of ten new seismological observation stations, three of them including a co-located borehole sensor. The ultimate goal of the project is to densify the existing Swiss Digital Seismic Network (SDSNet) in northern Switzerland, in order to improve the detection of very-low magnitude events and to improve the accuracy of future location solutions. This is strategic for unbiased monitoring of micro seismicity at the locations of proposed nuclear waste repositories. To further improve the quality and usability of the recordings, a seismic characterization of the area surrounding the installation area was performed at each site. The investigation consisted of a preliminary geological and geotechnical study, followed by a seismic site response analysis by means of state-of-the-art geophysical techniques. For the borehole stations, in particular, the characterization was performed by combining different types of active seismic methods (P-S refraction tomography, surface wave analysis, Vertical Seismic Profiling - VSP) with ambient vibration based approaches (wavelet decomposition, H/V spectral ratio, polarization analysis, three-component f-k analysis). The results of all analyses converged to the definition of a mean velocity profile for the site, which was later used for the computation of engineering parameters (travel time average velocity and quarter-wavelength parameters) and the analytical SH-wave transfer function. Empirical site-amplification functions are automatically determined for any station connected to the Swiss seismic networks. They are determined based on building statistical models of systematic site-specific effects in recordings of small earthquakes when compared to the Swiss stochastic ground-motion model. Computed site response is validated through comparison with these empirical

  5. Geophysical methods applied to fault characterization and earthquake potential assessment in the Lower Tagus Valley, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, João; Cabral, João; Gonçalves, Rui; Torres, Luís; Mendes-Victor, Luís

    2006-06-01

    of the Holocene sediments detected in the studied geophysical data of Porto Alto and Vila Franca de Xira-Lisbon faults imply minimum slip rates of 0.15-0.30 mm/year, three times larger than previously inferred for active faults in the Lower Tagus Valley and maximum estimates of average return periods of 2000-5000 years for M 6.5-7 co-seismic ruptures.

  6. Demonstration of random projections applied to the retrieval problem of geophysical parameters from hyper-spectral infrared observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Carmine; Masiello, Guido; Liuzzi, Giuliano

    2016-08-20

    The random projections statistical technique has been used to reduce the dimensionality of the radiance data space generated from high spectral resolution infrared observations. The mathematical inversion of the physical radiative transfer equation for geophysical parameters has been solved in this space of reduced dimensionality. The great advantage of using random projections is that they provide an unified treatment of instrument noise and forward model error, which can be comprehensively modeled with a single variance term. The result is a novel retrieval approach, which combines computational efficiency to possibly improved accuracy of the retrieval products. The novel approach has been demonstrated through application to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer. We have found that state-of-the-art spectroscopy and related line-mixing treatment for the ν2CO2 absorption band, i.e., the fundamental band for temperature retrieval, show an excellent consistency with satellite observations.

  7. New Geophysical Technique for Mineral Exploration and Mineral Discrimination Based on Electromagnetic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Zhdanov

    2009-03-09

    The research during the first two years of the project was focused on developing the foundations of a new geophysical technique for mineral exploration and mineral discrimination, based on electromagnetic (EM) methods. The developed new technique is based on examining the spectral induced polarization effects in electromagnetic data using effective-medium theory and advanced methods of 3-D modeling and inversion. The analysis of IP phenomena is usually based on models with frequency dependent complex conductivity distribution. In this project, we have developed a rigorous physical/mathematical model of heterogeneous conductive media based on the effective-medium approach. The new generalized effective-medium theory of IP effect (GEMTIP) provides a unified mathematical method to study heterogeneity, multi-phase structure, and polarizability of rocks. The geoelectrical parameters of a new composite conductivity model are determined by the intrinsic petrophysical and geometrical characteristics of composite media: mineralization and/or fluid content of rocks, matrix composition, porosity, anisotropy, and polarizability of formations. The new GEMTIP model of multi-phase conductive media provides a quantitative tool for evaluation of the type of mineralization, and the volume content of different minerals using electromagnetic data. We have developed a 3-D EM-IP modeling algorithm using the integral equation (IE) method. Our IE forward modeling software is based on the contraction IE method, which improves the convergence rate of the iterative solvers. This code can handle various types of sources and receivers to compute the effect of a complex resistivity model. We have demonstrated that the generalized effective-medium theory of induced polarization (GEMTIP) in combination with the IE forward modeling method can be used for rock-scale forward modeling from grain-scale parameters. The numerical modeling study clearly demonstrates how the various complex resistivity

  8. New Geophysical Technique for Mineral Exploration and Mineral Discrimination Based on Electromagnetic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Zhdanov

    2005-03-09

    The research during the first year of the project was focused on developing the foundations of a new geophysical technique for mineral exploration and mineral discrimination, based on electromagnetic (EM) methods. The proposed new technique is based on examining the spectral induced polarization effects in electromagnetic data using modern distributed acquisition systems and advanced methods of 3-D inversion. The analysis of IP phenomena is usually based on models with frequency dependent complex conductivity distribution. One of the most popular is the Cole-Cole relaxation model. In this progress report we have constructed and analyzed a different physical and mathematical model of the IP effect based on the effective-medium theory. We have developed a rigorous mathematical model of multi-phase conductive media, which can provide a quantitative tool for evaluation of the type of mineralization, using the conductivity relaxation model parameters. The parameters of the new conductivity relaxation model can be used for discrimination of the different types of rock formations, which is an important goal in mineral exploration. The solution of this problem requires development of an effective numerical method for EM forward modeling in 3-D inhomogeneous media. During the first year of the project we have developed a prototype 3-D IP modeling algorithm using the integral equation (IP) method. Our IE forward modeling code INTEM3DIP is based on the contraction IE method, which improves the convergence rate of the iterative solvers. This code can handle various types of sources and receivers to compute the effect of a complex resistivity model. We have tested the working version of the INTEM3DIP code for computer simulation of the IP data for several models including a southwest US porphyry model and a Kambalda-style nickel sulfide deposit. The numerical modeling study clearly demonstrates how the various complex resistivity models manifest differently in the observed EM

  9. Nonlinear filtering techniques for noisy geophysical data: Using big data to predict the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Chaos is ubiquitous in physical systems. Within the Earth sciences it is readily evident in seismology, groundwater flows and drilling data. Models and workflows have been applied successfully to understand and even to predict chaotic systems in other scientific fields, including electrical engineering, neurology and oceanography. Unfortunately, the high levels of noise characteristic of our planet's chaotic processes often render these frameworks ineffective. This contribution presents techniques for the reduction of noise associated with measurements of nonlinear systems. Our ultimate aim is to develop data assimilation techniques for forward models that describe chaotic observations, such as episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events in fault zones. A series of nonlinear filters are presented and evaluated using classical chaotic systems. To investigate whether the filters can successfully mitigate the effect of noise typical of Earth science, they are applied to sunspot data. The filtered data can be used successfully to forecast sunspot evolution for up to eight years (see figure).

  10. Artificial intelligence and dynamic systems for geophysical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gvishiani, Alexei

    2002-01-01

    The book presents new clustering schemes, dynamical systems and pattern recognition algorithms in geophysical, geodynamical and natural hazard applications. The original mathematical technique is based on both classical and fuzzy sets models. Geophysical and natural hazard applications are mostly original. However, the artificial intelligence technique described in the book can be applied far beyond the limits of Earth science applications. The book is intended for research scientists, tutors, graduate students, scientists in geophysics and engineers

  11. Introduction to the geologic and geophysical studies of Fort Irwin, California: Chapter A in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesch, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Geologic and geophysical investigations in the vicinity of Fort Irwin National Training Center, California, have been completed in support of groundwater investigations, and are presented in eight chapters of this report. A generalized surficial geologic map along with field and borehole investigations conducted during 2010–11 provide a lithostratigraphic and structural framework for the area during the Cenozoic. Electromagnetic properties of resistivity were measured in the laboratory on hand and core samples, and compared to borehole geophysical resistivity data. These data were used in conjunction with ground-based time-domain and airborne data and interpretations to provide a framework for the shallow lithologic units and structure. Gravity and aeromagnetic maps cover areas ~4 to 5 times that of Fort Irwin. Each chapter includes hydrogeologic applications of the data or model results.

  12. Geophysical investigation of a dutch levee and canal using various seismic and GPR techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorlandt, R.P.; Kleine, M.P.E. de; Kruiver, P.P.; Bakker, M.A.J.; Mesdag, C.S.; Hoogendoorn, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical survey has been carried out on the Juliana Canal and levee in the south of the Netherlands. For a stretch of about 35 km along this canal various construction works are planned, to deepen and widen the canal. The canal is in a geological setting such that leakage from the canal to the

  13. Geophysical investigation of a dutch levee and canal using various seismic and GPR techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorlandt, R.P.; Kleine, M.P.E. de; Kruiver, P.P.; Bakker, M.A.J.; Mesdag, C.S.; Hoogendoorn, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical survey has been carried out on the Juliana Canal and levee in the south of the Netherlands. For a stretch of about 35 km along this canal various construction works are planned, to deepen and widen the canal. The canal is in a geological setting such that leakage from the canal to the

  14. Foundation integrity assessment using integrated geophysical and geotechnical techniques: case study in crystalline basement complex, southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayanju, G. M.; Mogaji, K. A.; Lim, H. S.; Ojo, T. S.

    2017-06-01

    The determination of parameters comprising exact depth to bedrock and its lithological type, lateral changes in lithology, and detection of fractures, cracks, or faults are essential to designing formidable foundations and assessing the integrity of civil engineering structures. In this study, soil and site characterization in a typical hard rock geologic terrain in southwestern Nigeria were carried out employing integrated geophysical and geotechnical techniques to address tragedies in civil engineering infrastructural development. The deployed geophysical measurements involved running both very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity methods (dipole-dipole imaging and vertical electrical sounding (VES) techniques) along the established traverses, while the latter technique entailed conducting geological laboratory sieve analysis and Atterberg limit-index tests upon the collected soil samples in the area. The results of the geophysical measurement, based on the interpreted VLF-EM and dipole-dipole data, revealed conductive zones and linear features interpreted as fractures/faults which endanger the foundations of public infrastructures. The delineation of four distinct geoelectric layers in the area—comprised of topsoil, lateritic/clayey substratum, weathered layer, and bedrock—were based on the VES results. Strong evidence, including high degree of decomposition and fracturing of underlying bedrock revealed by the VES results, confirmed the VLF-EM and dipole-dipole results. Furthermore, values in the range of 74.2%-77.8%, 55%-62.5%, 23.4%-24.5%, 7.7%-8.2%, 19.5%-22.4%, and 31.65%-38.25% were obtained for these geotechnical parameters viz soil percentage passing 0.075 mm sieve size, liquid limit, plasticity index, linear shrinkage, natural moisture content, and plastic limit, respectively, resulting from the geotechnical analysis of the soil samples. The comparatively analyzed geophysical and geotechnical results revealed a high

  15. Assessment of multiple geophysical techniques for the characterization of municipal waste deposit sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaël, Dumont; Tanguy, Robert; Nicolas, Marck; Frédéric, Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we tested the ability of geophysical methods to characterize a large technical landfill installed in a former sand quarry. The geophysical surveys specifically aimed at delimitating the deposit site horizontal extension, at estimating its thickness and at characterizing the waste material composition (the moisture content in the present case). The site delimitation was conducted with electromagnetic (in-phase and out-of-phase) and magnetic (vertical gradient and total field) methods that clearly showed the transition between the waste deposit and the host formation. Regarding waste deposit thickness evaluation, electrical resistivity tomography appeared inefficient on this particularly thick deposit site. Thus, we propose a combination of horizontal to vertical noise spectral ratio (HVNSR) and multichannel analysis of the surface waves (MASW), which successfully determined the approximate waste deposit thickness in our test landfill. However, ERT appeared to be an appropriate tool to characterize the moisture content of the waste, which is of prior information for the organic waste biodegradation process. The global multi-scale and multi-method geophysical survey offers precious information for site rehabilitation studies, water content mitigation processes for enhanced biodegradation or landfill mining operation planning.

  16. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP - REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES FOR MONITORING CO2 MOVEMENT DURING SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, Erika; Gasperikova, Erika; Hoversten, G. Michael

    2005-10-01

    The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques on two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhance oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.

  17. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132654Bi Xiaojia(Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Miao Fang Lithology Identification and Mapping by Hyperion Hyperspectral Remote Sensing(Computing Techniques for Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1001-1749,CN51-1242/P,34(5),2012,p.599-603,2illus.,14refs.)Key words:geologic mapping,hyperspectral remote sensing,Qinghai Province

  18. Geophysical investigations applied to site selection for the radioactive waste disposal; Investigacoes geofisicas aplicadas na selecao de um repositorio de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Samir; Dornelles, Gerson; Pedrozo, Geraldo Arholdi [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1993-07-01

    In this work the geophysical exploratory techniques and the results obtained for the selection of a candidate site for the final repository of the radioactive waste containing cesium-137 generated by the Goiania accident occurred in September 1987, are described. The studies were performed in an area of about 100 hectares where is located the present radioactive waste provisional repository. the geophysical investigations using electromagnetic methods (VLF-EM), electric drillings and surface and sub-surface radiometry allowed for the area monitoring and provided the geophysical parameters necessary for understanding the structural and stratigraphic context. Furthermore, they will provide data for the geotechnical, geochemical and hydrogeological investigations as well as for the engineering conceptual project for the repository construction. (author)

  19. Wavelet-based spatial comparison technique for analysing and evaluating two-dimensional geophysical model fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saux Picart

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex numerical models of the Earth's environment, based around 3-D or 4-D time and space domains are routinely used for applications including climate predictions, weather forecasts, fishery management and environmental impact assessments. Quantitatively assessing the ability of these models to accurately reproduce geographical patterns at a range of spatial and temporal scales has always been a difficult problem to address. However, this is crucial if we are to rely on these models for decision making. Satellite data are potentially the only observational dataset able to cover the large spatial domains analysed by many types of geophysical models. Consequently optical wavelength satellite data is beginning to be used to evaluate model hindcast fields of terrestrial and marine environments. However, these satellite data invariably contain regions of occluded or missing data due to clouds, further complicating or impacting on any comparisons with the model. A methodology has recently been developed to evaluate precipitation forecasts using radar observations. It allows model skill to be evaluated at a range of spatial scales and rain intensities. Here we extend the original method to allow its generic application to a range of continuous and discontinuous geophysical data fields, and therefore allowing its use with optical satellite data. This is achieved through two major improvements to the original method: (i all thresholds are determined based on the statistical distribution of the input data, so no a priori knowledge about the model fields being analysed is required and (ii occluded data can be analysed without impacting on the metric results. The method can be used to assess a model's ability to simulate geographical patterns over a range of spatial scales. We illustrate how the method provides a compact and concise way of visualising the degree of agreement between spatial features in two datasets. The application of the new method, its

  20. A New Experimental Technique for Applying Impulse Tension Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Z. S.; Yu, H. P.; Su, H; Zhang, X.; Li, C. F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a new experimental technique for applying impulse tension loads. Briefly, the technique is based on the use of pulsed-magnetic-driven tension loading. Electromagnetic forming (EMF) can be quite effective in increasing the forming limits of metal sheets, such as aluminium and magnesium alloys. Yet, why the forming limit is increased is still an open question. One reason for this is the difficulty to let forming proceed on a certain influence monotonically: ...

  1. Geophysical and physical measurements applied to characterize an area prone to quick clay landslides in SW Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Romero, Silvia; Malehmir, Alireza; Snowball, Ian; Lougheed, Bryan C.; Hellqvist, Magnus

    2014-05-01

    The study of quick clay landslides in Nordic countries, such as Sweden and Norway, is wide and varied. However, the occurrence of catastrophes like those in Munkedal, Sweden, in 2006, demands a more complete characterization of these materials and their extensiveness. The objectives of this research are mainly focused on obtaining information about the properties and behavior of quick clays in an area prone to landslides in southwestern Sweden. Two fieldwork campaigns were carried out in 2011 and 2013, using methods such as 2D and 3D P-wave and S-wave seismic, geoelectrics, controlled-source and radio-magnetotellurics, ground gravity, as well as downhole geophysics (measuring fluid temperature and conductivity, gamma radiation, sonic velocity and resistivity) performed in three boreholes located in the study area. Drill cores recovered using the SONIC technique provided samples for paleontological information, as well as laboratory measurements of physical properties of the subsurface materials to a maximum subsurface depth of about 60 m. The laboratory measurements included grain size analysis, mineral magnetic properties, electric conductivity, pH, salinity, total dissolved solids, x-ray fluorescence (XRF), and a reconnaissance study of the fossil content. A correlation study of the downhole geophysical measurements, 2D seismic sections located at the intersection with the boreholes and the sample observations indicated that the presence of quick clays is associated with contacts with coarse-grained materials. Although the PVC casing of the boreholes interferes with the sonic and resistivity measurements, the perforated parts of the PVC casing show significant changes. The most important variations in magnetic susceptibility and conductivity mostly coincide with these coarse-grained layers, supporting the seismic data. Coarse-grained layers are characterized by enhanced magnetic susceptibility and conductivity. Grain size analysis results on subsamples from the

  2. Monitoring soil-vegetation interactions using non-invasive geophysical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, M.; Cassiani, G.; Boaga, J.; Rossi, M.; Vignoli, G.; Deiana, R.; Ursino, N.; Putti, M.; Majone, B.; Bellin, A.; Blaschek, M.; Duttmann, R.; Meyer, S.; Ludwig, R.; Soddu, A.; Dietrich, P.; Werban, U.

    2012-12-01

    The understanding of soil-vegetation-atmosphere interactions is of utmost importance in the solution of a number of hydrological questions and practical issues, including flood control, agricultural best practice, slope stability and impacts of climatic changes. Geophysical time-lapse monitoring can greatly contribute to the understanding of these interactions particularly for its capability to map in space and time the effects of vegetation on soil moisture content. In this work we present the results of two case studies showing the potential of hydro-geophysics in this context. The first example refers to the long term monitoring of the soil static and dynamic characteristics in an experimental site located in Sardinia (Italy). The main objective of this study is to understand the effects of soil - water - plants interactions on soil water balance. A combination of time-lapse electromagnetic induction (EMI) monitoring over wide areas and localized irrigation tests monitored by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and TDR soil moisture measurements is here used, in order to achieve quantitative field-scale estimates of moisture content from topsoil layer. Natural gamma-ray emission mapping, texture analysis and laboratory calibration of an electrical constitutive relationship on soil samples complete the dataset. We therefore observed that the growth of vegetation, with the associated below ground allocation of biomass, has a significant impact on the soil moisture dynamics. In particular vegetation extracts a large amount of water from the soil in the hot season, but it also reduces evaporation by shadowing the soil surface. In addition, vegetation enhances the soil wetting process as the root system facilitates water infiltration, thus creating a positive feedback system. The second example regards the time-lapse monitoring of soil moisture content in an apple orchard located in the Alpine region of Northern Italy (Trento). A three-dimensional cross-hole ERT

  3. Applying DEA Technique to Library Evaluation in Academic Research Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Wonsik

    2003-01-01

    This study applied an analytical technique called Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to calculate the relative technical efficiency of 95 academic research libraries, all members of the Association of Research Libraries. DEA, with the proper model of library inputs and outputs, can reveal best practices in the peer groups, as well as the technical…

  4. Geophysical methods applied to detection delineation and evaluation of geothermal resources, Snowbird, Utah, August 24--28, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    A report is given on the geothermal workshop devoted to inventorying current knowledge, problems, controversies, and predicting future developments in the application of geophysical methods to the evaluation of geothermal resources. Separate abstracts were prepared for presentations and summaries of the group sessions. (LBS)

  5. Retrieval of Geophysical Parameters from GOES: Evaluation of a Split-Window Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Ronnie J.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Guillory, Anthony R.

    1998-10-01

    The performance of a physical split-window retrieval algorithm used to retrieve skin temperature (ST) and precipitable water (PW) from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites' (GOES) infrared measurements is evaluated. The evaluation assesses the potential of using GOES measurements to provide accurate retrieval products for climate research studies. Several algorithm performance issues are addressed, including the time of retrieval (diurnal effects), sensitivity to the first-guess field, and an evaluation of performance differences associated with the split-window channel characteristics of the GOES-7 VISSR (Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) and the GOES-8 imager and sounder. The investigation used a mesoscale model, initialized by radiosonde data, to generate a simulated atmosphere representative of a case study characterized by summertime conditions over the east-central United States. Synthetic GOES channel radiances were developed from the surrogate atmosphere using GOES channel response functions and an appropriate radiative transfer code. The model fields also provided the necessary ground truth and first-guess field for the retrieval algorithm. Retrievals of ST and PW were made from the simulated channel radiances associated with the VAS and GOES-8 imager and sounder split-window channels. Retrieval methodologies were applied to address issues of importance in climate research studies, such as long-term trends and diurnal variability of ST and PW. The performance was measured by comparing the retrieved values with the model values at each of the retrieval locations.The algorithm performance for both ST and PW was found to be sensitive to the quality of the first-guess field and to the channel characteristics of the GOES sensors. An estimate of the lower bound on ST and PW retrieval errors was determined. The ST retrievals in all cases showed a significant improvement over the first-guess values. The GOES-8

  6. Sensor Data Qualification Technique Applied to Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Simon, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies a previously developed sensor data qualification technique to a commercial aircraft engine simulation known as the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (C-MAPSS40k). The sensor data qualification technique is designed to detect, isolate, and accommodate faulty sensor measurements. It features sensor networks, which group various sensors together and relies on an empirically derived analytical model to relate the sensor measurements. Relationships between all member sensors of the network are analyzed to detect and isolate any faulty sensor within the network.

  7. Three-Dimensional Joint Geophysical Imaging Using an Advanced Multivariate Inversion Technique: the Method and its Application to the Utah area, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijiang; Maceira, Monica; Benson, Thomas; Nafi Toksoz, M.

    2010-05-01

    We present an advanced multivariate inversion technique to generate a realistic, comprehensive, and high-resolution 3D model of the seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle. The model satisfies several independent geophysical datasets including seismic surface wave dispersion measurements, gravity, and seismic arrival time. The joint inversion method takes advantage of strengths of individual data sets and is able to better constrain the seismic velocity models from shallower to greater depths. To combine different geophysical datasets into a common system, we design an optimal weighting scheme that is based on relative uncertainties of individual observations, their sensitivities to model parameters, and the trade-off of different data fitting. We apply this joint inversion method to determine the 3D Vp and Vs models of the Utah area. The seismic body wave arrival times are assembled from waveform data recorded by the University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) regional network and the EarthScope/USArray network. The surface wave dispersion measurements are obtained from the ambient noise tomography study by the University of Colorado group using EarthScope/USArray stations. The gravity data for the Utah area is extracted from the North American Gravity Database managed by the University of Texas at El Paso. The joint inversions using two individual data sets such as seismic arrival time and gravity data, as well as seismic surface wave and gravity data indicate strong low velocity anomalies in middle crust beneath some known geothermal sites in Utah. The joint inversion of all three data sets will be presented and is expected to produce a reasonably well-constrained velocity structure of the Utah area, which is helpful for characterizing and exploring existing and potential geothermal reservoirs.

  8. Technique applied in electrical power distribution for Satellite Launch Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Rosário

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite Launch Vehicle electrical network, which is currently being developed in Brazil, is sub-divided for analysis in the following parts: Service Electrical Network, Controlling Electrical Network, Safety Electrical Network and Telemetry Electrical Network. During the pre-launching and launching phases, these electrical networks are associated electrically and mechanically to the structure of the vehicle. In order to succeed in the integration of these electrical networks it is necessary to employ techniques of electrical power distribution, which are proper to Launch Vehicle systems. This work presents the most important techniques to be considered in the characterization of the electrical power supply applied to Launch Vehicle systems. Such techniques are primarily designed to allow the electrical networks, when submitted to the single-phase fault to ground, to be able of keeping the power supply to the loads.

  9. Applying recursive numerical integration techniques for solving high dimensional integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, Andreas [IVU Traffic Technologies AG, Berlin (Germany); Genz, Alan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Hartung, Tobias [King' s College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics; Jansen, Karl; Volmer, Julia [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Leoevey, Hernan [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik

    2016-11-15

    The error scaling for Markov-Chain Monte Carlo techniques (MCMC) with N samples behaves like 1/√(N). This scaling makes it often very time intensive to reduce the error of computed observables, in particular for applications in lattice QCD. It is therefore highly desirable to have alternative methods at hand which show an improved error scaling. One candidate for such an alternative integration technique is the method of recursive numerical integration (RNI). The basic idea of this method is to use an efficient low-dimensional quadrature rule (usually of Gaussian type) and apply it iteratively to integrate over high-dimensional observables and Boltzmann weights. We present the application of such an algorithm to the topological rotor and the anharmonic oscillator and compare the error scaling to MCMC results. In particular, we demonstrate that the RNI technique shows an error scaling in the number of integration points m that is at least exponential.

  10. Applying recursive numerical integration techniques for solving high dimensional integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Ammon, Andreas; Hartung, Tobias; Jansen, Karl; Leövey, Hernan; Volmer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The error scaling for Markov-Chain Monte Carlo techniques (MCMC) with $N$ samples behaves like $1/\\sqrt{N}$. This scaling makes it often very time intensive to reduce the error of computed observables, in particular for applications in lattice QCD. It is therefore highly desirable to have alternative methods at hand which show an improved error scaling. One candidate for such an alternative integration technique is the method of recursive numerical integration (RNI). The basic idea of this method is to use an efficient low-dimensional quadrature rule (usually of Gaussian type) and apply it iteratively to integrate over high-dimensional observables and Boltzmann weights. We present the application of such an algorithm to the topological rotor and the anharmonic oscillator and compare the error scaling to MCMC results. In particular, we demonstrate that the RNI technique shows an error scaling in the number of integration points $m$ that is at least exponential.

  11. Probabilistic Analysis Techniques Applied to Complex Spacecraft Power System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power system performance predictions are critical to spacecraft, such as the International Space Station (ISS), to ensure that sufficient power is available to support all the spacecraft s power needs. In the case of the ISS power system, analyses to date have been deterministic, meaning that each analysis produces a single-valued result for power capability because of the complexity and large size of the model. As a result, the deterministic ISS analyses did not account for the sensitivity of the power capability to uncertainties in model input variables. Over the last 10 years, the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed advanced, computationally fast, probabilistic analysis techniques and successfully applied them to large (thousands of nodes) complex structural analysis models. These same techniques were recently applied to large, complex ISS power system models. This new application enables probabilistic power analyses that account for input uncertainties and produce results that include variations caused by these uncertainties. Specifically, N&R Engineering, under contract to NASA, integrated these advanced probabilistic techniques with Glenn s internationally recognized ISS power system model, System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE).

  12. Data Mining Techniques Applied to Hydrogen Lactose Breath Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno-Chamorro, Isabel; Pontes-Balanza, Beatriz; Hernández-Mendoza, Yoedusvany; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present the results of applying data mining techniques to hydrogen breath test data. Disposal of H2 gas is of utmost relevance to maintain efficient microbial fermentation processes. Objectives Analyze a set of data of hydrogen breath tests by use of data mining tools. Identify new patterns of H2 production. Methods Hydrogen breath tests data sets as well as k-means clustering as the data mining technique to a dataset of 2571 patients. Results Six different patterns have been extracted upon analysis of the hydrogen breath test data. We have also shown the relevance of each of the samples taken throughout the test. Conclusions Analysis of the hydrogen breath test data sets using data mining techniques has identified new patterns of hydrogen generation upon lactose absorption. We can see the potential of application of data mining techniques to clinical data sets. These results offer promising data for future research on the relations between gut microbiota produced hydrogen and its link to clinical symptoms. PMID:28125620

  13. Applying Stylometric Analysis Techniques to Counter Anonymity in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Sun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ubiquitous nature and anonymity abuses in cyberspace, it’s difficult to make criminal identity tracing in cybercrime investigation. Writeprint identification offers a valuable tool to counter anonymity by applying stylometric analysis technique to help identify individuals based on textual traces. In this study, a framework for online writeprint identification is proposed. Variable length character n-gram is used to represent the author’s writing style. The technique of IG seeded GA based feature selection for Ensemble (IGAE is also developed to build an identification model based on individual author level features. Several specific components for dealing with the individual feature set are integrated to improve the performance. The proposed feature and technique are evaluated on a real world data set encompassing reviews posted by 50 Amazon customers. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed framework, with accuracy over 94% for 20 authors and over 80% for 50 ones. Compared with the baseline technique (Support Vector Machine, a higher performance is achieved by using IGAE, resulting in a 2% and 8% improvement over SVM for 20 and 50 authors respectively. Moreover, it has been shown that IGAE is more scalable in terms of the number of authors, than author group level based methods.

  14. Combined geophysical and geochemical tracer techniques to assess rates and impact of submarine groundwater discharge into Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, P. W.; Baskaran, M.; Reich, C.; Greenwood, J.

    2006-12-01

    It is now widely accepted that water and constituent transport by submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can be ecologically important within some coastal environments. However, the nature of this discharge, which can exhibit tremendously temporal and spatial heterogeneity, renders SGD most often difficult to identify and quantify. U/Th series geochemical tracers and new geophysical tools have been developed that now can yield system-wide information on SGD rates and processes. The objective of this study was to apply naturally- occurring Ra and Rn isotopes to derive SGD rates bay wide, and then examine to the geologic controls on SGD in this system with streaming and time series resistivity measurements. Submarine groundwater discharge rates calculated using a mass balance of excess Ra-226 ranged from 2 to 14 L per square-m per d. When extrapolated to the total shoreline length of the bay, such SGD rates ranged from 2 to 10 cubic-m per d per m of shoreline. High-resolution time series and streaming resistivity measurements confirm that SGD within Tampa Bay can be separated into a near-shore and mid-bay component that involve different water masses and unique mixing processes. SGD-derived nutrient loading estimates in Tampa bay will be compared to similar riverine estimates.

  15. EDITORIAL: The interface between geophysics and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Journal of Geophysics and Engineering (JGE) aims to publicize and promote research and developments in geophysics and in related areas of engineering. As stated in the journal scope, JGE is positioned to bridge the gap between earth physics and geo-engineering, where it reflects a growing trend in both industry and academia. JGE covers those aspects of engineering that bear closely on geophysics or on the targets and problems that geophysics addresses. Typically this will be engineering focused on the subsurface, particularly petroleum engineering, rock mechanics, geophysical software engineering, drilling technology, remote sensing, instrumentation and sensor design. There is a trend, visible throughout academia, for rapid expansion in cross-disciplinary, multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary working. Many of the most important and exciting problems and advances are being made at the boundaries between traditional subject areas and, increasingly, techniques from one discipline are finding applications in others. There is a corresponding increasing requirement for researchers to be aware of developments in adjacent areas and for papers published in one area to be readily accessible, both in terms of location and language, to those in others. One such area that is expanding rapidly is that at the interface between geophysics and engineering. There are three principal developments. Geophysics, and especially applied geophysics, is increasingly constrained by the limits of technology, particularly computing technology. Consequently, major advances in geophysics are often predicated upon major developments in engineering and many research geophysicists are working in multi-disciplinary teams with engineers. Engineering problems relevant to the sub-surface are increasingly looking to advances in geophysics to provide part of the solution. Engineering systems, for example, for tunnel boring or petroleum reservoir management, are using high-resolution geophysical

  16. Constraining the age and origin of the seamount province in the Northeast Indian Ocean using geophysical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Rajat; O'Neill, Craig

    2014-12-01

    The breakup of western margin of Australia from Greater India started around 155 Ma and progressed southwards. After the separation, the interceding intraplate region experienced large volumes of submarine volcanism, extending over 100 Myrs. The Christmas Island Seamount Province (CHRISP, as it has been dubbed) lies south of the Java-Sunda Trench, and contains numerous submerged volcanic seamounts, and two sub-aerially exposed island groups—Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Christmas Island. While recent geochronological investigations have shed light on the diverse eruption ages of the volcanics of this region, some islands/seamounts have demonstrated protracted volcanic histories, and it is not clear how the volcanic loading, tectonic subsidence, and subsequent emergence history of the islands relates to these discrete volcanic episodes. This study utilises a number of geophysical techniques to determine the crustal structure, loading and subsidence history, and last sub-aerial exposure age for the CHRISP. The study shows that flexural and subsidence modelling are reliable techniques in constraining the age of the seamounts when geochronological techniques are not possible. Utilising regional gravity signatures, we model the crustal structure underneath the Cocos (Keeling) Island, and constrain the thickness of the limestone cover between 900 and 2,100 m. Using age-depth subsidence curves for oceanic lithosphere the time since these seamounts were exposed above sea-level was determined, and a trend in exposure ages that youngs towards the west is observed. Two episodes of volcanism have been recorded at Christmas Island and they are of different origin. The younger phase in the Pliocene is a manifestation of flexure induced cracks produced in the lithosphere as it rides the subduction fore-bulge, whereas a low velocity seismic zone rising from the lower mantle, and tectonic reorganization, may be associated with the older Eocene volcanic phase, as well as much of

  17. Mapping saline water intrusion into the coastal aquifer with geophysical and geochemical techniques: the University of Lagos campus case (Nigeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayolabi, Elijah A; Folorunso, Adetayo F; Odukoya, Abiodun M; Adeniran, Adelere E

    2013-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion into the coastal aquifer, a phenomenon brought by the flow of seawater into freshwater aquifers originally caused by groundwater extraction near the coast, has long been recognised as a major concern around the world. In this study, we employed geophysical and geochemical techniques to map and provide evidences that the coastal aquifers in the study area have been intruded by saltwater from the adjacent Lagos lagoon. The resistivity data were acquired with an electrode spacing (a) that vary between 1.6 to 8 m, and expansion factor n of 30. The depth inverted models obtained from inversion of the fifteen resistivity data obtained in the area revealed significant impact of the lagoon water on the aquifers indicated as low resistivity usually below 7 Ωm. A combination of four different electrode arrays - Schlumberger, Wenner, Dipole-dipole and pole-dipole, with at least three deployed at each site ( except for three traverses - traverses 13, 14 and 15), yield better horizontal and vertical resolution, having depth range of 36-226 m with 1.6-8 m electrode spacing used. The delineated geoelectric layers were juxtaposed with logs from both boreholes located within the campus. Evidence from geochemical study of borehole and the lagoon water samples corroborated the ERT result. Progressive decrease in total dissolved solute (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC) from the lagoon to the coastal aquifer buttresses gradual encroachment of the inland aquifers by the intruding lagoon water. In addition, similar trend was observed in heavy metal distribution Pollution Index (PI) plot suggesting possible underground flow of water from the lagoon to the aquifers. From this study, we deduced that excessive groundwater extraction and possibly the reduction of groundwater gradients which allows saline-water to displace fresh water in the aquifer of the investigated area are responsible for the saline water intrusion observed.

  18. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Bernardes, S.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Moro, M.; Tabacniks, M.; Added, N., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  19. Determination of Sinkholes with Different Geophysical Techniques; A Case Study in Yarımburgaz, Küçükçekmece Lake NW Istanbul, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Savas; Cengiz Cinku, Mualla; Tezel, Okan; Dedecan, Hasan; Oygo, Azat

    2016-04-01

    The Yarımburgaz cave which is located in the city of Istanbul, NW Turkey plays an important host to the first human culture and preserve significant archaeological and paleontological resources. The cave was formed as a result of a subterranean stream erosion on the limestones of the Eocene Kırklareli formation. It has been reported that a double cave with upper and lower entrance chambers exist, although no geophysical research was conducted to detect the cave's trunk passages and the extend of the sediment fill inside the cave. The aim of this study was to test the preferred order for detection the response to different geophysical methods applied on the cave. We therefore carried out an a series of geophysical study to determine the size, position, and depth of sinkholes inside the caves. Integrated methodological approaches including multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) 2- microtremor array method, 3-single station microtremor measurements, 4- electrical tomography (ET) measuruments and 5-microgravity imaging showed that the geophysical response was succesfully applied. Based upon the flow-chart we concluded that the microgravity survey should be applied as a first step to detect the air-filled void and the geometry of the cave. The electric tomography method was well applied showing high resistivity values across the voids. The surface wave method showed that the low-velocity zones are detected in various locations of the cave. In addition we the results of MASW and ReMi methods showed clearly the density variation in the lateral direction. Fundamental frequency value above void decraese according the properties of geological units in lateral directional, especially when they are engineering rock like limestone.

  20. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131193 Bing Pingping (Key Lab.of Geophysical Exploration of CNPC , China University of Petroleum , Beijing 102249 , China); Cao Siyuan Non-Linear AVO Inversion Based on Support Vector Machine (Chinese Journal of Geophysics , ISSN0001-5733 , CN11-2074/P , 55 (3), 2012 , p.1025-1032 , 4illus. , 26 tables , 2refs.)

  1. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  2. Evaluation of geophysical techniques for the detection of paleochannels in the Oakland area of eastern Nebraska as part of the Eastern Nebraska Water Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jared D.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Asch, Theodore H.; Ball, Lyndsay B.; Cannia, James C.; Phillips, Jeffery D.; Lackey, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Over the winter and spring of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a general assessment of the capabilities of several geophysical tools to delineate buried paleochannel aquifers in the glacial terrain of eastern Nebraska. Mapping these paleochannels is an important objective for the Eastern Nebraska Water Resources Assessment group. Previous attempts at mapping these channels included a helicopter electromagnetic survey flown over an area near the town of Oakland, Nebraska, in March 2007. This survey had limited success in imaging the paleochannels due to the restricted depth of investigation of the system in the clay-rich till overburden. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether other airborne electromagnetic or surface geophysical techniques, including audio-magnetotelluric, time-domain electromagnetic, gravity, and magnetic methods, could be used to image the paleochannels in the clay-rich tills of eastern Nebraska. This report releases the results of testing the ability of selected geophysical techniques to map aquifers in glacial deposits near the town of Oakland, Nebraska.

  3. Volcanic Monitoring Techniques Applied to Controlled Fragmentation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, U.; Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, M. A.; Hort, M. K.; Kremers, S.; Meier, K.; Scharff, L.; Scheu, B.; Taddeucci, J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are an inevitable natural threat. The range of eruptive styles is large and short term fluctuations of explosivity or vent position pose a large risk that is not necessarily confined to the immediate vicinity of a volcano. Explosive eruptions rather may also affect aviation, infrastructure and climate, regionally as well as globally. Multiparameter monitoring networks are deployed on many active volcanoes to record signs of magmatic processes and help elucidate the secrets of volcanic phenomena. However, our mechanistic understanding of many processes hiding in recorded signals is still poor. As a direct consequence, a solid interpretation of the state of a volcano is still a challenge. In an attempt to bridge this gap, we combined volcanic monitoring and experimental volcanology. We performed 15 well-monitored, field-based, experiments and fragmented natural rock samples from Colima volcano (Mexico) by rapid decompression. We used cylindrical samples of 60 mm height and 25 mm and 60 mm diameter, respectively, and 25 and 35 vol.% open porosity. The applied pressure range was from 4 to 18 MPa. Using different experimental set-ups, the pressurised volume above the samples ranged from 60 - 170 cm3. The experiments were performed at ambient conditions and at controlled sample porosity and size, confinement geometry, and applied pressure. The experiments have been thoroughly monitored with 1) Doppler Radar (DR), 2) high-speed and high-definition cameras, 3) acoustic and infrasound sensors, 4) pressure transducers, and 5) electrically conducting wires. Our aim was to check for common results achieved by the different approaches and, if so, calibrate state-of-the-art monitoring tools. We present how the velocity of the ejected pyroclasts was measured by and evaluated for the different approaches and how it was affected by the experimental conditions and sample characteristics. We show that all deployed instruments successfully measured the pyroclast

  4. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160511An Yulin(School of Geophysics and Information Technology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing100083,China);Guo Lianghui High Precision Computation and Numerical Value Characteristics of Gravity Emendation Values Arising from Mass of the Earth

  5. Exploration Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  6. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  7. [Basics of PCR and related techniques applied in veterinary parasitology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abderrazak, S

    2004-01-01

    We attempte through the following overall review pertaining to the basics of PCR techniques (Polymerase Chain Reaction), to introduce the main applications used in veterinary parasitology. A major problem restricting the application possibilities of molecular biology techniques is of quantitative nature. Amplification techniques represent a real revolution, for it makes possible the production of tens, even hundreds of nanogrammes of sequences when starting from very small quantities. The PCR technique has dramatically transformed the strategies used so far in molecular biology and subsequently research and medical diagnosis.

  8. Analytical and Data Processing Techniques for Interpretation of Geophysical Survey Data with Special Application to Cavity Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Meeting of the International Gravity Commission, Paris . McLamore, V. R., and Walen, P. A. 1979. "A Gravity Study of an Alluvial Basin," Geophysical...AbOo///) 8620 60 TO (500.600.700)o ISUP 8630 0640 500 PRINT 200 6050 200 FORMAT (T3#?SI40T GLD a GLC CO, 39VIDIRECT PATH’.0 6000 a 2xvvNEASURLD ARRIVAL

  9. Geophysical technique and groundwater monitoring to detect leachate contamination in the surrounding area of a landfill--Londrina (PR--Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Deize Dias; Silva, Sandra M C P; Fernandes, Fernandes; Teixeira, Raquel S; Celligoi, André; Dall'Antônia, Luiz Henrique

    2012-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to define leachate plume by using two techniques: geophysical and groundwater sampling in order to evaluate groundwater contamination. After performing a topographic survey and using geophysics, the leachate plume was identified. With this data, the wells for groundwater monitoring were located. Groundwater samples were analyzed for: COD, BOD, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, TKN and heavy metals. Through the electroresistivity method it was possible to define the shape of plume contamination. This method was important to locate the groundwater monitoring wells. The results of the physicochemical parameters showed the suitability of the geophysical study. The highest values of electric conductivity and alkalinity correspond to the wells located in the area interpreted as contaminated by leachate in the map of the resistivity. Even with seasonal variations, BOD values are low if compared to Brazilian environmental regulations, but COD values are higher up to 40 times the values of BOD. The concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd and Cu in the groundwater are below the limits established by the potable water quality standards in Brazil, except for Pb whose concentration in groundwater were higher if compared to Brazilian legislation.

  10. APPLYING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES TO HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERFACES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of UIMS (User Interface Management System), a system using a variety of artificial intelligence techniques to build knowledge-based user interfaces combining functionality and information from a variety of computer systems that maintain, test, and configure customer telephone...... and data networks. Three artificial intelligence (AI) techniques used in UIMS are discussed, namely, frame representation, object-oriented programming languages, and rule-based systems. The UIMS architecture is presented, and the structure of the UIMS is explained in terms of the AI techniques....

  11. APPLYING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES TO HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERFACES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of UIMS (User Interface Management System), a system using a variety of artificial intelligence techniques to build knowledge-based user interfaces combining functionality and information from a variety of computer systems that maintain, test, and configure customer telephone...... and data networks. Three artificial intelligence (AI) techniques used in UIMS are discussed, namely, frame representation, object-oriented programming languages, and rule-based systems. The UIMS architecture is presented, and the structure of the UIMS is explained in terms of the AI techniques....

  12. Integrated Approaches On Archaeo-Geophysical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukdemirci, M.; Piro, S.; Zamuner, D.; Ozer, E.

    2015-12-01

    Key words: Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Magnetometry, Geophysical Data Integration, Principal Component Analyse (PCA), Aizanoi Archaeological Site An application of geophysical integration methods which often appealed are divided into two classes as qualitative and quantitative approaches. This work focused on the application of quantitative integration approaches, which involve the mathematical and statistical integration techniques, on the archaeo-geophysical data obtained in Aizanoi Archaeological Site,Turkey. Two geophysical methods were applied as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Magnetometry for archaeological prospection on the selected archaeological site. After basic data processing of each geophysical method, the mathematical approaches of Sums and Products and the statistical approach of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been applied for the integration. These integration approches were first tested on synthetic digital images before application to field data. Then the same approaches were applied to 2D magnetic maps and 2D GPR time slices which were obtained on the same unit grids in the archaeological site. Initially, the geophysical data were examined individually by referencing with archeological maps and informations obtained from archaeologists and some important structures as possible walls, roads and relics were determined. The results of all integration approaches provided very important and different details about the anomalies related to archaeological features. By using all those applications, integrated images can provide complementary informations as well about the archaeological relics under the ground. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thanks to Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Fellowship for Visiting Scientists Programme for their support, Istanbul University Scientific Research Project Fund, (Project.No:12302) and archaeologist team of Aizanoi Archaeological site for their support

  13. Integration of geotechnical and geophysical techniques for the characterization of a small earth-filled canal dyke and the localization of water leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bièvre, Grégory; Lacroix, Pascal; Oxarango, Laurent; Goutaland, David; Monnot, Guy; Fargier, Yannick

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates the combined use of extensive geotechnical, hydrogeological and geophysical techniques to assess a small earth dyke with a permanent hydraulic head, namely a canal embankment. The experimental site was chosen because of known issues regarding internal erosion and piping phenomena. Two leakages were visually located following the emptying of the canal prior to remediation works. The results showed a good agreement between the geophysical imaging techniques (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, P- and SH-waves Tomography) and the geotechnical data to detect the depth to the bedrock and its lateral variations. It appeared that surface waves might not be fully adapted for dyke investigation because of the particular geometry of the studied dyke, non-respectful of the 1D assumption, and which induced depth and velocity discrepancies retrieved from Rayleigh and Love waves inversion. The use of these classical prospecting techniques however did not allow to directly locate the two leakages within the studied earth dyke. The analysis of ambient vibration time series with a modified beam-forming algorithm allowed to localize the most energetic water flow prior to remediation works. It was not possible to detect the leakage after remediation works, suggesting that they efficiently contributed to significantly reduce the water flow. The second leakage was not detected probably because of a non-turbulent water flow, generating few energetic vibrations.

  14. Data Mining Techniques Applied to Hydrogen Lactose Breath Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Escudero, Cristina; Valverde-Fernández, Justo; Nepomuceno-Chamorro, Isabel; Pontes-Balanza, Beatriz; Hernández-Mendoza, Yoedusvany; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Analyze a set of data of hydrogen breath tests by use of data mining tools. Identify new patterns of H2 production. Hydrogen breath tests data sets as well as k-means clustering as the data mining technique to a dataset of 2571 patients. Six different patterns have been extracted upon analysis of the hydrogen breath test data. We have also shown the relevance of each of the samples taken throughout the test. Analysis of the hydrogen breath test data sets using data mining techniques has identified new patterns of hydrogen generation upon lactose absorption. We can see the potential of application of data mining techniques to clinical data sets. These results offer promising data for future research on the relations between gut microbiota produced hydrogen and its link to clinical symptoms.

  15. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  16. Manifold learning techniques and model reduction applied to dissipative PDEs

    CERN Document Server

    Sonday, Benjamin E; Gear, C William; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G

    2010-01-01

    We link nonlinear manifold learning techniques for data analysis/compression with model reduction techniques for evolution equations with time scale separation. In particular, we demonstrate a `"nonlinear extension" of the POD-Galerkin approach to obtaining reduced dynamic models of dissipative evolution equations. The approach is illustrated through a reaction-diffusion PDE, and the performance of different simulators on the full and the reduced models is compared. We also discuss the relation of this nonlinear extension with the so-called "nonlinear Galerkin" methods developed in the context of Approximate Inertial Manifolds.

  17. Bioremediation techniques applied to aqueous media contaminated with mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Riaño, Möritz; Benavides-Otaya, Holman D

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the environmental and human health impacts of mercury contamination have driven the search for alternative, eco-efficient techniques different from the traditional physicochemical methods for treating this metal. One of these alternative processes is bioremediation. A comprehensive analysis of the different variables that can affect this process is presented. It focuses on determining the effectiveness of different techniques of bioremediation, with a specific consideration of three variables: the removal percentage, time needed for bioremediation and initial concentration of mercury to be treated in an aqueous medium.

  18. Applying data-mining techniques in honeypot analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of a data mining techniques to analyse the data recorded by the honeypot. This data can also be used to train Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) in identifying attacks. Since the training is based on real data...

  19. Filter back—projection technique applied to Abel inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangShano-En; LiuZhong-Li; 等

    1997-01-01

    The inverse Abel transform is applicable to optically thin plasma with cylindrical symmetry,which is often encountered in plasma physics and inertial(or magnetic)confinemant fusion.The filter back-projection technique is modified,and then a new method of inverse Abel transform is presented.

