WorldWideScience

Sample records for geometrical tile design

  1. Geometrical tile design for complex neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizler, Eugen; Kari, Lila

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has showed that tile systems are one of the most suitable theoretical frameworks for the spatial study and modeling of self-assembly processes, such as the formation of DNA and protein oligomeric structures. A Wang tile is a unit square, with glues on its edges, attaching to other tiles and forming larger and larger structures. Although quite intuitive, the idea of glues placed on the edges of a tile is not always natural for simulating the interactions occurring in some real systems. For example, when considering protein self-assembly, the shape of a protein is the main determinant of its functions and its interactions with other proteins. Our goal is to use geometric tiles, i.e., square tiles with geometrical protrusions on their edges, for simulating tiled paths (zippers) with complex neighborhoods, by ribbons of geometric tiles with simple, local neighborhoods. This paper is a step toward solving the general case of an arbitrary neighborhood, by proposing geometric tile designs that solve the case of a "tall" von Neumann neighborhood, the case of the f-shaped neighborhood, and the case of a 3 x 5 "filled" rectangular neighborhood. The techniques can be combined and generalized to solve the problem in the case of any neighborhood, centered at the tile of reference, and included in a 3 x (2k + 1) rectangle.

  2. Geometric Design Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Geometric Design Laboratory (GDL) is to support the Office of Safety Research and Development in research related to the geometric design...

  3. Non-Commutative Geometrical Aspects and Topological Invariants of a Conformally Regular Pentagonal Tiling of the Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez-Solano, Maria

    automatically has finite local complexity. In this thesis we give a construction of the continuous and discrete hull just from the combinatorial data. For the discrete hull we construct a C-algebra and a measure. Since this tiling possesses no natural R2 action by translation, there is no a priori reason......The article ”A regular pentagonal tiling of the plane” by Philip L. Bowers and Kenneth Stephenson defines a conformal pentagonal tiling. This is a tiling of the plane with remarkable combinatorial and geometric properties.However, it doesn’t have finite local complexity in any usual sense......, and therefore we cannot study it with the usual tiling theory. The appeal of the tiling is that all the tiles are conformally regular pentagons. But conformal maps are not allowable under finite local complexity. On the other hand, the tiling can be described completely by its combinatorial data, which rather...

  4. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D.; Kohlhaas, W.; Finken, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich was recently completed. This upgrade extended the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating was increased to a total of 8.0 MW through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles of the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test -- II (ALT-II) were designed for a 5-second operation with total heating of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto the ALT-II by about 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for the ALT-II had to be redesigned to avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. This redesign took the form of two major changes in the ALT-II armor tile geometry. The first design change was an increase of the armor tile thermal mass, primarily by increasing the radial thickness of each tile from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in the radial tile dimension reduces the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could be avoided only by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time. The second design change involved redefining the plasma facing surface of each armor tile in order to fully utilize the entire surface area. The incident charged particle heat flux was distributed uniformly over the armor tile surfaces by carefully matching the radial, poloidal and toroidal curvature of each tile to the plasma flow in the TEXTOR boundary layer. This geometry redefinition complicates the manufacturing of the armor tiles, but results in significant thermal performance gains. In addition to these geometry upgrades, several material options were analyzed and evaluated

  5. Tile-based rigidization surface parametric design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner Munoz, Laura; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann; Kim, Wonhee

    2018-03-01

    variations in geometric design parameters, operating parameters, and architectural variations on the performance evaluation metrics. The results of this study bring insight into the rigidization behavior of this architecture, and provide design guidelines and expose tradeoffs to form the basis for the design of tile-based rigidization surfaces for a wide range of applications.

  6. Design of a 2 x 2 scintillating tile package for the SDC barrel electromagnetic tile/fiber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, K.; Maekoba, H.; Minato, H.; Miyamoto, Y.; Nakano, I.; Okabe, M.; Seiya, Y.; Takano, T.; Takikawa, K.; Yasuoka, K.

    1996-01-01

    We describe R and D results on optical properties of a scintillating tile/fiber system for the SDC barrel electromagnetic calorimeter. The tile/fiber system uses a wavelength shifting fiber to read out the signal of a scintillating plate (tile) and a clear fiber to transmit the signal to a phototube. In the SDC calorimeter design, four of tile/fiber systems are grouped as a 2 x 2 tile package so that the gap width between and the location of the tiles in the absorber slot can be controlled. Optical properties of the tile package such as the light yield, its uniformity, and cross talk were measured in a test bench with a β-ray source and in a 2-GeV/c π + test beam. The performance as an electromagnetic calorimeter was evaluated by a GEANT simulation using the measured response map. We discuss a method of correction for the calorimeter non-uniformity. (orig.)

  7. Hierarchical Self Assembly of Patterns from the Robinson Tilings: DNA Tile Design in an Enhanced Tile Assembly Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Jennifer E; Liu, Wenyan; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a hierarchical self assembly algorithm that produces the quasiperiodic patterns found in the Robinson tilings and suggest a practical implementation of this algorithm using DNA origami tiles. We modify the abstract Tile Assembly Model, (aTAM), to include active signaling and glue activation in response to signals to coordinate the hierarchical assembly of Robinson patterns of arbitrary size from a small set of tiles according to the tile substitution algorithm that generates them. Enabling coordinated hierarchical assembly in the aTAM makes possible the efficient encoding of the recursive process of tile substitution.

  8. Optical design and studies of a tiled single grating pulse compressor for enhanced parametric space and compensation of tiling errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiya, D.; Patidar, R. K.; Sharma, J.; Joshi, A. S.; Naik, P. A.; Gupta, P. D.

    2017-04-01

    A new optical design of tiled single grating pulse compressor has been proposed, set-up and studied. The parametric space, i.e. the laser beam diameters that can be accommodated in the pulse compressor for the given range of compression lengths, has been calculated and shown to have up to two fold enhancement in comparison to our earlier proposed optical designs. The new optical design of the tiled single grating pulse compressor has an additional advantage of self compensation of various tiling errors like longitudinal and lateral piston, tip and groove density mismatch, compared to the earlier designs. Experiments have been carried out for temporal compression of 650 ps positively chirped laser pulses, at central wavelength 1054 nm, down to 235 fs in the tiled grating pulse compressor set up with the proposed design. Further, far field studies have been performed to show the desired compensation of the tiling errors takes place in the new compressor.

  9. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Julich will be completed in the spring of 1994. The upgrade will extend the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating systems are also scheduled to be upgraded so that eventually a total of 8.0 MW auxiliary heating will be available through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles on the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test - II (ALT-II) were designed for 5-second operation with a total heating power of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto ALT-II by more than 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for ALT-II had to be redesigned in order to increase their thermal inertia and, thereby, avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. The armor tile thermal inertia had been increase primarily by expanding the radial thickness of the tiles from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in radial tile dimension will reduce the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The final armor tile design was a compromise between increasing the power handling capability and reducing the particle exhaust efficiency of ALT-II. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could only be avoided by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time

  10. Leaf Roof – designing luminescent solar concentrating PV roof tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Doudart de la Grée, G.C.H.; Papadopoulos, A.; Rosemann, A.L.P.; Debije, M.G.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Krumer, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The Leaf Roof project on the design features of PV roof tiles using Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) technology has resulted in a functional prototype . The results are presented in the context of industrial product design with a focus on the aesthetic aspects of LSCs. This paper outlines the

  11. Leaf Roof - Designing Luminescent Solar Concentrating PV Roof Tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Doudart de la Gree, G.; Papadopoulos, A..; Rosemann, A.; Debije, M.G.; Cox, M.; Krumer, Zachar

    2016-01-01

    The Leaf Roof project on the design features of PV roof tiles using Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) technology [1] has resulted in a functional prototype. The results are presented in the context of industrial product design with a focus on the aesthetic aspects of LSCs [2]. This paper outlines

  12. A new design for luminescent solar concentrating PV roof tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doudart de la Gree, G.C.H.; Papadopoulos, A.; Debije, M.G.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Krumer, Z.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2015-01-01

    In our paper we explore the opportunity of combining luminescent solar concentrating (LSC) materials and crystalline PV solar cells in a new design for a roof tile by design-driven research on the energy performance of various configurations of the LSC PV device and on the aesthetic appeal in a roof

  13. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz.

  14. De novo design of an RNA tile that self-assembles into a homo-octameric nanoprism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinwen; Liu, Zhiyu; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Guansong; Mao, Chengde

    2015-01-01

    Rational, de novo design of RNA nanostructures can potentially integrate a wide array of structural and functional diversities. Such nanostructures have great promises in biomedical applications. Despite impressive progress in this field, all RNA building blocks (or tiles) reported so far are not geometrically well defined. They are generally flexible and can only assemble into a mixture of complexes with different sizes. To achieve defined structures, multiple tiles with different sequences are needed. In this study, we design an RNA tile that can homo-oligomerize into a uniform RNA nanostructure. The designed RNA nanostructure is characterized by gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy and cryogenic electron microscopy imaging. We believe that development along this line would help RNA nanotechnology to reach the structural control that is currently associated with DNA nanotechnology.

  15. Conceptual design for a bulk tungsten divertor tile in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Ph.; Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Neubauer, O.; Pintsuk, G.; Philipps, V.; Sadakov, S.; Samm, U.; Schweer, B.

    2007-01-01

    The ITER-like Wall project (ILW) for JET aims at providing the plasma chamber of the tokamak with an environment of mixed materials which will be relevant for the actual first wall construction on ITER. Tungsten plays a key role in the divertor cladding. For the central tile, also called LB-SRP for 'load-bearing septum replacement plate', bulk tungsten is envisaged in order to cope with the high heat loads expected (up to 10 MW/m 2 for 10 s). The outer strike-point in the divertor will be positioned on this tile for the most relevant configurations. Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) has developed a conceptual design based on an assembly of tungsten blades or lamellae. An appropriate interface with the base carrier of JET, on which modules of two tiles are positioned and fixed by remote handling procedures, is a substantial part of the integral design. Important issues are the electromagnetic forces and expected temperature distributions. Material choices combine tungsten, TZM TM , Inconel and ceramic parts. The completed design has been finalised in a proposal to the ILW project, with utmost ITER-relevance

  16. Conceptual Design for a Bulk Tungsten Divertor Tile in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, P.; Neubauer, O.; Philipps, V.; Schweer, B.; Samm, U.; Hirai, T.; Sadakov, S.

    2006-01-01

    With ITER on the verge of being build, the ITER-like Wall project (ILW) for JET aims at providing the plasma chamber of the tokamak with an environment of mixed materials which will be relevant to the support of decisions to the first wall construction and, from the point of view of plasma physics, to the corresponding investigations of possible plasma configuration and plasma-wall interaction. In both respects, tungsten plays a key role in the divertor cladding whereas beryllium will be used for the vessel's first wall. For the central tile, also called LB-SRP for '' Load-Bearing Septum Replacement Plate '', resort to bulk tungsten is envisaged in order to cope with the high loads expected (up to 10 MW/m 2 for about 10 s). This is indeed the preferred plasma-facing component for positioning the outer strike-point in the divertor. Forschungszentrum Juelich has developed a conceptual design for this tile, based on an assembly of tungsten blades or lamellae. It was selected in the frame of an extensive R-and-D study in search of a suitable, inertially cooled component(T. Hirai et al., R-and-D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET ITER-like Wall Project: this conference). As reported elsewhere, the design is actually driven by electromagnetic considerations in the first place(S. Sadakov et al., Detailed electromagnetic analysis for optimisation of a tungsten divertor plate for JET: this conference). The lamellae are grouped in four stacks per tile which are independently attached to an equally re-designed supporting structure. A so-called adapter plate, also a new design, takes care of an appropriate interface to the base carrier of JET, onto which modules of two tiles are positioned and screwed by remote handling (RH) procedures. The compatibility of the design on the whole with RH requirements is another essential ingredient which was duly taken into account throughout. The concept and the underlying philosophy will be presented along with important

  17. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  18. Design and Applications of Rapid Image Tile Producing Software Based on Mosaic Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Z.; Huang, W.; Wang, C.; Tang, D.; Zhu, L.

    2018-04-01

    Map tile technology is widely used in web geographic information services. How to efficiently produce map tiles is key technology for rapid service of images on web. In this paper, a rapid producing software for image tile data based on mosaic dataset is designed, meanwhile, the flow of tile producing is given. Key technologies such as cluster processing, map representation, tile checking, tile conversion and compression in memory are discussed. Accomplished by software development and tested by actual image data, the results show that this software has a high degree of automation, would be able to effectively reducing the number of IO and improve the tile producing efficiency. Moreover, the manual operations would be reduced significantly.

  19. DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS OF RAPID IMAGE TILE PRODUCING SOFTWARE BASED ON MOSAIC DATASET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Map tile technology is widely used in web geographic information services. How to efficiently produce map tiles is key technology for rapid service of images on web. In this paper, a rapid producing software for image tile data based on mosaic dataset is designed, meanwhile, the flow of tile producing is given. Key technologies such as cluster processing, map representation, tile checking, tile conversion and compression in memory are discussed. Accomplished by software development and tested by actual image data, the results show that this software has a high degree of automation, would be able to effectively reducing the number of IO and improve the tile producing efficiency. Moreover, the manual operations would be reduced significantly.

  20. Design study of an armor tile handling manipulator for the Fusion Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibanuma, K.; Honda, T.; Satoh, K.; Terakado, T.; Kondoh, M.; Sasaki, N.; Munakata, T.; Murakami, S.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual design of the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER), which is a D-T burning reactor following on JT-60 in Japan, has been developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). In FER, a rail-mounted vehicle concept is planned to be adopted for in-vessel maintenance, such as maintenance of divertor plates and armor tiles. Advantages of this concept are the high stiffness of the rail as a base structure for maintenance and the high mobility of the vehicle along the rail. Twin armor tile handling manipulators installed on both sides of the vehicle have been designed. The respective manipulators for armor tile handling have 8 degrees of freedom in order to have access to any place of the first wall and to go through the horizontal port by operating manipulator joints. If the two types of manipulators for divertor plates and armor tiles are installed on the vehicle and the divertor handling manipulator carries a case filled with armor tiles, the replacement time of armor tiles will be reduced. In FER, moreover, maintenance of armor tiles, which is a scheduled maintenance, is planned to be carried out by the autonomous control using position sensors etc. In order to accumulate the data base for the development of the autonomous control of the manipulator in armor tile maintenance, the present paper describes basic mechanical characteristics (stress, deflection and natural frequency) of the armor tile handling manipulator calculated by static stress and dynamic eigenvalue analyses. (orig.)

  1. Engineering design evaluation of Atlas tile-calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, N.; Guarino, V.; Proudfoot, J.; Stanek, R.; Price, L.; Petereit, E.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to familiarize themselves with the work that has been done to date on the design of the Tile Cal hadron calorimeter for Atlas, the authors have undertaken a thorough examination of the current designs. They concentrated on the work that has been done by the IHEP Group at Protvino, and in particular the work presented at the last Atlas Week. They constructed six different finite element models as they have learned more about the system. These models were meant to be rough models only and do not represent actual construction in all cases. In some cases, shortcuts were taken in an attempt to set boundary conditions and to reduce the size of the problem to accommodate software limitations, while still providing enough information to further the understanding of the design. After reviewing the analysis and thinking about the construction, the authors have some suggested modifications, which are presented in this paper. It is clear that the work done at both CERN and Protvino has been impressive and thorough. The authors have tried to evaluate and understand both the CERN baseline design and the suggested design option from Protvino

  2. MASHUP SCHEME DESIGN OF MAP TILES USING LIGHTWEIGHT OPEN SOURCE WEBGIS PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To address the difficulty involved when using existing commercial Geographic Information System platforms to integrate multi-source image data fusion, this research proposes the loading of multi-source local tile data based on CesiumJS and examines the tile data organization mechanisms and spatial reference differences of the CesiumJS platform, as well as various tile data sources, such as Google maps, Map World, and Bing maps. Two types of tile data loading schemes have been designed for the mashup of tiles, the single data source loading scheme and the multi-data source loading scheme. The multi-sources of digital map tiles used in this paper cover two different but mainstream spatial references, the WGS84 coordinate system and the Web Mercator coordinate system. According to the experimental results, the single data source loading scheme and the multi-data source loading scheme with the same spatial coordinate system showed favorable visualization effects; however, the multi-data source loading scheme was prone to lead to tile image deformation when loading multi-source tile data with different spatial references. The resulting method provides a low cost and highly flexible solution for small and medium-scale GIS programs and has a certain potential for practical application values. The problem of deformation during the transition of different spatial references is an important topic for further research.

  3. The design of central column protection tiles for the TCV tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, R.A.; Chavan, R.; Moret, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The large variety of plasma shapes produced in the TCV tokamak places unique demands on the plasma facing surfaces. In particular, the central column graphite armour tiles are solicited during the creation of all TCV plasmas and function as power handling surfaces for both limited and diverted discharges. The higher power flux densities accompanying the addition of electron cyclotron heating systems have necessitated a new, optimized, design for these tiles. The optimization process and the subsequent new tile design are described. A basic 'two point' model of the scrape-off layer plasma in conjunction with TCV equilibrium reconstructions and a simplified representation of the local magnetic field line geometry are used to impose simulated power flux densities onto a parametric toroidal tile contour. The thermo-mechanical response of the tile is then investigated via full 3-D finite element simulations accounting for the non-linear temperature dependence of the graphite thermal diffusivity and radiation from the tile surface. The final design choice is a compromise between the requirements for adequate power handling for a range of magnetic configurations, the need to protect against tile edge misalignment in the presence of grazing field line angles of incidence and the space restrictions imposed by vacuum vessel design. (author)

  4. Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F

    2011-03-01

    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, James L.; Olariu, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this grant has been the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles particularly focused on the elements of geometric design, graphical user interfaces, and the interaction of the multitude of software typically used in this engineering environment. This has resulted in the development of several analysis packages and design studies. These include two major software systems currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are SMART, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool, and EASIE, the Environment for Software Integration and Execution. Additional software tools were designed and implemented to address the needs of the engineer working in the conceptual design environment. SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and several engineering analysis capabilities. In addition, SMART has a carefully engineered user interface that makes it easy to learn and use. Finally, a number of specialty characteristics have been built into SMART which allow it to be used efficiently as a front end geometry processor for other analysis packages. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand-alone, analysis codes. Resulting in a streamlining of the exchange of data between programs reducing errors and improving the efficiency. EASIE provides both a methodology and a collection of software tools to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes.

  6. Analysis and design of the beryllium tiles for the JET ITER-like wall project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, V.; Krivchenkov, Y.; Riccardo, V.; Vizvary, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Work is in progress to completely replace, in 2008/9, the existing JET CFC tiles with a configuration of plasma facing materials consistent with the ITER design. The ITER-like wall (ILW) will be created with a combination of beryllium (Be), tungsten (W), W-coated CFC and Be-coated inconel tiles, with the material depending on the local anticipated heat flux and geometry. Over 4000 tiles will be replaced and the ILW will accommodate additional heating up to at least 50 MW for 10 s. One of the objectives is to maintain or improve the existing CFC tile power handling performance which has been achieved in most cases by hiding bolt holes, optimising tile size and profile and introducing castellations on plasma facing surfaces. This paper describes the generic problems associated with the Be tiles (power handling capacity and disruption induced eddy currents) and illustrates the solution selected for the inner wall guard limiter (IWGL) where the present CFC tiles will be replaced with Be

  7. Advances on geometric flux optical design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Botella, Ángel; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Álvarez; Vázquez, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Nonimaging optics is focused on the study of methods to design concentrators or illuminators systems. It can be included in the area of photometry and radiometry and it is governed by the laws of geometrical optics. The field vector method, which starts with the definition of the irradiance vector E, is one of the techniques used in nonimaging optics. Called "Geometrical flux vector" it has provide ideal designs. The main property of this model is, its ability to estimate how radiant energy is transferred by the optical system, from the concepts of field line, flux tube and pseudopotential surface, overcoming traditional raytrace methods. Nevertheless this model has been developed only at an academic level, where characteristic optical parameters are ideal not real and the studied geometries are simple. The main objective of the present paper is the application of the vector field method to the analysis and design of real concentration and illumination systems. We propose the development of a calculation tool for optical simulations by vector field, using algorithms based on Fermat`s principle, as an alternative to traditional tools for optical simulations by raytrace, based on reflection and refraction law. This new tool provides, first, traditional simulations results: efficiency, illuminance/irradiance calculations, angular distribution of light- with lower computation time, photometrical information needs about a few tens of field lines, in comparison with million rays needed nowadays. On the other hand the tool will provides new information as vector field maps produced by the system, composed by field lines and quasipotential surfaces. We show our first results with the vector field simulation tool.

  8. Analysis and Design of the Beryllium Tiles for the JET ILW Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, V.; Krivchenkov, Y.; Riccardo, V.; Vizvary, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Work is in progress to completely replace, in 2008, the JET existing CFC tiles with a configuration of plasma facing materials consistent with the ITER design. The ITER-like Wall (ILW) will be created with a combination of beryllium (Be), tungsten (W), W-Coated CFC and Be-Coated inconel tiles, with the material depending on the local anticipated heat flux and geometry required. Over 2000 tiles will be replaced and the ILW will accommodate additional heating up to at least 50 MW for 10 s. This paper describes the generic problems associated with Be tiles (power handling capacity and disruption induced eddy currents) and illustrates specific design cases. As with the existing first wall components, the Be tiles will be inertially cooled and the Be melting temperature of only 1289 o C will drive their power handling performance. At 40 mm typical thickness, the tiles are '' thermally thick '' for typical 10 s. shots and will handle about 60 MJ/m 2 without melting. Surface castellations and kinematic restraints minimise thermally induced stresses. As the thermal flux arrives along near toroidal directions, the design keeps the exposed depth of poloidally running edges to low levels: down to 40 microns in the most severe positions. This limit strongly constrains the dimensions of the castellation grooves and the placing of the cuts described below. During disruptions, Be tiles are subjected to eddy current torques due to the combination of large changes in magnetic field (typically 100 T/s), high magnetic fields (B(tor) ∼ 4 T in the centre of the plasma) and the low resistivity of Be (8 E-8 Ohm-m at 200 o C, the minimum operating temperature of JET). The ILW Be tiles will manage these torques via a combination of the castellations, along with cuts which will interrupt the eddy current loops. The cuts result in the division of the tiles into several slices which require inconel carrier '' toast racks '' for support. Example cases will show FEA results of eddy current

  9. A visualization method for teaching the geometric design of highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-11

    In this project the authors employed state-of-the-art technology for developing visualization tools for teaching highway design. Specifically, the authors used photolog images as the basis for developing dynamic 3-D models of selected geometric eleme...

  10. Maintenance of Traffic for Innovative Geometric Design Work Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Currently there are no guidelines within the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) on construction phasing and maintenance of traffic (MOT) for retrofit construction and maintenance projects involving innovative geometric designs. The res...

  11. Teaching geometrical principles to design students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijs, L.M.G.; Bartneck, C.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method of teaching the principles of geometry to design students. The students focus on a field of design in which geometry is the design: tessellation. We review different approaches to geometry and the field of tessellation before we discuss the setup of the course. Instead of

  12. Geometric Design of Highways in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Baričević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the criteria, standards, and engineeringprocedures used to design principal elements of the highwayalignment, highway cross sections, and adjacent roadside environment.Development of a comprehensive highway design focuseson the establishment of travel lane configuration, alignmentlocation, and all dimensions related to the highway crosssection. A three-dimensional physical location is determinedthrough calculation of a horizontal and vertical alignment ofthe highway centerline, based on a variety of operational considerations.The results of these activities are refe"ed to as thegeometric design and represent all the visible features of a highwayor street. The first and major portion of the paper deals withthe design of motor-vehicle facilities. Specific design elementsare described and discussed with respect to design methodology.

  13. Teaching geometrical principles to design students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bartneck

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method of teaching the principles of geometry to design students. The students focus on a field of design in which geometry is the design: tessellation. We review different approaches to geometry and the field of tessellation before we discuss the setup of the course. Instead of employing 2D drawing tools, such as Adobe Illustrator, the students define their tessellation in mathematical formulas, using the Mathematica software. This procedure enables them to understand the mathematical principles on which graphical tools, such as Illustrator are built upon. But we do not stop at a digital representation of their tessellation design we continue to cut their tessellations in Perspex. It moves the abstract concepts of math into the real world, so that the students can experience them directly, which provides a tremendous reward to the students.

  14. A design of scintillator tiles read out by surface-mounted SiPMs for a future hadron calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong; Bauss, Bruno; Buescher, Volker; Caudron, Julien; Chau, Phi; Degele, Reinhold; Geib, Karl-Heinrich; Masetti, Lucia; Schaefer, Ulrich; Tapprogge, Stefan; Wanke, Rainer [Institut fuer Physik and PRISMA Detector Lab, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Precision calorimetry using highly granular sampling calorimeters is being developed based on the particle flow concept within the CALICE collaboration. One design option of a hadron calorimeter is based on silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) to detect photons generated in plastic scintillator tiles. Driven by the need of automated mass assembly of around ten millions of channels stringently required by the high granularity, we developed a design of scintillator tiles directly coupled with surface-mounted SiPMs. A cavity is created in the center of the bottom surface of each tile to provide enough room for the whole SiPM package and to improve collection of the light produced by incident particles penetrating the tile at different positions. The cavity design has been optimized using a GEANT4-based full simulation model to achieve high response to Minimum Ionizing Particles (MIPs) and also good areal uniformity. Cosmic-ray measurements confirms high 1-MIP response for scintillator tiles with an optimized cavity design. Uniformity measurements by scanning the tile area using focused electrons from a beta source show excellent response uniformity. This optimized design is well beyond the requirements for a precision hadron calorimeter.

  15. New geometrical compactness measures for zones design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Alfredo Rincón-García

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of compact zones has been studied because of its influence in the creation of zones with regular forms, which are easier to analyze, to investigate or to administer. This paper propose a new method to measure compactness,by means of the transformation of the original geographical spaces, into figures formed with square cells, which are used to measure the similarity between the original zone and an ideal zone with straight forms. The proposed method was applied to design electoral zones, which must satisfy constraints of compactness, contiguity and population balance, in a topographical configuration that favors the creation of twisted and diffuse shapes. The results show that the new method favors the creation of zones with straight forms, without an important effect to the population balance, which are considered zones of high quality. Keywords: Redistricting, compactness, simulated annealing, GIS. Mathematics Subject Classification: 90C59, 90C29, 68T20.

  16. An Upgraded Front-End Switching Power Supply Design For the ATLAS TileCAL Detector of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Gary; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We present the design of an upgraded switching power supply brick for the front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter (TileCAL) at the LHC. The new design features significant improvement in noise, improved fault detection, and generally a more robust design, while retaining the compact size, water-cooling, output control, and monitoring features in this 300 KHz design. We discuss the improvements to the design, and the radiation testing that we have done to qualify the design. We also present our plans for the production of 2400 new bricks for installation on the detector in 2013.

  17. An Upgraded Front-End Switching Power Supply Design for the ATLAS TileCAL Detector of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; De Lurgio, P; Henriques, A; Minashvili, I; Nemecek, S; Price, L; Proudfoot, J; Stanek, R

    2011-01-01

    We present the design of an upgraded switching power supply brick for the front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter (TileCAL) at the LHC. The new design features significant improvement in noise, improved fault detection, and generally a more robust design, while retaining the compact size, water-cooling, output control, and monitoring features in this 300 KHz design. We discuss the improvements to the design, and the radiation testing that we have done to qualify the design. We also present our plans for the production of 2400 new bricks for installation on the detector in 2013.

  18. Design of a New Switching Power Supply for the ATLAS TileCAL Front-End Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We present the design of an upgraded switching power supply for the front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter (TileCAL) at the LHC. The new design features significant improvement in noise, improved fault detection, and improved reliability, while retaining the compact size, water-cooling, output control, and monitoring features in this 300 KHz design. We discuss the steps taken to improve the design. We present the results from extensive radiation testing to qualify the design, including SEU sensitivity. We also present our reliability analysis. Production of 2400 new bricks for the detector is currently in progress, and we present preliminary results from the production checkout.

  19. Decorative design of ceramic tiles adapted to inkjet printing employing digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defez, B.; Santiago-Praderas, V.; Lluna, E.; Peris-Fajarnes, G.; Dunai, E.

    2013-01-01

    The ceramic tile sector is a very competitive industry. The designer's proficiency to offer new models of the decorated surface, adapted to the production means, plays a very important role in the competitiveness. In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the design process in the ceramic sector, as much as the changes experimented in parallel by the printing equipment. Afterwards, we present a new concept of ceramic design, based on digital image processing. This technique allows the generation of homogeneous and non-repetitive designs for large surfaces, especially thought for inkjet printing. With the programmed algorithms we have compiled a prototype software for the assistance of the ceramic design. This tool allows creating continuous designs for large surfaces saving developing time. (Author)

  20. SIAM Conference on Geometric Design and Computing. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-11

    The SIAM Conference on Geometric Design and Computing attracted 164 domestic and international researchers, from academia, industry, and government. It provided a stimulating forum in which to learn about the latest developments, to discuss exciting new research directions, and to forge stronger ties between theory and applications. Final Report

  1. Ergonomic design of mosaic control panel and standardised control tile configurations for 500 MWe PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ughade, A.V.; Das, R.N.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1994-01-01

    A review of control rooms of operating nuclear power plants identified many design problems having potential for degrading the performance of operators. Many indications and controls on existing control panels are placed outside the recommended visual and reach envelopes for acceptable operator usage. As a result, the application of human factor principles was found to be needed. This paper describes the design approach for working out the dimensions of main control room panels and console using human engineering principles and recommends the ergonomic dimensions of the main control room panels and console. Further it gives the basis and works out the control tile configurations for 500 MWe PHWR project. It also suggests the use of a full scale mock up for design evaluation and verification. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs

  2. Optimization of the JET Beryllium tile profile for power handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, I.; Vries, P. de; Lomas, P.J.; Loarte, A.

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of the ITER-like wall project is to install a beryllium main wall and a tungsten divertor. From the point of view of plasma operations, the power handling properties of the new Be tiles may affect the operational space. The tiles design has to be such that it allows routine plasma operation for ITER relevant scenarios, i.e., 3-5 MA ELMy H-modes with high power input (P in > 30 MW) for lengths of time of ∼ 10 s. Due to the constrains imposed by heat conductivity, eddy current and stress torques on a Be tile, a single Be tile must be an assembly of castellated slices [Thompson V. et al, this conference]. From the point of view of plasma operations, the power handling properties of the new Be tiles can restrict the operational space of JET, if considerable melting of the tiles is to be avoided. This paper describes the power handling studies for the beryllium wall tiles and the optimisation of their design to achieve the operation goal described above. The melting temperature for Be is 1289 o C, corresponding to a energy limit of 60 MJ/m 2 for 10 s [Thompson V. et al, this conference]. For low field line angles, the power density on the toroidally facing surfaces is several times higher than the power density on the tile face requiring these to be shadowed. Furthermore the poloidally facing surfaces also have to be shadowed from assembly to assembly due to the large gap between assemblies. The tiles have been designed taking into account these limits and with a geometrical design such as to avoid exposed surfaces at high angles to the magnetic field being melted due to the expected loads. This has been achieved after detailed studies of the power handling of the various limiters and protections, including the effect of the curvature of the flux surfaces, shadowing and tolerance to misalignment. The surface of the tiles is defined such that, when possible, there is an even distribution of power density over the entire tile surface, and that

  3. Reliable and redundant FPGA based read-out design in the ATLAS TileCal Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Åkerstedt, Henrik; The ATLAS collaboration; Drake, Gary; Anderson, Kelby; Bohm, Christian; Oreglia, Mark; Tang, Fukun

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter at ATLAS is a hadron calorimeter based on steel plates and scintillating tiles read out by PMTs. The current read-out system uses standard ADCs and custom ASICs to digitize and temporarily store the data on the detector. However, only a subset of the data is actually read out to the counting room. The on-detector electronics will be replaced around 2023. To achieve the required reliability the upgraded system will be highly redundant. Here the ASICs will be replaced with Kintex-7 FPGAs from Xilinx. This, in addition to the use of multiple 10 Gbps optical read-out links, will allow a full read-out of all detector data. Due to the higher radiation levels expected when the beam luminosity is increased, opportunities for repairs will be less frequent. The circuitry and firmware must therefore be designed for sufficiently high reliability using redundancy and radiation tolerant components. Within a year, a hybrid demonstrator including the new read-out system will be installed in one slice of ...

  4. Implicit geometric representations for optimal design of gas turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, T.; Ghaly, W.

    2004-01-01

    Shape optimization requires a proper geometric representation of the blade profile; the parameters of such a representation are usually taken as design variables in the optimization process. This implies that the model must possess three specific features: flexibility, efficiency, and accuracy. For the specific task of aerodynamic optimization for turbine blades, it is critical to have flexibility in both the global and local design spaces in order to obtain a successful optimization. This work is concerned with the development of two geometric representations of turbine blade profiles that are appropriate for aerodynamic optimization: the Modified Rapid Axial Turbine Design (MRATD) model where the blade is represented by five low-order curves that satisfy eleven designer parameters; this model is suitable for a global search of the design space. The second model is NURBS parameterization of the blade profile that can be used for a local refinement. The two models are presented and are assessed for flexibility and accuracy when representing several typical turbine blade profiles. The models will be further discussed in terms of curve smoothness and blade shape representation with a multi-NURBS curve versus one curve and its effect on the flow field, in particular the pressure distribution along the blade surfaces, will be elaborated. (author)

  5. Geometrical Design Errors in Duhok Intersections by Driver Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshad Ali Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In many situations, drivers if certain of the absence traffic monitoring system tend to shorten their driving paths and travel time across intersections. This behavior will be encouraged if the geometrical design suffers from mistakes, or the geometrical design and road conditions make it harder for drivers to follow the correct routes. Sometimes the intersection arrangement is confusing for the driver to distinguish the right from the wrong track. In this study, two sites with large number of driving mistakes were noticed. One site is a roundabout within the university of Duhok campus. The other is the intersection just outside the University of Duhok eastern main gate. At both sites, the geometry is very confusing and encourage driving mistakes. The university roundabout which was the first site investigated, was not properly designed encouraging wrong side driving. Many traffic accidents took place at this roundabout.  Wrong side driving reaches 32 % at peak hour in one approach.  This was reduced to 6% when temporary divisional island was installed. The other approach has a 15% wrong side driving and no remedy could be done to it. At the intersection near the university gate, wrong side driving reaches 56% of the traffic emerging from the main gate at peak hour. This was reduced to 14% when drivers are guided through direction sign. This percentage was reduced further to 9% with standing policeman.

  6. Stiffness design of geometrically nonlinear structures using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Thomas; Pedersen, Claus B. Wittendorf; Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    of the objective functions are found with the adjoint method and the optimization problem is solved using the Method of Moving Asymptotes. A filtering scheme is used to obtain checkerboard-free and mesh-independent designs and a continuation approach improves convergence to efficient designs. Different objective......The paper deals with topology optimization of structures undergoing large deformations. The geometrically nonlinear behaviour of the structures are modelled using a total Lagrangian finite element formulation and the equilibrium is found using a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. The sensitivities...... functions are tested. Minimizing compliance for a fixed load results in degenerated topologies which are very inefficient for smaller or larger loads. The problem of obtaining degenerated "optimal" topologies which only can support the design load is even more pronounced than for structures with linear...

  7. Design for an IO block array in a tile-based FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Guangxin; Chen Lingdou; Liu Zhongli

    2009-01-01

    A design for an IO block array in a tile-based FPGA is presented. Corresponding with the characteristics of the FPGA, each IO cell is composed of a signal path, local routing pool and configurable input/output buffers. Shared programmable registers in the signal path can be configured for the function of JTAG, without specific boundary scan registers/latches, saving layout area. The local routing pool increases the flexibility of routing and the routability of the whole FPGA. An auxiliary power supply is adopted to increase the performance of the IO buffers at different configured IO standards. The organization of the IO block array is described in an architecture description file, from which the array layout can be accomplished through use of an automated layout assembly tool. This design strategy facilitates the design of FPGAs with different capacities or architectures in an FPGA family series. The bond-out schemes of the same FPGA chip in different packages are also considered. The layout is based on SMIC 0.13 μm logic 1P8M salicide 1.2/2.5 V CMOS technology. Our performance is comparable with commercial SRAM-based FPGAs which use a similar process. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. Reliability Based Geometric Design of Horizontal Circular Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbongshi, Pabitra; Kalita, Kuldeep

    2018-06-01

    Geometric design of horizontal circular curve primarily involves with radius of the curve and stopping sight distance at the curve section. Minimum radius is decided based on lateral thrust exerted on the vehicles and the minimum stopping sight distance is provided to maintain the safety in longitudinal direction of vehicles. Available sight distance at site can be regulated by changing the radius and middle ordinate at the curve section. Both radius and sight distance depend on design speed. Speed of vehicles at any road section is a variable parameter and therefore, normally the 98th percentile speed is taken as the design speed. This work presents a probabilistic approach for evaluating stopping sight distance, considering the variability of all input parameters of sight distance. It is observed that the 98th percentile sight distance value is much lower than the sight distance corresponding to 98th percentile speed. The distribution of sight distance parameter is also studied and found to follow a lognormal distribution. Finally, the reliability based design charts are presented for both plain and hill regions, and considering the effect of lateral thrust.

  9. Reliability Based Geometric Design of Horizontal Circular Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbongshi, Pabitra; Kalita, Kuldeep

    2018-03-01

    Geometric design of horizontal circular curve primarily involves with radius of the curve and stopping sight distance at the curve section. Minimum radius is decided based on lateral thrust exerted on the vehicles and the minimum stopping sight distance is provided to maintain the safety in longitudinal direction of vehicles. Available sight distance at site can be regulated by changing the radius and middle ordinate at the curve section. Both radius and sight distance depend on design speed. Speed of vehicles at any road section is a variable parameter and therefore, normally the 98th percentile speed is taken as the design speed. This work presents a probabilistic approach for evaluating stopping sight distance, considering the variability of all input parameters of sight distance. It is observed that the 98th percentile sight distance value is much lower than the sight distance corresponding to 98th percentile speed. The distribution of sight distance parameter is also studied and found to follow a lognormal distribution. Finally, the reliability based design charts are presented for both plain and hill regions, and considering the effect of lateral thrust.

  10. An updated front-end data link design for the Phase-2 upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Silverstein, Samuel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present a new design of the advanced Link Daughter Board (DB) for the front-end electronics upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) for Phase-II. The new TileCal front-end comprises 1024 “mini-drawers” (MD) installed in 256 calorimeter modules. Each MD serves up to 12 PMT channels, with ADCs and calibration provided by one “main board” (MB) per MD. The DB is connected to the MB through a dense, high-speed FMC connector, and provides bi-directional multi-Gb/s optlcal links to the off-detector electronics for timing, control, and continuous high-speed readout of the ADC channels on the MB. The DB is designed for redundancy and fault-tolerance, and previous versions have already been successfully tested at CERN and elsewhere. The new revision includes Kintex Ultrascale+ FPGAs for improved link timing and radiation tolerance, an expanded role for the rad-tolerant GBTx ASICs, and a simpler design requiring fewer components and optical links.

  11. Design of a New Switching Power Supply for the ATLAS TileCal Front-End Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Gary; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We present the design of an upgraded switching power supply for the front-end electronics of the ATLAS Hadron Tile Calorimeter. The new design features significant improvement in noise, improved fault detection, and improved reliability, while retaining the compact size, water-cooling, output control, and monitoring features. We discuss the steps taken to improve the design. We present the results from extensive radiation testing to qualify the design, including SEU sensitivity. We also present our reliability analysis. Production of 2400 new bricks for the detector is in progress, and we present preliminary results from the production checkout.

  12. Mismatch oligonucleotides in human and yeast: guidelines for probe design on tiling microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee Justin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mismatched oligonucleotides are widely used on microarrays to differentiate specific from nonspecific hybridization. While many experiments rely on such oligos, the hybridization behavior of various degrees of mismatch (MM structure has not been extensively studied. Here, we present the results of two large-scale microarray experiments on S. cerevisiae and H. sapiens genomic DNA, to explore MM oligonucleotide behavior with real sample mixtures under tiling-array conditions. Results We examined all possible nucleotide substitutions at the central position of 36-nucleotide probes, and found that nonspecific binding by MM oligos depends upon the individual nucleotide substitutions they incorporate: C→A, C→G and T→A (yielding purine-purine mispairs are most disruptive, whereas A→X were least disruptive. We also quantify a marked GC skew effect: substitutions raising probe GC content exhibit higher intensity (and vice versa. This skew is small in highly-expressed regions (± 0.5% of total intensity range and large (± 2% or more elsewhere. Multiple mismatches per oligo are largely additive in effect: each MM added in a distributed fashion causes an additional 21% intensity drop relative to PM, three-fold more disruptive than adding adjacent mispairs (7% drop per MM. Conclusion We investigate several parameters for oligonucleotide design, including the effects of each central nucleotide substitution on array signal intensity and of multiple MM per oligo. To avoid GC skew, individual substitutions should not alter probe GC content. RNA sample mixture complexity may increase the amount of nonspecific hybridization, magnify GC skew and boost the intensity of MM oligos at all levels.

  13. Progress in the design of mechanically attached, conductively cooled low-Z armour tiles for the NET integrated first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.; Vieider, G.

    1991-01-01

    For the NET device complete or extensive coverage of the first wall with a low-Z armour is envisaged. This armour may comprise a general protection, ∝90% total first-wall surface, of low-temperature conductively cooled tiles, complemented by a local protection of radiatively cooled tiles in regions where near peak fluxes are incident. A low-temperature (∝1000deg C) carbon-based armour, cooled via conduction to the reference NET integrated first wall, has been developed using currently available materials. The armour comprises a small square tile fabricated in high-conductivity 3-D or random-fibre carbon fibre reinforced carbon composite attached to the steel first wall via a stainless-steel/refractory metal stud assembly. Attachment forces are maintained within acceptable limits, particularly during baking, through material selection and component geometry. To ensure effective heat transfer throughout the duty cycle an intermediate conductive layer of a highly compliant material is foreseen. The scope of the paper covers the design of the armour assembly for proof of principle testing with the NET first-wall test section, TS1, and reports the results of supporting thermomechanical analyses. (orig.)

  14. New cellular automaton designed to simulate geometration in gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, M. J.; Kułakowski, K.; Maksymowicz, A. Z.

    2002-08-01

    We propose a new kind of cellular automaton to simulate transportation of molecules of DNA through agarose gel. Two processes are taken into account: reptation at strong electric field E, described in the particle model, and geometration, i.e. subsequent hookings and releases of long molecules at and from gel fibres. The automaton rules are deterministic and they are designed to describe both processes within one unified approach. Thermal fluctuations are not taken into account. The number of simultaneous hookings is limited by the molecule length. The features of the automaton are: (i) the size of the cell neighbourhood for the automaton rule varies dynamically, from nearest neighbors to the entire molecule; (ii) the length of the time step is determined at each step according to dynamic rules. Calculations are made up to N=244 reptons in a molecule. Two subsequent stages of the motion are found. Firstly, an initial set of random configurations of molecules is transformed into a more ordered phase, where most molecules are elongated along the applied field direction. After some transient time, the mobility μ reaches a constant value. Then, it varies with N as 1/ N for long molecules. The band dispersion varies with time t approximately as Nt1/2. Our results indicate that the well-known plateau of the mobility μ vs. N does not hold at large electric fields.

  15. Accelerated life testing design using geometric process for pareto distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Kamal; Shazia Zarrin; Arif Ul Islam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the geometric process is used for the analysis of accelerated life testing under constant stress for Pareto Distribution. Assuming that the lifetimes under increasing stress levels form a geometric process, estimates of the parameters are obtained by using the maximum likelihood method for complete data. In addition, asymptotic interval estimates of the parameters of the distribution using Fisher information matrix are also obtained. The statistical properties of the parameters ...

  16. Design, Construction and Installation of the ATLAS Hadronic Barrel Scintillator-Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Alexa, C; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Andresen, X; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosi, F; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Calvet, D; Cardeira, C; Carli, T; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castillo, M V; Costello, J; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Da Silva, P; Davidek, M; David, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Drake, G; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Feng, E; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferreira, B C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Flix, J; Francavilla, P; Fullana, E; Garde, V; Gellerstedt, K; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giokaris, N; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Gouveia, J; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Hill, N; Holmgren, S; Hruska, I; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Jen-La Plante, I; Jon-And, K; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A; Khubua, J; Klereborn, J; Kopikov, S; Korolkov, I; Krivkova, P; Kulchitsky, Y; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Lapin, V; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Leitner, R; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Lourtie, P; Lovas, L; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nikitine, I; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M; Palan, B; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Pereira, A; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Pod, E; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Pribyl, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Ramalho, M; Ramstedt, M; Raposeiro, L; Reis, J; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Rumiantsau, V; Russakovich, N; Sada Costa, J; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Says, L P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shalanda, N; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Simaitis, V; Simonyan, M; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Solovianov, J; Silva, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Speckmeyer, P; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Starovoitov, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Underwood, D; Usai, G; Valero, A; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A; Vazeille, F; Vellidis, C; Ventura, F; Vichou, I; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenin, A; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zilka, B

    2007-01-01

    The scintillator tile hadronic calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter using steel as the absorber structure and scintillator as the active medium. The scintillator is located in "pockets" in the steel structure and the wavelength-shifting fibers are contained in channels running radially within the absorber to photomultiplier tubes which are located in the outer support girders of the calorimeter structure. In addition, to its role as a detector for high energy particles, the tile calorimeter provides the direct support of the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter in the barrel region, and the liquid argon electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in the endcap region. Through these, it indirectly supports the inner tracking system and beam pipe. The steel absorber, and in particular the support girders, provide the flux return for the solenoidal field from the central solenoid. Finally, the end surfaces of the barrel calorimeter are used to mount services, power supplies and readout crates for the inner tr...

  17. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.

    1988-09-01

    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  18. STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF SHAPES IN THE DESIGN OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS, USING GEOMETRICAL TRANSFORMATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    MARIN Dumitru

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the major contribution of geometrical transformations in the structure and organization of the shapes which compose industrial products. Geometrical transformations, such as symmetry, translation, rotation, homology etc. are frequently used in the design activity for filling the plane and the space (plane and spatial equipartitions), in ornaments and also in creating shapes, which are functional and aesthetical at the same time.

  19. Fifth SIAM conference on geometric design 97: Final program and abstracts. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The meeting was divided into the following sessions: (1) CAD/CAM; (2) Curve/Surface Design; (3) Geometric Algorithms; (4) Multiresolution Methods; (5) Robotics; (6) Solid Modeling; and (7) Visualization. This report contains the abstracts of papers presented at the meeting. Proceding the conference there was a short course entitled ``Wavelets for Geometric Modeling and Computer Graphics``.

  20. The Design and Use of Tungsten Coated TZM Molybdenum Tile Inserts in the DIII-D Tokamak Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Christopher [General Atomics, San Diego; Nygren, R. E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Chrobak, C P. [General Atomics, San Diego; Buchenauer, Dean [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Holtrop, Kurt [General Atomics, San Diego; Unterberg, Ezekial A. [ORNL; Zach, Mike P. [ORNL

    2017-08-01

    Future tokamak devices are envisioned to utilize a high-Z metal divertor with tungsten as theleading candidate. However, tokamak experiments with tungsten divertors have seen significantdetrimental effects on plasma performance. The DIII-D tokamak presently has carbon as theplasma facing surface but to study the effect of tungsten on the plasma and its migration aroundthe vessel, two toroidal rows of carbon tiles in the divertor region were modified with high-Zmetal inserts, composed of a molybdenum alloy (TZM) coated with tungsten. A dedicated twoweek experimental campaign was run with the high-Z metal inserts. One row was coated withtungsten containing naturally occurring levels of isotopes. The second row was coated withtungsten where the isotope 182W was enhanced from the natural level of 26% up to greater than90%. The different isotopic concentrations enabled the experiment to differentiate between thetwo different sources of metal migration from the divertor. Various coating methods wereexplored for the deposition of the tungsten coating, including chemical vapor deposition,electroplating, vacuum plasma spray, and electron beam physical vapor deposition. The coatingswere tested to see if they were robust enough to act as a divertor target for the experiment. Testsincluded cyclic thermal heating using a high power laser and high-fluence deuterium plasmabombardment. The issues associate with the design of the inserts (tile installation, thermal stress,arcing, leading edges, surface preparation, etc.), are reviewed. The results of the tests used toselect the coating method and preliminary experimental observations are presented.

  1. Programmable DNA tile self-assembly using a hierarchical sub-tile strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolong; Lu, Wei; Wang, Zhiyu; Pan, Linqiang; Cui, Guangzhao; Xu, Jin; LaBean, Thomas H

    2014-02-21

    DNA tile based self-assembly provides a bottom-up approach to construct desired nanostructures. DNA tiles have been directly constructed from ssDNA and readily self-assembled into 2D lattices and 3D superstructures. However, for more complex lattice designs including algorithmic assemblies requiring larger tile sets, a more modular approach could prove useful. This paper reports a new DNA 'sub-tile' strategy to easily create whole families of programmable tiles. Here, we demonstrate the stability and flexibility of our sub-tile structures by constructing 3-, 4- and 6-arm DNA tiles that are subsequently assembled into 2D lattices and 3D nanotubes according to a hierarchical design. Assembly of sub-tiles, tiles, and superstructures was analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. DNA tile self-assembly methods provide a bottom-up approach to create desired nanostructures; the sub-tile strategy adds a useful new layer to this technique. Complex units can be made from simple parts. The sub-tile approach enables the rapid redesign and prototyping of complex DNA tile sets and tiles with asymmetric designs.

  2. Kinetics of DNA tile dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuoxing; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2014-06-24

    Investigating how individual molecular components interact with one another within DNA nanoarchitectures, both in terms of their spatial and temporal interactions, is fundamentally important for a better understanding of their physical behaviors. This will provide researchers with valuable insight for designing more complex higher-order structures that can be assembled more efficiently. In this report, we examined several spatial factors that affect the kinetics of bivalent, double-helical (DH) tile dimerization, including the orientation and number of sticky ends (SEs), the flexibility of the double helical domains, and the size of the tiles. The rate constants we obtained confirm our hypothesis that increased nucleation opportunities and well-aligned SEs accelerate tile-tile dimerization. Increased flexibility in the tiles causes slower dimerization rates, an effect that can be reversed by introducing restrictions to the tile flexibility. The higher dimerization rates of more rigid tiles results from the opposing effects of higher activation energies and higher pre-exponential factors from the Arrhenius equation, where the pre-exponential factor dominates. We believe that the results presented here will assist in improved implementation of DNA tile based algorithmic self-assembly, DNA based molecular robotics, and other specific nucleic acid systems, and will provide guidance to design and assembly processes to improve overall yield and efficiency.

  3. Performance of the Tile PreProcessor Demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Carrio Argos, Fernando; Valero, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter PreProcessor (TilePPr) demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) Demonstrator Project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the back-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived for receiving and processing the data coming from the front-end electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as for configur...

  4. OPTIMIZATION-BASED APPROACH TO TILING OF FINITE AREAS WITH ARBITRARY SETS OF WANG TILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tyburec

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wang tiles proved to be a convenient tool for the design of aperiodic tilings in computer graphics and in materials engineering. While there are several algorithms for generation of finite-sized tilings, they exploit the specific structure of individual tile sets, which prevents their general usage. In this contribution, we reformulate the NP-complete tiling generation problem as a binary linear program, together with its linear and semidefinite relaxations suitable for the branch and bound method. Finally, we assess the performance of the established formulations on generations of several aperiodic tilings reported in the literature, and conclude that the linear relaxation is better suited for the problem.

  5. Programmable DNA tile self-assembly using a hierarchical sub-tile strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xiaolong; Lu, Wei; Wang, Zhiyu; Pan, Linqiang; Cui, Guangzhao; Xu, Jin; LaBean, Thomas H

    2014-01-01

    DNA tile based self-assembly provides a bottom-up approach to construct desired nanostructures. DNA tiles have been directly constructed from ssDNA and readily self-assembled into 2D lattices and 3D superstructures. However, for more complex lattice designs including algorithmic assemblies requiring larger tile sets, a more modular approach could prove useful. This paper reports a new DNA ‘sub-tile’ strategy to easily create whole families of programmable tiles. Here, we demonstrate the stability and flexibility of our sub-tile structures by constructing 3-, 4- and 6-arm DNA tiles that are subsequently assembled into 2D lattices and 3D nanotubes according to a hierarchical design. Assembly of sub-tiles, tiles, and superstructures was analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. DNA tile self-assembly methods provide a bottom-up approach to create desired nanostructures; the sub-tile strategy adds a useful new layer to this technique. Complex units can be made from simple parts. The sub-tile approach enables the rapid redesign and prototyping of complex DNA tile sets and tiles with asymmetric designs. (paper)

  6. Reliable and redundat FPGAbased read-out design in the ATLAS TileCal Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Akerstedt, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The TileCal Demonstrator is a prototype for a future upgrade to the ATLAS hadron calorimeter when the Large Hadron Collider increases its luminosity in year 2023 (HL-LHC). It will be used for functionality and performance tests. The Demonstrator has 48 channels of upgraded readout and digitizing electronics and a new digital trigger capability, but stays backwards compatible with the present detector system by providing analog trigger signals. The Demonstrator is comprised of 4 identical “mini-drawers”, each equipped with up to 12 photomultipliers (PMTs). The on-detector electronics includes 45 Front-End Boards, each serving an individual PMT; 4 Main Boards, each to control and digitize the 12 PMT signals, and 4 corresponding high-speed Daughter Boards serving as data hubs between on-detector and off-detector electronics. The Demonstrator is fully compatible with the present system, accepting ATLAS triggers, timing and slow control commands for the data acquisition, detector control, and detector operatio...

  7. Curves and surfaces for computer-aided geometric design a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Farin, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    A leading expert in CAGD, Gerald Farin covers the representation, manipulation, and evaluation of geometric shapes in this the Third Edition of Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design. The book offers an introduction to the field that emphasizes Bernstein-Bezier methods and presents subjects in an informal, readable style, making this an ideal text for an introductory course at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level.The Third Edition includes a new chapter on Topology, offers new exercises and sections within most chapters, combines the material on Geometric Continuity i

  8. Cellular internalisation kinetics and cytotoxic properties of statistically designed and optimised neo-geometric copper nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Karmani; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to highlight a statistic design to precisely engineer homogenous geometric copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) for enhanced intracellular drug delivery as a function of geometrical structure. CuNPs with a dual functionality comprising geometric attributes for enhanced cell uptake and exerting cytotoxic activity on proliferating cells were synthesized as a novel drug delivery system. This paper investigated the defined concentrations of two key surfactants used in the reaction to mutually control and manipulate nano-shape and optimisation of the geometric nanosystems. A statistical experimental design comprising a full factorial model served as a refining factor to achieve homogenous geometric nanoparticles using a one-pot method for the systematic optimisation of the geometric CuNPs. Shapes of the nanoparticles were investigated to determine the result of the surfactant variation as the aim of the study and zeta potential was studied to ensure the stability of the system and establish a nanosystem of low aggregation potential. After optimisation of the nano-shapes, extensive cellular internalisation studies were conducted to elucidate the effect of geometric CuNPs on uptake rates, in addition to the vital toxicity assays to further understand the cellular effect of geometric CuNPs as a drug delivery system. In addition to geometry; volume, surface area, orientation to the cell membrane and colloidal stability is also addressed. The outcomes of the study demonstrated the success of homogenous geometric NP formation, in addition to a stable surface charge. The findings of the study can be utilized for the development of a drug delivery system for promoted cellular internalisation and effective drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Design of a new front-end electronics test-bench for the upgraded ATLAS detector's Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kureba, C O; Govender, M; Hofsajer, I; Ruan, X; Sandrock, C; Spoor, M

    2015-01-01

    The year 2022 has been scheduled to see an upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in order to increase its instantaneous luminosity. The High Luminosity LHC, also referred to as the upgrade Phase-II, means an inevitable complete re-design of the read-out electronics in the Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (ATLAS) detector. Here, the new read-out architecture is expected to have the front-end electronics transmit fully digitized information of the detector to the back-end electronics system. Fully digitized signals will allow more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms which will contribute to the required improved triggers at high pile-up. In Phase II, the current Mobile Drawer Integrity ChecKing (MobiDICK) test-bench will be replaced by the next generation test-bench for the TileCal superdrawers, the new Prometeo (A Portable ReadOut ModulE for Tilecal ElectrOnics). Prometeo is a portable, high-throughput electronic system for full certification of the front-end electronics of the ATLAS TileCal. It is designed to interface to the fast links and perform a series of tests on the data to assess the certification of the electronics. The Prometeo's prototype is being assembled by the University of the Witwatersrand and installed at CERN for further developing, tuning and tests. This article describes the overall design of the new Prometeo, and how it fits into the TileCal electronics upgrade. (paper)

  10. An Updated Front-End Data Link Design for the Phase-2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Silverstein, Samuel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present a new design for the advanced Link Daughter Board (DB) for the front-end electronics upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter. The DB provides control, configuration and continuous ADC readout for the front-end, as well as bi-directional multi-GB/s optical links to the off-detector readout system. The DB will operate in high luminosity LHC conditions with limited detector access, so the design is fault tolerant with a high level of redundancy to avoid single-point failure modes. The DB is divided longitudinally, with an FPGA serving the ADC channels on its respective side. The new design is based on the new Xilinx Kintex Ultrascale+ FPGA family, which provides improved high-speed link timing performance as well as better signal compatibility with the CERN-developed GBTx link and timing distribution ASICs. Two GBTx ASICs each provide redundant phase-adjusted, LHC synchronous clocks, parallel control buses and remote JTAG configuration access to both FPGAs on the DB.

  11. A Novel Rational Design Method for Laminated Composite Structures Exhibiting Complex Geometrically Nonlinear Buckling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel FEM-based approach for fiber angle optimal design of laminated composite structures exhibiting complicated nonlinear buckling behavior, thus enabling design of lighter and more cost-effective structures. The approach accounts for the geometrically nonlinear behavior of...

  12. Topology of tiling spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Sadun, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Aperiodic tilings are interesting to mathematicians and scientists for both theoretical and practical reasons. The serious study of aperiodic tilings began as a solution to a problem in logic. Simpler aperiodic tilings eventually revealed hidden "symmetries" that were previously considered impossible, while the tilings themselves were quite striking. The discovery of quasicrystals showed that such aperiodicity actually occurs in nature and led to advances in materials science. Many properties of aperiodic tilings can be discerned by studying one tiling at a time. However, by studying families of tilings, further properties are revealed. This broader study naturally leads to the topology of tiling spaces. This book is an introduction to the topology of tiling spaces, with a target audience of graduate students who wish to learn about the interface of topology with aperiodic order. It isn't a comprehensive and cross-referenced tome about everything having to do with tilings, which would be too big, too hard to ...

  13. Designing and Using an Open Graphic Interface for Instruction in Geometrical Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Miky; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses conceptual difficulties in the field of geometrical optics and describes RAY, a microcomputer-based graphic interface that was designed to serve as a teaching aid and as a learning environment. The ability to combine theory and formal representations with real demonstrations and experiments is discussed. (Contains seven references.) (LRW)

  14. Quality control in tile production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalviainen, Heikki A.; Kukkonen, Saku; Hyvarinen, Timo S.; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1998-10-01

    This work studies visual quality control in ceramics industry. In tile manufacturing, it is important that in each set of tiles, every single tile looks similar. For example, the tiles should have similar color and texture. Our goal is to design a machine vision system that can estimate the sufficient similarity or same appearance to the human eye. Currently, the estimation is usually done by human vision. Differing from other approaches our aim is to use accurate spectral representation of color, and we are comparing spectral features to the RGB color features. A laboratory system for color measurement is built. Experimentations with five classes of brown tiles are presented. We use chromaticity RGB features and several spectral features for classification with the k-NN classifier and with a neural network, called Self-Organizing Map. We can classify many of the tiles but there are several problems that need further investigations: larger training and test sets are needed, illuminations effects must be studied further, and more suitable spectral features are needed with more sophisticated classifiers. It is also interesting to develop further the neural approach.

  15. A mathematical formulation for interface-based modular product design with geometric and weight constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung-Woon Yoo, John

    2016-06-01

    Since customer preferences change rapidly, there is a need for design processes with shorter product development cycles. Modularization plays a key role in achieving mass customization, which is crucial in today's competitive global market environments. Standardized interfaces among modularized parts have facilitated computational product design. To incorporate product size and weight constraints during computational design procedures, a mixed integer programming formulation is presented in this article. Product size and weight are two of the most important design parameters, as evidenced by recent smart-phone products. This article focuses on the integration of geometric, weight and interface constraints into the proposed mathematical formulation. The formulation generates the optimal selection of components for a target product, which satisfies geometric, weight and interface constraints. The formulation is verified through a case study and experiments are performed to demonstrate the performance of the formulation.

  16. Optimal Layout Design using the Element Connectivity Parameterization Method: Application to Three Dimensional Geometrical Nonlinear Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Joung, Young Soo; Kim, Yoon Young

    2005-01-01

    The topology design optimization of “three-dimensional geometrically-nonlinear” continuum structures is still a difficult problem not only because of its problem size but also the occurrence of unstable continuum finite elements during the design optimization. To overcome this difficulty, the ele......) stiffness matrix of continuum finite elements. Therefore, any finite element code, including commercial codes, can be readily used for the ECP implementation. The key ideas and characteristics of these methods will be presented in this paper....

  17. Design and Hydrologic Performance of a Tile Drainage Treatment Wetland in Minnesota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lenhart

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment wetlands are increasingly needed to remove nitrate from agricultural drainage water to protect downstream waters, such as the Gulf of Mexico. This project sought to develop a new edge-of-field treatment wetland, designed to remove nitrate-nitrogen and enhance phosphorus removal by plant harvest and to monitor its effectiveness. A 0.10 ha wetland was designed and installed to treat subsurface drainage flow from farmland in southwestern Minnesota, USA, in 2013, and monitored for three years by recording flow, nitrate-nitrogen, total phosphorus (TP and soluble orthophosphorus (OP input to and output from the wetland. Prior to construction, a level-pool routing, mass balance approach with DRAINMOD flow inputs was used to predict nitrate removal efficiency. Nitrate load removal averaged 68% over three years, nearly matching model predictions. However, most denitrification occurred in the sub-soil of the wetland rather than in surface flow as predicted. Phosphorus removal was approximately 76% over three years, and phosphorus removed by plant uptake exceeded inflow mass in the third year. The edge-of-field design has potential as a cost-effective method to treat field outflows because agricultural landowners can adopt this treatment system with minimal loss of productive farmland. The wet-prairie vegetation and shallow depth also provide the opportunity to remove additional phosphorus via vegetative harvest.

  18. A methodology for the geometric design of heat recovery steam generators applying genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durán, M. Dolores; Valdés, Manuel; Rovira, Antonio; Rincón, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows how the geometric design of heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) can be achieved. The method calculates the product of the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) by the area of the heat exchange surface (A) as a function of certain thermodynamic design parameters of the HRSG. A genetic algorithm is then applied to determine the best set of geometric parameters which comply with the desired UA product and, at the same time, result in a small heat exchange area and low pressure losses in the HRSG. In order to test this method, the design was applied to the HRSG of an existing plant and the results obtained were compared with the real exchange area of the steam generator. The findings show that the methodology is sound and offers reliable results even for complex HRSG designs. -- Highlights: ► The paper shows a methodology for the geometric design of heat recovery steam generators. ► Calculates product of the overall heat transfer coefficient by heat exchange area as a function of certain HRSG thermodynamic design parameters. ► It is a complement for the thermoeconomic optimization method. ► Genetic algorithms are used for solving the optimization problem

  19. Optimal design of geometrically nonlinear shells of revolution with using the mixed finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupishin, L. U.; Nikitin, K. E.; Kolesnikov, A. G.

    2018-02-01

    The article is concerned with a methodology of optimal design of geometrically nonlinear (flexible) shells of revolution of minimum weight with strength, stability and strain constraints. The problem of optimal design with constraints is reduced to the problem of unconstrained minimization using the penalty functions method. Stress-strain state of shell is determined within the geometrically nonlinear deformation theory. A special feature of the methodology is the use of a mixed finite-element formulation based on the Galerkin method. Test problems for determining the optimal form and thickness distribution of a shell of minimum weight are considered. The validity of the results obtained using the developed methodology is analyzed, and the efficiency of various optimization algorithms is compared to solve the set problem. The developed methodology has demonstrated the possibility and accuracy of finding the optimal solution.

  20. Fresnel Lens Solar Concentrator Design Based on Geometric Optics and Blackbody Radiation Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Jayroe, Robert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Fresnel lenses have been used for years as solar concentrators in a variety of applications. Several variables effect the final design of these lenses including: lens diameter, image spot distance from the lens, and bandwidth focused in the image spot. Defining the image spot as the geometrical optics circle of least confusion and applying blackbody radiation equations the spot energy distribution can be determined. These equations are used to design a fresnel lens to produce maximum flux for a given spot size, lens diameter, and image distance. This approach results in significant increases in solar efficiency over traditional single wavelength designs.

  1. Design of an ultra-thin near-eye display with geometrical waveguide and freeform optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Xu, Chen; Song, Weitao; Jin, Guofan

    2014-08-25

    Small thickness and light weight are two important requirements for a see-through near-eye display which are achieved in this paper by using two advanced technologies: geometrical waveguide and freeform optics. A major problem associated with the geometrical waveguide is the stray light which can severely degrade the display quality. The causes and solutions to this problem are thoroughly studied. A mathematical model of the waveguide is established and a non-sequential ray tracing algorithm is developed, which enable us to carefully examine the stray light of the planar waveguide and explore a global searching method to find an optimum design with the least amount of stray light. A projection optics using freeform surfaces on a wedge shaped prism is also designed. The near-eye display integrating the projection optics and the waveguide has a field of view of 28°, an exit pupil diameter of 9.6mm and an exit pupil distance of 20mm. In our final design, the proportion of the stray light energy over the image output energy of the waveguide is reduced to 2%, the modulation transfer function values across the entire field of the eyepiece are above 0.5 at 30 line pairs/mm (lps/mm). A proof-of-concept prototype of the proposed geometrical waveguide near-eye display is developed and demonstrated.

  2. Bio-inspired design of geometrically interlocked 3D printed joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Oliva, Noel; Kumar's Lab Team

    The morphology of the adhesive-adherend interface significantly affects the mechanical behavior of adhesive joints. As seen in some biocomposites like human skull, or the nacre of some bivalve molluscs' shells, a geometrically interlocking architecture of interfaces creates toughening and strengthening mechanisms enhancing the mechanical properties of the joint. In an attempt to characterize this mechanical interlocking mechanism, this study is focused on computational and experimental investigation of a single-lap joint with a very simple geometrically interlocked interface design in which both adherends have a square waveform configuration of the joining surfaces. This square waveform configuration contains a positive and a negative rectangular teeth per cycle in such a way that the joint is symmetric about the mid-bondlength. Both physical tests performed on 3D printed prototypes of joints and computational results indicate that the joints with square waveform design have higher strength and damage tolerance than those of joints with flat interface. In order to identify an optimal design configuration of this interface, a systematic parametric study is conducted by varying the geometric and material properties of the non-flat interface. This work was supported by Lockheed Martin (Award No: 12NZZ1).

  3. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00304670; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  4. Decorative design of ceramic tiles adapted to inkjet printing employing digital image processing; Diseno decorativo de pavimentos ceramicos adaptado a inyeccion de tinta mediante tratamiento digital de imagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defez, B.; Santiago-Praderas, V.; Lluna, E.; Peris-Fajarnes, G.; Dunai, E.

    2013-09-01

    The ceramic tile sector is a very competitive industry. The designer's proficiency to offer new models of the decorated surface, adapted to the production means, plays a very important role in the competitiveness. In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the design process in the ceramic sector, as much as the changes experimented in parallel by the printing equipment. Afterwards, we present a new concept of ceramic design, based on digital image processing. This technique allows the generation of homogeneous and non-repetitive designs for large surfaces, especially thought for inkjet printing. With the programmed algorithms we have compiled a prototype software for the assistance of the ceramic design. This tool allows creating continuous designs for large surfaces saving developing time. (Author)

  5. Geometric approach to the design of an imaging probe to evaluate the iridocorneal angle structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xun Jie Jeesmond; V. K., Shinoj; Murukeshan, V. M.; Baskaran, M.; Aung, Tin

    2017-06-01

    Photographic imaging methods allow the tracking of anatomical changes in the iridocorneal angle structures and the monitoring of treatment responses overtime. In this work, we aim to design an imaging probe to evaluate the iridocorneal angle structures using geometrical optics. We first perform an analytical analysis on light propagation from the anterior chamber of the eye to the exterior medium using Snell's law. This is followed by adopting a strategy to achieve uniform near field irradiance, by simplifying the complex non-rotational symmetric irradiance distribution of LEDs tilted at an angle. The optimization is based on the geometric design considerations of an angled circular ring array of 4 LEDs (or a 2 × 2 square LED array). The design equation give insights on variable parameters such as the illumination angle of the LEDs, ring array radius, viewing angle of the LEDs, and the working distance. A micro color CCD video camera that has sufficient resolution to resolve the iridocorneal angle structures at the required working distance is then chosen. The proposed design aspects fulfil the safety requirements recommended by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection.

  6. Investigating critical success factors in tile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Salmani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine critical success factors influencing the success of tile industry in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among some experts in tile industry. Using Pearson correlation test, the study has detected that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between marketing planning and the success of tile industry (r = 0.312 Sig. = 0.001. However, there is not any meaningful relationship between low cost production and success of tile industry (r = 0.13 Sig. = 0.12 and, there is a positive and meaningful relationship between organizational capabilities and success of tile industry (r = 0.635 Sig. = 0.000. Finally, our investigation states that technology and distributing systems also influence on the success of tile industry, positively. The study has also used five regression analyses where the success of tile industry was the dependent variable and marketing planning, low cost production and organizational capabilities are independent variables and the results have confirmed some positive and meaningful relationship between the successes of tile industry with all independent variables.

  7. Design of an FPGA-based embedded system for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics test-bench

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Moreno, P; Reed, R; Sandrock, C; Shalyugin, A; Schettino, V; Solans, C; Souza, J; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2013-01-01

    The portable test bench (VME based) used for the certification of the Tile calorimeter front-end electronics has been redesigned for the LHC Long Shutdown (2013-2014) improving its portability. The new version is based on a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA that implements an embedded system using a hard core PowerPC 440 microprocessor and custom IP cores. The PowerPC microprocessor runs a light Linux version and handles the IP cores written in VHDL that implement the different functionalities (TTC, G-Link, CAN-Bus) Description of the system and performance measurements of the different components will be shown.

  8. Miles of tiles

    CERN Document Server

    Radin, Charles

    1999-01-01

    "In this book, we try to display the value (and joy!) of starting from a mathematically amorphous problem and combining ideas from diverse sources to produce new and significant mathematics--mathematics unforeseen from the motivating problem ..." --from the Preface The common thread throughout this book is aperiodic tilings; the best-known example is the "kite and dart" tiling. This tiling has been widely discussed, particularly since 1984 when it was adopted to model quasicrystals. The presentation uses many different areas of mathematics and physics to analyze the new features of such tilings. Although many people are aware of the existence of aperiodic tilings, and maybe even their origin in a question in logic, not everyone is familiar with their subtleties and the underlying rich mathematical theory. For the interested reader, this book fills that gap. Understanding this new type of tiling requires an unusual variety of specialties, including ergodic theory, functional analysis, group theory and ring the...

  9. Optimal design of an automotive magnetorheological brake considering geometric dimensions and zero-field friction heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q H; Choi, S B

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal design of a magnetorheological (MR) brake for a middle-sized passenger car which can replace a conventional hydraulic disc-type brake. In the optimization, the required braking torque, the temperature due to zero-field friction of MR fluid, the mass of the brake system and all significant geometric dimensions are considered. After describing the configuration, the braking torque of the proposed MR brake is derived on the basis of the field-dependent Bingham and Herschel–Bulkley rheological model of the MR fluid. The optimal design of the MR brake is then analyzed taking into account available space, mass, braking torque and steady heat generated by zero-field friction torque of the MR brake. The optimization procedure based on the finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is proposed to obtain optimal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. Based on the proposed procedure, optimal solutions of single and multiple disc-type MR brakes featuring different types of MR fluid are achieved. From the results, the most effective MR brake for the middle-sized passenger car is identified and some discussions on the performance improvement of the optimized MR brake are described

  10. Predicting the Onset of Cavitation in Automotive Torque Converters—Part I: Designs with Geometric Similitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Robinette

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional analysis has been applied to automotive torque converters to understand the response of performance to changes in torque, size, working fluid, or operating temperature. The objective of this investigation was to develop a suitable dimensional analysis for estimating the effect of exact geometric scaling of a particular torque converter design on the onset of cavitation. Torque converter operating thresholds for cavitation were determined experimentally with a dynamometer test cell at the stall operating condition using nearfield acoustical measurements. Dimensionless quantities based upon either speed or torque at the onset of cavitation and flow properties (e.g., pressures and temperature dependent fluid properties were developed and compared. The proposed dimensionless stator torque quantity was found to be the most appropriate scaling law for extrapolating cavitation thresholds to multiple diameters. A power product model was fit on dimensionless stator torque data to create a model capable of predicting cavitation thresholds. Comparison of the model to test data taken over a range of operating points showed an error of 3.7%. This is the first paper of a two-part paper. In Part II, application of dimensional analysis will be expanded from torque converters with exact geometric similitude to those of more general design.