  20. Geophysical studies applied to the exploration of the Aqua de las Liebres uranium deposit, Mendoza, Argentina; Estudios geofisicos en la exploracion de yacimientos de uranio Aqua de las Liebres, mendoza, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, Silvio Augusto; Rocco, Guillermo Felix E.; Ponti, Norberto [Instituto Sismologico F.S. Volponi (Argentina)

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this work was to apply a geophysical methodology, which let us make exploration studies of Uranium ore deposit, with good results and minimal costs. This technique will be used by the National Commission of Atomic Energy of Argentina (CNEA). This study was made at Agua de las Liebres site, Sierra Pintada-San Rafael-Mendoza, over an existing seismic path. Besides, there were three roles, digged up to the interesting level with a medium depth about 400 m. This investigation was made using the Vertical Electrical Sounding with a maximum AB = 3870 m. It could be used in the zone knowing that there were sub horizontal layered strata, with very important resistivity contrasts for its identification. The use of this methodology led us to obtain a more detailed knowledge of the existing geology, besides to take into account a helpful method, to increase the studied zones, optimizing ins such a way, the obtained results, found with another exploration techniques. (author). 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. 物探技术在城市地下空间开发中的应用%The Application of Geophysical Technique in Urban Underground Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传逢; 张云霞

    2015-01-01

    The development of urban underground space is the need to achieve sustainable development of human be-ings. With the advantage of efficient,economical,flexible construction,information-rich,and effective,geophysical technol-ogy are widely used in engineering geological exploration. With the requirement for current information of underground space in its development,this article describes currently four main geophysical techniques to obtain underground space in-formation,including shallow seismic method,electromagnetic induction method,ground penetrating radar method,and high density resistivity method,which aims to promote the use of geophysical technique to develop urban underground space.%城市地下空间的开发是实现人类可持续发展的需要。物探技术凭借高效、经济、施工灵活、信息丰富,探测效果好等优点在工程地质勘查中应用广泛。结合地下空间开发中的地下空间现状信息需求,本文介绍目前4种获取地下空间信息主要物探技术(浅层地震法、电磁感应法、探地雷达法和高密度电阻率法),旨在推广应用物探技术来开发城市地下空间。

  2. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.; Martin, J.; Garton, D.; Noorman, H.; Stelcer, E.; Johnson, P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.

  3. Recent Developments in Computational Techniques for Applied Hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-07

    numerical solutions of the KdV equation . More significantly, solitons are seen in nature and in solutions of "exact" hyperbolic systems, i.e...1975). Tappert, F., " Numerical Solutions of the KdV Equation and Its Generalizations by the Split- Step Fourier Method," Lect. Appl. Math. 15, AMS...reverse side if necessary and identify by block nutmber) Recently developed techniques for numerical solution of fluid equations are reviewed.

  4. Technology Assessment of Dust Suppression Techniques Applied During Structural Demolition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, J.F.; Ebadian, M.A.; Williams, P.T.; Dua, S.K.

    1998-10-20

    Hanford, Fernald, Savannah River, and other sites are currently reviewing technologies that can be implemented to demolish buildings in a cost-effective manner. In order to demolish a structure properly and, at the same time, minimize the amount of dust generated from a given technology, an evaluation must be conducted to choose the most appropriate dust suppression technology given site-specific conditions. Thus, the purpose of this research, which was carried out at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University, was to conduct an experimental study of dust aerosol abatement (dust suppression) methods as applied to nuclear D and D. This experimental study targeted the problem of dust suppression during the demolition of nuclear facilities. The resulting data were employed to assist in the development of mathematical correlations that can be applied to predict dust generation during structural demolition.

  5. Results of Tank-Leak Detection Demonstration Using Geophysical Techniques at the Hanford Mock Tank Site-Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D BRENT.; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2002-03-01

    During July and August of 2001, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), hosted researchers from Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley National laboratories, and a private contractor, HydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc., for deployment of the following five geophysical leak-detection technologies at the Hanford Site Mock Tank in a Tank Leak Detection Demonstration (TLDD): (1) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT); (2) Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction (CEMI); (3) High-Resolution Resistivity (HRR); (4) Cross-Borehole Radar (XBR); and (5) Cross-Borehole Seismic Tomography (XBS). Under a ''Tri-party Agreement'' with Federal and state regulators, the U.S. Department of Energy will remove wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and other miscellaneous underground tanks for storage in the double-shell tank system. Waste retrieval methods are being considered that use very little, if any, liquid to dislodge, mobilize, and remove the wastes. As additional assurance of protection of the vadose zone beneath the SSTs, tank wastes and tank conditions may be aggressively monitored during retrieval operations by methods that are deployed outside the SSTs in the vadose zone.

  6. Geophysical monitoring technology for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Feng; Li, Lin; Wang, Hao-Fan; Tan, Ming-You; Cui, Shi-Ling; Zhang, Yun-Yin; Qu, Zhi-Peng; Jia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Shu-Hai

    2016-06-01

    Geophysical techniques play key roles in the measuring, monitoring, and verifying the safety of CO2 sequestration and in identifying the efficiency of CO2-enhanced oil recovery. Although geophysical monitoring techniques for CO2 sequestration have grown out of conventional oil and gas geophysical exploration techniques, it takes a long time to conduct geophysical monitoring, and there are many barriers and challenges. In this paper, with the initial objective of performing CO2 sequestration, we studied the geophysical tasks associated with evaluating geological storage sites and monitoring CO2 sequestration. Based on our review of the scope of geophysical monitoring techniques and our experience in domestic and international carbon capture and sequestration projects, we analyzed the inherent difficulties and our experiences in geophysical monitoring techniques, especially, with respect to 4D seismic acquisition, processing, and interpretation.

  7. Mapping of groundwater prospective zones integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and geophysical techniques in El-Qaà Plain area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzied, Sara M.; Alrefaee, Hamed A.

    2017-05-01

    The geospatial mapping of groundwater prospective zones is essential to support the needs of local inhabitants and agricultural activities in arid regions such as El-Qaà area, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The study aims to locate new wells that can serve to cope with water scarcity. The integration of remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS) and geophysical techniques is a breakthrough for groundwater prospecting. Based on these techniques, several factors contributing to groundwater potential in El-Qaà Plain were determined. Geophysical data were supported by information derived from a digital elevation model, and from geologic, geomorphologic and hydrologic data, to reveal the promising sites. All the spatial data that represent the contributing factors were integrated and analyzed in a GIS framework to develop a groundwater prospective model. An appropriate weightage was specified to each factor based on its relative contribution towards groundwater potential, and the resulting map delineates the study area into five classes, from very poor to very good potential. The very good potential zones are located in the Quaternary deposits, with flat to gentle topography, dense lineaments and structurally controlled drainage channels. The groundwater potential map was tested against the distribution of groundwater wells and cultivated land. The integrated methodology provides a powerful tool to design a suitable groundwater management plan in arid regions.

  8. SICHUAN GEOPHYSICAL COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Sichuan Geophysical Company (abbreviated as SCGC below), originally named Sichuan Geophysical Company of CNPC Sichuan Petroleum, was founded in 1956 and is a subsidiary of CNPC Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Company Limited. With more than 50 years' development, SCGC now owns almost 3800 employees and has become a big oil & gas seismic exploration engineering service enterprise with the characteristic mountain seismic exploration techniques, and its annual business turnover reaches nearly 2 billion RMB. It can provide the integrated seismic exploration engineering service including seismic data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and geological comprehensive evaluation in various complex regions for clients at home and abroad.

  9. Applying Supervised Opinion Mining Techniques on Online User Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion SMEUREANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the spectacular development of web technologies, lead to an enormous quantity of user generated information in online systems. This large amount of information on web platforms make them viable for use as data sources, in applications based on opinion mining and sentiment analysis. The paper proposes an algorithm for detecting sentiments on movie user reviews, based on naive Bayes classifier. We make an analysis of the opinion mining domain, techniques used in sentiment analysis and its applicability. We implemented the proposed algorithm and we tested its performance, and suggested directions of development.

  10. Image analysis technique applied to lock-exchange gravity currents

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Helena; Adduce, Claudia; Alves, Elsa; Franca, Rodrigues Pereira Da; Jorge, Mario

    2013-01-01

    An image analysis technique is used to estimate the two-dimensional instantaneous density field of unsteady gravity currents produced by full-depth lock-release of saline water. An experiment reproducing a gravity current was performed in a 3.0 m long, 0.20 m wide and 0.30 m deep Perspex flume with horizontal smooth bed and recorded with a 25 Hz CCD video camera under controlled light conditions. Using dye concentration as a tracer, a calibration procedure was established for each pixel in th...

  11. Unconventional Coding Technique Applied to Multi-Level Polarization Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutigliano, G. G.; Betti, S.; Perrone, P.

    2016-05-01

    A new technique is proposed to improve information confidentiality in optical-fiber communications without bandwidth consumption. A pseudorandom vectorial sequence was generated by a dynamic system algorithm and used to codify a multi-level polarization modulation based on the Stokes vector. Optical-fiber birefringence, usually considered as a disturbance, was exploited to obfuscate the signal transmission. At the receiver end, the same pseudorandom sequence was generated and used to decode the multi-level polarization modulated signal. The proposed scheme, working at the physical layer, provides strong information security without introducing complex processing and thus latency.

  12. Quantitative geophysical log interpretation for rock mass characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Hatherly; Renate Sliwa; Roland Turner; Terry Medhurst

    2004-04-01

    Geophysical borehole logging is routinely employed as part of exploration drilling in open pit and underground mining operations. Analysis of results is often empirical or based on theoretical considerations that need not relate to the actual properties of the rocks under consideration. The objectives of this project are to develop techniques for quantitative geophysical log interpretation techniques to enable: better estimation of coal and rock properties such as strength and permeability; better lithological interpretation and strata correlation between boreholes; a rock mass rating scheme for mine design purposes which is based on geophysical logging. This study has placed the techniques for quantitative geophysical log assessment on a firm footing. The authors have demonstrated an approach for log assessment that can be routinely applied. Many of the mineralogical and physical rock properties that impact on the assessments have been investigated and discussed. They have also demonstrated the benefits of quantitative geophysical log assessment. The major recommendation made is that geologists and engineers in the coal mining industry take the time to study this report and begin to put the approach described into practice. The collective understanding that this experience will provide can only help fuel the drive to take the benefits of geophysical logging to greater levels.

  13. Filling-Based Techniques Applied to Object Projection Feature Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Quesada, Luis

    2012-01-01

    3D motion tracking is a critical task in many computer vision applications. Unsupervised markerless 3D motion tracking systems determine the most relevant object in the screen and then track it by continuously estimating its projection features (center and area) from the edge image and a point inside the relevant object projection (namely, inner point), until the tracking fails. Existing object projection feature estimation techniques are based on ray-casting from the inner point. These techniques present three main drawbacks: when the inner point is surrounded by edges, rays may not reach other relevant areas; as a consequence of that issue, the estimated features may greatly vary depending on the position of the inner point relative to the object projection; and finally, increasing the number of rays being casted and the ray-casting iterations (which would make the results more accurate and stable) increases the processing time to the point the tracking cannot be performed on the fly. In this paper, we anal...

  14. Canvas and cosmos: Visual art techniques applied to astronomy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Jayanne

    Bold color images from telescopes act as extraordinary ambassadors for research astronomers because they pique the public’s curiosity. But are they snapshots documenting physical reality? Or are we looking at artistic spacescapes created by digitally manipulating astronomy images? This paper provides a tour of how original black and white data, from all regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum, are converted into the color images gracing popular magazines, numerous websites, and even clothing. The history and method of the technical construction of these images is outlined. However, the paper focuses on introducing the scientific reader to visual literacy (e.g. human perception) and techniques from art (e.g. composition, color theory) since these techniques can produce not only striking but politically powerful public outreach images. When created by research astronomers, the cultures of science and visual art can be balanced and the image can illuminate scientific results sufficiently strongly that the images are also used in research publications. Included are reflections on how they could feedback into astronomy research endeavors and future forms of visualization as well as on the relevance of outreach images to visual art. (See the color online PDF version at http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0218271817300105; the figures can be enlarged in PDF viewers.)

  15. Compressed Sensing Techniques Applied to Ultrasonic Imaging of Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez López, Yuri; Martínez Lorenzo, José Ángel

    2017-01-01

    One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed. The system consists of an array of acoustic transceivers that is attached to the metallic structure-under-inspection, creating a guided acoustic Lamb wave. Reflections due to discontinuities are detected in the images, provided by an imaging algorithm. Taking into consideration that the majority of those images are sparse, this contribution analyzes the application of Compressed Sensing (CS) techniques in order to reduce the amount of measurements needed, thus achieving faster scanning, without compromising the detection capabilities of the system. A parametric study of the image quality, as a function of the samples needed in spatial and frequency domains, is presented, as well as the dependence on the sampling pattern. For this purpose, realistic cargo inspection scenarios have been simulated. PMID:28098841

  16. Compressed Sensing Techniques Applied to Ultrasonic Imaging of Cargo Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Yuri Álvarez; Lorenzo, José Ángel Martínez

    2017-01-15

    One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed. The system consists of an array of acoustic transceivers that is attached to the metallic structure-under-inspection, creating a guided acoustic Lamb wave. Reflections due to discontinuities are detected in the images, provided by an imaging algorithm. Taking into consideration that the majority of those images are sparse, this contribution analyzes the application of Compressed Sensing (CS) techniques in order to reduce the amount of measurements needed, thus achieving faster scanning, without compromising the detection capabilities of the system. A parametric study of the image quality, as a function of the samples needed in spatial and frequency domains, is presented, as well as the dependence on the sampling pattern. For this purpose, realistic cargo inspection scenarios have been simulated.

  17. Compressed Sensing Techniques Applied to Ultrasonic Imaging of Cargo Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Álvarez López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed. The system consists of an array of acoustic transceivers that is attached to the metallic structure-under-inspection, creating a guided acoustic Lamb wave. Reflections due to discontinuities are detected in the images, provided by an imaging algorithm. Taking into consideration that the majority of those images are sparse, this contribution analyzes the application of Compressed Sensing (CS techniques in order to reduce the amount of measurements needed, thus achieving faster scanning, without compromising the detection capabilities of the system. A parametric study of the image quality, as a function of the samples needed in spatial and frequency domains, is presented, as well as the dependence on the sampling pattern. For this purpose, realistic cargo inspection scenarios have been simulated.

  18. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20161263Ao Ruide(State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology,Tongji University,Shanghai200092,China);Dong Liangguo Source-Independent Envelope-Based FWI to Build an Initial Model(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-5733,CN11-2074/P,58(6),2015,p.1998-2010,15illus.,18refs.,

  19. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151907 Bai Yang(Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research,Institute of Geology a nd Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sci-ences,Beijing100029,China);Song Haibin Structural Characteristics and Genesis of Pockmarks in the Northwest of the South China Sea Derived from Reflective Seismic and Multibeam

  20. Surgical treatment of scoliosis: a review of techniques currently applied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama Toru

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this review, basic knowledge and recent innovation of surgical treatment for scoliosis will be described. Surgical treatment for scoliosis is indicated, in general, for the curve exceeding 45 or 50 degrees by the Cobb's method on the ground that: 1 Curves larger than 50 degrees progress even after skeletal maturity. 2 Curves of greater magnitude cause loss of pulmonary function, and much larger curves cause respiratory failure. 3 Larger the curve progress, more difficult to treat with surgery. Posterior fusion with instrumentation has been a standard of the surgical treatment for scoliosis. In modern instrumentation systems, more anchors are used to connect the rod and the spine, resulting in better correction and less frequent implant failures. Segmental pedicle screw constructs or hybrid constructs using pedicle screws, hooks, and wires are the trend of today. Anterior instrumentation surgery had been a choice of treatment for the thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis because better correction can be obtained with shorter fusion levels. Recently, superiority of anterior surgery for the thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis has been lost. Initial enthusiasm for anterior instrumentation for the thoracic curve using video assisted thoracoscopic surgery technique has faded out. Various attempts are being made with use of fusionless surgery. To control growth, epiphysiodesis on the convex side of the deformity with or without instrumentation is a technique to provide gradual progressive correction and to arrest the deterioration of the curves. To avoid fusion for skeletally immature children with spinal cord injury or myelodysplasia, vertebral wedge ostetomies are performed for the treatment of progressive paralytic scoliosis. For right thoracic curve with idiopathic scoliosis, multiple vertebral wedge osteotomies without fusion are performed. To provide correction and maintain it during the growing years while allowing spinal growth for

  1. Geophysical Methods: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.

    1992-01-01

    Geophysics is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. Geophysical measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the geophysical methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.

  2. Asteroid Surface Geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Murdoch, Naomi; Schwartz, Stephen R; Miyamoto, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    The regolith-covered surfaces of asteroids preserve records of geophysical processes that have occurred both at their surfaces and sometimes also in their interiors. As a result of the unique micro-gravity environment that these bodies posses, a complex and varied geophysics has given birth to fascinating features that we are just now beginning to understand. The processes that formed such features were first hypothesised through detailed spacecraft observations and have been further studied using theoretical, numerical and experimental methods that often combine several scientific disciplines. These multiple approaches are now merging towards a further understanding of the geophysical states of the surfaces of asteroids. In this chapter we provide a concise summary of what the scientific community has learned so far about the surfaces of these small planetary bodies and the processes that have shaped them. We also discuss the state of the art in terms of experimental techniques and numerical simulations that...

  3. Quantitative Portfolio Optimization Techniques Applied to the Brazilian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Alves Portela Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we assess the out-of-sample performance of two alternative quantitative portfolio optimization techniques - mean-variance and minimum variance optimization – and compare their performance with respect to a naive 1/N (or equally-weighted portfolio and also to the market portfolio given by the Ibovespa. We focus on short selling-constrained portfolios and consider alternative estimators for the covariance matrices: sample covariance matrix, RiskMetrics, and three covariance estimators proposed by Ledoit and Wolf (2003, Ledoit and Wolf (2004a and Ledoit and Wolf (2004b. Taking into account alternative portfolio re-balancing frequencies, we compute out-of-sample performance statistics which indicate that the quantitative approaches delivered improved results in terms of lower portfolio volatility and better risk-adjusted returns. Moreover, the use of more sophisticated estimators for the covariance matrix generated optimal portfolios with lower turnover over time.

  4. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  5. Signal Processing Techniques Applied in RFI Mitigation of Radio Astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixiu Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Radio broadcast and telecommunications are present at different power levels everywhere on Earth. Radio Frequency Interference (RFI substantially limits the sensitivity of existing radio telescopes in several frequency bands and may prove to be an even greater obstacle for next generation of telescopes (or arrays to overcome. A variety of RFI detection and mitigation techniques have been developed in recent years. This study describes various signal process methods of RFI mitigation in radio astronomy, choose the method of Time-frequency domain cancellation to eliminate certain interference and effectively improve the signal to noise ratio in pulsar observations. Finally, RFI mitigation researches and implements in China radio astronomy will be also presented.

  6. Applying Business Process Mode ling Techniques : Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Marcinkowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection and proper application of business process modeling methods and techniques have a significant impact on organizational improvement capabilities as well as proper understanding of functionality of information systems that shall support activity of the organization. A number of business process modeling notations were implemented in practice in recent decades. Most significant of the notations include ARIS, Business Process Modeling Notation (OMG BPMN and several Unified Modeling Language (OMG UML extensions. In this paper, the assessment whether one of the most flexible and strictly standardized contempo-rary bus iness process modeling notations, i.e. Rational UML Profile for Business Modeling, enable business analysts to prepare business models that are all-embracing and understandable by all the stakeholders. After the introduction, me-thodology of res earch is discussed. The following section presents selected case study results. The paper is concluded with a summary

  7. Neoliberal Optimism: Applying Market Techniques to Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yuyang

    2017-01-01

    Global health and neoliberalism are becoming increasingly intertwined as organizations utilize markets and profit motives to solve the traditional problems of poverty and population health. I use field work conducted over 14 months in a global health technology company to explore how the promise of neoliberalism re-envisions humanitarian efforts. In this company's vaccine refrigerator project, staff members expect their investors and their market to allow them to achieve scale and develop accountability to their users in developing countries. However, the translation of neoliberal techniques to the global health sphere falls short of the ideal, as profits are meager and purchasing power remains with donor organizations. The continued optimism in market principles amidst such a non-ideal market reveals the tenacious ideological commitment to neoliberalism in these global health projects.

  8. Signal processing techniques applied to a small circular seismic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, C. C.

    1980-03-01

    The travel time method (TTM) for locating earthquakes and the wavefront curvature method (WCM), which determines distance to an event by measuring the curvature of the wavefront can be combined in a procedure referred to as Apparent Velocity Mapping (AVM). Apparent velocities for mine blasts and local earthquakes computed by the WCM are inverted for a velocity structure. The velocity structure is used in the TTM to relocate events. Model studies indicate that AVM can adequately resolve the velocity structure for the case of linear velocity-depth gradient. Surface waves from mine blasts recorded by the Central Minnesota Seismic Array were analyzed using a modification of the multiple filter analysis (MFA) technique to determine group arrival times at several stations of an array. The advantages of array MFA are that source location need not be known, lateral refraction can be detected and removed, and multiple arrivals can be separated. A modeling procedure that can be used with array MFA is described.

  9. Object detection techniques applied on mobile robot semantic navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astua, Carlos; Barber, Ramon; Crespo, Jonathan; Jardon, Alberto

    2014-04-11

    The future of robotics predicts that robots will integrate themselves more every day with human beings and their environments. To achieve this integration, robots need to acquire information about the environment and its objects. There is a big need for algorithms to provide robots with these sort of skills, from the location where objects are needed to accomplish a task up to where these objects are considered as information about the environment. This paper presents a way to provide mobile robots with the ability-skill to detect objets for semantic navigation. This paper aims to use current trends in robotics and at the same time, that can be exported to other platforms. Two methods to detect objects are proposed, contour detection and a descriptor based technique, and both of them are combined to overcome their respective limitations. Finally, the code is tested on a real robot, to prove its accuracy and efficiency.

  10. Object Detection Techniques Applied on Mobile Robot Semantic Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Astua

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The future of robotics predicts that robots will integrate themselves more every day with human beings and their environments. To achieve this integration, robots need to acquire information about the environment and its objects. There is a big need for algorithms to provide robots with these sort of skills, from the location where objects are needed to accomplish a task up to where these objects are considered as information about the environment. This paper presents a way to provide mobile robots with the ability-skill to detect objets for semantic navigation. This paper aims to use current trends in robotics and at the same time, that can be exported to other platforms. Two methods to detect objects are proposed, contour detection and a descriptor based technique, and both of them are combined to overcome their respective limitations. Finally, the code is tested on a real robot, to prove its accuracy and efficiency.

  11. Free Radical Imaging Techniques Applied to Hydrocarbon Flames Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Caldeira-Pires

    2001-01-01

    This paper evaluates the utilization of free radical chemiluminescence imaging and tomographic reconstruction techniques to assess advanced information on reacting flows. Two different laboratory flow configurations were analyzed, including unconfined non-premixed jet flame measurements to evaluate flame fuel/air mixing patterns at the burner-port of a typical glass-furnace burner. The second case characterized the reaction zone of premixed flames within gas turbine combustion chambers, based on a laboratory scale model of a lean prevaporized premixed (LPP) combustion chamber.The analysis shows that advanced imaging diagnosis can provide new information on the characterization of flame mixing and reacting phenomena. The utilization of local C2 and CH chemiluminescence can assess useful information on the quality of the combustion process, which can be used to improve the design of practical combustors.

  12. Applying total quality management techniques to improve software development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, T; Assem Abdul Malak, M; el-Medawar, H

    1998-01-01

    Total Quality Management (TQM) is a new management philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the basis of a continuously improving organization. This paper sheds light on the application of TQM concepts for software development. A fieldwork study was conducted on a Lebanese software development firm and its customers to determine the major problems affecting the organization's operation and to assess the level of adoption of TQM concepts. Detailed questionnaires were prepared and handed out to the firm's managers, programmers, and customers. The results of the study indicate many deficiencies in applying TQM concepts, especially in the areas of planning, defining customer requirements, teamwork, relationship with suppliers, and adopting standards and performance measures. One of the major consequences of these deficiencies is considerably increased programming errors and delays in delivery. Recommendations on achieving quality are discussed.

  13. Modern Techniques and Technologies Applied to Training and Performance Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, William A; Kavanaugh, Ashley A; Murray, Steven R; McNeal, Jeni R; Jemni, Monèm

    2016-12-05

    Athlete preparation and performance continues to increase in complexity and costs. Modern coaches are shifting from reliance on personal memory, experience, and opinion to evidence from collected training load data. Training load monitoring may hold vital information for developing systems of monitoring that follow the training process with such precision that both performance prediction and day-to-day management of training become an adjunct to preparation and performance. Time series data collection and analyses in sport are still in their infancy with considerable efforts being applied in "big-data" analytics and models of the appropriate variables to monitor and methods for doing so. Training monitoring has already garnered important applications, but lacks a theoretical framework from which to develop further. As such, we propose a framework involving the following: analyses of individuals, trend analyses, rules-based analysis, and statistical process control.

  14. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, P.; Vandergraft, J.; Blohm, M.; Porter, D.

    1993-08-01

    A geophysical data fusion methodology is under development to combine data from complementary geophysical sensors and incorporate geophysical understanding to obtain three dimensional images of the subsurface. The research reported here is the first phase of a three phase project. The project focuses on the characterization of thin clay lenses (aquitards) in a highly stratified sand and clay coastal geology to depths of up to 300 feet. The sensor suite used in this work includes time-domain electromagnetic induction (TDEM) and near surface seismic techniques. During this first phase of the project, enhancements to the acquisition and processing of TDEM data were studied, by use of simulated data, to assess improvements for the detection of thin clay layers. Secondly, studies were made of the use of compressional wave and shear wave seismic reflection data by using state-of-the-art high frequency vibrator technology. Finally, a newly developed processing technique, called 'data fusion' was implemented to process the geophysical data, and to incorporate a mathematical model of the subsurface strata. Examples are given of the results when applied to real seismic data collected at Hanford, WA, and for simulated data based on the geology of the Savannah River Site.

  15. Imaging normal faults in alluvial fans using geophysical techniques: Field example from the coast of Gulf of Aqaba, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-08-05

    In this work we use geophysical methods to locate and characterize active faults in alluvial sediments. Since only subtle material and velocity contrasts are expected across the faults, we used seismic refraction tomography and 2D resistivity imaging to locate the fault. One seismic profile and one 2D resistivity profile are collected at an alluvial fan on the Gulf of Aqaba coast in Saudi Arabia. The collected data are inverted to generate the traveltime tomogram and the electric resistivity tomogram (ERT). A low velocity anomaly is shown on the traveltime tomogram indicates the colluvial wedge associated with the fault. The location of the fault is shown on the ERT as a vertical high resistivity anomaly.

  16. Detect hidden defects of dam seepage by comprehensive geophysical exploration technique%应用综合物探方法探查坝体渗漏隐患

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董延朋; 许尚杰

    2012-01-01

    在堤防质量检测时,地球物理方法能够实现快速、无损的探测,但采用单一物探方法对堤防隐患的判别易产生多解,也很难对堤防质量做出准确分类。本文在分析高密度电法、伪随机流场法和多道瞬态面波法工作原理的基础上,利用综合物探方法探查水库大坝渗漏隐患的详细状况,并确定渗水明流的进水口、渗漏带的平面位置及其发育深度,为堤防质量检测提供了一种新的工作方法。%In the quality detection of dams, the geophysical methods could carry out fast and undamaged detection. It would arise multiple solution easily if adopting single geophysical prospecting method to distinguish the hidden defects of dam, and it is also very difficult to find the accurate classification to the dam quality. The paper analyzes the working principle of high-density resistivity method, flowing field method and transient surface wave method, then it relates how to detect hidden defects of dam seepage, confirm the groundwater intake and find out the locality and buried depth of the hidden defects of dam by comprehensive geophysical exploration technique. So it provides the new working method for detecting the dam quality.

  17. DETECTION OF HISTORICAL PIPELINE LEAK PLUMES USING NON-INTRUSIVE SURFACE-BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE WASHINGTON USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKORSKA MB; FINK JB; RUCKER DF; LEVITT MT

    2010-12-02

    Historical records from the Department of Energy Hanford Nuclear Reservation (in eastern WA) indicate that ruptures in buried waste transfer pipelines were common between the 1940s and 1980s, which resulted in unplanned releases (UPRs) of tank: waste at numerous locations. A number of methods are commercially available for the detection of active or recent leaks, however, there are no methods available for the detection of leaks that occurred many years ago. Over the decades, leaks from the Hanford pipelines were detected by visual observation of fluid on the surface, mass balance calculations (where flow volumes were monitored), and incidental encounters with waste during excavation or drilling. Since these detection methods for historic leaks are so limited in resolution and effectiveness, it is likely that a significant number of pipeline leaks have not been detected. Therefore, a technology was needed to detect the specific location of unknown pipeline leaks so that characterization technologies can be used to identify any risks to groundwater caused by waste released into the vadose zone. A proof-of-concept electromagnetic geophysical survey was conducted at an UPR in order to image a historical leak from a waste transfer pipeline. The survey was designed to test an innovative electromagnetic geophysical technique that could be used to rapidly map the extent of historical leaks from pipelines within the Hanford Site complex. This proof-of-concept test included comprehensive testing and analysis of the transient electromagnetic method (TEM) and made use of supporting and confirmatory geophysical methods including ground penetrating radar, magnetics, and electrical resistivity characterization (ERC). The results for this initial proof-of-concept test were successful and greatly exceeded the expectations of the project team by providing excellent discrimination of soils contaminated with leaked waste despite the interference from an electrically conductive pipe.

  18. Optical Trapping Techniques Applied to the Study of Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morss, Andrew J.

    Optical tweezers allow for manipulating micron-sized objects using pN level optical forces. In this work, we use an optical trapping setup to aid in three separate experiments, all related to the physics of the cellular membrane. In the first experiment, in conjunction with Brian Henslee, we use optical tweezers to allow for precise positioning and control of cells in suspension to evaluate the cell size dependence of electroporation. Theory predicts that all cells porate at a transmembrane potential VTMof roughly 1 V. The Schwann equation predicts that the transmembrane potential depends linearly on the cell radius r, thus predicting that cells should porate at threshold electric fields that go as 1/r. The threshold field required to induce poration is determined by applying a low voltage pulse to the cell and then applying additional pulses of greater and greater magnitude, checking for poration at each step using propidium iodide dye. We find that, contrary to expectations, cells do not porate at a constant value of the transmembrane potential but at a constant value of the electric field which we find to be 692 V/cm for K562 cells. Delivering precise dosages of nanoparticles into cells is of importance for assessing toxicity of nanoparticles or for genetic research. In the second experiment, we conduct nano-electroporation—a novel method of applying precise doses of transfection agents to cells—by using optical tweezers in conjunction with a confocal microscope to manipulate cells into contact with 100 nm wide nanochannels. This work was done in collaboration with Pouyan Boukany of Dr. Lee's group. The small cross sectional area of these nano channels means that the electric field within them is extremely large, 60 MV/m, which allows them to electrophoretically drive transfection agents into the cell. We find that nano electroporation results in excellent dose control (to within 10% in our experiments) compared to bulk electroporation. We also find that

  19. Dust tracking techniques applied to the STARDUST facility: First results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malizia, A., E-mail: malizia@ing.uniroma2.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Camplani, M. [Grupo de Tratamiento de Imágenes, E.T.S.I de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain); Gelfusa, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Lupelli, I. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Richetta, M.; Antonelli, L.; Conetta, F.; Scarpellini, D.; Carestia, M.; Peluso, E.; Bellecci, C. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Salgado, L. [Grupo de Tratamiento de Imágenes, E.T.S.I de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain); Video Processing and Understanding Laboratory, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain); Gaudio, P. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Use of an experimental facility, STARDUST, to analyze the dust resuspension problem inside the tokamak in case of loss of vacuum accident. •PIV technique implementation to track the dust during a LOVA reproduction inside STARDUST. •Data imaging techniques to analyze dust velocity field: first results and data discussion. -- Abstract: An important issue related to future nuclear fusion reactors fueled with deuterium and tritium is the creation of large amounts of dust due to several mechanisms (disruptions, ELMs and VDEs). The dust size expected in nuclear fusion experiments (such as ITER) is in the order of microns (between 0.1 and 1000 μm). Almost the total amount of this dust remains in the vacuum vessel (VV). This radiological dust can re-suspend in case of LOVA (loss of vacuum accident) and these phenomena can cause explosions and serious damages to the health of the operators and to the integrity of the device. The authors have developed a facility, STARDUST, in order to reproduce the thermo fluid-dynamic conditions comparable to those expected inside the VV of the next generation of experiments such as ITER in case of LOVA. The dust used inside the STARDUST facility presents particle sizes and physical characteristics comparable with those that created inside the VV of nuclear fusion experiments. In this facility an experimental campaign has been conducted with the purpose of tracking the dust re-suspended at low pressurization rates (comparable to those expected in case of LOVA in ITER and suggested by the General Safety and Security Report ITER-GSSR) using a fast camera with a frame rate from 1000 to 10,000 images per second. The velocity fields of the mobilized dust are derived from the imaging of a two-dimensional slice of the flow illuminated by optically adapted laser beam. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the possibility of dust tracking by means of image processing with the objective of determining the velocity field values

  20. Acoustic Emission Technique Applied in Textiles Mechanical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rios-Soberanis Carlos Rolando

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The common textile architecture/geometry are woven, braided, knitted, stitch boded, and Z-pinned. Fibres in textile form exhibit good out-of-plane properties and good fatigue and impact resistance, additionally, they have better dimensional stability and conformability. Besides the nature of the textile, the architecture has a great role in the mechanical behaviour and mechanisms of damage in textiles, therefore damage mechanisms and mechanical performance in structural applications textiles have been a major concern. Mechanical damage occurs to a large extent during the service lifetime consequently it is vital to understand the material mechanical behaviour by identifying its mechanisms of failure such as onset of damage, crack generation and propagation. In this work, textiles of different architecture were used to manufacture epoxy based composites in order to study failure events under tensile load by using acoustic emission technique which is a powerful characterization tool due to its link between AE data and fracture mechanics, which makes this relation a very useful from the engineering point of view.

  1. Sputtering as a Technique for Applying Tribological Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, S.

    1984-01-01

    Friction and wear-induced mechanical failures may be controlled to extend the life of tribological components through the interposition of selected solid materials between contacting surfaces. Thin solid films of soft and hard materials are appropriate to lower friction and enhance the wear resistance of precision tribo-elements. Tribological characteristics of thin hard coats deposited on a variety of ferrous and non-ferrous substrates were tested. The thin hard coats used were titanium nitride films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering of metallic titanium. High contact stress, low speed tests showed wear rate reductions of one or more magnitude, even with films a few micrometers in thickness. Low contact stress, high speed tests carried out under rather severe test conditions showed that thin films of TiN afforded significant friction reduction and wear protection. Thin hard coats were shown to improve the friction and wear performance of rolling contacts. Satisfactory film-to-substrate adhesion strengths can be obtained with reactive magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction and microhardness tests were employed to assess the effectiveness of the sputtering technique.

  2. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopic techniques as applied to Channelrhodopsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglof eRitter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Among optogenetic tools, channelrhodopsins, the light gated ion channels of the plasma membrane from green algae, play the most important role. Properties like channel selectivity, timing parameters or color can be influenced by the exchange of selected amino acids. Although widely used, in the field of neurosciences for example, there is still little known about their photocycles and the mechanism of ion channel gating and conductance. One of the preferred methods for these studies is infrared spectroscopy since it allows observation of proteins and their function at a molecular level and in near-native environment. The absorption of a photon in channelrhodopsin leads to retinal isomerization within femtoseconds, the conductive states are reached in the microsecond time scale and the return into the fully dark-adapted state may take more than minutes. To be able to cover all these time regimes, a range of different spectroscopical approaches are necessary. This mini-review focuses on time-resolved applications of the infrared technique to study channelrhodopsins and other light triggered proteins. We will discuss the approaches with respect to their suitability to the investigation of channelrhodopsin and related proteins.

  3. Digital prototyping technique applied for redesigning plastic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, A.; Andrei, A.

    2015-11-01

    After products are on the market for some time, they often need to be redesigned to meet new market requirements. New products are generally derived from similar but outdated products. Redesigning a product is an important part of the production and development process. The purpose of this paper is to show that using modern technology, like Digital Prototyping in industry is an effective way to produce new products. This paper tries to demonstrate and highlight the effectiveness of the concept of Digital Prototyping, both to reduce the design time of a new product, but also the costs required for implementing this step. The results of this paper show that using Digital Prototyping techniques in designing a new product from an existing one available on the market mould offers a significantly manufacturing time and cost reduction. The ability to simulate and test a new product with modern CAD-CAM programs in all aspects of production (designing of the 3D model, simulation of the structural resistance, analysis of the injection process and beautification) offers a helpful tool for engineers. The whole process can be realised by one skilled engineer very fast and effective.

  4. Remote sensing techniques applied to seismic vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Arranz, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Hahgi, Azade; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Advances in remote sensing and photogrammetry techniques have increased the degree of accuracy and resolution in the record of the earth's surface. This has expanded the range of possible applications of these data. In this research, we have used these data to document the construction characteristics of the urban environment of Lorca, Spain. An exposure database has been created with the gathered information to be used in seismic vulnerability assessment. To this end, we have used data from photogrammetric flights at different periods, using both orthorectified images in the visible and infrared spectrum. Furthermore, the analysis is completed using LiDAR data. From the combination of these data, it has been possible to delineate the building footprints and characterize the constructions with attributes such as the approximate date of construction, area, type of roof and even building materials. To carry out the calculation, we have developed different algorithms to compare images from different times, segment images, classify LiDAR data, and use the infrared data in order to remove vegetation or to compute roof surfaces with height value, tilt and spectral fingerprint. In addition, the accuracy of our results has been validated with ground truth data. Keywords: LiDAR, remote sensing, seismic vulnerability, Lorca

  5. Cleaning techniques for applied-B ion diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuneo, M.E.; Menge, P.R.; Hanson, D.L. [and others

    1995-09-01

    Measurements and theoretical considerations indicate that the lithium-fluoride (LiF) lithium ion source operates by electron-assisted field-desorption, and provides a pure lithium beam for 10--20 ns. Evidence on both the SABRE (1 TW) and PBFA-II (20 TW) accelerators indicates that the lithium beam is replaced by a beam of protons, and carbon resulting from electron thermal desorption of hydrocarbon surface and bulk contamination with subsequent avalanche ionization. Appearance of contaminant ions in the beam is accompanied by rapid impedance collapse, possibly resulting from loss of magnetic insulation in the rapidly expanding and ionizing, neutral layer. Electrode surface and source substrate cleaning techniques are being developed on the SABRE accelerator to reduce beam contamination, plasma formation, and impedance collapse. We have increased lithium current density a factor of 3 and lithium energy a factor of 5 through a combination of in-situ surface and substrate coatings, impermeable substrate coatings, and field profile modifications.

  6. From Geophysical Data to Geophysical Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Peng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Geophysics is based on massive data work including data observation, data gathering/collecting, data management, and data analysis. Over the years, in China and other countries, geophysicists and geophysical institutions have accumulated a huge amount of geophysical data, built up many geophysical data banks and data centers, constructed/established many monitoring and transferring systems and infrastructures of geophysical data, and developed many advanced data analysis methods about data on land, ocean, and space. Based on this work, a new discipline of geophysics, geophysical informatics, has been gradually developing over the past 20 years. The recent advances of geophysical informatics in China are introduced and reviewed in this paper.

  7. Semantic Data And Visualization Techniques Applied To Geologic Field Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. I. Q.; Royo-Leon, M.; Munoz, R.; Estrada, E.; Villanueva-Rosales, N.; Pennington, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Geologic field mapping involves the use of technology before, during, and after visiting a site. Geologists utilize hardware such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) connected to mobile computing platforms such as tablets that include software such as ESRI's ArcPad and other software to produce maps and figures for a final analysis and report. Hand written field notes contain important information and drawings or sketches of specific areas within the field study. Our goal is to collect and geo-tag final and raw field data into a cyber-infrastructure environment with an ontology that allows for large data processing, visualization, sharing, and searching, aiding in connecting field research with prior research in the same area and/or aid with experiment replication. Online searches of a specific field area return results such as weather data from NOAA and QuakeML seismic data from USGS. These results that can then be saved to a field mobile device and searched while in the field where there is no Internet connection. To accomplish this we created the GeoField ontology service using the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Protégé software. Advanced queries on the dataset can be made using reasoning capabilities can be supported that go beyond a standard database service. These improvements include the automated discovery of data relevant to a specific field site and visualization techniques aimed at enhancing analysis and collaboration while in the field by draping data over mobile views of the site using augmented reality. A case study is being performed at University of Texas at El Paso's Indio Mountains Research Station located near Van Horn, Texas, an active multi-disciplinary field study site. The user can interactively move the camera around the study site and view their data digitally. Geologist's can check their data against the site in real-time and improve collaboration with another person as both parties have the same interactive view of the data.

  8. Applying perceptual and adaptive learning techniques for teaching introductory histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Krasne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students are expected to master the ability to interpret histopathologic images, a difficult and time-consuming process. A major problem is the issue of transferring information learned from one example of a particular pathology to a new example. Recent advances in cognitive science have identified new approaches to address this problem. Methods: We adapted a new approach for enhancing pattern recognition of basic pathologic processes in skin histopathology images that utilizes perceptual learning techniques, allowing learners to see relevant structure in novel cases along with adaptive learning algorithms that space and sequence different categories (e.g. diagnoses that appear during a learning session based on each learner′s accuracy and response time (RT. We developed a perceptual and adaptive learning module (PALM that utilized 261 unique images of cell injury, inflammation, neoplasia, or normal histology at low and high magnification. Accuracy and RT were tracked and integrated into a "Score" that reflected students rapid recognition of the pathologies and pre- and post-tests were given to assess the effectiveness. Results: Accuracy, RT and Scores significantly improved from the pre- to post-test with Scores showing much greater improvement than accuracy alone. Delayed post-tests with previously unseen cases, given after 6-7 weeks, showed a decline in accuracy relative to the post-test for 1 st -year students, but not significantly so for 2 nd -year students. However, the delayed post-test scores maintained a significant and large improvement relative to those of the pre-test for both 1 st and 2 nd year students suggesting good retention of pattern recognition. Student evaluations were very favorable. Conclusion: A web-based learning module based on the principles of cognitive science showed an evidence for improved recognition of histopathology patterns by medical students.

  9. Applying data mining techniques to improve diagnosis in neonatal jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Duarte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperbilirubinemia is emerging as an increasingly common problem in newborns due to a decreasing hospital length of stay after birth. Jaundice is the most common disease of the newborn and although being benign in most cases it can lead to severe neurological consequences if poorly evaluated. In different areas of medicine, data mining has contributed to improve the results obtained with other methodologies. Hence, the aim of this study was to improve the diagnosis of neonatal jaundice with the application of data mining techniques. Methods This study followed the different phases of the Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining model as its methodology. This observational study was performed at the Obstetrics Department of a central hospital (Centro Hospitalar Tâmega e Sousa – EPE, from February to March of 2011. A total of 227 healthy newborn infants with 35 or more weeks of gestation were enrolled in the study. Over 70 variables were collected and analyzed. Also, transcutaneous bilirubin levels were measured from birth to hospital discharge with maximum time intervals of 8 hours between measurements, using a noninvasive bilirubinometer. Different attribute subsets were used to train and test classification models using algorithms included in Weka data mining software, such as decision trees (J48 and neural networks (multilayer perceptron. The accuracy results were compared with the traditional methods for prediction of hyperbilirubinemia. Results The application of different classification algorithms to the collected data allowed predicting subsequent hyperbilirubinemia with high accuracy. In particular, at 24 hours of life of newborns, the accuracy for the prediction of hyperbilirubinemia was 89%. The best results were obtained using the following algorithms: naive Bayes, multilayer perceptron and simple logistic. Conclusions The findings of our study sustain that, new approaches, such as data mining, may support

  10. Applying data mining techniques to improve diagnosis in neonatal jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Duarte; Oliveira, Abílio; Freitas, Alberto

    2012-12-07

    Hyperbilirubinemia is emerging as an increasingly common problem in newborns due to a decreasing hospital length of stay after birth. Jaundice is the most common disease of the newborn and although being benign in most cases it can lead to severe neurological consequences if poorly evaluated. In different areas of medicine, data mining has contributed to improve the results obtained with other methodologies.Hence, the aim of this study was to improve the diagnosis of neonatal jaundice with the application of data mining techniques. This study followed the different phases of the Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining model as its methodology.This observational study was performed at the Obstetrics Department of a central hospital (Centro Hospitalar Tâmega e Sousa--EPE), from February to March of 2011. A total of 227 healthy newborn infants with 35 or more weeks of gestation were enrolled in the study. Over 70 variables were collected and analyzed. Also, transcutaneous bilirubin levels were measured from birth to hospital discharge with maximum time intervals of 8 hours between measurements, using a noninvasive bilirubinometer.Different attribute subsets were used to train and test classification models using algorithms included in Weka data mining software, such as decision trees (J48) and neural networks (multilayer perceptron). The accuracy results were compared with the traditional methods for prediction of hyperbilirubinemia. The application of different classification algorithms to the collected data allowed predicting subsequent hyperbilirubinemia with high accuracy. In particular, at 24 hours of life of newborns, the accuracy for the prediction of hyperbilirubinemia was 89%. The best results were obtained using the following algorithms: naive Bayes, multilayer perceptron and simple logistic. The findings of our study sustain that, new approaches, such as data mining, may support medical decision, contributing to improve diagnosis in neonatal

  11. Azimuthally Varying Noise Reduction Techniques Applied to Supersonic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Nicholas S.

    An experimental investigation into the effect of azimuthal variance of chevrons and fluidically enhanced chevrons applied to supersonic jets is presented. Flow field measurements of streamwise and cross-stream particle imaging velocimetry were employed to determine the causes of noise reduction, which was demonstrated through acoustic measurements. Results were obtained in the over- and under- expanded regimes, and at the design condition, though emphasis was placed on the overexpanded regime due to practical application. Surveys of chevron geometry, number, and arrangement were undertaken in an effort to reduce noise and/or incurred performance penalties. Penetration was found to be positively correlated with noise reduction in the overexpanded regime, and negatively correlated in underexpanded operation due to increased effective penetration and high frequency penalty, respectively. The effect of arrangement indicated the beveled configuration achieved optimal abatement in the ideally and underexpanded regimes due to superior BSAN reduction. The symmetric configuration achieved optimal overexpanded noise reduction due to LSS suppression from improved vortex persistence. Increases in chevron number generally improved reduction of all noise components for lower penetration configurations. Higher penetration configurations reached levels of saturation in the four chevron range, with the potential to introduce secondary shock structures and generate additional noise with higher number. Alternation of penetration generated limited benefit, with slight reduction of the high frequency penalty caused by increased shock spacing. The combination of alternating penetration with beveled and clustered configurations achieved comparable noise reduction to the standard counterparts. Analysis of the entire data set indicated initial improvements with projected area that saturated after a given level and either plateaued or degraded with additional increases. Optimal reductions

  12. On the Pitfalls and Limitations of Applying Petrophysical Models to Geophysical Tomograms: Examples in Cross-Borehole Radar and Electrical-Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Singha, K.; Binley, A. M.

    2004-05-01

    Geophysical field data have traditionally provided qualitative information on aquifer structure for hydrogeologic characterization; however, there is increasing interest in the application of petrophysical models to convert geophysical tomograms of electrical resistivity or radar velocity, for example, to hydrologic parameters, such as permeability, porosity, water content, and (or) salinity. Unfortunately, application of theoretical or empirical petrophysical models may be inappropriate in many situations, given the limited and variable resolution of tomographic estimates. The resolution of tomograms is a function of (1) the measurement physics, for example, electrical conduction or electromagnetic wave propagation; (2) the parameterization and regularization used for inversion; (3) measurement error; and (4) the length scale of heterogeneity. We present a framework to predict how core-scale relations between geophysical properties and hydrologic parameters break down in the inversion, which produces smoothly-varying pixel-scale estimates. Our approach upscales the core-scale relationship to the pixel-scale based on the model resolution matrix from the inversion, random field averaging, and spatial statistics of the geophysical property. In synthetic examples, we use the approach to evaluate the utility of tomograms for quantitative hydrologic estimation, in light of their resolution-dependent limitations. Comparison of examples for cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography and radar tomography demonstrates the role of the measurement physics on the spatially-variable pixel-scale relationships between geophysical estimates and hydrologic parameters of interest. The goals of this work are to (1) raise awareness of the limitations of geophysical data, (2) provide a framework to improve survey design and assess tomograms for hydrologic estimation, and (3) promote additional research to improve the links between geophysical and hydrogeologic characterization.

  13. From Geophysical Data to Geophysical Informatics

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Fenglin; Peng, Le; Zhang, Jian; Xue, Guoqiang; Ma, Maining; Zhang, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    Geophysics is based on massive data work including data observation, data gathering/collecting, data management, and data analysis. Over the years, in China and other countries, geophysicists and geophysical institutions have accumulated a huge amount of geophysical data, built up many geophysical data banks and data centers, constructed/established many monitoring and transferring systems and infrastructures of geophysical data, and developed many advanced data analysis methods about data on...

  14. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110471 Cai Shaokun(Mechatronics and Automation College,National University of Defense Technology,Changsha 410073,China);Wu Meiping A Comparison of Digital Lowpass FIR-Filters in Airborne Gravimetry(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,34(1),2010,p.74-78,8 illus.,3 tables,14 refs.)Key words:aerogravity surveys,filtersThere is a lot of noise in the data observed by airborne gravimeter.Digital lowpass FIR-filter i

  15. Improving Skill Development: An Exploratory Study Comparing a Philosophical and an Applied Ethical Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of…

  16. Improving Skill Development: An Exploratory Study Comparing a Philosophical and an Applied Ethical Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of…

  17. Spatial analysis of oil reservoirs using DFA of geophysical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ribeiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We employ Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA technique to investigate spatial properties of an oil reservoir. This reservoir is situated at Bacia de Namorados, RJ, Brazil. The data corresponds to well logs of the following geophysical quantities: sonic, gamma ray, density, porosity and electrical resistivity, measured in 56 wells. We tested the hypothesis of constructing spatial models using data from fluctuation analysis over well logs. To verify this hypothesis we compare the matrix of distances among well logs with the differences among DFA-exponents of geophysical quantities using spatial correlation function and Mantel test. Our data analysis suggests that sonic profile is a good candidate to represent spatial structures. Then, we apply the clustering analysis technique to the sonic profile to identify these spatial patterns. In addition we use the Mantel test to search for correlation among DFA-exponents of geophysical quantities.