  11. Comparative Performance of Surrogate-Assisted MOEAs for Geometrical Design of Pin-Fin Heat Sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwadol Kanyakam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparative performance of several surrogate-assisted multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs for geometrical design of a pin-fin heat sink (PFHS. The surrogate-assisted MOEAs are achieved by integrating multiobjective population-based incremental learning (PBIL with a quadratic response surface model (QRS, a radial-basis function (RBF interpolation technique, and a Kriging (KRG or Gaussian process model. The mixed integer/continuous multiobjective design problem of PFHS with the objective to minimise junction temperature and fan pumping power simultaneously is posed. The optimum results obtained from using the original multiobjective PBIL and the three versions of hybrid PBIL are compared. It is shown that the hybrid PBIL using KRG is the best performer. The hybrid PBILs require less number of function evaluations to surpass the original PBIL.

  12. Proportional-delayed controllers design for LTI-systems: a geometric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díez, J.-E.; Méndez-Barrios, C.-F.; Mondié, S.; Niculescu, S.-I.; González-Galván, E. J.

    2018-04-01

    This paper focuses on the design of P-δ controllers for single-input-single-output linear time-invariant systems. The basis of this work is a geometric approach allowing to partitioning the parameter space in regions with constant number of unstable roots. This methodology defines the hyper-planes separating the aforementioned regions and characterises the way in which the number of unstable roots changes when crossing such a hyper-plane. The main contribution of the paper is that it provides an explicit tool to find P-δ gains ensuring the stability of the closed-loop system. In addition, the proposed methodology allows to design a non-fragile controller with a desired exponential decay rate σ. Several numerical examples illustrate the results and a haptic experimental set-up shows the effectiveness of P-δ controllers.

  13. Design and construction of an Offner spectrometer based on geometrical analysis of ring fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seo Hyun; Kong, Hong Jin; Lee, Jong Ung; Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Jai Hoon

    2014-08-01

    A method to obtain an aberration-corrected Offner spectrometer without ray obstruction is proposed. A new, more efficient spectrometer optics design is suggested in order to increase its spectral resolution. The derivation of a new ring equation to eliminate ray obstruction is based on geometrical analysis of the ring fields for various numerical apertures. The analytical design applying this equation was demonstrated using the optical design software Code V in order to manufacture a spectrometer working in wavelengths of 900-1700 nm. The simulation results show that the new concept offers an analytical initial design taking the least time of calculation. The simulated spectrometer exhibited a modulation transfer function over 80% at Nyquist frequency, root-mean-square spot diameters under 8.6 μm, and a spectral resolution of 3.2 nm. The final design and its realization of a high resolution Offner spectrometer was demonstrated based on the simulation result. The equation and analytical design procedure shown here can be applied to most Offner systems regardless of the wavelength range.

  14. New geometric design consistency model based on operating speed profiles for road safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Torregrosa, Francisco J; Pérez-Zuriaga, Ana M; Campoy-Ungría, J Manuel; García-García, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    To assist in the on-going effort to reduce road fatalities as much as possible, this paper presents a new methodology to evaluate road safety in both the design and redesign stages of two-lane rural highways. This methodology is based on the analysis of road geometric design consistency, a value which will be a surrogate measure of the safety level of the two-lane rural road segment. The consistency model presented in this paper is based on the consideration of continuous operating speed profiles. The models used for their construction were obtained by using an innovative GPS-data collection method that is based on continuous operating speed profiles recorded from individual drivers. This new methodology allowed the researchers to observe the actual behavior of drivers and to develop more accurate operating speed models than was previously possible with spot-speed data collection, thereby enabling a more accurate approximation to the real phenomenon and thus a better consistency measurement. Operating speed profiles were built for 33 Spanish two-lane rural road segments, and several consistency measurements based on the global and local operating speed were checked. The final consistency model takes into account not only the global dispersion of the operating speed, but also some indexes that consider both local speed decelerations and speeds over posted speeds as well. For the development of the consistency model, the crash frequency for each study site was considered, which allowed estimating the number of crashes on a road segment by means of the calculation of its geometric design consistency. Consequently, the presented consistency evaluation method is a promising innovative tool that can be used as a surrogate measure to estimate the safety of a road segment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Direct atomic force microscopy observation of DNA tile crystal growth at the single-molecule level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Constantine G; Hariadi, Rizal F; Winfree, Erik

    2012-06-27

    While the theoretical implications of models of DNA tile self-assembly have been extensively researched and such models have been used to design DNA tile systems for use in experiments, there has been little research testing the fundamental assumptions of those models. In this paper, we use direct observation of individual tile attachments and detachments of two DNA tile systems on a mica surface imaged with an atomic force microscope (AFM) to compile statistics of tile attachments and detachments. We show that these statistics fit the widely used kinetic Tile Assembly Model and demonstrate AFM movies as a viable technique for directly investigating DNA tile systems during growth rather than after assembly.

  16. Wang Tiles in Computer Graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Lagae, Ares

    2009-01-01

    Many complex signals in computer graphics, such as point distributions and textures, cannot be efficiently synthesized and stored. This book presents tile-based methods based on Wang tiles and corner tiles to solve both these problems. Instead of synthesizing a complex signal when needed, the signal is synthesized beforehand over a small set of Wang tiles or corner tiles. Arbitrary large amounts of that signal can then efficiently be generated when needed by generating a stochastic tiling, and storing only a small set of tiles reduces storage requirements. A tile-based method for generating a

  17. Triangular spiral tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushida, Takamichi; Hizume, Akio; Yamagishi, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    The topology of spiral tilings is intimately related to phyllotaxis theory and continued fractions. A quadrilateral spiral tiling is determined by a suitable chosen triple (ζ, m, n), where ζ element of D/R, and m and n are relatively prime integers. We give a simple characterization when (ζ, m, n) produce a triangular spiral tiling. When m and n are fixed, the admissible generators ζ form a curve in the unit disk. The family of triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs (m, n) is parameterized by the divergence angle arg (ζ), while triangular spiral tilings with non-opposed parastichy pairs are parameterized by the plastochrone ratio 1/|ζ|. The generators for triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs are not dense in the complex parameter space, while those with non-opposed parastichy pairs are dense. The proofs will be given in a general setting of spiral multiple tilings. We present paper-folding (origami) sheets that build spiral towers whose top-down views are triangular tilings. (paper)

  18. Direct Atomic Force Microscopy Observation of DNA Tile Crystal Growth at the Single-Molecule Level

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Constantine G.; Hariadi, Rizal F.; Winfree, Erik

    2012-01-01

    While the theoretical implications of models of DNA tile self-assembly have been extensively researched and such models have been used to design DNA tile systems for use in experiments, there has been little research testing the fundamental assumptions of those models. In this paper, we use direct observation of individual tile attachments and detachments of two DNA tile systems on a mica surface imaged with an atomic force microscope (AFM) to compile statistics of tile attachments and detach...

  19. TileDCS web system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maidantchik, C; Ferreira, F; Grael, F

    2010-01-01

    The web system described here provides features to monitor the ATLAS Detector Control System (DCS) acquired data. The DCS is responsible for overseeing the coherent and safe operation of the ATLAS experiment hardware. In the context of the Hadronic Tile Calorimeter Detector (TileCal), it controls the power supplies of the readout electronics acquiring voltages, currents, temperatures and coolant pressure measurements. The physics data taking requires the stable operation of the power sources. The TileDCS Web System retrieves automatically data and extracts the statistics for given periods of time. The mean and standard deviation outcomes are stored as XML files and are compared to preset thresholds. Further, a graphical representation of the TileCal cylinders indicates the state of the supply system of each detector drawer. Colors are designated for each kind of state. In this way problems are easier to find and the collaboration members can focus on them. The user selects a module and the system presents detailed information. It is possible to verify the statistics and generate charts of the parameters over the time. The TileDCS Web System also presents information about the power supplies latest status. One wedge is colored green whenever the system is on. Otherwise it is colored red. Furthermore, it is possible to perform customized analysis. It provides search interfaces where the user can set the module, parameters, and the time period of interest. The system also produces the output of the retrieved data as charts, XML files, CSV and ROOT files according to the user's choice.

  20. Creating geometrically robust designs for highly sensitive problems using topology optimization: Acoustic cavity design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus E.; Lazarov, Boyan S.; Jensen, Jakob S.

    2015-01-01

    Resonance and wave-propagation problems are known to be highly sensitive towards parameter variations. This paper discusses topology optimization formulations for creating designs that perform robustly under spatial variations for acoustic cavity problems. For several structural problems, robust...... and limitations are discussed. In addition, a known explicit penalization approach is considered for comparison. For near-uniform spatial variations it is shown that highly robust designs can be obtained using the double filter approach. It is finally demonstrated that taking non-uniform variations into account...... further improves the robustness of the designs....

  1. Novel Geometrical Concept of a High Performance Brain PET Scanner Principle, Design and Performance Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Séguinot, Jacques; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Joram, C; Mathot, S; Weilhammer, P; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Correia, J G; Ribeiro da Silva, M; Garibaldi, F; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Corsi, F; Dragone, A; Schoenahl, F; Zaidi, H

    2006-01-01

    We present the principle, a possible implementation and performance estimates of a novel geometrical concept for a high resolution positron emission tomograph. The concept, which can for example be implemented in a brain PET device, promisses to lead to an essentially parallax free 3D image reconstruction with excellent spatial resolution and constrast, uniform over the complete field of view. The key components are matrices of long axially oriented scintillator crystals which are read out at both extremities by segmented Hybrid Photon Detectors. We discuss the relevant design considerations for a 3D axial PET camera module, motivate parameter and material choices, and estimate its performance in terms of spatial and energy resolution. We support these estimates by Monte Carlo simulations and in some cases by first experimental results. From the performance of a camera module, we extrapolate to the reconstruction resolution of a 3D axial PET scanner in a semi-analytical way and compare it to an existing state...

  2. Geometric optimal design of a magneto-rheological brake considering different shapes for the brake envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q H; Lang, V T; Nguyen, N D; Choi, S B

    2014-01-01

    When designing a magneto-rheological brake (MRB), it is well known that the shape of the brake envelope significantly affects the performance characteristics of the brake. In this study, different shapes for the MR brake envelope, such as rectangular, polygonal or spline shape, are considered and the most suitable shape identified. MRBs with different envelope shapes are introduced followed by the derivation of the braking torque based on Bingham-plastic behavior of the magneto-rheological fluid (MRF). Optimization of the design of the MRB with different envelope shapes is then done. The optimization problem is to find the optimal value for the significant geometric dimensions of the MRB that can produce a certain required braking torque while the brake mass is minimized. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is employed to obtain optimal solutions for the MRBs. From the results, the most suitable shape for the brake envelope is identified and discussed with the reduction of mass. In addition, the results of the analysis are compared with the experimental results to verify the proposed optimal design characteristics. (paper)

  3. Geometric optimal design of a magneto-rheological brake considering different shapes for the brake envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Lang, V. T.; Nguyen, N. D.; Choi, S. B.

    2014-01-01

    When designing a magneto-rheological brake (MRB), it is well known that the shape of the brake envelope significantly affects the performance characteristics of the brake. In this study, different shapes for the MR brake envelope, such as rectangular, polygonal or spline shape, are considered and the most suitable shape identified. MRBs with different envelope shapes are introduced followed by the derivation of the braking torque based on Bingham-plastic behavior of the magneto-rheological fluid (MRF). Optimization of the design of the MRB with different envelope shapes is then done. The optimization problem is to find the optimal value for the significant geometric dimensions of the MRB that can produce a certain required braking torque while the brake mass is minimized. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is employed to obtain optimal solutions for the MRBs. From the results, the most suitable shape for the brake envelope is identified and discussed with the reduction of mass. In addition, the results of the analysis are compared with the experimental results to verify the proposed optimal design characteristics.

  4. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Heelan, Louise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design ...

  5. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes

    used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...... was based on a polynomial regression predicting yearly tile drain discharge values using site specific parameters such as soil type, catchment topography, etc. as predictors. Values of calibrated model parameters from the dynamic modelling were compared to the same site specific parameter as used...

  6. Designing of self-deploying origami structures using geometrically misaligned crease patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Tsukahara, Akira; Okabe, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    Usually, origami-based morphing structures are designed on the premise of 'rigid folding', i.e. the facets and fold lines of origami can be replaced with rigid panels and ideal hinges, respectively. From a structural mechanics viewpoint, some rigid-foldable origami models are overconstrained and have negative degrees of freedom (d.f.). In these cases, the singularity in crease patterns guarantees their rigid foldability. This study presents a new method for designing self-deploying origami using the geometrically misaligned creases. In this method, some facets are replaced by 'holes' such that the systems become a 1-d.f. mechanism. These perforated origami models can be folded and unfolded similar to rigid-foldable (without misalignment) models because of their d.f. focusing on the removed facets, the holes will deform according to the motion of the frame of the remaining parts. In the proposed method, these holes are filled with elastic parts and store elastic energy for self-deployment. First, a new extended rigid-folding simulation technique is proposed to estimate the deformation of the holes. Next, the proposed method is applied on arbitrary-size quadrilateral mesh origami. Finally, by using the finite-element method, the authors conduct numerical simulations and confirm the deployment capabilities of the models.

  7. Geometric Design of Scalable Forward Scatterers for Optimally Efficient Solar Transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Na; Vahidinia, Sanaz; Holt, Amanda L; Sweeney, Alison M; Yang, Shu

    2017-11-01

    It will be ideal to deliver equal, optimally efficient "doses" of sunlight to all cells in a photobioreactor system, while simultaneously utilizing the entire solar resource. Backed by the numerical scattering simulation and optimization, here, the design, synthesis, and characterization of the synthetic iridocytes that recapitulated the salient forward-scattering behavior of the Tridacnid clam system are reported, which presents the first geometric solution to allow narrow, precise forward redistribution of flux, utilizing the solar resource at the maximum quantum efficiency possible in living cells. The synthetic iridocytes are composed of silica nanoparticles in microspheres embedded in gelatin, both are low refractive index materials and inexpensive. They show wavelength selectivity, have little loss (the back-scattering intensity is reduced to less than ≈0.01% of the forward-scattered intensity), and narrow forward scattering cone similar to giant clams. Moreover, by comparing experiments and theoretical calculation, it is confirmed that the nonuniformity of the scatter sizes is a "feature not a bug" of the design, allowing for efficient, forward redistribution of solar flux in a micrometer-scaled paradigm. This method is environmentally benign, inexpensive, and scalable to produce optical components that will find uses in efficiency-limited solar conversion technologies, heat sinks, and biofuel production. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Tile drainage as karst: Conduit flow and diffuse flow in a tile-drained watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.; Helmers, M.

    2008-01-01

    The similarity of tiled-drained watersheds to karst drainage basins can be used to improve understanding of watershed-scale nutrient losses from subsurface tile drainage networks. In this study, short-term variations in discharge and chemistry were examined from a tile outlet collecting subsurface tile flow from a 963 ha agricultural watershed. Study objectives were to apply analytical techniques from karst springs to tile discharge to evaluate water sources and estimate the loads of agricultural pollutants discharged from the tile with conduit, intermediate and diffuse flow regimes. A two-member mixing model using nitrate, chloride and specific conductance was used to distinguish rainwater versus groundwater inputs. Results indicated that groundwater comprised 75% of the discharge for a three-day storm period and rainwater was primarily concentrated during the hydrograph peak. A contrasting pattern of solute concentrations and export loads was observed in tile flow. During base flow periods, tile flow consisted of diffuse flow from groundwater sources and contained elevated levels of nitrate, chloride and specific conductance. During storm events, suspended solids and pollutants adhered to soil surfaces (phosphorus, ammonium and organic nitrogen) were concentrated and discharged during the rapid, conduit flow portion of the hydrograph. During a three-day period, conduit flow occurred for 5.6% of the time but accounted for 16.5% of the total flow. Nitrate and chloride were delivered primarily with diffuse flow (more than 70%), whereas 80-94% of total suspended sediment, phosphorus and ammonium were exported with conduit and intermediate flow regimes. Understanding the water sources contributing to tile drainage and the manner by which pollutant discharge occurs from these systems (conduit, intermediate or diffuse flow) may be useful for designing, implementing and evaluating non-point source reduction strategies in tile-drained landscapes. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. 2-D tiles declustering method based on virtual devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongmin; Gao, Lu

    2009-10-01

    Generally, 2-D spatial data are divided as a series of tiles according to the plane grid. To satisfy the effect of vision, the tiles in the query window including the view point would be displayed quickly at the screen. Aiming at the performance difference of real storage devices, we propose a 2-D tiles declustering method based on virtual device. Firstly, we construct a group of virtual devices which have same storage performance and non-limited capacity, then distribute the tiles into M virtual devices according to the query window of 2-D tiles. Secondly, we equably map the tiles in M virtual devices into M equidistant intervals in [0, 1) using pseudo-random number generator. Finally, we devide [0, 1) into M intervals according to the tiles distribution percentage of every real storage device, and distribute the tiles in each interval in the corresponding real storage device. We have designed and realized a prototype GlobeSIGht, and give some related test results. The results show that the average response time of each tile in the query window including the view point using 2-D tiles declustering method based on virtual device is more efficient than using other methods.

  10. Physical principles for DNA tile self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Constantine G; Winfree, Erik

    2017-06-19

    DNA tiles provide a promising technique for assembling structures with nanoscale resolution through self-assembly by basic interactions rather than top-down assembly of individual structures. Tile systems can be programmed to grow based on logical rules, allowing for a small number of tile types to assemble large, complex assemblies that can retain nanoscale resolution. Such algorithmic systems can even assemble different structures using the same tiles, based on inputs that seed the growth. While programming and theoretical analysis of tile self-assembly often makes use of abstract logical models of growth, experimentally implemented systems are governed by nanoscale physical processes that can lead to very different behavior, more accurately modeled by taking into account the thermodynamics and kinetics of tile attachment and detachment in solution. This review discusses the relationships between more abstract and more physically realistic tile assembly models. A central concern is how consideration of model differences enables the design of tile systems that robustly exhibit the desired abstract behavior in realistic physical models and in experimental implementations. Conversely, we identify situations where self-assembly in abstract models can not be well-approximated by physically realistic models, putting constraints on physical relevance of the abstract models. To facilitate the discussion, we introduce a unified model of tile self-assembly that clarifies the relationships between several well-studied models in the literature. Throughout, we highlight open questions regarding the physical principles for DNA tile self-assembly.

  11. Glazed Tiles as Floor Finish in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin Emmanuel AKINDE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tile is no doubt rich in antiquity; its primordial  show, came as mosaic with primary prospect in sacred floor finish before its oblivion, courtesy of, later consciousness towards wall finish in banquets, kitchens, toilets, restaurants and even bars. Today, its renaissance as floor finish is apparent in private and public architectural structures with prevalence in residential, recreational, commercial, governmental and other spaces. In Nigeria, the use of glazed tiles as floor finish became apparent, supposedly in mid-twentieth century; and has since, witnessed ever increasing demands from all sundry; a development that is nascent and has necessitated its mass  production locally with pockets of firms in the country. The latter however, is a resultant response to taste cum glazed tiles affordability, whose divergent sophistication in design, colour, size and shape is believed preferred to terrazzo, carpet and floor flex tile. Accessible as glazed tile and production is, in recent times; its dearth of a holistic literature in Nigeria is obvious. In the light of the latter, this paper examine glazed tiles as floor finish in Nigeria, its advent, usage, production, challenge, benefit and prospect with the hope of opening further frontier in discipline specifics.

  12. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Pavol; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter have been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations o...

  13. Novel geometrical concept of a high-performance brain PET scanner. Principle, design and performance estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguinot, J.; Braem, A.; Chesi, E.

    2006-01-01

    We present the principle, a possible implementation and performance estimates of a novel geometrical concept for a high-resolution positron emission tomograph. The concept, which can be for example implemented in a brain PET device, promises to lead to an essentially parallax-free 3D image reconstruction with excellent spatial resolution and contrast, uniform over the complete field of view. The key components are matrices of long axially oriented scintillator crystals which are read out at both extremities by segmented Hybrid Photon Detectors. We discuss the relevant design considerations for a 3D axial PET camera module, motivate parameter and material choices, and estimate its performance in terms of spatial and energy resolution. We support these estimates by Monte Carlo simulations and in some cases by first experimental results. From the performance of a camera module, we extrapolate to the reconstruction resolution of a 3D axial PET scanner in a semi-analytical way and compare it to an existing state-of-the art brain PET device. We finally describe a dedicated data acquisition system, capable to fully exploit the advantages of the proposed concept

  14. The Mu3e Tile Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Hans Patrick

    2015-05-06

    The Mu3e experiment is designed to search for the lepton flavour violating decay μ→e{sup +}e{sup +}e{sup -} with a sensitivity of one in 10{sup 16} decays. An observation of such a decay would be a clear sign of physics beyond the Standard Model. Achieving the targeted sensitivity requires a high precision detector with excellent momentum, vertex and time resolution. The Mu3e Tile Detector is a highly granular sub-detector system based on scintillator tiles with Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) readout, and aims at measuring the timing of the muon decay products with a resolution of better than 100 ps. This thesis describes the development of the Tile Detector concept and demonstrates the feasibility of the elaborated design. In this context, a comprehensive simulation framework has been developed, in order to study and optimise the detector performance. The central component of this framework is a detailed simulation of the SiPM response. The simulation model has been validated in several measurements and shows good agreement with the data. Furthermore, a 16-channel prototype of a Tile Detector module has been constructed and operated in an electron beam. In the beam tests, a time resolution up to 56 ps has been achieved, which surpasses the design goal. The simulation and measurement results demonstrate the feasibility of the developed Tile Detector design and show that the required detector performance can be achieved.

  15. Investigation of geometric design in piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems diaphragms for ultrasonic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiongfeng; Wang, Tao; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-05-01

    Acoustic energy transfer (AET) has been widely used for contactless energy delivery to implantable devices. However, most of the energy harvesters (ultrasonic receivers) for AET are macro-scale transducers with large volume and limited operation bandwidth. Here, we propose and investigate two microelectromechanical systems diaphragm based piezoelectric ultrasonic energy harvesters (PUEHs) as an alternative for AET. The proposed PUEHs consist of micro-scale diaphragm array with different geometric parameter design. Diaphragms in PUEH-1 have large length to width ratio to achieve broadband property, while its energy harvesting performance is compromised. Diaphragms in PUEH-2 have smaller length to width ratio and thinner thickness to achieve both broadband property and good energy harvesting performance. Both PUEHs have miniaturized size and wide operation bandwidth that are ideally suitable to be integrated as power source for implantable biomedical devices. PUEH-1 has a merged -6 dB bandwidth of 74.5% with a central frequency of 350 kHz. PUEH-2 has two separate -6 dB bandwidth of 73.7%/30.8% with central frequencies of 285 kHz/650 kHz. They can adapt to various ultrasonic sources with different working frequency spectrum. Maximum output power is 34.3 nW and 84.3 nW for PUEH-1 and PUEH-2 at 1 mW/cm2 ultrasound intensity input, respectively. The associated power density is 0.734 μW/cm2 and 4.1 μW/cm2, respectively. Better energy harvesting performance is achieved for PUEH-2 because of the optimized length to width ratio and thickness design. Both PUEHs offer more alignment flexibility with more than 40% power when they are in the range of the ultrasound transmitter.

  16. Tiling as a Durable Abstraction for Parallelism and Data Locality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unat, Didem [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Cy P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhang, Weiqun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bell, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shalf, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-11-18

    Tiling is a useful loop transformation for expressing parallelism and data locality. Automated tiling transformations that preserve data-locality are increasingly important due to hardware trends towards massive parallelism and the increasing costs of data movement relative to the cost of computing. We propose TiDA as a durable tiling abstraction that centralizes parameterized tiling information within array data types with minimal changes to the source code. The data layout information can be used by the compiler and runtime to automatically manage parallelism, optimize data locality, and schedule tasks intelligently. In this study, we present the design features and early interface of TiDA along with some preliminary results.

  17. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Henriques Correia, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    TileCal is the Hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics.

  18. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, A.

    2015-01-01

    TileCal is the Hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics. (authors)

  19. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynevich, A.

    2017-06-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC . Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV . Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadrons are used as a probe of the hadronic response and its modelling by the Monte Carlo simulations. The calorimeter time resolution is studied with multijet events. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  20. Radioactive sources for ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Ivanyushenkov, Yu.

    1997-01-01

    The main requirements for radioactive sources applied in the TileCal calibration systems are formulated; technology of the sources production developed in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR is described. Design and characteristics of the prototype sources manufactured in Dubna and tested on ATLAS TileCal module 0 are presented

  1. Upgrading the Atlas Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Popeneciu, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Tile Calorimeter is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Around 2024, after the upgrade of the LHC the peak luminosity will increase by a factor of 5 compared to the design value, thus requiring an upgrade of the Tile Calorimeter readout electronics. Except the photomultipliers tubes (PMTs), most of the on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced, with the aim of digitizing all PMT pulses at the front-end level and sending them with 10 Gb/s optical links to the back-end electronics. One demonstrator prototype module is planned to be inserted in Tile Calorimeter in 2015 that will include hybrid electronic components able to probe the new design.

  2. Photovoltaic roofing tile systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, B.

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems in architecture is discussed. A PV-solar roofing tile system with polymer concrete base; PV-roofing tile with elastomer frame profiles and aluminum profile frames; contact technique; and solar cell modules measuring technique are described. Field tests at several places were conducted on the solar generator, electric current behavior, battery station, electric installation, power conditioner, solar measuring system with magnetic bubble memory technique, data transmission via telephone modems, and data processing system. The very favorable response to the PV-compact system proves the commercial possibilities of photovoltaic integration in architecture.

  3. Find the Dimensions: Students Solving a Tiling Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    Students learn mathematics by solving problems. Mathematics textbooks are full of problems, and mathematics teachers use these problems to test students' understanding of mathematical concepts. This paper discusses how problem-solving skills can be fostered with a geometric tiling problem.

  4. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  5. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel; Dumusc, Raphael; Bilgili, Ahmet; Hernando, Juan; Eilemann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  6. Modeling cotton (Gossypium spp) leaves and canopy using computer aided geometric design (CAGD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this research is to develop a geometrically accurate model of cotton crop canopies for exploring changes in canopy microenvironment and physiological function with leaf structure. We develop an accurate representation of the leaves, including changes in three-dimensional folding and orie...

  7. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Van Daalen, Tal Roelof; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized every 25 ns by sampling the signal. About 10000 channels of the front-end electronics measure the signals of the calorimeter with energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each step of the signal reconstruction from scintillation light to the digital pulse reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations...

  8. Performance of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoli, Gabriele; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau­particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator­steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal front­end electronics read out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. The read­out system is responsible for reconstructing the data in real­time. The digitized signals are reconstructed with the Optimal Filtering algorithm, which computes for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruc...

  9. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum fro...

  10. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum from elec...

  11. Extended DNA Tile Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Martin; Kryger, Mille; Zhang, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic linear DNA tile actuator is expanded to three new structures of higher complexity. The original DNA actuator was constructed from a central roller strand which hybridizes with two piston strands by forming two half-crossover junctions. A linear expansion of the actuator is obtained...

  12. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Performance at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Molander, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal pays a major role in detecting hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and measuring the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good signal to noise ratio it assists the muon spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons, which are also a tool for the in situ energy scale validation. The results presented here stem from the data collection in dedicated calibration runs, in cosmic rays data-taking and in LHC collisions along 3 years of operation. The uniformity, stability and precision of the energy scale, the time measurement capabilities and the robustness of the performance against pile-up are exposed through the usage of hadronic and muon final states and confirm the design expectations.

  13. Brane tilings and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, M.

    2008-01-01

    We review recent developments in the theory of brane tilings and four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric quiver gauge theories. This review consists of two parts. In part I, we describe foundations of brane tilings, emphasizing the physical interpretation of brane tilings as fivebrane systems. In part II, we discuss application of brane tilings to AdS/CFT correspondence and homological mirror symmetry. More topics, such as orientifold of brane tilings, phenomenological model building, similarities with BPS solitons in supersymmetric gauge theories, are also briefly discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Development changes of geometric layout product, developed by means of computer aided design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С.Г. Кєворков

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available  Contains results of development of modification formation methodology in a product geometrical mockup made by means of CAD system. Change process of a CAD data (assembly structures, details and influencing on a product structure is considered. The analysis of the assembly version creations algorithm, which creates a product structure with certain serial number, is carried out. The algorithms of CAD user environment creations, restriction of CAD object and CAD object cancellation algorithm are created.

  15. Controlled Nucleation and Growth of DNA Tile Arrays within Prescribed DNA Origami Frames and Their Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Controlled nucleation of nanoscale building blocks by geometrically defined seeds implanted in DNA nanoscaffolds represents a unique strategy to study and understand the dynamic processes of molecular self-assembly. Here we utilize a two-dimensional DNA origami frame with a hollow interior and selectively positioned DNA hybridization seeds to control the self-assembly of DNA tile building blocks, where the small DNA tiles are directed to fill the interior of the frame through prescribed sticky end interactions. This design facilitates the construction of DNA origami/array hybrids that adopt the overall shape and dimensions of the origami frame, forming a 2D array in the core consisting of a large number of simple repeating DNA tiles. The formation of the origami/array hybrid was characterized with atomic force microscopy, and the nucleation dynamics were monitored by serial AFM scanning and fluorescence spectroscopy, which revealed faster kinetics of growth within the frame as compared to growth without the presence of a frame. Our study provides insight into the fundamental behavior of DNA-based self-assembling systems. PMID:24575893

  16. On designing geometric motion planners to solve regulating and trajectory tracking problems for robotic locomotion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asnafi, Alireza; Mahzoon, Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    Based on a geometric fiber bundle structure, a generalized method to solve both regulation and trajectory tracking problems for locomotion systems is presented. The method is especially applied to two case studies of robotic locomotion systems; a three link articulated fish-like robot as a prototype of locomotion systems with symmetry, and the snakeboard as a prototype of mixed locomotion systems. Our results show that although these motion planners have an open loop structure, due to their generalities, they can steer case studies with negligible errors for almost any complicated path.

  17. On designing geometric motion planners to solve regulating and trajectory tracking problems for robotic locomotion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asnafi, Alireza [Hydro-Aeronautical Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71348-13668 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahzoon, Mojtaba [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71348-13668 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Based on a geometric fiber bundle structure, a generalized method to solve both regulation and trajectory tracking problems for locomotion systems is presented. The method is especially applied to two case studies of robotic locomotion systems; a three link articulated fish-like robot as a prototype of locomotion systems with symmetry, and the snakeboard as a prototype of mixed locomotion systems. Our results show that although these motion planners have an open loop structure, due to their generalities, they can steer case studies with negligible errors for almost any complicated path.

  18. Asymmetric design for Compound Elliptical Concentrators (CEC) and its geometric flux implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland

    2015-08-01

    The asymmetric compound elliptical concentrator (CEC) has been a less discussed subject in the nonimaging optics society. The conventional way of understanding an ideal concentrator is based on maximizing the concentration ratio based on a uniformed acceptance angle. Although such an angle does not exist in the case of CEC, the thermodynamic laws still hold and we can produce concentrators with the maximum concentration ratio allowed by them. Here we restate the problem and use the string method to solve this general problem. Built on the solution, we can discover groups of such ideal concentrators using geometric flux field, or flowline method.

  19. Self Cleanable Tile Grout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet CANBAZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, In this study, self-cleaning tile grout and white cement specimens are produced and the effect of self-cleaning mechanism of TiO2 is tested. Effects of TiO2 amount and TiO2 type are tested and compared. Anatase form and rutile TiO2 additive are used in the study. In addition, effects of silicate additives on the self-cleaning mechanism is determined. Studies are conducted with respect to Italian UNI code. This study presents a method for solving rust between the tiles of ceramic wet floor coverings with photocatalysis method and then removing the dirt with secondary effects such as water, wind etc.

  20. Effect of geometric construction on residual stress distribution in designing a nuclear rotor joined by multipass narrow gap welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Long; Zhang, Linjie; Zhang, Jianxun; Zhuang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The internal stress of the pipe is measured using local material removal method. • Bottom protrusion at weld seam can release the stress and mitigate stress evolution. The through-wall axial stress is bending type under the effect of the rotor discs. • The impact of geometric construction on the stress evolution begins after pass 15. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of geometric construction on the distribution of residual stresses before and after heat treatment in designing a nuclear welded rotor. The local material removal method was used to measure internal residual stress of the experimental pipe after post weld heat treatment. Three finite element models were employed as follows: a model of experimental pipe, a model with a bottom protrusion existed at the weld region, and a model of two rotor discs butt-welded with a bottom protrusion at the weld region. Investigated results showed that the bottom protrusion existed at the weld region can decrease the residual stress and mitigate the stress evolution significantly on the inner surface. Under the binding effect of the rotor discs, the axial stress of inner surface region is compressive stress; the through-wall axial stress at the weld center line can be deemed to a bending type; both the hoop stress and axial stress at the weld center line on the inner surface are compressive. The impact of geometric construction on the stress evolution at the root bead begins after pass 15 deposited

  1. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic–inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie–Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol–gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie–Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. (paper)

  2. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Popeneciu, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Around 2023, after the upgrade of the LHC (High Luminosity LHC, phase 2) the peak luminosity will increase by a factor of 5 compared to the design value (1034 cm-2 s-1), thus requiring an upgrade of the TileCal readout electronics. Except the 9852 photomultipliers (PMTs), most of the on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced, with the aim of digitizing all PMT pulses at 40 MHz at the front-end level and sending them with 10 Gbps optical links to the back-end electronics. Moreover, to increase reliability, redundancy will be introduced at different levels. Three different options are currently being investigated for the front-end electronics and extensive test beam studies are planned to select the best option. One demonstrator prototype module is also planned to be inserted in TileCal in 2014 that will include hybrid electronic components able to probe the new design, but still compatible with the presen...

  3. Design of all-optical, hot-electron current-direction-switching device based on geometrical asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasinghe, Chathurangi S; Premaratne, Malin; Gunapala, Sarath D; Agrawal, Govind P

    2016-02-18

    We propose a nano-scale current-direction-switching device(CDSD) that operates based on the novel phenomenon of geometrical asymmetry between two hot-electron generating plasmonic nanostructures. The proposed device is easy to fabricate and economical to develop compared to most other existing designs. It also has the ability to function without external wiring in nano or molecular circuitry since it is powered and controlled optically. We consider a such CDSD made of two dissimilar nanorods separated by a thin but finite potential barrier and theoretically derive the frequency-dependent electron/current flow rate. Our analysis takes in to account the quantum dynamics of electrons inside the nanorods under a periodic optical perturbation that are confined by nanorod boundaries, modelled as finite cylindrical potential wells. The influence of design parameters, such as geometric difference between the two nanorods, their volumes and the barrier width on quality parameters such as frequency-sensitivity of the current flow direction, magnitude of the current flow, positive to negative current ratio, and the energy conversion efficiency is discussed by considering a device made of Ag/TiO2/Ag. Theoretical insight and design guidelines presented here are useful for customizing our proposed CDSD for applications such as self-powered logic gates, power supplies, and sensors.

  4. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the main hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC operation (Phase 2 around 2023) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims to replace the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals can be digitized and directly sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. This will reduce pile-up problems and allow more complex trigger algorithms. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to t...

  5. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2023. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 ...

  6. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5$\\times$ compared to the design luminosity ($10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, c...

  7. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (P hase - II ) where the pea k luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (10 34 cm −2 s −1 ) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expe cted to happen around 202 4 . The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on - and off - detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off - detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve th e required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investiga...

  8. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hrynevich, Aliaksei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadr...

  9. Geometrical effect, optimal design and controlled fabrication of bio-inspired micro/nanotextures for superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, F. M.; Li, W.; Liu, A. H.; Yu, Z. L.; Ruan, M.; Feng, W.; Chen, H. X.; Chen, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with high water contact angles and low contact angle hysteresis or sliding angles have received tremendous attention for both academic research and industrial applications in recent years. In general, such surfaces possess rough microtextures, particularly, show micro/nano hierarchical structures like lotus leaves. Now it has been recognized that to achieve the artificial superhydrophobic surfaces, the simple and effective strategy is to mimic such hierarchical structures. However, fabrications of such structures for these artificial surfaces involve generally expensive and complex processes. On the other hand, the relationships between structural parameters of various surface topography and wetting properties have not been fully understood yet. In order to provide guidance for the simple fabrication and particularly, to promote practical applications of superhydrophobic surfaces, the geometrical designs of optimal microtextures or patterns have been proposed. In this work, the recent developments on geometrical effect, optimal design and controlled fabrication of various superhydrophobic structures, such as unitary, anisotropic, dual-scale hierarchical, and some other surface geometries, are reviewed. The effects of surface topography and structural parameters on wetting states (composite and noncomposite) and wetting properties (contact angle, contact angle hysteresis and sliding angle) as well as adhesive forces are discussed in detail. Finally, the research prospects in this field are briefly addressed.