  18. Geophysical logging for groundwater investigations in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongpiyah Klinmanee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand the Department of Groundwater Resources is drilling to find vital aquifers. Sometimes groundwater formations cannot be identified clearly during drilling; therefore, geophysical logging was applied after drilling and before casing.The tool used here is measuring nine parameters in one run, natural gamma ray, spontaneous potential, single point resistance, normal resistivity (AM 8’’, 16’’, 32’’, and 64’’, mud temperature and resistivity. Cutting was used to support the geophysical interpretations. In many cases the groundwater bearing zones could be clearly identified. The combination of andthe possibility choosing from nine parameters measured provided the necessary data base to identify groundwater bearingzones in different environments. It has been demonstrated that in different wells different tools are favorable than others.Based on the conclusions of this study geophysical logging in groundwater exploration is recommended as a normalstandard technique that should be applied in every new well drilled.

  19. Actual extension of sinkholes: Considerations about geophysical, geomorphological, and field inspection techniques in urban planning projects in the Ebro basin (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo Anchuela, Ó.; Pocoví Juan, A.; Casas-Sainz, A. M.; Ansón-López, D.; Gil-Garbi, H.

    2013-05-01

    Aerial photographs, historical cartographies, and field inspection are useful tools in urban planning design on mantled karst because they permit a wide time interval to be analyzed. In the case of Zaragoza city, several works have confirmed the interest of these approaches in configuring the urban planning code and therefore represent a promising technique. Nevertheless, some caveats should be taken into account when using this kind of information. A detailed analysis is presented comparing (in a case study from the surroundings of Zaragoza) geomorphological, historical analysis, and field inspection with geophysical data. Field inspection in a noncultivated area permits the constraint of the presence of karst indicators below the geomorphological resolution of aerial photographs and shows results consistent with geophysical surveys. The studied case shows an inner zone coinciding with the sinkhole mapped from aerial photographs that correlates with changes in the position of the substratum and changes in thickness of alluvial sediments. The integrated analysis permits us to define an external subsidence ring around the geomorphological sinkhole whose surface is twice the size of the inner zone. This outer ring is indicated by geometrical changes in GPR profiles, increases of thickness of the conductive shallower unit toward the collapse, and small collapses on marginal cracks. These results support the higher extension of karst hazards linked to sinkholes with respect to their geomorphological expression and the needed detailed analysis to constrain the real sinkhole size or the use of security radii surrounding this surficial evidence when geomorphological data is used for the hazard analyses or the urban planning at karstic zones.

  20. Reverse Time Migration: A Seismic Imaging Technique Applied to Synthetic Ultrasonic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Müller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic echo testing is a more and more frequently used technique in civil engineering to investigate concrete building elements, to measure thickness as well as to locate and characterise built-in components or inhomogeneities. Currently the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT, which is closely related to Kirchhoff migration, is used in most cases for imaging. However, this method is known to have difficulties to image steeply dipping interfaces as well as lower boundaries of tubes, voids or similar objects. We have transferred a processing technique from geophysics, the Reverse Time Migration (RTM method, to improve the imaging of complicated geometries. By using the information from wide angle reflections as well as from multiple events there are fewer limitations compared to SAFT. As a drawback the required computing power is significantly higher compared to the techniques currently used. Synthetic experiments have been performed on polyamide and concrete specimens to show the improvements compared to SAFT. We have been able to image vertical interfaces of step-like structures as well as the lower boundaries of circular objects. It has been shown that RTM is a step forward for ultrasonic testing in civil engineering.

  1. Application of Huang-Hilbert Transforms to Geophysical Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Dean G.

    2003-01-01

    The Huang-Hilbert transform is a promising new method for analyzing nonstationary and nonlinear datasets. In this talk I will apply this technique to several important geophysical datasets. To understand the strengths and weaknesses of this method, multi- year, hourly datasets of the sea level heights and solar radiation will be analyzed. Then we will apply this transform to the analysis of gravity waves observed in a mesoscale observational net.

  2. Petroleum geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The book is compiled from a series of e-learning modules. GeoCLASS is an e-learning system with contents from petroleum geophysics. It is the result of collaboration between professors at the University of Bergen and the University of Oslo, and its material has been used as curriculum in master program courses at these universities for several years. Using a unique feature to GeoCLASS, these advanced scientific topics are presented on multiple levels. The introductions open the door to this vast pool of knowledge, accessible even for high school students. Enter the door, and you enter the modules. Various levels of content are presented, and the more advanced levels can be shielded from the regular user, and only accessed by those with particular interest. The chapters in the book are: Elastic waves; Survey planning; Seismic acquisition; Basic seismic signal theory and processing; Seismic imaging; Seismic attributes; Rock physics; Reservoir monitoring. (AG)

  3. Determination of geohydrologic framework and extent of d- water contamination using surface geophysical techniques at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Pierre

    1986-01-01

    Seismic-refraction, electric-resistivity sounding, and electromagnetic conductivity techniques were used to determine the geohydrologic framework and extent of groundwater contamination at Picatinny Arsenal in northern New Jersey. The area studied encompasses about 4 sq mi at the southern end of the Arsenal. The bedrock surface beneath the glacial sediments was delineated by seismic-refraction techniques. Data for 12 seismic lines were collected using a 12-channel engineering seismograph. Competent bedrock crops out on both sides of the valley, but is about 290 ft below land surface in the deepest part of the topographic valley. Where the exposed bedrock surface forms steep slopes on the valley side, it remains steep below the valley fill. Likewise, gentle bedrock valley slopes have gentle subsurface slopes. The deepest part of the bedrock valley is along the southern extension of the Green Pond fault. The electric-resistivity sounding technique was used to determine the sediment types. Data were collected from four sites using the offset Wenner electrode configuration. Below the surface layer, the sediments have apparent and computed resistivity values of 120 to 170 ohm-meters. These values correspond to a saturated fine-grained sediment such as silt or interbedded sand and clay. Groundwater contamination was by electromagnetic conductivity techniques using transmitting and receiving coils separated by 32.8 ft and 12 ft. Thirteen sites have apparent conductivity values exceeding 15 millimhos/m. Of these, seven sites indicate groundwater contamination from a variety of sources including a sanitary landfill, pyrotechnic testing ground, burning area, former domestic sewage field, salt storage facility, hazardous waste disposal lagoon, sewage treatment plant, and fertilizer storage shed. Three areas underlain by clay or muck are interpreted to be free of contamination. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Application of geophysical methods in the indentification of landslides; Utilizacion de tecnicas geoficas en la identificacion de deslizamiento de ladera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Gomez, A. M.; Tijera Carrion, A.; Ruiz Bravo, R.

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current paper is to highlight which geophysical methods are the most widely used in the study of landslides nowadays. The investigation of landslides is one of the fundamental activities of Geotechnics. The development of that study can be carried out by applying geophysical methods of exploration. this article summarizes a state of the art previously done in a more extensive review of geophysical techniques which are used in the characterisation of landslides. Formerly, Jongmans and Garambois (2007) had reviewed applications of the main geophysical techniques to landslide characterisation. In their article, the authors compiled documentation that had been published after 1990 until 2006. Following on that paper, this study makes a review of several articles from 2007 until recent papers (2013), throughout a quantitative analysis of the most applied geophysical methods. the research carried out has allowed not only to point out the main geophysical techniques currently applied for landslides investigation, but also to establish which are the most suitable depending on their composition (soils or rocks). As an example of the analysis carried out from the different publication reviewed, and as a case of application of geophysical techniques to the study of landslides, the study developed by the Geotechnical Laboratory CEDEX on a Landslide is presented in this article. (Author)

  5. Applying Analytical Derivative and Sparse Matrix Techniques to Large-Scale Process Optimization Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The performance of analytical derivative and sparse matrix techniques applied to a traditional densesequential quadratic programming(SQP) is studied, and the strategy utilizing those techniques is also presented. Computational results on two typicalchemical optimization problems demonstrate significant enhancement in efficiency, which shows this strategy ispromising and suitable for large-scale process optimization problems.

  6. Towards a human eye behavior model by applying Data Mining Techniques on Gaze Information from IEC

    CERN Document Server

    Pallez, Denis; Baccino, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we firstly present what is Interactive Evolutionary Computation (IEC) and rapidly how we have combined this artificial intelligence technique with an eye-tracker for visual optimization. Next, in order to correctly parameterize our application, we present results from applying data mining techniques on gaze information coming from experiments conducted on about 80 human individuals.

  7. Applying BI Techniques To Improve Decision Making And Provide Knowledge Based Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maria Ioana FLOREA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on BI techniques and especially data mining algorithms that can support and improve the decision making process, with applications within the financial sector. We consider the data mining techniques to be more efficient and thus we applied several techniques, supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms The case study in which these algorithms have been implemented regards the activity of a banking institution, with focus on the management of lending activities.

  8. Geophysical techniques in the historical center of Venice (Italy): preliminary results from HVSR and multichannel analysis of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele; Boaga, Jacopo

    2014-05-01

    This presentation aims to outline the preliminary findings related to an extensive seismic survey conducted in the historical center of Venice, Italy. The survey was conducted via noninvasive and low-cost seismic techniques based on surface waves analysis and microtremor methods, mainly using single station horizontal to vertical spectral ratio techninques (HVSR) and multichannel analysis of surface waves in passive (ReMI) and active (MASW) configurations. The importance and the fragility of the cultural heritage of Venice, coupled with its peculiar geological and geotechnical characteristics, stress the importance of a good knowledge of its geological architecture and seismic characteristics as an opportunity to improve restoration and conservation planning. Even if Venice is located in a relatively low seismic hazard zone, a local characterization of soil resonance frequencies and surficial shear waves velocities could improve the planning of engineering interventions, furnishing important information on possible local effects related to seismic amplification and possible coupling within buildings and soil resonance frequencies. In the specific we collected more than 50 HVSR single station noise measurements and several passive and active multichannel analysis of surface waves located in the historical center. In this work we report the characteristics of the conducted seismic surveys (instrumentation, sampling geometry, etc.) and the preliminary findings of our analysis. Moreover, we discuss briefly the practical issues, mainly of logistic nature, of conducting this kind of surveys in a peculiar and crowed historical center as represented by Venice urban contest. Acknowledgments Instrumentation acquired in relation to the project co-financed by Regione Veneto, POR-CRO, FESR, 2007-2013, action 1.1.1. "Supporto ad attività di ricerca, processi e reti di innovazione e alla creazione di imprese in settori a elevato contenuto tecnologico"

  9. Research on key techniques of virtual reality applied in mining industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Jun; LU Guo-bin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the applications of virtual reality technology in many fields, introduced the virtual reality technical basic concept, structure type, related technique development, etc., tallied up applications of virtual reality technique in the present mining industry, inquired into core techniques related software and hardware, especially the optimization in the setup of various 3D models technique, and carried out a virtual scene to travel extensively in real-time by stereoscopic manifestation technique and so on. Then it brought forward the solution of virtual reality technique with software and hardware to the mining industry that can satisfy the demand of different aspects and levers. Finally, it show a fine prospect of virtual reality technique applied in the mining industry.

  10. A review of integrated geophysical investigations from archaeological and cultural sites under encroaching urbanisation in İzmir, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahor, Mahmut Göktuğ

    In the new millennium, globalisation, and with it urbanisation, has been expanding as a consequence of economic development throughout the world. Urbanisation is a major social problem, not only for developing countries but also for developed countries. Urbanisation also has a major impact on archaeological sites and cultural heritages in urbanised zones. Non-destructive investigation techniques, such as geophysics, which uses remote sensing, and is non-invasive, are of great importance in urban areas. We are now capable of solving urbanisation-related problems, and these techniques reduce the cost of projects at urbanised sites. Geophysics has increased the possibilities of new applications in determining intensive urbanisation effects in earth science. Geophysics deals with numerous physical variations such as electricity, electromagnetism, magnetics, acoustics, gravity and radioactivity. There are numerous ways geophysics can be applied in archaeological and cultural heritage studies. In addition the hazard mitigation, infrastructure investigation, waste management, water supply, urban gateways and other factors are documented by geophysics. In recent years, archaeological sites under the encroachment of urbanisation have been investigated on numerous occasions using non-invasive geophysical techniques, allowing parameters such as the depth, dimension and extension of targets to be clearly determined. The term “urban geophysics” has recently been seen in various references related to geophysics and other earth science studies. This study reviews the results of geophysical investigations carried out at important archaeological sites under encroaching urbanisation in the city of İzmir, Turkey.

  11. Impact of the geological structures on the groundwater potential using geophysical techniques in West Bani Mazar area, El Minia - Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Hussein Hosni; Kotb, Adel Diab Mohammed

    2017-06-01

    water bearing layers increase with depth as a result of decreasing fracture density; and these values decreased towards the northwestern direction due to their proximity from the fault zone. The groundwater potential of these layers depends mainly on the lithologic composition and the geological structures affecting these layers. The secondary porosity of these limestone layers depends mainly on the degree of fracturing and fissuring. The proper sites to drill new productive wells were recommended, and the obtained data from drilling new well in the southeastern part of the study area coincide with the interpreted data of the different geophysical techniques.

  12. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    investigated [2]. The first objective of urban geophysics is to study systematically the geophysical fields in cities, searching for principles and processes governing the intensity and patterns of variation of the geophysical properties, as well as the potential consequences on the biosphere. Secondly, geophysics has already been found to be a useful tool for subsurface detection and investigation, hazard mitigation, and assessment of environmental contamination. Geophysicists have documented numerous cases of successful applications of geophysical techniques to solve problems related to hazard mitigation, safeguarding of lifeline infrastructure and urban gateways (air- and sea-ports, railway and highway terminals), archaeological and heritage surveys, homeland security, urban noise control, water supplies, sanitation and solid waste management etc. In contrast to conventional geophysical exploration, the undertaking of geophysical surveys in an urban setting faces many new challenges and difficulties. First of all, the ambient cultural noise in cities caused by traffic, electromagnetic radiation and electrical currents often produce undesirably strong interference with geophysical measurements. Secondly, subsurface surveys in an urban area are often targeted at the uppermost several metres of the ground, which are the most heterogeneous layers with many man-made objects. Thirdly, unlike conventional geophysical exploration which requires resolution in the order of metres, many urban geophysical surveys demand a resolution and precision in the order of centimetres or even millimetres. Finally restricted site access and limited time for conducting geophysical surveys, regulatory constraints, requirements for traffic management and special logistical arrangements impose additional difficulties. All of these factors point to the need for developing innovative research methods and geophysical instruments suitable for use in urban settings. This special issue on 'Sustainable urban

  13. Airborne electromagnetic data and processing within Leach Lake Basin, Fort Irwin, California: Chapter G in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Paul A.; Ball, Lyndsay B.; Bloss, Benjamin R.

    2014-01-01

    From December 2010 to January 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted airborne electromagnetic and magnetic surveys of Leach Lake Basin within the National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California. These data were collected to characterize the subsurface and provide information needed to understand and manage groundwater resources within Fort Irwin. A resistivity stratigraphy was developed using ground-based time-domain electromagnetic soundings together with laboratory resistivity measurements on hand samples and borehole geophysical logs from nearby basins. This report releases data associated with the airborne surveys, as well as resistivity cross-sections and depth slices derived from inversion of the airborne electromagnetic data. The resulting resistivity models confirm and add to the geologic framework, constrain the hydrostratigraphy and the depth to basement, and reveal the distribution of faults and folds within the basin.

  14. Geophysical wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaoguang

    2000-11-01

    This study is concerned with geophysical wave tomography techniques that include advanced diffraction tomography, traveltime calculation techniques and simultaneous attenuation and velocity tomography approaches. We propose the source independent approximation, the Modified Quasi-Linear approximation and develop a fast and accurate diffraction tomography algorithm that uses this approximation. Since the Modified Quasi-Linear approximation accounts for the scattering fields within scatterers, this tomography algorithm produces better image quality than conventional Born approximation tomography algorithm does with or without the presence of multiple scatterers and can be used to reconstruct images of high contrast objects. Since iteration is not required, this algorithm is efficient. We improve the finite difference traveltime calculation algorithm proposed by Vidale (1990). The bucket theory is utilized in order to enhance the sorting efficiency, which accounts for about ten percent computing time improvement for large velocity models. Snell's law is employed to solve the causality problem analytically, which enables the modified algorithm to compute traveltimes accurately and rapidly for high velocity contrast media. We also develop two simultaneous attenuation and velocity tomography approaches, which use traveltimes and amplitude spectra of the observed data, and discuss some of their applications. One approach is processing geophysical data that come from one single survey and the other deals with the repeated survey cases. These approaches are nonlinear and therefore more accurate than linear tomography. A linear system for wave propagation and constant-Q media are assumed in order to develop the tomography algorithms. These approaches not only produce attenuation and velocity images at the same time but also can be used to infer the physical rock properties, such as the dielectric permittivity, the electric conductivity, and the porosity. A crosshole radar

  15. Improving skill development: an exploratory study comparing a philosophical and an applied ethical analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-09-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of ICT students and professionals. In particular the skill development focused on includes: being able to recognise ethical challenges and formulate coherent responses; distancing oneself from subjective judgements; developing ethical literacy; identifying stakeholders; and communicating ethical decisions made, to name a few.

  16. Strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana – Julieta Josan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector.The approach of the paper is to identify the most appropriate strategies and techniques that non-profit sector can use to accomplish its objectives, to highlight specific differences between the strategies and techniques of the profit and non-profit sectors and to identify potential communication and public relations actions in order to increase visibility among target audience, create brand awareness and to change into positive brand sentiment the target perception about the non-profit sector.

  17. Field Geophysics at SAGE: Strategies for Effective Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, L. W.; Baldridge, W. S.; Jiracek, G. R.; Biehler, S.; Ferguson, J. F.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D. K.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Hasterok, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) is a unique program of education and research in geophysical field methods for undergraduate and graduate students from any university and for professionals. The core program is held for 4 weeks each summer in New Mexico and for an additional week in the following academic year in San Diego for U.S. undergraduates supported by the NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program. Since SAGE was initiated in 1983, 730 students have participated in the program. NSF REU funding for SAGE began in 1990 and 319 REU students have completed SAGE through 2011. The primary objectives of SAGE are to teach the major geophysical exploration methods (seismic, gravity, magnetics, electromagnetics); apply these methods to the solution of specific problems (environmental, archaeological, hydrologic, geologic structure and stratigraphy); gain experience in processing, modeling and interpretation of geophysical data; and integrate the geophysical models and interpretations with geology. Additional objectives of SAGE include conducting research on the Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico, and providing information on geophysics careers and professional development experiences to SAGE participants. Successful education, field and research strategies that we have implemented over the years include: 1. learn by doing; 2. mix lecture/discussion, field work, data processing and analysis, modeling and interpretation, and presentation of results; 3. a two-tier team approach - method/technique oriented teams and interpretation/integration teams (where each team includes persons representing different methods), provides focus, in-depth study, opportunity for innovation, and promotes teamwork and a multi-disciplinary approach; 4. emphasis on presentations/reports - each team (and all team members) make presentation, each student completes a written report; 5. experiment design discussion - students help design field program and consider

  18. Improving operating room efficiency by applying bin-packing and portfolio techniques to surgical case scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdenhoven, van M.; Oostrum, van J.M.; Hans, E.W.; Wullink, G.; Kazemier, G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An operating room (OR) department has adopted an efficient business model and subsequently investigated how efficiency could be further improved. The aim of this study is to show the efficiency improvement of lowering organizational barriers and applying advanced mathematical techniques.

  19. Applying a Schema for Studying the Instructive Techniques Employed by Authors of Four Novels for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Mary Susan

    The purpose of this study was to apply a schema to adolescent novels, to determine what lessons the authors teach and what techniques they employ in their teaching. A historical review of literary criticism established a background for interpreting the educational function of literature. A schema of questions based on the historical background was…

  20. Recommendations for learners are different: Applying memory-based recommender system techniques to lifelong learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2007). Recommendations for learners are different: applying memory-based recommender system techniques to lifelong learning. Paper presented at the SIRTEL workshop at the EC-TEL 2007 Conference. September, 17-20, 2007, Crete, Greece.

  1. Improving operating room efficiency by applying bin-packing and portfolio techniques to surgical case scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houdenhoven, M.; van Oostrum, J.M.; Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; Kazemier, G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An operating room (OR) department has adopted an efficient business model and subsequently investigated how efficiency could be further improved. The aim of this study is to show the efficiency improvement of lowering organizational barriers and applying advanced mathematical techniques.

  2. Applying Modern Techniques and Carrying Out English .Extracurricular—— On the Model United Nations Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuXiaoyu; WangJian

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an introduction of the extracurricular activity of the Model United Nations in Northwestern Polyteehnical University (NPU) and it focuses on the application of the modem techniques in the activity and the pedagogical theories applied in it. An interview and questionnaire research will reveal the influence of the Model United Nations.

  3. Difficulties applying recent blind source separation techniques to EEG and MEG

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Kevin H

    2015-01-01

    High temporal resolution measurements of human brain activity can be performed by recording the electric potentials on the scalp surface (electroencephalography, EEG), or by recording the magnetic fields near the surface of the head (magnetoencephalography, MEG). The analysis of the data is problematic due to the fact that multiple neural generators may be simultaneously active and the potentials and magnetic fields from these sources are superimposed on the detectors. It is highly desirable to un-mix the data into signals representing the behaviors of the original individual generators. This general problem is called blind source separation and several recent techniques utilizing maximum entropy, minimum mutual information, and maximum likelihood estimation have been applied. These techniques have had much success in separating signals such as natural sounds or speech, but appear to be ineffective when applied to EEG or MEG signals. Many of these techniques implicitly assume that the source distributions hav...

  4. Statistical Techniques Used in Three Applied Linguistics Journals: "Language Learning,""Applied Linguistics" and "TESOL Quarterly," 1980-1986: Implications for Readers and Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleni, Vicki; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    A study investigated the statistical techniques used by applied linguists and reported in three journals, "Language Learning,""Applied Linguistics," and "TESOL Quarterly," between 1980 and 1986. It was found that 47% of the published articles used statistical procedures. In these articles, 63% of the techniques used could be called basic, 28%…

  5. 西南岩溶地区不同含水介质地球物理勘查技术%The geophysical prospecting technique in different aquifer media in karst area, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武毅; 孙银行; 李凤哲

    2011-01-01

    针对西南岩溶地区表层带岩溶水、管道型岩溶水(溶洞、暗河、管道等)、构造裂隙岩溶水等不同类型地下水赋存介质特点,通过适宜的地球物理方法使用条件以及找水特点的分析,提出不同含水介质中寻找地下水地球物理勘查要解决的地质问题、拟采用的综合物探方法,分别总结出了它们的电性参数(或曲线)的响应特征,形成了不同含水介质的地球物理勘查技术组合方案.最后通过实例验证其实用性,并对在西南岩溶地区地下水地球物理勘查工作中积累的技术经验进行了总结.%In this paper, based on the characteristics of groundwater occurrence in different media such as epikarst water, pipeline karst water (caves, underground rives, pipelines, etc. ) and structural fissure karst water in Southwest China karst area, the applicability of geophysical methods and the characteristics of water detection are analyzed. And the geological problems in detecting water in different media with geophysical methods and integrated geophysical methods are put forward, and the response characteristic of electrical pa-rameters(or curve) of those methods is summarized. Then the combination program of geophysical methods in different aquifer media is established. Finally, the usefulness of the program is verified and the technique experiences of geophysical prospecting for groundwater in Southwest China karst area are acquired.

  6. Laboratory electrical resistivity analysis of geologic samples from Fort Irwin, California: Chapter E in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, Benjamin R.; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Correlating laboratory resistivity measurements with geophysical resistivity models helps constrain these models to the geology and lithology of an area. Throughout the Fort Irwin National Training Center area, 111 samples from both cored boreholes and surface outcrops were collected and processed for laboratory measurements. These samples represent various lithologic types that include plutonic and metamorphic (basement) rocks, lava flows, consolidated sedimentary rocks, and unconsolidated sedimentary deposits that formed in a series of intermountain basins. Basement rocks, lava flows, and some lithified tuffs are generally resistive (≥100 ohm-meters [Ω·m]) when saturated. Saturated unconsolidated samples are moderately conductive to conductive, with resistivities generally less than 100 Ω·m, and many of these samples are less than 50 Ω·m. The unconsolidated samples can further be separated into two broad groups: (1) younger sediments that are moderately conductive, owing to their limited clay content, and (2) older, more conductive sediments with a higher clay content that reflects substantial amounts of originally glassy volcanic ash subsequently altered to clay. The older sediments are believed to be Tertiary. Time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) data were acquired near most of the boreholes, and, on the whole, close agreements between laboratory measurements and resistivity models were found. 

  7. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  8. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  9. Some case studies of geophysical exploration of archaeological sites in Yugoslavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatina, Snezana; Timotijevic, Zoran

    1999-03-01

    One of the youngest branches of environmental geophysics application is the preservation of national heritage. Numerous digital techniques developed for exploration directed to urban planning can also be applied to investigations of historic buildings. In identifying near-surface layers containing objects of previous civilizations, various sophisticated geophysical methods are used. In the paper, application of geophysics in quantification of possible problems necessary to be carried out in order to get an archaeological map of some locality is discussed [Komatina, S., 1996]. Sophisticated geophysical methods in the preservation of national heritage. Proc. of Int. Conf. Architecture and Urbanism at the turn of the Millenium, Beograd, pp. 39-44. Finally, several examples of archaeogeophysical exploration at Divostin, Bedem and Kalenic monastery localities (Serbia, Yugoslavia) are presented.

  10. EXPLORATION BY MEANS OF GEOPHYSICAL METHODS OF GEOTHERMAL FIELDS AND CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Züheyr KAMACI

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy which is one of the reuseable energy resources, can save as much as 77 million barrels of petroleum equivalent annually when used in the production of electricity and heating-environment. Geophysical exploration methods plays in important role in the fields of geothermal exploration, development and observational studies. Thermal and geoelectrical methods are the most effective methods which shows the temperature variation anomalies and mechanical drilling places. But, when the other methods of gravity, magnetic, radiometric, well geophysics and well logs can be used in conjunction with seismic tomography, apart from the mentioned geophysical exploration method, better results could be obtained. From the above mentioned facts various case history reports are given from our country and worldwide to determine geothermal energy resources by using geophysical exploration technique application. From these results of studies a 55 °C hot water artessian aquifer is found in the Uşak-Banaz geothermal field by applying geoelectrical methods.

  11. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, P.; Vandergraft, J.; Blohm, M.; Porter, D.

    1993-08-01

    A geophysical data fusion methodology is under development to combine data from complementary geophysical sensors and incorporate geophysical understanding to obtain three dimensional images of the subsurface. The research reported here is the first phase of a three phase project. The project focuses on the characterization of thin clay lenses (aquitards) in a highly stratified sand and clay coastal geology to depths of up to 300 feet. The sensor suite used in this work includes time-domain electromagnetic induction (TDEM) and near surface seismic techniques. During this first phase of the project, enhancements to the acquisition and processing of TDEM data were studied, by use of simulated data, to assess improvements for the detection of thin clay layers. Secondly, studies were made of the use of compressional wave and shear wave seismic reflection data by using state-of-the-art high frequency vibrator technology. Finally, a newly developed processing technique, called ``data fusion,`` was implemented to process the geophysical data, and to incorporate a mathematical model of the subsurface strata. Examples are given of the results when applied to real seismic data collected at Hanford, WA, and for simulated data based on the geology of the Savannah River Site.

  12. Modelling the effects of the sterile insect technique applied to Eldana saccharina Walker in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Potgieter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is formulated for the population dynamics of an Eldana saccharina Walker infestation of sugarcane under the influence of partially sterile released insects. The model describes the population growth of and interaction between normal and sterile E.saccharina moths in a temporally variable, but spatially homogeneous environment. The model consists of a deterministic system of difference equations subject to strictly positive initial data. The primary objective of this model is to determine suitable parameters in terms of which the above population growth and interaction may be quantified and according to which E.saccharina infestation levels and the associated sugarcane damage may be measured. Although many models have been formulated in the past describing the sterile insect technique, few of these models describe the technique for Lepidopteran species with more than one life stage and where F1-sterility is relevant. In addition, none of these models consider the technique when fully sterile females and partially sterile males are being released. The model formulated is also the first to describe the technique applied specifically to E.saccharina, and to consider the economic viability of applying the technique to this species. Pertinent decision support is provided to farm managers in terms of the best timing for releases, release ratios and release frequencies.

  13. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  14. The San Marcos Pueblo Archaeological Site: A Review and Update of Ongoing Work by the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poje, M. S. L.; Berry, K.; Brandt, T. W.; Irwin, T. C.; Creighton, A.; MacLennan, K. J.; Ferguson, J. F.; Pellerin, L.

    2014-12-01

    The San Marcos Pueblo, one of the largest and most important cities of the pre-European Southwest, has long been a place of curiosity for archaeologists and geophysicists alike. Despite numerous archaeological investigations, primarily test excavations and surface surveys carried out at San Marcos from the early 1900s to the present, the site retains pottery sherds scattered along the surface from when it was first occupied in the thirteenth century to its abandonment during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. Geophysical investigations have identified locations of kivas (ceremonial pits), middens (trash heaps), room blocks and possible metallurgy activity in the area. The site is located south of Santa Fe, NM and to the east of the Cerrillos Hills, a source for lead ore and turquoise. The students of SAGE have studied the San Marcos Pueblo for the past 11 years, and produced a map of the northeastern portion of the Pueblo colloquially called 'El Mapa Grande.' Ground penetrating radar (GPR), magnetics, and electromagnetic (EM) data were acquired on 30mx30m grids and seismic refraction data on various profiles throughout El Mapa Grande. During the 2014 field season new GPR data were acquired on two grids, magnetics data on one, and multiple grids were resurveyed with magnetics and EM to enhance resolution. The most recent GPR data extend coverage of two large anomalies that are part of linear EW-trending structures previously identified and consistent with a possible block wall or midden. Low GPR scatter and circular magnetic lows define several kivas. A target area in the NE of El Mapa Grande was thought to be related to metallurgic activity. Analysis of previous seismic data did not resolve any subsurface features corresponding to a metallurgy operation, but detected the magnetically-chaotic Ancha formation. Comparison with magnetic profile data support the interpretation that this anomaly is caused by a sub-crop of the Ancha Formation.

  15. Phase-shifting technique applied to circular harmonic-based joint transform correlator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The phase-shifting technique is applied to the circular harmonic expansion-based joint transform correlator. Computer simulation has shown that the light efficiency and the discrimination capability are greatly enhanced, and the full rotation invariance is preserved after the phase-shifting technique has been used. A rotation-invariant optical pattern recognition with high discrimination capability and high light efficiency is obtained. The influence of the additive noise on the performance of the correlator is also investigated. However, the anti-noise capability of this kind of correlator still needs improving.

  16. Informing groundwater models with near-surface geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herckenrath, Daan

    of the geophysical data. The CHI-S yielded a geophysical model that could never be obtained with a separate geophysical inversion. Furthermore, we applied a CHI-S to evaluate the potential for time-lapse relative gravimetry (TL-RG) and magnetic resonance sounding (TL-MRS) to improve the estimation of aquifer...

  17. Seasonal Response and Characterization of a Scree Slope and Active Debris Flow Catchment Using Multiple Geophysical Techniques: The case of the Meretschibach Catchment, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Kerstin; Guzman, Daisy R. Lucas; Oggier, Nicole; Maurer, Hansruedi; Springman, Sarah M.

    2015-04-01

    Various types of mass movements cause extensive natural hazards in populated mountain regions. They need to be quantified, and possibly predicted, for implementing effective mitigation and protection measures. The Meretschibach catchment in the Valais area, Switzerland, is a source region for such events. Various forms of instabilities occur on the steep slopes. They manifest themselves in form of smaller rock falls and rock slides on the open scree slopes. Moreover, large sediment volumes of channelized stream deposits can evolve into debris flows, with a substantial run-out along the Meretschibach. Geophysical methods, such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) have been proven to be powerful tools for characterizing mass movements and slope instabilities. They complement other remote sensing techniques and in-situ geotechnical experiments. Ground-based and helicopter-borne GPR measurements were carried out at the Meretschibach test site, to determine the depth to the bedrock. The results indicate that the bedrock is generally shallow, ranging from a few centimetres to about 5 metres vertically below the surface. A particularly interesting aspect of the GPR investigations was the observation that bedrock depth could be resolved by both, ground-based and helicopter-borne GPR data. Ground-based GPR surveying proved to be extremely challenging on the steep slopes, and some areas were even inaccessible due to safety concerns. It is therefore encouraging for future projects that helicopter-borne GPR acquisition offers a promising alternative. The spatial distribution of the soil moisture content and the temporal variations were determined with repeated ERT measurements. The resulting tomograms allowed a conductive soil layer and more resistive bedrock to be distinguished clearly. The ERT results were in good agreement with in-situ geotechnical measurements in a nearby test pit, and the depth of the soil-bedrock interface was

  18. Integrated geophysical investigations in a fault zone located on southwestern part of İzmir city, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahor, Mahmut G.; Berge, Meriç A.

    2017-01-01

    Integrated geophysical investigations consisting of joint application of various geophysical techniques have become a major tool of active tectonic investigations. The choice of integrated techniques depends on geological features, tectonic and fault characteristics of the study area, required resolution and penetration depth of used techniques and also financial supports. Therefore, fault geometry and offsets, sediment thickness and properties, features of folded strata and tectonic characteristics of near-surface sections of the subsurface could be thoroughly determined using integrated geophysical approaches. Although Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) methods are commonly used in active tectonic investigations, other geophysical techniques will also contribute in obtaining of different properties in the complex geological environments of tectonically active sites. In this study, six different geophysical methods used to define faulting locations and characterizations around the study area. These are GPR, ERT, SRT, Very Low Frequency electromagnetic (VLF), magnetics and self-potential (SP). Overall integrated geophysical approaches used in this study gave us commonly important results about the near surface geological properties and faulting characteristics in the investigation area. After integrated interpretations of geophysical surveys, we determined an optimal trench location for paleoseismological studies. The main geological properties associated with faulting process obtained after trenching studies. In addition, geophysical results pointed out some indications concerning the active faulting mechanism in the area investigated. Consequently, the trenching studies indicate that the integrated approach of geophysical techniques applied on the fault problem reveals very useful and interpretative results in description of various properties of faulting zone in the investigation site.

  19. COLLADA Computing for Geophysical Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The COLLADATM open industry XML standard for 3D Graphics Exchange is applied for representation, combination and analysis of geophysical information from disparate...

  20. Comparison of multivariate calibration techniques applied to experimental NIR data sets

    OpenAIRE

    Centner, V; Verdu-Andres, J; Walczak, B; Jouan-Rimbaud, D; Despagne, F; Pasti, L; Poppi, R; Massart, DL; de Noord, OE

    2000-01-01

    The present study compares the performance of different multivariate calibration techniques applied to four near-infrared data sets when test samples are well within the calibration domain. Three types of problems are discussed: the nonlinear calibration, the calibration using heterogeneous data sets, and the calibration in the presence of irrelevant information in the set of predictors. Recommendations are derived from the comparison, which should help to guide a nonchemometrician through th...

  1. Influence of a laser profile in impedance mismatch techniques applied to carbon EOS measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Aliverdiev; D.Batani; R.Dezulian

    2013-01-01

    We present a recent numerical analysis of impedance mismatch technique applied to carbon equation of state measurements.We consider high-power laser pulses with a Gaussian temporal profile of different durations.We show that for the laser intensity(≈1014W/cm2)and the target design considered in this paper we need to have laser pulses with rise-time less than 150 ps.

  2. Adaptive Meshing Technique Applied to an Orthopaedic Finite Element Contact Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Roarty, Colleen M; Grosland, Nicole M.

    2004-01-01

    Finite element methods have been applied extensively and with much success in the analysis of orthopaedic implants.6,7,12,13,15 Recently a growing interest has developed, in the orthopaedic biomechanics community, in how numerical models can be constructed for the optimal solution of problems in contact mechanics. New developments in this area are of paramount importance in the design of improved implants for orthopaedic surgery. Finite element and other computational techniques are widely ap...

  3. Investigation on a Novel Capacitive Electrode for Geophysical Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpolarizable electrodes are applied widely in the electric field measurement for geophysical surveys. However, there are two major problems: (1 systematic errors caused by poor electrical contact in the high resistive terrains and (2 environmental damage associated with using nonpolarizable electrodes. A new alternative structure of capacitive electrode, which is capable of sensing surface potential through weak capacitive coupling, is presented to solve the above problems. A technique is introduced to neutralize distributed capacitance and input capacitance of the detection circuit. With the capacitance neutralization technique, the transmission coefficient of capacitive electrode remains stable when environmental conditions change. The simulation and field test results indicate that the new capacitive electrode has an operating bandwidth range from 0.1 Hz to 1 kHz. The capacitive electrodes have a good prospect of the applications in geophysical prospecting, especially in resistive terrains.

  4. Mixture experiment techniques for reducing the number of components applied for modeling waste glass sodium release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, G.; Redgate, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Statistics Group

    1997-12-01

    Statistical mixture experiment techniques were applied to a waste glass data set to investigate the effects of the glass components on Product Consistency Test (PCT) sodium release (NR) and to develop a model for PCT NR as a function of the component proportions. The mixture experiment techniques indicate that the waste glass system can be reduced from nine to four components for purposes of modeling PCT NR. Empirical mixture models containing four first-order terms and one or two second-order terms fit the data quite well, and can be used to predict the NR of any glass composition in the model domain. The mixture experiment techniques produce a better model in less time than required by another approach.

  5. Adaptive filtering for deformation parameter estimation in consideration of geometrical measurements and geophysical models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    There are two kinds of methods in researching the crust deformation: geophysical method and geometrical (or observational) method. Considerable differences usually exist between the two kinds of results, because of the datum differences, geophysical model errors, observational model errors, and so on. Thus, it is reasonable to combine the two kinds of information to collect the crust deformation information. To use the reliable geometrical and geophysical information, we have to control the observational and geophysical model error influences on the estimated deformation parameters, and to balance their contributions to the evaluated parameters. A hybrid estimation strategy is proposed here for evaluating the deformation parameters employing an adaptively robust filtering. The effects of measurement outliers on the estimated parameters are controlled by robust equivalent weights. Adaptive factors are introduced to balance the contribution of the geophysical model information and the geometrical measurements to the model parameters. The datum for the local deformation analysis is mainly determined by the highly accurate IGS station velocities. The hybrid estimation strategy is applied in an actual GPS monitoring network. It is shown that the hybrid technique employs locally repeated geometrical displacements to reduce the displacement errors caused by the mis-modeling of geophysical technique, and thus improves the precision of the estimated crust deformation parameters.

  6. Non-Seismic Geophysical Approaches to Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoversten, G.M.; Gasperikova, Erika

    2004-09-01

    This chapter considers the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration of CO2. The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, electromagnetic (EM) and streaming potential (SP) geophysical techniques as monitoring tools are examined. An example of tilt measurements illustrates another potential monitoring technique, although it has not been studied to the extent of other techniques in this chapter. This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques on two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO2 enhance oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. The second scenario is of a pilot DOE CO2 sequestration experiment scheduled for summer 2004 in the Frio Brine Formation in South Texas, USA. Numerical flow simulations of the CO2 injection process for each case were converted to geophysical models using petrophysical models developed from well log data. These coupled flow simulation geophysical models allow comparrison of the performance of monitoring techniques over time on realistic 3D models by generating simulated responses at different times during the CO2 injection process. These time-lapse measurements are used to produce time-lapse changes in geophysical measurements that can be related to the movement of CO2 within the injection interval.

  7. Wire-mesh and ultrasound techniques applied for the characterization of gas-liquid slug flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofuchi, Cesar Y.; Sieczkowski, Wytila Chagas; Neves Junior, Flavio; Arruda, Lucia V.R.; Morales, Rigoberto E.M.; Amaral, Carlos E.F.; Silva, Marco J. da [Federal University of Technology of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mails: ofuchi@utfpr.edu.br, wytila@utfpr.edu.br, neves@utfpr.edu.br, lvrarruda@utfpr.edu.br, rmorales@utfpr.edu.br, camaral@utfpr.edu.br, mdasilva@utfpr.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    Gas-liquid two-phase flows are found in a broad range of industrial applications, such as chemical, petrochemical and nuclear industries and quite often determine the efficiency and safety of process and plants. Several experimental techniques have been proposed and applied to measure and quantify two-phase flows so far. In this experimental study the wire-mesh sensor and an ultrasound technique are used and comparatively evaluated to study two-phase slug flows in horizontal pipes. The wire-mesh is an imaging technique and thus appropriated for scientific studies while ultrasound-based technique is robust and non-intrusive and hence well suited for industrial applications. Based on the measured raw data it is possible to extract some specific slug flow parameters of interest such as mean void fraction and characteristic frequency. The experiments were performed in the Thermal Sciences Laboratory (LACIT) at UTFPR, Brazil, in which an experimental two-phase flow loop is available. The experimental flow loop comprises a horizontal acrylic pipe of 26 mm diameter and 9 m length. Water and air were used to produce the two phase flow under controlled conditions. The results show good agreement between the techniques. (author)

  8. Wire-mesh and ultrasound techniques applied for the characterization of gas-liquid slug flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofuchi, Cesar Y.; Sieczkowski, Wytila Chagas; Neves Junior, Flavio; Arruda, Lucia V.R.; Morales, Rigoberto E.M.; Amaral, Carlos E.F.; Silva, Marco J. da [Federal University of Technology of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mails: ofuchi@utfpr.edu.br, wytila@utfpr.edu.br, neves@utfpr.edu.br, lvrarruda@utfpr.edu.br, rmorales@utfpr.edu.br, camaral@utfpr.edu.br, mdasilva@utfpr.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    Gas-liquid two-phase flows are found in a broad range of industrial applications, such as chemical, petrochemical and nuclear industries and quite often determine the efficiency and safety of process and plants. Several experimental techniques have been proposed and applied to measure and quantify two-phase flows so far. In this experimental study the wire-mesh sensor and an ultrasound technique are used and comparatively evaluated to study two-phase slug flows in horizontal pipes. The wire-mesh is an imaging technique and thus appropriated for scientific studies while ultrasound-based technique is robust and non-intrusive and hence well suited for industrial applications. Based on the measured raw data it is possible to extract some specific slug flow parameters of interest such as mean void fraction and characteristic frequency. The experiments were performed in the Thermal Sciences Laboratory (LACIT) at UTFPR, Brazil, in which an experimental two-phase flow loop is available. The experimental flow loop comprises a horizontal acrylic pipe of 26 mm diameter and 9 m length. Water and air were used to produce the two phase flow under controlled conditions. The results show good agreement between the techniques. (author)

  9. Hydrogeological-Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Site Characterization - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Yoram

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to increase water savings and show better ecological control of natural vegetation by developing hydrogeological-geophysical methods for characterizing the permeability and content of water in soil. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) tool was developed and used as the surface geophysical method for monitoring water content. Initial results using the tool suggest that surface GPR is a viable technique for obtaining precision volumetric water content profile estimates, and that laboratory-derived petrophysical relationships could be applied to field-scale GPR data. A field-scale bacterial transport study was conducted within an uncontaminated sandy Pleistocene aquifer to evaluate the importance of heterogeneity in controlling the transport of bacteria. Geochemical, hydrological, geological, and geophysical data were collected to characterize the site prior to and after chemical and bacterial injection experiments. Study results shows that, even within the fairly uniform shallow marine deposits of the narrow channel focus area, heterogeneity existed that influenced the chemical tracer transport over lateral distances of a few meters and vertical distances of less than a half meter. The interpretation of data suggest that the incorporation of geophysical data with limited hydrological data may provide valuable information about the stratigraphy, log conductivity values, and the spatial correlation structure of log conductivity, which have traditionally been obtainable only by performing extensive and intrusive hydrological sampling.

  10. Wavelets, Curvelets and Multiresolution Analysis Techniques Applied to Implosion Symmetry Characterization of ICF Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Afeyan, Bedros; Starck, Jean Luc; Cuneo, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We introduce wavelets, curvelets and multiresolution analysis techniques to assess the symmetry of X ray driven imploding shells in ICF targets. After denoising X ray backlighting produced images, we determine the Shell Thickness Averaged Radius (STAR) of maximum density, r*(N, {\\theta}), where N is the percentage of the shell thickness over which to average. The non-uniformities of r*(N, {\\theta}) are quantified by a Legendre polynomial decomposition in angle, {\\theta}. Undecimated wavelet decompositions outperform decimated ones in denoising and both are surpassed by the curvelet transform. In each case, hard thresholding based on noise modeling is used. We have also applied combined wavelet and curvelet filter techniques with variational minimization as a way to select the significant coefficients. Gains are minimal over curvelets alone in the images we have analyzed.

  11. Software engineering techniques applied to agricultural systems an object-oriented and UML approach

    CERN Document Server

    Papajorgji, Petraq J

    2014-01-01

    Software Engineering Techniques Applied to Agricultural Systems presents cutting-edge software engineering techniques for designing and implementing better agricultural software systems based on the object-oriented paradigm and the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The focus is on the presentation of  rigorous step-by-step approaches for modeling flexible agricultural and environmental systems, starting with a conceptual diagram representing elements of the system and their relationships. Furthermore, diagrams such as sequential and collaboration diagrams are used to explain the dynamic and static aspects of the software system.    This second edition includes: a new chapter on Object Constraint Language (OCL), a new section dedicated to the Model-VIEW-Controller (MVC) design pattern, new chapters presenting details of two MDA-based tools – the Virtual Enterprise and Olivia Nova, and a new chapter with exercises on conceptual modeling.  It may be highly useful to undergraduate and graduate students as t...

  12. Applied methods and techniques for mechatronic systems modelling, identification and control

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Quanmin; Cheng, Lei; Wang, Yongji; Zhao, Dongya

    2014-01-01

    Applied Methods and Techniques for Mechatronic Systems brings together the relevant studies in mechatronic systems with the latest research from interdisciplinary theoretical studies, computational algorithm development and exemplary applications. Readers can easily tailor the techniques in this book to accommodate their ad hoc applications. The clear structure of each paper, background - motivation - quantitative development (equations) - case studies/illustration/tutorial (curve, table, etc.) is also helpful. It is mainly aimed at graduate students, professors and academic researchers in related fields, but it will also be helpful to engineers and scientists from industry. Lei Liu is a lecturer at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), China; Quanmin Zhu is a professor at University of the West of England, UK; Lei Cheng is an associate professor at Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China; Yongji Wang is a professor at HUST; Dongya Zhao is an associate professor at China University o...

  13. Mathematical Model and Artificial Intelligent Techniques Applied to a Milk Industry through DSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, P. Ravi; Divya, V. P. Sree

    2011-08-01

    The resources for electrical energy are depleting and hence the gap between the supply and the demand is continuously increasing. Under such circumstances, the option left is optimal utilization of available energy resources. The main objective of this chapter is to discuss about the Peak load management and overcome the problems associated with it in processing industries such as Milk industry with the help of DSM techniques. The chapter presents a generalized mathematical model for minimizing the total operating cost of the industry subject to the constraints. The work presented in this chapter also deals with the results of application of Neural Network, Fuzzy Logic and Demand Side Management (DSM) techniques applied to a medium scale milk industrial consumer in India to achieve the improvement in load factor, reduction in Maximum Demand (MD) and also the consumer gets saving in the energy bill.

  14. Applying Data Mining Techniques to Improve Information Security in the Cloud: A Single Cache System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany AlShawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the popularity of cloud computing is gradually increasing day by day. The purpose of this research was to enhance the security of the cloud using techniques such as data mining with specific reference to the single cache system. From the findings of the research, it was observed that the security in the cloud could be enhanced with the single cache system. For future purposes, an Apriori algorithm can be applied to the single cache system. This can be applied by all cloud providers, vendors, data distributors, and others. Further, data objects entered into the single cache system can be extended into 12 components. Database and SPSS modelers can be used to implement the same.

  15. Applying traditional signal processing techniques to social media exploitation for situational understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelzaher, Tarek; Roy, Heather; Wang, Shiguang; Giridhar, Prasanna; Al Amin, Md. Tanvir; Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Kolodny, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Signal processing techniques such as filtering, detection, estimation and frequency domain analysis have long been applied to extract information from noisy sensor data. This paper describes the exploitation of these signal processing techniques to extract information from social networks, such as Twitter and Instagram. Specifically, we view social networks as noisy sensors that report events in the physical world. We then present a data processing stack for detection, localization, tracking, and veracity analysis of reported events using social network data. We show using a controlled experiment that the behavior of social sources as information relays varies dramatically depending on context. In benign contexts, there is general agreement on events, whereas in conflict scenarios, a significant amount of collective filtering is introduced by conflicted groups, creating a large data distortion. We describe signal processing techniques that mitigate such distortion, resulting in meaningful approximations of actual ground truth, given noisy reported observations. Finally, we briefly present an implementation of the aforementioned social network data processing stack in a sensor network analysis toolkit, called Apollo. Experiences with Apollo show that our techniques are successful at identifying and tracking credible events in the physical world.

  16. Effectiveness of applying progressive muscle relaxation technique on quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, Somayeh; Ahmadi, Fazlolah; Nabavi, Masoud; Anoshirvan, Kazemnejad; Memarian, Robabe; Rafatbakhsh, Mohamad

    2009-08-01

    To identify the effects of applying Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique on Quality of Life of patients with multiple Sclerosis. In view of the growing caring options in Multiple Sclerosis, improvement of quality of life has become increasingly relevant as a caring intervention. Complementary therapies are widely used by multiple sclerosis patients and Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique is a form of complementary therapies. Quasi-experimental study. Multiple Sclerosis patients (n = 66) were selected with no probability sampling then assigned to experimental and control groups (33 patients in each group). Means of data collection included: Individual Information Questionnaire, SF-8 Health Survey, Self-reported checklist. PMRT performed for 63 sessions by experimental group during two months but no intervention was done for control group. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software. Student t-test showed that there was no significant difference between two groups in mean scores of health-related quality of life before the study but this test showed a significant difference between two groups, one and two months after intervention (p Relaxation Technique on quality of life of multiple sclerosis patients, further research is required to determine better methods to promote quality of life of patients suffer multiple sclerosis and other chronic disease. Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique is practically feasible and is associated with increase of life quality of multiple sclerosis patients; so that health professionals need to update their knowledge about complementary therapies.

  17. Evaluation of hippocampal volume based on MRI applying manual and automatic segmentation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doring, Thomas M.; Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Kubo, Tadeu T.A.; Domingues, Romeu C. [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Various segmentation techniques using MR sequences, including manual and automatic protocols, have been developed to optimize the determination of the hippocampal volume. For clinical application, automated methods with high reproducibility and accuracy potentially may be more efficient than manual volumetry. This study aims to compare the hippocampal volumes obtained from manual and automatic segmentation methods (FreeSurfer and FSL). The automatic segmentation method FreeSurfer showed high correlation. Comparing the absolute hippocampal volumes, there is an overestimation by the automated methods. Applying a correction factor to the automatic method, it may be an alternative for the estimation of the absolute hippocampal volume. (author)

  18. Geophysical Well Logs Applied to Geothermal Resource Evaluation Application des diagraphies à l'évaluation des ressources géothermiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fertl W. H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Well logging in the petroleum industry has been developed over five decades into a mature industry, whereas geothermal well logging is a relatively new enterprise. Fundamental differences also occur in the geologic environments and key objectives of both logging applications. Geothermal reservoirs are frequently in fractured igneous and metamorphic rocks, which contain hot water or stem at temperature exceeding 150°C. The discussion focuses on present day logging technology, geologic and reservoir engineering objectives, and qualitive and quantitative formation interpretation techniques for geothermal resource evaluation. Specific field case studies illustrate the interpretive state-of-the-art, including examples from the Geysers dry steam field in the Imperial Valley of California, hot water fields in California, Nevada, and Idaho, and the LASL Hot Dry Rock test project in the Valles Caldera of New Mexico. Les diagraphies dans les forages pétroliers ont atteint leur maturité, alors que le contrôle diagraphique des sondages géothermiques est une entreprise relativement nouvelle. Des différences fondamentales apparaissent aussi dans les environnements géologiques et dans les objectifs clés des deux types d'applications des diagraphies. Les réservoirs géothermiques se situent souvent dans les roches ignées ou métamorphiques fracturées qui contiennent de l'eau chaude ou de la vapeur à des températures dépassant 150 °C. L'exposé sera concentré sur les techniques actuelles d'enregistrements, les objectifs géologiques et liés à l'exploitation des réserves et sur les techniques qualitatives et quantitatives d'interprétation des formations pour l'évaluation des ressources géothermiques. Quelques cas particuliers illustrent l'état actuel des techniques d'interprétation avec des exemples pris dans le champ de vapeur sèche des geysers dans Imperial Valley de Californie, des champs d'eau chaude en Californie, Nevada et Idaho et

  19. Geophysical interpretation using integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Eskola, L

    1992-01-01

    Along with the general development of numerical methods in pure and applied to apply integral equations to geophysical modelling has sciences, the ability improved considerably within the last thirty years or so. This is due to the successful derivation of integral equations that are applicable to the modelling of complex structures, and efficient numerical algorithms for their solution. A significant stimulus for this development has been the advent of fast digital computers. The purpose of this book is to give an idea of the principles by which boundary-value problems describing geophysical models can be converted into integral equations. The end results are the integral formulas and integral equations that form the theoretical framework for practical applications. The details of mathematical analysis have been kept to a minimum. Numerical algorithms are discussed only in connection with some illustrative examples involving well-documented numerical modelling results. The reader is assu­ med to have a back...

  20. Advances in geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    The critically acclaimed serialized review journal for over 50 years, Advances in Geophysics is a highly respected publication in the field of geophysics. Since 1952, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. Now in its 54th volume, it contains much material still relevant today--truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of geophysics.Key features: * Contributions from leading authorities * Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

  1. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homuth, Emil F.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  2. Advances in geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Haruo

    2012-01-01

    The critically acclaimed serialized review journal for over 50 years, Advances in Geophysics is a highly respected publication in the field of geophysics. Since 1952, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. Now in its 52nd volume, it contains much material still relevant today--truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of geophysics.Key features: * Contributions from leading authorities * Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

  3. Waterberg coalfield airborne geophysics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Geophysics Project Number: 1.5.5 Sub Committee: Geology and Geophysics Presenter: Dr. Stoffel Fourie Co-Workers: Dr. George Henry & Me. Leonie Marè Collaborators: Coaltech & CSIR Project Objectives Major Objectives: circle5 Initiate Semi...-Regional Exploration of the Waterberg Coalfield to the benefit of the Industry. circle5 Generate a good quality Airborne Geophysical Dataset. circle5 Generate a basic lineament and surface geology interpretation of the Ellisras Basin. circle5 Generate a basic...

  4. Serious games for Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Valerio; Rubbia, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    Childhood stage is indispensable in the education of human beings and especially critical to arise scientific interest in children. We discuss the participatory design of a didactic videogame, i.e. a "serious" game to teach geophysics and Earth sciences to high and low-school students. Geophysics is the application of the laws and techniques of physics to uncover knowledge about the earth's dynamic processes and subsurface structure. It explores phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis to improve our understanding of the earth's physical processes and our ability to predict reoccurrences. Effective mitigation of risks from catastrophic geologic hazards requires knowledge and understanding of local geology and geologic processes. Scientific outreach can be defined as discourse activity, whose main objective is to communicate some knowledge previously produced in scientific contexts to a non-expert massive audience. One of the difficulties science educators need to overcome is to explain specific concepts from a given discipline in a language simple and understandable for their audience. Digital games today play a large role in young people's lives. Games are directly connected to the life of today's adolescents. Therefore, digital games should be included and broached as a subject in the classroom. The ardor and enthusiasm that digital games evoke in teenagers has indeed brought many researchers, school leaders and teachers to the question "how video games" can be used to engage young people and support their learning inside the classroom. Additionally, studies have shown that digital games can enhance various skills such as the ability to concentrate, stamina, tactical aptness, anticipatory thinking, orientation in virtual spaces, and deductive reasoning. Thus, videogames become an effective didactic mechanism and should have a place in the classroom. The project aims to explore the potentials of entertainment technologies in educational processes

  5. Geophysical Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geophysical Research Facility (GRF) is a 60 ft long qaodmasdkwaspemas5ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdfls 22 ft wide qaodmasdkwaspemas4ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdfls 7 ft deep concrete...

  6. Geotechnical applications of geophysics in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatherly, P. [CMTE/CSIRO Exploration and Mining, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    In coal mining, geophysical techniques have an established application in determining the location of seam boundaries ahead of the face so that underground mines can be planned to avoid any geological structures that might disrupt production. Geophysics can also be used in geotechnical studies to determine the in situ properties of the rock mass and the response of the rock mass to the mining. The use of geophysical logs and microseismic monitoring in these geotechnical applications are discussed in this paper. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Geophysical examination of coal deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. J.

    1981-04-01

    Geophysical techniques for the solution of mining problems and as an aid to mine planning are reviewed. Techniques of geophysical borehole logging are discussed. The responses of the coal seams to logging tools are easily recognized on the logging records. Cores for laboratory analysis are cut from selected sections of the borehole. In addition, information about the density and chemical composition of the coal may be obtained. Surface seismic reflection surveys using two dimensional arrays of seismic sources and detectors detect faults with throws as small as 3 m depths of 800 m. In geologically disturbed areas, good results have been obtained from three dimensional surveys. Smaller faults as far as 500 m in advance of the working face may be detected using in seam seismic surveying conducted from a roadway or working face. Small disturbances are detected by pulse radar and continuous wave electromagnetic methods either from within boreholes or from underground. Other geophysical techniques which explicit the electrical, magnetic, gravitational, and geothermal properties of rocks are described.

  8. Geophysical characterization of buried active faults: the Concud Fault (Iberian Chain, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo Anchuela, Óscar; Lafuente, Paloma; Arlegui, Luis; Liesa, Carlos L.; Simón, José L.

    2016-11-01

    The Concud Fault is a 14-km-long active fault that extends close to Teruel, a city with about 35,000 inhabitants in the Iberian Range (NE Spain). It shows evidence of recurrent activity during Late Pleistocene time, posing a significant seismic hazard in an area of moderate-to-low tectonic rates. A geophysical survey was carried out along the mapped trace of the southern branch of the Concud Fault to evaluate the geophysical signature from the fault and the location of paleoseismic trenches. The survey identified a lineation of inverse magnetic dipoles at residual and vertical magnetic gradient, a local increase in apparent conductivity, and interruptions of the underground sediment structure along GPR profiles. The origin of these anomalies is due to lateral contrast between both fault blocks and the geophysical signature of Quaternary materials located above and directly south of the fault. The spatial distribution of anomalies was successfully used to locate suitable trench sites and to map non-exposed segments of the fault. The geophysical anomalies are related to the sedimentological characteristics and permeability differences of the deposits and to deformation related to fault activity. The results illustrate the usefulness of geophysics to detect and map non-exposed faults in areas of moderate-to-low tectonic activity where faults are often covered by recent pediments that obscure geological evidence of the most recent earthquakes. The results also highlight the importance of applying multiple geophysical techniques in defining the location of buried faults.

  9. Micropillar compression technique applied to micron-scale mudstone elasto-plastic deformation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, Joseph Richard; Chidsey, Thomas (Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT); Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Boyce, Brad Lee; Buchheit, Thomas Edward

    2010-12-01

    Mudstone mechanical testing is often limited by poor core recovery and sample size, preservation and preparation issues, which can lead to sampling bias, damage, and time-dependent effects. A micropillar compression technique, originally developed by Uchic et al. 2004, here is applied to elasto-plastic deformation of small volumes of mudstone, in the range of cubic microns. This study examines behavior of the Gothic shale, the basal unit of the Ismay zone of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation and potential shale gas play in southeastern Utah, USA. Precision manufacture of micropillars 5 microns in diameter and 10 microns in length are prepared using an ion-milling method. Characterization of samples is carried out using: dual focused ion - scanning electron beam imaging of nano-scaled pores and distribution of matrix clay and quartz, as well as pore-filling organics; laser scanning confocal (LSCM) 3D imaging of natural fractures; and gas permeability, among other techniques. Compression testing of micropillars under load control is performed using two different nanoindenter techniques. Deformation of 0.5 cm in diameter by 1 cm in length cores is carried out and visualized by a microscope loading stage and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Axisymmetric multistage compression testing and multi-stress path testing is carried out using 2.54 cm plugs. Discussion of results addresses size of representative elementary volumes applicable to continuum-scale mudstone deformation, anisotropy, and size-scale plasticity effects. Other issues include fabrication-induced damage, alignment, and influence of substrate.

  10. Downscaling Statistical Model Techniques for Climate Change Analysis Applied to the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon is an area covered predominantly by dense tropical rainforest with relatively small inclusions of several other types of vegetation. In the last decades, scientific research has suggested a strong link between the health of the Amazon and the integrity of the global climate: tropical forests and woodlands (e.g., savannas exchange vast amounts of water and energy with the atmosphere and are thought to be important in controlling local and regional climates. Consider the importance of the Amazon biome to the global climate changes impacts and the role of the protected area in the conservation of biodiversity and state-of-art of downscaling model techniques based on ANN Calibrate and run a downscaling model technique based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN that is applied to the Amazon region in order to obtain regional and local climate predicted data (e.g., precipitation. Considering the importance of the Amazon biome to the global climate changes impacts and the state-of-art of downscaling techniques for climate models, the shower of this work is presented as follows: the use of ANNs good similarity with the observation in the cities of Belém and Manaus, with correlations of approximately 88.9% and 91.3%, respectively, and spatial distribution, especially in the correction process, representing a good fit.

  11. Optical coherence tomography: a non-invasive technique applied to conservation of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Haida; Gomez Cid, Marta; Cucu, Radu; Dobre, George; Kudimov, Boris; Pedro, Justin; Saunders, David; Cupitt, John; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2005-06-01

    It is current practice to take tiny samples from a painting to mount and examine in cross-section under a microscope. However, since conservation practice and ethics limit sampling to a minimum and to areas along cracks and edges of paintings, which are often unrepresentative of the whole painting, results from such analyses cannot be taken as representative of a painting as a whole. Recently in a preliminary study, we have demonstrated that near-infrared Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) can be used directly on paintings to examine the cross-section of paint and varnish layers without contact and the need to take samples. OCT is an optical interferometric technique developed for in vivo imaging of the eye and biological tissues; it is essentially a scanning Michelson's interferometer with a "broad-band" source that has the spatial coherence of a laser. The low temporal coherence and high spatial concentration of the source are the keys to high depth resolution and high sensitivity 3D imaging. The technique is non-invasive and non-contact with a typical working distance of 2 cm. This non-invasive technique enables cross-sections to be examined anywhere on a painting. In this paper, we will report new results on applying near-infrared en-face OCT to paintings conservation and extend the application to the examination of underdrawings, drying processes, and quantitative measurements of optical properties of paint and varnish layers.

  12. Improving operating room efficiency by applying bin-packing and portfolio techniques to surgical case scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houdenhoven, Mark; van Oostrum, Jeroen M; Hans, Erwin W; Wullink, Gerhard; Kazemier, Geert

    2007-09-01

    An operating room (OR) department has adopted an efficient business model and subsequently investigated how efficiency could be further improved. The aim of this study is to show the efficiency improvement of lowering organizational barriers and applying advanced mathematical techniques. We applied advanced mathematical algorithms in combination with scenarios that model relaxation of various organizational barriers using prospectively collected data. The setting is the main inpatient OR department of a university hospital, which sets its surgical case schedules 2 wk in advance using a block planning method. The main outcome measures are the number of freed OR blocks and OR utilization. Lowering organizational barriers and applying mathematical algorithms can yield a 4.5% point increase in OR utilization (95% confidence interval 4.0%-5.0%). This is obtained by reducing the total required OR time. Efficient OR departments can further improve their efficiency. The paper shows that a radical cultural change that comprises the use of mathematical algorithms and lowering organizational barriers improves OR utilization.

  13. EDITORIAL: Integrated non-invasive sensing techniques and geophysical methods for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage Integrated non-invasive sensing techniques and geophysical methods for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, N.; Soldovieri, F.

    2011-09-01

    In the last two decades, the use of non-invasive methods for the study and conservation of cultural heritage, from artefacts and historical sites to recent architectural structures, has gained increasing interest. This is due to several reasons: (i) the improvement of performance and information resolution of sensors and devices; (ii) the increasing availability of user-friendly data/image analysis, and processing software and routines; (iii) the ever greater awareness of archaeologists and conservators of the benefits of these technologies, in terms of reduction of costs, time and the risk associated with direct and destructive investigations of archaeological sites (excavation) and monuments (i.e. masonry coring). The choice of diagnostic strategy depends on the spatial and physical characteristics of the cultural objects or sites, the aim of the investigation (knowledge, conservation, restoration) and the issues to be addressed (monitoring, decay assessment, etc). This makes the set up and validation of ad hoc procedures based on data processing and post-processing methods necessary, generally developed to address issues in other fields of application. This methodological perspective based on an integrated and multi-scale approach characterizes the papers of this special issue, which is focused on integrated non-invasive sensing techniques and geophysical methods for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage. In particular, attention is given to the advanced application of the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) from the satellite-based platform for deformation monitoring thanks to the innovative differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) technique; Zeni et al show the significant possibilities of the proposed methodology in achieving a global vision not only of cultural heritage but also of the embedding territory. This collection also deals with the application of non-invasive diagnostics to archaeological prospecting, and

  14. Strategy for applying scaling technique to water retention curves of forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Y.; Kosugi, K.; Mizuyama, T.

    2009-12-01

    Describing the infiltration of water in soils on a forested hillslope requires the information of spatial variability of water retention curve (WRC). By using a scaling technique, Hayashi et al. (2009), found that the porosity mostly characterizes the spatial variability of the WRCs on a forested hillslope. This scaling technique was based on a model, which assumes a lognormal pore size distribution and contains three parameters: the median of log-transformed pore radius, ψm, the variance of log-transformed pore radius, σ, and the effective porosity, θe. Thus, in the scaling method proposed by Hayashi et al. (2009), θe is a scaling factor, which should be determined for each individual soil, and that ψm and σ are reference parameter common for the whole data set. They examined this scaling method using θe calculated as a difference between the observed saturated water content and water content observed at ψ = -1000 cm for each sample and, ψm and σ derived from the whole data set of WRCs on the slope. Then it was showed that this scaling method could explain almost 90 % of the spatial variability in WRCs on the forested hillslope. However, this method requires the whole data set of WRCs for deriving the reference parameters (ψm and σ). For applying the scaling technique more practically, in this study, we tested a scaling method using the reference parameter derived from the WRCs at a small part of the slope. In order to examine the proposed scaling method, the WRCs for the 246 undisturbed forest soil samples, collected at 15 points distributed from downslope to upslope segments, were observed. In the proposed scaling method, we optimized the common ψm and σ to the WRCs for six soil samples, collected at one point on the middle-slope, and applied these parameters to a reference parameter for the whole data sets. The scaling method proposed by this study exhibited an increase of only 6 % in the residual sum of squares as compared with that of the method

  15. New Region Growing based on Thresholding Technique Applied to MRI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afifi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an optimal region growing threshold for the segmentation of magnetic resonance images (MRIs. The proposed algorithm combines local search procedure with thresholding region growing to achieve better generic seeds and optimal thresholds for region growing method. A procedure is used to detect the best possible seeds from a set of data distributed all over the image as a high accumulator of the histogram. The output seeds are fed to the local search algorithm to extract the best seeds around initial seeds. Optimal thresholds are used to overcome the limitations of region growing algorithm and to select the pixels sequentially in a random walk starting at the seed point. The proposed algorithm works automatically without any predefined parameters. The proposed algorithm is applied to the challenging application "gray matter/white matter" segmentation datasets. The experimental results compared with other segmentation techniques show that the proposed algorithm produces more accurate and stable results.

  16. Operations research techniques applied to service center logistics in power distribution users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresinha Arns Steiner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the optimization for the logistics regarding services demanded byusers of power distribution lines, served by the Portão office, located in Curitiba, PR, Brazil,and operated by COPEL (Paranaense Power Company. Through the use of OperationsResearch techniques, an Integer Programming Mathematical model and Floyd Algorithm, amethod was defined to determine in an optimized way, the number of teams needed by theselected office, as well as, the optimized assignment for the teams to the sites in need, inorder to offer efficient services to the users and, besides that, the immediate execution onemergencies and, as to the other services, accordingly to parameters set by the NationalPower Agency together with COPEL. The methodology hereby presented is generic, so thatit could be applied to any power network (or any of its lines, and it has presented verysatisfactory results to the case in analysis.

  17. Removal of benzaldehyde from a water/ethanol mixture by applying scavenging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitic, Aleksandar; Skov, Thomas; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2017-01-01

    derivatization agents as the scavengers. Discovery chemistry is performed in the beginning as a screening procedure, followed by the process design of a small-scale continuous process for benzaldehyde removal with in-line real-time monitoring. Applications of tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (TRIS) are found......A presence of carbonyl compounds is very common in the food industry. The nature of such compounds is to be reactive and thus many products involve aldehydes/ketones in their synthetic routes. By contrast, the high reactivity of carbonyl compounds could also lead to formation of undesired compounds......, such as genotoxic impurities. It can therefore be important to remove carbonyl compounds by implementing suitable removal techniques, with the aim of protecting final product quality. This work is focused on benzaldehyde as a model component, studying its removal from a water/ethanol mixture by applying different...

  18. Solar coronal magnetic fields derived using seismology techniques applied to omnipresent sunspot waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jess, D B; Ryans, R S I; Christian, D J; Keys, P H; Mathioudakis, M; Mackay, D H; Prasad, S Krishna; Banerjee, D; Grant, S D T; Yau, S; Diamond, C

    2016-01-01

    Sunspots on the surface of the Sun are the observational signatures of intense manifestations of tightly packed magnetic field lines, with near-vertical field strengths exceeding 6,000 G in extreme cases. It is well accepted that both the plasma density and the magnitude of the magnetic field strength decrease rapidly away from the solar surface, making high-cadence coronal measurements through traditional Zeeman and Hanle effects difficult since the observational signatures are fraught with low-amplitude signals that can become swamped with instrumental noise. Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) techniques have previously been applied to coronal structures, with single and spatially isolated magnetic field strengths estimated as 9-55 G. A drawback with previous MHD approaches is that they rely on particular wave modes alongside the detectability of harmonic overtones. Here we show, for the first time, how omnipresent magneto-acoustic waves, originating from within the underlying sunspot and propagating radially outwa...

  19. A systematic review of applying modern software engineering techniques to developing robotic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pons

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Robots have become collaborators in our daily life. While robotic systems become more and more complex, the need to engineer their software development grows as well. The traditional approaches used in developing these software systems are reaching their limits; currently used methodologies and tools fall short of addressing the needs of such complex software development. Separating robotics’ knowledge from short-cycled implementation technologies is essential to foster reuse and maintenance. This paper presents a systematic review (SLR of the current use of modern software engineering techniques for developing robotic software systems and their actual automation level. The survey was aimed at summarizing existing evidence concerning applying such technologies to the field of robotic systems to identify any gaps in current research to suggest areas for further investigation and provide a background for positioning new research activities.

  20. Electron Correlation Microscopy: A New Technique for Studying Local Atom Dynamics Applied to a Supercooled Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Zhang, Pei; Besser, Matthew F; Kramer, Matthew Joseph; Voyles, Paul M

    2015-08-01

    Electron correlation microscopy (ECM) is a new technique that utilizes time-resolved coherent electron nanodiffraction to study dynamic atomic rearrangements in materials. It is the electron scattering equivalent of photon correlation spectroscopy with the added advantage of nanometer-scale spatial resolution. We have applied ECM to a Pd40Ni40P20 metallic glass, heated inside a scanning transmission electron microscope into a supercooled liquid to measure the structural relaxation time τ between the glass transition temperature T g and the crystallization temperature, T x . τ determined from the mean diffraction intensity autocorrelation function g 2(t) decreases with temperature following an Arrhenius relationship between T g and T g +25 K, and then increases as temperature approaches T x . The distribution of τ determined from the g 2(t) of single speckles is broad and changes significantly with temperature.

  1. How Can Synchrotron Radiation Techniques Be Applied for Detecting Microstructures in Amorphous Alloys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Qing Guo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, how synchrotron radiation techniques can be applied for detecting the microstructure in metallic glass (MG is studied. The unit cells are the basic structural units in crystals, though it has been suggested that the co-existence of various clusters may be the universal structural feature in MG. Therefore, it is a challenge to detect microstructures of MG even at the short-range scale by directly using synchrotron radiation techniques, such as X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption methods. Here, a feasible scheme is developed where some state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation-based experiments can be combined with simulations to investigate the microstructure in MG. By studying a typical MG composition (Zr70Pd30, it is found that various clusters do co-exist in its microstructure, and icosahedral-like clusters are the popular structural units. This is the structural origin where there is precipitation of an icosahedral quasicrystalline phase prior to phase transformation from glass to crystal when heating Zr70Pd30 MG.

  2. VIDEOGRAMMETRIC RECONSTRUCTION APPLIED TO VOLCANOLOGY: PERSPECTIVES FOR A NEW MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE IN VOLCANO MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Cecchi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with videogrammetric reconstruction of volcanic structures. As a first step, the method is tested in laboratory. The objective is to reconstruct small sand and plaster cones, analogous to volcanoes, that deform with time. The initial stage consists in modelling the sensor (internal parameters and calculating its orientation and position in space, using a multi-view calibration method. In practice two sets of views are taken: a first one around a calibration target and a second one around the studied object. Both sets are combined in the calibration software to simultaneously compute the internal parameters modelling the sensor, and the external parameters giving the spatial location of each view around the cone. Following this first stage, a N-view reconstruction process is carried out. The principle is as follows: an initial 3D model of the cone is created and then iteratively deformed to fit the real object. The deformation of the meshed model is based on a texture coherence criterion. At present, this reconstruction method and its precision are being validated at laboratory scale. The objective will be then to follow analogue model deformation with time using successive reconstructions. In the future, the method will be applied to real volcanic structures. Modifications of the initial code will certainly be required, however excellent reconstruction accuracy, valuable simplicity and flexibility of the technique are expected, compared to classic stereophotogrammetric techniques used in volcanology.

  3. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, S.P., E-mail: s.p.jeffs@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Lancaster, R.J. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Garcia, T.E. [IUTA (University Institute of Industrial Technology of Asturias), University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Oeste 7.1.17, Campus Universitario, 33203 Gijón (Spain)

    2015-06-11

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the k{sub SP} method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results.

  4. An acceleration technique for the Gauss-Seidel method applied to symmetric linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cajigas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A preconditioning technique to improve the convergence of the Gauss-Seidel method applied to symmetric linear systems while preserving symmetry is proposed. The preconditioner is of the form I + K and can be applied an arbitrary number of times. It is shown that under certain conditions the application of the preconditioner a finite number of steps reduces the matrix to a diagonal. A series of numerical experiments using matrices from spatial discretizations of partial differential equations demonstrates that both versions of the preconditioner, point and block version, exhibit lower iteration counts than its non-symmetric version. Resumen. Se propone una técnica de precondicionamiento para mejorar la convergencia del método Gauss-Seidel aplicado a sistemas lineales simétricos pero preservando simetría. El precondicionador es de la forma I + K y puede ser aplicado un número arbitrario de veces. Se demuestra que bajo ciertas condiciones la aplicación del precondicionador un número finito de pasos reduce la matriz del sistema precondicionado a una diagonal. Una serie de experimentos con matrices que provienen de la discretización de ecuaciones en derivadas parciales muestra que ambas versiones del precondicionador, por punto y por bloque, muestran un menor número de iteraciones en comparación con la versión que no preserva simetría.

  5. The Double Layer Methodology and the Validation of Eigenbehavior Techniques Applied to Lifestyle Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Bishal

    2017-01-01

    A novel methodology, the double layer methodology (DLM), for modeling an individual's lifestyle and its relationships with health indicators is presented. The DLM is applied to model behavioral routines emerging from self-reports of daily diet and activities, annotated by 21 healthy subjects over 2 weeks. Unsupervised clustering on the first layer of the DLM separated our population into two groups. Using eigendecomposition techniques on the second layer of the DLM, we could find activity and diet routines, predict behaviors in a portion of the day (with an accuracy of 88% for diet and 66% for activity), determine between day and between individual similarities, and detect individual's belonging to a group based on behavior (with an accuracy up to 64%). We found that clustering based on health indicators was mapped back into activity behaviors, but not into diet behaviors. In addition, we showed the limitations of eigendecomposition for lifestyle applications, in particular when applied to noisy and sparse behavioral data such as dietary information. Finally, we proposed the use of the DLM for supporting adaptive and personalized recommender systems for stimulating behavior change. PMID:28133607

  6. Bioclimatic and vegetation mapping of a topographically complex oceanic island applying different interpolation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Machado, Víctor; Otto, Rüdiger; del Arco Aguilar, Marcelino José

    2014-07-01

    Different spatial interpolation techniques have been applied to construct objective bioclimatic maps of La Palma, Canary Islands. Interpolation of climatic data on this topographically complex island with strong elevation and climatic gradients represents a challenge. Furthermore, meteorological stations are not evenly distributed over the island, with few stations at high elevations. We carried out spatial interpolations of the compensated thermicity index (Itc) and the annual ombrothermic Index (Io), in order to obtain appropriate bioclimatic maps by using automatic interpolation procedures, and to establish their relation to potential vegetation units for constructing a climatophilous potential natural vegetation map (CPNV). For this purpose, we used five interpolation techniques implemented in a GIS: inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), ordinary cokriging (OCK), multiple linear regression (MLR) and MLR followed by ordinary kriging of the regression residuals. Two topographic variables (elevation and aspect), derived from a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM), were included in OCK and MLR. The accuracy of the interpolation techniques was examined by the results of the error statistics of test data derived from comparison of the predicted and measured values. Best results for both bioclimatic indices were obtained with the MLR method with interpolation of the residuals showing the highest R2 of the regression between observed and predicted values and lowest values of root mean square errors. MLR with correction of interpolated residuals is an attractive interpolation method for bioclimatic mapping on this oceanic island since it permits one to fully account for easily available geographic information but also takes into account local variation of climatic data.

  7. Micropillar Compression Technique Applied to Micron-Scale Mudstone Elasto-Plastic Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewers, T. A.; Boyce, B.; Buchheit, T.; Heath, J. E.; Chidsey, T.; Michael, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mudstone mechanical testing is often limited by poor core recovery and sample size, preservation and preparation issues, which can lead to sampling bias, damage, and time-dependent effects. A micropillar compression technique, originally developed by Uchic et al. 2004, here is applied to elasto-plastic deformation of small volumes of mudstone, in the range of cubic microns. This study examines behavior of the Gothic shale, the basal unit of the Ismay zone of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation and potential shale gas play in southeastern Utah, USA. Precision manufacture of micropillars 5 microns in diameter and 10 microns in length are prepared using an ion-milling method. Characterization of samples is carried out using: dual focused ion - scanning electron beam imaging of nano-scaled pores and distribution of matrix clay and quartz, as well as pore-filling organics; laser scanning confocal (LSCM) 3D imaging of natural fractures; and gas permeability, among other techniques. Compression testing of micropillars under load control is performed using two different nanoindenter techniques. Deformation of 0.5 cm in diameter by 1 cm in length cores is carried out and visualized by a microscope loading stage and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Axisymmetric multistage compression testing and multi-stress path testing is carried out using 2.54 cm plugs. Discussion of results addresses size of representative elementary volumes applicable to continuum-scale mudstone deformation, anisotropy, and size-scale plasticity effects. Other issues include fabrication-induced damage, alignment, and influence of substrate. This work is funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sőrés, László

    2013-04-01

    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface

  9. Geophysical applications for levee assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlaib, Hussein Khalefa

    Levees are important engineering structures that build along the rivers to protect the human lives and shield the communities as well as agriculture lands from the high water level events. Animal burrows, subsurface cavities, and low density (high permeability) zones are weakness features within the levee body that increase its risk of failure. To prevent such failure, continuous monitoring of the structure integrity and early detection of the weakness features must be conducted. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Capacitively Coupled Resistivity (CCR) methods were found to be very effective in assessing the levees and detect zones of weakness within the levee body. GPR was implemented using multi-frequency antennas (200, 400, and 900 MHz) with survey cart/wheel and survey vehicle. The (CCR) method was applied by using a single transmitter and three receivers. Studying the capability and the effectiveness of these methods in levee monitoring, subsurface weakness feature detection, and studying the structure integrity of levees were the main tasks of this dissertation. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted at the Geophysics Laboratory of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Also three full scale field expeditions at the Big Dam Bridge (BDB) Levee, Lollie Levee, and Helena Levee in Arkansas were conducted using the GPR technique. This technique was effective in detecting empty, water, and clay filled cavities as well as small scale animal burrows (small rodents). The geophysical work at BDB and Lollie Levees expressed intensive subsurface anomalies which might decrease their integrity while the Helena Levee shows less subsurface anomalies. The compaction of levee material is a key factor affecting piping phenomenon. The structural integrity of the levee partially depends on the density/compaction of the soil layers. A

  10. A field guide to geophysics in archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Oswin, John

    2009-01-01

    Geophysics operations in archaeology have become well known through exposure on television. However, the technique is presented as the action of specialists and something of a mystery, where people walk about with strange contraptions, and results appear from a computer. This is not the case, however. Some scientific knowledge is needed in order to understand how the machines work and what they detect but otherwise it is only necessary to know how to handle the instruments, how to survey a field and how to interpret the computer results. This book provides all the relevant information. It explains geophysics operations in archaeology, describes the science that gives the soil properties to measure and the means by which the instruments make their measurements. Dr John Oswin is in charge of the geophysics operation of the Bath and Camerton Archaeological Society and his work has recently been the subject of a television programme. He has taught many students how to use geophysical equipment.

  11. Geophysical Methods for Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederleithinger, E.

    2013-12-01

    Many non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for civil engineering (e. g. ultrasonics, radar) are similar to geophysical techniques. They just differ in scale, material under investigation and vocabulary used. In spite of the fact that the same principles of physics and mathematics apply to both fields, exchange has been limited in the past. But since a few years more and more geophysical knowledge is used in civil engineering. One of the focal points in research is to improve ultrasonic testing of concrete to be able to image the inside even of large, complex structures and to detect any deterioration as early as possible. One of the main issues is the heterogeneity of concrete, including aggregates, reinforcement, cracks and many other features. Our current research focuses on three points. One is the application of state of the art geophysical migration techniques as Reverse Time Migration (RTM) to image vertical faces or the backside of voids and ducts in thick concrete structures, which isn't possible with conventional techniques used in NDT. Second, we have started to use seismic interferometric techniques to interpolate ultrasonic traces, which can't be measured directly for technical reasons. Third, we are using coda wave interferometry to detect concrete degradation due to load, fatigue, temperature or other influences as early as possible. Practical examples of the application of these techniques are given and potential future research directions will be discussed. It will be shown, how a subset of these techniques can be used for innovative monitoring systems for civil infrastructure. Imaging the interior of a concrete body by ultrasonics and reverse time migration(simulated data).

  12. Jesuit Geophysical Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udias, Agustin; Stauder, William

    Jesuits have had ah interest in observing and explaining geophysical phenomena since this religious order, the Society of Jesus, was founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1540. Three principal factors contributed to this interest: their educational work in colleges and universities, their missionary endeavors to remote lands where they observed interesting and often as yet undocumented natural phenomena, and a network of communication that brought research of other Jesuits readily to their awareness.One of the first and most important Jesuit colleges was the Roman College (today the Gregorian University) founded in 1551 in Rome, which served as a model for many other universities throughout the world. By 1572, Christopher Clavius (1537-1612), professor of mathematics at the Roman College, had already initiated an important tradition of Jesuit research by emphasizing applied mathematics and insisting on the need of serious study of mathematics in the program of studies in the humanities. In 1547 he directed a publication of Euclid's work with commentaries, and published several treatises on mathematics, including Arithmetica Practica [1585], Gnomonicae [1581], and Geometrica Practica [1606]. Clavius was also a Copernican and supported his friend Galileo when he announced the discovery of the satellites of Jupiter.

  13. A new co-operative inversion strategy via fuzzy clustering technique applied to seismic and magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong Kieu, Duy; Kepic, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical inversion produces very useful images of earth parameters; however, inversion results usually suffer from inherent non-uniqueness: many subsurface models with different structures and parameters can explain the measurements. To reduce the ambiguity, extra information about the earth's structure and physical properties is needed. This prior information can be extracted from geological principles, prior petrophysical information from well logs, and complementary information from other geophysical methods. Any technique used to constrain inversion should be able to integrate the prior information and to guide updating inversion process in terms of the geological model. In this research, we have adopted fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering technique for this purpose. FCM is a clustering method that allows us to divide the model of physical parameters into a few clusters of representative values that also may relate to geological units based on the similarity of the geophysical properties. This exploits the fact that in many geological environments the earth is comprised of a few distinctive rock units with different physical properties. Therefore FCM can provide a platform to constrain geophysical inversion, and should tend to produce models that are geologically meaningful. FCM was incorporated in both separate and co-operative inversion processing of seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data with petrophysical constraints. Using petrophysical information through FCM assists the inversion to build a reliable earth model. In this algorithm, FCM plays a role of guider; it uses the prior information to drive the model update process, and also forming an earth model filled with rocks units rather than smooth transitions when the boundary is in doubt. Where petrophysical information from well logs or core measurement is not locally available the cluster petrophysics may be solved for in inversion as well if some knowledge of how many distinctive geological exist. A

  14. Electrochemical microfluidic chip based on molecular imprinting technique applied for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Min; Tian, Liping; Sun, Shiguo; Zhao, Na; Zhao, Feilang; Li, Yingchun

    2017-05-15

    In this work, a novel electrochemical detection platform was established by integrating molecularly imprinting technique with microfluidic chip and applied for trace measurement of three therapeutic drugs. The chip foundation is acrylic panel with designed grooves. In the detection cell of the chip, a Pt wire is used as the counter electrode and reference electrode, and a Au-Ag alloy microwire (NPAMW) with 3D nanoporous surface modified with electro-polymerized molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film as the working electrode. Detailed characterization of the chip and the working electrode was performed, and the properties were explored by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Two methods, respectively based on electrochemical catalysis and MIP/gate effect were employed for detecting warfarin sodium by using the prepared chip. The linearity of electrochemical catalysis method was in the range of 5×10(-6)-4×10(-4)M, which fails to meet clinical testing demand. By contrast, the linearity of gate effect was 2×10(-11)-4×10(-9)M with remarkably low detection limit of 8×10(-12)M (S/N=3), which is able to satisfy clinical assay. Then the system was applied for 24-h monitoring of drug concentration in plasma after administration of warfarin sodium in rabbit, and the corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained. In addition, the microfluidic chip was successfully adopted to analyze cyclophosphamide and carbamazepine, implying its good versatile ability. It is expected that this novel electrochemical microfluidic chip can act as a promising format for point-of-care testing via monitoring different analytes sensitively and conveniently.

  15. Adaptive meshing technique applied to an orthopaedic finite element contact problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roarty, Colleen M; Grosland, Nicole M

    2004-01-01

    Finite element methods have been applied extensively and with much success in the analysis of orthopaedic implants. Recently a growing interest has developed, in the orthopaedic biomechanics community, in how numerical models can be constructed for the optimal solution of problems in contact mechanics. New developments in this area are of paramount importance in the design of improved implants for orthopaedic surgery. Finite element and other computational techniques are widely applied in the analysis and design of hip and knee implants, with additional joints (ankle, shoulder, wrist) attracting increased attention. The objective of this investigation was to develop a simplified adaptive meshing scheme to facilitate the finite element analysis of a dual-curvature total wrist implant. Using currently available software, the analyst has great flexibility in mesh generation, but must prescribe element sizes and refinement schemes throughout the domain of interest. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to predict in advance a mesh spacing that will give acceptable results. Adaptive finite-element mesh capabilities operate to continuously refine the mesh to improve accuracy where it is required, with minimal intervention by the analyst. Such mesh adaptation generally means that in certain areas of the analysis domain, the size of the elements is decreased (or increased) and/or the order of the elements may be increased (or decreased). In concept, mesh adaptation is very appealing. Although there have been several previous applications of adaptive meshing for in-house FE codes, we have coupled an adaptive mesh formulation with the pre-existing commercial programs PATRAN (MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., USA) and ABAQUS (Hibbit Karlson and Sorensen, Pawtucket, RI). In doing so, we have retained several attributes of the commercial software, which are very attractive for orthopaedic implant applications.

  16. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2{1/2} in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques.

  17. Geophysical Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geophysical Research Facility (GRF) is a 60 ft long × 22 ft wide × 7 ft deep concrete basin at CRREL for fresh or saltwater investigations and can be temperature...

  18. Test Plan for the Demonstration of Geophysical Techniques for Single-Shell Tank Leak Detection at the Hanford Mock Tank Site: Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2001-07-31

    As part of the Leak Detection, Monitoring and Mitigation (LDMM) program conducted by CH2M HILL 105-A during FY 2001. These tests are being conducted to assess the applicability of these methods (Electrical Resistance Tomography [ERT], High Resolution Resistivity [HRR], Cross-Borehole Seismography [XBS], Cross-Borehole Radar [XBR], and Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction [CEMI]) to the detection and measurement of Single Shell Tank (SST) leaks into the vadose zone during planned sluicing operations. The testing in FY 2001 will result in the selection of up to two methods for further testing in FY 2002. In parallel with the geophysical tests, a Partitioning Interwell Tracer Test (PITT) study will be conducted simultaneously at the Mock Tank to assess the effectiveness of this technology in detecting and quantifying tank leaks in the vadose zone. Preparatory and background work using Cone Penetrometer methods (CPT) will be conducted at the Mock Tank site and an adjacent test area to derive soil properties for groundtruthing purposes for all methods.

  19. Formulation of Indomethacin Colon Targeted Delivery Systems Using Polysaccharides as Carriers by Applying Liquisolid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadria A. Elkhodairy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at the formulation of matrix tablets for colon-specific drug delivery (CSDD system of indomethacin (IDM by applying liquisolid (LS technique. A CSDD system based on time-dependent polymethacrylates and enzyme degradable polysaccharides was established. Eudragit RL 100 (E-RL 100 was employed as time-dependent polymer, whereas bacterial degradable polysaccharides were presented as LS systems loaded with the drug. Indomethacin-loaded LS systems were prepared using different polysaccharides, namely, guar gum (GG, pectin (PEC, and chitosan (CH, as carriers separately or in mixtures of different ratios of 1 : 3, 1 : 1, and 3 : 1. Liquisolid systems that displayed promising results concerning drug release rate in both pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 were compressed into tablets after the addition of the calculated amount of E-RL 100 and lubrication with magnesium stearate and talc in the ratio of 1 : 9. It was found that E-RL 100 improved the flowability and compressibility of all LS formulations. The release data revealed that all formulations succeeded to sustain drug release over a period of 24 hours. Stability study indicated that PEC-based LS system as well as its matrix tablets was stable over the period of storage (one year and could provide a minimum shelf life of two years.

  20. Advanced examination techniques applied to the qualification of critical welds for the ITER correction coils

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano; Libeyre, Paul; Marcinek, Dawid Jaroslaw; Piguiet, Aline; Cécillon, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The ITER correction coils (CCs) consist of three sets of six coils located in between the toroidal (TF) and poloidal field (PF) magnets. The CCs rely on a Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC), whose supercritical cooling at 4.5 K is provided by helium inlets and outlets. The assembly of the nozzles to the stainless steel conductor conduit includes fillet welds requiring full penetration through the thickness of the nozzle. Static and cyclic stresses have to be sustained by the inlet welds during operation. The entire volume of helium inlet and outlet welds, that are submitted to the most stringent quality levels of imperfections according to standards in force, is virtually uninspectable with sufficient resolution by conventional or computed radiography or by Ultrasonic Testing. On the other hand, X-ray computed tomography (CT) was successfully applied to inspect the full weld volume of several dozens of helium inlet qualification samples. The extensive use of CT techniques allowed a significant progress in the ...

  1. Spatial analysis techniques applied to uranium prospecting in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa de la Garza, Octavio R.; Montero Cabrera, María Elena; Sanín, Luz H.; Reyes Cortés, Manuel; Martínez Meyer, Enrique

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the distribution of uranium minerals in Chihuahua, the advanced statistical model "Maximun Entropy Method" (MaxEnt) was applied. A distinguishing feature of this method is that it can fit more complex models in case of small datasets (x and y data), as is the location of uranium ores in the State of Chihuahua. For georeferencing uranium ores, a database from the United States Geological Survey and workgroup of experts in Mexico was used. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of maximum entropy techniques to obtain the mineral's potential distribution. For this model were used 24 environmental layers like topography, gravimetry, climate (worldclim), soil properties and others that were useful to project the uranium's distribution across the study area. For the validation of the places predicted by the model, comparisons were done with other research of the Mexican Service of Geological Survey, with direct exploration of specific areas and by talks with former exploration workers of the enterprise "Uranio de Mexico". Results. New uranium areas predicted by the model were validated, finding some relationship between the model predictions and geological faults. Conclusions. Modeling by spatial analysis provides additional information to the energy and mineral resources sectors.

  2. Phase-ratio technique as applied to the assessment of lunar surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydash, Vadym; Videen, Gorden; Shkuratov, Yuriy

    Regoliths of atmosphereless celestial bodies demonstrate prominent light backscattering that is common for particulate surfaces. This occurs over a wide range of phase angles and can be seen in the phase function [1]. The slope of the function may characterize the complexity of planetary surface structure. Imagery of such a parameter suggests that information can be obtained about the surface, like variations of unresolved surface roughness and microtopography [2]. Phase-ratio imagery allows one to characterize the phase function slope. This imagery requires the ratio of two co-registered images acquired at different phase angles. One important advantage of the procedure is that the inherent albedo variations of the surface are suppressed, and, therefore, the resulting image is sensitive to the surface structure variation [2,3]. The phase-ratio image characterizes surface roughness variation at spatial scales on the order of the incident wavelengths to that of the image resolution. Applying the phase-ratio technique to ground-based telescope data has allowed us to find new lunar surface formations in the southern part of Oceanus Procellarum. These are suggested to be weak swirls [4]. We also combined the phase-ratio technique with the space-derived photometry data acquired from the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter with high spatial resolution. Thus we exploited the method to analyze the sites of Apollo landings and Soviet sample-return missions. Phase-ratio imagery has revealed anomalies of the phase-curve slope indicating a smoothing of the surface microstructure at the sites caused by dust uplifted by the engine jets of the descent and ascent modules [5,6]. Analysis of phase-ratios helps to understand how the regolith properties have been affected by robotic and human activity on the Moon [7,8]. We have demonstrated the use of the method to search for fresh natural disturbances of surface structure, e.g., to detect areas of fresh slumps, accumulated material on

  3. Investigation about the efficiency of the bioaugmentation technique when applied to diesel oil contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the efficiency of the bioaugmentation technique when applied to diesel oil contaminated soils collected at three service stations. Batch biodegradation experiments were carried out in Bartha biometer flasks (250 mL used to measure the microbial CO2 production. Biodegradation efficiency was also measured by quantifying the concentration of hydrocarbons. In addition to the biodegradation experiments, the capability of the studied cultures and the native microorganisms to biodegrade the diesel oil purchased from a local service station, was verified using a technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 -dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP. Results obtained with this test showed that the inocula used in the biodegradation experiments were able to degrade the diesel oil and the tests carried out with the native microorganisms indicated that these soils had a microbiota adapted to degrade the hydrocarbons. In general, no gain was obtained with the addition of microorganisms or even negative effects were observed in the biodegradation experiments.Este trabalho investigou a eficiência da técnica do bioaumento quando aplicada a solos contaminados com óleo diesel coletados em três postos de combustíveis. Experimentos de biodegradação foram realizados em frascos de Bartha (250 mL, usados para medir a produção microbiana de CO2. A eficiência de biodegradação também foi quantificada pela concentração de hidrocarbonetos. Conjuntamente aos experimentos de biodegradação, a capacidade das culturas estudadas e dos microrganismos nativos em biodegradar óleo diesel comprado de um posto de combustíveis local, foi verificada utilizando-se a técnica baseada no indicador redox 2,6 - diclorofenol indofenol (DCPIP. Resultados obtidos com esse teste mostraram que os inóculos empregados nos experimentos de biodegradação foram capazes de biodegradar óleo diesel e os testes com os microrganismos nativos indicaram que estes solos

  4. Studies in geophysics: Active tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Active tectonics is defined within the study as tectonic movements that are expected to occur within a future time span of concern to society. Such movements and their associated hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and land subsidence and emergence. The entire range of geology, geophysics, and geodesy is, to some extent, pertinent to this topic. The needs for useful forecasts of tectonic activity, so that actions may be taken to mitigate hazards, call for special attention to ongoing tectonic activity. Further progress in understanding active tectonics depends on continued research. Particularly important is improvement in the accuracy of dating techniques for recent geologic materials.

  5. Data Selection for Fast Projection Techniques Applied to Adaptive Nulling: A Comparative Study of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    point de vue d’annulation des brouilleurs, le dernier 6tant moins rapide mais donnant une meilleure annulation. En effet , ces algorithmes donnent un...techniques avec celui de la technique "sample matrix inversion ou SMI" pour trois scenarios diffdrents; ces trois derniers ddmontrent les effets du nombre de...eigenvector analysis, such as the MUSIC technique [2], are effective for both interference suppression and spectral estimation. These techniques yield

  6. Study for applying microwave power saturation technique on fingernail/EPR dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byeong Ryong; Choi, Hoon; Nam, Hyun Ill; Lee, Byung Ill [Radiation Health Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    There is growing recognition worldwide of the need to develop effective uses of dosimetry methods to assess unexpected exposure to radiation in the event of a large scale event. One of physically based dosimetry methods electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been applied to perform retrospective radiation dosimetry using extracted samples of tooth enamel and nail(fingernail and toenail), following radiation accidents and exposures resulting from weapon use, testing, and production. Human fingernails are composed largely of a keratin, which consists of {alpha} helical peptide chains that are twisted into a left handed coil and strengthened by disulphide cross links. Ionizing radiation generates free radicals in the keratin matrix, and these radicals are stable over a relatively long period (days to weeks). Most importantly, the number of radicals is proportional to the magnitude of the dose over a wide dose range (0{approx}30 Gy). Also, dose can be estimated at four different locations on the human body, providing information on the homogeneity of the radiation exposure. And The results from EPR nail dosimetry are immediately available However, relatively large background signal (BKS) converted from mechanically induced signal (MIS) after cutting process of fingernail, normally overlaps with the radiation induced signal (RIS), make it difficult to estimate accurate dose accidental exposure. Therefore, estimation method using dose response curve was difficult to ensure reliability below 5 Gy. In this study, In order to overcome these disadvantages, we measured the reactions of RIS and BKS (MIS) according to the change of Microwave power level, and researched about the applicability of the Power saturation technique at low dose.