  10. Understanding the Elementary Steps in DNA Tile-Based Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuoxing; Hong, Fan; Hu, Huiyu; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2017-09-26

    Although many models have been developed to guide the design and implementation of DNA tile-based self-assembly systems with increasing complexity, the fundamental assumptions of the models have not been thoroughly tested. To expand the quantitative understanding of DNA tile-based self-assembly and to test the fundamental assumptions of self-assembly models, we investigated DNA tile attachment to preformed "multi-tile" arrays in real time and obtained the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of single tile attachment in various sticky end association scenarios. With more sticky ends, tile attachment becomes more thermostable with an approximately linear decrease in the free energy change (more negative). The total binding free energy of sticky ends is partially compromised by a sequence-independent energy penalty when tile attachment forms a constrained configuration: "loop". The minimal loop is a 2 × 2 tetramer (Loop4). The energy penalty of loops of 4, 6, and 8 tiles was analyzed with the independent loop model assuming no interloop tension, which is generalizable to arbitrary tile configurations. More sticky ends also contribute to a faster on-rate under isothermal conditions when nucleation is the rate-limiting step. Incorrect sticky end contributes to neither the thermostability nor the kinetics. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of DNA tile attachment elucidated here will contribute to the future improvement and optimization of tile assembly modeling, precise control of experimental conditions, and structural design for error-free self-assembly.

  11. Tile-in-ONE

    CERN Document Server

    Cunha, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Sivolella, A; Ferreira, F; Maidantchik, C

    2013-01-01

    The Tile calorimeter is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS. In order to ensure its proper operation and assess the quality of data, many tasks are to be performed by means of many tools which were developed independently to satisfy different needs. Thus, these systems are commonly implemented without a global perspective of the detector and lack basic software features. Besides, in some cases they overlap in the objectives and resources with another one. It is therefore evident the necessity of an infrastructure to allow the implementation of any functionality without having to duplicate the effort while being possible to integrate with an overall view of the detector status.\

  12. A New Design Strategy for Observing Lithium Oxide Growth-Evolution Interactions Using Geometric Catalyst Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won-Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S; Li, Jinyang; Tong, Xiao; Taylor, André D

    2016-08-10

    Understanding the catalyzed formation and evolution of lithium-oxide products in Li-O2 batteries is central to the development of next-generation energy storage technology. Catalytic sites, while effective in lowering reaction barriers, often become deactivated when placed on the surface of an oxygen electrode due to passivation by solid products. Here we investigate a mechanism for alleviating catalyst deactivation by dispersing Pd catalytic sites away from the oxygen electrode surface in a well-structured anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) porous membrane interlayer. We observe the cross-sectional product growth and evolution in Li-O2 cells by characterizing products that grow from the electrode surface. Morphological and structural details of the products in both catalyzed and uncatalyzed cells are investigated independently from the influence of the oxygen electrode. We find that the geometric decoration of catalysts far from the conductive electrode surface significantly improves the reaction reversibility by chemically facilitating the oxidation reaction through local coordination with PdO surfaces. The influence of the catalyst position on product composition is further verified by ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy in addition to morphological studies.

  13. Data Quality system of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemecek, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. It is subdivided into a large central barrel and two smaller lateral extended barrels. Each barrel consists of 64 wedges, made of iron plates and scintillating tiles. Two edges of each scintillating tile are air-coupled to wave-length shifting (WLS) fibres which collect the scintillating light and transmit it to photo-multipliers. The total number of channels is about 10000. An essential part of the TileCal detector is the Data Quality (DQ) system. The DQ system is designed to check the status of the electronic channels. It is designed to provide information at two levels - online and offline. The online TileCal DQ system monitors continuously the data while they are recorded and provides a fast feedback. The offline DQ system allows a detailed study, if needed it provides corrections to be applied to the recorded data and it allows to validate the data for physics analysis. In addition to the check of physics data the TileCal DQ systems also operate with calibration data. The TileCal calibration system provides well defined signals and the response to the calibration signals allows checking the behaviour of the electronic channels in detail. The Monitoring and Calibration Web System supports data quality analyses at the level of channels. All online, offline and calibration versions of the TileCal DQ system also provide automatic tests, the results of which allow fast and robust feedback.

  14. CFD analysis and experimental comparison of novel roof tile shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Bottarelli

    2017-06-01

    Using an experimental rig, the air pressure difference and the volumetric flow rate between tiles have been measured for an existing Portoghese tile design over a range of pressures. Then, in order to understand the air flows under different conditions, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD model has been implemented to recreate the full geometry of the rig. The model was calibrated against the aforementioned experimental results, and run with boundary conditions simulating different wind directions. Even in the low velocities typical of average local wind patterns, the fluid dynamic problem remains complex because of the geometry of the gaps between the tiles. However, it has been possible to assess the coefficient of local head loss and then apply it in an analytical relationship between pressure drop and flow rate, taking into account the open area. The results have shown how the wind direction affects the air permeability and, therefore, important insights have been gathered for the design of novel tiles.

  15. Reusing Ceramic Tile Polishing Waste In Paving Block Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Penteado; Carmenlucia Santos; de Carvalho; Eduardo Viviani; Cecche Lintz; Rosa Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic companies worldwide produce large amounts of polishing tile waste, which are piled up in the open air or disposed of in landfills. These wastes have such characteristics that make them potential substitutes for cement and sand in the manufacturing of concrete products. This paper investigates the use of ceramic tile polishing waste as a partial substitute for cement and sand in the manufacturer of concrete paving blocks. A concrete mix design was defined and then the sand was replaced...

  16. Optics robustness of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Batalha Pedro, Rute; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    TileCal, the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is composed of plastic scintillators interleaved by iron plates, and wavelength shifting optical fibres. The optical properties of these components are known to suffer from natural ageing and degrade due to exposure to radiation. The calorimeter was designed for 10 years of LHC operating at the design luminosity of $10^{34}$ cm$^{-1}$s$^{-1}$. Irradiation tests of scintillators and fibres shown that their light yield decrease about 10 for the maximum dose expected after the 10 years of LHC operation. The robustness of the TileCal optics components is evaluated using the calibration systems of the calorimeter: Cs-137 gamma source, laser light, and integrated photomultiplier signals of particles from collisions. It is observed that the loss of light yield increases with exposure to radiation as expected. The decrease in the light yield during the years 2015-2017 corresponding to the LHC Run 2 will be reported.

  17. Invariants of the Dirichlet/Voronoi Tilings of Hyperspheres in Rn and their Dual Delone/Delaunay Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antón Castro, Francesc/François

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we are addressing the geometric and topological invariants that arise in the exact computation of the Delone (Delaunay) graph and the Dirichlet/Voronoi tiling of N-dimensional hyperspheres using Ritt-Wu's algorithm. Our main contribution is a methodology for automated derivation...... of geometric and topological invariants of the Dirichlet tiling of N + 1-dimenional hyperspheres and its dual Delone graph from the invariants of the Dirichlet tiling of N-dimensional hyperspheres and its dual Delone graph (starting from N = 3)....

  18. Invariants of the dirichlet/voronoi tilings of hyperspheres in RN and their dual delone/delaunay graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, François

    In this paper, we are addressing the geometric and topological invariants that arise in the exact computation of the Delone (Delaunay) graph and the Dirichlet/Voronoi tiling of n-dimensional hyperspheres using Ritt-Wu's algorithm. Our main contribution is a methodology for automated derivation...... of geometric and topological invariants of the Dirichlet tiling of N + 1-dimenional hyperspheres and its dual Delone graph from the invariants of the Dirichlet tiling of N-dimensional hyperspheres and its dual Delone graph (starting from N = 3)....

  19. CONSTRUCTION OF THE DISCRETE HULL FOR THE COMBINATORICS OF A REGULAR PENTAGONAL TILING OF THE PLANE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez-Solano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The article A “regular” pentagonal tiling of the plane by P. L. Bowers and K. Stephenson, Conform. Geom. Dyn. 1, 58–86, 1997, defines a conformal pentagonal tiling. This is a tiling of the plane with remarkable combinatorial and geometric properties. However, it doesn’t have finite local complexi...... combinatorial data, which rather automatically has finite local complexity. In this paper we give a construction of the discrete hull just from the combinatorial data. The main result of this paper is that the discrete hull is a Cantor space....

  20. Geometric Computing for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Wallner, J.; Pottmann, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Geometric computing has recently found a new field of applications, namely the various geometric problems which lie at the heart of rationalization and construction-aware design processes of freeform architecture. We report on our work in this area

  1. Run 1 Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Heelan, Louise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design ...

  2. Design of electrodes in geometrical control type electrolyzer for oxide electrowinning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuo Okamura; Kenji Koizumi; Tadahiro Washiya; Shinnichi Aose

    2005-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been developing a commercial scale electrolyzer with a throughput of 25 tHM/y for an oxide electrowinning process, a kind of pyrochemical reprocessing process. But it had some significant subjects to be solved before the application to a commercial reprocessing plant. The electrolyzer has some innovative characteristics, such as cold crucible induction melting (CCIM) technology and criticality safety control by shape of the vessel, in order to solve those subjects. These characteristics make a crucible narrow and deep. Therefore an arrangement of the internal components in the crucible is difficult. Two kinds of computer cords that evaluate the temperature distribution and the current density distribution were improved to help a design of the internal constitution. Finally, the internal constitution of the commercial scale electrolyzer was designed by using them in this study. (authors)

  3. Geometric optics theory and design of astronomical optical systems using Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This text, now in its second edition, presents the mathematical background needed to design many optical combinations that are used in astronomical telescopes and cameras. It uses a novel approach to third-order aberration theory based on Fermat’s principle and the use of particular optical paths (called stigmatic paths) instead of rays, allowing for easier derivation of third-order formulae. Each optical combination analyzed is accompanied by a downloadable Mathematica® notebook that automates its third-order design, eliminating the need for lengthy calculations. The essential aspects of an optical system with an axis of rotational symmetry are introduced first, along with a development of Gaussian optics from Fermat’s principal. A simpler approach to third-order monochromatic aberrations based on both Fermat’s principle and stigmatic paths is then described, followed by a new chapter on fifth-order aberrations and their classification. Several specific optical devices are discussed and analyzed, incl...

  4. Geometric and engineering drawing

    CERN Document Server

    Morling, K

    2010-01-01

    The new edition of this successful text describes all the geometric instructions and engineering drawing information that are likely to be needed by anyone preparing or interpreting drawings or designs with plenty of exercises to practice these principles.

  5. Automated 3D Damaged Cavity Model Builder for Lower Surface Acreage Tile on Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belknap, Shannon; Zhang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The 3D Automated Thermal Tool for Damaged Acreage Tile Math Model builder was developed to perform quickly and accurately 3D thermal analyses on damaged lower surface acreage tiles and structures beneath the damaged locations on a Space Shuttle Orbiter. The 3D model builder created both TRASYS geometric math models (GMMs) and SINDA thermal math models (TMMs) to simulate an idealized damaged cavity in the damaged tile(s). The GMMs are processed in TRASYS to generate radiation conductors between the surfaces in the cavity. The radiation conductors are inserted into the TMMs, which are processed in SINDA to generate temperature histories for all of the nodes on each layer of the TMM. The invention allows a thermal analyst to create quickly and accurately a 3D model of a damaged lower surface tile on the orbiter. The 3D model builder can generate a GMM and the correspond ing TMM in one or two minutes, with the damaged cavity included in the tile material. A separate program creates a configuration file, which would take a couple of minutes to edit. This configuration file is read by the model builder program to determine the location of the damage, the correct tile type, tile thickness, structure thickness, and SIP thickness of the damage, so that the model builder program can build an accurate model at the specified location. Once the models are built, they are processed by the TRASYS and SINDA.

  6. Sensory imbalance as mechanism of orientation disruption in the leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella: Elucidation by multivariate geometric designs and response surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental designs developed to address mixtures are ideally suited for many areas of experimental biology including pheromone blend studies because they address the confounding of proportionality and concentration intrinsic to factorial and one-factor-at-a-time designs. Geometric multivariate des...

  7. Design and testing of a roller kiln for ceramic tile manufacturing with lower environmental impact and higher performance; Conception et essai d'un four a rouleaux pour carreaux a impact environnemental faible et performances elevees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, A. [DPD-TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Bresciani, A.; Pifferi, G. [SACMI, Savoyarde de Construction de Materiel Industriel, 73 - Montmelian (France)

    1999-09-01

    Motivated by the need to improve firing processes of ceramic tiles with regard to either the homogeneity of the heat distribution in the kiln section or the harmful emissions (particularly fluoride), TNO and the Dutch tile industry, in cooperation with SACMI, have developed a new kiln concept. The study has led to designing and manufacturing a prototype roller kiln, that will be started up and tested at the MOSA facilities in Maastricht. Other partners include SPHINX GUSTAVSBERG, GASUNIE, GOUDA VUURVAST and the Dutch government as sponsor. Great attention has been devoted to control the temperature distribution inside the kiln as well as to manage the fast firing cycles currently used. Burner power, positions, flow, emission level have been calculated using the TNO kiln simulation models. New, but commercially available technologies have been integrated into the new kiln engineering, thus to improve the firing process, reduce emissions and minimize energy consumption. The main technological solutions applied are: (1)radiant tube burners in the firing zone (2)new convective burners in the heating zone (3)convection enhancement in the pre-heating zone by adopting adequate systems for the recirculation of fumes.

  8. Modeling an impact of road geometric design on vehicle energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luin, Blaž; Petelin, Stojan; Al-Mansour, Fouad

    2017-11-01

    Some roads connect traffic origins and destinations directly, some use winding, indirect routes. Indirect connections result in longer distances driven and increased fuel consumption. A similar effect is observed on congested roads and mountain roads with many changes in altitude. Therefore a framework to assess road networks based on energy consumption is proposed. It has been shown that road geometry has significant impact on overall traffic energy consumption and emissions. The methodology presented in the paper analyzes impact of traffic volume, shares of vehicle classes, road network configuration on the energy used by the vehicles. It can be used to optimize energy consumption with efficient traffic management and to choose optimum new road in the design phase. This is especially important as the energy consumed by the vehicles shortly after construction supersedes the energy spent for the road construction.

  9. Geometrical parton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebata, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1976-06-01

    The geometrical distribution inferred from the inelastic cross section is assumed to be proportional to the partial waves. The precocious scaling and the Q/sup 2/-dependence of various quantities are treated from the geometrical point of view. It is shown that the approximate conservation of the orbital angular momentum may be a very practical rule to understand the helicity structure of various hadronic and electromagnetic reactions. The rule can be applied to inclusive reactions as well. The model is also applied to large angle processes. Through the discussion, it is suggested that many peculiar properties of the quark-parton can be ascribed to the geometrical effects.

  10. Development, installation, and initial operation of DIII-D graphite armor tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.M.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.E.; Smith, J.P.; Smith, P.D.

    1988-04-01

    An upgrade of the DIII-D vacuum vessel protection system has been completed. The ceiling, floor, and inner wall have been armored to enable operation of CIT-relevant doublenull diverted plasmas and to enable the use of the inner wall as a limiting surface. The all- graphite tiles replace the earlier partial coverage armor configuration which consisted of a combination of Inconel tiles and graphite brazed to Inconel tiles. A new all-graphite design concept was chosen for cost and reliability reasons. The 10 minute duration between plasma discharges required the tiles to be cooled by conduction to the water-cooled vessel wall. Using two and three- dimensional analyses, the tile design was optimized to minimize thermal stresses with uniform thermal loading on the plasma-facing surface. Minimizing the stresses around the tile hold-down feature and eliminating stress concentrators were emphasized in the design. The design of the tile fastener system resulted in sufficient hold-down forces for good thermal conductance to the vessel and for securing the tile against eddy current forces. The tiles are made of graphite, and a program to select a suitable grade of graphite was undertaken. Initially, graphites were compared based on published technical data. Graphite samples were then tested for thermal shock capacity in an electron beam test facility at the Sandia National Laboratory (SNLA) in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. 4 refs., 6 figs

  11. Geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, Hubert L; Mazzeo, Rafe; Sesum, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    This volume includes expanded versions of the lectures delivered in the Graduate Minicourse portion of the 2013 Park City Mathematics Institute session on Geometric Analysis. The papers give excellent high-level introductions, suitable for graduate students wishing to enter the field and experienced researchers alike, to a range of the most important areas of geometric analysis. These include: the general issue of geometric evolution, with more detailed lectures on Ricci flow and Kähler-Ricci flow, new progress on the analytic aspects of the Willmore equation as well as an introduction to the recent proof of the Willmore conjecture and new directions in min-max theory for geometric variational problems, the current state of the art regarding minimal surfaces in R^3, the role of critical metrics in Riemannian geometry, and the modern perspective on the study of eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for Laplace-Beltrami operators.

  12. Gamma radiation scanning of nuclear waste storage tile holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Yue, S.; Sur, B.; Johnston, J.; Gaudet, M.; Wright, M.; Burton, N.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear waste management facilities at Chalk River Laboratories use below-ground 'tile holes' to store solid waste from various activities such as medical radioisotope production. A silicon PIN (p-type-intrinsic-n-type semiconductor) diode based gamma radiation scanning system has been developed and used to profile the gamma radiation fields along the depth of waste storage tile holes by deploying the sensor into verification tubes adjacent to the tile holes themselves. The radiation field measurements were consistent with expected radiation fields in the tile holes based on administrative knowledge of the radioactive contents and their corresponding decay rates. Such measurements allow non-invasive verification of tile hole contents and provide input to the assessment of radiological risk associated with removal of the waste. Using this detector system, radioactive waste that has decayed to very low levels may be identified based on the radiation profile. This information will support planning for possible transfer of this waste to a licensed waste storage facility designed for low level waste, thus freeing storage space for possible tile hole re-use for more highly radioactive waste. (author)

  13. Characterization of an Ionization Readout Tile for nEXO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, M.; Schubert, A.; Cen, W. R.; Dalmasson, J.; DeVoe, R.; Fabris, L.; Gratta, G.; Jamil, A.; Li, G.; Odian, A.; Patel, M.; Pocar, A.; Qiu, D.; Wang, Q.; Wen, L. J.; Albert, J. B.; Anton, G.; Arnquist, I. J.; Badhrees, I.; Barbeau, P.; Beck, D.; Belov, V.; Bourque, F.; Brodsky, J. P.; Brown, E.; Brunner, T.; Burenkov, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, L.; Chambers, C.; Charlebois, S. A.; Chiu, M.; Cleveland, B.; Coon, M.; Craycraft, A.; Cree, W.; Côté, M.; Daniels, T.; Daugherty, S. J.; Daughhetee, J.; Delaquis, S.; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A.; Didberidze, T.; Dilling, J.; Ding, Y. Y.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dragone, A.; Fairbank, W.; Farine, J.; Feyzbakhsh, S.; Fontaine, R.; Fudenberg, D.; Giacomini, G.; Gornea, R.; Hansen, E. V.; Harris, D.; Hasan, M.; Heffner, M.; Hoppe, E. W.; House, A.; Hufschmidt, P.; Hughes, M.; Hößl, J.; Ito, Y.; Iverson, A.; Jiang, X. S.; Johnston, S.; Karelin, A.; Kaufman, L. J.; Koffas, T.; Kravitz, S.; Krücken, R.; Kuchenkov, A.; Kumar, K. S.; Lan, Y.; Leonard, D. S.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Licciardi, C.; Lin, Y. H.; MacLellan, R.; Michel, T.; Mong, B.; Moore, D.; Murray, K.; Newby, R. J.; Ning, Z.; Njoya, O.; Nolet, F.; Odgers, K.; Oriunno, M.; Orrell, J. L.; Ostrovskiy, I.; Overman, C. T.; Ortega, G. S.; Parent, S.; Piepke, A.; Pratte, J.-F.; Radeka, V.; Raguzin, E.; Rao, T.; Rescia, S.; Retiere, F.; Robinson, A.; Rossignol, T.; Rowson, P. C.; Roy, N.; Saldanha, R.; Sangiorgio, S.; Schmidt, S.; Schneider, J.; Sinclair, D.; Skarpaas, K.; Soma, A. K.; St-Hilaire, G.; Stekhanov, V.; Stiegler, T.; Sun, X. L.; Tarka, M.; Todd, J.; Tolba, T.; Tsang, R.; Tsang, T.; Vachon, F.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Visser, G.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Wagenpfeil, M.; Weber, M.; Wei, W.; Wichoski, U.; Wrede, G.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W. H.; Yang, L.; Yen, Y.-R.; Zeldovich, O.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, Y.; Ziegler, T.

    2018-01-01

    A new design for the anode of a time projection chamber, consisting of a charge-detecting "tile", is investigated for use in large scale liquid xenon detectors. The tile is produced by depositing 60 orthogonal metal charge-collecting strips, 3 mm wide, on a 10 cm × 10 cm fused-silica wafer. These charge tiles may be employed by large detectors, such as the proposed tonne-scale nEXO experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay. Modular by design, an array of tiles can cover a sizable area. The width of each strip is small compared to the size of the tile, so a Frisch grid is not required. A grid-less, tiled anode design is beneficial for an experiment such as nEXO, where a wire tensioning support structure and Frisch grid might contribute radioactive backgrounds and would have to be designed to accommodate cycling to cryogenic temperatures. The segmented anode also reduces some degeneracies in signal reconstruction that arise in large-area crossed-wire time projection chambers. A prototype tile was tested in a cell containing liquid xenon. Very good agreement is achieved between the measured ionization spectrum of a 207Bi source and simulations that include the microphysics of recombination in xenon and a detailed modeling of the electrostatic field of the detector. An energy resolution σ/E=5.5% is observed at 570 keV, comparable to the best intrinsic ionization-only resolution reported in literature for liquid xenon at 936 V/cm.

  14. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-González, Arely

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes, located in the outer part of the calorimeter. Neutral particles may also produce a signal after interacting with the material and producing charged particles. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells, each of them being read out by two photomultipliers in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. This comprises Cesium radioactive sources, Laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Information from all systems allows to monitor and equalise the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitisation. Calibration runs are monitored from a data quality perspective and used as a cross-check for physics runs. The data quality efficiency achieved during 2016 was 98.9%. These calibration and stability of the calorimeter reported here show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  15. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (10exp34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2023. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. The smallest independent on-detector electronics module has been reduced from 45 channels to 6, greatly reducing the consequences of a failure in the on-detector electronics. The size of t...

  16. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the luminosity will have increased 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (1034 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional luminosity increase by a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2022. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued studying different electronics options. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Which one to u...

  17. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrió, F

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase-II) where the peak luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (10 34 cm −2 s −1 ) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2024. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, configuration and detector control. For the off-detector electronics a pre-processor (sROD) is being developed, which takes care of the initial trigger processing while temporarily storing the main data flow in pipeline and derandomizer memories. One demonstrator prototype module with the new calorimeter module electronics, but still compatible with the present system, is planned to be inserted in ATLAS this year

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from concrete can be reduced by using mix proportions, geometric aspects, and age as design factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sabbie A.; Horvath, Arpad; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.; Ostertag, Claudia P.

    2015-11-01

    With increased awareness of the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the significant contribution from the cement industry, research efforts are being advanced to reduce the impacts associated with concrete production and consumption. A variety of methods have been proposed, one of the most common being the replacement of cement as a binder in concrete with supplementary cementitious materials, such as fly ash (FA), which can have lower environmental effects. The use of FA can change the kinetics of the hydration reactions and, consequently, modify the evolution of the concrete strength over time. Yet the influence of designing structural elements to obtain the required strength at later ages has not been examined in terms of their influence on global warming potential (GWP) of concrete. This research investigates the influence of design age, in addition to mix proportions and geometric aspects, on the GWP associated with making beams, columns, and a concrete building frame. Findings suggest that while the GWP for beams is not highly dependent on concrete mixture strength, the GWP for columns is dependent on strength, thus the influence of required strength at later ages influences GWP of making columns more so than beams. For the concrete frame analyzed, a potential 45% reduction in GWP, depending on mix proportions and design age, was found. Using the findings from this research, the GWP associated with production of concrete in California could be reduced by approximately 1.8 million metric tons of CO2-eq emissions, equivalent to approximately 2% of all industrial GHG emissions in California.

  19. Geometrical optics design of a compact range Gregorian subreflector system by the principle of the central ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Giancarlo; Burnside, Walter D.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, the compact range has become very popular for measuring Radar Cross Section (RCS) and antenna patterns. The compact range, in fact, offers several advantages due to reduced size, a controlled environment, and privacy. On the other hand, it has some problems of its own, which must be solved properly in order to achieve high quality measurement results. For example, diffraction from the edges of the main reflector corrupts the plane wave in the target zone and creates spurious scattering centers in RCS measurements. While diffraction can be minimized by using rolled edges, the field of an offset single reflector compact range is corrupted by three other errors: the taper of the reflected field, the cross polarization introduced by the tilt of the feed and the aperture blockage introduced by the feed itself. These three errors can be eliminated by the use of a subreflector system. A properly designed subreflector system offers very little aperture blockage, no cross-polarization introduced and a minimization of the taper of the reflected field. A Gregorian configuration has been adopted in order to enclose the feed and the ellipsoidal subreflector in a lower chamber, which is isolated by absorbers from the upper chamber, where the main parabolic reflector and the target zone are enclosed. The coupling between the two rooms is performed through a coupling aperture. The first cut design for such a subreflector system is performed through Geometrical Optics ray tracing techniques (GO), and is greatly simplified by the use of the concept of the central ray introduced by Dragone. The purpose of the GO design is to establish the basic dimensions of the main reflector and subreflector, the size of the primary and secondary illuminating surfaces, the tilt angles of the subreflector and feed, and estimate the feed beamwidth. At the same time, the shape of the coupling aperture is initially determined.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from concrete can be reduced by using mix proportions, geometric aspects, and age as design factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Sabbie A; Horvath, Arpad; Monteiro, Paulo J M; Ostertag, Claudia P

    2015-01-01

    With increased awareness of the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the significant contribution from the cement industry, research efforts are being advanced to reduce the impacts associated with concrete production and consumption. A variety of methods have been proposed, one of the most common being the replacement of cement as a binder in concrete with supplementary cementitious materials, such as fly ash (FA), which can have lower environmental effects. The use of FA can change the kinetics of the hydration reactions and, consequently, modify the evolution of the concrete strength over time. Yet the influence of designing structural elements to obtain the required strength at later ages has not been examined in terms of their influence on global warming potential (GWP) of concrete. This research investigates the influence of design age, in addition to mix proportions and geometric aspects, on the GWP associated with making beams, columns, and a concrete building frame. Findings suggest that while the GWP for beams is not highly dependent on concrete mixture strength, the GWP for columns is dependent on strength, thus the influence of required strength at later ages influences GWP of making columns more so than beams. For the concrete frame analyzed, a potential 45% reduction in GWP, depending on mix proportions and design age, was found. Using the findings from this research, the GWP associated with production of concrete in California could be reduced by approximately 1.8 million metric tons of CO 2 -eq emissions, equivalent to approximately 2% of all industrial GHG emissions in California. (letter)

  1. Integration of finite element analysis and design of experiments to analyse the geometrical factors in bi-layered tube hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaswad, A.; Olabi, A.G.; Benyounis, K.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Tube hydroforming (THF) is a type of unconventional metal forming process in which high fluid pressure and axial feed are used to deform a tube blank in the desired shape. Bi-layered tube hydroforming is suitable to produce bi-layered joints to be used in special applications such as aerospace, oil production and nuclear power plants. In this work, a finite element study along with response surface methodology (RSM) for design of experiment (DOE) has been used to construct models for three responses namely: bulge height, thickness reduction, and wrinkle height as a function of geometrical factors for X shape bi-layered tube hydroforming. A finite element model was built and experimentally validated. The models developed using finite element analysis (FEA) and RSM was found to be educated. The factors effect and their interactions on the three responses were determined and discussed. Such integration was proved to be a successful technique that can be used to predict the geometry of the hydroformed part.

  2. Geometric metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethammer, Marc; Hart, Gabriel L; Pace, Danielle F; Vespa, Paul M; Irimia, Andrei; Van Horn, John D; Aylward, Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    Standard image registration methods do not account for changes in image appearance. Hence, metamorphosis approaches have been developed which jointly estimate a space deformation and a change in image appearance to construct a spatio-temporal trajectory smoothly transforming a source to a target image. For standard metamorphosis, geometric changes are not explicitly modeled. We propose a geometric metamorphosis formulation, which explains changes in image appearance by a global deformation, a deformation of a geometric model, and an image composition model. This work is motivated by the clinical challenge of predicting the long-term effects of traumatic brain injuries based on time-series images. This work is also applicable to the quantification of tumor progression (e.g., estimating its infiltrating and displacing components) and predicting chronic blood perfusion changes after stroke. We demonstrate the utility of the method using simulated data as well as scans from a clinical traumatic brain injury patient.

  3. Recycling Roof Tile Waste Material for Wall Cover Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on roof tile waste treatment has attempted to find the appropriate technology to reuse old roof tile waste by  create  wall  cladding  materials  from  it.  Through  exploration  and  experimentation,  a  treatment  method  has  been discovered  to  transform  the  tile  fragments  into  artificial  stone  that  resembles  the  shape  of  coral.  This  baked  clay artificial stone material is then processed as a decorative element for vertical surfaces that are not load-bearing, such as on the interior and exterior walls of a building. Before applying the fragments as wall tiles, several steps must be taken: 1  Blunting,  which  changes  the  look  of  tile  fragments  using  a  machine  created  specifically  to  blunt  the  roof-tile fragment  edges,  2  Closing  the  pores  of  the  blunted  fragments  as  a  finishing  step  that  can  be  done  with  a  transparent coat or a solid color of paint, 3 Planting the transformed roof-tile fragments on a prepared tile body made of concrete. In this study, the second phase is done using the method of ceramics glazing at a temperature of 700 °C. The finishing step is the strength of this product because it produces a rich color artificial pebble.

  4. A Global User-Driven Model for Tile Prefetching in Web Geographical Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shaoming; Chong, Yanwen; Zhang, Hang; Tan, Xicheng

    2017-01-01

    A web geographical information system is a typical service-intensive application. Tile prefetching and cache replacement can improve cache hit ratios by proactively fetching tiles from storage and replacing the appropriate tiles from the high-speed cache buffer without waiting for a client's requests, which reduces disk latency and improves system access performance. Most popular prefetching strategies consider only the relative tile popularities to predict which tile should be prefetched or consider only a single individual user's access behavior to determine which neighbor tiles need to be prefetched. Some studies show that comprehensively considering all users' access behaviors and all tiles' relationships in the prediction process can achieve more significant improvements. Thus, this work proposes a new global user-driven model for tile prefetching and cache replacement. First, based on all users' access behaviors, a type of expression method for tile correlation is designed and implemented. Then, a conditional prefetching probability can be computed based on the proposed correlation expression mode. Thus, some tiles to be prefetched can be found by computing and comparing the conditional prefetching probability from the uncached tiles set and, similarly, some replacement tiles can be found in the cache buffer according to multi-step prefetching. Finally, some experiments are provided comparing the proposed model with other global user-driven models, other single user-driven models, and other client-side prefetching strategies. The results show that the proposed model can achieve a prefetching hit rate in approximately 10.6% ~ 110.5% higher than the compared methods.

  5. Preliminary test results on tungsten tile with castellation structures in KSTAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S. H.; Bang, E. N.; Lim, S. T.; Lee, J. Y.; Yang, S. J.; Litnovsky, A.; Hellwig, M.; Matveev, D.; Komm, M.; van den Berg, M. A.; Lho, T.; Park, C. R.; Kim, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    A bulk tungsten tile with conventional and shaped castellation structures was exposed to various plasmas in KSTAR during 2012 campaign, in order to verify the functions of the shaped castellation designed for ITER divertor. The thermal response of the tile during the campaign was measured by

  6. Supporting Students' Understanding of Linear Equations with One Variable Using Algebra Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, Sari; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Somakim

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to describe how algebra tiles can support students' understanding of linear equations with one variable. This article is a part of a larger research on learning design of linear equations with one variable using algebra tiles combined with balancing method. Therefore, it will merely discuss one activity focused on how students…

  7. Terminating DNA Tile Assembly with Nanostructured Caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Deepak K; Jiang, Ruoyu; Reinhart, Seth; Mohammed, Abdul M; Jorgenson, Tyler D; Schulman, Rebecca

    2017-10-24

    Precise control over the nucleation, growth, and termination of self-assembly processes is a fundamental tool for controlling product yield and assembly dynamics. Mechanisms for altering these processes programmatically could allow the use of simple components to self-assemble complex final products or to design processes allowing for dynamic assembly or reconfiguration. Here we use DNA tile self-assembly to develop general design principles for building complexes that can bind to a growing biomolecular assembly and terminate its growth by systematically characterizing how different DNA origami nanostructures interact with the growing ends of DNA tile nanotubes. We find that nanostructures that present binding interfaces for all of the binding sites on a growing facet can bind selectively to growing ends and stop growth when these interfaces are presented on either a rigid or floppy scaffold. In contrast, nucleation of nanotubes requires the presentation of binding sites in an arrangement that matches the shape of the structure's facet. As a result, it is possible to build nanostructures that can terminate the growth of existing nanotubes but cannot nucleate a new structure. The resulting design principles for constructing structures that direct nucleation and termination of the growth of one-dimensional nanostructures can also serve as a starting point for programmatically directing two- and three-dimensional crystallization processes using nanostructure design.

  8. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-12-14

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  9. The TFTR RF Limiter upgrade design and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.W.; Fan, H.M.; Ulrickson, M.

    1991-01-01

    The RF Limiters originally installed at Bays K-L and N-O[1] were upgraded to a new configuration and six new limiters of similar design were added. The RF Limiter upgrade protects the (2) existing RF Launchers and with a minor addition will protect the (2) RF Launchers to be installed in FY92 and will permit 50 Megawatts of auxiliary input power for two seconds during plasma operation. Each of the new RF Limiters are comprised of 18 tiles for a total of 108. The design provides for revised and strengthened supporting mounts because of additional forces induced in the tiles. Tile material is a 2D carbon-carbon composite identical to the original tile material. The channel shaped tile is geometrically the same as the original design. Subassembly of the panels took place outside the vessel in order to minimize exposure levels to the workers. Tooling was designed to replicate the vessel hardpoints and ease the subassembly tasks. Installation of the entire system occurred during the FY 91 opening. Integrated into the design are provisions to eliminate plasma damage to the insulators at the mounts. Detail design philosophy and an overview of the project are addressed by this paper. 2 refs., 2 figs

  10. Quasiperiodic canonical-cell tiling with pseudo icosahedral symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Nobuhisa

    2017-10-01

    Icosahedral quasicrystals and their approximants are generally described as packing of icosahedral clusters. Experimental studies show that clusters in various approximants are orderly arranged, such that their centers are located at the nodes (or vertices) of a periodic tiling composed of four basic polyhedra called the canonical cells. This so called canonical-cell geometry is likely to serve as a common framework for modeling how clusters are arranged in approximants, while its applicability seems to extend naturally to icosahedral quasicrystals. To date, however, it has not been proved yet if the canonical cells can tile the space quasiperiodically, though we usually believe that clusters in icosahedral quasicrystals are arranged such that quasiperiodic long-range order as well as icosahedral point symmetry is maintained. In this paper, we report for the first time an iterative geometrical transformation of the canonical cells defining a so-called substitution rule, which we can use to generate a class of quasiperiodic canonical-cell tilings. Every single step of the transformation proceeds as follows: each cell is first enlarged by a magnification ratio of τ3 (τ = golden mean) and then subdivided into cells of the original size. Here, cells with an identical shape can be subdivided in several distinct manners depending on how their adjacent neighbors are arranged, and sixteen types of cells are identified in terms of unique subdivision. This class of quasiperiodic canonical-cell tilings presents the first realization of three-dimensional quasiperiodic tilings with fractal atomic surfaces. There are four distinct atomic surfaces associated with four sub-modules of the primitive icosahedral module, where a representative of the four submodules corresponds to the Σ = 4 coincidence site module of the icosahedral module. It follows that the present quasiperiodic tilings involve a kind of superlattice ordering that manifests itself in satellite peaks in the

  11. Color features for quality control in ceramic tile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Saku; Kaelviaeinen, Heikki; Parkkinen, Jussi P.

    2001-02-01

    We study visual quality control in the ceramics industry. In the manufacturing, it is important that in each set of tiles, every single tile looks similar. Currently, the estimation is usually done by human vision. Our goal is to design a machine vision system that can estimate the sufficient similarity, or same appearance, to the human eye. Our main approach is to use accurate spectral representation of color, and compare spectral features to the RGB color features. A laboratory system for color measurements is built. Experimentations with five classes of brown tiles are presented and discussed. In addition to the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier, a neural network called the self-organizing map (SOM) is used to provide understanding of the spectral features. Every single spectrum in each tile of a training set is used as input to a 2D SOM. The SOM is analyzed to understand how spectra are clustered. As a result, tiles are classified using a trained 2D SOM. It is also of interest to know whether the order of spectral colors can be determined. In our approach, all spectra are clustered in a 1D SOM, and each pixel spectrum) is presented by pseudocolors according to the trained nodes. Finally, the results are compared to experiments with human vision.