  7. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The broad objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of the solid planets by combining results from analytical and computational modeling, and geophysical data analysis of gravity, topography and tectonic surface structures. During the past year we performed two quite independent studies in the attempt to explain the Mariner 10 magnetic observations of Mercury. In the first we revisited the possibility of crustal remanence by studying the conditions under which one could break symmetry inherent in Runcorn's model of a uniformly magnetized shell to produce a remanent signal with a dipolar form. In the second we applied a thin shell dynamo model to evaluate the range of intensity/structure for which such a planetary configuration can produce a dipole field consistent with Mariner 10 results. In the next full proposal cycle we will: (1) develop numerical and analytical and models of thin shell dynamos to address the possible nature of Mercury s present-day magnetic field and the demise of Mars magnetic field; (2) study the effect of degree-1 mantle convection on a core dynamo as relevant to the early magnetic field of Mars; (3) develop models of how the deep mantles of terrestrial planets are perturbed by large impacts and address the consequences for mantle evolution; (4) study the structure, compensation, state of stress, and viscous relaxation of lunar basins, and address implications for the Moon s state of stress and thermal history by modeling and gravity/topography analysis; and (5) use a three-dimensional viscous relaxation model for a planet with generalized vertical viscosity distribution to study the degree-two components of the Moon's topography and gravity fields to constrain the primordial stress state and spatial heterogeneity of the crust and mantle.

  8. Comparison of multivariate preprocessing techniques as applied to electronic tongue based pattern classification for black tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palit, Mousumi [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Central Calcutta Polytechnic, Kolkata 700014 (India); Tudu, Bipan, E-mail: bt@iee.jusl.ac.in [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Bhattacharyya, Nabarun [Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Kolkata 700091 (India); Dutta, Ankur; Dutta, Pallab Kumar [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Jana, Arun [Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Kolkata 700091 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Rajib [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Chatterjee, Anutosh [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Heritage Institute of Technology, Kolkata 700107 (India)

    2010-08-18

    In an electronic tongue, preprocessing on raw data precedes pattern analysis and choice of the appropriate preprocessing technique is crucial for the performance of the pattern classifier. While attempting to classify different grades of black tea using a voltammetric electronic tongue, different preprocessing techniques have been explored and a comparison of their performances is presented in this paper. The preprocessing techniques are compared first by a quantitative measurement of separability followed by principle component analysis; and then two different supervised pattern recognition models based on neural networks are used to evaluate the performance of the preprocessing techniques.

  9. Comparison of multivariate preprocessing techniques as applied to electronic tongue based pattern classification for black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Mousumi; Tudu, Bipan; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Dutta, Ankur; Dutta, Pallab Kumar; Jana, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Chatterjee, Anutosh

    2010-08-18

    In an electronic tongue, preprocessing on raw data precedes pattern analysis and choice of the appropriate preprocessing technique is crucial for the performance of the pattern classifier. While attempting to classify different grades of black tea using a voltammetric electronic tongue, different preprocessing techniques have been explored and a comparison of their performances is presented in this paper. The preprocessing techniques are compared first by a quantitative measurement of separability followed by principle component analysis; and then two different supervised pattern recognition models based on neural networks are used to evaluate the performance of the preprocessing techniques.

  10. Finite-element technique applied to heat conduction in solids with temperature dependent thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Ramirez, G.; Oden, J. T.

    1969-01-01

    Finite element method applied to heat conduction in solids with temperature dependent thermal conductivity, using nonlinear constitutive equation for heat ABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGHIABCDEFGH

  11. Geophysical survey of the Burnum archaeological site (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Federica; Campedelli, Alessandro; Giorgi, Enrico; Lepore, Giuseppe; de Maria, Sandro

    2010-05-01

    A multidisciplinary geophysical investigation has been carried out at the site of Burnum (Krka Valley, Croatia) by the University of Bologna, in the context of an international agreement between the University of Zadar, the Civic Museum of Drniš, and the Centre for the Study of the Adriatic Sea Archaeology (Ravenna). The Burnum Project aims at improving our knowledge and preserve the important roman castrum, transformed in a municipium at the beginning of the 2nd century AD. Since 2005, different geophysical techniques have been applied to the site, such as magnetometry, electrical resistivity studies and ground penetrating radar, making the investigated area an interesting case history of a multidisciplinary approach applied to archaeology. After different field works, the geophysical mapping of the southern part of the castrum is almost complete, whereas the northern one will be completed during next planned campaigns. Magnetic data have been collected with the gradient technique, using an Overhauser system and an optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer, configured with a vertical sensor distance of 1.50 m. The resistivity method has been applied using the ARP© (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) and the OhM Mapper systems. GPR surveys have been carried out testing different systems and antennas. During 2009, a special emphasis was given to the acquisition, processing and interpretation of the optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer data. As a result, a clear image of the settlement configuration was obtained, improving our knowledge of the forum-basilica complex and possibly discovering a second auxiliary castrum. Direct exploration by archaeological excavations of selected areas has correctly confirmed the geophysical results and the archaeological interpretation proposed. The features of the building materials, brought to the light and analysed after the excavations, were coherent with the instrumental responses of all the applied

  12. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

  13. Sensitivity analysis and application in exploration geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, R.

    2013-12-01

    In exploration geophysics, the usual way of dealing with geophysical data is to form an Earth model describing underground structure in the area of investigation. The resolved model, however, is based on the inversion of survey data which is unavoidable contaminated by various noises and is sampled in a limited number of observation sites. Furthermore, due to the inherent non-unique weakness of inverse geophysical problem, the result is ambiguous. And it is not clear that which part of model features is well-resolved by the data. Therefore the interpretation of the result is intractable. We applied a sensitivity analysis to address this problem in magnetotelluric(MT). The sensitivity, also named Jacobian matrix or the sensitivity matrix, is comprised of the partial derivatives of the data with respect to the model parameters. In practical inversion, the matrix can be calculated by direct modeling of the theoretical response for the given model perturbation, or by the application of perturbation approach and reciprocity theory. We now acquired visualized sensitivity plot by calculating the sensitivity matrix and the solution is therefore under investigation that the less-resolved part is indicated and should not be considered in interpretation, while the well-resolved parameters can relatively be convincing. The sensitivity analysis is hereby a necessary and helpful tool for increasing the reliability of inverse models. Another main problem of exploration geophysics is about the design strategies of joint geophysical survey, i.e. gravity, magnetic & electromagnetic method. Since geophysical methods are based on the linear or nonlinear relationship between observed data and subsurface parameters, an appropriate design scheme which provides maximum information content within a restricted budget is quite difficult. Here we firstly studied sensitivity of different geophysical methods by mapping the spatial distribution of different survey sensitivity with respect to the

  14. Técnicas moleculares aplicadas à microbiologia de alimentos = Molecular techniques applied to food microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ávila Gandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir da década de 80, as técnicas moleculares começaram a ser utilizadas como uma alternativa aos métodos fenotípicos, tradicionalmente, utilizados em microbiologia de alimentos. Foi acelerada esta substituição com advento da descoberta da reação em cadeia da polimerase (polymerase chain reaction – PCR. Este artigo tem por objetivo revisar as principais técnicas moleculares utilizadas como ferramentas na microbiologia de alimentos, desde as, inicialmente, desenvolvidas, como a análise do perfil plasmidial, até as mais contemporâneas como o PCR em tempo real, discutindo as características, vantagens e desvantagens destas técnicas, avaliando a potencialidade destas para suprir as limitações das técnicas tradicionais.Beginning in the 1980s, molecular techniques became an alternative to the traditionally used phenotypic methods in food microbiology. With the advent of the polymerase chain reaction technique, this substitution was speed up. This article had as objective to review the main molecular techniques used as tools in food microbiology, from plasmidial profile analysis to contemporary techniques such as the real-time PCR. The characteristics, advantages anddisadvantages of these techniques are discussed, by evaluating the potential of these techniques to overcome the limitations of traditional techniques.

  15. A multiblock grid generation technique applied to a jet engine configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques are presented for quickly finding a multiblock grid for a 2D geometrically complex domain from geometrical boundary data. An automated technique for determining a block decomposition of the domain is explained. Techniques for representing this domain decomposition and transforming it are also presented. Further, a linear optimization method may be used to solve the equations which determine grid dimensions within the block decomposition. These algorithms automate many stages in the domain decomposition and grid formation process and limit the need for human intervention and inputs. They are demonstrated for the meridional or throughflow geometry of a bladed jet engine configuration.

  16. Palaeomagnetism principles and applications in geology, geophysics and archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Tarling, D H

    1983-01-01

    Palaeomagnetism and archaeomagnetism are fascinating specialized studies because they are applicable to such a wide range of problems in geology, archaeology and geophysics. They can also be undertaken cheaply, when compared with most other geophysical techniques, and, at first sight, simply. In fact, real comprehension of the magnetic processes that have occurred in rocks and other types of material over several thousands or many millions of years is still extremely difficult to assess and measure. On this basis, this book cannot explain all such features, nor can it attempt to cover all the actual and potential applications of the method. All that can be attempted is to give an impression of the ways in which such techniques can be used in a wide variety of fields, and how these techniques are usually applied. The magnetization of rocks is, in fact, one of the earliest of the true sciences, but we are still not in a position to answer many of the problems posed. Consequently some of the examples given of ap...

  17. Application of different geophysical techniques to characterize heavy metals soil contamination; Esempi di applicazione di alcune tecniche di indagine geofisica per la caratterizzazione di un sito inquinato da metalli pesanti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, M.; Spada, P. [Hydrotech Srl, Area Science Park, Padriciano Trieste (Italy)

    2000-10-01

    A dismantled industrial site, contaminated by electric arc furnace dust, has been explored by means of different geophysical techniques: electromagnetic, magnetic, geo-electric and geo radar. The aim of this research was to map the heavy metals contamination distribution in the subsoil and to find a clay layer that could act as a natural barrier to the spreading of the metals in case of a permanent safety measures. The results of each survey have been compared to the stratigraphy obtained from core drillings and to geotechnical and chemical results coming from analyses on representative samples of the different materials recovered. Through this comparison, advantages and limits of applicability of each techniques have been highlighted and discussed. [Italian] Un sito industriale dismesso contaminato da polveri metalliche da abbattimento fumi e' stato esplorato utilizzando diverse techniche di indagine geofisica: elettromagnetica, magnetica, geoelettrica e georadar. Lo scopo dell'indagine e' stato da una parte la mappatura della distribuzione della contaminazione metallica nel sottosuolo e dall'altra l'individuazione di uno strato di argilla che potesse fungere da barriera alla migrazione dei metalli pesanti nel caso di messa in sicurezza permanente del sito. I risultati di ciascuno rilievo geofisico sono stati confrontati con la stratigrafia del sottosuolo ottenuta da carotaggi e con i risultati geotecnici e chimico-analitici effettuati su campioni rappresentativi dei materiali ritrovati. Da questo confronto, vantaggi e limiti di applicabilita' di ciascuna tecnica sono stati messi in evidenza e discussi.

  18. State of the Art Review for Applying Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning Techniques to Portfolio Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Computational techniques have shown much promise in the field of Finance, owing to their ability to extract sense out of dauntingly complex systems. This paper reviews the most promising of these techniques, from traditional computational intelligence methods to their machine learning siblings, with particular view to their application in optimising the management of a portfolio of financial instruments. The current state of the art is assessed, and prospective further work is assessed and recommended

  19. A Survey on Data Mining Techniques Applied to Electricity-Related Time Series Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Martínez-Álvarez; Alicia Troncoso; Gualberto Asencio-Cortés; Riquelme, José C

    2015-01-01

    Data mining has become an essential tool during the last decade to analyze large sets of data. The variety of techniques it includes and the successful results obtained in many application fields, make this family of approaches powerful and widely used. In particular, this work explores the application of these techniques to time series forecasting. Although classical statistical-based methods provides reasonably good results, the result of the application of data mining outperforms those of ...

  20. Arizona Geophysical Data Base

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Ronald G.

    1981-01-01

    A series of digital data sets were compiled for input into a geophysical data base for a one degree quadrangle in Arizona. Using a Landsat digital mosaic as a base, information on topography, geology, gravity as well as Seasat radar imagery were registered. Example overlays and tabulations are performed.

  1. Applying machine learning and image feature extraction techniques to the problem of cerebral aneurysm rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steren Chabert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral aneurysm is a cerebrovascular disorder characterized by a bulging in a weak area in the wall of an artery that supplies blood to the brain. It is relevant to understand the mechanisms leading to the apparition of aneurysms, their growth and, more important, leading to their rupture. The purpose of this study is to study the impact on aneurysm rupture of the combination of different parameters, instead of focusing on only one factor at a time as is frequently found in the literature, using machine learning and feature extraction techniques. This discussion takes relevance in the context of the complex decision that the physicians have to take to decide which therapy to apply, as each intervention bares its own risks, and implies to use a complex ensemble of resources (human resources, OR, etc. in hospitals always under very high work load. This project has been raised in our actual working team, composed of interventional neuroradiologist, radiologic technologist, informatics engineers and biomedical engineers, from Valparaiso public Hospital, Hospital Carlos van Buren, and from Universidad de Valparaíso – Facultad de Ingeniería and Facultad de Medicina. This team has been working together in the last few years, and is now participating in the implementation of an “interdisciplinary platform for innovation in health”, as part of a bigger project leaded by Universidad de Valparaiso (PMI UVA1402. It is relevant to emphasize that this project is made feasible by the existence of this network between physicians and engineers, and by the existence of data already registered in an orderly manner, structured and recorded in digital format. The present proposal arises from the description in nowadays literature that the actual indicators, whether based on morphological description of the aneurysm, or based on characterization of biomechanical factor or others, these indicators were shown not to provide sufficient information in order

  2. 地球物理技木在煤层气勘探中的应用%Application of geophysical technique on coal bed methane exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏冬; 王宏语

    2011-01-01

    煤层气的勘探对于优化能源结构、保障煤矿安全、减少温室气体排放等具有重要意义.基于煤储层的方位各向异性和双相介质特征,方位AVO、转换横渡法和AVO等地震勘探技术能够对煤层气富集区做出有效预测.测井技术具有方法种类多、分辨率高等特点,在煤层气储层识别和储层参数定量解释方面取得了较好的应用效果.开展地震技术和测井技术的综合利用是今后煤层气勘探技术的发展方向.%The exploration of coal bed methane contributes greatly to optimize energy structure, guarantee coal mine safety and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Based on the azimuth anisotropy and two-phase medium characteristics of coal bed, azimuthal AVO, converted shear wave and AVO can detect coal bed methane enrichment area effectively. With numerous and high-resolution logging techniques, well logging technology has a good effect on reservoir recognition and reservoir parameter quantitative interpretation of coal bed methane. Comprehensive utilization of seismic technique and well logging technique is the trend of coal bed methane exploration technology.

  3. Synchrotron and simulations techniques applied to problems in materials science: catalysts and Azul Maya pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianelli, Russell R; Perez De la Rosa, Myriam; Meitzner, George; Siadati, Mohammed; Berhault, Gilles; Mehta, Apurva; Pople, John; Fuentes, Sergio; Alonzo-Nuñez, Gabriel; Polette, Lori A

    2005-03-01

    Development of synchrotron techniques for the determination of the structure of disordered, amorphous and surface materials has exploded over the past 20 years owing to the increasing availability of high-flux synchrotron radiation and the continuing development of increasingly powerful synchrotron techniques. These techniques are available to materials scientists who are not necessarily synchrotron scientists through interaction with effective user communities that exist at synchrotrons such as the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. In this article the application of multiple synchrotron characterization techniques to two classes of materials defined as 'surface compounds' is reviewed. One class of surface compounds are materials like MoS(2-x)C(x) that are widely used petroleum catalysts, used to improve the environmental properties of transportation fuels. These compounds may be viewed as 'sulfide-supported carbides' in their catalytically active states. The second class of 'surface compounds' are the 'Maya blue' pigments that are based on technology created by the ancient Maya. These compounds are organic/inorganic 'surface complexes' consisting of the dye indigo and palygorskite, common clay. The identification of both surface compounds relies on the application of synchrotron techniques as described here.

  4. Pulsed remote field eddy current technique applied to non-magnetic flat conductive plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Binfeng; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhanbin

    2013-12-01

    Non-magnetic metal plates are widely used in aviation and industrial applications. The detection of cracks in thick plate structures, such as multilayered structures of aircraft fuselage, has been challenging in nondestructive evaluation societies. The remote field eddy current (RFEC) technique has shown advantages of deep penetration and high sensitivity to deeply buried anomalies. However, the RFEC technique is mainly used to evaluate ferromagnetic tubes. There are many problems that should be fixed before the expansion and application of this technique for the inspection of non-magnetic conductive plates. In this article, the pulsed remote field eddy current (PRFEC) technique for the detection of defects in non-magnetic conducting plates was investigated. First, the principle of the PRFEC technique was analysed, followed by the analysis of the differences between the detection of defects in ferromagnetic and non-magnetic plain structures. Three different models of the PRFEC probe were simulated using ANSYS. The location of the transition zone, defect detection sensitivity and the ability to detect defects in thick plates using three probes were analysed and compared. The simulation results showed that the probe with a ferrite core had the highest detecting ability. The conclusions derived from the simulation study were also validated by conducting experiments.

  5. Statistical learning techniques applied to epidemiology: a simulated case-control comparison study with logistic regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Land Walker H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When investigating covariate interactions and group associations with standard regression analyses, the relationship between the response variable and exposure may be difficult to characterize. When the relationship is nonlinear, linear modeling techniques do not capture the nonlinear information content. Statistical learning (SL techniques with kernels are capable of addressing nonlinear problems without making parametric assumptions. However, these techniques do not produce findings relevant for epidemiologic interpretations. A simulated case-control study was used to contrast the information embedding characteristics and separation boundaries produced by a specific SL technique with logistic regression (LR modeling representing a parametric approach. The SL technique was comprised of a kernel mapping in combination with a perceptron neural network. Because the LR model has an important epidemiologic interpretation, the SL method was modified to produce the analogous interpretation and generate odds ratios for comparison. Results The SL approach is capable of generating odds ratios for main effects and risk factor interactions that better capture nonlinear relationships between exposure variables and outcome in comparison with LR. Conclusions The integration of SL methods in epidemiology may improve both the understanding and interpretation of complex exposure/disease relationships.

  6. Synchroton and Simulations Techniques Applied to Problems in Materials Science: Catalysts and Azul Maya Pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianelli, R.

    2005-01-12

    Development of synchrotron techniques for the determination of the structure of disordered, amorphous and surface materials has exploded over the past twenty years due to the increasing availability of high flux synchrotron radiation and the continuing development of increasingly powerful synchrotron techniques. These techniques are available to materials scientists who are not necessarily synchrotron scientists through interaction with effective user communities that exist at synchrotrons such as the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). In this article we review the application of multiple synchrotron characterization techniques to two classes of materials defined as ''surface compounds.'' One class of surface compounds are materials like MoS{sub 2-x}C{sub x} that are widely used petroleum catalysts used to improve the environmental properties of transportation fuels. These compounds may be viewed as ''sulfide supported carbides'' in their catalytically active states. The second class of ''surface compounds'' is the ''Maya Blue'' pigments that are based on technology created by the ancient Maya. These compounds are organic/inorganic ''surface complexes'' consisting of the dye indigo and palygorskite, a common clay. The identification of both surface compounds relies on the application of synchrotron techniques as described in this report.

  7. Effect of the reinforcement bar arrangement on the efficiency of electrochemical chloride removal technique applied to reinforced concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, P. [Dpto. Ing. de la Construccion, Obras Publicas e Infraestructura Urbana, Universidad de Alicante. Apdo. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: pedro.garces@ua.es; Sanchez de Rojas, M.J. [Dpto. Ing. de la Construccion, Obras Publicas e Infraestructura Urbana, Universidad de Alicante. Apdo. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Climent, M.A. [Dpto. Ing. de la Construccion, Obras Publicas e Infraestructura Urbana, Universidad de Alicante. Apdo. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2006-03-15

    This paper reports on the research done to find out the effect that different bar arrangements may have on the efficiency of the electrochemical chloride removal (ECR) technique when applied to a reinforced concrete structural member. Five different types of bar arrangements were considered, corresponding to typical structural members such as columns (with single and double bar reinforcing), slabs, beams and footings. ECR was applied in several steps. We observe that the extraction efficiency depends on the reinforcing bar arrangement. A uniform layer set-up favours chloride extraction. Electrochemical techniques were also used to estimate the reinforcing bar corrosion states, as well as measure the corrosion potential, and instant corrosion rate based on the polarization resistance technique. After ECR treatment, a reduction in the corrosion levels is observed falling short of the depassivation threshold.

  8. Energy saving techniques applied over a nation-wide mobile network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Eva; Frank, Philipp; Micallef, Gilbert;

    2014-01-01

    Traffic carried over wireless networks has grown significantly in recent years and actual forecasts show that this trend is expected to continue. However, the rapid mobile data explosion and the need for higher data rates comes at a cost of increased complexity and energy consumption of the mobile...... on the energy consumption based on a nation-wide network of a leading European operator. By means of an extensive analysis, we show that with the proposed techniques significant energy savings can be realized....... networks. Although base station equipment is improving its energy efficiency by means of new power amplifiers and increased processing power, additional techniques are required to further reduce the energy consumption. In this paper, we evaluate different energy saving techniques and study their impact...

  9. A Survey on Data Mining Techniques Applied to Electricity-Related Time Series Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martínez-Álvarez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining has become an essential tool during the last decade to analyze large sets of data. The variety of techniques it includes and the successful results obtained in many application fields, make this family of approaches powerful and widely used. In particular, this work explores the application of these techniques to time series forecasting. Although classical statistical-based methods provides reasonably good results, the result of the application of data mining outperforms those of classical ones. Hence, this work faces two main challenges: (i to provide a compact mathematical formulation of the mainly used techniques; (ii to review the latest works of time series forecasting and, as case study, those related to electricity price and demand markets.

  10. Schlieren technique applied to the arc temperature measurement in a high energy density cutting torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevosto, L.; Artana, G.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma temperature and radial density profiles of the plasma species in a high energy density cutting arc have been obtained by using a quantitative schlieren technique. A Z-type two-mirror schlieren system was used in this research. Due to its great sensibility such technique allows measuring plasma composition and temperature from the arc axis to the surrounding medium by processing the gray-level contrast values of digital schlieren images recorded at the observation plane for a given position of a transverse knife located at the exit focal plane of the system. The technique has provided a good visualization of the plasma flow emerging from the nozzle and its interactions with the surrounding medium and the anode. The obtained temperature values are in good agreement with those values previously obtained by the authors on the same torch using Langmuir probes.

  11. Applied techniques for high bandwidth data transfers across wide area networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jason; Gunter, Dan; Tierney, Brian; Allcock, Bill; Bester, Joe; Bresnahan, John; Tuecke, Steve

    2001-04-30

    Large distributed systems such as Computational/Data Grids require large amounts of data to be co-located with the computing facilities for processing. Ensuring that the data is there in time for the computation in today's Internet is a massive problem. From our work developing a scalable distributed network cache, we have gained experience with techniques necessary to achieve high data throughput over high bandwidth Wide Area Networks (WAN). In this paper, we discuss several hardware and software design techniques and issues, and then describe their application to an implementation of an enhanced FTP protocol called GridFTP. We also describe results from two applications using these techniques, which were obtained at the Supercomputing 2000 conference.

  12. New Control Technique Applied in Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Sag Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli Omar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR was a power electronics device that was able to compensate voltage sags on critical loads dynamically. The DVR consists of VSC, injection transformers, passive filters and energy storage (lead acid battery. By injecting an appropriate voltage, the DVR restores a voltage waveform and ensures constant load voltage. There were so many types of the control techniques being used in DVR for mitigating voltage sags. The efficiency of the DVR depends on the efficiency of the control technique involved in switching the inverter. Problem statement: Simulation and experimental investigation toward new algorithms development based on SVPWM. Understanding the nature of DVR and performance comparisons between the various controller technologies available. The proposed controller using space vector modulation techniques obtain higher amplitude modulation indexes if compared with conventional SPWM techniques. Moreover, space vector modulation techniques can be easily implemented using digital processors. Space vector PWM can produce about 15% higher output voltage than standard Sinusoidal PWM. Approach: The purpose of this research was to study the implementation of SVPWM in DVR. The proposed control algorithm was investigated through computer simulation by using PSCAD/EMTDC software. Results: From simulation and experimental results showed the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed controller based on SVPWM in mitigating voltage sags in low voltage distribution systems. It was concluded that its controller also works well both in balance and unbalance conditions of voltages. Conclusion/Recommendations: The simulation and experimental results of a DVR using PSCAD/EMTDC software based on SVPWM technique showed clearly the performance of the DVR in mitigating voltage sags. The DVR operates without any difficulties to inject the appropriate voltage component to correct rapidly any anomaly in the supply voltage to keep the

  13. Investigation of a large collapse sinkhole affecting a multi-storey building by means of geophysics and the trenching technique (Zaragoza city, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, F.; Galve, J. P.; Lucha, P.; Bonachea, J.; Jordá, L.; Jordá, R.

    2009-09-01

    An active sinkhole around 100 m long has been investigated in the city of Zaragoza (NE Spain). Subsidence activity on this depression, including the sudden occurrence of a collapse sinkhole 5 m across, led to the abandonment of a factory in the 1990s. At the present time, a building with 100 flats and shallow pad foundations partially built on the sinkhole, is affected by rapid differential settlement. The development of the sinkhole results from the karstification of the halite- and glauberite- bearing bedrock and the sagging and collapse of the overlying bedrock and alluvium, more than 30 m thick. GPR and electrical resistivity profiles have provided information on the distribution and geometry of the subsidence structure. The application of the trenching technique and geochronological methods (AMS and OSL dating) has allowed us to infer objective and practical data on the sinkhole including (1) Limits of the subsidence structure, (2) subsidence mechanisms, (3) cumulative subsidence (>408 cm), (4) subsidence rates on specific failure planes (>1.8 cm/year), (5) episodic displacement regime of some fault planes. The available information indicates that the progressive deformation recorded in the building will continue and might be punctuated by events of more rapid displacement. This work illustrates the practicality of the trenching technique for the study of sinkholes in mantled karst areas.

  14. Applied predictive analytics principles and techniques for the professional data analyst

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Learn the art and science of predictive analytics - techniques that get results Predictive analytics is what translates big data into meaningful, usable business information. Written by a leading expert in the field, this guide examines the science of the underlying algorithms as well as the principles and best practices that govern the art of predictive analytics. It clearly explains the theory behind predictive analytics, teaches the methods, principles, and techniques for conducting predictive analytics projects, and offers tips and tricks that are essential for successful predictive mode

  15. People Recognition for Loja ECU911 applying artificial vision techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cale

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a technological proposal based on artificial vision which aims to search people in an intelligent way by using IP video cameras. Currently, manual searching process is time and resource demanding in contrast to automated searching one, which means that it could be replaced. In order to obtain optimal results, three different techniques of artificial vision were analyzed (Eigenfaces, Fisherfaces, Local Binary Patterns Histograms. The selection process considered factors like lighting changes, image quality and changes in the angle of focus of the camera. Besides, a literature review was conducted to evaluate several points of view regarding artificial vision techniques.

  16. Applied Techniques for High Bandwidth Data Transfers across Wide Area Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JasonLee; BillAllcock; 等

    2001-01-01

    Large distributed systems such as Computational/Data Grids require large amounts of data to be co-located with the computing facilities for processing.From our work develogpin a scalable distributed network cache.we have gained experience with techniques necessary to achieve high data throughput over high bandwidth Wide Area Networks(WAN).In this paper,we discuss several hardware and software dsign techniques,and then describe their application to an implementation of an enhanced FTP protocol called GridFTP,We describe results from the Supercomputing 2000 conference.

  17. Detecting Environmental Change Using Self-Organizing Map Techniques Applied to the ERA-40 Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Gebri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is a valuable tool in meteorological applications. Properly selected data mining techniques enable researchers to process and analyze massive amounts of data collected by satellites and other instruments. Large spatial-temporal datasets can be analyzed using different linear and nonlinear methods. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM is a promising tool for clustering and visualizing high dimensional data and mapping spatial-temporal datasets describing nonlinear phenomena. We present results of the application of the SOM technique in regions of interest within the European re-analysis data set. The possibility of detecting climate change signals through the visualization capability of SOM tools is examined.

  18. Monitoring of applied stress in concrete using ultrasonic full-waveform comparison techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Ali; Schumacher, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Ultrasonic testing is a non-destructive approach commonly used to evaluate concrete structures. A challenge with concrete is that it is heterogeneous, which causes multiple wave scattering resulting in longer and more complex wave paths. The recorded ultrasonic waveform can be divided into two portions: the coherent (or early) and the diffuse (or Coda) portion. While conventional methods only use the coherent portion, e.g. the first wave arrival to determine the wave velocity, we are interested in the entire waveform, i.e. until the wave amplitude is completely dampened out. The objective of this study was to determine what portion of the signal is most sensitive to applied stress and the associated formation and propagation of cracks. For this purpose, the squared Pearson correlation coefficient, R2 was used, which provides a measure for the strength of the linear relationship (or similarity) between a reference waveform under no stress and a waveform recorded at a certain level of applied stress. Additionally, a signal energy-based filter was developed and used to detect signals that captured acoustic emissions generated during the loading process. The experimental work for this study consisted of an active monitoring approach by employing a pitch-catch setup with two ultrasonic transducers, one transmitter and one receiver, that were attached to (nullset) 152 x 305 mm concrete cylinder specimens, which were loaded monotonically to failure. Our results show that applied stress correlates well with the R2 with remarkable sensitivity to small applied stresses. Also, the relationship between R2 and applied stress is linear for an applied stress that is less than 50% of the ultimate stress.

  19. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION - COMPENDIUM DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUCKER DF; MYERS DA

    2011-10-04

    This report documents the evolution of the surface geophysical exploration (SGE) program and highlights some of the most recent successes in imaging conductive targets related to past leaks within and around Hanford's tank farms. While it is noted that the SGE program consists of multiple geophysical techniques designed to (1) locate near surface infrastructure that may interfere with (2) subsurface plume mapping, the report will focus primarily on electrical resistivity acquisition and processing for plume mapping. Due to the interferences from the near surface piping network, tanks, fences, wells, etc., the results of the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of electrical resistivity was more representative of metal than the high ionic strength plumes. Since the first deployment, the focus of the SGE program has been to acquire and model the best electrical resistivity data that minimizes the influence of buried metal objects. Toward that goal, two significant advances have occurred: (1) using the infrastructure directly in the acquisition campaign and (2) placement of electrodes beneath the infrastructure. The direct use of infrastructure was successfully demonstrated at T farm by using wells as long electrodes (Rucker et al., 2010, 'Electrical-Resistivity Characterization of an Industrial Site Using Long Electrodes'). While the method was capable of finding targets related to past releases, a loss of vertical resolution was the trade-off. The burying of electrodes below the infrastructure helped to increase the vertical resolution, as long as a sufficient number of electrodes are available for the acquisition campaign.

  20. A Technical Review of Electrochemical Techniques Applied to Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    in the literature for the study of MIC phenomena. Videla65 has used this technique in a study of the action of Cladosporium resinae growth on the...ROSALES, Corrosion 44, 638 (1988). 65. H. A. VIDs, The action of Clado.sporiuo resinae growth on the electrochemical behavior of aluminum. Proc. bit. Conf

  1. Study of Phase Reconstruction Techniques applied to Smith-Purcell Radiation Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Delerue, Nicolas; Bezshyyko, Oleg; Khodnevych, Vitalii

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of coherent radiation at accelerators typically give the absolute value of the beam profile Fourier transform but not its phase. Phase reconstruction techniques such as Hilbert transform or Kramers Kronig reconstruction are used to recover such phase. We report a study of the performances of these methods and how to optimize the reconstructed profiles.

  2. Study of Phase Reconstruction Techniques applied to Smith-Purcell Radiation Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Delerue, Nicolas; Vieille-Grosjean, Mélissa; Bezshyyko, Oleg; Khodnevych, Vitalii

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of coherent radiation at accelerators typically give the absolute value of the beam profile Fourier transform but not its phase. Phase reconstruction techniques such as Hilbert transform or Kramers Kronig reconstruction are used to recover such phase. We report a study of the performances of these methods and how to optimize the reconstructed profiles.

  3. X-ray micro-beam techniques and phase contrast tomography applied to biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, Michela; Campi, Gaetano; Bukreeva, Inna; Pelliccia, Daniele; Burghammer, Manfred; Tromba, Giuliana; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Cedola, Alessia

    2015-12-01

    A deeper comprehension of the biomineralization (BM) process is at the basis of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine developments. Several in-vivo and in-vitro studies were dedicated to this purpose via the application of 2D and 3D diagnostic techniques. Here, we develop a new methodology, based on different complementary experimental techniques (X-ray phase contrast tomography, micro-X-ray diffraction and micro-X-ray fluorescence scanning technique) coupled to new analytical tools. A qualitative and quantitative structural investigation, from the atomic to the micrometric length scale, is obtained for engineered bone tissues. The high spatial resolution achieved by X-ray scanning techniques allows us to monitor the bone formation at the first-formed mineral deposit at the organic-mineral interface within a porous scaffold. This work aims at providing a full comprehension of the morphology and functionality of the biomineralization process, which is of key importance for developing new drugs for preventing and healing bone diseases and for the development of bio-inspired materials.

  4. X-ray micro-beam techniques and phase contrast tomography applied to biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratini, Michela, E-mail: michela.fratini@gmail.com [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, 00184 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze, Università di Roma Tre, 00144 Roma (Italy); Campi, Gaetano [Institute of Crystallography, CNR, 00015 Monterotondo, Roma (Italy); Bukreeva, Inna [CNR NANOTEC-Institute of Nanotechnology, 00195 Roma (Italy); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pelliccia, Daniele [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Burghammer, Manfred [ESRF-The European Synchrotron, 3800 Grenoble (France); Tromba, Giuliana [Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale dell’Università di Genova & AUO San Martino-IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, 16132 Genova (Italy); Cedola, Alessia [CNR NANOTEC-Institute of Nanotechnology, 00195 Roma (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    A deeper comprehension of the biomineralization (BM) process is at the basis of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine developments. Several in-vivo and in-vitro studies were dedicated to this purpose via the application of 2D and 3D diagnostic techniques. Here, we develop a new methodology, based on different complementary experimental techniques (X-ray phase contrast tomography, micro-X-ray diffraction and micro-X-ray fluorescence scanning technique) coupled to new analytical tools. A qualitative and quantitative structural investigation, from the atomic to the micrometric length scale, is obtained for engineered bone tissues. The high spatial resolution achieved by X-ray scanning techniques allows us to monitor the bone formation at the first-formed mineral deposit at the organic–mineral interface within a porous scaffold. This work aims at providing a full comprehension of the morphology and functionality of the biomineralization process, which is of key importance for developing new drugs for preventing and healing bone diseases and for the development of bio-inspired materials.

  5. Review of Intelligent Techniques Applied for Classification and Preprocessing of Medical Image Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H S Hota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical image data like ECG, EEG and MRI, CT-scan images are the most important way to diagnose disease of human being in precise way and widely used by the physician. Problem can be clearly identified with the help of these medical images. A robust model can classify the medical image data in better way .In this paper intelligent techniques like neural network and fuzzy logic techniques are explored for MRI medical image data to identify tumor in human brain. Also need of preprocessing of medical image data is explored. Classification technique has been used extensively in the field of medical imaging. The conventional method in medical science for medical image data classification is done by human inspection which may result misclassification of data sometime this type of problem identification are impractical for large amounts of data and noisy data, a noisy data may be produced due to some technical fault of the machine or by human errors and can lead misclassification of medical image data. We have collected number of papers based on neural network and fuzzy logic along with hybrid technique to explore the efficiency and robustness of the model for brain MRI data. It has been analyzed that intelligent model along with data preprocessing using principal component analysis (PCA and segmentation may be the competitive model in this domain.

  6. Space-mapping techniques applied to the optimization of a safety isolating transformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.V. Tran; S. Brisset; D. Echeverria (David); D.J.P. Lahaye (Domenico); P. Brochet

    2007-01-01

    textabstractSpace-mapping optimization techniques allow to allign low-fidelity and high-fidelity models in order to reduce the computational time and increase the accuracy of the solution. The main idea is to build an approximate model from the difference of response between both models. Therefore

  7. Do trained practice nurses apply motivational interviewing techniques in primary care consultations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Lee, I. van; Nielen, M.; Vlek, H.; Weijden, T. van; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reducing the prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviour could positively influence health. Motivational interviewing (MI) is used to promote change in unhealthy lifestyle behaviour as part of primary or secondary prevention. Whether MI is actually applied as taught is unknown. Practice

  8. Do trained practice nurses apply motivational interviewing techniques in primary care consultations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Lee, I. van der; Nielen, M.; Vlek, H.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing the prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviour could positively influence health. Motivational interviewing (MI) is used to promote change in unhealthy lifestyle behaviour as part of primary or secondary prevention. Whether MI is actually applied as taught is unknown. Practice

  9. Time-lapse motion picture technique applied to the study of geological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.D.; Crandell, D.R.

    1959-01-01

    Light-weight, battery-operated timers were built and coupled to 16-mm motion-picture cameras having apertures controlled by photoelectric cells. The cameras were placed adjacent to Emmons Glacier on Mount Rainier. The film obtained confirms the view that exterior time-lapse photography can be applied to the study of slow-acting geologic processes.

  10. Tracking deep geothermal energy. Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics offers Internet access to basic data for deep geothermal energy; Tiefer Erdwaerme auf der Spur. Leibniz-Institut fuer Angewandte Geophysik bietet im Internet Zugang zu Basisdaten fuer die tiefe Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milles, Uwe

    2011-07-01

    There are many places in Germany where deep geothermal energy is available as an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels as a source of power and heat. When it comes to utilising this energy, drilling is the most expensive part. Power and heat generation is only cost-effective if sufficiently high water temperatures and flow rates are found. Via GeotIS, an online information system, planners can now gain fast access to geological and geophysical data for Germany. (orig.)

  11. Geostatistical methods for rock mass quality prediction using borehole and geophysical survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Rubin, Y.; Sege, J. E.; Li, X.; Hehua, Z.

    2015-12-01

    For long, deep tunnels, the number of geotechnical borehole investigations during the preconstruction stage is generally limited. Yet tunnels are often constructed in geological structures with complex geometries, and in which the rock mass is fragmented from past structural deformations. Tunnel Geology Prediction (TGP) is a geophysical technique widely used during tunnel construction in China to ensure safety during construction and to prevent geological disasters. In this paper, geostatistical techniques were applied in order to integrate seismic velocity from TGP and borehole information into spatial predictions of RMR (Rock Mass Rating) in unexcavated areas. This approach is intended to apply conditional probability methods to transform seismic velocities to directly observed RMR values. The initial spatial distribution of RMR, inferred from the boreholes, was updated by including geophysical survey data in a co-kriging approach. The method applied to a real tunnel project shows significant improvements in rock mass quality predictions after including geophysical survey data, leading to better decision-making for construction safety design.

  12. Wavelet-based Adaptive Techniques Applied to Turbulent Hypersonic Scramjet Intake Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Frauholz, Sarah; Reinartz, Birgit U; Müller, Siegfried; Behr, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The simulation of hypersonic flows is computationally demanding due to large gradients of the flow variables caused by strong shock waves and thick boundary or shear layers. The resolution of those gradients imposes the use of extremely small cells in the respective regions. Taking turbulence into account intensives the variation in scales even more. Furthermore, hypersonic flows have been shown to be extremely grid sensitive. For the simulation of three-dimensional configurations of engineering applications, this results in a huge amount of cells and prohibitive computational time. Therefore, modern adaptive techniques can provide a gain with respect to computational costs and accuracy, allowing the generation of locally highly resolved flow regions where they are needed and retaining an otherwise smooth distribution. An h-adaptive technique based on wavelets is employed for the solution of hypersonic flows. The compressible Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a differential Reynolds s...

  13. Modelling laser speckle photographs of decayed teeth by applying a digital image information technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M. Z.; da Silva, L. C.; da Silva, J. V. P.; Deana, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the application of a digital image model to assess early carious lesions on teeth. When decay is in its early stages, the lesions were illuminated with a laser and the laser speckle images were obtained. Due to the differences in the optical properties between healthy and carious tissue, both regions produced different scatter patterns. The digital image information technique allowed us to produce colour-coded 3D surface plots of the intensity information in the speckle images, where the height (on the z-axis) and the colour in the rendering correlate with the intensity of a pixel in the image. The quantitative changes in colour component density enhance the contrast between the decayed and sound tissue, and visualization of the carious lesions become significantly evident. Therefore, the proposed technique may be adopted in the early diagnosis of carious lesions.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Techniques Applied to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Celis Alonso, Benito; Hidalgo-Tobón, Silvia S.; Menéndez-González, Manuel; Salas-Pacheco, José; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects at least 10 million people worldwide. It is a neurodegenerative disease, which is currently diagnosed by neurological examination. No neuroimaging investigation or blood biomarker is available to aid diagnosis and prognosis. Most effort toward diagnosis using magnetic resonance (MR) has been focused on the use of structural/anatomical neuroimaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, deep brain stimulation, a current strategy for treating PD, is guided by MR imaging (MRI). For clinical prognosis, diagnosis, and follow-up investigations, blood oxygen level-dependent MRI, DTI, spectroscopy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation have been used. These techniques represent the state of the art in the last 5 years. Here, we focus on MR techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26191037

  15. Improving throughput and user experience for information intensive websites by applying HTTP compression technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Ratnakar

    2008-11-06

    HTTP compression is a technique specified as part of the W3C HTTP 1.0 standard. It allows HTTP servers to take advantage of GZIP compression technology that is built into latest browsers. A brief survey of medical informatics websites show that compression is not enabled. With compression enabled, downloaded files sizes are reduced by more than 50% and typical transaction time is also reduced from 20 to 8 minutes, thus providing a better user experience.

  16. Microstrip coupling techniques applied to thin-film Josephson junctions at microwave frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O H; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Mygind, Jesper

    1981-01-01

    Three different schemes for coupling to low impedance Josephson devices have been investigated. They all employ superconducting thin-film microstrip circuit techniques. The schemes are: (i) a quarterwave stepped impedance transformer, (ii) a microstrip resonator, (iii) an adjustable impedance...... transformer in inverted microstrip. Using single microbridges to probe the performance we found that the most primising scheme in terms of coupling efficiency and useful bandwidth was the adjustable inverted microstrip transformer....

  17. 3D-Laser-Scanning Technique Applied to Bulk Density Measurements of Apollo Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, R. J.; Kent, J. J.; Kiefer, W. S.; Britt, D. T.

    2015-01-01

    In order to better interpret gravimetric data from orbiters such as GRAIL and LRO to understand the subsurface composition and structure of the lunar crust, it is import to have a reliable database of the density and porosity of lunar materials. To this end, we have been surveying these physical properties in both lunar meteorites and Apollo lunar samples. To measure porosity, both grain density and bulk density are required. For bulk density, our group has historically utilized sub-mm bead immersion techniques extensively, though several factors have made this technique problematic for our work with Apollo samples. Samples allocated for measurement are often smaller than optimal for the technique, leading to large error bars. Also, for some samples we were required to use pure alumina beads instead of our usual glass beads. The alumina beads were subject to undesirable static effects, producing unreliable results. Other investigators have tested the use of 3d laser scanners on meteorites for measuring bulk volumes. Early work, though promising, was plagued with difficulties including poor response on dark or reflective surfaces, difficulty reproducing sharp edges, and large processing time for producing shape models. Due to progress in technology, however, laser scanners have improved considerably in recent years. We tested this technique on 27 lunar samples in the Apollo collection using a scanner at NASA Johnson Space Center. We found it to be reliable and more precise than beads, with the added benefit that it involves no direct contact with the sample, enabling the study of particularly friable samples for which bead immersion is not possible

  18. Geostatistical techniques applied to mapping limnological variables and quantify the uncertainty associated with estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Cigagna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This study aimed to map the concentrations of limnological variables in a reservoir employing semivariogram geostatistical techniques and Kriging estimates for unsampled locations, as well as the uncertainty calculation associated with the estimates. Methods: We established twenty-seven points distributed in a regular mesh for sampling. Then it was determined the concentrations of chlorophyll-a, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Subsequently, a spatial variability analysis was performed and the semivariogram function was modeled for all variables and the variographic mathematical models were established. The main geostatistical estimation technique was the ordinary Kriging. The work was developed with the estimate of a heavy grid points for each variables that formed the basis of the interpolated maps. Results: Through the semivariogram analysis was possible to identify the random component as not significant for the estimation process of chlorophyll-a, and as significant for total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Geostatistical maps were produced from the Kriging for each variable and the respective standard deviations of the estimates calculated. These measurements allowed us to map the concentrations of limnological variables throughout the reservoir. The calculation of standard deviations provided the quality of the estimates and, consequently, the reliability of the final product. Conclusions: The use of the Kriging statistical technique to estimate heavy mesh points associated with the error dispersion (standard deviation of the estimate, made it possible to make quality and reliable maps of the estimated variables. Concentrations of limnological variables in general were higher in the lacustrine zone and decreased towards the riverine zone. The chlorophyll-a and total nitrogen correlated comparing the grid generated by Kriging. Although the use of Kriging is more laborious compared to other interpolation methods, this

  19. Vibrational techniques applied to photosynthesis: Resonance Raman and fluorescence line-narrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Andrew; Pascal, Andrew A; Robert, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy may yield precise information on the conformation of, and the interactions assumed by, the chromophores involved in the first steps of the photosynthetic process. Selectivity is achieved via resonance with the absorption transition of the chromophore of interest. Fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy is a complementary technique, in that it provides the same level of information (structure, conformation, interactions), but in this case for the emitting pigment(s) only (whether isolated or in an ensemble of interacting chromophores). The selectivity provided by these vibrational techniques allows for the analysis of pigment molecules not only when they are isolated in solvents, but also when embedded in soluble or membrane proteins and even, as shown recently, in vivo. They can be used, for instance, to relate the electronic properties of these pigment molecules to their structure and/or the physical properties of their environment. These techniques are even able to follow subtle changes in chromophore conformation associated with regulatory processes. After a short introduction to the physical principles that govern resonance Raman and fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopies, the information content of the vibrational spectra of chlorophyll and carotenoid molecules is described in this article, together with the experiments which helped in determining which structural parameter(s) each vibrational band is sensitive to. A selection of applications is then presented, in order to illustrate how these techniques have been used in the field of photosynthesis, and what type of information has been obtained. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vibrational spectroscopies and bioenergetic systems.

  20. A neuro-evolutive technique applied for predicting the liquid crystalline property of some organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drăgoi, Elena-Niculina; Curteanu, Silvia; Lisa, Cătălin

    2012-10-01

    A simple self-adaptive version of the differential evolution algorithm was applied for simultaneous architectural and parametric optimization of feed-forward neural networks, used to classify the crystalline liquid property of a series of organic compounds. The developed optimization methodology was called self-adaptive differential evolution neural network (SADE-NN) and has the following characteristics: the base vector used is chosen as the best individual in the current population, two differential terms participate in the mutation process, the crossover type is binomial, a simple self-adaptive mechanism is employed to determine the near-optimal control parameters of the algorithm, and the integration of the neural network into the differential evolution algorithm is performed using a direct encoding scheme. It was found that a network with one hidden layer is able to make accurate predictions, indicating that the proposed methodology is efficient and, owing to its flexibility, it can be applied to a large range of problems.

  1. IPR techniques applied to a multimedia environment in the HYPERMEDIA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Alberto; Ribagorda, Arturo; Sierra, Jose M.

    1999-04-01

    Watermarking techniques have been proved as a good method to protect intellectual copyrights in digital formats. But the simplicity for processing information supplied by digital platforms also offers many chances for eliminating marks embedded in the data due to the wide variety of techniques to modify information in digital formats. This paper analyzes a selection of the most interesting methods for image watermarking in order to test its qualities. The comparison of these watermarking techniques has shown new interesting lines of work. Some changes and extensions to these methods are proposed to increase its robustness against some usual attacks and specific watermark attacks. This works has been realized in order to provide the HYPERMEDIA project with an efficient tool for protecting IPR. The objective of this project is to establish an experimental stage on continuous multimedia material (audiovisuals) handling and delivering in a multimedia service environment, allowing the user to navigate in the hyperspace through database which belong to actors of the service chain and protecting IPR of authors or owners.