  12. Geometrical study of phyllotactic patterns by Bernoulli spiral lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushida, Takamichi; Yamagishi, Yoshikazu

    2017-06-01

    Geometrical studies of phyllotactic patterns deal with the centric or cylindrical models produced by ideal lattices. van Iterson (Mathematische und mikroskopisch - anatomische Studien über Blattstellungen nebst Betrachtungen über den Schalenbau der Miliolinen, Verlag von Gustav Fischer, Jena, 1907) suggested a centric model representing ideal phyllotactic patterns as disk packings of Bernoulli spiral lattices and presented a phase diagram now called Van Iterson's diagram explaining the bifurcation processes of their combinatorial structures. Geometrical properties on disk packings were shown by Rothen & Koch (J. Phys France, 50(13), 1603-1621, 1989). In contrast, as another centric model, we organized a mathematical framework of Voronoi tilings of Bernoulli spiral lattices and showed mathematically that the phase diagram of a Voronoi tiling is graph-theoretically dual to Van Iterson's diagram. This paper gives a review of two centric models for disk packings and Voronoi tilings of Bernoulli spiral lattices. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  13. Mechanical construction and installation of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, J [IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Adragna, P; Bosi, F [Pisa University and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Alexa, C; Boldea, V [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Alves, R [LIP and FCTUC University of Coimbra (Portugal); Amaral, P; Andresen, X; Behrens, A; Blocki, J [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ananiev, A [LIP and IDMEC-IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Antonaki, A [University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Batusov, V [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bednar, P [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Bergeaas, E; Bohm, C [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Biscarat, C [LPC Clermont-Ferrand, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Blanch, O; Blanchot, G [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); others, and

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarises the mechanical construction and installation of the Tile Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN, Switzerland. The Tile Calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter using scintillator as the sensitive detector and steel as the absorber and covers the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities ±1.7. The mechanical construction of the Tile Calorimeter occurred over a period of about 10 years beginning in 1995 with the completion of the Technical Design Report and ending in 2006 with the installation of the final module in the ATLAS cavern. During this period approximately 2600 metric tons of steel were transformed into a laminated structure to form the absorber of the sampling calorimeter. Following instrumentation and testing, which is described elsewhere, the modules were installed in the ATLAS cavern with a remarkable accuracy for a structure of this size and weight.

  14. Mechanical construction and installation of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, J; Adragna, P; Bosi, F; Alexa, C; Boldea, V; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Andresen, X; Behrens, A; Blocki, J; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Bohm, C; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarises the mechanical construction and installation of the Tile Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN, Switzerland. The Tile Calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter using scintillator as the sensitive detector and steel as the absorber and covers the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities ±1.7. The mechanical construction of the Tile Calorimeter occurred over a period of about 10 years beginning in 1995 with the completion of the Technical Design Report and ending in 2006 with the installation of the final module in the ATLAS cavern. During this period approximately 2600 metric tons of steel were transformed into a laminated structure to form the absorber of the sampling calorimeter. Following instrumentation and testing, which is described elsewhere, the modules were installed in the ATLAS cavern with a remarkable accuracy for a structure of this size and weight

  15. Design and implementation of a 3D-MR/CT geometric image distortion phantom/analysis system for stereotactic radiosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanovich, A. Z.; Rieker, M.; Zhang, B.; Bissonnette, J.-P.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    The design, construction and application of a multimodality, 3D magnetic resonance/computed tomography (MR/CT) image distortion phantom and analysis system for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is presented. The phantom is characterized by (1) a 1 × 1 × 1 (cm)3 MRI/CT-visible 3D-Cartesian grid; (2) 2002 grid vertices that are 3D-intersections of MR-/CT-visible ‘lines’ in all three orthogonal planes; (3) a 3D-grid that is MR-signal positive/CT-signal negative; (4) a vertex distribution sufficiently ‘dense’ to characterize geometrical parameters properly, and (5) a grid/vertex resolution consistent with SRS localization accuracy. When positioned correctly, successive 3D-vertex planes along any orthogonal axis of the phantom appear as 1 × 1 (cm)2-2D grids, whereas between vertex planes, images are defined by 1 × 1 (cm)2-2D arrays of signal points. Image distortion is evaluated using a centroid algorithm that automatically identifies the center of each 3D-intersection and then calculates the deviations dx, dy, dz and dr for each vertex point; the results are presented as a color-coded 2D or 3D distribution of deviations. The phantom components and 3D-grid are machined to sub-millimeter accuracy, making the device uniquely suited to SRS applications; as such, we present it here in a form adapted for use with a Leksell stereotactic frame. Imaging reproducibility was assessed via repeated phantom imaging across ten back-to-back scans; 80%–90% of the differences in vertex deviations dx, dy, dz and dr between successive 3 T MRI scans were found to be  ⩽0.05 mm for both axial and coronal acquisitions, and over  >95% of the differences were observed to be  ⩽0.05 mm for repeated CT scans, clearly demonstrating excellent reproducibility. Applications of the 3D-phantom/analysis system are presented, using a 32-month time-course assessment of image distortion/gradient stability and statistical control chart for 1.5 T and 3 T GE TwinSpeed MRI

  16. Efficient oligonucleotide probe selection for pan-genomic tiling arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array comparative genomic hybridization is a fast and cost-effective method for detecting, genotyping, and comparing the genomic sequence of unknown bacterial isolates. This method, as with all microarray applications, requires adequate coverage of probes targeting the regions of interest. An unbiased tiling of probes across the entire length of the genome is the most flexible design approach. However, such a whole-genome tiling requires that the genome sequence is known in advance. For the accurate analysis of uncharacterized bacteria, an array must query a fully representative set of sequences from the species' pan-genome. Prior microarrays have included only a single strain per array or the conserved sequences of gene families. These arrays omit potentially important genes and sequence variants from the pan-genome. Results This paper presents a new probe selection algorithm (PanArray that can tile multiple whole genomes using a minimal number of probes. Unlike arrays built on clustered gene families, PanArray uses an unbiased, probe-centric approach that does not rely on annotations, gene clustering, or multi-alignments. Instead, probes are evenly tiled across all sequences of the pan-genome at a consistent level of coverage. To minimize the required number of probes, probes conserved across multiple strains in the pan-genome are selected first, and additional probes are used only where necessary to span polymorphic regions of the genome. The viability of the algorithm is demonstrated by array designs for seven different bacterial pan-genomes and, in particular, the design of a 385,000 probe array that fully tiles the genomes of 20 different Listeria monocytogenes strains with overlapping probes at greater than twofold coverage. Conclusion PanArray is an oligonucleotide probe selection algorithm for tiling multiple genome sequences using a minimal number of probes. It is capable of fully tiling all genomes of a species on

  17. Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First

  18. The Level-1 Tile-Muon Trigger in the Tile Calorimeter upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhov, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal provides highly-segmented energy measurements for incident particles. Information from TileCal's outermost radial layer can assist in muon tagging in the Level-1 Muon Trigger by rejecting fake muon triggers due to slow charged particles (typically protons) without degrading the efficiency of the trigger. The main activity of the Tile-Muon Trigger in the ATLAS Phase-0 upgrade program was to install and to activate the TileCal signal processor module for providing trigger inputs to the Level-1 Muon Trigger. This report describes the Tile-Muon Trigger, focusing on the new detector electronics such as the Tile Muon Digitizer Board (TMDB) that receives, digitizes and then provides the signal from eight TileCal modules to three Level-1 muon endcap Sector-Logic Boards.

  19. Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter During the LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Cerda Alberich, Leonor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic sampling calorimeter of ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal uses iron absorbers and scintillators as active material and it covers the central region |η| < 1.7. Jointly with the other calorimeters it is designed for measurements of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. It also assists in muon identification. TileCal is regularly monitored and calibrated by several different calibration systems: a Cs radioactive source that illuminates the scintillating tiles directly, a laser light system to directly test the PMT response, and a charge injection system (CIS) for the front-end electronics. These calibrations systems, in conjunction with data collected during proton-proton collisions, provide extensive monitoring of the instrument and a means for equalizing the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal propagation. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sa...

  20. Construction and Performance of an Iron-Scintillator Hadron Calorimeter with Longitudinal Tile Configuration

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD34 \\\\ \\\\ In a scintillator tile calorimeter with wavelength shifting fiber readout significant simplifications of the construction and the assembly are possible if the tiles are oriented $^{\\prime\\prime}$longitudinally$^{\\prime\\prime}$, i.e.~in a r-$\\phi$ planes for a barrel configuration. For a hybrid calorimeter consisting of a scintillator tile hadron compartment and a sufficiently containing liquid argon electromagnetic (EM) compartment, as proposed for the ATLAS detector, good jet resolution is predicted by simulations, which is not affected by this particular orientation of the tiles. \\\\ \\\\The aim of the proposed development program is to construct a calorimeter test module with longitudinal tiles and to check the simulation results by test beam measurements. In addition several component tests and further simulations and engineering studies are needed to optimize the design of a large calorimeter structure to be used in collider experiments. The construction of a test module will also provide valua...

  1. Allowable heat load on the edge of the ITER first wall panel beryllium flat tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mitteau

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasma facing components are usually qualified to a given heat load density applied at the top face of the armour tiles with normal incidence angle. When employed in tokamak fusion machines, heat loading on the tile sides is possible due to optimised shaping, that doesn't provide edge shadowing for all design situations. An edge heat load may occur both at the tile and component scales. The edge load needs to be controlled and quantified. The adequate control of edge heat loads is especially critical for water cooled components that uses armour tiles which are bonded to the heat sink, for ensuring the long-term integrity of the tile bonding. An edge heat load allowance criterion of 10% of the top heat load is proposed. The 10% criterion is supported by experimental heat flux tests.

  2. Heart-pulse Biofeedback in Playful Exercise using a Wearable device and Modular Interactive Tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimokakimoto, Tomoya; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    interactive tiles. The system consists of a wearable device that measures heart-pulse via ear-mounted sensor, and modular interactive tiles which are used for physical rehabilitation exercise through playing a game. The wearable devise enables detection of heart pulse in real-time and therefore provides heart...... beat rate during playful activities, even if the heart pulse wave have motion artifacts. The tiles are designed to build flexible structures and to provide immediate feedback based on the users’ physical interaction with the tiles. We combine the two systems to provide users with heart pulse...... biofeedback in playful exercise. We show that using the developed system it is possible for the users to regulate the exercise intensity on their own with biofeedback, and also possible to analyze exercise activity using number of steps on the tiles and heart beat rate....

  3. Principal minors and rhombus tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, Richard; Pemantle, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The algebraic relations between the principal minors of a generic n × n matrix are somewhat mysterious, see e.g. Lin and Sturmfels (2009 J. Algebra 322 4121–31). We show, however, that by adding in certain almost principal minors, the ideal of relations is generated by translations of a single relation, the so-called hexahedron relation, which is a composition of six cluster mutations. We give in particular a Laurent-polynomial parameterization of the space of n × n matrices, whose parameters consist of certain principal and almost principal minors. The parameters naturally live on vertices and faces of the tiles in a rhombus tiling of a convex 2n-gon. A matrix is associated to an equivalence class of tilings, all related to each other by Yang–Baxter-like transformations. By specializing the initial data we can similarly parameterize the space of Hermitian symmetric matrices over R,C or H the quaternions. Moreover by further specialization we can parametrize the space of positive definite matrices over these rings. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras mathematical physics’. (paper)

  4. Geometric recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Borot, Gaëtan; Orantin, Nicolas

    We propose a general theory whose main component are functorial assignments ∑→Ω∑ ∈ E (∑), for a large class of functors E from a certain category of bordered surfaces (∑'s) to a suitable a target category of topological vector spaces. The construction is done by summing appropriate compositions...... as Poisson structures on the moduli space of flat connections. The theory has a wider scope than that and one expects that many functorial objects in low-dimensional geometry and topology should have a GR construction. The geometric recursion has various projections to topological recursion (TR) and we...... in particular show it retrieves all previous variants and applications of TR. We also show that, for any initial data for topological recursion, one can construct initial data for GR with values in Frobenius algebra-valued continuous functions on Teichmueller space, such that the ωg,n of TR are obtained...

  5. Thermal-stress analysis and testing of DIII-D armor tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.; Anderson, P.M.; Reis, E.E.; Smith, J.P.; Smith, P.D.; Croesmann, C.; Watkins, J.; Whitley, J.

    1987-10-01

    It is planned to install about 1500 new armor tiles in the DIII-D tokamak. The armor tiles currently installed in DIII-D are made by brazing Poco AXF-5Q graphite onto Inconel X-750 stock. A small percentage of these have failed by breakage of graphite. These failures were believed to be related to significant residual stress remaining in graphite after brazing. Hence, an effort was undertaken to improve the design with all-graphite tiles. Three criteria must be satisfied by the armor tiles and the hardware used to attach the tiles to the vessel walls: tiles should not structurally fail, peak tile temperature must be less than 2500 K, and peak vessel stresses must be below acceptable levels. A number of alternate design concepts were first analyzed with the two-dimensional finite element codes TOPAZ2D and NIKE2D. Promising designs were optimized for best parameters such as thicknesses, etc. The two best designs were further analyzed for thermal stresses with the three-dimensional codes P/THERMAL and P/STRESS. Prototype tiles of a number of materials were fabricated by GA and tested at the Plasma Materials Test Facility of the Sandia National Laboratory at Albuquerque. The tests simulated the heat flux and cooling conditions in DIII-D. This paper describes the 2-D and 3-D thermal stress analyses, the test results and logic which led to the selected design of the DIII-D armor tiles. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Tile Patterns with Logo--Part I: Laying Tile with Logo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clason, Robert G.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a method for drawing periodic tile patterns using LOGO. Squares, triangles, hexagons, shape filling, and random tile laying are included. These activities incorporate problem solving, programing methods, and the geometry of angles and polygons. (KR)

  7. Fractal analysis of mandibular trabecular bone: optimal tile sizes for the tile counting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Baik, Jee-Seon; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sun-Bok; Lee, Seung-Pyo

    2011-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the optimal tile size for the fractal dimension of the mandibular trabecular bone using a tile counting method. Digital intraoral radiographic images were obtained at the mandibular angle, molar, premolar, and incisor regions of 29 human dry mandibles. After preprocessing, the parameters representing morphometric characteristics of the trabecular bone were calculated. The fractal dimensions of the processed images were analyzed in various tile sizes by the tile counting method. The optimal range of tile size was 0.132 mm to 0.396 mm for the fractal dimension using the tile counting method. The sizes were closely related to the morphometric parameters. The fractal dimension of mandibular trabecular bone, as calculated with the tile counting method, can be best characterized with a range of tile sizes from 0.132 to 0.396 mm.

  8. R and D and maintenance on graphite tile of divertor region at EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, X.; Song, Y.T.; Wu, S.T.; Hao, J.; Du, S.; Peng, Y.; Cao, L.; Wang, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Find out the reason of damage of graphite tile. ► Simulation the halo current. ► Stress analysis of graphite tile by ANSYS. ► Do the experiments to test the strength of graphite tile. ► Do the optimization and maintenance of graphite tile. - Abstract: EAST, with full superconducting magnetic coils, had been designed and constructed to address the scientific and engineering issues under steady state operation. The in-vessel components are full graphite tiles as first wall had been operated successfully. In the experiment campaign of 2010, the H mode operation and 1 MA operation have been gotten on EAST. However, in some case, some of the graphite tiles of divertor region are damaged with the plasma parameter enhanced. As most of the damaged graphite tiles are in the divertor region, they are probably damaged by the electro-magnetic force of the halo current when the VDEs occur. The force of the halo current is re-estimated. The structure analysis has been done by the ANSYS software. From the analysis result. It can be obtained that the stress is larger than the allowable stress when the halo current on the graphite tile is larger than 2.7 kA. The tensile testing of the graphite also has been done. As the result, the graphite tiles are damaged when the forces are up to 2400 N. To deal with the problem, two proposes are accepted. In the one hand, the new type graphite material is used, whose tensile strength is up to 45 MPa. In the other hand, the structure of the graphite tiles is optimized.

  9. DNA-based and geometric morphometric analysis to validate species designation: a case study of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J F B; Gonçalves, G L; Leipnitz, L; Freitas, T R O

    2013-10-25

    The genus Ctenomys (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) shows several taxonomic inconsistencies. In this study, we used an integrative approach including DNA sequences, karyotypes, and geometric morphometrics to evaluate the taxonomic validity of a nominal species, Ctenomys bicolor, which was described based on only one specimen in 1912 by Miranda Ribeiro, and since then neglected. We sampled near the type locality assigned to this species and collected 10 specimens. A total of 820 base pairs of the cytochrome b gene were sequenced and analyzed together with nine other species and four morphotypes obtained from GenBank. Bayesian analyses showed that C. bicolor is monophyletic and related to the Bolivian-Matogrossense group, a clade that originated about 3 mya. We compared the cranial shape through morphometric geometrics of C. bicolor, including the specimen originally sampled in 1912, with other species representative of the same phylogenetic group (C. boliviensis and C. steinbachi). C. bicolor shows unique skull traits that distinguish it from all other currently known taxa. Our findings confirm that the specimen collected by Miranda Ribeiro is a valid species, and improve the knowledge about Ctenomys in the Amazon region.

  10. Design of Wideband MIMO Car-to-Car Channel Models Based on the Geometrical Street Scattering Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurilla Avazov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a wideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO car-to-car (C2C channel model based on the geometrical street scattering model. Starting from the geometrical model, a MIMO reference channel model is derived under the assumption of single-bounce scattering in line-of-sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS propagation environments. The proposed channel model assumes an infinite number of scatterers, which are uniformly distributed in two rectangular areas located on both sides of the street. Analytical solutions are presented for the space-time-frequency cross-correlation function (STF-CCF, the two-dimensional (2D space CCF, the time-frequency CCF (TF-CCF, the temporal autocorrelation function (ACF, and the frequency correlation function (FCF. An efficient sum-of-cisoids (SOCs channel simulator is derived from the reference model. It is shown that the temporal ACF and the FCF of the SOC channel simulator fit very well to the corresponding correlation functions of the reference model. To validate the proposed channel model, the mean Doppler shift and the Doppler spread of the reference model have been matched to real-world measurement data. The comparison results demonstrate an excellent agreement between theory and measurements, which confirms the validity of the derived reference model. The proposed geometry-based channel simulator allows us to study the effect of nearby street scatterers on the performance of C2C communication systems.

  11. Geometric and mechanical properties evaluation of scaffolds for bone tissue applications designing by a reaction-diffusion models and manufactured with a material jetting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Velasco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Scaffolds are essential in bone tissue engineering, as they provide support to cells and growth factors necessary to regenerate tissue. In addition, they meet the mechanical function of the bone while it regenerates. Currently, the multiple methods for designing and manufacturing scaffolds are based on regular structures from a unit cell that repeats in a given domain. However, these methods do not resemble the actual structure of the trabecular bone which may work against osseous tissue regeneration. To explore the design of porous structures with similar mechanical properties to native bone, a geometric generation scheme from a reaction-diffusion model and its manufacturing via a material jetting system is proposed. This article presents the methodology used, the geometric characteristics and the modulus of elasticity of the scaffolds designed and manufactured. The method proposed shows its potential to generate structures that allow to control the basic scaffold properties for bone tissue engineering such as the width of the channels and porosity. The mechanical properties of our scaffolds are similar to trabecular tissue present in vertebrae and tibia bones. Tests on the manufactured scaffolds show that it is necessary to consider the orientation of the object relative to the printing system because the channel geometry, mechanical properties and roughness are heavily influenced by the position of the surface analyzed with respect to the printing axis. A possible line for future work may be the establishment of a set of guidelines to consider the effects of manufacturing processes in designing stages.

  12. Integrated computer-aided design in automotive development development processes, geometric fundamentals, methods of CAD, knowledge-based engineering data management

    CERN Document Server

    Mario, Hirz; Gfrerrer, Anton; Lang, Johann

    2013-01-01

    The automotive industry faces constant pressure to reduce development costs and time while still increasing vehicle quality. To meet this challenge, engineers and researchers in both science and industry are developing effective strategies and flexible tools by enhancing and further integrating powerful, computer-aided design technology. This book provides a valuable overview of the development tools and methods of today and tomorrow. It is targeted not only towards professional project and design engineers, but also to students and to anyone who is interested in state-of-the-art computer-aided development. The book begins with an overview of automotive development processes and the principles of virtual product development. Focusing on computer-aided design, a comprehensive outline of the fundamentals of geometry representation provides a deeper insight into the mathematical techniques used to describe and model geometrical elements. The book then explores the link between the demands of integrated design pr...

  13. Quality of Experience for Large Ultra-High-Resolution Tiled Displays with Synchronization Mismatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sachin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates to quality of experience when viewing images, video, or other content on large ultra-high-resolution displays made from individual display tiles. We define experiments to measure vernier acuity caused by synchronization mismatch for moving images. The experiments are used to obtain synchronization mismatch acuity threshold as a function of object velocity and as a function of occlusion or gap width. Our main motivation for measuring the synchronization mismatch vernier acuity is its relevance in the application of tiled display systems, which create a single contiguous image using individual discrete panels arranged in a matrix with each panel utilizing a distributed synchronization algorithm to display parts of the overall image. We also propose a subjective assessment method for perception evaluation of synchronization mismatch for large ultra-high-resolution tiled displays. For this, we design a synchronization mismatch measurement test video set for various tile configurations for various interpanel synchronization mismatch values. The proposed method for synchronization mismatch perception can evaluate tiled displays with or without tile bezels. The results from this work can help during design of low-cost tiled display systems, which utilize distributed synchronization mechanisms for a contiguous or bezeled image display.

  14. SUPPORTING STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING OF LINEAR EQUATIONS WITH ONE VARIABLE USING ALGEBRA TILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Saraswati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe how algebra tiles can support students’ understanding of linear equations with one variable. This article is a part of a larger research on learning design of linear equations with one variable using algebra tiles combined with balancing method. Therefore, it will merely discuss one activity focused on how students use the algebra tiles to find a method to solve linear equations with one variable. Design research was used as an approach in this study. It consists of three phases, namely preliminary design, teaching experiment and retrospective analysis. Video registrations, students’ written works, pre-test, post-test, field notes, and interview are technic to collect data. The data were analyzed by comparing the hypothetical learning trajectory (HLT and the actual learning process. The result shows that algebra tiles could supports students’ understanding to find the formal solution of linear equation with one variable.

  15. Batched Tile Low-Rank GEMM on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Dense General Matrix-Matrix (GEMM) multiplication is a core operation of the Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines (BLAS) library, and therefore, often resides at the bottom of the traditional software stack for most of the scientific applications. In fact, chip manufacturers give a special attention to the GEMM kernel implementation since this is exactly where most of the high-performance software libraries extract the hardware performance. With the emergence of big data applications involving large data-sparse, hierarchically low-rank matrices, the off-diagonal tiles can be compressed to reduce the algorithmic complexity and the memory footprint. The resulting tile low-rank (TLR) data format is composed of small data structures, which retains the most significant information for each tile. However, to operate on low-rank tiles, a new GEMM operation and its corresponding API have to be designed on GPUs so that it can exploit the data sparsity structure of the matrix while leveraging the underlying TLR compression format. The main idea consists in aggregating all operations onto a single kernel launch to compensate for their low arithmetic intensities and to mitigate the data transfer overhead on GPUs. The new TLR GEMM kernel outperforms the cuBLAS dense batched GEMM by more than an order of magnitude and creates new opportunities for TLR advance algorithms.

  16. ATLAS TileCal LVPS Upgrade Hardware and Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbard, Michael James; The ATLAS collaboration; Hadavand, Haleh Khani

    2018-01-01

    UTA (University of Texas at Arlington) has been designing and producing new testing stations to ensure the reliability and quality of new TileLVPS (Low Voltage Power Supplies), also produced at UTA, which will power the next generation of upgraded hardware in the TileCal (Tile Calorimeter) system of ATLAS at CERN. UTA has produced two new types of testing stations, which build upon the previous generation of testing stations used in the initial production of the TileCal system. The first station is the Initial Test Station, and quickly quantifies a multitude of performance metrics of a LVPS. We have developed our own PC based program which graphically display and records onto file these metrics. A few notable metrics we are measuring are the system clock and its jitter. Excessive clock jitter in LVPS can affect system stability and derate the working range of the system duty cycle. This station also verifies protection circuitry of LVPS, which protects it from over temperature, current and voltage. The second...

  17. Work on a ATLAS tile calorimeter Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is designed as one barrel and two extended barrel hadron parts. The calorimeter consists of a cylindrical structure with inner and outer radius of 2280 and 4230 mm respectively. The barrel part is 5640 mm in length along the beam axis, while each of the extended barrel cylinders is 2910 mm long. Each detector cylinder is built of 64 independent wedges along the azimuthal direction. Between the barrel and the extended barrels there is a gap of about 600 mm, which is needed for the Inner Detector and the Liquid Argon cables, electronics and services. The barrel covers the region -1.0

  18. Beryllium coating on Inconel tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailescu, V.; Burcea, G.; Lungu, C.P.; Mustata, I.; Lungu, A.M.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.; Pedrick, L.; Handley, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Joint European Torus (JET) is a large experimental nuclear fusion device. Its aim is to confine and study the behaviour of plasma in conditions and dimensions approaching those required for a fusion reactor. The plasma is created in the toroidal shaped vacuum vessel of the machine in which it is confined by magnetic fields. In preparation for ITER a new ITER-like Wall (ILW) will be installed on Joint European Torus (JET), a wall not having any carbon facing the plasma [1]. In places Inconel tiles are to be installed, these tiles shall be coated with Beryllium. MEdC represented by the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest and in direct cooperation with Nuclear Fuel Plant Pitesti started to coat Inconel tiles with 8 μm of Beryllium in accordance with the requirements of technical specification and fit for installation in the JET machine. This contribution provides an overview of the principles of manufacturing processes using thermal evaporation method in vacuum and the properties of the prepared coatings. The optimization of the manufacturing process (layer thickness, structure and purity) has been carried out on Inconel substrates (polished and sand blasted) The results of the optimization process and analysis (SEM, TEM, XRD, Auger, RBS, AFM) of the coatings will be presented. Reference [1] Takeshi Hirai, H. Maier, M. Rubel, Ph. Mertens, R. Neu, O. Neubauer, E. Gauthier, J. Likonen, C. Lungu, G. Maddaluno, G. F. Matthews, R. Mitteau, G. Piazza, V. Philipps, B. Riccardi, C. Ruset, I. Uytdenhouwen, R and D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET TIER-like Wall Project, 24. Symposium on Fusion Technology - 11-15 September 2006 -Warsaw, Poland. (authors)

  19. Promoting Active Learning in Technology-Infused TILE Classrooms at the University of Iowa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Van Horne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this case study, the authors describe the successful implementation of technology-infused TILE classrooms at the University of Iowa. A successful collaboration among campus units devoted to instructional technologies and teacher development, the TILE Initiative has provided instructors with a new set of tools to support active learning. The authors detail the implementation of the TILE classrooms, the process of training instructors to design effective instruction for these classrooms, and an assessment project that helps improve the process of ensuring faculty can successfully facilitate learning activities in a technology-infused learning environment.

  20. Truchet Tilings and their Generalisations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    geometrical problems. S Ranganathan ... type faces (fonts) - now familiar to all PC users! His method of ... considerable importance for it is in essence a graphical treat- ment of .... must match on the interface, there are in fact only two possible.

  1. The Level-1 Tile-Muon Trigger in the Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Program

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhov, Andrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The TileCal provides highly-segmented energy measurements for incident particles. Information from TileCal's last radial layer can assist in muon tagging using Level-1 muon trigger. It can help in the rejection of fake muon triggers arising from background radiation (slow charged particles - protons) without degrading the efficiency of the trigger. The TileCal main activity for Phase-0 upgrade ATLAS program (2013-2014) was the activation of the TileCal third layer signal for assisting the muon trigger at 1.0<|η|<1.3 (Tile-Muon Trigger). This report describes the Tile-Muon Trigger at TileCal upgrade activities, focusing on the new on-detector electronics such as Tile Muon Digitizer Board (TMDB) to provide (receive and digitize) the signal from eight TileCal modules to three Level-1 muon endcap sector logic blocks.

  2. Flat tile armour cooled by hypervapotron tube: a possible technology for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, J.; Escourbiac, F.; Bayetti, P.; Missirlian, M.; Mitteau, R. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Merola, M. [European Fusion Development Agreement - Close Support Unit (EFDA), Garching (Germany); Schedler, B. [Plansee Aktiengesellschaft, Technology Center, Reutte/Tirol (Austria); Bobin-Vastra, I. [FRAMATOME-ANP, Centre Technique, 71 - Le Creusot (France)

    2003-07-01

    Carbon fibre composite (CFC) flat tile armours for actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC's) are an important challenge for controlled fusion machine. Flat tile concepts, water cooled by tubes, were studied, developed, tested and finally experienced with success in Tore Supra. The components were designed for 10 MW/m{sup 2} and mock-ups were successfully fatigue tested at 15 MW/m{sup 2}, 1000 cycles. For ITER, a tube-in-tile concept was developed and mock-ups sustained up to 25 MW/m{sup 2} for 1000 cycles without failure. Recently flat tile armored mock-ups cooled by Hypervapotron tube successfully sustained a cascade failure test under a mean heat flux of 10 MW/m{sup 2} but with a doubling of the heat flux on some tiles to simulate missing tiles (500 cycles). This encouraging results lead to reconsider the limits for flat tile concept when cooled by Hypervapotron tube. New tests are now scheduled to investigate these limits notably in regards to the ITER requirements. The concept could also be experimented in Tore Supra by installing a new limiter into the machine. (authors)

  3. Flat Tile Armour Cooled by Hypervapotron Tube: a Possible Technology for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, J.; Escourbiac, F.; Bayetti, P.; Missirlian, M.; Mitteau, R. [Association Euratom CEA, DSM/DRFC/SIPP, St Paul lez Durance (France); Merola, M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Schedler, B. [Plansee Aktiengesellschaft, Reutte (Austria). Technology Center; Bobin-Vastra, I. [Framatome-ANP, Le Creusot (France). Centre Technique

    2004-08-01

    Carbon fibre composite (CFC) flat tile armours for actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC's) are an important challenge for controlled fusion machines. Flat tile concepts, water cooled by tubes, were studied, developed, tested and finally operated with success in Tore Supra. The components were designed for 10MW/m{sup 2} and mock-ups were successfully fatigue tested at 15MW/m{sup 2}; 1000 cycles. For ITER, a tube-in-tile concept was developed and mock-ups sustained up to 25MW/m{sup 2} for 1000 cycles without failure. Recently flat tile armoured mock-ups cooled by a hypervapotron tube successfully sustained a cascade failure test under a mean heat flux of 10MW/m{sup 2} but with a doubling of the heat flux on some tiles to simulate missing tiles (500 cycles). This encouraging results lead to reconsider the limits for flat tile concept when cooled by hypervapotron (HV) tube. New tests are now scheduled to investigate these limits in regard to the ITER requirements. Experimental evidence of the concept could be gained in Tore Supra by installing a new limiter into the machine.

  4. Study of the pressing operation of large-sized tiles using X-ray absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoros, J. L.; Mallol, G.; Llorens, D.; Boix, J.; Arnau, J. M.; Feliu, C.; Cerisuelo, J. A.; Gargallo, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus for X-Ray non destructive inspection of bulk density distribution in large ceramic tiles has been designed, built and patented. This technique has many advantages compared with other methods: it allows tile bulk density distribution to be mapped and is neither destructive nor toxic, provided the X-ray tube and detector area are shielded to prevent leakage. In the present study, this technique, whose technical feasibility and accuracy had been verified in previous studies, has been used to scan ceramic tiles formed under different industrial conditions, modifying press working parameters. The use of high-precision laser telemeters allows tile thicknesses to be mapped, facilitating the interpretation of manufacturing defects produced in pressing, which cannot be interpreted by just measuring bulk density. The bulk density distributions obtained in the same unfired and fired tiles are also compared, a possibility afforded only by this measurement method, since it is non-destructive. The comparison of both unfired and fired tile bulk density distributions allows the influence of the pressing and firing stages on tile end porosity to be individually identified. (Author) 12 refs.

  5. Flat Tile Armour Cooled by Hypervapotron Tube: a Possible Technology for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, J.; Escourbiac, F.; Merola, M.; Schedler, B.; Bayetti, P.; Missirlian, M.; Mitteau, R.; Robin-Vastra, I.

    Carbon fibre composite (CFC) flat tile armours for actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC’s) are an important challenge for controlled fusion machines. Flat tile concepts, water cooled by tubes, were studied, developed, tested and finally operated with success in Tore Supra. The components were designed for 10 MW/m2 and mock-ups were successfully fatigue tested at 15 MW/m2, 1000 cycles. For ITER, a tube-in-tile concept was developed and mock-ups sustained up to 25 MW/m2 for 1000 cycles without failure. Recently flat tile armoured mock-ups cooled by a hypervapotron tube successfully sustained a cascade failure test under a mean heat flux of 10 MW/m2 but with a doubling of the heat flux on some tiles to simulate missing tiles (500 cycles). This encouraging results lead to reconsider the limits for flat tile concept when cooled by hypervapotron (HV) tube. New tests are now scheduled to investigate these limits in regard to the ITER requirements. Experimental evidence of the concept could be gained in Tore Supra by installing a new limiter into the machine.

  6. Flat tile armour cooled by hypervapotron tube: a possible technology for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Escourbiac, F.; Bayetti, P.; Missirlian, M.; Mitteau, R.; Schedler, B.; Bobin-Vastra, I.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon fibre composite (CFC) flat tile armours for actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC's) are an important challenge for controlled fusion machine. Flat tile concepts, water cooled by tubes, were studied, developed, tested and finally experienced with success in Tore Supra. The components were designed for 10 MW/m 2 and mock-ups were successfully fatigue tested at 15 MW/m 2 , 1000 cycles. For ITER, a tube-in-tile concept was developed and mock-ups sustained up to 25 MW/m 2 for 1000 cycles without failure. Recently flat tile armored mock-ups cooled by Hypervapotron tube successfully sustained a cascade failure test under a mean heat flux of 10 MW/m 2 but with a doubling of the heat flux on some tiles to simulate missing tiles (500 cycles). This encouraging results lead to reconsider the limits for flat tile concept when cooled by Hypervapotron tube. New tests are now scheduled to investigate these limits notably in regards to the ITER requirements. The concept could also be experimented in Tore Supra by installing a new limiter into the machine. (authors)

  7. Status of the ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, R.

    2005-01-01

    Short status of the Tile Calorimeter project is given. Major achievements in the mechanical construction of the detector modules, their instrumentation, cylinders assembly, as well as the principles of the detector front-end electronics, are described. The ideas of Tile Calorimeter module calibration are presented

  8. The Sad Case of the Columbine Tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes free-speech challenge to school district's guidelines for acceptable expressions on ceramic tiles painted by Columbine High School students to express their feelings about the massacre. Tenth Circuit found that tile painting constituted school-sponsored speech and thus district had the constitutional authority under "Hazelwood School…

  9. Mounting LHCb hadron calorimeter scintillating tiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Scintillating tiles are carefully mounted in the hadronic calorimeter for the LHCb detector. These calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  10. Tiling by rectangles and alternating current

    KAUST Repository

    Prasolov, M. V.; Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    This paper is on tilings of polygons by rectangles. A celebrated physical interpretation of such tilings by R.L. Brooks, C.A.B. Smith, A.H. Stone and W.T. Tutte uses direct-current circuits. The new approach of this paper is an application

  11. Latest news from the Tiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Costanzo, D

    The Tile hadronic calorimeter will be installed in the central region of ATLAS with an inner radius of 2.28 m, an outer radius of 4.25 m, a total length of about 12 m and a weight of about 2300 tons. The calorimeter is mechanically divided in one central barrel and two extended barrels, with a gap in between for the services of the internal part of ATLAS. The construction of the calorimeter is advanced, and installation in the ATLAS pit is foreseen to start in December 2003. After mechanical assembly the modules are instrumented with all the optical components. Scintillating tiles are inserted into the slots, and the read-out Wave Length Shifting fibers are coupled to scintillators and bundled to achieve the quasi-projective cell geometry of the calorimeter. The final modules are stored in bldg 185, shown in the first photo, and in bldg 175 at CERN. The barrel modules are mechanically assembled in Dubna and then transported to CERN to be optically instrumented, while the extended barrels are constructed in t...

  12. Electrokinetic desalination of glazed ceramic tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ferreira, Celia; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination is a method where an applied electric DC field is the driving force for removal of salts from porous building materials. In the present paper, the method is tested in laboratory scale for desalination of single ceramic tiles. In a model system, where a tile...... was contaminated with NaCl during submersion and subsequently desalinated by the method, the desalination was completed in that the high and problematic initial Cl(-) concentration was reduced to an unproblematic concentration. Further conductivity measurements showed a very low conductivity in the tile after...... treatment, indicating that supply of ions from the poultice at the electrodes into the tile was limited. Electroosmotic transport of water was seen when low ionic content was reached. Experiments were also conducted with XVIII-century tiles, which had been removed from Palacio Centeno (Lisbon) during...

  13. Self assembly of rectangular shapes on concentration programming and probabilistic tile assembly models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundeti, Vamsi; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2012-06-01

    Efficient tile sets for self assembling rectilinear shapes is of critical importance in algorithmic self assembly. A lower bound on the tile complexity of any deterministic self assembly system for an n × n square is [Formula: see text] (inferred from the Kolmogrov complexity). Deterministic self assembly systems with an optimal tile complexity have been designed for squares and related shapes in the past. However designing [Formula: see text] unique tiles specific to a shape is still an intensive task in the laboratory. On the other hand copies of a tile can be made rapidly using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) experiments. This led to the study of self assembly on tile concentration programming models. We present two major results in this paper on the concentration programming model. First we show how to self assemble rectangles with a fixed aspect ratio ( α:β ), with high probability, using Θ( α + β ) tiles. This result is much stronger than the existing results by Kao et al. (Randomized self-assembly for approximate shapes, LNCS, vol 5125. Springer, Heidelberg, 2008) and Doty (Randomized self-assembly for exact shapes. In: proceedings of the 50th annual IEEE symposium on foundations of computer science (FOCS), IEEE, Atlanta. pp 85-94, 2009)-which can only self assembly squares and rely on tiles which perform binary arithmetic. On the other hand, our result is based on a technique called staircase sampling . This technique eliminates the need for sub-tiles which perform binary arithmetic, reduces the constant in the asymptotic bound, and eliminates the need for approximate frames (Kao et al. Randomized self-assembly for approximate shapes, LNCS, vol 5125. Springer, Heidelberg, 2008). Our second result applies staircase sampling on the equimolar concentration programming model (The tile complexity of linear assemblies. In: proceedings of the 36th international colloquium automata, languages and programming: Part I on ICALP '09, Springer-Verlag, pp 235

  14. Two-dimensional numerical study of ELMs-induced erosion of tungsten divertor target tiles with different edge shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Jizhong; Hu, Wanpeng; Sang, Chaofeng; Wang, Dezhen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal performance of three edge-shaped divertor tiles was assessed numerically. • All the divertor tiles exposed to type-I ELMs like ITER's will melt. • The rounded edge tile thermally performs the best in all tiles of interest. • The incident energy flux density was evaluated with structural effects considered. - Abstract: Thermal performance of the divertor tile with different edge shapes was assessed numerically along the poloidal direction by a two-dimensional heat conduction model with considering the geometrical effects of castellated divertor tiles on the properties of its adjacent plasma. The energy flux density distribution arriving at the castellated divertor tile surface was evaluated by a two-dimension-in-space and three-dimension-in-velocity particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo Collisions code and then the obtained energy flux distribution was used as input for the heat conduction model. The simulation results showed that the divertor tiles with any edge shape of interest (rectangular edge, slanted edge, and rounded edge) would melt, especially, in the edge surface region of facing plasma poloidally under typical heat flux density of a transient event of type-I ELMs for ITER, deposition energy of 1 MJ/m"2 in a duration of 600 μs. In comparison with uniform energy deposition, the vaporizing erosion was reduced greatly but the melting erosion was aggravated noticeably in the edge area of plasma facing diveror tile. Of three studied edge shapes, the simulation results indicated that the divertor plate with rounded edge was the most resistant to the thermal erosion.

  15. Geometric group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bestvina, Mladen; Vogtmann, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Geometric group theory refers to the study of discrete groups using tools from topology, geometry, dynamics and analysis. The field is evolving very rapidly and the present volume provides an introduction to and overview of various topics which have played critical roles in this evolution. The book contains lecture notes from courses given at the Park City Math Institute on Geometric Group Theory. The institute consists of a set of intensive short courses offered by leaders in the field, designed to introduce students to exciting, current research in mathematics. These lectures do not duplicate standard courses available elsewhere. The courses begin at an introductory level suitable for graduate students and lead up to currently active topics of research. The articles in this volume include introductions to CAT(0) cube complexes and groups, to modern small cancellation theory, to isometry groups of general CAT(0) spaces, and a discussion of nilpotent genus in the context of mapping class groups and CAT(0) gro...

  16. Geometric information provider platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Yousefzadeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Renovation of existing buildings is known as an essential stage in reduction of the energy loss. Considerable part of renovation process depends on geometric reconstruction of building based on semantic parameters. Following many research projects which were focused on parameterizing the energy usage, various energy modelling methods were developed during the last decade. On the other hand, by developing accurate measuring tools such as laser scanners, the interests of having accurate 3D building models are rapidly growing. But the automation of 3D building generation from laser point cloud or detection of specific objects in that is still a challenge.  The goal is designing a platform through which required geometric information can be efficiently produced to support energy simulation software. Developing a reliable procedure which extracts required information from measured data and delivers them to a standard energy modelling system is the main purpose of the project.

  17. Geometric Computing for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Wallner, J.

    2011-06-03

    Geometric computing has recently found a new field of applications, namely the various geometric problems which lie at the heart of rationalization and construction-aware design processes of freeform architecture. We report on our work in this area, dealing with meshes with planar faces and meshes which allow multilayer constructions (which is related to discrete surfaces and their curvatures), triangles meshes with circle-packing properties (which is related to conformal uniformization), and with the paneling problem. We emphasize the combination of numerical optimization and geometric knowledge.

  18. Orion EFT-1 Catalytic Tile Experiment Overview and Flight Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Giovanni; Amar, Adam; Hyatt, Andrew; Rezin, Marc D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and results of a surface catalysis flight experiment flown on the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle during Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1). Similar to previous Space Shuttle catalytic tile experiments, the present test consisted of a highly catalytic coating applied to an instrumented TPS tile. However, the present catalytic tile experiment contained significantly more instrumentation in order to better resolve the heating overshoot caused by the change in surface catalytic efficiency at the interface between two distinct materials. In addition to collecting data with unprecedented spatial resolution of the "overshoot" phenomenon, the experiment was also designed to prove if such a catalytic overshoot would be seen in turbulent flow in high enthalpy regimes. A detailed discussion of the results obtained during EFT1 is presented, as well as the challenges associated with data interpretation of this experiment. Results of material testing carried out in support of this flight experiment are also shown. Finally, an inverse heat conduction technique is employed to reconstruct the flight environments at locations upstream and along the catalytic coating. The data and analysis presented in this work will greatly contribute to our understanding of the catalytic "overshoot" phenomenon, and have a significant impact on the design of future spacecraft.

  19. Present capabilities and future requirements for computer-aided geometric modeling in the design and manufacture of gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caille, E.; Propen, M.; Hoffman, A.

    1984-01-01

    Gas turbine engine design requires the ability to rapidly develop complex structures which are subject to severe thermal and mechanical operating loads. As in all facets of the aerospace industry, engine designs are constantly driving towards increased performance, higher temperatures, higher speeds, and lower weight. The ability to address such requirements in a relatively short time frame has resulted in a major thrust towards integrated design/analysis/manufacturing systems. These computer driven graphics systems represent a unique challenge, with major payback opportunities if properly conceived, implemented, and applied.

  20. Commissioning of the new multi-layer integration prototype of the CALICE tile hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrahimi, Aliakbar

    2016-03-14

    The basic prototype of a tile hadron calorimeter (HCAL) for the International Linear Collider (ILC) has been realised and extensively tested. A major aspect of the proposed concept is the improvement of the jet energy resolution by measuring details of the shower development and combining them with the data of the tracking system (particle flow). The prototype utilises scintillating tiles that are read out by novel Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) and takes into account all design aspects that are demanded by the intended operation at the ILC. Currently, a new 12 layer prototype with about 3400 detector channels is under development. Alternative architectures for the scintillating tiles with and without wavelength-shifting fibres and tiles with individual wrapping with reflector foil is tested as well as different types of SiPMs. The new prototype was used for the first time at the CERN Proton Synchrotron test facility in fall 2014. Additionally, detector modules for the CALICE scintillator-based Electromagne...

  1. Estimation of exposure to sunlight of the liner under a tiled roof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ole; Rosenfeld, J.L.J.

    2005-01-01

    One construction for a pitched roof is to use tiles on battens, with a liner attached below the battens. The shape of some types of tiles is such that, at each corner where four tiles overlap, a small gap is formed. At certain positions of the sun solar radiation can penetrate through these gaps....... Simulations were carried out for a roof tilted at 25degrees, 35degrees or 45degrees, facing SE, S, SW or W. For the particular roof construction and gap studied, the maximum annual exposure of a 25 mm(2) piece of the liner placed 150 mm below the gap (corresponding to about 100 mm below the base of the tiles...... to the roof. Analytic expressions for the size of the illuminated area are obtained using a thick slit model. The accuracy of the model was assessed by some experimental measurements. The exposure over one year of the roof liner was calculated using the Design Reference Year for Copenhagen, Denmark...

  2. Visual discourse of the clove: An analysis on the Ottoman tile decoration art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Öncel Taskiran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In tile art, one of the world-famous Turkish Handicrafts, a wide variety of patterns are used on tile objects. The most common of these, after the tulip pattern, is the naturalist clove pattern. Different meanings were assigned to this pattern within the boundaries of form, color and design. Identification and perception of these meanings have a special place within the frame of the culture that they relay. In this present study the fields of meaning of the clove pattern frequently used in tile decoration arts among Turkish handicrafts were tried to be determined. By taking Greimas' Actantial Model as the theoretical model, in the study visual discourse analysis of the clove pattern will be made.Keywords: Clove Pattern, Ottoman Tile Art, Greimas, Visual Discourse.

  3. Fibrous-Ceramic/Aerogel Composite Insulating Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan M.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Fibrous-ceramic/aerogel composite tiles have been invented to afford combinations of thermal-insulation and mechanical properties superior to those attainable by making tiles of fibrous ceramics alone or aerogels alone. These lightweight tiles can be tailored to a variety of applications that range from insulating cryogenic tanks to protecting spacecraft against re-entry heating. The advantages and disadvantages of fibrous ceramics and aerogels can be summarized as follows: Tiles made of ceramic fibers are known for mechanical strength, toughness, and machinability. Fibrous ceramic tiles are highly effective as thermal insulators in a vacuum. However, undesirably, the porosity of these materials makes them permeable by gases, so that in the presence of air or other gases, convection and gas-phase conduction contribute to the effective thermal conductivity of the tiles. Other disadvantages of the porosity and permeability of fibrous ceramic tiles arise because gases (e.g., water vapor or cryogenic gases) can condense in pores. This condensation contributes to weight, and in the case of cryogenic systems, the heat of condensation undesirably adds to the heat flowing to the objects that one seeks to keep cold. Moreover, there is a risk of explosion associated with vaporization of previously condensed gas upon reheating. Aerogels offer low permeability, low density, and low thermal conductivity, but are mechanically fragile. The basic idea of the present invention is to exploit the best features of fibrous ceramic tiles and aerogels. In a composite tile according to the invention, the fibrous ceramic serves as a matrix that mechanically supports the aerogel, while the aerogel serves as a low-conductivity, low-permeability filling that closes what would otherwise be the open pores of the fibrous ceramic. Because the aerogel eliminates or at least suppresses permeation by gas, gas-phase conduction, and convection, the thermal conductivity of such a composite even at

  4. Seamless stitching of tile scan microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legesse, F B; Chernavskaia, O; Heuke, S; Bocklitz, T; Meyer, T; Popp, J; Heintzmann, R

    2015-06-01

    For diagnostic purposes, optical imaging techniques need to obtain high-resolution images of extended biological specimens in reasonable time. The field of view of an objective lens, however, is often smaller than the sample size. To image the whole sample, laser scanning microscopes acquire tile scans that are stitched into larger mosaics. The appearance of such image mosaics is affected by visible edge artefacts that arise from various optical aberrations which manifest in grey level jumps across tile boundaries. In this contribution, a technique for stitching tiles into a seamless mosaic is presented. The stitching algorithm operates by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at corners to a common value. The corrected image mosaics appear to be free from stitching artefacts and are, therefore, suited for further image analysis procedures. The contribution presents a novel method to seamlessly stitch tiles captured by a laser scanning microscope into a large mosaic. The motivation for the work is the failure of currently existing methods for stitching nonlinear, multimodal images captured by our microscopic setups. Our method eliminates the visible edge artefacts that appear between neighbouring tiles by taking into account the overall illumination differences among tiles in such mosaics. The algorithm first corrects the nonuniform brightness that exists within each of the tiles. It then compensates for grey level differences across tile boundaries by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at the corners to a common value. After these artefacts have been removed further image analysis procedures can be applied on the microscopic images. Even though the solution presented here is tailored for the aforementioned specific case, it could be easily adapted to other contexts where image tiles are assembled into mosaics such as in astronomical or satellite photos. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal

  5. Electrochemical desalination of historic Portuguese tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble salts cause severe decay of historic Portuguese tiles. Treatment options for removal of the salts to stop the decay are few. The present paper deals with development of a method for electrochemical desalination, where an electric DC field is applied to the tiles. Laboratory experiments were...... the electrochemical treatment. The removal rate was similar for the two anions so the chloride concentration reached the lowest concentration level first. At this point the electric resistance increased, but the removal of nitrate continued unaffected till similar low concentration. The sulfate concentration...... was successful. Based on the obtained results an important step is taken towards development of an electrochemical technique for desalination of tile panels....

  6. Introductory Tiling Theory for Computer Graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Tiling theory is an elegant branch of mathematics that has applications in several areas of computer science. The most immediate application area is graphics, where tiling theory has been used in the contexts of texture generation, sampling theory, remeshing, and of course the generation of decorative patterns. The combination of a solid theoretical base (complete with tantalizing open problems), practical algorithmic techniques, and exciting applications make tiling theory a worthwhile area of study for practitioners and students in computer science. This synthesis lecture introduces the math

  7. Tile-Packing Tomography Is NP-hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrobak, Marek; Dürr, Christoph; Guíñez, Flavio

    2010-01-01

    Discrete tomography deals with reconstructing finite spatial objects from their projections. The objects we study in this paper are called tilings or tile-packings, and they consist of a number of disjoint copies of a fixed tile, where a tile is defined as a connected set of grid points. A row...

  8. Readiness of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for LHC collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodet, E.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P.J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muino, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M.C.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Cote, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P.E.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De Mora, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J.B.; Dean, S.; Dedovich, D.V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T.A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M.A.B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T.K.O.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duhrssen, M.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Duren, M.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Ebke, J.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Fayard, L.; Fayette, F.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O.L.; Fedorko, W.; Feligioni, L.; Felzmann, C.U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E.J.; Fenyuk, A.B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernandes, B.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipcic, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M.C.N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fisher, M.J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L.R.; Flowerdew, M.J.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Fopma, J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fowler, A.J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; Freestone, J.; French, S.T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J.A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E.J.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B.J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Y.S.; Gaponenko, A.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia Navarro, J.E.; Gardner, R.W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gautard, V.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E.N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C.N.P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M.H.; Gentile, S.; Georgatos, F.; George, S.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S.M.; Gilbert, L.M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gingrich, D.M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F.M.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P.F.; Girtler, P.; Giugni, D.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B.K.; 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Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qin, Z.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D.R.; Quayle, W.B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A.M.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A.L.; Rebuzzi, D.M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z.L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Ribeiro, N.; Richards, A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R.R.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Roa Romero, D.A.; Robertson, S.H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, JEM; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J.G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y.; Roe, S.; Rohne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V.M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G.A.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, L.P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Ruhr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadrozinski, H.F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.S.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B.M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandhu, P.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schafer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schonig, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, J.W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R.D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.A.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Strohmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.H.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sanchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Therhaag, J.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokar, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torro Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocme, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuggle, J.M.; Tunnell, C.D.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J.A.; Van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zivkovic, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The Tile hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector has undergone extensive testing in the experimental hall since its installation in late 2005. The readout, control and calibration systems have been fully operational since 2007 and the detector successfully collected data from the LHC single beams in 2008 and first collisions in 2009. This paper gives an overview of the Tile Calorimeter performance as measured using random triggers, calibration data, data from cosmic ray muons and single beam data. The detector operation status, noise characteristics and performance of the calibration systems are presented, as well as the validation of the timing and energy calibration carried out with minimum ionising cosmic ray muons data. The calibration systems' precision is well below the design of 1%. The determination of the global energy scale was performed with an uncertainty of 4%.

  9. QCALT: A tile calorimeter for KLOE-2 upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balla, A.; Ciambrone, P.; Corradi, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Rm) (Italy); Martini, M., E-mail: matteo.martini@lnf.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Rm) (Italy); Università degli studi Guglielmo Marconi, Rome (Italy); Paglia, C.; Pileggi, G.; Ponzio, B.; Saputi, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Rm) (Italy); Tagnani, D. [INFN, Sezione di Roma 3, Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    The upgrade of the DaΦne machine layout requires a modification of the size and position of the inner focusing quadrupoles of KLOE-2, thus asking for the realization of two new calorimeters, named QCALT, covering this area. To improve the reconstruction of K{sub L}→2π{sup 0} events with photons hitting the quadrupoles, a calorimeter with high efficiency to low energy photons (20–300 MeV), time resolution of less than 1 ns and space resolution of few cm, is needed. To match these requirements we are now constructing a scintillator tile calorimeter where each single tile is readout by mean of SiPM for a total granularity of 1760 channels. We show the design of the different calorimeter components and the present status of the construction.

  10. Beautiful Math, Part 5: Colorful Archimedean Tilings from Dynamical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Peichang; Zhao, Weiguo; Huang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    The art of tiling originated very early in the history of civilization. Almost every known human society has made use of tilings in some form or another. In particular, tilings using only regular polygons have great visual appeal. Decorated regular tilings with continuous and symmetrical patterns were widely used in decoration field, such as mosaics, pavements, and brick walls. In science, these tilings provide inspiration for synthetic organic chemistry. Building on previous CG&A “Beautiful Math” articles, the authors propose an invariant mapping method to create colorful patterns on Archimedean tilings (1-uniform tilings). The resulting patterns simultaneously have global crystallographic symmetry and local cyclic or dihedral symmetry.

  11. On bivariate geometric distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayakumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of bivariate geometric distribution using univariate and bivariate geometric compounding are obtained. Autoregressive models with marginals as bivariate geometric distribution are developed. Various bivariate geometric distributions analogous to important bivariate exponential distributions like, Marshall-Olkin’s bivariate exponential, Downton’s bivariate exponential and Hawkes’ bivariate exponential are presented.

  12. Visualizing the Geometric Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Mathematical proofs often leave students unconvinced or without understanding of what has been proved, because they provide no visual-geometric representation. Presented are geometric models for the finite geometric series when r is a whole number, and the infinite geometric series when r is the reciprocal of a whole number. (MNS)

  13. Femoral intertrochanteric nail (fitn): a new short version design with an anterior curvature and a geometric match study using post-operative radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shi-Min; Hu, Sun-Jun; Ma, Zhuo; Du, Shou-Chao; Zhang, Ying-Qi

    2018-02-01

    Femoral intertrochanteric fractures are usually fixed with short, straight cephalomedullary nails. However, mismatches between the nail and the femur frequently occur, such as tip impingement and tail protrusion. The authors designed a new type of short femoral intertrochanteric nail (fitn) with an anterior curvature (length=19.5cm, r=120cm) and herein report the geometric match study for the first of 50 cases. A prospective case series of 50 geriatric patients suffering from unstable intertrochanteric fractures (AO/OTA 31 A2/3) were treated. There were 15 males and 35 females, with an average age of 82.3 years. Post-operatively, the nail entry point position in the sagittal greater trochanter (in three categories, anterior, central and posterior), the nail-tip position in the medullary canal (in 5-grade scale) and the nail-tail level to the greater trochanter (in 3-grade scale) were measured using X-ray films. For the nail entry point measurement, 5 cases were anterior (10%), 38 cases were central (76%), and 7 cases were posterior (14%). For the distal nail-tip position, 32 cases (64%) were located along the central canal axis, 13 cases (26%) were located anteriorly but did not contact the anterior inner cortex, 2 cases (4%) showed less than one-third anterior cortex thickness contact, and 3 cases (6%) were located posteriorly with no contact. For the proximal nail-tail level, there were no protrusions over the greater trochanter in 15 cases (30%), protrusion of less than 5mm in 29 cases (58%), and protrusion of more than 5mm in 6 cases (12%). The fitness was very high, as 96% cases showed no tip-cortex contact, and 88% cases showed less than 5mm proximal tail protrusion. The newly designed femoral intertrochanteric nail has a good geometric match with the femur medullary canal and the proximal length in the Chinese population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Response and Uniformity Studies of Directly Coupled Tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zutshi, Vishnu

    2010-01-01

    A finely-segmented scintillator-based calorimeter which capitalizes on the marriage of proven detection techniques with novel solid-state photo-detector devices such as Multi-pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) is an interesting calorimetric system from the point of view of future detector design. A calorimeter system consisting of millions of channels will require a high degree of integration. The first steps towards this integration have already been facilitated by the small size and magnetic field immunity of the MPPCs. The photo-conversion occurs right at the tile, thus obviating the need for routing of long clear fibers. Similar considerations apply to the presence of wave-length shifting (WLS) fibers inside the tiles which couple it to the photo-detectors. Significant simplification in construction and assembly ensue if the MPPCs can be coupled directly to the scintillator tiles. Equally importantly, the total absence of fibers would offer greater flexibility in the choice of the transverse segmentation while enhancing the electro-mechanical integrability of the design. The NIU high-energy physics group has been studying the fiberless or direct-coupling option for some time now. Encouraging results on response and response uniformity have been obtained using radioactive sources. This MOU seeks to set up a framework to extend these tests using beams at the MTBF. The results will be relevant to high granularity scintillator/crystal electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry. The tests involve a set of small directly-coupled tile counters fabricated at NIU which will be placed in the beam to study their response and response uniformity as a function of the incident position of the particles passing through them.

  15. Response and Uniformity Studies of Directly Coupled Tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutshi, Vishnu

    2010-04-02

    A finely-segmented scintillator-based calorimeter which capitalizes on the marriage of proven detection techniques with novel solid-state photo-detector devices such as Multi-pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) is an interesting calorimetric system from the point of view of future detector design. A calorimeter system consisting of millions of channels will require a high degree of integration. The first steps towards this integration have already been facilitated by the small size and magnetic field immunity of the MPPCs. The photo-conversion occurs right at the tile, thus obviating the need for routing of long clear fibers. Similar considerations apply to the presence of wave-length shifting (WLS) fibers inside the tiles which couple it to the photo-detectors. Significant simplification in construction and assembly ensue if the MPPCs can be coupled directly to the scintillator tiles. Equally importantly, the total absence of fibers would offer greater flexibility in the choice of the transverse segmentation while enhancing the electro-mechanical integrability of the design. The NIU high-energy physics group has been studying the fiberless or direct-coupling option for some time now. Encouraging results on response and response uniformity have been obtained using radioactive sources. This MOU seeks to set up a framework to extend these tests using beams at the MTBF. The results will be relevant to high granularity scintillator/crystal electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry. The tests involve a set of small directly-coupled tile counters fabricated at NIU which will be placed in the beam to study their response and response uniformity as a function of the incident position of the particles passing through them.

  16. Comparison of Geometric Design of a Brand of Stainless Steel K-Files: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedullah, Maryam; Husain, Syed Wilayat

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the diametric variations of a brand of handheld stainless-steel K-files, acquired from different countries, in accordance with the available standards. 20 Mani stainless-steel K-files of identical size (ISO#25) were acquired from Pakistan and were designated as Group A while 20 Mani K-files were purchased from London, UK and designated as Group B. Files were assessed using profile projector Nikon B 24V. Data was statistically compared with ISO 3630:1 and ADA 101 by one sample T test. Significant difference was found between Groups A and B. Average discrepancy of Group A fell within the tolerance limit while that of Group B exceeded the limit. Findings in this study call attention towards adherence to the dimensional standards of stainless-steel endodontic files.

  17. VB Platinum Tile & Carpet, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    VB Platinum Tile & Carpet, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bristow, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Washington, DC.

  18. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are then digitized at 40 MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator b...

  19. GIBS Web Map Tile Service (WMTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The WMTS implementation standard provides a standards-based solution for serviing digital maps using predefined image tiles. Through the constructs of the...

  20. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marjanovic, Marija; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells, each one being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of the full readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration sub-systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements, and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and to equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal evolution, from scintillation light to digitization. Calibration runs are monitored from a data quality perspective and u...

  1. 2011 Las Conchas Post Fire Tile Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set consists of an orthophotography tile index based on multi-spectral (red, green, blue, near-infrared) digital aerial imagery, collected and processed by...

  2. Instrumented module of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    The ATLAS tile calorimeter consists of steel absorber plates interspersed with plastic scintillator tiles. Interactions of high-energy hadrons in the plates transform the incident energy into a 'hadronic shower'. When shower particles traverse the scintillating tiles, the latter emit an amount of light proportional to the incident energy. This light is transmitted along readout fibres to a photomultiplier, where a detectable electrical signal is produced. These pictures show one of 64 modules or 'wedges' of the barrel part of the tile calorimeter, which are arranged to form a cylinder around the beam axis. The wedge has been instrumented with scintillators and readout fibres. Photos 03, 06: Checking the routing of the readout fibres into the girder that houses the photomultipliers. Photo 04: A view of the fibre bundles inside the girder.

  3. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00445232; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scin...

  4. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00445232; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises cesium radioactive sources, Laser and charge injection elements, and allows for monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, ...

  5. Comparison of medieval decorated floor-tiles with clay and tile fragments from the kilns at Bistrup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Als Hansen, B.; Aaman Soerensen, M.; McKerrell, H.; Mejdahl, V.

    1977-01-01

    In 1976 two tile kilns with numerous wasters of ornamented tiles were excavated at Bistrup near Roskilde. Identical ornaments had earlier been found on floor-tiles from seven sites, mainly churches, in north and east Zealand. The question arose whether some of these tiles were made locally or whether all tiles carrying this particular ornamentation were made at Bistrup. Preliminary results obtained from a comparison of the tiles with material from Bistrup means of neutron activation analysis indicate that not all tiles were made at Bistrup. (author)

  6. Coverage percentage and raman measurement of cross-tile and scaffold cross-tile based DNA nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Ahn, Sang Jung; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Kim, Jang Ah; Amin, Rashid; Mitta, Sekhar Babu; Vellampatti, Srivithya; Kim, Byeonghoon; Kulkarni, Atul; Kim, Taesung; Yun, Kyusik; LaBean, Thomas H; Park, Sung Ha

    2015-11-01

    We present two free-solution annealed DNA nanostructures consisting of either cross-tile CT1 or CT2. The proposed nanostructures exhibit two distinct structural morphologies, with one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes for CT1 and 2D nanolattices for CT2. When we perform mica-assisted growth annealing with CT1, a dramatic dimensional change occurs where the 1D nanotubes transform into 2D nanolattices due to the presence of the substrate. We assessed the coverage percentage of the 2D nanolattices grown on the mica substrate with CT1 and CT2 as a function of the concentration of the DNA monomer. Furthermore, we fabricated a scaffold cross-tile (SCT), which is a new design of a modified cross-tile that consists of four four-arm junctions with a square aspect ratio. For SCT, eight oligonucleotides are designed in such a way that adjacent strands with sticky ends can produce continuous arms in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The SCT was fabricated via free-solution annealing, and self-assembled SCT produces 2D nanolattices with periodic square cavities. All structures were observed via atomic force microscopy. Finally, we fabricated divalent nickel ion (Ni(2+))- and trivalent dysprosium ion (Dy(3+))-modified 2D nanolattices constructed with CT2 on a quartz substrate, and the ion coordinations were examined via Raman spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Porcelain tiles by the dry route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchiades, F. G.; Daros, M. T.; Boschi, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil, the second largest tile producer of the world, at present, 70% of the tiles are produced by the dry route. One of the main reasons that lead to this development is the fact that the dry route uses approximately 30% less thermal energy them the traditional wet route. The increasing world concern with the environment and the recognition of the central role played by the water also has pointed towards privileging dry processes. In this context the objective of the present work is to study the feasibility of producing high quality porcelain tiles by the dry route. A brief comparison of the dry and wet route, in standard conditions industrially used today to produce tiles that are not porcelain tiles, shows that there are two major differences: the particle sizes obtained by the wet route are usually considerably finer and the capability of mixing the different minerals, the intimacy of the mixture, is also usually better in the wet route. The present work studied the relative importance of these differences and looked for raw materials and operational conditions that would result in better performance and glazed porcelain tiles of good quality. (Author) 7 refs.

  8. Tile-Based Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping for Digital Holography Using a Modular Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios C Antonopoulos

    Full Text Available A variety of physical and biomedical imaging techniques, such as digital holography, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI enable measurement of the phase of a physical quantity additionally to its amplitude. However, the phase can commonly only be measured modulo 2π, as a so called wrapped phase map. Phase unwrapping is the process of obtaining the underlying physical phase map from the wrapped phase. Tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms operate by first tessellating the phase map, then unwrapping individual tiles, and finally merging them to a continuous phase map. They can be implemented computationally efficiently and are robust to noise. However, they are prone to failure in the presence of phase residues or erroneous unwraps of single tiles. We tried to overcome these shortcomings by creating novel tile unwrapping and merging algorithms as well as creating a framework that allows to combine them in modular fashion. To increase the robustness of the tile unwrapping step, we implemented a model-based algorithm that makes efficient use of linear algebra to unwrap individual tiles. Furthermore, we adapted an established pixel-based unwrapping algorithm to create a quality guided tile merger. These original algorithms as well as previously existing ones were implemented in a modular phase unwrapping C++ framework. By examining different combinations of unwrapping and merging algorithms we compared our method to existing approaches. We could show that the appropriate choice of unwrapping and merging algorithms can significantly improve the unwrapped result in the presence of phase residues and noise. Beyond that, our modular framework allows for efficient design and test of new tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms. The software developed in this study is freely available.

  9. Tile-Based Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping for Digital Holography Using a Modular Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Georgios C; Steltner, Benjamin; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    A variety of physical and biomedical imaging techniques, such as digital holography, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable measurement of the phase of a physical quantity additionally to its amplitude. However, the phase can commonly only be measured modulo 2π, as a so called wrapped phase map. Phase unwrapping is the process of obtaining the underlying physical phase map from the wrapped phase. Tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms operate by first tessellating the phase map, then unwrapping individual tiles, and finally merging them to a continuous phase map. They can be implemented computationally efficiently and are robust to noise. However, they are prone to failure in the presence of phase residues or erroneous unwraps of single tiles. We tried to overcome these shortcomings by creating novel tile unwrapping and merging algorithms as well as creating a framework that allows to combine them in modular fashion. To increase the robustness of the tile unwrapping step, we implemented a model-based algorithm that makes efficient use of linear algebra to unwrap individual tiles. Furthermore, we adapted an established pixel-based unwrapping algorithm to create a quality guided tile merger. These original algorithms as well as previously existing ones were implemented in a modular phase unwrapping C++ framework. By examining different combinations of unwrapping and merging algorithms we compared our method to existing approaches. We could show that the appropriate choice of unwrapping and merging algorithms can significantly improve the unwrapped result in the presence of phase residues and noise. Beyond that, our modular framework allows for efficient design and test of new tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms. The software developed in this study is freely available.

  10. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase-II Upgrade Demonstrator Data Acquisition and Software

    CERN Document Server

    Little, Jared David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The LHC plans a series of upgrades culminating in the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) which will have an average luminosity 5-7 times larger than the design LHC value. The electronics of the hadronic Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) will undergo a substantial upgrade to accommodate to the HL-LHC parameters. In particular, TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. The photomultiplier signals will be digitized and transferred off-detector to the TileCal PreProcessors (TilePPr) for every bunch crossing, requiring a data bandwidth of 40 Tbps. The TilePPr will reconstruct, store and send the calorimeter signals to first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. In parallel, the data samples will be stored in pipeline memories and the data of the events selected by the ATLAS central trigger system and transferred to the ATLAS global Da...

  11. Comparative Study on Various Geometrical Core Design of 300 MWth Gas Cooled Fast Reactor with UN-PuN Fuel Longlife without Refuelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi Syarifah, Ratna; Su'ud, Zaki; Basar, Khairul; Irwanto, Dwi

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear power has progressive improvement in the operating performance of exiting reactors and ensuring economic competitiveness of nuclear electricity around the world. The GFR use gas coolant and fast neutron spectrum. This research use helium coolant which has low neutron moderation, chemical inert and single phase. Comparative study on various geometrical core design for modular GFR with UN-PuN fuel long life without refuelling has been done. The calculation use SRAC2006 code both PIJ calculation and CITATION calculation. The data libraries use JENDL 4.0. The variation of fuel fraction is 40% until 65%. In this research, we varied the geometry of core reactor to find the optimum geometry design. The variation of the geometry design is balance cylinder; it means that the diameter active core (D) same with height active core (H). Second, pancake cylinder (D>H) and third, tall cylinder (Dpower is 300 MWth. First calculation, we calculate survey parameter for UN-PuN fuel with fissile contain from Plutonium waste LWR for each geometry. The minimum power density is around 72 Watt/cc, and maximum power density 114 Watt/cc. After we calculate with various geometry core, when we use the balance geometry, the k-eff value flattest and more stable than the others.

  12. Manipulating the Geometric Computer-aided Design of the Operational Requirements-based Casualty Assessment Model within BRL-CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-30

    aided Design of the Operational Requirements-based Casualty Assessment Model within BRL-CAD 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ...upper_arm_r.s upper_arm_r.s-bool r upper_leg_l.r - lower_leg_l.s-bool r upper_leg_r.r - lower_leg_r.s-bool r upper_arm_r.r - lower_arm_r.s-bool r ...upper_arm_l.r - lower_arm_l.s-bool r pelvis.r - hip_l.s-bool - hip_r.s-bool - upper_leg_l.s-bool - upper_leg_r.s-bool r thorax.r - shoulder_l.s-bool

  13. Enhancing the methanol tolerance of platinum nanoparticles for the cathode reaction of direct methanol fuel cells through a geometric design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Ye, Feng; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-18

    Mastery over the structure of nanoparticles might be an effective way to enhance their performance for a given application. Herein we demonstrate the design of cage-bell nanostructures to enhance the methanol tolerance of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles while remaining their catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. This strategy starts with the synthesis of core-shell-shell nanoparticles with Pt and silver (Ag) residing respectively in the core and inner shell regions, which are then agitated with saturated sodium chloride (NaCl) solution to eliminate the Ag component from the inner shell region, leading to the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles with a cage-bell structure, defined as a movable Pt core enclosed by a metal shell with nano-channels, which exhibit superior methanol-tolerant property in catalyzing oxygen reduction reaction due to the different diffusion behaviour of methanol and oxygen in the porous metal shell of cage-bell structured nanoparticles. In particular, the use of remarkably inexpensive chemical agent (NaCl) to promote the formation of cage-bell structured particles containing a wide spectrum of metal shells highlights its engineering merit to produce highly selective electrocatalysts on a large scale for the cathode reaction of direct methanol fuel cells.