  2. An efficient permeability scaling-up technique applied to the discretized flow equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgelli, D.; Ding, Yu [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)

    1997-08-01

    Grid-block permeability scaling-up for numerical reservoir simulations has been discussed for a long time in the literature. It is now recognized that a full permeability tensor is needed to get an accurate reservoir description at large scale. However, two major difficulties are encountered: (1) grid-block permeability cannot be properly defined because it depends on boundary conditions; (2) discretization of flow equations with a full permeability tensor is not straightforward and little work has been done on this subject. In this paper, we propose a new method, which allows us to get around both difficulties. As the two major problems are closely related, a global approach will preserve the accuracy. So, in the proposed method, the permeability up-scaling technique is integrated in the discretized numerical scheme for flow simulation. The permeability is scaled-up via the transmissibility term, in accordance with the fluid flow calculation in the numerical scheme. A finite-volume scheme is particularly studied, and the transmissibility scaling-up technique for this scheme is presented. Some numerical examples are tested for flow simulation. This new method is compared with some published numerical schemes for full permeability tensor discretization where the full permeability tensor is scaled-up through various techniques. Comparing the results with fine grid simulations shows that the new method is more accurate and more efficient.

  3. Reviewing current knowledge in snatch performance and technique: the need for future directions in applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lester K W; Lorenzen, Christian; Wilson, Cameron J; Saunders, John E; Williams, Morgan D

    2014-02-01

    This is a review of current research trends in weightlifting literature relating to the understanding of technique and its role in successful snatch performance. Reference to the world records in the snatch from the 1960s onwards indicates little progress across all weight categories. With such mediocre advances in performance at the International level, there is a need to better understand how snatch technique can improve performance even if only by a small margin. Methods of data acquisition for technical analysis of the snatch have involved mostly 2-dimensional barbell and joint kinematics. Although key variables which play a role in the successful outcome of a snatch lift have been heavily investigated, few studies have combined variables relating both the barbell and the weightlifter in their analyses. This suggests the need for a more detailed approach integrating both barbell-related and weightlifter-related data to enhance understanding of the mechanics of a successful lift. Currently, with the aid of technical advances in motion analysis, data acquisition, and methods of analysis, a more accurate representation of the movement can be provided. Better ways of understanding the key characteristics of technique in the snatch could provide the opportunity for more effective individualized feedback from the coach to the athlete, which should in turn lead to improved performance in competition.

  4. A photoacoustic technique applied to detection of ethylene emissions in edible coated passion fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, G V L; Santos, W C dos; Vargas, H; Silva, M G da [Laboratorio de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Av. Alberto Lamego 2000, 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Waldman, W R [Laboratorio de Ciencias QuImicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, J G, E-mail: mgs@uenf.b [Laboratorio de Melhoramento Genetico Vegetal, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (Brazil)

    2010-03-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy was applied to study the physiological behavior of passion fruit when coated with edible films. The results have shown a reduction of the ethylene emission rate. Weight loss monitoring has not shown any significant differences between the coated and uncoated passion fruit. On the other hand, slower color changes of coated samples suggest a slowdown of the ripening process in coated passion fruit.

  5. Hybrid multicore/vectorisation technique applied to the elastic wave equation on a staggered grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarenko, Sofya; Hildyard, Mark

    2017-07-01

    In modern physics it has become common to find the solution of a problem by solving numerically a set of PDEs. Whether solving them on a finite difference grid or by a finite element approach, the main calculations are often applied to a stencil structure. In the last decade it has become usual to work with so called big data problems where calculations are very heavy and accelerators and modern architectures are widely used. Although CPU and GPU clusters are often used to solve such problems, parallelisation of any calculation ideally starts from a single processor optimisation. Unfortunately, it is impossible to vectorise a stencil structured loop with high level instructions. In this paper we suggest a new approach to rearranging the data structure which makes it possible to apply high level vectorisation instructions to a stencil loop and which results in significant acceleration. The suggested method allows further acceleration if shared memory APIs are used. We show the effectiveness of the method by applying it to an elastic wave propagation problem on a finite difference grid. We have chosen Intel architecture for the test problem and OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) since they are extensively used in many applications.

  6. Assessment of ground-based monitoring techniques applied to landslide investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, S.; Smith, A.; Chambers, J.; Dixon, N.; Dijkstra, T.; Haslam, E.; Meldrum, P.; Merritt, A.; Gunn, D.; Mackay, J.

    2016-01-01

    A landslide complex in the Whitby Mudstone Formation at Hollin Hill, North Yorkshire, UK is periodically re-activated in response to rainfall-induced pore-water pressure fluctuations. This paper compares long-term measurements (i.e., 2009-2014) obtained from a combination of monitoring techniques that have been employed together for the first time on an active landslide. The results highlight the relative performance of the different techniques, and can provide guidance for researchers and practitioners for selecting and installing appropriate monitoring techniques to assess unstable slopes. Particular attention is given to the spatial and temporal resolutions offered by the different approaches that include: Real Time Kinematic-GPS (RTK-GPS) monitoring of a ground surface marker array, conventional inclinometers, Shape Acceleration Arrays (SAA), tilt meters, active waveguides with Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring, and piezometers. High spatial resolution information has allowed locating areas of stability and instability across a large slope. This has enabled identification of areas where further monitoring efforts should be focused. High temporal resolution information allowed the capture of 'S'-shaped slope displacement-time behaviour (i.e. phases of slope acceleration, deceleration and stability) in response to elevations in pore-water pressures. This study shows that a well-balanced suite of monitoring techniques that provides high temporal and spatial resolutions on both measurement and slope scale is necessary to fully understand failure and movement mechanisms of slopes. In the case of the Hollin Hill landslide it enabled detailed interpretation of the geomorphological processes governing landslide activity. It highlights the benefit of regularly surveying a network of GPS markers to determine areas for installation of movement monitoring techniques that offer higher resolution both temporally and spatially. The small sensitivity of tilt meter measurements

  7. Software complex for geophysical data visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, Ilya A.; Tyugin, Dmitry Y.; Kurkin, Andrey A.; Kurkina, Oxana E.

    2013-04-01

    The effectiveness of current research in geophysics is largely determined by the degree of implementation of the procedure of data processing and visualization with the use of modern information technology. Realistic and informative visualization of the results of three-dimensional modeling of geophysical processes contributes significantly into the naturalness of physical modeling and detailed view of the phenomena. The main difficulty in this case is to interpret the results of the calculations: it is necessary to be able to observe the various parameters of the three-dimensional models, build sections on different planes to evaluate certain characteristics and make a rapid assessment. Programs for interpretation and visualization of simulations are spread all over the world, for example, software systems such as ParaView, Golden Software Surfer, Voxler, Flow Vision and others. However, it is not always possible to solve the problem of visualization with the help of a single software package. Preprocessing, data transfer between the packages and setting up a uniform visualization style can turn into a long and routine work. In addition to this, sometimes special display modes for specific data are required and existing products tend to have more common features and are not always fully applicable to certain special cases. Rendering of dynamic data may require scripting languages that does not relieve the user from writing code. Therefore, the task was to develop a new and original software complex for the visualization of simulation results. Let us briefly list of the primary features that are developed. Software complex is a graphical application with a convenient and simple user interface that displays the results of the simulation. Complex is also able to interactively manage the image, resize the image without loss of quality, apply a two-dimensional and three-dimensional regular grid, set the coordinate axes with data labels and perform slice of data. The

  8. Zero order and signal processing spectrophotometric techniques applied for resolving interference of metronidazole with ciprofloxacin in their pharmaceutical dosage form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Four rapid, simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were used for the determination of ciprofloxacin in the presence of metronidazole as interference. The methods under study are area under the curve, simultaneous equation in addition to smart signal processing techniques of manipulating ratio spectra namely Savitsky-Golay filters and continuous wavelet transform. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines where accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can therefore be used for the routine analysis of ciprofloxacin in quality-control laboratories.

  9. Zero order and signal processing spectrophotometric techniques applied for resolving interference of metronidazole with ciprofloxacin in their pharmaceutical dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A M; Nassar, Mohammed W I; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Four rapid, simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were used for the determination of ciprofloxacin in the presence of metronidazole as interference. The methods under study are area under the curve, simultaneous equation in addition to smart signal processing techniques of manipulating ratio spectra namely Savitsky-Golay filters and continuous wavelet transform. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines where accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can therefore be used for the routine analysis of ciprofloxacin in quality-control laboratories.

  10. Multivariation calibration techniques applied to NIRA (near infrared reflectance analysis) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C. L.

    1991-02-01

    Multivariate calibration techniques can reduce the time required for routine testing and can provide new methods of analysis. Multivariate calibration is commonly used with near infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Two feasibility studies were performed to determine the capability of NIRA, using multivariate calibration techniques, to perform analyses on the types of samples that are routinely analyzed at this laboratory. The first study performed included a variety of samples and indicated that NIRA would be well-suited to perform analyses on selected materials properties such as water content and hydroxyl number on polyol samples, epoxy content on epoxy resins, water content of desiccants, and the amine values of various amine cure agents. A second study was performed to assess the capability of NIRA to perform quantitative analysis of hydroxyl numbers and water contents of hydroxyl-containing materials. Hydroxyl number and water content were selected for determination because these tests are frequently run on polyol materials and the hydroxyl number determination is time consuming. This study pointed out the necessity of obtaining calibration standards identical to the samples being analyzed for each type of polyol or other material being analyzed. Multivariate calibration techniques are frequently used with FTIR data to determine the composition of a large variety of complex mixtures. A literature search indicated many applications of multivariate calibration to FTIR data. Areas identified where quantitation by FTIR would provide a new capability are quantitation of components in epoxy and silicone resins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in oils, and additives to polymers.

  11. Applying Squeezing Technique to Clayrocks: Lessons Learned from Experiments at Mont Terri Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A. M.; Sanchez-Ledesma, D. M.; Tournassat, C.; Melon, A.; Gaucher, E.; Astudillo, E.; Vinsot, A.

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the pore water chemistry in clay rock formations plays an important role in determining radionuclide migration in the context of nuclear waste disposal. Among the different in situ and ex-situ techniques for pore water sampling in clay sediments and soils, squeezing technique dates back 115 years. Although different studies have been performed about the reliability and representativeness of squeezed pore waters, more of them were achieved on high porosity, high water content and unconsolidated clay sediments. A very few of them tackled the analysis of squeezed pore water from low-porosity, low water content and highly consolidated clay rocks. In this work, a specially designed and fabricated one-dimensional compression cell two directional fluid flow was used to extract and analyse the pore water composition of Opalinus Clay core samples from Mont Terri (Switzerland). The reproducibility of the technique is good and no ionic ultrafiltration, chemical fractionation or anion exclusion was found in the range of pressures analysed: 70-200 MPa. Pore waters extracted in this range of pressures do not decrease in concentration, which would indicate a dilution of water by mixing of the free pore water and the outer layers of double layer water (Donnan water). A threshold (safety) squeezing pressure of 175 MPa was established for avoiding membrane effects (ion filtering, anion exclusion, etc.) from clay particles induced by increasing pressures. Besides, the pore waters extracted at these pressures are representative of the Opalinus Clay formation from a direct comparison against in situ collected borehole waters. (Author)

  12. Enhanced nonlinear iterative techniques applied to a non-equilibrium plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, D.A.; McHugh, P.R. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study the application of enhanced nonlinear iterative methods to the steady-state solution of a system of two-dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equations that describe the partially-ionized plasma flow in the boundary layer of a tokamak fusion reactor. This system of equations is characterized by multiple time and spatial scales, and contains highly anisotropic transport coefficients due to a strong imposed magnetic field. We use Newton`s method to linearize the nonlinear system of equations resulting from an implicit, finite volume discretization of the governing partial differential equations, on a staggered Cartesian mesh. The resulting linear systems are neither symmetric nor positive definite, and are poorly conditioned. Preconditioned Krylov iterative techniques are employed to solve these linear systems. We investigate both a modified and a matrix-free Newton-Krylov implementation, with the goal of reducing CPU cost associated with the numerical formation of the Jacobian. A combination of a damped iteration, one-way multigrid and a pseudo-transient continuation technique are used to enhance global nonlinear convergence and CPU efficiency. GMRES is employed as the Krylov method with Incomplete Lower-Upper(ILU) factorization preconditioning. The goal is to construct a combination of nonlinear and linear iterative techniques for this complex physical problem that optimizes trade-offs between robustness, CPU time, memory requirements, and code complexity. It is shown that a one-way multigrid implementation provides significant CPU savings for fine grid calculations. Performance comparisons of the modified Newton-Krylov and matrix-free Newton-Krylov algorithms will be presented.

  13. Imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomutsa, L.; Doughty, D.; Brinkmeyer, A.; Mahmood, S.

    1992-06-01

    Improved imaging techniques were used to study the dynamics of fluid flow and trapping at various scales in porous media. Two-phase and three-phase floods were performed and monitored by computed tomography (CT) scanning and/or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) microscopy. Permeability-porosity correlations obtained from image analysis were combined with porosity distributions from CT scanning to generate spatial permeability distributions within the core which were used in simulations of two-phase floods. Simulation-derived saturation distributions of two-phase processes showed very good agreement with the CT measured values.

  14. Full-field speckle correlation technique as applied to blood flow monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilensky, M. A.; Agafonov, D. N.; Timoshina, P. A.; Shipovskaya, O. V.; Zimnyakov, D. A.; Tuchin, V. V.; Novikov, P. A.

    2011-03-01

    The results of experimental study of monitoring the microcirculation in tissue superficial layers of the internal organs at gastro-duodenal hemorrhage with the use of laser speckles contrast analysis technique are presented. The microcirculation monitoring was provided in the course of the laparotomy of rat abdominal cavity in the real time. Microscopic hemodynamics was analyzed for small intestine and stomach under different conditions (normal state, provoked ischemia, administration of vasodilative agents such as papaverine, lidocaine). The prospects and problems of internal monitoring of micro-vascular flow in clinical conditions are discussed.

  15. Applying machine learning techniques for forecasting flexibility of virtual power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDougall, Pamela; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2016-01-01

    hidden layer artificial neural network (ANN). Both techniques are used to model a relationship between the aggregator portfolio state and requested ramp power to the longevity of the delivered flexibility. Using validated individual household models, a smart controlled aggregated virtual power plant...... is simulated. A hierarchical market-based supply-demand matching control mechanism is used to steer the heating devices in the virtual power plant. For both the training and validation set of clusters, a random number of households, between 200 and 2000, is generated with day ahead profile scaled accordingly...

  16. Neutron scatter and diffraction techniques applied to nucleosome and chromatin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, E M; Baldwin, J P

    1986-12-01

    Neutron scatter and diffraction techniques have made substantial contributions to our understanding of the structure of the nucleosome, the structure of the 10-nm filament, the "10-nm----30-nm" filament transition, and the structure of the "34-nm" supercoil or solenoid of nucleosomes. Neutron techniques are unique in their properties, which allows for the separation of the spatial arrangements of histones and DNA in nucleosomes and chromatin. They have equally powerful applications in structural studies of any complex two-component biological system. A major success for the application of neutron techniques was the first clear proof that DNA was located on the outside of the histone octamer in the core particle. A full analysis of the neutron-scatter data gave the parameters of Table 3 and the low-resolution structure of the core particle in solution shown in Fig. 6. Initial low-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of core particle crystals gave a model with a lower DNA pitch of 2.7 nm. Higher-resolution X-ray diffraction studies now give a structure with a DNA pitch of 3.0 nm and a hole of 0.8 nm along the axis of the DNA supercoil. The neutron-scatter solution structure and the X-ray crystal structure of the core particle are thus in full agreement within the resolution of the neutron-scatter techniques. The model for the chromatosome is largely based on the structural parameters of the DNA supercoil in the core particle, nuclease digestion results showing protection of a 168-bp DNA length by histone H1 and H1 peptide, and the conformational properties of H1. The path of the DNA outside the chromatosome is not known, and this information is crucial for our understanding of higher chromatin structure. The interactions of the flexible basic and N- and C-terminal regions of H1 within chromatin and how these interactions are modulated by H1 phosphorylation are not known. The N- and C-terminal regions of H1 represent a new type of protein behavior, i.e., extensive

  17. Applying Intelligent Computing Techniques to Modeling Biological Networks from Expression Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Po Lee; Kung-Cheng Yang

    2008-01-01

    Constructing biological networks is one of the most important issues in system sbiology. However, constructing a network from data manually takes a considerable large amount of time, therefore an automated procedure is advocated. To automate the procedure of network construction, in this work we use two intelligent computing techniques, genetic programming and neural computation, to infer two kinds of network models that use continuous variables. To verify the presented approaches, experiments have been conducted and the preliminary results show that both approaches can be used to infer networks successfully.

  18. Micro-spectroscopic techniques applied to characterization of varnished archeological findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, G.; Ioppolo, S.; Majolino, D.; Migliardo, P.; Ponterio, R.

    2000-04-01

    This work reports an analysis on terracotta varnished finding recovered in east Sicily area (Messina). We have performed FTIR micro-spectroscopy and electronic microscopy (SEM)measurements in order to recognize the elemental constituents of the varnished surfaces. Furthermore, for all the samples, a study on the bulk has been performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption. The analyzed samples consist of a number of pottery fragments belonging to archaic and classical ages, varnished in black and red colors. The obtained data furnished useful information about composition of decorated surfaces and bulk matrixes, about baking temperature, manufacture techniques and alteration mechanisms of findings due to the long burial.

  19. Geophysical phenomena classification by artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, M. P.; Bruckner, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Space science information systems involve accessing vast data bases. There is a need for an automatic process by which properties of the whole data set can be assimilated and presented to the user. Where data are in the form of spectrograms, phenomena can be detected by pattern recognition techniques. Presented are the first results obtained by applying unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN's) to the classification of magnetospheric wave spectra. The networks used here were a simple unsupervised Hamming network run on a PC and a more sophisticated CALM network run on a Sparc workstation. The ANN's were compared in their geophysical data recognition performance. CALM networks offer such qualities as fast learning, superiority in generalizing, the ability to continuously adapt to changes in the pattern set, and the possibility to modularize the network to allow the inter-relation between phenomena and data sets. This work is the first step toward an information system interface being developed at Sussex, the Whole Information System Expert (WISE). Phenomena in the data are automatically identified and provided to the user in the form of a data occurrence morphology, the Whole Information System Data Occurrence Morphology (WISDOM), along with relationships to other parameters and phenomena.

  20. Hyphenated GC-FTIR and GC-MS techniques applied in the analysis of bioactive compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosav, Steluta; Paduraru, Nicoleta; Praisler, Mirela

    2014-08-01

    The drugs of abuse, which affect human nature and cause numerous crimes, have become a serious problem throughout the world. There are hundreds of amphetamine analogues on the black market. They consist of various alterations of the basic amphetamine molecular structure, which are yet not yet included in the lists of forbidden compounds although they retain or slightly modify the hallucinogenic effects of their parent compound. It is their important variety that makes their identification quite a challenge. A number of analytical procedures for the identification of amphetamines and their analogues have recently been reported. We are presenting the profile of the main hallucinogenic amphetamines obtained with the hyphenated techniques that are recommended for the identification of illicit amphetamines, i. e. gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (GC-FTIR). The infrared spectra of the analyzed hallucinogenic amphetamines present some absorption bands (1490 cm-1, 1440 cm-1, 1245 cm-1, 1050 cm-1 and 940 cm-1) that are very stable as position and shape, while their intensity depends of the side-chain substitution. The specific ionic fragment of the studied hallucinogenic compounds is the 3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl cation (m/e = 135) which has a small relative abundance (lesser than 20%). The complementarity of the above mentioned techniques for the identification of hallucinogenic compounds is discussed.

  1. Applying Reflective Middleware Techniques to Optimize a QoS-enabled CORBA Component Model Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nanbor; Parameswaran, Kirthika; Kircher, Michael; Schmidt, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Although existing CORBA specifications, such as Real-time CORBA and CORBA Messaging, address many end-to-end quality-of service (QoS) properties, they do not define strategies for configuring these properties into applications flexibly, transparently, and adaptively. Therefore, application developers must make these configuration decisions manually and explicitly, which is tedious, error-prone, and open sub-optimal. Although the recently adopted CORBA Component Model (CCM) does define a standard configuration framework for packaging and deploying software components, conventional CCM implementations focus on functionality rather than adaptive quality-of-service, which makes them unsuitable for next-generation applications with demanding QoS requirements. This paper presents three contributions to the study of middleware for QoS-enabled component-based applications. It outlines rejective middleware techniques designed to adaptively (1) select optimal communication mechanisms, (2) manage QoS properties of CORBA components in their contain- ers, and (3) (re)con$gure selected component executors dynamically. Based on our ongoing research on CORBA and the CCM, we believe the application of rejective techniques to component middleware will provide a dynamically adaptive and (re)configurable framework for COTS software that is well-suited for the QoS demands of next-generation applications.

  2. Predicting Performance of Schools by Applying Data Mining Techniques on Public Examination Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Macklin Abraham Navamani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study work presents a systematic analysis of various features of the higher grade school public examination results data in the state of Tamil Nadu, India through different data mining classification algorithms to predict the performance of Schools. Nowadays the parents always targets to select the right city, school and factors which contributes to the success of the results in schools of their children. There could be possible effects of factors such as Ethnic mix, Medium of study, geography could make a difference in results. The proposed work would focus on two fold factors namely Machine Learning algorithms to predict School performance with satisfying accuracy and to evaluate the data mining technique which would give better accuracy of the learning algorithms. It was found that there exist some apparent and some less noticeable attributes that demonstrate a strong correlation with student performance. Data were collected through the credible source data preparation and correlation analysis. The findings revealed that the public examinations results data was a very helpful predictor of performance of school in order to improve the result with maximum level and also improved the overall accuracy with the help of Adaboost technique.

  3. Applied feline oral anatomy and tooth extraction techniques: an illustrated guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Alexander M; Soltero-Rivera, Maria M

    2014-11-01

    Tooth extraction is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in small animal practice. The clinician must be familiar with normal oral anatomy, utilize nomenclature accepted in dentistry and oral surgery, use the modified Triadan system for numbering teeth, identify normal structures on a dental radiograph, understand the tissues that hold the teeth in the jaws, know the biomechanical principles of tooth extraction, be able to choose the most appropriate instrument for removal of a tooth, extract teeth using closed and open techniques, and create tension-free flaps for closure of extraction sites. This review is intended to familiarize both the general and referral practitioner with feline oral anatomy and tooth extraction techniques. Tooth extraction is predominantly performed in cats with tooth resorption, chronic gingivostomatitis and periodontal disease. The basic contents of a feline tooth extraction kit are explained. The guidance contained within this review is based on a combination of the published literature, the authors' personal experience and the experience of colleagues. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  4. Fragrance composition of Dendrophylax lindenii (Orchidaceae using a novel technique applied in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Sadler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The ghost orchid, Dendrophylax lindenii (Lindley Bentham ex Rolfe (Orchidaceae, is one of North America’s rarest and well-known orchids. Native to Cuba and SW Florida where it frequents shaded swamps as an epiphyte, the species has experienced steady decline. Little information exists on D. lindenii’s biology in situ, raising conservation concerns. During the summer of 2009 at an undisclosed population in Collier County, FL, a substantial number (ca. 13 of plants initiated anthesis offering a unique opportunity to study this species in situ. We report a new technique aimed at capturing floral headspace of D. lindenii in situ, and identified volatile compounds using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS. All components of the floral scent were identified as terpenoids with the exception of methyl salicylate. The most abundant compound was the sesquiterpene (E,E-α-farnesene (71% followed by (E-β-ocimene (9% and methyl salicylate (8%. Other compounds were: linalool (5%, sabinene (4%, (E-α-bergamotene (2%, α-pinene (1%, and 3-carene (1%. Interestingly, (E,E-α-farnesene has previously been associated with pestiferous insects (e.g., Hemiptera. The other compounds are common floral scent constituents in other angiosperms suggesting that our in situ technique was effective. Volatile capture was, therefore, possible without imposing physical harm (e.g., inflorescence detachment to this rare orchid.

  5. Therapeutic techniques applied in the heavy-ion therapy at IMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Sihver, Lembit

    2011-04-01

    Superficially-placed tumors have been treated with carbon ions at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), since November 2006. Up to now, 103 patients have been irradiated in the therapy terminal of the heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) at IMP, where carbon-ion beams with energies up to 100 MeV/u can be supplied and a passive beam delivery system has been developed and commissioned. A number of therapeutic and clinical experiences concerning heavy-ion therapy have been acquired at IMP. To extend the heavy-ion therapy project to deep-seated tumor treatment, a horizontal beam line dedicated to this has been constructed in the cooling storage ring (CSR), which is a synchrotron connected to the HIRFL as an injector, and is now in operation. Therapeutic high-energy carbon-ion beams, extracted from the HIRFL-CSR through slow extraction techniques, have been supplied in the deep-seated tumor therapy terminal. After the beam delivery, shaping and monitoring devices installed in the therapy terminal at HIRFL-CSR were validated through therapeutic beam tests, deep-seated tumor treatment with high-energy carbon ions started in March 2009. The therapeutic techniques in terms of beam delivery system, conformal irradiation method and treatment planning used at IMP are introduced in this paper.

  6. Applying Tiab’s direct synthesis technique to dilatant non-Newtonian/Newtonian fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Andrés Martínez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-Newtonian fluids, such as polymer solutions, have been used by the oil industry for many years as fracturing agents and drilling mud. These solutions, which normally include thickened water and jelled fluids, are injected into the formation to enhanced oil recovery by improving sweep efficiency. It is worth noting that some heavy oils behave non-Newtonianly. Non-Newtonian fluids do not have direct proportionality between applied shear stress and shear rate and viscosity varies with shear rate depending on whether the fluid is either pseudoplastic or dilatant. Viscosity decreases as shear rate increases for the former whilst the reverse takes place for dilatants. Mathematical models of conventional fluids thus fail when applied to non-Newtonian fluids. The pressure derivative curve is introduced in this descriptive work for a dilatant fluid and its pattern was observed. Tiab’s direct synthesis (TDS methodology was used as a tool for interpreting pressure transient data to estimate effective permeability, skin factors and non-Newtonian bank radius. The methodology was successfully verified by its application to synthetic examples. Also, comparing it to pseudoplastic behavior, it was found that the radial flow regime in the Newtonian zone of dilatant fluids took longer to form regarding both the flow behavior index and consistency factor.

  7. A comparison of new, old and future densiometic techniques as applied to volcanologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, Matthew; Moreland, William; Dobson, Kate; Þórðarson, Þorvaldur; Fitton, Godfrey; Lee, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The density of any material imposes a primary control upon its potential or actual physical behaviour in relation to its surrounds. It follows that a thorough understanding of the physical behaviour of dynamic, multi-component systems, such as active volcanoes, requires knowledge of the density of each component. If we are to accurately predict the physical behaviour of synthesized or natural volcanic systems, quantitative densiometric measurements are vital. The theoretical density of melt, crystals and bubble phases may be calculated using composition, structure, temperature and pressure inputs. However, measuring the density of natural, non-ideal, poly-phase materials remains problematic, especially if phase specific measurement is important. Here we compare three methods; Archimedes principle, He-displacement pycnometry and X-ray micro computed tomography (XMT) and discuss the utility and drawbacks of each in the context of modern volcanologic study. We have measured tephra, ash and lava from the 934 AD Eldgjá eruption (Iceland), and the 2010 AD Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland), using each technique. These samples exhibit a range of particle sizes, phases and textures. We find that while the Archimedes method remains a useful, low-cost technique to generate whole-rock density data, relative precision is problematic at small particles sizes. Pycnometry offers a more precise whole-rock density value, at a comparable cost-per-sample. However, this technique is based upon the assumption pore spaces within the sample are equally available for gas exchange, which may or may not be the case. XMT produces 3D images, at resolutions from nm to tens of µm per voxel where X-ray attenuation is a qualitative measure of relative electron density, expressed as greyscale number/brightness (usually 16-bit). Phases and individual particles can be digitally segmented according to their greyscale and other characteristics. This represents a distinct advantage over both

  8. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to forensic chemistry; Aplicacion de tecnicas analiticas nucleares en quimica forense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, Veronica; Montoro, Silvia [Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica; Pratta, Nora; Giandomenico, Angel Di [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro Regional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo de Santa Fe

    1999-11-01

    Gun shot residues produced by firing guns are mainly composed by visible particles. The individual characterization of these particles allows distinguishing those ones containing heavy metals, from gun shot residues, from those having a different origin or history. In this work, the results obtained from the study of gun shot residues particles collected from hands are presented. The aim of the analysis is to establish whether a person has shot a firing gun has been in contact with one after the shot has been produced. As reference samples, particles collected hands of persons affected to different activities were studied to make comparisons. The complete study was based on the application of nuclear analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X Ray Electron Probe Microanalysis and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The essays allow to be completed within time compatible with the forensic requirements. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.; e-mail: csedax e adigian at arcride.edu.ar

  9. A new technique for fractal analysis applied to human, intracerebrally recorded, ictal electroencephalographic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullmore, E; Brammer, M; Alarcon, G; Binnie, C

    1992-11-09

    Application of a new method of fractal analysis to human, intracerebrally recorded, ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) signals is reported. 'Frameshift-Richardson' (FR) analysis involves estimation of fractal dimension (1 EEG data; it is suggested that this technique offers significant operational advantages over use of algorithms for FD estimation requiring preliminary reconstruction of EEG data in phase space. FR analysis was found to reduce substantially the volume of EEG data, without loss of diagnostically important information concerning onset, propagation and evolution of ictal EEG discharges. Arrhythmic EEG events were correlated with relatively increased FD; rhythmic EEG events with relatively decreased FD. It is proposed that development of this method may lead to: (i) enhanced definition and localisation of initial ictal changes in the EEG presumed due to multi-unit activity; and (ii) synoptic visualisation of long periods of EEG data.

  10. Applying the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy v1: a study of coder training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Caroline E; Richardson, Michelle; Johnston, Marie; Abraham, Charles; Francis, Jill; Hardeman, Wendy; Michie, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1) has been used to detect active ingredients of interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of user training in improving reliable, valid and confident application of BCTTv1 to code BCTs in intervention descriptions. One hundred sixty-one trainees (109 in workshops and 52 in group tutorials) were trained to code frequent BCTs. The following measures were taken before and after training: (i) inter-coder agreement, (ii) trainee agreement with expert consensus, (iii) confidence ratings and (iv) coding competence. Coding was assessed for 12 BCTs (workshops) and for 17 BCTs (tutorials). Trainees completed a course evaluation. Methods improved agreement with expert consensus (p coder agreement (p = .08, p = .57, respectively) and increased confidence for BCTs assessed (both p coder agreement. This varied according to BCT.

  11. Emerging and Innovative Techniques for Arsenic Removal Applied to a Small Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. Alçada

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of arsenic on human health has led its drinking water MCL to be drastically reduced from 50 to 10 ppb. Consequently, arsenic levels in many water supply sources have become critical. This has resulted in technical and operational impacts on many drinking water treatment plants that have required onerous upgrading to meet the new standard. This becomes a very sensitive issue in the context of water scarcity and climate change, given the expected increasing demand on groundwater sources. This work presents a case study that describes the development of low-cost techniques for efficient arsenic control in drinking water. The results obtained at the Manteigas WTP (Portugal demonstrate the successful implementation of an effective and flexible process of reactive filtration using iron oxide. At real-scale, very high removal efficiencies of over 95% were obtained.

  12. Synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction techniques applied in hydrogen storage materials - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation is an advanced collimated light source with high intensity. It has particular advantages in structural characterization of materials on the atomic or molecular scale. Synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (SR-XRPD has been successfully exploited to various areas of hydrogen storage materials. In the paper, we will give a brief introduction on hydrogen storage materials, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, and synchrotron radiation light source. The applications of ex situ and in situ time-resolved SR-XRPD in hydrogen storage materials, are reviewed in detail. Future trends and proposals in the applications of the advanced XRPD techniques in hydrogen storage materials are also discussed.

  13. GPU peer-to-peer techniques applied to a cluster interconnect

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Bisson, Mauro; Fatica, Massimiliano; Frezza, Ottorino; Cicero, Francesca Lo; Lonardo, Alessandro; Mastrostefano, Enrico; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Modern GPUs support special protocols to exchange data directly across the PCI Express bus. While these protocols could be used to reduce GPU data transmission times, basically by avoiding staging to host memory, they require specific hardware features which are not available on current generation network adapters. In this paper we describe the architectural modifications required to implement peer-to-peer access to NVIDIA Fermi- and Kepler-class GPUs on an FPGA-based cluster interconnect. Besides, the current software implementation, which integrates this feature by minimally extending the RDMA programming model, is discussed, as well as some issues raised while employing it in a higher level API like MPI. Finally, the current limits of the technique are studied by analyzing the performance improvements on low-level benchmarks and on two GPU-accelerated applications, showing when and how they seem to benefit from the GPU peer-to-peer method.

  14. Study of different filtering techniques applied to spectra from airborne gamma spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Emilien; Gutierrez, Sébastien; Arbor, Nicolas; Ménard, Stéphanie; Nourreddine, Abdel-Mjid

    2016-11-01

    One of the features of the spectra obtained by airborne gamma spectrometry is the low counting statistics due to a short acquisition time (1 s) and a large source-detector distance (40 m) which leads to large statistical fluctuations. These fluctuations bring large uncertainty in radionuclide identification and determination of their respective activities from the window method recommended by the IAEA, especially for low-level radioactivity. Different types of filter could be used on spectra in order to remove these statistical fluctuations. The present work compares the results obtained with filters in terms of errors over the whole gamma energy range of the filtered spectra with the window method. These results are used to determine which filtering technique is the most suitable in combination with some method for total stripping of the spectrum.

  15. An Encoding Technique for Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms Applied to Power Distribution System Reconfiguration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Guardado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Network reconfiguration is an alternative to reduce power losses and optimize the operation of power distribution systems. In this paper, an encoding scheme for evolutionary algorithms is proposed in order to search efficiently for the Pareto-optimal solutions during the reconfiguration of power distribution systems considering multiobjective optimization. The encoding scheme is based on the edge window decoder (EWD technique, which was embedded in the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2 and the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II. The effectiveness of the encoding scheme was proved by solving a test problem for which the true Pareto-optimal solutions are known in advance. In order to prove the practicability of the encoding scheme, a real distribution system was used to find the near Pareto-optimal solutions for different objective functions to optimize.

  16. Pattern Recognition Techniques Applied to the Study of Leishmanial Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norka B. H. Lozano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemometric pattern recognition techniques were employed in order to obtain Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR models relating the structures of a series of adenosine compounds to the affinity for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Leishmania mexicana (LmGAPDH. A training set of 49 compounds was used to build the models and the best ones were obtained with one geometrical and four electronic descriptors. Classification models were externally validated by predictions for a test set of 14 compounds not used in the model building process. Results of good quality were obtained, as verified by the correct classifications achieved. Moreover, the results are in good agreement with previous SAR studies on these molecules, to such an extent that we can suggest that these findings may help in further investigations on ligands of LmGAPDH capable of improving treatment of leishmaniasis.

  17. Acoustic emission partial discharge detection technique applied to fault diagnosis: Case studies of generator transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanker Tangella Bhavani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In power transformers, locating the partial discharge (PD source is as important as identifying it. Acoustic Emission (AE sensing offers a good solution for both PD detection and PD source location identification. In this paper the principle of the AE technique, along with in-situ findings of the online acoustic emission signals captured from partial discharges on a number of Generator Transformers (GT, is discussed. Of the two cases discussed, the first deals with Acoustic Emission Partial Discharge (AEPD tests on two identical transformers, and the second deals with the AEPD measurement of a transformer carried out on different occasions (years. These transformers are from a hydropower station and a thermal power station in India. Tests conducted in identical transformers give the provision for comparing AE signal amplitudes from the two transformers. These case studies also help in comprehending the efficacy of integrating Dissolved Gas is (DGA data with AEPD test results in detecting and locating the PD source.

  18. An encoding technique for multiobjective evolutionary algorithms applied to power distribution system reconfiguration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado, J L; Rivas-Davalos, F; Torres, J; Maximov, S; Melgoza, E

    2014-01-01

    Network reconfiguration is an alternative to reduce power losses and optimize the operation of power distribution systems. In this paper, an encoding scheme for evolutionary algorithms is proposed in order to search efficiently for the Pareto-optimal solutions during the reconfiguration of power distribution systems considering multiobjective optimization. The encoding scheme is based on the edge window decoder (EWD) technique, which was embedded in the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2) and the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). The effectiveness of the encoding scheme was proved by solving a test problem for which the true Pareto-optimal solutions are known in advance. In order to prove the practicability of the encoding scheme, a real distribution system was used to find the near Pareto-optimal solutions for different objective functions to optimize.

  19. Global tropospheric NO2 profiles obtained from a cloud-slicing technique applied to the Aura OMI observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S.; Joiner, J.; Lamsal, L. N.; Marchenko, S. V.; Krotkov, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important trace species in the troposphere; it has adverse human health effects and also contributes to the formation of tropospheric ozone, a criteria pollutant and climate agent. We derive tropospheric NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles by applying a cloud slicing technique to data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite. In the cloud-slicing approach, the slope of the above-cloud NO2 column versus the cloud scene pressure is proportional to the NO2 VMR. We apply this technique to OMI O2-O2 cloud scene pressures and above-cloud NO2 vertical column densities from a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm. We derived a global seasonal climatology of tropospheric NO2 VMR profiles in cloudy conditions and compare the results with aircraft profiles measured during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in 2006. An analysis of our cloud slicing NO2 profiles indicates signatures of uplifted and transported anthropogenic NOx in the middle troposphere as well as lightning-generated NOx in the upper troposphere. We expect that this technique can be applied to future geostationary missions including the NASA Earth Ventures Instrument (EVI) 1 selected mission Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) over North America, the Korean Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) over the Asia-Pacific region, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel-4 over Europe.

  20. Erasing the Milky Way: New Cleaning Technique Applied to GBT Intensity Mapping Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, L.; Blake, C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Anderson, C. J.; Chang, T.-C.; Li, Y.-C.; Masi, K.W.; Switzer, E.; Pen, U.-L.; Voytek, T. C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present the first application of a new foreground removal pipeline to the current leading HI intensity mapping dataset, obtained by the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We study the 15- and 1-h field data of the GBT observations previously presented in Masui et al. (2013) and Switzer et al. (2013), covering about 41 square degrees at 0.6 less than z is less than 1.0, for which cross-correlations may be measured with the galaxy distribution of the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. In the presented pipeline, we subtract the Galactic foreground continuum and the point source contamination using an independent component analysis technique (fastica), and develop a Fourier-based optimal estimator to compute the temperature power spectrum of the intensity maps and cross-correlation with the galaxy survey data. We show that fastica is a reliable tool to subtract diffuse and point-source emission through the non-Gaussian nature of their probability distributions. The temperature power spectra of the intensity maps is dominated by instrumental noise on small scales which fastica, as a conservative sub-traction technique of non-Gaussian signals, can not mitigate. However, we determine similar GBT-WiggleZ cross-correlation measurements to those obtained by the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method, and confirm that foreground subtraction with fastica is robust against 21cm signal loss, as seen by the converged amplitude of these cross-correlation measurements. We conclude that SVD and fastica are complementary methods to investigate the foregrounds and noise systematics present in intensity mapping datasets.

  1. Structure-selection techniques applied to continuous-time nonlinear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis A.; Freitas, Ubiratan S.; Letellier, Christophe; Maquet, Jean

    2001-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of choosing the multinomials that should compose a polynomial mathematical model starting from data. The mathematical representation used is a nonlinear differential equation of the polynomial type. Some approaches that have been used in the context of discrete-time models are adapted and applied to continuous-time models. Two examples are included to illustrate the main ideas. Models obtained with and without structure selection are compared using topological analysis. The main differences between structure-selected models and complete structure models are: (i) the former are more parsimonious than the latter, (ii) a predefined fixed-point configuration can be guaranteed for the former, and (iii) the former set of models produce attractors that are topologically closer to the original attractor than those produced by the complete structure models.

  2. Applying stakeholder Delphi techniques for planning sustainable use of aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren; Banta, Gary Thomas; Bunting, Stuart W

    2015-01-01

    The HighARCS (Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development) project was a participatory research effort to map and better understand the patterns of resource use and livelihoods of communities who utilize highland aquatic resources in five sites across China, India...... and Vietnam. The purpose of this paper is to give an account of how the stakeholder Delphi method was adapted and applied to support the participatory integrated action planning for sustainable use of aquatic resources facilitated within the HighARCS project. An account of the steps taken and results recorded...... planning. It was found that the tool was not as effective as expected in creating stakeholder consensus where issues had already been the object of previous research and discussions with local stakeholders or where asymmetrical power relations between stakeholder groups constrained the reliability...

  3. Research on Key Techniques for Video Surveillance System Applied to Shipping Channel Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin; ZHUANG Yan-bin; ZHENG Cheng-zeng

    2007-01-01

    A video patrol and inspection system is an important part of the government's shipping channel information management. This system is mainly applied to video information gathering and processing as a patrol is carried out. The system described in this paper can preview, edit, and add essential explanation messages to the collected video data. It then transfers these data and messages to a video server for the leaders and engineering and technical personnel to retrieve, play, chart, download or print. Each department of the government will use the system's functions according to that department's mission. The system can provide an effective means for managing the shipping enterprise. It also provides a valuable reference for the modernizing of waterborne shipping.

  4. Inverting travel times with a triplication. [spline fitting technique applied to lunar seismic data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosch, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    A method based on the use of constrained spline fits is used to overcome the difficulties arising when body-wave data in the form of T-delta are reduced to the tau-p form in the presence of cusps. In comparison with unconstrained spline fits, the method proposed here tends to produce much smoother models which lie approximately in the middle of the bounds produced by the extremal method. The method is noniterative and, therefore, computationally efficient. The method is applied to the lunar seismic data, where at least one triplication is presumed to occur in the P-wave travel-time curve. It is shown, however, that because of an insufficient number of data points for events close to the antipode of the center of the lunar network, the present analysis is not accurate enough to resolve the problem of a possible lunar core.

  5. Discrete classification technique applied to TV advertisements liking recognition system based on low-cost EEG headsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria Morillo, Luis M; Alvarez-Garcia, Juan A; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ortega Ramírez, Juan A

    2016-07-15

    In this paper a new approach is applied to the area of marketing research. The aim of this paper is to recognize how brain activity responds during the visualization of short video advertisements using discrete classification techniques. By means of low cost electroencephalography devices (EEG), the activation level of some brain regions have been studied while the ads are shown to users. We may wonder about how useful is the use of neuroscience knowledge in marketing, or what could provide neuroscience to marketing sector, or why this approach can improve the accuracy and the final user acceptance compared to other works. By using discrete techniques over EEG frequency bands of a generated dataset, C4.5, ANN and the new recognition system based on Ameva, a discretization algorithm, is applied to obtain the score given by subjects to each TV ad. The proposed technique allows to reach more than 75 % of accuracy, which is an excellent result taking into account the typology of EEG sensors used in this work. Furthermore, the time consumption of the algorithm proposed is reduced up to 30 % compared to other techniques presented in this paper. This bring about a battery lifetime improvement on the devices where the algorithm is running, extending the experience in the ubiquitous context where the new approach has been tested.

  6. Quality of service in banks by applying the mystery shopping technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In our present times the quality of service is beyond any doubt the most significant category in the banking sector. Focus on consumers, i.e. clients over the last few years is experiencing an expansion in the services oriented activities especially in banks. The needs of users of financial services have also experienced a dynamic change and it is necessary for the banks to develop their long-term business relationship with their clients, in order to satisfy their needs and render their own business profitable. In addition, a robust competition prevails on the banking market, and very often quality of service appears to be the competitive advantage of a bank. One of the ways to measure quality of service is also its mystery shopping. Mystery shopping is measuring the conduct of staff employed in an organisation. Bank employees are being judged during their service offering interaction. Staff employed is also the first link in the chain of communication between the client and the bank. The paper is based on the presentation of the manner in which the mystery shopping is conducted in banks, and also on the presentation of results of the mystery shopping in the major banks operating in Novi Sad. The objective of this research work is to present the significance that the mystery shopping has in banks, and the problem thus resolved is the quality of services offered in banks. Methodology applied was interviewing of the staff employed, and the research and analysis of the internal materials received from banks. We are pointing out, based on the result obtained from the research, at the ways in which mystery shopping is affecting satisfaction of clients, and the ways in which through mystery shopping the high quality of service can be achieved, the one that is beyond expectations in the banking sector. Emphasis is also made at the importance that the human factor has, i.e. staff employed as an important category in measuring quality of service offered

  7. Modern Chemistry Techniques Applied to Metal Behavior and Chelation in Medical and Environmental Systems ? Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M; Andresen, B; Burastero, S R; Chiarappa-Zucca, M L; Chinn, S C; Coronado, P R; Gash, A E; Perkins, J; Sawvel, A M; Szechenyi, S C

    2005-02-03

    This report details the research and findings generated over the course of a 3-year research project funded by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD). Originally tasked with studying beryllium chemistry and chelation for the treatment of Chronic Beryllium Disease and environmental remediation of beryllium-contaminated environments, this work has yielded results in beryllium and uranium solubility and speciation associated with toxicology; specific and effective chelation agents for beryllium, capable of lowering beryllium tissue burden and increasing urinary excretion in mice, and dissolution of beryllium contamination at LLNL Site 300; {sup 9}Be NMR studies previously unstudied at LLNL; secondary ionization mass spec (SIMS) imaging of beryllium in spleen and lung tissue; beryllium interactions with aerogel/GAC material for environmental cleanup. The results show that chelator development using modern chemical techniques such as chemical thermodynamic modeling, was successful in identifying and utilizing tried and tested beryllium chelators for use in medical and environmental scenarios. Additionally, a study of uranium speciation in simulated biological fluids identified uranium species present in urine, gastric juice, pancreatic fluid, airway surface fluid, simulated lung fluid, bile, saliva, plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid.

  8. Dosimetric properties of bio minerals applied to high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila, G. B.; Caldas, L. V. E., E-mail: gbvila@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The study of the dosimetric properties such as reproducibility, the residual signal, lower detection dose, dose-response curve and fading of the thermally stimulated emission exo electronic (TSEE) signal of Brazilian bio minerals has shown that these materials present a potential use as radiation dosimeters. The reproducibility within ± 10% for oyster shell, mother-of-pearl and coral reef samples showed that the signal dispersion is small when compared with the mean value of the measurements. The study showed that the residual signal can be eliminated with a thermal treatment at 300 grades C/1 h. The lower detection dose of 9.8 Gy determined for the oyster shell samples when exposed to beta radiation and 1.6 Gy for oyster shell and mother-of-pearl samples when exposed to gamma radiation can be considered good, taking into account the high doses of this study. The materials presented linearity at the dose response curves in some ranges, but the lack of linearity in other cases presents no problem since a good mathematical description is possible. The fading study showed that the loss of TSEE signal can be minimized if the samples are protected from interferences such as light, heat and humidity. Taking into account the useful linearity range as the main dosimetric characteristic, the tiger shell and oyster shell samples are the most suitable for high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique. (Author)

  9. Comparison of motion correction techniques applied to functional near-infrared spectroscopy data from children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Su; Arredondo, Maria M.; Gomba, Megan; Confer, Nicole; DaSilva, Alexandre F.; Johnson, Timothy D.; Shalinsky, Mark; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2015-12-01

    Motion artifacts are the most significant sources of noise in the context of pediatric brain imaging designs and data analyses, especially in applications of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), in which it can completely affect the quality of the data acquired. Different methods have been developed to correct motion artifacts in fNIRS data, but the relative effectiveness of these methods for data from child and infant subjects (which is often found to be significantly noisier than adult data) remains largely unexplored. The issue is further complicated by the heterogeneity of fNIRS data artifacts. We compared the efficacy of the six most prevalent motion artifact correction techniques with fNIRS data acquired from children participating in a language acquisition task, including wavelet, spline interpolation, principal component analysis, moving average (MA), correlation-based signal improvement, and combination of wavelet and MA. The evaluation of five predefined metrics suggests that the MA and wavelet methods yield the best outcomes. These findings elucidate the varied nature of fNIRS data artifacts and the efficacy of artifact correction methods with pediatric populations, as well as help inform both the theory and practice of optical brain imaging analysis.

  10. Imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomutsa, L.; Brinkmeyer, A.; Doughty, D.

    1993-04-01

    A synergistic rock characterization methodology has been developed. It derives reservoir engineering parameters from X-ray tomography (CT) scanning, computer assisted petrographic image analysis, minipermeameter measurements, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). This rock characterization methodology is used to investigate the effect of small-scale rock heterogeneity on oil distribution and recovery. It is also used to investigate the applicability of imaging technologies to the development of scaleup procedures from core plug to whole core, by comparing the results of detailed simulations with the images ofthe fluid distributions observed by CT scanning. By using the rock and fluid detailed data generated by imaging technology describe, one can verify directly, in the laboratory, various scaling up techniques. Asan example, realizations of rock properties statistically and spatially compatible with the observed values are generated by one of the various stochastic methods available (fuming bands) and are used as simulator input. The simulation results were compared with both the simulation results using the true rock properties and the fluid distributions observed by CT. Conclusions regarding the effect of the various permeability models on waterflood oil recovery were formulated.