  14. In-situ Tritium Measurements of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Bumper Limiter Tiles Post D-T Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.A. Gentile; C.H. Skinner; K.M. Young; M. Nishi; S. Langish; et al

    1999-01-01

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) Engineering and Research Staff in collaboration with members of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Tritium Engineering Laboratory have commenced in-situ tritium measurements of the TFTR bumper limiter. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) operated with tritium from 1993 to 1997. During this time ∼ 53,000 Ci of tritium was injected into the TFTR vacuum vessel. After the cessation of TFTR plasma operations in April 1997 an aggressive tritium cleanup campaign lasting ∼ 3 months was initiated. The TFTR vacuum vessel was subjected to a regimen of glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and dry nitrogen and ''moist air'' purges. Currently ∼ 7,500 Ci of tritium remains in the vacuum vessel largely contained in the limiter tiles. The TFTR limiter is composed of 1,920 carbon tiles with an average weight of ∼ 600 grams each. The location and distribution of tritium on the TFTR carbon tiles are of considerable interest. Future magnetically confined fusion devices employing carbon as a limiter material may be considerably constrained due to potentially large tritium inventories being tenaciously held on the surface of the tiles. In-situ tritium measurements were conducted in TFTR bay L during August and November 1998. During the bay L measurement campaign open wall ion chambers and ultra thin thermoluminscent dosimeters (TLD) affixed to a boom and end effector were deployed into the vacuum vessel. The detectors were designed to make contact with the surface of the bumper limiter tile and to provide either real time (ion chamber) or passive (TLD) indication of the surface tritium concentration. The open wall ion chambers were positioned onto the surface of the tile in a manner which employed the surface of the tile as one of the walls of the chamber. The ion chambers, which are (electrically) gamma insensitive, were landed at four positions per tile. The geometry for landing the TLD's provided measurement at 24

  15. Water Table Management Reduces Tile Nitrate Loss in Continuous Corn and in a Soybean-Corn Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F. Drury

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Water table management systems can be designed to alleviate soil water excesses and deficits, as well as reduce nitrate leaching losses in tile discharge. With this in mind, a standard tile drainage (DR system was compared over 8 years (1991 to 1999 to a controlled tile drainage/subirrigation (CDS system on a low-slope (0.05 to 0.1% Brookston clay loam soil (Typic Argiaquoll in southwestern Ontario, Canada. In the CDS system, tile discharge was controlled to prevent excessive drainage, and water was pumped back up the tile lines (subirrigation to replenish the crop root zone during water deficit periods. In the first phase of the study (1991 to 1994, continuous corn (Zea mays, L. was grown with annual nitrogen (N fertilizer inputs as per local soil test recommendations. In the second phase (1995 to 1999, a soybean (Glycine max L., Merr.-corn rotation was used with N fertilizer added only during the two corn years. In Phase 1 when continuous corn was grown, CDS reduced total tile discharge by 26% and total nitrate loss in tile discharge by 55%, compared to DR. In addition, the 4-year flow weighted mean (FWM nitrate concentration in tile discharge exceeded the Canadian drinking water guideline (10 mg N l–1 under DR (11.4 mg N l–1, but not under CDS (7.0 mg N l–1. In Phase 2 during the soybean-corn rotation, CDS reduced total tile discharge by 38% and total nitrate loss in tile discharge by 66%, relative to DR. The 4-year FWM nitrate concentration during Phase 2 in tile discharge was below the drinking water guideline for both DR (7.3 mg N l–1 and CDS (4.0 mg N l–1. During both phases of the experiment, the CDS treatment caused only minor increases in nitrate loss in surface runoff relative to DR. Hence CDS decreased FWM nitrate concentrations, total drainage water loss, and total nitrate loss in tile discharge relative to DR. In addition, soybean-corn rotation reduced FWM nitrate concentrations and total nitrate loss in tile discharge

  16. Self-assembly of Archimedean tilings with enthalpically and entropically patchy polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, Jaime A; Ortiz, Daniel; van Anders, Greg; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2014-03-25

    Considerable progress in the synthesis of anisotropic patchy nanoplates (nanoplatelets) promises a rich variety of highly ordered two-dimensional superlattices. Recent experiments of superlattices assembled from nanoplates confirm the accessibility of exotic phases and motivate the need for a better understanding of the underlying self-assembly mechanisms. Here, we present experimentally accessible, rational design rules for the self-assembly of the Archimedean tilings from polygonal nanoplates. The Archimedean tilings represent a model set of target patterns that (i) contain both simple and complex patterns, (ii) are comprised of simple regular shapes, and (iii) contain patterns with potentially interesting materials properties. Via Monte Carlo simulations, we propose a set of design rules with general applicability to one- and two-component systems of polygons. These design rules, specified by increasing levels of patchiness, correspond to a reduced set of anisotropy dimensions for robust self-assembly of the Archimedean tilings. We show for which tilings entropic patches alone are sufficient for assembly and when short-range enthalpic interactions are required. For the latter, we show how patchy these interactions should be for optimal yield. This study provides a minimal set of guidelines for the design of anisostropic patchy particles that can self-assemble all 11 Archimedean tilings.

  17. SUPPORTING STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING OF LINEAR EQUATIONS WITH ONE VARIABLE USING ALGEBRA TILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Saraswati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe how algebra tiles can support students’ understanding of linear equations with one variable. This article is a part of a larger research on learning design of linear equations with one variable using algebra tiles combined with balancing method. Therefore, it will merely discuss one activity focused on how students use the algebra tiles to find a method to solve linear equations with one variable. Design research was used as an approach in this study. It consists of three phases, namely preliminary design, teaching experiment and retrospective analysis. Video registrations, students’ written works, pre-test, post-test, field notes, and interview are technic to collect data. The data were analyzed by comparing the hypothetical learning trajectory (HLT and the actual learning process. The result shows that algebra tiles could supports students’ understanding to find the formal solution of linear equation with one variable.Keywords: linear equation with one variable, algebra tiles, design research, balancing method, HLT DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.1.2814.19-30

  18. Implementation of Trigger Tiles for ALFA Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rehaag, Thomas Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS (ALFA) experiment was designed to accurately measure the luminosity of the intersecting proton beams at the ATLAS interaction point [1]. However, the ALFA experiment has shifted its primary purpose from luminosity measurement to elastic and inelastic proton collisions. This change was the result of difficulty in fitting parameters in the region governed by Coulomb scattering. The operational principle for luminosity measurement with ALFA relied on detecting elastic proton collisions, so the detector is suited to its role in proton collision measurements. The ALFA detector consists of several sensitive components, including the main detector (MD), overlap detectors (ODs) and trigger tiles. A diagram of the ALFA detector is shown in Figure 1. The main detector is composed of layers of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 cross section scintillating fibres with an active area of 0.48 × 0.48 mm2, which are directed diagonally across the detector with 64 fibres in each layer. The 20 total layers ar...

  19. ATLAS Rewards Russian Supplier for Scintillating Tile Production

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At a ceremony held at CERN on 30 July, the ATLAS collaboration awarded Russian firm SIA Luch from Podolsk in the Moscow region an ATLAS Suppliers Award. This follows delivery by the company of the final batch of scintillating tiles for the collaboration's Tile Calorimeter some six months ahead of schedule.   Representatives of Russian firm Luch Podolsk received the ATLAS Suppliers Award in the collaboration's Tile Calorimeter instrumentation plant at CERN on 30 July. In front of one Tile Calorimeter module instrumented by scintillating tiles are (left to right) IHEP physicists Evgueni Startchenko and Andrei Karioukhine, Luch Podolsk representatives Igor Karetnikov and Yuri Zaitsev, Tile Calorimeter Project Leader Rupert Leitner, ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and CERN Tile Calorimeter group leader Ana Henriques-Correia. Scintillating tiles form the active part of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter, which will measure the energy and direction of particles produced in LHC collisions. They are emb...

  20. Microstructural characterization of ceramic floor tiles with the incorporation of wastes from ceramic tile industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmeane Effting

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic floor tiles are widely used in buildings. In places where people are bare feet, the thermal sensation of cold or hot depends on the environmental conditions and material properties including its microstructure and crustiness surface. The introduction of the crustiness surface on the ceramic floor tiles interfere in the contact temperature and also it can be an strategy to obtain ceramic tiles more comfortable. In this work, porous ceramic tiles were obtained by pressing an industrial atomized ceramic powder incorporated with refractory raw material (residue from porcelainized stoneware tile polishing and changing firing temperature. Raw materials and obtained compacted samples were evaluated by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and differential thermal analysis (DTA. Thermal (thermal conductivity and effusivity and physical (porosity measurements were also evaluated.

  1. Geometric design of part feeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berretty, R.-P.M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis presents solutions for problems derived from industrial assembly and robotic manipulation. The basic tasks in a factory are manufacturing the parts, and combining them into the desired product. In automating these tasks, we want to use robot manipulators that require little or no

  2. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory... manufacture of asbestos floor tile. ...

  3. Fiber-tile optical studies at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.; Morgan, D.J.; Proudfoot, J.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a fiber-tile calorimeter for SDC, we have done studies on a number of topics. The most basic problems were light output and uniformity of response. Using a small electron beam, we have studied fiber placement, tile preparation, wrapping and masking, fiber splicing, fiber routing, phototube response, and some degradation factors. We found two configurations which produced more light output than the others and reasonably uniform response. We have chosen one of these to go into production for the EM test module on the basis of fiber routing for ease of assembly of the calorimeter. We have also applied some of the tools we developed to CDF end plug tile uniformity, shower max testing and development for a couple of detectors, and development of better techniques for radiation damage studies. 18 figs

  4. Remotely replaceable Tokamak plasma limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy, G.

    1989-01-01

    U-shaped limiter tiles placed end-to-end over a pair of parallel runners secured to a wall have two rods which engage L-shaped slots in the runners. The short receiving legs of the L-shaped slots are perpendicular to the wall and open away from the wall, while long retaining legs are parallel to and adjacent the wall. A sliding bar between the runners has grooves with clips to retain the rods pressed into receiving legs of the L-shaped slots in the runners. Sliding the bar in the direction of retaining legs of the L-shaped slots latches the tiles in place over the runners. Resilient contact strips between the parallel arms of the U-shaped tiles and the wall assure thermal and electrical contact with the wall

  5. The remote maintenance of mechanically attached first wall armour tiles in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, T.; Shaw, R.; Suppan, A.; Haferkamp, B.

    1991-01-01

    Protection of a substantial proportion of the NET First Wall (FW) with low-Z armour is envisaged for at least the early operating period of the machine. This armour will take the form of carbon tiles directly attached to the FW. Complete coverage of the FW will require the installation of 20 000-40 000 tiles. The uncertainties existing in FW operating conditions make it difficult to predict the lifetime of the armour components. However, based on present experience, a number of component failures is to be expected in addition to the general wear by plasma erosion. Bearing in mind the hostile environment within the machine, the remote maintainability of these components is thus of fundamental importance and has strongly influenced their design. Mechanical attachment is considered to be the only viable approach for remotely maintainable armour tiles. A series of tools for mounting and demounting such tiles is currently under development at KfK, Karlsruhe. Handling trials are being carried out on a local FW mock-up to optimise the tile attachment designs for efficient remote handling, to provide input to the overall system design and to facilitate the progressive evolution of effective remote handling tools. Such, tools will subsequently be tested in conjunction with The NET Articulated Boom prototype articulated boom transporter to prove their fitness for purpose. The paper reports the current status of this work and outlines the design and principles of operation of the tools developed. The results and conclusions of the investigations to date, including any practical modifications considered necessary to either the original tile attachment arrangements or the preliminary tool designs, are presented. The philosophy behind the attachment and detachment procedures envisaged is also described. (orig.)

  6. On residual gas analysis during high temperature baking of graphite tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, A A; Chaudhuri, P; Khirwadkar, S; Reddy, D Chenna; Saxena, Y C; Chauhan, N; Raole, P M

    2008-01-01

    Steady-state Super-conducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with major radius of 1.1 m and minor radius of 0.20 m. It is designed for plasma discharge duration of 1000 seconds to obtain fully steady-state plasma operation. Plasma Facing Components (PFC), consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and poloidal limiters are also designed to be UHV compatible for steady state operation. All PFC are made up of graphite tiles mechanically attached to the copper alloy substrate. Graphite is one of the preferred first wall armour material in present day tokamaks. High thermal shock resistance and low atomic number of carbon are the most important properties of graphite for this application. High temperature vacuum baking of graphite tiles is the standard process to remove the impurities. Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA) has been used for qualitative and quantitative measurements of released gases from graphite tiles during baking. Surface Analysis of graphite tiles has also been done before and after baking. This paper describes the residual gas analysis during baking and surface analysis of graphite tiles

  7. On residual gas analysis during high temperature baking of graphite tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A A; Chaudhuri, P; Khirwadkar, S; Reddy, D Chenna; Saxena, Y C [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar - 382 428 (India); Chauhan, N; Raole, P M [Facilitation Center for Industrial Plasma Technologies, IPR, Gandhinagar (India)], E-mail: arun@ipr.res.in

    2008-05-01

    Steady-state Super-conducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with major radius of 1.1 m and minor radius of 0.20 m. It is designed for plasma discharge duration of 1000 seconds to obtain fully steady-state plasma operation. Plasma Facing Components (PFC), consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and poloidal limiters are also designed to be UHV compatible for steady state operation. All PFC are made up of graphite tiles mechanically attached to the copper alloy substrate. Graphite is one of the preferred first wall armour material in present day tokamaks. High thermal shock resistance and low atomic number of carbon are the most important properties of graphite for this application. High temperature vacuum baking of graphite tiles is the standard process to remove the impurities. Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA) has been used for qualitative and quantitative measurements of released gases from graphite tiles during baking. Surface Analysis of graphite tiles has also been done before and after baking. This paper describes the residual gas analysis during baking and surface analysis of graphite tiles.

  8. Improvement of PVC floor tiles by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plessis, T.A. du; Badenhorst, F.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma radiation presents a unique method of transforming highly plasticized PVC floor tiles, manufactured at high speed through injection moulding, into a high quality floor covering at a cost at least 30% less than similarly rated rubber tiles. A specially formulated PVC compound was developed in collaboration with a leading manufacturer of floor tiles. These tiles are gamma crosslinked in its shipping cartons to form a dimensionally stable product which is highly fire resistant and inert to most chemicals and solvents. These crosslinked tiles are more flexible than the highly filled conventional PVC floor tiles, scratch resistant and have a longer lifespan and increased colour fastness. These tiles are also less expensive to install than conventional rubber tiles. (author)

  9. TileCal TDAQ/DCS communication

    CERN Document Server

    Solans, C; Arabidze, G; Carneiro Ferreira, B; Sotto-Maior Peralva, B

    2007-01-01

    This document describes the communication between the TDAQ and DCS systems of the Hadronic Tile Calorimeter detector of the ATLAS experiment, currently under commissioning phase at CERN. It is a further step on the TDAQ and DCS communication for TileCal operation. The aim of the implementation is to increase the robustness and understanding of the detector from the two systems involved. The basic principle observed is that the two systems operate independently in parallel. Hence, the knowledge of the status of the whole detector from each of the two systems is required for further analysis of the archived data.

  10. Testbeam studies of production modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Adragna, P.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, A.; Batkova, L.; Batusov, V.; Beck, H.P.; Bednar, P.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Biscarat, C.; Blanchot, G.; Bogush, A.; Bohm, C.; Boldea, V.

    2009-01-01

    We report test beam studies of {11\\,\\%} of the production ATLAS Tile Calorimeter modules. The modules were equipped with production front-end electronics and all the calibration systems planned for the final detector. The studies used muon, electron and hadron beams ranging in energy from 3~GeV to 350~GeV. Two independent studies showed that the light yield of the calorimeter was $\\sim 70$~pe/GeV, exceeding the design goal by {40\\,\\%}. Electron beams provided a calibration of the modules at t...

  11. Towards a DNA Nanoprocessor: Reusable Tile-Integrated DNA Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, Yulia V; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M

    2016-08-22

    Modern electronic microprocessors use semiconductor logic gates organized on a silicon chip to enable efficient inter-gate communication. Here, arrays of communicating DNA logic gates integrated on a single DNA tile were designed and used to process nucleic acid inputs in a reusable format. Our results lay the foundation for the development of a DNA nanoprocessor, a small and biocompatible device capable of performing complex analyses of DNA and RNA inputs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Diseño de losas de hormigón con geometría optimizada Design of concrete pavement with optimized slab geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Covarrubias V.

    2012-12-01

    concrete slabs may endure until 20 times more traffic before cracking and they are able to provide a longer life span after cracking. Based on this fact, a mechanical-empirical software design has been developed and named OptiPave, which optimizes slab geometrical design and concrete slabs thickness by considering the particular conditions on a given project, such as weather conditions, traffic volume, layer and materials. Critical tensile stresses have been calculated by employing the finite elements analysis for different conditions of mechanical and thermal loads at different positions. Slabs' cracking is determined by calculating concrete fatigue damage and models employed by the design guide AASHTO, 2007, and by means of calibration test sections on large scale. The new methodology designs concrete slabs for high traffic volume ways, which in average are 7 cm thinner than traditional pavement design developed by AASHTO (1993. This design method is also able to effectively design concrete pavements for lower traffic volume roads, which are not considered by the existing pavement design methods, thus providing an alternative to asphalt solutions.

  13. Calibration and performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC Run 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda Alberich, L.

    2018-02-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic sampling calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal uses iron absorbers and scintillators as active material and it covers the central region | η| < 1.7. Jointly with the other sub-detectors it is designed for measurements of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. It also assists in muon identification. TileCal is regularly monitored and calibrated by several different calibration systems: a Cs radioactive source, a laser light system to check the PMT response, and a charge injection system (CIS) to check the front-end electronics. These calibration systems, in conjunction with data collected during proton-proton collisions, Minimum Bias (MB) events, provide extensive monitoring of the instrument and a means for equalizing the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal propagation. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions and compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The response of high momentum isolated muons is also used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadrons are used as a probe of the hadronic response. The calorimeter time resolution is studied with multijet events. A description of the different TileCal calibration systems and the results on the calorimeter performance during the LHC Run 2 are presented. The results on the pile-up noise and response uniformity studies are also discussed.

  14. Multi-application inter-tile synchronization on ultra-high-resolution display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungwon

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-high-resolution tiled-display walls are typically driven by a cluster of computers. Each computer may drive one or more displays. Synchronization between the computers is necessary to ensure that animated imagery displayed on the wall appears seamless. Most tiled-display middleware systems are designed around the assumption that only a single application instance is running in the tiled display at a time. Therefore synchronization can be achieved with a simple solution such as a networked barrier. When a tiled display has to support multiple applications at the same time, however, the simple networked barrier approach does not scale. In this paper we propose and experimentally validate two synchronization algorithms to achieve low-latency, intertile synchronization for multiple applications with independently varying frame rates. The two-phase algorithm is more generally applicable to various highresolution tiled display systems. The one-phase algorithm provides superior results but requires support for the Network Time Protocol and is more CPU-intensive. Copyright 2010 ACM.

  15. Characterization of ancient ceramic tiles using XRF = = = =

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdelwahed, Haifa

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of energies and intensities of fluorescent X-rays emitted from a given material when atoms are bombarded with suitable projectiles like electrons, protons, particles or photons has been successfully used for non-destructive elemental analysis in many applications, especially in the analysis of ceramic glasses. Use of radioisotopes as a source of excitation radiation in combination with high resolution semiconductor detectors in x-ray fluorescence has found wide applications in elemental analysis. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometer consisting of a standard 5.45mm Si(Li) detector having a resolution of 200 eV at 5.9 keV coupled to a TRUMP-8K multichannel analyzer has been used. Tow sources of annular geometry using 10 mCi 109Cd and 10 mCi 55Fe together with PC AXIL software have been used for this study of tile-pavement glasses of ''Ksar Said'' in Tunisia. Analytical data shows that those tile pavement witch are broken in the 19th century from France (Marseille) have not the same composition of Tunisian tile pavement. Referring to our data, The kind of that analyzed glasses is of alkaline lead. we found also, through this study, the elemental compositions of different pigments (green, blue, brownish, yellow, white and red) used to color that tile-pavement glasses. (author). 21 refs

  16. Sacroiliac screw fixation for tile B fractures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, E.W. van den; Zwienen, C.M. van; Hoek van Dijke, G.A.; Snijders, C.J.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this comparative cadaveric study was to investigate whether the stability of partially unstable pelvic fractures can be improved by combining plate fixation of the symphysis with a posterior sacroiliac screw. METHODS: In six specimens, a Tile B1 (open-book) pelvic fracture

  17. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter gets into shape!

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The last of the 64 modules for one of the ATLAS Hadron tile calorimeter barrels has just arrived at CERN. This arrival puts an end to two and a half years work assembling and testing all the modules in the Institut de Física d'Altes Energies (IFAE), in Barcelona.

  18. L-Tromino Tiling of Multilated Chessboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An "n" x "n" chessboard is called deficient if one square is missing from any spot on the board. Can all deficient boards with a number of cells divisible by 3 be tiled by bent (or L-shaped) trominoes? The answer is yes, with exception of the order-5 board. This paper deals with the general problem plus numerous related puzzles and proofs…

  19. From open fireplaces to tile hearths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madaus, C

    1979-10-01

    The history and technology of tile hearths are reviewed. It is shown that naked fires were used until the 6th century; by the 8th century, these had been replaced by open hearth fires which were used until the 18th and even 19th century. The first 'modern' hearth with a closed combustion space was constructed in 1790.

  20. ATLAS: First rehearsal for the tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The dry run assembly of the first barrel of the ATLAS tile hadron calorimeter has been successfully completed. It is now being dismantled again so that it can be lowered into the ATLAS cavern where it will be reassembled in October 2004.

  1. TILE at Iowa: Adoption and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florman, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces a University of Iowa effort to enhance and support active learning pedagogies in technology-enhanced (TILE) classrooms and three elements that proved essential to the campus-wide adoption of those pedagogies. It then describes the impact of those professional development efforts on the curricula and cultures of three…

  2. Radioactivity level in Chinese building ceramic tile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinwei, L.

    2004-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K have been determined by gamma ray spectrometry. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K range from 158.3 to 1087.6, 91.7 to 1218.4, and 473.8 to 1031.3 Bq kg -1 for glaze, and from 63.5 to 131.4, 55.4 to 106.5, and 386.7 to 866.8 Bq kg -1 for ceramic tile, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the typical world values. The radium equivalent activities (Ra eq ), external hazard index (H ex ) and internal hazard index (H in ) associated with the radionuclides were calculated. The Ra eq values of all ceramic tiles are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg -1 . The values of Hex and H in calculated according to the Chinese criterion for ceramic tiles are less than unity. The Ra eq value for the glaze of glazed tile collected from some areas are >370 Bq kg -1 . (authors)

  3. Similarity of eigenstates in generalized labyrinth tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiem, Stefanie; Schreiber, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The eigenstates of d-dimensional quasicrystalline models with a separable Hamiltonian are studied within the tight-binding model. The approach is based on mathematical sequences, constructed by an inflation rule P = {w → s,s → sws b-1 } describing the weak/strong couplings of atoms in a quasiperiodic chain. Higher-dimensional quasiperiodic tilings are constructed as a direct product of these chains and their eigenstates can be directly calculated by multiplying the energies E or wave functions ψ of the chain, respectively. Applying this construction rule, the grid in d dimensions splits into 2 d-1 different tilings, for which we investigated the characteristics of the wave functions. For the standard two-dimensional labyrinth tiling constructed from the octonacci sequence (b = 2) the lattice breaks up into two identical lattices, which consequently yield the same eigenstates. While this is not the case for b ≠ 2, our numerical results show that the wave functions of the different grids become increasingly similar for large system sizes. This can be explained by the fact that the structure of the 2 d-1 grids mainly differs at the boundaries and thus for large systems the eigenstates approach each other. This property allows us to analytically derive properties of the higher-dimensional generalized labyrinth tilings from the one-dimensional results. In particular participation numbers and corresponding scaling exponents have been determined.

  4. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomont, Arthur; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises cesium radioactive sources, Laser and charge injection elements, and allows for monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitization. Based on LHC Run 1 experience, several calibration systems were improved for Run 2. The lessons learned, the modifications, and the current LHC Run 2 performance are discussed.

  5. An efficient pseudomedian filter for tiling microrrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Thomas E; Carriero, Nicholas J; Gerstein, Mark B

    2007-06-07

    Tiling microarrays are becoming an essential technology in the functional genomics toolbox. They have been applied to the tasks of novel transcript identification, elucidation of transcription factor binding sites, detection of methylated DNA and several other applications in several model organisms. These experiments are being conducted at increasingly finer resolutions as the microarray technology enjoys increasingly greater feature densities. The increased densities naturally lead to increased data analysis requirements. Specifically, the most widely employed algorithm for tiling array analysis involves smoothing observed signals by computing pseudomedians within sliding windows, a O(n2logn) calculation in each window. This poor time complexity is an issue for tiling array analysis and could prove to be a real bottleneck as tiling microarray experiments become grander in scope and finer in resolution. We therefore implemented Monahan's HLQEST algorithm that reduces the runtime complexity for computing the pseudomedian of n numbers to O(nlogn) from O(n2logn). For a representative tiling microarray dataset, this modification reduced the smoothing procedure's runtime by nearly 90%. We then leveraged the fact that elements within sliding windows remain largely unchanged in overlapping windows (as one slides across genomic space) to further reduce computation by an additional 43%. This was achieved by the application of skip lists to maintaining a sorted list of values from window to window. This sorted list could be maintained with simple O(log n) inserts and deletes. We illustrate the favorable scaling properties of our algorithms with both time complexity analysis and benchmarking on synthetic datasets. Tiling microarray analyses that rely upon a sliding window pseudomedian calculation can require many hours of computation. We have eased this requirement significantly by implementing efficient algorithms that scale well with genomic feature density. This result

  6. An efficient pseudomedian filter for tiling microrrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerstein Mark B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tiling microarrays are becoming an essential technology in the functional genomics toolbox. They have been applied to the tasks of novel transcript identification, elucidation of transcription factor binding sites, detection of methylated DNA and several other applications in several model organisms. These experiments are being conducted at increasingly finer resolutions as the microarray technology enjoys increasingly greater feature densities. The increased densities naturally lead to increased data analysis requirements. Specifically, the most widely employed algorithm for tiling array analysis involves smoothing observed signals by computing pseudomedians within sliding windows, a O(n2logn calculation in each window. This poor time complexity is an issue for tiling array analysis and could prove to be a real bottleneck as tiling microarray experiments become grander in scope and finer in resolution. Results We therefore implemented Monahan's HLQEST algorithm that reduces the runtime complexity for computing the pseudomedian of n numbers to O(nlogn from O(n2logn. For a representative tiling microarray dataset, this modification reduced the smoothing procedure's runtime by nearly 90%. We then leveraged the fact that elements within sliding windows remain largely unchanged in overlapping windows (as one slides across genomic space to further reduce computation by an additional 43%. This was achieved by the application of skip lists to maintaining a sorted list of values from window to window. This sorted list could be maintained with simple O(log n inserts and deletes. We illustrate the favorable scaling properties of our algorithms with both time complexity analysis and benchmarking on synthetic datasets. Conclusion Tiling microarray analyses that rely upon a sliding window pseudomedian calculation can require many hours of computation. We have eased this requirement significantly by implementing efficient algorithms that

  7. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertolucci Federico

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal, the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the muon spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons, splash events and more importantly LHC collision events. The results presented assess the absolute energy scale calibration precision, the energy and timing uniformity and the synchronization precision. The results demonstrate a very good understanding of the performance of the Tile Calorimeter that is well within the design expectations.

  8. Visual Discourse of the Clove: An Analysis on the Ottoman Tile Decoration Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Öncel Taskiran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In tile art, one of the world-famous Turkish Handicrafts, a wide variety of patterns are used on tile objects. The most common of these, after the tulip pattern, is the naturalist clove pattern. Different meanings were assigned to this pattern within the boundaries of form, color and design.  Dentification and perception of these meanings have a special place within the frame of the culture that they relay. In this present study the fields of meaning of the clove pattern frequently used in tile decoration arts among Turkish handicrafts were tried to be determined. By taking Greimas' Actantial Model as the theoretical model, in the study visual discourse analysis of the clove pattern will be made.

  9. TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION OF CERAMIC TILES BASED ON DOLERITE AND FUSIBLE CLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleshko Marianna Viktorovna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a completely new composition of the ceramic mass for production of ceramic tiles for interior lining of walls, on the basis of fusible clay. The optimal compositions of jade engobe and glossy glaze, the most suitable for this composition, are determined. A new technological scheme is developed for production of ceramic tiles for interior lining based on dolerite and fusible clay. The curve of firing, which is the most suitable for charge masses and decorative coating compositions being used, has been constructed. Subject: ceramic mass for the production of ceramic facing tiles. Ceramic tiles are the most popular building material in Russia. The most promising technology for its production from the standpoint of technical and economic efficiency is the technology of rapid single firing, which is rarely used at the plants of our country. In this regard, the development and implementation of new effective compositions of ceramic masses and decorative coatings that are the most compatible with the specifics of rapid single firing technology, based on new unconventional raw materials, are very relevant and promising. Research objectives: development of technological parameters, compositions of ceramic masses and decorative coatings of ceramic tiles for the internal wall lining that provide an increase in tiles production efficiency using the technology of rapid single firing through the use of non-traditional plagioclase-pyroxene raw materials: dolerites, loam and technogenic raw materials. Materials and methods: technological, numerical and experimental studies were conducted. To select the optimal composition of the ceramic mass, the method of mathematical planning was used, namely the simplex-centroid design of Scheffe. To identify the scientific foundations of the energy-efficient production technology being developed, differential thermal and X-ray phase, optical, electron microscopic and dilatometric studies were applied

  10. Electro-desalination of glazed tile panels - discussion of possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Célia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    . In the few experiments conducted on tiles with attached mortar, the mortar was desalinated to a higher degree than the biscuit and successful desalination of the biscuit through the mortar requires further research. In-situ pilot scale tests were performed on highly salt-contaminated walls without tiles...... by placing electrodes at the same side of the wall. Thus it may be possible to desalinate tile panels, without any physical damage of the fragile glaze, by placing electrodes on the back of the wall or by removing some tiles, placing electrodes in their spaces, and extracting the salts from there before...... the tiles are placed back again....

  11. ATLAS rewards Russian supplier for scintillating tile production

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has awarded Russian firm SIA Luch from Podolsk in the Moscow region an ATLAS Supplier Award. This follows delivery by the company of the final batch of scintillating tiles for the collaboration's tile calorimeter some six months ahead of schedule. Representatives of the firm are seen here receiving the award at a ceremony held in the collaboration's tile calorimeter instrumentation plant at CERN on 30 July. In front of one tile calorimeter module instrumented by scintillating tiles are (left to right) IHEP physicists Evgueni Startchenko and Andrei Karioukhine, Luch Podolsk representatives Igor Karetnikov and Yuri Zaitsev, tile calorimeter project leader Rupert Leitner, ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and CERN tile calorimeter group leader Ana Henriques-Correia.

  12. Solving Vertex Cover Problem Using DNA Tile Assembly Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA tile assembly models are a class of mathematically distributed and parallel biocomputing models in DNA tiles. In previous works, tile assembly models have been proved be Turing-universal; that is, the system can do what Turing machine can do. In this paper, we use tile systems to solve computational hard problem. Mathematically, we construct three tile subsystems, which can be combined together to solve vertex cover problem. As a result, each of the proposed tile subsystems consists of Θ(1 types of tiles, and the assembly process is executed in a parallel way (like DNA’s biological function in cells; thus the systems can generate the solution of the problem in linear time with respect to the size of the graph.

  13. Increasing SoC Dependability via Known Good Tile NoC Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Kuiken, O.J.; Zhang, X.

    2008-01-01

    Advanced CMOS technology possibilities, power, communication and flexibility issues as well as the design gap are directing System-on-Chip (SoC) platforms towards Network-on-Chip (NoC) interconnected identical processing tiles (PT) such as the Montium processor [1]. It is broadly acknowledged that

  14. Porcelain tiles by the dry route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschi, A. O.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the second largest tile producer of the world, at present, 70% of the tiles are produced by the dry route. One of the main reasons that lead to this development is the fact that the dry route uses approximately 30% less thermal energy them the traditional wet route. The increasing world concern with the environment and the recognition of the central role played by the water also has pointed towards privileging dry processes. In this context the objective of the present work is to study the feasibility of producing high quality porcelain tiles by the dry route. A brief comparison of the dry and wet route, in standard conditions industrially used today to produce tiles that are not porcelain tiles, shows that there are two major differences: the particle sizes obtained by the wet route are usually considerably finer and the capability of mixing the different minerals, the intimacy of the mixture, is also usually better in the wet route. The present work studied the relative importance of these differences and looked for raw materials and operational conditions that would result in better performance and glazed porcelain tiles of good quality.

    En Brasil, en este momento segundo productor mundial, el 70% de los pavimentos cerámicos se obtiene por vía seca. Una de las razones fundamentales se debe a que esta vía supone un consumo energético inferior, en un 30%, a la via húmeda tradicional. La creciente preocupación mundial sobre los problemas medioambientales y el reconocimiento del papel central que juega el agua en este proceso han favorecido el desarrollo de la vía seca. En este contexto, el objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar la viabilidad de la producción de pavimentos porcelánicos de alta calidad por vía seca. Una breve comparación entre ambas vías, en las condiciones standard de producción vigentes para producciones que no son de porcelánico, indican que existen dos diferencias substanciales; el tamaño de

  15. Large-Aperture Grating Tiling by Interferometry for Petawatt Chirped-Pulse--Amplification Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, J.; Kalb, A.; Guardalben, M.J.; King, G.; Canning. D.; Kelly, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    A tiled-grating assembly with three large-scale gratings is developed with real-time interferometric tiling control for the OMEGA EP Laser Facility. An automatic tiling method is achieved and used to tile a three-tile grating assembly with the overall wavefront reconstructed. Tiling parameters sensitivity and focal-spot degradation from all combined tiling errors are analyzed for a pulse compressor composed of four such assemblies

  16. From the small palace to the tenement: the use of hydraulic tiles in São Paulo city’s buildings in the turn from 19th to 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange de Aragão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the use of hydraulic tiles (a type of flooring resulted from the mixture of Portland cement with sand, water, marble and granite, and that features colorful drawings of geometric or floral shapes in some constructions built in the city of São Paulo at the turn of the 20th century – more specifically during the last decades of the 19th century and during the first decades of the 20th. We aim to demonstrate here how this building material, which was at first used on the floor of the richest houses of São Paulo city (such as some of the ancient small palaces as symbol of status, would spread out little by little, being found in other types of buildings, like some old houses of working class people, and even in one of the poorest types of housing in the city – the tenement; we also associate the different degrees of complexity on tiles design to the income level of their original owners – the more complex the design, the higher the price of each piece and therefore the richer the building’s owner. Also noteworthy is how this handmade material is still valued by architects and other professionals today due to the richness of its drawings, its colors and the diversity of possibilities when making a composition with it.

  17. Surface runoff and tile drainage transport of phosphorus in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas R; King, Kevin W; Johnson, Laura; Francesconi, Wendy; Richards, Pete; Baker, Dave; Sharpley, Andrew N

    2015-03-01

    The midwestern United States offers some of the most productive agricultural soils in the world. Given the cool humid climate, much of the region would not be able to support agriculture without subsurface (tile) drainage because high water tables may damage crops and prevent machinery usage in fields at critical times. Although drainage is designed to remove excess soil water as quickly as possible, it can also rapidly transport agrochemicals, including phosphorus (P). This paper illustrates the potential importance of tile drainage for P transport throughout the midwestern United States. Surface runoff and tile drainage from fields in the St. Joseph River Watershed in northeastern Indiana have been monitored since 2008. Although the traditional concept of tile drainage has been that it slowly removes soil matrix flow, peak tile discharge occurred at the same time as peak surface runoff, which demonstrates a strong surface connection through macropore flow. On our research fields, 49% of soluble P and 48% of total P losses occurred via tile discharge. Edge-of-field soluble P and total P areal loads often exceeded watershed-scale areal loadings from the Maumee River, the primary source of nutrients to the western basin of Lake Erie, where algal blooms have been a pervasive problem for the last 10 yr. As farmers, researchers, and policymakers search for treatments to reduce P loading to surface waters, the present work demonstrates that treating only surface runoff may not be sufficient to reach the goal of 41% reduction in P loading for the Lake Erie Basin. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. The ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter from construction toward physics

    CERN Document Server

    Adragna, P; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Binet, S; Biscarat, C; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Caloba, L; Calvet, D; Carvalho, J; Castelo, J; Castillo, M V; Sforza, M C; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Chadelas, R; Costanzo, D; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Crouau, M; Cuenca, C; Damazio, D O; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Fedorko, I; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Fullana, E; Garde, V; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giangiobbe, V; Giokaris, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Grabskii, V; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Iglesias, C; And, K J; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A N; Khubua, J; Klereborn, J; Korolkov, I Ya; Krivkova, P; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Lambert, D; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Leitner, R; Lembesi, M; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Amengual, J M L; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Montarou, G; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M J; Pantea, D; Pallin, D; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Price, L E; Pribyl, L; Proudfoot, J; Ramstedt, M; Reinmuth, G; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Rumiantsau, V; Russakovich, N; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Satsunkevich, I S; Says, L P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Da Silva, P; Silva, J; Simaitis, V; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Starovoitov, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Tsulaia, V; Underwood, D; Usai, G; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenine, A; Zenis, T

    2006-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter, which constitutes the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter, is a non-compensating sampling device made of iron and scintillating tiles. The construction phase of the calorimeter is nearly complete, and most of the effort now is directed toward the final assembly and commissioning in the underground experimental hall. The layout of the calorimeter and the tasks carried out during construction are described, first with a brief reminder of the requirements that drove the calorimeter design. During the last few years a comprehensive test-beam program has been followed in order to establish the calorimeter electromagnetic energy scale, to study its uniformity, and to compare real data to Monte Carlo simulation. The test-beam setup and first results from the data are described. During the test-beam period in 2004, lasting several months, data have been acquired with a complete slice of the central ATLAS calorimeter. The data collected in the test-beam are crucial in order to study...

  19. Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibrtion procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the photomultipliers (PMTs) that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the test in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the resonse drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operation during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure the drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to the data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.

  20. Large TileCal magnetic field simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessi, M.; Bergsma, F.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Borisov, O.N.; Lomakina, O.V.; Karamysheva, G.A.; Budagov, Yu.A.

    1994-01-01

    The ATLAS magnetic field map has been estimated in the presence of the hadron tile calorimeter. This is an important issue in order to quantify the needs for individual PMT shielding, the effect on the scintillator light yield and its implications on the calibration. The field source is based on a central solenoid and 8 superconducting air-core toroidal coils. The maximum induction value in the scintillating tiles does not exceed 6 mT. When an iron plate is used to close the open drawer window the field inside the PMT near to the extended barrel edge does not exceed 0.6 mT. Estimation of ponder motive force distribution, acting on individual units of the system was performed. VF electromagnetic software OPERA-TOSCA and CERN POISCR code were used for the field simulation of the system. 10 refs., 4 figs

  1. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes, located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two photomultiplier in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and equalise the calorimeter r...