  11. Imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomutsa, L.; Doughty, D.; Mahmood, S.; Brinkmeyer, A.; Madden, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed understanding of rock structure and its influence on fluid entrapment, storage capacity, and flow behavior can improve the effective utilization and design of methods to increase the recovery of oil and gas from petroleum reservoirs. The dynamics of fluid flow and trapping phenomena in porous media was investigated. Miscible and immiscible displacement experiments in heterogeneous Berea and Shannon sandstone samples were monitored using X-ray computed tomography (CT scanning) to determine the effect of heterogeneities on fluid flow and trapping. The statistical analysis of pore and pore throat sizes in thin sections cut from these sandstone samples enabled the delineation of small-scale spatial distributions of porosity and permeability. Multiphase displacement experiments were conducted with micromodels constructed using thin slabs of the sandstones. The combination of the CT scanning, thin section, and micromodel techniques enables the investigation of how variations in pore characteristics influence fluid front advancement, fluid distributions, and fluid trapping. Plugs cut from the sandstone samples were investigated using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance imaging permitting the visualization of oil, water or both within individual pores. The application of these insights will aid in the proper interpretation of relative permeability, capillary pressure, and electrical resistivity data obtained from whole core studies. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Morphological analysis of the flippers in the Franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, applying X-ray technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Daniela Laura; Panebianco, María Victoria; Negri, María Fernanda; Cappozzo, Humberto Luis

    2014-07-01

    Pectoral flippers of cetaceans function to provide stability and maneuverability during locomotion. Directional asymmetry (DA) is a common feature among odontocete cetaceans, as well as sexual dimorphism (SD). For the first time DA, allometry, physical maturity, and SD of the flipper skeleton--by X-ray technique--of Pontoporia blainvillei were analyzed. The number of carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, and morphometric characters from the humerus, radius, ulna, and digit two were studied in franciscana dolphins from Buenos Aires, Argentina. The number of visible epiphyses and their degree of fusion at the proximal and distal ends of the humerus, radius, and ulna were also analyzed. The flipper skeleton was symmetrical, showing a negative allometric trend, with similar growth patterns in both sexes with the exception of the width of the radius (P ≤ 0.01). SD was found on the number of phalanges of digit two (P ≤ 0.01), ulna and digit two lengths. Females showed a higher relative ulna length and shorter relative digit two length, and the opposite occurred in males (P ≤ 0.01). Epiphyseal fusion pattern proved to be a tool to determine dolphin's age; franciscana dolphins with a mature flipper were, at least, four years old. This study indicates that the flippers of franciscana dolphins are symmetrical; both sexes show a negative allometric trend; SD is observed in radius, ulna, and digit two; and flipper skeleton allows determine the age class of the dolphins.

  13. Applying satellite remote sensing technique in disastrous rainfall systems around Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gin-Rong; Chen, Kwan-Ru; Kuo, Tsung-Hua; Liu, Chian-Yi; Lin, Tang-Huang; Chen, Liang-De

    2016-05-01

    Many people in Asia regions have been suffering from disastrous rainfalls year by year. The rainfall from typhoons or tropical cyclones (TCs) is one of their key water supply sources, but from another perspective such TCs may also bring forth unexpected heavy rainfall, thereby causing flash floods, mudslides or other disasters. So far we cannot stop or change a TC route or intensity via present techniques. Instead, however we could significantly mitigate the possible heavy casualties and economic losses if we can earlier know a TC's formation and can estimate its rainfall amount and distribution more accurate before its landfalling. In light of these problems, this short article presents methods to detect a TC's formation as earlier and to delineate its rainfall potential pattern more accurate in advance. For this first part, the satellite-retrieved air-sea parameters are obtained and used to estimate the thermal and dynamic energy fields and variation over open oceans to delineate the high-possibility typhoon occurring ocean areas and cloud clusters. For the second part, an improved tropical rainfall potential (TRaP) model is proposed with better assumptions then the original TRaP for TC rainfall band rotations, rainfall amount estimation, and topographic effect correction, to obtain more accurate TC rainfall distributions, especially for hilly and mountainous areas, such as Taiwan.

  14. Experimental Studies of Active and Passive Flow Control Techniques Applied in a Twin Air-Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshoy Ranjan Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow control in twin air-intakes is necessary to improve the performance characteristics, since the flow traveling through curved and diffused paths becomes complex, especially after merging. The paper presents a comparison between two well-known techniques of flow control: active and passive. It presents an effective design of a vortex generator jet (VGJ and a vane-type passive vortex generator (VG and uses them in twin air-intake duct in different combinations to establish their effectiveness in improving the performance characteristics. The VGJ is designed to insert flow from side wall at pitch angle of 90 degrees and 45 degrees. Corotating (parallel and counterrotating (V-shape are the configuration of vane type VG. It is observed that VGJ has the potential to change the flow pattern drastically as compared to vane-type VG. While the VGJ is directed perpendicular to the side walls of the air-intake at a pitch angle of 90 degree, static pressure recovery is increased by 7.8% and total pressure loss is reduced by 40.7%, which is the best among all other cases tested for VGJ. For bigger-sized VG attached to the side walls of the air-intake, static pressure recovery is increased by 5.3%, but total pressure loss is reduced by only 4.5% as compared to all other cases of VG.

  15. From birds to bees: applying video observation techniques to invertebrate pollinators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C J Lortie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Observation is a critical element of behavioural ecology and ethology. Here, we propose a similar set of techniques to enhance the study of the diversity patterns of invertebrate pollinators and associated plant species. In a body of avian research, cameras are set up on nests in blinds to examine chick and parent interactions. This avoids observer bias, minimizes interference, and provides numerous other benefits including timestamps, the capacity to record frequency and duration of activities, and provides a permanent archive of activity for later analyses. Hence, we propose that small video cameras in blinds can also be used to continuously monitor pollinator activity on plants thereby capitalizing on those same benefits. This method was proofed in 2010 in the alpine in BC, Canada on target focal plant species and on open mixed assemblages of plant species. Apple ipod nanos successfully recorded activity for an entire day at a time totalling 450 hours and provided sufficient resolution and field of view to both identify pollinators to recognizable taxonomic units and monitor movement and visitation rates at a scale of view of approximately 50 cm2. This method is not a replacement for pan traps or sweep nets but an opportunity to enhance these datasets with more detailed, finer-resolution data. Importantly, the test of this specific method also indicates that far more hours of observation - using any method - are likely required than most current ecological studies published to accurately estimate pollinator diversity.

  16. A Morphing Technique Applied to Lung Motions in Radiotherapy: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ motion leads to dosimetric uncertainties during a patient’s treatment. Much work has been done to quantify the dosimetric effects of lung movement during radiation treatment. There is a particular need for a good description and prediction of organ motion. To describe lung motion more precisely, we have examined the possibility of using a computer technique: a morphing algorithm. Morphing is an iterative method which consists of blending one image into another image. To evaluate the use of morphing, Four Dimensions Computed Tomography (4DCT acquisition of a patient was performed. The lungs were automatically segmented for different phases, and morphing was performed using the end-inspiration and the end-expiration phase scans only. Intermediate morphing files were compared with 4DCT intermediate images. The results showed good agreement between morphing images and 4DCT images: fewer than 2 % of the 512 by 256 voxels were wrongly classified as belonging/not belonging to a lung section. This paper presents preliminary results, and our morphing algorithm needs improvement. We can infer that morphing offers considerable advantages in terms of radiation protection of the patient during the diagnosis phase, handling of artifacts, definition of organ contours and description of organ motion.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of the 'Green' Techniques Applied for Polyphenols Extraction from Bioresources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmaciu, Adina Iulia; Volf, Irina; Popa, Valentin I

    2015-11-01

    From all the valuable biomass extractives, polyphenols are a widespread group of secondary metabolites found in all plants, representing the most desirable phytochemicals due to their potential to be used as additives in food industry, cosmetics, medicine, and others fields. At present, there is an increased interest to recover them from plant of spontaneous flora, cultivated plant, and wastes resulted in agricultural and food industry. That is why many efforts have been made to provide a highly sensitive, efficiently, and eco-friendly methods, for the extraction of polyphenols, according to the green chemistry and sustainable development concepts. Many extraction procedures are known with advantages and disadvantages. From these reasons, the aim of this article is to provide a comparative analysis regarding technical and economical aspects related to the most innovative extraction techniques studied in the last time: microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Erasing the Milky Way: new cleaning technique applied to GBT intensity mapping data

    CERN Document Server

    Wolz, L; Abdalla, F B; Anderson, C M; Chang, T -C; Li, Y -C; Masui, K W; Switzer, E; Pen, U -L; Voytek, T C; Yadav, J

    2015-01-01

    We present the first application of a new foreground removal pipeline to the current leading HI intensity mapping dataset, obtained by the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We study the 15hr and 1hr field data of the GBT observations previously presented in Masui et al. (2013) and Switzer et al. (2013) covering about 41 square degrees at 0.6 < z < 1.0 which overlaps with the WiggleZ galaxy survey employed for the cross-correlation with the maps. In the presented pipeline, we subtract the Galactic foreground continuum and the point source contaminations using an independent component analysis technique (fastica) and develop a description for a Fourier-based optimal weighting estimator to compute the temperature power spectrum of the intensity maps and cross-correlation with the galaxy survey data. We show that fastica is a reliable tool to subtract diffuse and point-source emission by using the non-Gaussian nature of their probability functions. The power spectra of the intensity maps and the cross-correlation...

  19. Blade Displacement Measurement Technique Applied to a Full-Scale Rotor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Olson, Lawrence E.; Romander, Ethan A.; Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    2012-01-01

    Blade displacement measurements using multi-camera photogrammetry were acquired during the full-scale wind tunnel test of the UH-60A Airloads rotor, conducted in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The objectives were to measure the blade displacement and deformation of the four rotor blades as they rotated through the entire rotor azimuth. These measurements are expected to provide a unique dataset to aid in the development and validation of rotorcraft prediction techniques. They are used to resolve the blade shape and position, including pitch, flap, lag and elastic deformation. Photogrammetric data encompass advance ratios from 0.15 to slowed rotor simulations of 1.0, thrust coefficient to rotor solidity ratios from 0.01 to 0.13, and rotor shaft angles from -10.0 to 8.0 degrees. An overview of the blade displacement measurement methodology and system development, descriptions of image processing, uncertainty considerations, preliminary results covering static and moderate advance ratio test conditions and future considerations are presented. Comparisons of experimental and computational results for a moderate advance ratio forward flight condition show good trend agreements, but also indicate significant mean discrepancies in lag and elastic twist. Blade displacement pitch measurements agree well with both the wind tunnel commanded and measured values.

  20. Comparison Study of Different Lossy Compression Techniques Applied on Digital Mammogram Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman AbuBaker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The huge growth of the usage of internet increases the need to transfer and save multimedia files. Mammogram images are part of these files that have large image size with high resolution. The compression of these images is used to reduce the size of the files without degrading the quality especially the suspicious regions in the mammogram images. Reduction of the size of these images gives more chance to store more images and minimize the cost of transmission in the case of exchanging information between radiologists. Many techniques exists in the literature to solve the loss of information in images. In this paper, two types of compression transformations are used which are Singular Value Decomposition (SVD that transforms the image into series of Eigen vectors that depends on the dimensions of the image and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT that covert the image from spatial domain into frequency domain. In this paper, the Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD system is implemented to evaluate the microcalcification appearance in mammogram images after using the two transformation compressions. The performance of both transformations SVD and DCT is subjectively compared by a radiologist. As a result, the DCT algorithm can effectively reduce the size of the mammogram images by 65% with high quality microcalcification appearance regions.

  1. Digital Image Correlation Techniques Applied to Large Scale Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Rocket engine hot-fire ground testing is necessary to understand component performance, reliability and engine system interactions during development. The J-2X upper stage engine completed a series of developmental hot-fire tests that derived performance of the engine and components, validated analytical models and provided the necessary data to identify where design changes, process improvements and technology development were needed. The J-2X development engines were heavily instrumented to provide the data necessary to support these activities which enabled the team to investigate any anomalies experienced during the test program. This paper describes the development of an optical digital image correlation technique to augment the data provided by traditional strain gauges which are prone to debonding at elevated temperatures and limited to localized measurements. The feasibility of this optical measurement system was demonstrated during full scale hot-fire testing of J-2X, during which a digital image correlation system, incorporating a pair of high speed cameras to measure three-dimensional, real-time displacements and strains was installed and operated under the extreme environments present on the test stand. The camera and facility setup, pre-test calibrations, data collection, hot-fire test data collection and post-test analysis and results are presented in this paper.

  2. Applying stereotactic injection technique to study genetic effects on animal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Colleen; Mao, Yingwei

    2015-05-10

    Stereotactic injection is a useful technique to deliver high titer lentiviruses to targeted brain areas in mice. Lentiviruses can either overexpress or knockdown gene expression in a relatively focused region without significant damage to the brain tissue. After recovery, the injected mouse can be tested on various behavioral tasks such as the Open Field Test (OFT) and the Forced Swim Test (FST). The OFT is designed to assess locomotion and the anxious phenotype in mice by measuring the amount of time that a mouse spends in the center of a novel open field. A more anxious mouse will spend significantly less time in the center of the novel field compared to controls. The FST assesses the anti-depressive phenotype by quantifying the amount of time that mice spend immobile when placed into a bucket of water. A mouse with an anti-depressive phenotype will spend significantly less time immobile compared to control animals. The goal of this protocol is to use the stereotactic injection of a lentivirus in conjunction with behavioral tests to assess how genetic factors modulate animal behaviors.

  3. Experimental studies of active and passive flow control techniques applied in a twin air-intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Akshoy Ranjan; Joshi, Shrey; Jindal, Aman; Maurya, Shivam P; Jain, Anuj

    2013-01-01

    The flow control in twin air-intakes is necessary to improve the performance characteristics, since the flow traveling through curved and diffused paths becomes complex, especially after merging. The paper presents a comparison between two well-known techniques of flow control: active and passive. It presents an effective design of a vortex generator jet (VGJ) and a vane-type passive vortex generator (VG) and uses them in twin air-intake duct in different combinations to establish their effectiveness in improving the performance characteristics. The VGJ is designed to insert flow from side wall at pitch angle of 90 degrees and 45 degrees. Corotating (parallel) and counterrotating (V-shape) are the configuration of vane type VG. It is observed that VGJ has the potential to change the flow pattern drastically as compared to vane-type VG. While the VGJ is directed perpendicular to the side walls of the air-intake at a pitch angle of 90 degree, static pressure recovery is increased by 7.8% and total pressure loss is reduced by 40.7%, which is the best among all other cases tested for VGJ. For bigger-sized VG attached to the side walls of the air-intake, static pressure recovery is increased by 5.3%, but total pressure loss is reduced by only 4.5% as compared to all other cases of VG.

  4. Machine Learning Techniques Applied to Sensor Data Correction in Building Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Matt K [ORNL; Castello, Charles C [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Since commercial and residential buildings account for nearly half of the United States' energy consumption, making them more energy-efficient is a vital part of the nation's overall energy strategy. Sensors play an important role in this research by collecting data needed to analyze performance of components, systems, and whole-buildings. Given this reliance on sensors, ensuring that sensor data are valid is a crucial problem. Solutions being researched are machine learning techniques, namely: artificial neural networks and Bayesian Networks. Types of data investigated in this study are: (1) temperature; (2) humidity; (3) refrigerator energy consumption; (4) heat pump liquid pressure; and (5) water flow. These data are taken from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) ZEBRAlliance research project which is composed of four single-family homes in Oak Ridge, TN. Results show that for the temperature, humidity, pressure, and flow sensors, data can mostly be predicted with root-mean-square error (RMSE) of less than 10% of the respective sensor's mean value. Results for the energy sensor are not as good; RMSE are centered about 100% of the mean value and are often well above 200%. Bayesian networks have RSME of less than 5% of the respective sensor's mean value, but took substantially longer to train.

  5. Hyperspectral imaging techniques applied to the monitoring of wine waste anaerobic digestion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serranti, Silvia; Fabbri, Andrea; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    An anaerobic digestion process, finalized to biogas production, is characterized by different steps involving the variation of some chemical and physical parameters related to the presence of specific biomasses as: pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile solids, nitrate (NO3-) and phosphate (PO3-). A correct process characterization requires a periodical sampling of the organic mixture in the reactor and a further analysis of the samples by traditional chemical-physical methods. Such an approach is discontinuous, time-consuming and expensive. A new analytical approach based on hyperspectral imaging in the NIR field (1000 to 1700 nm) is investigated and critically evaluated, with reference to the monitoring of wine waste anaerobic digestion process. The application of the proposed technique was addressed to identify and demonstrate the correlation existing, in terms of quality and reliability of the results, between "classical" chemical-physical parameters and spectral features of the digestate samples. Good results were obtained, ranging from a R2=0.68 and a RMSECV=12.83 mg/l for nitrate to a R2=0.90 and a RMSECV=5495.16 mg O2/l for COD. The proposed approach seems very useful in setting up innovative control strategies allowing for full, continuous control of the anaerobic digestion process.

  6. Muscle stiffness estimation using a system identification technique applied to evoked mechanomyogram during cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Takanori; Saito, Kaito; Shinjo, Katsuya

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a method to extract the evoked mechanomyogram (MMG) during cycling exercise and to clarify muscle stiffness at various cadences, workloads, and power. Ten young healthy male participants were instructed to pedal a cycle ergometer at cadences of 40 and 60 rpm. The loads were 4.9, 9.8, 14.7, and 19.6 N, respectively. One electrical stimulus per two pedal rotations was applied to the vastus lateralis muscle at a knee angle of 80° in the down phase. MMGs were measured using a capacitor microphone, and the MMGs were divided into stimulated and non-stimulated sequences. Each sequence was synchronously averaged. The synchronously averaged non-stimulated MMG was subtracted from the synchronously averaged stimulated MMG to extract an evoked MMG. The evoked MMG system was identified and the poles of the transfer function were calculated. The poles and mass of the vastus lateralis muscle were used to estimate muscle stiffness. Results showed that muscle stiffness was 186-626 N /m and proportional to the workloads and power. In conclusion, our method can be used to assess muscle stiffness proportional to the workload and power.

  7. Evaluation and optimisation of bacterial genomic DNA extraction for no-culture techniques applied to vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlouk, Dhouha; Hidalgo, Claudio; Torija, María-Jesús; Gullo, Maria

    2011-10-01

    Direct genomic DNA extraction from vinegars was set up and suitability for PCR assays performed by PCR/DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The method was tested on 12 intermediary products of special vinegars, fruit vinegars and condiments produced from different raw materials and procedures. DNAs extraction was performed on pellets by chemical, enzymatic, resin mediated methods and their modifications. Suitable yield and DNA purity were obtained by modification of a method based on the use of PVP/CTAB to remove polyphenolic components and esopolysaccharides. By sequencing of bands from DGGE gel, Gluconacetobacter europaeus, Acetobacter malorum/cerevisiae and Acetobacter orleanensis were detected as main species in samples having more than 4% of acetic acid content. From samples having no acetic acid content, sequences retrieved from excised bands revealed high similarity with prokaryotes with no function on vinegar fermentation: Burkholderia spp., Cupriavidus spp., Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The method was suitable to be applied for no-culture study of vinegars containing polyphenols and esopolysaccharides allowing a more complete assessment of vinegar bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A non-intrusive measurement technique applying CARS for concentration measurement in a gas mixing flow

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Ken; Moriya, Madoka; Kuriyama, Reiko; Sato, Yohei

    2015-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope system was built and applied to a non-intrusive gas concentration measurement of a mixing flow in a millimeter-scale channel. Carbon dioxide and nitrogen were chosen as test fluids and CARS signals from the fluids were generated by adjusting the wavelengths of the Pump and the Stokes beams. The generated CARS signals, whose wavelengths are different from those of the Pump and the Stokes beams, were captured by an EM-CCD camera after filtering out the excitation beams. A calibration experiment was performed in order to confirm the applicability of the built-up CARS system by measuring the intensity of the CARS signal from known concentrations of the samples. After confirming that the measured CARS intensity was proportional to the second power of the concentrations as was theoretically predicted, the CARS intensities in the gas mixing flow channel were measured. Ten different measurement points were set and concentrations of both carbon dioxide and nitrog...

  9. Costs of Lost opportunities: Applying Non-Market Valuation Techniques to Potential REDD+ Participants in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Y. Thompson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ has been systematically advanced within the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. However, implementing REDD+ in a populated landscape requires information on local costs and acceptability of changed practices. To supply such information, many studies have adopted approaches that explore the opportunity cost of maintaining land as forest rather than converting it to agricultural uses. These approaches typically assume that the costs to the smallholder are borne exclusively through the loss or gain of the production values associated with specific categories of land use. However, evaluating the value of land to smallholders in incomplete and messy institutional and economic contexts entails other considerations, such as varying portfolios of land holdings, tenure arrangements, restricted access to capital, and unreliable food markets. We suggest that contingent valuation (CV methods may provide a more complete reflection of the viability of REDD+ in multiple-use landscapes than do opportunity cost approaches. The CV approach eliminates the need to assume a homogenous smallholder, and instead assumes heterogeneity around social, economic and institutional contexts. We apply this approach in a southern rural Cameroonian context, through the lens of a hypothetical REDD+ contract. Our findings suggest local costs of REDD+ contracts to be higher and much more variable than opportunity cost estimates.

  10. Zoneless and Mixture techniques applied to the Integrated Brazilian PSHA using GEM-OpenQuake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirchiner, M.; Drouet, S.; Assumpcao, M.

    2013-12-01

    The main goal of this work is to propose some variations to the classic Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) calculations, on one hand, applying the zoneless methodology to seismic source activity characterization and, on the other hand, using the gaussian mixture models to mix Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE) models onto a mixed model. Our actual knowledge of the Brazilian intraplate seismicity does not allow us to identify the causative neotectonic active faults with confidence. This issue makes difficult the characterization of main seismic sources and the computation of the Gutenberg-Richter relation. Indeed seismic zonings made by different specialist could have big differences, while the zone less approach imposes a quantitative method to seismic source characterization, avoiding the subjective source zone definition. In addition, the low seismicity rate and the limited coverage in space and time of the seismic networks, do not offer enough observations to fit a confident GMPE to this region. In this case, our purpose was use a Gaussian Mixture Model to estimate a composed model from pre-existents well-fitted GMPE models which better describes the observed peak ground motion data. The other methodological evaluation is to use the OpenQuake engine (a Global Earthquake Model's initiative) for the hazard calculation. The logic tree input will allow us, in near future, to combine with weights, other hazard models from different specialists. We expect that these results will offer a new and solid basis to upgrade the brazilian civil engineering seismic rules.

  11. BiasMDP: Carrier lifetime characterization technique with applied bias voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Paul M., E-mail: paul.jordan@namlab.com; Simon, Daniel K.; Dirnstorfer, Ingo [Nanoelectronic Materials Laboratory gGmbH (NaMLab), Nöthnitzer Straße 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Mikolajick, Thomas [Nanoelectronic Materials Laboratory gGmbH (NaMLab), Nöthnitzer Straße 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Halbleiter- und Mikrosystemtechnik, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-02-09

    A characterization method is presented, which determines fixed charge and interface defect densities in passivation layers. This method bases on a bias voltage applied to an electrode on top of the passivation layer. During a voltage sweep, the effective carrier lifetime is measured by means of microwave detected photoconductivity. When the external voltage compensates the electric field of the fixed charges, the lifetime drops to a minimum value. This minimum value correlates to the flat band voltage determined in reference impedance measurements. This correlation is measured on p-type silicon passivated by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2} stacks with different fixed charge densities and layer thicknesses. Negative fixed charges with densities of 3.8 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} and 0.7 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} are determined for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers without and with an ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} interface, respectively. The voltage and illumination dependencies of the effective carrier lifetime are simulated with Shockley Read Hall surface recombination at continuous defects with parabolic capture cross section distributions for electrons and holes. The best match with the measured data is achieved with a very low interface defect density of 1 × 10{sup 10 }eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample with HfO{sub 2} interface.

  12. Geophysics publications honored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysics and geology publications by the U.S. Geological Survey were awarded one first- and two third-place prizes at the ‘Blue Pencil’ ceremony last month, sponsored by the National Association of Government Communicators.First place in the news release category went to Frank Forrester, an AGU member and recently retired USGS information officer. Editors and artists of the bimonthly USGS Earthquake Information Bulletin were awarded third place in the category for technical magazines using at least two colors.

  13. 煤巷空间地质异常体超前综合物探研究与应用%The applied research of fore detecting geologic abnormal body with comprehensive geophysical prospecting method in coal roadway space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孝广

    2016-01-01

    在煤矿开采过程中,80%以上事故发生在煤巷掘进中,主要原因是对井下地质条件不清,盲目掘进。为解决重点区域掘进过程中透水突泥,煤岩突出,冲击地压等地质异常灾害,很有必要开展煤巷综合物探研究。本文主要介绍地震反射波、瞬变电磁、直流电法在成庄矿5312巷综合超前探测中具体研究应用与揭露验证,保障了井巷安全快速高效掘进。%In the process of coal mining, more than 80% of the accident in drivage roadway, mainly for the unclear underground geological conditions, blind tunneling. To solve the problem in the process of excavating permeable clay, coal and rock, geological disasters, such as impact ground pressure, it is necessary to carry out the integrated geophysical research. This paper mainly introduces the seismic reflection wave, transient electromagnetic,direct current method in Chengzhuang coal mine of lane 5312 comprehensive geophysical fore detecting of specific application and veriifcation,to ensure the safety of mine tunneling and efifciently.

  14. Time-domain electromagnetic surveys at Fort Irwin, San Bernardino County, California, 2010-12: Chapter F in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Matthew K.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Buesch, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Between 2010 and 2012, a total of 79 time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) soundings were collected in 12 groundwater basins in the U.S. Army Fort Irwin National Training Center (NTC) study area to help improve the understanding of the hydrogeology of the NTC. The TEM data are discussed in this chapter in the context of geologic observations of the study area, the details of which are provided in the other chapters of this volume. Selection of locations for TEM soundings in unexplored basins was guided by gravity data that estimated depth to pre-Tertiary basement complex of crystalline rock and alluvial thickness. Some TEM data were collected near boreholes with geophysical logs. The TEM response at locations near boreholes was used to evaluate sounding data for areas without boreholes. TEM models also were used to guide site selection of subsequent boreholes drilled as part of this study. Following borehole completion, geophysical logs were used to ground-truth and reinterpret previously collected TEM data. This iterative process was used to site subsequent TEM soundings and borehole locations as the study progressed. Although each groundwater subbasin within the NTC boundaries was explored using the TEM method, collection of TEM data was focused in those basins identified as best suited for development of water resources. At the NTC, TEM estimates of some lithologic thicknesses and electrical properties in the unsaturated zone are in good accordance with borehole data; however, water-table elevations were not easily identifiable from TEM data.

  15. APPLIED PHYTO-REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES USING HALOPHYTES FOR OIL AND BRINE SPILL SCARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.L. Korphage; Bruce G. Langhus; Scott Campbell

    2003-03-01

    Produced salt water from historical oil and gas production was often managed with inadequate care and unfortunate consequences. In Kansas, the production practices in the 1930's and 1940's--before statewide anti-pollution laws--were such that fluids were often produced to surface impoundments where the oil would segregate from the salt water. The oil was pumped off the pits and the salt water was able to infiltrate into the subsurface soil zones and underlying bedrock. Over the years, oil producing practices were changed so that segregation of fluids was accomplished in steel tanks and salt water was isolated from the natural environment. But before that could happen, significant areas of the state were scarred by salt water. These areas are now in need of economical remediation. Remediation of salt scarred land can be facilitated with soil amendments, land management, and selection of appropriate salt tolerant plants. Current research on the salt scars around the old Leon Waterflood, in Butler County, Kansas show the relative efficiency of remediation options. Based upon these research findings, it is possible to recommend cost efficient remediation techniques for slight, medium, and heavy salt water damaged soil. Slight salt damage includes soils with Electrical Conductivity (EC) values of 4.0 mS/cm or less. Operators can treat these soils with sufficient amounts of gypsum, install irrigation systems, and till the soil. Appropriate plants can be introduced via transplants or seeded. Medium salt damage includes soils with EC values between 4.0 and 16 mS/cm. Operators will add amendments of gypsum, till the soil, and arrange for irrigation. Some particularly salt tolerant plants can be added but most planting ought to be reserved until the second season of remediation. Severe salt damage includes soil with EC values in excess of 16 mS/cm. Operators will add at least part of the gypsum required, till the soil, and arrange for irrigation. The following

  16. Statistical Mechanics Ideas and Techniques Applied to Selected Problems in Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fort

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem dynamics provides an interesting arena for the application of a plethora concepts and techniques from statistical mechanics. Here I review three examples corresponding each one to an important problem in ecology. First, I start with an analytical derivation of clumpy patterns for species relative abundances (SRA empirically observed in several ecological communities involving a high number n of species, a phenomenon which have puzzled ecologists for decades. An interesting point is that this derivation uses results obtained from a statistical mechanics model for ferromagnets. Second, going beyond the mean field approximation, I study the spatial version of a popular ecological model involving just one species representing vegetation. The goal is to address the phenomena of catastrophic shifts—gradual cumulative variations in some control parameter that suddenly lead to an abrupt change in the system—illustrating it by means of the process of desertification of arid lands. The focus is on the aggregation processes and the effects of diffusion that combined lead to the formation of non trivial spatial vegetation patterns. It is shown that different quantities—like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness—may serve as early warnings for the desertification of arid lands. Remarkably, in the onset of a desertification transition the distribution of vegetation patches exhibits scale invariance typical of many physical systems in the vicinity a phase transition. I comment on similarities of and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid. Third, I analyze the case of many species interacting in space. I choose tropical forests, which are mega-diverse ecosystems that exhibit remarkable dynamics. Therefore these ecosystems represent a research paradigm both for studies of complex systems dynamics as well as to

  17. Lipase immobilized by different techniques on various support materials applied in oil hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VILMA MINOVSKA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Batch hydrolysis of olive oil was performed by Candida rugosa lipase immobilized on Amberlite IRC-50 and Al2O3. These two supports were selected out of 16 carriers: inorganic materials (sand, silica gel, infusorial earth, Al2O3, inorganic salts (CaCO3, CaSO4, ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-50 and IR-4B, Dowex 2X8, a natural resin (colophony, a natural biopolymer (sodium alginate, synthetic polymers (polypropylene, polyethylene and zeolites. Lipase immobilization was carried out by simple adsorption, adsorption followed by cross-linking, adsorption on ion-exchange resins, combined adsorption and precipitation, pure precipitation and gel entrapment. The suitability of the supports and techniques for the immobilization of lipase was evaluated by estimating the enzyme activity, protein loading, immobilization efficiency and reusability of the immobilizates. Most of the immobilizates exhibited either a low enzyme activity or difficulties during the hydrolytic reaction. Only those prepared by ionic adsorption on Amberlite IRC-50 and by combined adsorption and precipitation on Al2O3 showed better activity, 2000 and 430 U/g support, respectively, and demonstrated satisfactory behavior when used repeatedly. The hydrolysis was studied as a function of several parameters: surfactant concentration, enzyme concentration, pH and temperature. The immobilized preparation with Amberlite IRC-50 was stable and active in the whole range of pH (4 to 9 and temperature (20 to 50 °C, demonstrating a 99% degree of hydrolysis. In repeated usage, it was stable and active having a half-life of 16 batches, which corresponds to an operation time of 384 h. Its storage stability was remarkable too, since after 9 months it had lost only 25 % of the initial activity. The immobilizate with Al22O3 was less stable and less active. At optimal environmental conditions, the degree of hydrolysis did not exceed 79 %. In repeated usage, after the fourth batch, the degree of

  18. Geophysical subsurface imaging for ecological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawickreme, Dushmantha H; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Jackson, Robert B

    2014-03-01

    Ecologists, ecohydrologists, and biogeochemists need detailed insights into belowground properties and processes, including changes in water, salts, and other elements that can influence ecosystem productivity and functioning. Relying on traditional sampling and observation techniques for such insights can be costly, time consuming, and infeasible, especially if the spatial scales involved are large. Geophysical imaging provides an alternative or complement to traditional methods to gather subsurface variables across time and space. In this paper, we review aspects of geophysical imaging, particularly electrical and electromagnetic imaging, that may benefit ecologists seeking clearer understanding of the shallow subsurface. Using electrical resistivity imaging, for example, we have been able to successfully show the effect of land-use conversions to agriculture on salt mobilization and leaching across kilometer-long transects and to depths of tens of meters. Recent advances in ground-penetrating radar and other geophysical imaging methods currently provide opportunities for subsurface imaging with sufficient detail to locate small (≥5 cm diameter) animal burrows and plant roots, observe soil-water and vegetation spatial correlations in small watersheds, estuaries, and marshes, and quantify changes in groundwater storage at local to regional scales using geophysical data from ground- and space-based platforms. Ecologists should benefit from adopting these minimally invasive, scalable imaging technologies to explore the subsurface and advance our collective research.

  19. Geomorphic changes of a scarp on a slope gully by applying 3D photo-reconstruction technique (Duratón river valley, central Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Lourdes; Tanarro, Luis M.

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances in the field of photogrammetry and the computer vision has allowed the improvement of the art 3D Photo-Reconstruction (FR-3D). This technique, which uses Structure from Motion (SfM) and Multi-View Stereo (MVS) reconstruction algorithms, allows us to obtain three-dimensional models of the terrain of high resolution. Its application in the field of Earth Sciences is recent (Westoby et al., 2012, James and Robson, 2012), and has been applied mainly to evaluate the activity of different morphodynamic environments (coastal cliffs, gully erosion, etc.). In this work the FR-3D technique is applied to analyze the geomorphological dynamics of a scarp modelled on the valley-side gully of the right side of the Duraton river (41° 16'N, 3°39'W, 988 m, central Spain). The scarp has a length of about 50 m and a height in the central part of 10 m and the lithology is constituted by red clays with levels of conglomerates of Miocene age. Photographs along the scarp have been taken with a compact digital camera (Canon PowerShot S95, 10 MP) in two different time periods (2014/08/27 and 2016/02/06), and have been processed using Bentley ContextCapture software, generating the respective 3D meshes and from these, directly the Digital Surface Models (DSM) for each date. Finally, DSMs have been compared, obtaining the difference in surface elevations. Previously, at the base of the scarp were placed three wood-stakes, whose coordinates were obtained by GPS, and have been used as control points for georreferencing the models. The DMS obtained have a high resolution (the default cell size of each model are 0.0039 m and 0.0063 m respectively). Volumetric change from elevation differences for the entire time interval (529 days) shows a predominance of sedimentation against erosion (426.79 m3 versus 65.61 m3). In conclusion, FR-3D technique provides high resolution Digital Surface Models, allowing to detect changes in the surface at a high level of detail (cm or even mm

  20. Monitoring DNAPL pumping using integrated geophysical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The removal of DNAPL during pumping was monitored. At Hill AFB in Utah, a free-product DNAPL plume (predominantly TCE, with some TCA, PCE, methylene chloride) is pooled in water-wet soil on a thick clay aquitard. Groundwater pumping at Operable Unit 2 began in 1994; to date, nearly 30,000 gal DNAPL have been recovered. From Sept. 1994 through Sept. 1995, changes in the basin during DNAPL pumping were monitored using fiber optic chemical sensors, neutron logs, and electrical resistance tomography (ERT). The first two sensor types verify the presence of DNAPL in vicinity of 3 boreholes which form a cross section from the perimeter of the basin to its center. Cross borehole ERT images the changes in formation electrical properties due to removal of DNAPL, extending the understanding of DNAPL removal between the boreholes. During pumping, electrical resistivities decreased; we suggest these decreases are directly caused by the reduction in DNAPL. During ground water pumping, water with relatively low resistivity replaces some of the DNAPL pockets as the highly insulating DNAPL is removed. Results suggest that, as DNAPL is pumped from a nearby well, product slowly drains along the top of an aquitard and into the pump well, where it collects.

  1. Fielding the magnetically applied pressure-shear technique on the Z accelerator (completion report for MRT 4519).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, C. Scott; Haill, Thomas A.; Dalton, Devon Gardner; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Lamppa, Derek C.

    2013-09-01

    The recently developed Magnetically Applied Pressure-Shear (MAPS) experimental technique to measure material shear strength at high pressures on magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) drive pulsed power platforms was fielded on August 16, 2013 on shot Z2544 utilizing hardware set A0283A. Several technical and engineering challenges were overcome in the process leading to the attempt to measure the dynamic strength of NNSA Ta at 50 GPa. The MAPS technique relies on the ability to apply an external magnetic field properly aligned and time correlated with the MHD pulse. The load design had to be modified to accommodate the external field coils and additional support was required to manage stresses from the pulsed magnets. Further, this represents the first time transverse velocity interferometry has been applied to diagnose a shot at Z. All subsystems performed well with only minor issues related to the new feed design which can be easily addressed by modifying the current pulse shape. Despite the success of each new component, the experiment failed to measure strength in the samples due to spallation failure, most likely in the diamond anvils. To address this issue, hydrocode simulations are being used to evaluate a modified design using LiF windows to minimize tension in the diamond and prevent spall. Another option to eliminate the diamond material from the experiment is also being investigated.

  2. Application of geophysical methods for fracture characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.H.; Majer, E.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); McEvilly, T.V. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Morrison, H.F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1990-01-01

    One of the most crucial needs in the design and implementation of an underground waste isolation facility is a reliable method for the detection and characterization of fractures in zones away from boreholes or subsurface workings. Geophysical methods may represent a solution to this problem. If fractures represent anomalies in the elastic properties or conductive properties of the rocks, then the seismic and electrical techniques may be useful in detecting and characterizing fracture properties. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which I and my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same ti...

  4. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which land my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same tim...

  5. Applying aerial digital photography as a spectral remote sensing technique for macrophytic cover assessment in small rural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Y.; Hershkovitz, Y.; Gasith, A.; Ben-Dor, E.

    2011-12-01

    Although remote sensing of fluvial ecosystems is well developed, the tradeoff between spectral and spatial resolutions prevents its application in small streams (cognitive color) and high spatial resolution of aerial photography provides noise filtration and better sub-water detection capabilities than the HSR technique. C. Only the SRGB method applies for habitat and section scales; hence, its application together with in-situ grid transects for validation, may be optimal for use in similar scenarios. The HSR dataset was first degraded to 17 bands with the same spectral range as the RGB dataset and also to a dataset with 3 equivalent bands

  6. Wavelet correlations to reveal multiscale coupling in geophysical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Casagrande, Erik; Miralles, Diego; Entekhabi, Dara; Molini, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between climate and the environment are highly complex. Due to this complexity, process-based models are often preferred to estimate the net magnitude and directionality of interactions in the Earth System. However, these models are based on simplifications of our understanding of nature, thus are unavoidably imperfect. Conversely, observation-based data of climatic and environmental variables are becoming increasingly accessible over large scales due to the progress of space-borne sensing technologies and data-assimilation techniques. Albeit uncertain, these data enable the possibility to start unraveling complex multivariable, multiscale relationships if the appropriate statistical methods are applied. Here, we investigate the potential of the wavelet cross-correlation method as a tool for identifying multiscale interactions, feedback and regime shifts in geophysical systems. The ability of wavelet cross-correlation to resolve the fast and slow components of coupled systems is tested on syn...

  7. Applying a nonlinear, pitch-catch, ultrasonic technique for the detection of kissing bonds in friction stir welds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrue, Steven; Tabatabaeipour, Morteza; Hettler, Jan; Van Den Abeele, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a promising technology for the joining of aluminum alloys and other metallic admixtures that are hard to weld by conventional fusion welding. Although FSW generally provides better fatigue properties than traditional fusion welding methods, fatigue properties are still significantly lower than for the base material. Apart from voids, kissing bonds for instance, in the form of closed cracks propagating along the interface of the stirred and heat affected zone, are inherent features of the weld and can be considered as one of the main causes of a reduced fatigue life of FSW in comparison to the base material. The main problem with kissing bond defects in FSW, is that they currently are very difficult to detect using existing NDT methods. Besides, in most cases, the defects are not directly accessible from the exposed surface. Therefore, new techniques capable of detecting small kissing bond flaws need to be introduced. In the present paper, a novel and practical approach is introduced based on a nonlinear, single-sided, ultrasonic technique. The proposed inspection technique uses two single element transducers, with the first transducer transmitting an ultrasonic signal that focuses the ultrasonic waves at the bottom side of the sample where cracks are most likely to occur. The large amount of energy at the focus activates the kissing bond, resulting in the generation of nonlinear features in the wave propagation. These nonlinear features are then captured by the second transducer operating in pitch-catch mode, and are analyzed, using pulse inversion, to reveal the presence of a defect. The performance of the proposed nonlinear, pitch-catch technique, is first illustrated using a numerical study of an aluminum sample containing simple, vertically oriented, incipient cracks. Later, the proposed technique is also applied experimentally on a real-life friction stir welded butt joint containing a kissing bond flaw. Copyright © 2016

  8. 2D and 3D optical diagnostic techniques applied to Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Gambino, M. C.; Greco, M.; Marras, L.; Materazzi, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Pelagotti, A.; Pezzati, L.; Poggi, P.; Sanapo, C.

    2005-06-01

    3D measurement and modelling have been traditionally applied to statues, buildings, archeological sites or similar large structures, but rarely to paintings. Recently, however, 3D measurements have been performed successfully also on easel paintings, allowing to detect and document the painting's surface. We used 3D models to integrate the results of various 2D imaging techniques on a common reference frame. These applications show how the 3D shape information, complemented with 2D colour maps as well as with other types of sensory data, provide the most interesting information. The 3D data acquisition was carried out by means of two devices: a high-resolution laser micro-profilometer, composed of a commercial distance meter mounted on a scanning device, and a laser-line scanner. The 2D data acquisitions were carried out using a scanning device for simultaneous RGB colour imaging and IR reflectography, and a UV fluorescence multispectral image acquisition system. We present here the results of the techniques described, applied to the analysis of an important painting of the Italian Reinassance: `Madonna dei Fusi', attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

  9. Sampling functions for geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacaglia, G. E. O.; Lunquist, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    A set of spherical sampling functions is defined such that they are related to spherical-harmonic functions in the same way that the sampling functions of information theory are related to sine and cosine functions. An orderly distribution of (N + 1) squared sampling points on a sphere is given, for which the (N + 1) squared spherical sampling functions span the same linear manifold as do the spherical-harmonic functions through degree N. The transformations between the spherical sampling functions and the spherical-harmonic functions are given by recurrence relations. The spherical sampling functions of two arguments are extended to three arguments and to nonspherical reference surfaces. Typical applications of this formalism to geophysical topics are sketched.

  10. Geophysics of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A physical model of Mars is presented on the basis of light-scattering observations of the Martian atmosphere and surface and interior data obtained from observations of the geopotential field. A general description of the atmosphere is presented, with attention given to the circulation and the various cloud types, and data and questions on the blue haze-clearing effect and the seasonal darkening wave are summarized and the Mie scattering model developed to explain these observations is presented. The appearance of the planet from earth and spacecraft through Mariner 9 is considered, and attention is given to the preparation of topographical contour maps, the canal problem and large-scale lineaments observed from Mariner 9, the gravity field and shape of the planet and the application of Runcorn's geoid/convection theory to Mars. Finally, a summary of Viking results is presented and their application to the understanding of Martian geophysics is discussed.

  11. Sustainable Geophysical Observatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Aster, R.; Beck, S.; Ekstrom, G.; Nyblade, A.; Sandvol, E.

    2007-05-01

    Geophysical networks are defined not only by their technical specifications, but also by the characteristics and needs of the communities that use them. Growing populations supported by more elaborate urban infrastructure with its fine-grained socio-economic interdependencies and relying on global and regional connections for sustainability make new demands for natural hazard risk management. Taking advantage of advances in the underlying science to provide society with accurate risk assessments often requires higher fidelity measurements, entirely new types of observations, and an evolutionary sense of data products and information management. Engineering a high-tech system to address stakeholder needs is difficult, and designing for unpredictable developments requires an emphasis on adaptation. Thus, it is essential to promote formation of organizations or communities that can support evolution of a technological system, imagine new uses, and develop the societal relationships that sustain operations and provide capital for improvement. The owners must have a deep understanding of why the system works in particular ways and how to manage data products for the benefits of stakeholders. To be effective, community promotion must be sustained over a longer period of time than required to build a network and should be aimed at integrating the community into worldwide partnerships. Practices that can promote community formation if they are sustained include repeated training and scientific exchange workshops, extended visits by experts and staff at all levels to and from countries where networks are installed, mechanisms that make timely upgrades realistically possible, and routine exchange and wide dissemination of data in all directions. The combination of international research and educational collaborations, supported by open data exchange, with regionalized and specific assessments of local stakeholder needs and concerns, provides a sustainable model for

  12. Developments in geophysical exploration methods

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    One of the themes in current geophysical development is the bringing together of the results of observations made on the surface and those made in the subsurface. Several benefits result from this association. The detailed geological knowledge obtained in the subsurface can be extrapolated for short distances with more confidence when the geologi­ cal detail has been related to well-integrated subsurface and surface geophysical data. This is of value when assessing the characteristics of a partially developed petroleum reservoir. Interpretation of geophysical data is generally improved by the experience of seeing the surface and subsurface geophysical expression of a known geological configuration. On the theoretical side, the understanding of the geophysical processes themselves is furthered by the study of the phenomena in depth. As an example, the study of the progress of seismic wave trains downwards and upwards within the earth has proved most instructive. This set of original papers deals with some of ...

  13. Evaluation of bond strength and thickness of adhesive layer according to the techniques of applying adhesives in composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Fernando Carlos Hueb; da Silva, Stella Borges; Valentino, Thiago Assunção; Oliveira, Maria Angélica Hueb de Menezes; Rastelli, Alessandra Nara de Souza; Conçalves, Luciano de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Adhesive restorations have increasingly been used in dentistry, and the adhesive system application technique may determine the success of the restorative procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the application technique of two adhesive systems (Clearfil SE Bond and Adper Scotchbond MultiPurpose) on the bond strength and adhesive layer of composite resin restorations. Eight human third molars were selected and prepared with Class I occlusal cavities. The teeth were restored with composite using various application techniques for both adhesives, according to the following groups (n = 10): group 1 (control), systems were applied and adhesive was immediately light activated for 20 seconds without removing excesses; group 2, excess adhesive was removed with a gentle jet of air for 5 seconds; group 3, excess was removed with a dry microbrushtype device; and group 4, a gentle jet of air was applied after the microbrush and then light activation was performed. After this, the teeth were submitted to microtensile testing. For the two systems tested, no statistical differences were observed between groups 1 and 2. Groups 3 and 4 presented higher bond strength values compared with the other studied groups, allowing the conclusion that excess adhesive removal with a dry microbrush could improve bond strength in composite restorations. Predominance of adhesive fracture and thicker adhesive layer were observed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in groups 1 and 2. For groups 3 and 4, a mixed failure pattern and thinner adhesive layer were verified. Clinicians should be aware that excess adhesive may negatively affect bond strength, whereas a thin, uniform adhesive layer appears to be favorable.

  14. Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, B. F.

    1999-01-01

    Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, tides, hydrological water redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. With only a few exceptions on the Earth surface, the temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have the capability of monitoring certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. These techniques include the very-long-baseline interferometry, satellite laser ranging and Doppler tracking, and the Global Positioning System, all entail global observational networks. While considerable advances have been made in observing and understanding of the dynamics of Earth's rotation, only the lowest-degree gravitational variations have been observed and limited knowledge of geocenter motion obtained. New space missions, projects and initiatives promise to further improve the measurements and hence our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding and modeling capability of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as the solid Earth's response to such changes in constraining the modeling of Earth's mechanical properties.

  15. Laser photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique (LP-RF) applied to the study of reactions of atmospheric interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaladejo, J.; Cuevas, C. A.; Notario, A.; Martínez, E.

    Atomic chlorine is highly reactive with a variety of organic and inorganic compounds so that relatively small concentrations can compete with the tropospheric oxidants (OH, O3 and NO3) in determining the tropospheric fate of such compounds [1]. Besides, there is a lot of evidence that bromine compounds play significant role in the ozone chemistry both in the troposphere and in the stratosphere [2]. In this work we show the laser photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique (LP-RF) applied to the study of gas phase reactions of halogen atoms with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of interest in atmospheric chemistry [3]. By means of this technique is possible to measure the rate constants of theses reactions, and subsequently obtain the Arrhenius parameters. Halogens atoms are produced in a excess of the VOC and He, by photolyzing Cl2 at 308 nm to obtain Cl atoms, or CF2Br2 at 248 nm for Br atoms, both cases using a pulsed excimer laser. The radiation (135 nm) from a microwave-driven lamp, through which He containing a low concentrations of Cl2 or Br2 was flowed, was used to excite the resonance fluorescence from the corresponding halogen atom in the jacketed Pyrex reaction cell. Signal were obtained using photon-counting techniques in conjunction with multichannel scaling. The fluorescence signal from the PMT was processed by a preamplifier and sent to an multichannel scaler to collect the time-resolved signal. The multichannel scaler was coupled to a microcomputer for further kinetics analysis.

  16. A new technique to measure the neutralizer cell gas line density applied to a DIII-D neutral beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, D.N.; Hong, R.M.; Riggs, S.P.

    1995-10-01

    The DIII-D tokamak employs eight ion sources for plasma heating. In order to obtain the maximum neutralization of energetic ions (providing maximum neutral beam power) and reduce the heat load on beamline internal components caused by residual energetic ions, sufficient neutral gas must be injected into the beamline neutralizer cell. The neutral gas flow rate must be optimized, however, since excessive gas will increase power losses due to neutral beam scattering and reionization. It is important, therefore, to be able to determine the neutralizer cell gas line density. A new technique which uses the ion source suppressor grid current to obtain the neutralizer cell gas line density has been developed. The technique uses the fact that slow ions produced by beam-gas interactions in the neutralizer cell during beam extraction are attracted to the negative potential applied to the suppressor grid, inducing current flow in the grid. By removing the dependence on beam energy and beam current a normalized suppressor grid current function can be formed which is dependent only on the gas line density. With this technique it is possible to infer the gas line density on a shot by shot basis.

  17. Archaeometry: nuclear and conventional techniques applied to the archaeological research; Arqueometria: tecnicas nucleares y convencionales aplicadas a la investigacion arqueologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza L, R.; Cardenas G, E. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The book that now is presented is formed by twelve articles that approach from different perspective topics as the archaeological prospecting, the analysis of the pre hispanic and colonial ceramic, the obsidian and the mural painting, besides dating and questions about the data ordaining. Following the chronological order in which the exploration techniques and laboratory studies are required, there are presented in the first place the texts about the systematic and detailed study of the archaeological sites, later we pass to relative topics to the application of diverse nuclear techniques as PIXE, RBS, XRD, NAA, SEM, Moessbauer spectroscopy and other conventional techniques. The multidisciplinary is an aspect that highlights in this work, that which owes to the great specialization of the work that is presented even in the archaeological studies including in the open ground of the topography, mapping, excavation and, of course, in the laboratory tests. Most of the articles are the result of several years of investigation and it has been consigned in the responsibility of each article. The texts here gathered emphasize the technical aspects of each investigation, the modern compute systems applied to the prospecting and the archaeological mapping, the chemical and physical analysis of organic materials, of metal artifacts, of diverse rocks used in the pre hispanic epoch, of mural and ceramic paintings, characteristics that justly underline the potential of the collective works. (Author)

  18. Applying CFD in the Analysis of Heavy-Oil Transportation in Curved Pipes Using Core-Flow Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Conceição

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase flow of oil, gas and water occurs in the petroleum industry from the reservoir to the processing units. The occurrence of heavy oils in the world is increasing significantly and points to the need for greater investment in the reservoirs exploitation and, consequently, to the development of new technologies for the production and transport of this oil. Therefore, it is interesting improve techniques to ensure an increase in energy efficiency in the transport of this oil. The core-flow technique is one of the most advantageous methods of lifting and transporting of oil. The core-flow technique does not alter the oil viscosity, but change the flow pattern and thus, reducing friction during heavy oil transportation. This flow pattern is characterized by a fine water pellicle that is formed close to the inner wall of the pipe, aging as lubricant of the oil flowing in the core of the pipe. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to study the isothermal flow of heavy oil in curved pipelines, employing the core-flow technique. A three-dimensional, transient and isothermal mathematical model that considers the mixture and k-e  turbulence models to address the gas-water-heavy oil three-phase flow in the pipe was applied for analysis. Simulations with different flow patterns of the involved phases (oil-gas-water have been done, in order to optimize the transport of heavy oils. Results of pressure and volumetric fraction distribution of the involved phases are presented and analyzed. It was verified that the oil core lubricated by a fine water layer flowing in the pipe considerably decreases pressure drop.

  19. ANNALS OF GEOPHYSICS: AD MAJORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Florindo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Annals of Geophysics is a bimonthly international journal, which publishes scientific papers in the field of geophysics sensu lato. It derives from Annali di Geofisica, which commenced publication in January 1948 as a quarterly periodical devoted to general geophysics, seismology, earth magnetism, and atmospheric studies. The journal was published regularly for a quarter of a century until 1982 when it merged with the French journal Annales de Géophysique to become Annales Geophysicae under the aegis of the European Geophysical Society. In 1981, this journal ceased publication of the section on solid earth geophysics, ending the legacy of Annali di Geofisica. In 1993, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING, founder of the journal, decided to resume publication of its own journal under the same name, Annali di Geofisica. To ensure continuity, the first volume of the new series was assigned the volume number XXXVI (following the last issue published in 1982. In 2002, with volume XLV, the name of the journal was translated into English to become Annals of Geophysics and in consequence the journal impact factor counter was restarted. Starting in 2010, in order to improve its status and better serve the science community, Annals of Geophysics has instituted a number of editorial changes including full electronic open access, freely accessible online, the possibility to comment on and discuss papers online, and a board of editors representing Asia and the Americas as well as Europe. [...

  20. Analysis of Arbitrary Reflector Antennas Applying the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction Together with the Master Points Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Algar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient approach for the analysis of surface conformed reflector antennas fed arbitrarily is presented. The near field in a large number of sampling points in the aperture of the reflector is obtained applying the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD. A new technique named Master Points has been developed to reduce the complexity of the ray-tracing computations. The combination of both GTD and Master Points reduces the time requirements of this kind of analysis. To validate the new approach, several reflectors and the effects on the radiation pattern caused by shifting the feed and introducing different obstacles have been considered concerning both simple and complex geometries. The results of these analyses have been compared with the Method of Moments (MoM results.

  1. Changes in elongation of falx cerebri during craniosacral therapy techniques applied on the skull of an embalmed cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, D C; Keramidas, G

    1992-01-01

    Craniosacral therapy supports that light forces applied to the skull may be transmitted to the dura membrane having a therapeutic effect to the cranial system. This study examines the changes in elongation of falx cerebri during the application of some of the craniosacral therapy techniques to the skull of an embalmed cadaver. The study demonstrates that the relative elongation of the falx cerebri changes as follows: for the frontal lift, 1.44 mm; for the parietal lift, 1.08 mm; for the sphenobasilar compression, -0.33 mm; for the sphenobasilar decompression, 0.28 mm; and for the ear pull, inconclusive results. The present study offers validation for the scientific basis of craniosacral therapy and the contention for cranial suture mobility.

  2. Parts-based geophysical inversion with application to water flooding interface detection and geological facies detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwei

    data and prior distributions. We pose the geophysical inverse problem in terms of Gaussian random fields with mean functions controlled by petrophysical relationships and covariance functions controlled by a prior geological cross-section, including the definition of spatial boundaries for the geological facies. The petrophysical relationship problem is formulated as a regression problem upon each facies. The inversion is performed in a Bayesian framework. We demonstrate the usefulness of this strategy using a first synthetic case study, performing a joint inversion of gravity and galvanometric resistivity data with the stations all located at the ground surface. The joint inversion is used to recover the density and resistivity distributions of the subsurface. In a second step, we consider the possibility that the facies boundaries are deformable and their shapes are inverted as well. We use the level set approach to deform the facies boundaries preserving prior topological properties of the facies throughout the inversion. With the additional help of prior facies petrophysical relationships, topological characteristic of each facies, we make posterior inference about multiple geophysical tomograms based on their corresponding geophysical data misfits. The result of the inversion technique is encouraging when applied to a second synthetic case study, showing that we can recover the heterogeneities inside the facies, the mean values for the petrophysical properties, and, to some extent, the facies boundaries. A paper has been submitted to Geophysics on this topic and I am the first author of this paper. During this thesis, I also worked on the time lapse inversion problem of gravity data in collaboration with Marios Karaoulis and a paper was published in Geophysical Journal international on this topic. I also worked on the time-lapse inversion of cross-well geophysical data (seismic and resistivity) using both a structural approach named the cross-gradient approach and

  3. Geophysical evaluation of the Success Dam foundation, Porterville, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, L.E.; Powers, M.H.; Haines, S.; Asch, T.; Burton, B.L.; Serafini, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Success Dam is a zonedearth fill embankment located near Porterville, CA. Studies of Success Dam by the recent Dam Safety Assurance Program (DSAP) have demonstrated the potential for seismic instability and large deformation of the dam due to relatively low levels of earthquake shaking. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted several phases of investigations to determine the properties of the dam and its underlying foundation. Detailed engineering studies have been applied using a large number of analytical techniques to estimate the response of the dam and foundation system when subjected to earthquake loading. Although a large amount of data have been acquired, most are 'point' data from borings and results have to be extrapolated between the borings. Geophysical techniques were applied to image the subsurface to provide a better understanding of the spatial distribution of key units that potentially impact the stability. Geophysical investigations employing seismic refraction tomography, direct current (DC) resistivity, audio magnetotellurics (AMT) and self-potential (SP) were conducted across the location of the foundation of a new dam proposed to replace the existing one. Depth to bedrock and the occurrence of beds potentially susceptible to liquefaction were the focus of the investigations. Seismic refraction tomography offers a deep investigation of the foundation region and looks at compressional and shear properties of the material. Whereas resistivity surveys determines conductivity relationships in the shallow subsurface and can produce a relatively high-resolution image of geological units with different electrical properties. AMT was applied because it has the potential to look considerably deeper than the other methods, is useful for confirming depth to bedrock, and can be useful in identifying deep seated faults. SP is a passive electrical method that measures the electrical streaming potential in the subsurface that responds to the movement of

  4. Use of the radon gas as a natural geophysical tracer; Utilizacion del gas radon como un trazador geofisico natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Balcazar, M.; Flores R, J.H.; Lopez M, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this work it is denoted the applications of the radon gas like a natural geophysical radiotracer in the different branches of the Earth Sciences (Geology, geophysics and geochemistry). It importance resides in its employment like one additional tool to register the possible occurrence of seismic events by means of radon anomalies that are presented in land movements (volcanic eruptions and presence of geothermal areas), as well as its potential in environmental works whose purpose is the evaluation of the feather of contamination in the underground water and the porous media for spills of hydrocarbons. The measurement techniques to determine the concentration of radon was carried out by means of Solid Detectors of Nuclear tracks, as well as by Liquid scintillation, Clipperton, Honeywell, AlphaGUARD. The towns where these techniques its were applied were: Mexico City, Estado de Mexico (Toluca, ININ), Jalisco (The Spring), Guerrero coast. (Author)

  5. Applying under-sampling techniques and cost-sensitive learning methods on risk assessment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jia-Lien; Hung, Ping-Cheng; Lin, Hung-Yen; Hsieh, Chung-Ho

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cause of cancer mortality. Early detection through mammography screening could significantly reduce mortality from breast cancer. However, most of screening methods may consume large amount of resources. We propose a computational model, which is solely based on personal health information, for breast cancer risk assessment. Our model can be served as a pre-screening program in the low-cost setting. In our study, the data set, consisting of 3976 records, is collected from Taipei City Hospital starting from 2008.1.1 to 2008.12.31. Based on the dataset, we first apply the sampling techniques and dimension reduction method to preprocess the testing data. Then, we construct various kinds of classifiers (including basic classifiers, ensemble methods, and cost-sensitive methods) to predict the risk. The cost-sensitive method with random forest classifier is able to achieve recall (or sensitivity) as 100 %. At the recall of 100 %, the precision (positive predictive value, PPV), and specificity of cost-sensitive method with random forest classifier was 2.9 % and 14.87 %, respectively. In our study, we build a breast cancer risk assessment model by using the data mining techniques. Our model has the potential to be served as an assisting tool in the breast cancer screening.

  6. Imaging techniques applied to quality control of civil manufactured goods obtained starting from ready-to-use mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Federica

    2003-05-01

    Concrete materials obtained from the utilization of pre-mixed and ready to use products (central mix-concrete) are more and more used. They represent a big portion of the civil construction market. Such products are used at different scale, ranging from small scale works, as those commonly realized inside and house, an apartment, etc. or at big civil or industrial scale works. In both cases the problem to control the mixtures and the final work is usually realized through the analysis of properly collected samples. Through appropriate sampling it can be derived objective parameters, as size class distribution and composition of the constituting particulate matter, or mechanical characteristics of the sample itself. An important parameter not considered by the previous mentioned approach is "segregation", that is the possibility that some particulate materials migrate preferentially in some zones of the mixtures and/or of the final product. Such a behavior dramatically influences the quality of the product and of the final manufactured good. Actually this behavior is only studied adopting a human based visual approach. Not repeatable analytical procedures or quantitative data processing exist. In this paper a procedure fully based on image processing techniques is described and applied. Results are presented and analyzed with reference to industrial products. A comparison is also made between the new proposed digital imaging based techniques and the analyses usually carried out at industrial laboratory scale for standard quality control.

  7. Teachers and Learners’ Perceptions of Applying Translation as a Method, Strategy, or Technique in an Iranian EFL Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mollaei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that translation is an efficient means to teach/learn grammar, syntax, and lexis of a foreign language. Meanwhile, translation is good for beginners who do not still enjoy the critical level of proficiency in their target language for expression.  This study was conducted to examine the teachers and learners’ perceptions of employing translation in the foreign language classroom; i.e., the effects, merits, demerits, limitations, as well as its use as a method, strategy or technique. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect and analyze the data from graduate and undergraduate learners (n=56 and teachers (n=44, male and female, who responded to two questionnaires. Additionally, only the teachers were interviewed to gain richer insight into their perceptions and attitudes. According to the results of independent samples t-test, there was no significant difference between teachers and learners’ attitude to applying translation as a method, strategy, or technique in learning a foreign language.  Based on the interview results, some teachers believed that employing translation in the foreign language context was helpful but not constantly. They claimed that translation was only effective in teaching vocabulary and grammar apart from leaners’ proficiency level as it can clarify meaning. But some other teachers noted that mother tongue would interfere with learning foreign language; they considered translation as a time-consuming activity through which students cannot capture the exact meaning.

  8. Geophysical lineaments of Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepley, L.K.

    1979-08-01

    Photolineaments seen on satellite images are usually expressions of deep crustal ruptures. However, photolineaments are omnipresent and an independent expression of regional discontinuities is needed to help rank the photolineaments. Published gravity and magnetic contour maps of Arizona were analyzed to produce a single geophysical lineament map to indicate trends of regional basement structures. This map shows that the southwestern quarter of Arizona is dominated by a NNW-ENE orthogonal system whereas the remainder of the state is gridded by a NW-NE system. North-south systems are present throughout the state, as are EW lineaments. Arizona is transected by the WNW Texas Strand, but other shorter systems trending in the Texas direction are found throughout the state south of the Strand. The major lineament systems as seen on Landsat, gravity, and magnetic maps correlate reasonably well with known geothermal manifestations. Many other systems are Precambrian, Paleozoic, and/or Mesozoic in age but appear to control the location of Quaternary volcanic systems.

  9. Improvement of power conversion efficiency in photovoltaic-assisted UHF rectifiers by non-silicide technique applied to photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Koji

    2015-04-01

    Non-silicide PV cell structures were successfully applied to the photovoltaic (PV)-assisted UHF rectifier, which is one example realization of the “synergistic ambient energy harvesting” concept. Silicide blocking of PV cell area was experimentally verified to be effective for increasing photo-generated bias voltage, which resulted in the improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the rectifier by enhanced VTH compensation effect. Increase in both transparency of light and quantum efficiency of PV cells obtained by eliminating silicide layer affects the PCE improvement almost equally. 25.8% of PCE was achieved under the conditions of an RF input power of -20 dBm, a frequency of 920 MHz, an output load of 47 kΩ, and a typical indoor light irradiance level of 1 W/m2. In addition, when the non-silicide PV cell technique was applied to the voltage-boosted PV-cell structures, 32.1% peak PCE was achieved at 10 W/m2.

  10. Applying value stream mapping techniques to eliminate non-value-added waste for the procurement of endovascular stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichgräber, Ulf K; de Bucourt, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    OJECTIVES: To eliminate non-value-adding (NVA) waste for the procurement of endovascular stents in interventional radiology services by applying value stream mapping (VSM). The Lean manufacturing technique was used to analyze the process of material and information flow currently required to direct endovascular stents from external suppliers to patients. Based on a decision point analysis for the procurement of stents in the hospital, a present state VSM was drawn. After assessment of the current status VSM and progressive elimination of unnecessary NVA waste, a future state VSM was drawn. The current state VSM demonstrated that out of 13 processes for the procurement of stents only 2 processes were value-adding. Out of the NVA processes 5 processes were unnecessary NVA activities, which could be eliminated. The decision point analysis demonstrated that the procurement of stents was mainly a forecast driven push system. The future state VSM applies a pull inventory control system to trigger the movement of a unit after withdrawal by using a consignment stock. VSM is a visualization tool for the supply chain and value stream, based on the Toyota Production System and greatly assists in successfully implementing a Lean system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Applying clinically proven human techniques for contraception and fertility to endangered species and zoo animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Sherman J; Barbey, Natalie; Lenahan, Kathy; Silber, David Z

    2013-12-01

    Reversible contraception that does not alter natural behavior is a critical need for managing zoo populations. In addition to reversible contraception, other fertility techniques perfected in humans may be useful, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or oocyte and embryo banking for endangered species like amphibians and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi). Furthermore, the genetics of human fertility can give a better understanding of fertility in more exotic species. Collaborations were established to apply human fertility techniques to the captive population. Reversible vasectomy might be one solution for reversible contraception that does not alter behavior. Reversible approaches to vasectomy, avoiding secondary epididymal disruption, were attempted in South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalski poliakov), and Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a variety of zoos around the world. These techniques were first perfected in > 4,000 humans before attempting them in zoo animals. In vitro fertilization with gestational surrogacy was used to attempt to break the vicious cycle of hand rearing of purebred orangutans, and egg and ovary vitrification in humans have led to successful gamete banking for Mexican wolves and disappearing amphibians. The study of the human Y chromosome has even explained a mechanism of extinction related to global climate change. The best results with vasectomy reversal (normal sperm counts, pregnancy, and live offspring) were obtained when the original vasectomy was performed "open-ended," so as to avoid pressure-induced epididymal disruption. The attempt at gestational surrogacy for orangutans failed because of severe male infertility and the lack of success with human ovarian hyperstimulation protocols. Vitrification of oocytes is already being employed for the Amphibian Ark Project and for Mexican wolves. Vasectomy can be a reversible contraception

  12. Gravity field determination and error assessment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, D. N.; Shum, C. K.; Tapley, B. D.

    1989-01-01

    Linear estimation theory, along with a new technique to compute relative data weights, was applied to the determination of the Earth's geopotential field and other geophysical model parameters using a combination of satellite ground-based tracking data, satellite altimetry data, and the surface gravimetry data. The relative data weights for the inhomogeneous data sets are estimated simultaneously with the gravity field and other geophysical and orbit parameters in a least squares approach to produce the University of Texas gravity field models. New techniques to perform calibration of the formal covariance matrix for the geopotential solution were developed to obtain a reliable gravity field error estimate. Different techniques, which include orbit residual analysis, surface gravity anomaly residual analysis, subset gravity solution comparisons and consider covariance analysis, were applied to investigate the reliability of the calibration.

  13. GEOTECHNICAL EXAMINATION OF THE GEOPHYSICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... olokoro lateritic soil, particle size distribution, compaction test, geophysical properties, california bearing ratio. 1. ... e.g. alluvial soil, aeolin soil, glacial soil etc. [2]. .... Garg, S.K. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineer- ing.

  14. Genetic algorithms and smoothing filters in solving the geophysical inversion problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šešum Vesna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of genetic algorithms, smoothing filters and geophysical tomography is used in solving the geophysical inversion problem. This hybrid technique is developed to improve the results obtained by using genetic algorithm sonly. The application of smoothing filters can improve the performance of GA implementation for solving the geophysical inversion problem. Some test-examples and the obtained comparative results are presented.

  15. Optimization and geophysical inverse problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.

    2000-10-01

    A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness

  16. The use and abuse of image analysis in geophysical potential field interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Andrew J. W.

    1991-11-01

    Images of geophysical potential field data are becoming more common as a result of the increased availability of image analysis systems. These data are processed using techniques originally developed for remotely sensed satellite imagery. In general, geophysicists are not familiar with such techniques and may apply them without due consideration. This can lead to abuses of the geophysical data and reduce the validity of the interpretation. This paper describes some critical processes which can introduce errors to the data. The production of a regular grid from scattered data is fundamental to image processing. The choice of cell size is paramount and must balance the spatial distribution of the data. The necessary scaling of data from real values into a byte format for display purposes can result in small anomalies being masked. Contrast stretching of grey level images is often applied but can alter the shape of anomalies by varying degrees and should be avoided. Filters are often used to produce shaded relief images but without due regard to their frequency response and the effect on images expanded to fill the display space. The generation of spurious numerical artefacts can be reduced by ensuring that the filter is applied at real precision to the original data grid. The resultant images can then be processed for display. The use of image analysis systems for data integration requires careful consideration of the sampling strategy and information content of each dataset. It is proposed that such procedures are more appropriately conducted on a geographic information system.

  17. Geophysical assessments of renewable gas energy compressed in geologic pore storage reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hagrey, Said Attia; Köhn, Daniel; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy resources can indisputably minimize the threat of global warming and climate change. However, they are intermittent and need buffer storage to bridge the time-gap between production (off peak) and demand peaks. Based on geologic and geochemical reasons, the North German Basin has a very large capacity for compressed air/gas energy storage CAES in porous saltwater aquifers and salt cavities. Replacing pore reservoir brine with CAES causes changes in physical properties (elastic moduli, density and electrical properties) and justify applications of integrative geophysical methods for monitoring this energy storage. Here we apply techniques of the elastic full waveform inversion FWI, electric resistivity tomography ERT and gravity to map and quantify a gradually saturated gas plume injected in a thin deep saline aquifer within the North German Basin. For this subsurface model scenario we generated different synthetic data sets without and with adding random noise in order to robust the applied techniques for the real field applications. Datasets are inverted by posing different constraints on the initial model. Results reveal principally the capability of the applied integrative geophysical approach to resolve the CAES targets (plume, host reservoir, and cap rock). Constrained inversion models of elastic FWI and ERT are even able to recover well the gradual gas desaturation with depth. The spatial parameters accurately recovered from each technique are applied in the adequate petrophysical equations to yield precise quantifications of gas saturations. Resulting models of gas saturations independently determined from elastic FWI and ERT techniques are in accordance with each other and with the input (true) saturation model. Moreover, the gravity technique show high sensitivity to the mass deficit resulting from the gas storage and can resolve saturations and temporal saturation changes down to ±3% after reducing any shallow fluctuation such as that of

  18. Effectiveness of a modified version of the applied relaxation technique in treatment of perimenopausal and postmenopausal symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saensak S

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Suprawita Saensak,1,2 Teraporn Vutyavanich,3 Woraluk Somboonporn,4 Manit Srisurapanont5 1Academic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, KhonKaen University, KhonKaen, 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Awareness of the risks associated with hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms has sparked a global decline in this treatment. Alternative treatments to relieve menopausal symptoms are therefore required. The applied relaxation (AR technique has proven to be successful for symptom amelioration, but requires participation in 12 weekly classes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a modified relaxation version (MR of AR for treatment of hot flashes, night sweats, and sleep disturbances. Methods: We conducted a12-week, randomized, parallel, open-label, controlled trial in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women visiting the menopausal clinic. Participants were randomly assigned to an MR or AR group. The MR group (n=36 received a single session of (MR training and the AR group (n=35 received conventional 12-week training. Participants were instructed to practice the techniques daily at home for 12 weeks. The main outcome was the measure on the severity scale and frequency of hot flashes, night sweats, and sleep disturbances. Results: All participants completed the study. Total severity scores in both groups decreased after 12 weeks, but there was no difference between the groups (P=0.93. The severity score for hot flashes in the MR group decreased more than in the AR group (P=0.02. The severity scores for night sweats and sleep disturbances decreased in both groups. The frequency of hot flashes, night sweats, and

  19. Effectiveness of a modified version of the applied relaxation technique in treatment of perimenopausal and postmenopausal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saensak, Suprawita; Vutyavanich, Teraporn; Somboonporn, Woraluk; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2013-01-01

    Awareness of the risks associated with hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms has sparked a global decline in this treatment. Alternative treatments to relieve menopausal symptoms are therefore required. The applied relaxation (AR) technique has proven to be successful for symptom amelioration, but requires participation in 12 weekly classes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a modified relaxation version (MR) of AR for treatment of hot flashes, night sweats, and sleep disturbances. We conducted a12-week, randomized, parallel, open-label, controlled trial in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women visiting the menopausal clinic. Participants were randomly assigned to an MR or AR group. The MR group (n=36) received a single session of (MR) training and the AR group (n=35) received conventional 12-week training. Participants were instructed to practice the techniques daily at home for 12 weeks. The main outcome was the measure on the severity scale and frequency of hot flashes, night sweats, and sleep disturbances. All participants completed the study. Total severity scores in both groups decreased after 12 weeks, but there was no difference between the groups (P=0.93). The severity score for hot flashes in the MR group decreased more than in the AR group (P=0.02). The severity scores for night sweats and sleep disturbances decreased in both groups. The frequency of hot flashes, night sweats, and sleep disturbances were also decreased in both groups. A shorter, modified version of the AR was equally effective or slightly better than the conventional AR for the relief of hot flashes, night sweats, and sleep disturbances in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Recommendations for future research include confirmatory studies and trials with larger samples.

  20. Applying Subtractive Hybridization Technique to Enrich and Amplify Tumor-Specific Transcripts of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Reihaneh Alsadat; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza; Gholamin, Mehran

    2017-04-01

    Subtractive hybridization (SH) as an efficient and powerful approach can be applied to isolate differentially expressed transcripts as well as detect of involved mRNAs in various cellular processes, particularly diseases and malignancies. This procedure leads to the enrichment of specific low copy transcripts of tumor cells. Having developed a new approach for SH to isolate tumor specific transcripts, we facilitated discovery of uniquely expressed genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Total RNA was extracted from the fresh tumoral and their adjacent normal tissues, and purified using the Switch Mechanism At the 5' end of Reverse Transcript (SMART) method. Following cDNA synthesis of normal mRNAs using magnetic beads, it was hybridized with tumor mRNAs. To enhance efficiency of subtraction, hybridization was repeated three rounds. Finally, amplification of subtracted tumor-specific transcripts was carried out using in vitro transcription. The subtracted tumoral mRNAs was analyzed quantitatively using real-time PCR for both tumor-specific and housekeeping genes. The subtracted mRNA was confirmed as tumor-specific mRNA pool using RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR assessment. The elevated level of tumor-specific transcripts such as MAGE-A4 and CD44 as well as declined copy number of housekeeping genes such as GAPDH, β actin and β2-microglobulin, were confirmed in subtracted tumoral mRNA. The presence of tumor genes was confirmed after the SH procedure. The designed SH method in combination with SMART technique can isolate and amplify high quality tumor-specific transcripts even from small amount of tumor tissues. Removal of common transcripts from the extracted tumoral mRNAs using SH, leads to the enrichment of tumor-specific transcripts. The isolated transcripts are of interest because of their probable roles in ESCC progression and development. In addition, these tumor-specific mRNAs can be applied for future vaccine cancer studies.

  1. Gas Membrane Sensor Technique for in-situ Downhole Detection of Gases Applied During Geological Storage of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, M.; Erzinger, J.; Kujawa, C.; Group, C.

    2008-12-01

    The geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is regarded as a possible technology for the reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. However, comprehensive research is still needed to better understand the behaviour of CO2 during and after storage. Therefore, we developed and applied a new, innovative geochemical monitoring tool for the real time and in-situ determination of CO2 and other gases in the underground and in bore holes. The method uses a phase separating silicone membrane, permeable for gases, in order to separate gases dissolved in borehole fluids, water and brines. Argon is used as a carrier gas to conduct the collected gases through capillaries to the surface. Here, the gas phase is analyzed in real-time with a portable mass spectrometer for all permanent gases. In addition, gas samples may be collected for detailed investigations in the laboratory. Downhole extraction and on-line determination of gases dissolved in brines using this gas membrane sensor (GMS) technique was successful applied at the scientific CO2SINK test site in Ketzin, Germany (sandstone aquifer). GMSs together with temperature and pressure probes were installed in two approx. 700m deep observation holes, drilled in 50m and 100m distance from the CO2 injection well. Hydraulic pressure in the observation wells rose gradually during injection of CO2. Increasing reservoir gas concentrations of helium, hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen as well as the arrival of the added krypton tracer were determined shortly before the injected CO2 appeared. The breakthrough of CO2 into the observation well, in 50m distance, was recorded after 531.5 tons of CO2 were injected.

  2. Role of geophysical exploration for civil engineering; Doboku chosa ni okeru butsuri tansa no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S.; Sato, S. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the current status of applying geophysical exploration to civil engineering works, application examples of latest geophysical exploration technologies in typical civil engineering fields (dams, tunnels, banks, and civil engineering works in urban areas), and of geophysical exploration technologies specially devised at civil engineering work sites. The applications include utilization in rock classification and weathering division, estimation of grouting effect and its injection scope, determination of loosening as a result of tunnel excavation, utilization of the relationship between S-wave velocity and N-value revealed by the standard penetration test, and tunnel front exploration. A well logging technique utilizing boring holes is available as a latest technology. Tomography technology using elastic waves, specific resistance and radar has its application increased as it is used in dams, tunnels, and foundations of other important structures. Attempts are made on application of explorations using the shallow bed reflection method and three-dimensional exploration method. Frequently used technologies include seismic exploration using the refraction method for dams, high-density electric exploration for tunnels, electric exploration for banking, and PS logging using the suspension method for structure foundations. 30 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. UQ and V&V techniques applied to experiments and simulations of heated pipes pressurized to failure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vicente Jose; Dempsey, J. Franklin; Antoun, Bonnie R.

    2014-05-01

    This report demonstrates versatile and practical model validation and uncertainty quantification techniques applied to the accuracy assessment of a computational model of heated steel pipes pressurized to failure. The Real Space validation methodology segregates aleatory and epistemic uncertainties to form straightforward model validation metrics especially suited for assessing models to be used in the analysis of performance and safety margins. The methodology handles difficulties associated with representing and propagating interval and/or probabilistic uncertainties from multiple correlated and uncorrelated sources in the experiments and simulations including: material variability characterized by non-parametric random functions (discrete temperature dependent stress-strain curves); very limited (sparse) experimental data at the coupon testing level for material characterization and at the pipe-test validation level; boundary condition reconstruction uncertainties from spatially sparse sensor data; normalization of pipe experimental responses for measured input-condition differences among tests and for random and systematic uncertainties in measurement/processing/inference of experimental inputs and outputs; numerical solution uncertainty from model discretization and solver effects.

  4. Experimental study for determining the corrosion in situ of SS-304 in heat transformers applying electrochemical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas-Arteaga, C.; Siqueiros, J.; Romero, R.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas - UAEM, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work the corrosion performance of SS-304 experimentally tested in a single stage absorption heat transformer (SSAHT) operating with lithium-bromide aqueous solution and water as the absorbent and work fluids coupled to a desalinizer is reported. The main aim of this work was to determine the corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism of SS-304 through some electrochemical cells designed for this specific purpose and connected in one of the pipe constituting the heat transformer. Some electrochemical techniques named electrochemical noise (EN), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were applied under the next experimental conditions: temperature 83-85 C, concentration of LiBr-H{sub 2}O corrosive solution 56 (wt.%), and flow rate 0.0278 m{sup 3}/s. According to the physical characterization, SS-304 suffered a mixed corrosion process, which is in concordance with the signal noise pattern obtained. Through the Nyquist plots from EIS the corrosion process was obtained as controlled by charge transfer at the first 3:25 h, and then a diffusion effect was observed. (authors)

  5. 3D-QSPR Method of Computational Technique Applied on Red Reactive Dyes by Using CoMFA Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Uzma; Rashid, Sitara; Ali, S. Ishrat; Parveen, Rasheeda; Zaheer-ul-Haq; Ambreen, Nida; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Perveen, Shahnaz; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose fiber is a tremendous natural resource that has broad application in various productions including the textile industry. The dyes, which are commonly used for cellulose printing, are “reactive dyes” because of their high wet fastness and brilliant colors. The interaction of various dyes with the cellulose fiber depends upon the physiochemical properties that are governed by specific features of the dye molecule. The binding pattern of the reactive dye with cellulose fiber is called the ligand-receptor concept. In the current study, the three dimensional quantitative structure property relationship (3D-QSPR) technique was applied to understand the red reactive dyes interactions with the cellulose by the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) method. This method was successfully utilized to predict a reliable model. The predicted model gives satisfactory statistical results and in the light of these, it was further analyzed. Additionally, the graphical outcomes (contour maps) help us to understand the modification pattern and to correlate the structural changes with respect to the absorptivity. Furthermore, the final selected model has potential to assist in understanding the charachteristics of the external test set. The study could be helpful to design new reactive dyes with better affinity and selectivity for the cellulose fiber. PMID:22272108

  6. 3D-QSPR Method of Computational Technique Applied on Red Reactive Dyes by Using CoMFA Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Perveen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fiber is a tremendous natural resource that has broad application in various productions including the textile industry. The dyes, which are commonly used for cellulose printing, are “reactive dyes” because of their high wet fastness and brilliant colors. The interaction of various dyes with the cellulose fiber depends upon the physiochemical properties that are governed by specific features of the dye molecule. The binding pattern of the reactive dye with cellulose fiber is called the ligand-receptor concept. In the current study, the three dimensional quantitative structure property relationship (3D-QSPR technique was applied to understand the red reactive dyes interactions with the cellulose by the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA method. This method was successfully utilized to predict a reliable model. The predicted model gives satisfactory statistical results and in the light of these, it was further analyzed. Additionally, the graphical outcomes (contour maps help us to understand the modification pattern and to correlate the structural changes with respect to the absorptivity. Furthermore, the final selected model has potential to assist in understanding the charachteristics of the external test set. The study could be helpful to design new reactive dyes with better affinity and selectivity for the cellulose fiber.

  7. UQ and V&V techniques applied to experiments and simulations of heated pipes pressurized to failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vicente Jose [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dempsey, J. Franklin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Antoun, Bonnie R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This report demonstrates versatile and practical model validation and uncertainty quantification techniques applied to the accuracy assessment of a computational model of heated steel pipes pressurized to failure. The Real Space validation methodology segregates aleatory and epistemic uncertainties to form straightforward model validation metrics especially suited for assessing models to be used in the analysis of performance and safety margins. The methodology handles difficulties associated with representing and propagating interval and/or probabilistic uncertainties from multiple correlated and uncorrelated sources in the experiments and simulations including: material variability characterized by non-parametric random functions (discrete temperature dependent stress-strain curves); very limited (sparse) experimental data at the coupon testing level for material characterization and at the pipe-test validation level; boundary condition reconstruction uncertainties from spatially sparse sensor data; normalization of pipe experimental responses for measured input-condition differences among tests and for random and systematic uncertainties in measurement/processing/inference of experimental inputs and outputs; numerical solution uncertainty from model discretization and solver effects.

  8. Applying Taguchi methods for solvent-assisted PMMA bonding technique for static and dynamic micro-TAS devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Chu; Chen, Tang-Yuan

    2007-08-01

    This work examines numerous significant process parameters in the solvent-assistant Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bonding scheme and presents two Micro-total-analysis System (micro-TAS) devices generated by adopting the optimal bonding parameters. The process parameters considered were heating temperature, applied loading, duration and solution. The effects of selected process parameters on bonding dimensions loss and strength, and subsequent optimal setting of the parameters were accomplished using Taguchi's scheme. Additionally, two micro-TAS devices were realized using a static paraffin microvalve and a dynamic diffuser micropump. The PMMA chips were carved using a CO2 laser that patterned device microchannels and microchambers. The operation principles, fabrication processes and experimental performance of the devices are discussed. This bonding technique has numerous benefits, including high bonding strength (240 kgf/cm2) and low dimension loss (2-6%). For comparison, this work also demonstrates that the normal stress of this technology is 2-15 times greater than that of other bonding technologies, including hot embossing, anodic bonding, direct bonding and thermal fusion bonding.

  9. Physical and Clinical Evaluation of Hip Spica Cast applied with Three-slab Technique using Fibreglass Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitar KM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hip spica casting is an important component of treatment for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH and popular treatment method for femur fractures in children. Breakage at the hip region is a relatively common problem of this cast. We have developed a three-slab technique of hip spica application using fibreglass as the cast material. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the physical durability of the spica cast and skin complications with its use. Methodology: A retrospective review of children with various conditions requiring hip spica immobilisation which was applied using our method. Study duration was from 1st of January 2014 until 31st December 2015. Our main outcomes were cast breakage and skin complications. For children with hip instability, the first cast would be changed after one month, and the second cast about two months later. Results: Twenty-one children were included, with an average age of 2.2 years. The most common indication for spica immobilisation was developmental dysplasia of the hip. One child had skin irritation after spica application. No spica breakage was noted. Conclusion: This study showed that the three-slab method of hip spica cast application using fibreglass material was durable and safe with low risk of skin complications.

  10. A Review of Magneto/Dielectric Techniques Applied to the Study of Venezuelan Stratigraphic and Archeological Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Aldana, M.; Suarez, N.

    2008-05-01

    In the last few years the paleomagnetism research group, at the Universidad Simon Bolivar (Caracas, Venezuela), has combined rock magnetic and dielectric properties (thermally stimulated depolarization currents or TSDC) of fossil- poor sedimentary rocks (eastern and western Venezuela) in order to set up new physical markers that could be used as alternative means for stratigraphic correlations. These magneto/dielectric characterizations have also proven useful identifying lithological discontinuities and paleoenvironmental changes. More recently, this two-fold technique has been applied to archeological materials (potsherds) to track down clay sources and find out about different methods of pottery craftsmanship. Rock magnetic characterizations include the measurement of bulk properties that provide information about nature, concentration and granulometries of magnetic minerals. Rock dielectric characterizations examine the thermal relaxation to equilibrium of electrically polarizable entities that are affected by their molecular surroundings and therefore by the type of material analyzed. Thermal remanent magnetic acquisitions and TSDC analyses are based on two distinct physical properties albeit similar process of polarization and thermal relaxation to equilibrium.

  11. Development of a transient response technique for heterogeneous catalysis in the liquid phase, Part 1: Applying an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detector.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radivojevic, D.; Ruitenbeek, M.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a novel, transient response technique for liquid-phase heterogeneous catalytic studies, equipped with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detector. The technique was successfully applied as an online method for real-time detection of species dissolved in aqueous

  12. Geophysical observations at cavity collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Bazargan-Sabet, Behrooz; Lebert, François; Bernardie, Séverine; Gourry, Jean-Christophe

    2010-05-01

    In Lorraine region (France) salt layers at about 200 meters depth are exploited by Solvay using solution mining methodology which consists in extracting the salt by dissolution, collapsing the cavern overburden during the exploitation phase and finally reclaiming the landscape by creating a water area. In this process, one of the main challenges for the exploiting company is to control the initial 120-m diameter collapse so as to minimize possible damages. In order to detect potential precursors and understand processes associated with such collapses, a wide series of monitoring techniques including micro seismics, broad-band seismology, hydro-acoustic, electromagnetism, gas probing, automatic leveling, continuous GPS, continuous gravity and borehole extensometry was set-up in the frame of an in-situ study carried out by the "Research Group for the Impact and Safety of Underground Works" (GISOS, France). Equipments were set-up well before the final collapse, giving a unique opportunity to analyze a great deal of information prior to and during the collapse process which has been successfully achieved on February the 13th, 2009 by controlling the cavity internal pressure. In this work, we present the results of data recorded by a network of 3 broadband seismometers, 2 accelerometers, 2 tilt-meters and a continuously gravity meter. We relate the variations of the brine pumping rate with the evolutions of the induced geophysical signals and finally we propose a first mechanical model for describing the controlled collapse. Beyond the studied case, extrapolation of the results obtained might contribute to the understanding of uncontrolled cavity collapses, such as pit-craters or calderas at volcanoes.

  13. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    Israel is a country with diverse and rapidly changeable environments where is localized a giant number of archaeological objects of various age, origin and size. The archaeological remains occur in a complex (multi-layered and variable) geological-archaeological media. It is obvious that direct archaeological excavations cannot be employed at all localized and supposed sites taking into account the financial, organizational, ecological and other reasons. Therefore, for delineation of buried archaeological objects, determination their physical-geometrical characteristics and classification, different geophysical methods are widely applied. The number of employed geophysical methodologies is constantly increasing and now Israeli territory may be considered as a peculiar polygon for various geophysical methods testing. The geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel could be tentatively divided on three stages: (1) past [- 1990] (e.g., Batey, 1987; Ben-Menahem, 1979; Dolphin, 1981; Ginzburg and Levanon, 1977; Karcz et al., 1977; Karcz and Kafri, 1978; Tanzi et al., 1983; Shalem, 1949; Willis, 1928), (2) present [1991 - 2008] (e.g., Bauman et al., 2005; Ben-Dor et al., 1999; Ben-Yosef et al., 2008; Berkovitch et al., 2000; Borradaile, 2003; Boyce et al., 2004; Bruins et al., 2003; Daniels et al., 2003; Ellenblum et al., 1998; Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000a, 2000b, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2008b; Eppelbaum and Ben-Avraham, 2002; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2000, 2001; 2003, 2009; Eppelbaum et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2003b, 2004a, 2004b; 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c, 2006d, 2007, 2009a, 2009b; Ezersky et al., 2000; Frumkin et al., 2003; Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1998; Itkis, 2003; Itkis et al., 2002, 2003, 2008; Jol et al., 2003, 2008; Kamai and Hatzor, 2007; Khesin et al., 1996; Korjenkov and Mazor, 1999; Laukin et al., 2001; McDermott et al., 1993; Marco, 2008; Marco et al., 2003; Nahas et al., 2006; Neishtadt et al., 2006; Nur and Ron, 1997; Paparo, 1991; Porat

  14. Exploring the geophysical signatures of microbial processes in the earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, L.; Atekwana, E.; Brantley, S.; Gorby, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Knight, R.; Morgan, D.; Revil, A.; Rossbach, S.; Yee, N.

    2009-05-15

    AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics; Portland, Maine, 13-16 October 2008; Geophysical methods have the potential to detect and characterize microbial growth and activity in subsurface environments over different spatial and temporal scales. Recognition of this potential has resulted in the development of a new subdiscipline in geophysics called 'biogeophysics,' a rapidly evolving Earth science discipline that integrates environmental microbiology, geomicrobiology, biogeochemistry, and geophysics to investigate interactions that occur between the biosphere (microorganisms and their products) and the geosphere. Biogeophysics research performed over the past decade has confirmed the potential for geophysical techniques to detect microbes, microbial growth/biofilm formation, and microbe-mineral interactions. The unique characteristics of geophysical data sets (e.g., noninvasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) present opportunities to explore geomicrobial processes outside of the laboratory, at unique spatial scales unachievable with microbiological techniques, and possibly in remote environments such as the deep ocean. In response to this opportunity, AGU hosted a Chapman Conference with a mission to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community, and generate a road map for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of Earth science research. For more information on the conference, see http://www.agu.org/meetings/chapman/2008/fcall/.

  15. Exploring the geophysical signatures of microbial processes in the earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, L.; Atekwana, E.; Brantley, S.; Gorby, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Knight, R.; Morgan, D.; Revil, A.; Rossbach, S.; Yee, N.

    2009-05-15

    AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics; Portland, Maine, 13-16 October 2008; Geophysical methods have the potential to detect and characterize microbial growth and activity in subsurface environments over different spatial and temporal scales. Recognition of this potential has resulted in the development of a new subdiscipline in geophysics called 'biogeophysics,' a rapidly evolving Earth science discipline that integrates environmental microbiology, geomicrobiology, biogeochemistry, and geophysics to investigate interactions that occur between the biosphere (microorganisms and their products) and the geosphere. Biogeophysics research performed over the past decade has confirmed the potential for geophysical techniques to detect microbes, microbial growth/biofilm formation, and microbe-mineral interactions. The unique characteristics of geophysical data sets (e.g., noninvasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) present opportunities to explore geomicrobial processes outside of the laboratory, at unique spatial scales unachievable with microbiological techniques, and possibly in remote environments such as the deep ocean. In response to this opportunity, AGU hosted a Chapman Conference with a mission to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community, and generate a road map for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of Earth science research. For more information on the conference, see http://www.agu.org/meetings/chapman/2008/fcall/.

  16. Comparison of optimization techniques applied to nuclear fuel reload design; Comparacion de tecnicas de optimizacion aplicadas al diseno de la recarga de combustible nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, J.J.; Castillo, A.; Montes, J.L.; Perusquia, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jjortiz@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    In this work a comparison of three techniques of optimization is presented applied to the design of the recharge of fuel in reactors of water in boil. In short, the techniques were applied to the design of a recharge of a cycle of balance of 18 months of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central. The used techniques were Genetic Algorithms, Taboo Search and Neural Nets. The conditions to apply the different techniques were the same ones. The comparison of the results quality and the computational resources required to obtain them, it indicates that with the Taboo Search better results are achieved but the computational cost is very big. On the other hand the neural net with low computational cost obtains acceptable results. Additionally to this comparison, in this work a summary of the works that have been carried out for the fuel recharges optimization from the years 60 until the present time is presented. (Author)

  17. Ground Truth Observations of the Interior of a Rockglacier as Validation for Geophysical Monitoring Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbich, C.; Roer, I.; Hauck, C.

    2007-12-01

    Monitoring the permafrost evolution in mountain regions is currently one of the important tasks in cryospheric studies as little data on past and present changes of the ground thermal regime and its material properties are available. In addition to recently established borehole temperature monitoring networks, techniques to determine and monitor the ground ice content have to be developed. A reliable quantification of ground ice is especially important for modelling the thermal evolution of frozen ground and for assessing the hazard potential due to thawing permafrost induced slope instability. Near surface geophysical methods are increasingly applied to detect and monitor ground ice occurrences in permafrost areas. Commonly, characteristic values of electrical resistivity and seismic velocity are used as indicators for the presence of frozen material. However, validation of the correct interpretation of the geophysical parameters can only be obtained through boreholes, and only regarding vertical temperature profiles. Ground truth of the internal structure and the ice content is usually not available. In this contribution we will present a unique data set from a recently excavated rockglacier near Zermatt/Valais in the Swiss Alps, where an approximately 5 m deep trench was cut across the rockglacier body for the construction of a ski track. Longitudinal electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismic tomography profiles were conducted prior to the excavation, yielding data sets for cross validation of commonly applied geophysical interpretation approaches in the context of ground ice detection. A recently developed 4-phase model was applied to calculate ice-, air- and unfrozen water contents from the geophysical data sets, which were compared to the ground truth data from the excavated trench. The obtained data sets will be discussed in the context of currently established geophysical monitoring networks in permafrost areas. In addition to the

  18. Cross-disciplinary education: The use of interactive case studies to teach geophysical exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Thomas M.; Romig, Phillip R.

    1997-06-01

    Cross-disciplinary training in the earth sciences is a difficult issue that has elicited concerns in academia and industry. Many problems associated with cross-disciplinary training stem from the fact that the earth sciences have evolved as a collection of loosely related, poorly coordinated specialties with little communication or interaction between them. As a result, when asked to teach across disciplinary boundaries, our instinctive reaction is to provide a watered-down version of the details that we teach our own students rather than the conceptual understanding that will help others work with us. This makes it difficult for earth scientists to provide the public with a coherent education in the fundamentals of earth science, and it has impeded the development of a common foundation for interaction between earth-science specialists. We have designed a computer-based learning environment for use in cross-disciplinary, earth-science education. This environment entails more than simply providing traditional course materials in an electronic form. Rather, the relevant material is conveyed through the use of a generalization of the case-study approach we refer to as the interactive case study approach. Through the use of computer simulations, students are allowed to interact with all aspects of the case, thereby helping them to become comfortable with the thought processes employed by a specialist and develop an intuitive understanding of the underlying physics. This educational model has been applied to the development of an introductory course in geophysical exploration geared toward upper-level undergraduate students not majoring in geophysics. The cases used in the course are couched in terms of a request for bid (RFB) requiring the use of a specific geophysical technique to solve a specific geologic or engineering problem. In responding to this RFB, students must write proposals, design geophysical surveys, interpret data derived from these surveys, and report

  19. The application of geophysics in South African coal mining and exploration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available in-house geophysicists. Consequently, the Coaltech Research Organisation’s Geology and Geophysics working group forum compiled a textbook aimed at addressing this need: to produce a guide for applying geophysics to coal mining problems in South Africa...

  20. Differentiating between spatial and temporal effects by applying modern data analyzing techniques to measured soil moisture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenbrink, Tobias L.; Lischeid, Gunnar; Schindler, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Large data sets containing time series of soil hydrological variables exist due to extensive monitoring work in the last decades. The interplay of different processes and influencing factors cause spatial and temporal patterns which contribute to the total variance. That implies that monitoring data sets contain information about the most relevant processes. That information can be extracted using modern data analysis techniques. Our objectives were (i) to decompose the total variance of an example data set of measured soil moisture time series in independent components and (ii) relate them to specific influencing factors. Soil moisture had been measured at 12 plots in an Albeluvisol located in Müncheberg, northeastern Germany, between May 1st, 2008 and July 1st, 2011. Each plot was equipped with FDR probes in 7 depths between 30 cm and 300 cm. Six plots were cultivated with winter rye and silage maize (Crop Rotation System I) and the other six with silage maize, winter rye/millet, triticale/lucerne and lucerne (Crop Rotation System II). We applied a principal component analysis to the soil moisture data set. The first component described the mean behavior in time of all soil moisture time series. The second component reflected the impact of soil depth. Together they explained 80 % of the data set's total variance. An analysis of the first two components confirmed that measured plots showed similar signal damping extend in each depth. The fourth component revealed the impact of the two different crop rotation systems which explained about 4 % of the total variance and 13 % of the spatial variance of soil moisture data. That is only a minor fraction compared to small scale soil texture heterogeneity effects. Principal component analysis has proven to be a useful tool to extract less apparent signals.