  2. Tile-in-ONE.cern.ch

    CERN Document Server

    Sivolella Gomes, Andressa; The ATLAS collaboration; Ferreira, Fernando; Solans, Carlos; Solodkov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter assesses the quality of data in order to ensure its proper operation. A number of tasks are then performed by running several tools and systems, which were independently developed to meet distinct collaboration’s requirements and do not necessarily builds an effective connection among them. Thus, a program is usually implemented without a global perspective of the detector, requiring basic software features. In addition, functionalities may overlap in their objectives and frequently replicate resources retrieval mechanisms. Tile-in-ONE is a unique platform that assembles various web systems used by the calorimeter community through a single framework and a standard technology. It provides an infrastructure to support the code implementation, avoiding duplication of work while integrating with an overall view of the detector status. Database connectors smooth the process of information access since developers do not need to be aware of where records are placed and how to extract th...

  3. Laser Calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibration procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the PMTs that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the tests in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the response drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operating during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.

  4. Tiling by rectangles and alternating current

    KAUST Repository

    Prasolov, M. V.

    2011-04-01

    This paper is on tilings of polygons by rectangles. A celebrated physical interpretation of such tilings by R.L. Brooks, C.A.B. Smith, A.H. Stone and W.T. Tutte uses direct-current circuits. The new approach of this paper is an application of alternating-current circuits. The following results are obtained: •a necessary condition for a rectangle to be tilable by rectangles of given shapes;•a criterion for a rectangle to be tilable by rectangles similar to it but not all homothetic to it;•a criterion for a "generic" polygon to be tilable by squares. These results generalize those of C. Freiling, R. Kenyon, M. Laczkovich, D. Rinne, and G. Szekeres. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Tiling arbitrarily nested loops by means of the transitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielecki Włodzimierz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach to generation of tiled code for arbitrarily nested loops is presented. It is derived via a combination of the polyhedral and iteration space slicing frameworks. Instead of program transformations represented by a set of affine functions, one for each statement, it uses the transitive closure of a loop nest dependence graph to carry out corrections of original rectangular tiles so that all dependences of the original loop nest are preserved under the lexicographic order of target tiles. Parallel tiled code can be generated on the basis of valid serial tiled code by means of applying affine transformations or transitive closure using on input an inter-tile dependence graph whose vertices are represented by target tiles while edges connect dependent target tiles. We demonstrate how a relation describing such a graph can be formed. The main merit of the presented approach in comparison with the well-known ones is that it does not require full permutability of loops to generate both serial and parallel tiled codes; this increases the scope of loop nests to be tiled.

  6. Evaluation of tile layer productivity in construction project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Hassan, Siti Hafizan; Rosly, Noorsyalili; Ul-Saufie, Ahmad Zia

    2017-10-01

    Construction is a key sector of the national economy for countries all over the world. Until today, construction industries are still facing lots of problems concerning the low productivity, poor safety and insufficient quality. Labour productivity is one of the factors that will give impact to the quality of projects. This study is focusing on evaluating the tile layer productivity in the area of Seberang Perai, Penang. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship of age and experience of tile layers with their productivity and to evaluate the effect of nationality to tile layers productivity. Interview and site observation of tile layers has been conducted to obtain the data of age, experience and nationality of tile layers. Site observation is made to obtain the number of tiles installed for every tile layer for the duration of 1 hour, and the data were analysed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (IBM SPSS Statistic 23) software. As a result, there is a moderate linear relationship between age and experience of tile layers with their productivity. The age of 30 and the experience of 4 years give the highest productivity. It also can be concluded that the tile layers from Indonesia tend to have higher productivity compared to tile layers from Myanmar.

  7. An efficient pseudomedian filter for tiling microrrays

    OpenAIRE

    Royce, Thomas E; Carriero, Nicholas J; Gerstein, Mark B

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Tiling microarrays are becoming an essential technology in the functional genomics toolbox. They have been applied to the tasks of novel transcript identification, elucidation of transcription factor binding sites, detection of methylated DNA and several other applications in several model organisms. These experiments are being conducted at increasingly finer resolutions as the microarray technology enjoys increasingly greater feature densities. The increased densities nat...

  8. Viewport: An object-oriented approach to integrate workstation software for tile and stack mode display

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Srinka; Andriole, Katherine P.; Avrin, David E.

    1997-01-01

    Diagnostic workstation design has migrated towards display presentation in one of two modes: tiled images or stacked images. It is our impression that the workstation setup or configuration in each of these two modes is rather distinct. We sought to establish a commonality to simplify software design, and to enable a single descriptor method to facilitate folder manager development of “hanging” protocols. All current workstation designs use a combination of “off-screen” and “on-screen” memory...

  9. Performance of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter in Run-2 and its Upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the Tile calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high moment...

  10. Foam-on-Tile Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koharchik, Michael; Murphy, Lindsay; Parker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    An impact model was developed to predict how three specific foam types would damage the Space Shuttle Orbiter insulating tiles. The inputs needed for the model are the foam type, the foam mass, the foam impact velocity, the foam impact incident angle, the type being impacted, and whether the tile is new or aged (has flown at least one mission). The model will determine if the foam impact will cause damage to the tile. If it can cause damage, the model will output the damage cavity dimensions (length, depth, entry angle, exit angle, and sidewall angles). It makes the calculations as soon as the inputs are entered (less than 1 second). The model allows for the rapid calculation of numerous scenarios in a short time. The model was developed from engineering principles coupled with significant impact testing (over 800 foam impact tests). This model is applicable to masses ranging from 0.0002 up to 0.4 pound (0.09 up to 181 g). A prior tool performed a similar function, but was limited to the assessment of a small range of masses and did not have the large test database for verification. In addition, the prior model did not provide outputs of the cavity damage length, entry angle, exit angle, or sidewall angles.

  11. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Oreglia, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) which is scheduled around 2022. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued studying different electronics options. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Which one to use will be decided after extensive test beam studies. High speed optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room. For the off-detector electronics a new back-end architecture is being developed, including the initial trigger processing and pipeline memories. A demonstrator prototype read-out for a slice of the ...

  12. Geometric Transformations in Engineering Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Borovikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, for business purposes, in view of current trends and world experience in training engineers, research and faculty staff there has been a need to transform traditional courses of descriptive geometry into the course of engineering geometry in which the geometrical transformations have to become its main section. On the basis of critical analysis the paper gives suggestions to improve a presentation technique of this section both in the classroom and in academic literature, extend an application scope of geometrical transformations to solve the position and metric tasks and simulation of surfaces, as well as to design complex engineering configurations, which meet a number of pre-specified conditions.The article offers to make a number of considerable amendments to the terms and definitions used in the existing courses of descriptive geometry. It draws some conclusions and makes the appropriate proposals on feasibility of coordination in teaching the movement transformation in the courses of analytical and descriptive geometry. This will provide interdisciplinary team teaching and allow students to be convinced that a combination of analytical and graphic ways to solve geometric tasks is useful and reasonable.The traditional sections of learning courses need to be added with a theory of projective and bi-rational transformations. In terms of application simplicity and convenience it is enough to consider the central transformations when solving the applied tasks. These transformations contain a beam of sub-invariant (low-invariant straight lines on which the invariant curve induces non-involution and involution projectivities. The expediency of nonlinear transformations application is shown in the article by a specific example of geometric modeling of the interfacing surface "spar-blade".Implementation of these suggestions will contribute to a real transformation of a traditional course of descriptive geometry to the engineering geometry

  13. Geometric group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Druţu, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    The key idea in geometric group theory is to study infinite groups by endowing them with a metric and treating them as geometric spaces. This applies to many groups naturally appearing in topology, geometry, and algebra, such as fundamental groups of manifolds, groups of matrices with integer coefficients, etc. The primary focus of this book is to cover the foundations of geometric group theory, including coarse topology, ultralimits and asymptotic cones, hyperbolic groups, isoperimetric inequalities, growth of groups, amenability, Kazhdan's Property (T) and the Haagerup property, as well as their characterizations in terms of group actions on median spaces and spaces with walls. The book contains proofs of several fundamental results of geometric group theory, such as Gromov's theorem on groups of polynomial growth, Tits's alternative, Stallings's theorem on ends of groups, Dunwoody's accessibility theorem, the Mostow Rigidity Theorem, and quasiisometric rigidity theorems of Tukia and Schwartz. This is the f...

  14. Differential geometric structures

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, Walter A

    2007-01-01

    This introductory text defines geometric structure by specifying parallel transport in an appropriate fiber bundle and focusing on simplest cases of linear parallel transport in a vector bundle. 1981 edition.

  15. Geometric ghosts and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1980-09-01

    A review is given of the geometrical identification of the renormalization ghosts and the resulting derivation of Unitarity equations (BRST) for various gauges: Yang-Mills, Kalb-Ramond, and Soft-Group-Manifold

  16. An FPGA based backup version of the TileCal digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, D; Muschter, S; Bohm, C

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front end digitization and readout system comprises about 1800 digitizer boards with two TileDMU ASICs on each board. The TileDMUs are responsible for storing, derandomising and reading out digitized data from twelve ADCs. An ample number of board spares are available. However, a backup solution is desirable in the event of unexpected failure modes. The original version contains both outdated and custom made circuits that are difficult or impossible to find in sufficient numbers. We have developed a new version using inexpensive off the shelf FPGAs (Spartan 6). The FPGAs have all the necessary functionality to emulate the TileDMU and will be readily available for a considerable time. The new board is functionally compatible with the current version and to a large extent uses the same code. The design goal was to leave the digitizer design as intact as possible since it is well tested and performs well. As radiation tolerance is an issue we have implemented triple mode redundancy in the FPGA. To further improve the system we added in system programmability via TTCrx for both the FPGA and the configuration memory using one way JTAG. This provides a way to recover from radiation damage to the configuration PROM or to remotely upgrade system firmware.

  17. An FPGA based backup version of the TileCal digitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, D.; Muschter, S.; Bohm, C.

    2010-11-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front end digitization and readout system comprises about 1800 digitizer boards with two TileDMU ASICs on each board. The TileDMUs are responsible for storing, derandomising and reading out digitized data from twelve ADCs. An ample number of board spares are available. However, a backup solution is desirable in the event of unexpected failure modes. The original version contains both outdated and custom made circuits that are difficult or impossible to find in sufficient numbers. We have developed a new version using inexpensive off the shelf FPGAs (Spartan 6). The FPGAs have all the necessary functionality to emulate the TileDMU and will be readily available for a considerable time. The new board is functionally compatible with the current version and to a large extent uses the same code. The design goal was to leave the digitizer design as intact as possible since it is well tested and performs well. As radiation tolerance is an issue we have implemented triple mode redundancy in the FPGA. To further improve the system we added in system programmability via TTCrx for both the FPGA and the configuration memory using one way JTAG. This provides a way to recover from radiation damage to the configuration PROM or to remotely upgrade system firmware.

  18. Asymptotic and geometrical quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasev, M.V.; Maslov, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    The main ideas of geometric-, deformation- and asymptotic quantizations are compared. It is shown that, on the one hand, the asymptotic approach is a direct generalization of exact geometric quantization, on the other hand, it generates deformation in multiplication of symbols and Poisson brackets. Besides investigating the general quantization diagram, its applications to the calculation of asymptotics of a series of eigenvalues of operators possessing symmetry groups are considered

  19. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Builders School, Ceramic Tile Setting 3-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This course, for individualized or group instruction on ceramic tile setting, was developed from military sources for use in vocational education. The course provides students with skills in mortar preparation, surface preparation, tile layout planning, tile setting, tile cutting, and the grouting of tile joints. Both theory and shop assignments…

  20. On geometrized gravitation theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Folomeshkin, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    General properties of the geometrized gravitation theories have been considered. Geometrization of the theory is realized only to the extent that by necessity follows from an experiment (geometrization of the density of the matter Lagrangian only). Aor a general case the gravitation field equations and the equations of motion for matter are formulated in the different Riemann spaces. A covariant formulation of the energy-momentum conservation laws is given in an arbitrary geometrized theory. The noncovariant notion of ''pseudotensor'' is not required in formulating the conservation laws. It is shown that in the general case (i.e., when there is an explicit dependence of the matter Lagrangian density on the covariant derivatives) a symmetric energy-momentum tensor of the matter is explicitly dependent on the curvature tensor. There are enlisted different geometrized theories that describe a known set of the experimental facts. The properties of one of the versions of the quasilinear geometrized theory that describes the experimental facts are considered. In such a theory the fundamental static spherically symmetrical solution has a singularity only in the coordinate origin. The theory permits to create a satisfactory model of the homogeneous nonstationary Universe

  1. Modular robotic tiles: experiments for children with autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Dam Pedersen, Martin; Beck, Richard

    2009-01-01

    rehabilitation), and with the proper radio communication mechanism they may give unique possibilities for documentation of the physical activity (e.g., therapeutic treatment). A major point of concern in modular robotics is the connection mechanism, so we investigated different solutions for the connection......We developed a modular robotic tile and a system composed of a number of these modular robotic tiles. The system composed of the modular robotic tiles engages the user in physical activities, e.g., physiotherapy, sports, fitness, and entertainment. The modular robotic tiles motivate the user...... to perform physical activities by providing immediate feedback based upon their physical interaction with the system. With the modular robotic tiles, the user is able to make new physical set-ups within less than a minute. The tiles are applicable for different forms of physical activities (e.g., therapeutic...

  2. On chromatic and geometrical calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folm-Hansen, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The main subject of the present thesis is different methods for the geometrical and chromatic calibration of cameras in various environments. For the monochromatic issues of the calibration we present the acquisition of monochrome images, the classic monochrome aberrations and the various sources...... the correct interpolation method is described. For the chromatic issues of calibration we present the acquisition of colour and multi-spectral images, the chromatic aberrations and the various lens/camera based non-uniformities of the illumination of the image plane. It is described how the monochromatic...... to design calibration targets for both geometrical and chromatic calibration are described. We present some possible systematical errors on the detection of the objects in the calibration targets, if viewed in a non orthogonal angle, if the intensities are uneven or if the image blurring is uneven. Finally...

  3. Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2016-06-20

    The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First, aesthetic constraints are important because the buildings have to be visually impressive. Sec- ond, functional constraints are important for the performance of a building and its e cient construction. This thesis contributes to the area of architectural geometry. Specifically, we are interested in the geometric rationalization of freeform architec- ture with the goal of combining aesthetic and functional constraints and construction requirements. Aesthetic requirements typically come from designers and architects. To obtain visually pleasing structures, they favor smoothness of the building shape, but also smoothness of the visible patterns on the surface. Functional requirements typically come from the engineers involved in the construction process. For exam- ple, covering freeform structures using planar panels is much cheaper than using non-planar ones. Further, constructed buildings have to be stable and should not collapse. In this thesis, we explore the geometric rationalization of freeform archi- tecture using four specific example problems inspired by real life applications. We achieve our results by developing optimization algorithms and a theoretical study of the underlying geometrical structure of the problems. The four example problems are the following: (1) The design of shading and lighting systems which are torsion-free structures with planar beams based on quad meshes. They satisfy the functionality requirements of preventing light from going inside a building as shad- ing systems or reflecting light into a building as lighting systems. (2) The Design of freeform honeycomb structures that are constructed based on hex-dominant meshes with a planar beam mounted along each edge. The beams intersect without

  4. Structural and thermodynamic analysis of modified nucleosides in self-assembled DNA cross-tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakker, Lauren; Marchi, Alexandria N; Harris, Kimberly A; LaBean, Thomas H; Agris, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    DNA Holliday junctions are important natural strand-exchange structures that form during homologous recombination. Immobile four-arm junctions, analogs to Holliday junctions, have been designed to self-assemble into cross-tile structures by maximizing Watson-Crick base pairing and fixed crossover points. The cross-tiles, self-assembled from base pair recognition between designed single-stranded DNAs, form higher order lattice structures through cohesion of self-associating sticky ends. These cross-tiles have 16 unpaired nucleosides in the central loop at the junction of the four duplex stems. The importance of the centralized unpaired nucleosides to the structure's thermodynamic stability and self-assembly is unknown. Cross-tile DNA nanostructures were designed and constructed from nine single-stranded DNAs with four shell strands, four arms, and a central loop containing 16 unpaired bases. The 16 unpaired bases were either 2'-deoxyribothymidines, 2'-O-methylribouridines, or abasic 1',2'-dideoxyribonucleosides. Thermodynamic profiles and structural base-stacking contributions were assessed using UV absorption spectroscopy during thermal denaturation and circular dichroism spectroscopy, respectively, and the resulting structures were observed by atomic force microscopy. There were surprisingly significant changes in the thermodynamic and structural properties of lattice formation as a result of altering only the 16 unpaired, centralized nucleosides. The 16 unpaired 2'-O-methyluridines were stabilizing and produced uniform tubular structures. In contrast, the abasic nucleosides were destabilizing producing a mixture of structures. These results strongly indicate the importance of a small number of centrally located unpaired nucleosides within the structures. Since minor modifications lead to palpable changes in lattice formation, DNA cross-tiles present an easily manipulated structure convenient for applications in biomedical and biosensing devices.

  5. Some comments on pinwheel tilings and their diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Uwe [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Deng Xinghua, E-mail: u.g.grimm@open.ac.uk [University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-03-01

    The pinwheel tiling is the paradigm for a substitution tiling with circular symmetry, in the sense that the corresponding autocorrelation is circularly symmetric. As a consequence, its diffraction measure is also circularly symmetric, so the pinwheel diffraction consists of sharp rings and, possibly, a continuous component with circular symmetry. We consider some combinatorial properties of the tiles and their orientations, and a numerical approach to the diffraction of weighted pinwheel point sets.

  6. Tritium in the DIII-D carbon tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.L.; Kellman, A.G.; Lee, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    The amount of tritium in the carbon tiles used as a first wall in the DIII-D tokamak was measured recently when the tiles were removed and cleaned. The measurements were made as part of the task of developing the appropriate safety procedures for processing of the tiles. The surface tritium concentration on the carbon tiles was surveyed and the total tritium released from tile samples was measured in test bakes. The total tritium in all the carbon tiles at the time the tiles were removed for cleaning is estimated to be 15 mCi and the fraction of tritium retained in the tiles from DIII-D operations has a lower bound of 10%. The tritium was found to be concentrated in a narrow surface layer on the plasma facing side of the tile, was fully released when baked to 1,000 degree C, and was released in the form of tritiated gas (DT) as opposed to tritiated water (DTO) when baked

  7. Geopolymers as potential repair material in tiles conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes, Catarina F. M.; Lima, Augusta M.; Delgado-Rodrigues, José; Mimoso, João Manuel; Pereira, Sílvia R. M.

    2016-03-01

    The restoration materials currently used to fill gaps in historical architectural tiles (e.g. lime or organic resin pastes) usually show serious drawbacks in terms of compatibility, effectiveness or durability. The existing solutions do not fully protect Portuguese faïence tiles ( azulejos) in outdoor conditions and frequently result in further deterioration. Geopolymers can be a potential solution for tile lacunae infill, given the chemical-mineralogical similitude to the ceramic body, and also the durability and versatile range of physical properties that can be obtained through the manipulation of their formulation and curing conditions. This work presents and discusses the viability of the use of geopolymeric pastes to fill lacunae in tiles or to act as "cold" cast ceramic tile surrogates reproducing missing tile fragments. The formulation of geopolymers, namely the type of activators, the alumino-silicate source, the quantity of water required for adequate workability and curing conditions, was studied. The need for post-curing desalination was also considered envisaging their application in the restoration of outdoor historical architectural tiles frequently exposed to adverse environmental conditions. The possible advantages and disadvantages of the use of geopolymers in the conservation of tiles are also discussed. The results obtained reveal that geopolymers pastes are a promising material for the restoration of tiles, when compared to other solutions currently in use.

  8. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00127668; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5 1034cm2s1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC starting in 2026. All signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow ...

  9. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solodkov, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5x10ˆ34 cm-2s-1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC starting in 2026. All signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will a...

  10. Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Program for the Luminosity Increasing at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with approximately 10,000 channels and is operating successfully (data quality efficiency above 99%) in ATLAS, since the start of the LHC collisions. The LHC is scheduled to undergo a major upgrade, in 2022, for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), where the luminosity will be increased by a factor of 10 above the original design value. The ATLAS upgrade program for high luminosity is split into three phases: Phase 0 occurred during 2013-2014 (Long Shutdown 1), and prepared the LHC for run 2; Phase 1, foreseen for 2019 (Long Shutdown 2), will prepare the LHC for run 3, whereafter the peak luminosity reaches 2-3 x 10^{34} cm^{2}s^{-1}; finally, Phase 2, which is foreseen for 2024 (Long Shutdown 3), will prepare the collider for the HL-LHC operation (5-7 x 10^{34} cm^{2}s^{-1}). The TileCal main activities for Phase 0 were the installation of the new low v...

  11. Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Program for the Luminosity Increasing at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with approximately 10,000 channels and is operating successfully (data quality efficiency above 99%) in ATLAS, since the start of the LHC collisions. The LHC is scheduled to undergo a major upgrade, in 2022, for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), where the luminosity will be increased by a factor of 10 above the original design value. The ATLAS upgrade program for high luminosity is split into three phases: Phase 0 occurred during 2013-2014 (Long Shutdown 1), and prepared the LHC for run 2; Phase 1, foreseen for 2019 (Long Shutdown 2), will prepare the LHC for run 3, whereafter the peak luminosity reaches 2-3 x 10^{34} cm^{2}s^{-1}; finally, Phase 2, which is foreseen for 2023 (Long Shutdown 3), will prepare the collider for the HL-LHC operation (5-7 x 10^{34} cm^{2}s^{-1}). The TileCal main activities for Phase 0 were the installation of the new low v...

  12. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  13. Robotic end-effector for rewaterproofing shuttle tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouchehri, Davoud; Hansen, Joseph M.; Wu, Cheng M.; Yamamoto, Brian S.; Graham, Todd

    1992-11-01

    This paper summarizes work by Rockwell International's Space Systems Division's Robotics Group at Downey, California. The work is part of a NASA-led team effort to automate Space Shuttle rewaterproofing in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center and the ferry facility at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. Rockwell's effort focuses on the rewaterproofing end-effector, whose function is to inject hazardous dimethylethyloxysilane into thousands of ceramic tiles on the underside of the orbiter after each flight. The paper has five sections. First, it presents background on the present manual process. Second, end-effector requirements are presented, including safety and interface control. Third, a design is presented for the five end-effector systems: positioning, delivery, containment, data management, and command and control. Fourth, end-effector testing and integrating to the total system are described. Lastly, future applications for this technology are discussed.

  14. The Production and Qualification of Scintillator Tiles for the ATLAS Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Alexa, C; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Andresen, X; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosi, F; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu; Calvet, D; Cardeira, C; Carli, T; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castillo, M V; Costello, J; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Da Silva, P; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Del Prete, T; Diakov, E; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Drake, G; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Feng, E; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferreira, B C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Flix, J; Francavilla, P; Fullana, E; Garde, V; Gellerstedt, K; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giokaris, N; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Gouveia, J; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Hill, N; Holmgren, S; Hruska, I; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Jen-La Plante, I; Jon-And, K; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A; Khubua, J; Klereborn, J; Konsnantinov, V; Kopikov, S; Korolkov, I; Krivkova, P; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Lapin, V; LeCompte, T; Lefèvre, R; Leitner, R; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Lourtie, P; Lovas, L; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nikitine, I; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M; Palan, B; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Pereira, A; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Pod, E; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Pribyl, a L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Ramalho, M; Ramstedt, M; Raposeiro, L; Reis, J; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Rumiantsau, V; Rusakovich, N; Sada Costa, J; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Says, L P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shalanda, N; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Silva, J; Simaitis, V; Simonyan, M; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Speckmeyer, P; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Starovoitov, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tischenko, M; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Underwood, D; Usai, G; Valero, A; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A; Vazeille, F; Vellidis, C; Ventura, F; Vichou, I; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zaytsev, Yu; Zenin, A; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zilka, B

    2007-01-01

    The production of the scintillator tiles for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is presented. In addition to the manufacture and production, the properties of the tiles will be presented including light yield, uniformity and stability.

  15. Tiling a Pyramidal Polycube with Dominoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bodini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of pyramidal polycubes, namely the piling-up of bricks of a non-increasing size, generalizes in ℝ n the concept of trapezoidal polyominoes. In the present paper, we prove that n-dimensional dominoes can tile a pyramidal polycube if and only if the latter is balanced, that is, if the number of white cubes is equal to the number of black ones for a chessboard-like coloration, generalizing the result of [BC92] when n=2

  16. The broad utility of Trizac diamond tile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, John I.; Romero, Vincent D.; Sventek, Bruce; Zu, Lijun

    2017-10-01

    Sample finishing data from a broad range of materials — glasses, sapphire, silicon carbide, silicon, zirconium oxide, lithium tantalate, and flooring materials — are shown effectively processed with Trizact™ Diamond Tile (TDT). This data should provide the reader with an understanding of what to expect when using TDT on hard to grind or brittle materials. Keys to maintaining effective TDT pad wear rates, and therefore cost effect and stable processes, are described as managing 1) the proper lubricant flow rate for glasses and silicon-type materials and 2) the conditioning particle concentration for harder-to-grind materials

  17. Geometric approximation algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Har-Peled, Sariel

    2011-01-01

    Exact algorithms for dealing with geometric objects are complicated, hard to implement in practice, and slow. Over the last 20 years a theory of geometric approximation algorithms has emerged. These algorithms tend to be simple, fast, and more robust than their exact counterparts. This book is the first to cover geometric approximation algorithms in detail. In addition, more traditional computational geometry techniques that are widely used in developing such algorithms, like sampling, linear programming, etc., are also surveyed. Other topics covered include approximate nearest-neighbor search, shape approximation, coresets, dimension reduction, and embeddings. The topics covered are relatively independent and are supplemented by exercises. Close to 200 color figures are included in the text to illustrate proofs and ideas.

  18. Geometrical optical illusionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Geometrical optical illusions were given this title by Oppel in 1855. Variants on such small distortions of visual space were illustrated thereafter, many of which bear the names of those who first described them. Some original forms of the geometrical optical illusions are shown together with 'perceptual portraits' of those who described them. These include: Roget, Chevreul, Fick, Zöllner, Poggendorff, Hering, Kundt, Delboeuf Mach, Helmholtz, Hermann, von Bezold, Müller-Lyer, Lipps, Thiéry, Wundt, Münsterberg, Ebbinghaus, Titchener, Ponzo, Luckiesh, Sander, Ehrenstein, Gregory, Heard, White, Shepard, and. Lingelbach. The illusions are grouped under the headings of orientation, size, the combination of size and orientation, and contrast. Early theories of illusions, before geometrical optical illusions were so named, are mentioned briefly.

  19. THE TILES FROM THE STOVES OF K. ROZUMOVSKYI’S PALACE AND PARK ENSEMBLE IN BATURYN HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL PRESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. А. Герасько

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this article is the research of the artistic design of the heating system of K. Rozumovskyi’s palace in Baturyn. The object of the research of this theme is thorough study of the production and application of Baturyn tiles in the heating system of the last Ukrainian hetman’s palace. The method of the research of this theme is study of the written sources: the archival documents, the reports of the archaeological expeditions, popular scientific literature, the periodical press and study of the explored material (tiles, made the visual comparative analysis, visiting the museums of local lore. The results of the research can be used in the study of the tiles production and their application in the artistic design of the stove system heating in the 2nd half of the ХVІІІ –beginning ХІХ cent.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  20. Highly Symmetric and Congruently Tiled Meshes for Shells and Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Muhibur; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2016-01-01

    We describe the generation of all possible shell and dome shapes that can be uniquely meshed (tiled) using a single type of mesh face (tile), and following a single meshing (tiling) rule that governs the mesh (tile) arrangement with maximal vertex, edge and face symmetries. Such tiling arrangements or congruently tiled meshed shapes, are frequently found in chemical forms (fullerenes or Bucky balls, crystals, quasi-crystals, virus nano shells or capsids), and synthetic shapes (cages, sports domes, modern architectural facades). Congruently tiled meshes are both aesthetic and complete, as they support maximal mesh symmetries with minimal complexity and possess simple generation rules. Here, we generate congruent tilings and meshed shape layouts that satisfy these optimality conditions. Further, the congruent meshes are uniquely mappable to an almost regular 3D polyhedron (or its dual polyhedron) and which exhibits face-transitive (and edge-transitive) congruency with at most two types of vertices (each type transitive to the other). The family of all such congruently meshed polyhedra create a new class of meshed shapes, beyond the well-studied regular, semi-regular and quasi-regular classes, and their duals (platonic, Catalan and Johnson). While our new mesh class is infinite, we prove that there exists a unique mesh parametrization, where each member of the class can be represented by two integer lattice variables, and moreover efficiently constructable. PMID:27563368

  1. METHOD FOR EVALUATING MOLD GROWTH ON CEILING TILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method to extract mold spores from porous ceiling tiles was developed using a masticator blender. Ceiling tiles were inoculated and analyzed using four species of mold. Statistical analysis comparing results obtained by masticator extraction and the swab method was performed. T...

  2. Computerized Machine for Cutting Space Shuttle Thermal Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Luis E.; Reuter, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    A report presents the concept of a machine aboard the space shuttle that would cut oversized thermal-tile blanks to precise sizes and shapes needed to replace tiles that were damaged or lost during ascent to orbit. The machine would include a computer-controlled jigsaw enclosed in a clear acrylic shell that would prevent escape of cutting debris. A vacuum motor would collect the debris into a reservoir and would hold a tile blank securely in place. A database stored in the computer would contain the unique shape and dimensions of every tile. Once a broken or missing tile was identified, its identification number would be entered into the computer, wherein the cutting pattern associated with that number would be retrieved from the database. A tile blank would be locked into a crib in the machine, the shell would be closed (proximity sensors would prevent activation of the machine while the shell was open), and a "cut" command would be sent from the computer. A blade would be moved around the crib like a plotter, cutting the tile to the required size and shape. Once the tile was cut, an astronaut would take a space walk for installation.

  3. Field guide to geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Greivenkamp, John E

    2004-01-01

    This Field Guide derives from the treatment of geometrical optics that has evolved from both the undergraduate and graduate programs at the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona. The development is both rigorous and complete, and it features a consistent notation and sign convention. This volume covers Gaussian imagery, paraxial optics, first-order optical system design, system examples, illumination, chromatic effects, and an introduction to aberrations. The appendices provide supplemental material on radiometry and photometry, the human eye, and several other topics.

  4. The TileCal Barrel Test Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Leitner, R

    On 30th October, the mechanics test assembly of the central barrel of the ATLAS tile hadronic calorimeter was completed in building 185. It started on 23rd June and is the second wheel for the Tilecal completely assembled this year. The ATLAS engineers and technicians are quick: instead of the 27 weeks initially foreseen for assembling the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter (Tilecal) in building 185, they inserted the last of the 64 modules on 30th October after only 19 weeks. In part, this was due to the experience gained in the dry run assembly of the first extended barrel, produced in Spain, in spring this year (see Bulletin 23/2003); however, the central barrel is twice as long - and twice as heavy. With a length of 6.4 metres, an outer diameter of 8.5 metres and an inner diameter of 4.5 metres, the object weight is 1300 tonnes. The whole barrel cylinder is supported by the stainless steel support structure weighing only 27 tons. The barrel also has to have the right shape: over the whole 8...

  5. 5th Dagstuhl Seminar on Geometric Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Brunnett, Guido; Farin, Gerald; Goldman, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In 19 articles presented by leading experts in the field of geometric modelling the state-of-the-art on representing, modeling, and analyzing curves, surfaces as well as other 3-dimensional geometry is given. The range of applications include CAD/CAM-systems, computer graphics, scientific visualization, virtual reality, simulation and medical imaging. The content of this book is based on selected lectures given at a workshop held at IBFI Schloss Dagstuhl, Germany. Topics treated are: – curve and surface modelling – non-manifold modelling in CAD – multiresolution analysis of complex geometric models – surface reconstruction – variational design – computational geometry of curves and surfaces – 3D meshing – geometric modelling for scientific visualization – geometric models for biomedical applications

  6. Geometric Liouville gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, H.

    1992-01-01

    A new geometric formulation of Liouville gravity based on the area preserving diffeo-morphism is given and a possible alternative to reinterpret Liouville gravity is suggested, namely, a scalar field coupled to two-dimensional gravity with a curvature constraint

  7. A Geometric Dissection Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 7. A Geometric Dissection Problem. M N Deshpande. Think It Over Volume 7 Issue 7 July 2002 pp 91-91. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/07/0091-0091. Author Affiliations.

  8. Geometric statistical inference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periwal, Vipul

    1999-01-01

    A reparametrization-covariant formulation of the inverse problem of probability is explicitly solved for finite sample sizes. The inferred distribution is explicitly continuous for finite sample size. A geometric solution of the statistical inference problem in higher dimensions is outlined

  9. Geometric Series via Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesman, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Infinite series is a challenging topic in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum for many students. In fact, there is a vast literature in mathematics education research on convergence issues. One of the most important types of infinite series is the geometric series. Their beauty lies in the fact that they can be evaluated explicitly and that…

  10. Ceramic tiles: above and beyond traditional applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno, A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available At present ceramic tiles are already being marketed with characteristics and performance features that make them products whose applications go far beyond traditional tile uses. These are not just future possibilities: their industrial and commercial reality already makes them immediately serviceable in multiple environments. And this is precisely the key concept in these new tile applications: their features make them useable for wholly different functions – functions till now reserved for other products – or, in certain cases, for entirely novel functions. In addition, the functionalities involved are destined to improve aspects directly related to the quality of life, conditions of habitability or, for instance, to using such a vital natural source of energy as solar radiation. It should, therefore, be stressed that these new generations of ceramic tiles are to be considered part of the range of architectural elements for both external and internal uses, since, as the following will show, they provide the surfaces they clad with a broad spectrum of properties and functions without detriment to the aesthetic qualities, always so characteristic, of ceramic tile. To illustrate the above, the present paper describes three new families of ceramic products. These groups of products are conceptually different and many-sided, which makes them serviceable as functional elements in different contexts.

    En estos momentos, ya hay en el mercado baldosas cerámicas dotadas de características y prestaciones que hacen de ellas productos con aplicaciones que van mucho más allá de los usos a que tradicionalmente han estado asociadas. No se trata tan sólo de posibilidades futuras, sino de productos con una realidad industrial y comercial, que permite su implantación inmediata en los diferentes ámbitos en los que pueden desarrollar su funcionalidad. Y este es precisamente el concepto clave de estas nuevas aplicaciones de las baldosas cer

  11. Ultrasonic characterization of defective porcelain tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren, E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the optimization of ultrasonic methods in the non-destructive testing of sintered porcelain tiles containing defects. For this reason, a silicon nitride ball, carbon black and PMMA (Polymethylmethacrylate were imbedded in porcelain tile granules before pressing to make special defects in tiles. After sintering at 1220ºC, the time of flight of the ultrasonic waves and ultrasonic signal amplitudes through the sintered porcelain tiles were measured by a contact ultrasonic transducer operating on pulse-echo mode. This method can allow for defect detection using the A-scan. The results of the test showed that the amplitude of the received peak for a defective part is smaller than for a part which has no defects. Depending on the size, shape and position of the defect, its peak can be detected. Additionally, an immersion pulse-echo C-scan method was also used to differentiate between defects in porcelain tiles. By using this technique, it is possible to determine the place and shape of defects. To support the results of the ultrasonic investigation, a SEM characterization was also made.

    El fin principal de este trabajo es la optimización de métodos ultrasónicos en la prueba no destructiva de azulejos sinterizados de porcelana que contienen defectos. Por lo tanto, bolas del nitruro de silicio, negros de carbón y PMMA (polimetilmetacrilato fueron encajados en gránulos del azulejo de porcelana antes de presionar para hacer defectos especiales en azulejos. Después de sinterizado en 1220ºC, el tiempo de vuelo de las ondas ultrasónicas fue medido a través del azulejo sinterizado de la porcelana. El tiempo del vuelo de ondas ultrasónicas fue medido por un transductor de contacto ultrasónico operando en modo eco-pulso. Este método puede permitir la detección de defectos usando escaneo-A. Los resultados de la prueba demostraron que la amplitud del pico recibido por partes defectuosas es más pequeño que la parte

  12. Pragmatic geometric model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamer, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of subsurface model reliability is mathematically and technically demanding as there are many different sources of uncertainty and some of the factors can be assessed merely in a subjective way. For many practical applications in industry or risk assessment (e. g. geothermal drilling) a quantitative estimation of possible geometric variations in depth unit is preferred over relative numbers because of cost calculations for different scenarios. The talk gives an overview of several factors that affect the geometry of structural subsurface models that are based upon typical geological survey organization (GSO) data like geological maps, borehole data and conceptually driven construction of subsurface elements (e. g. fault network). Within the context of the trans-European project "GeoMol" uncertainty analysis has to be very pragmatic also because of different data rights, data policies and modelling software between the project partners. In a case study a two-step evaluation methodology for geometric subsurface model uncertainty is being developed. In a first step several models of the same volume of interest have been calculated by omitting successively more and more input data types (seismic constraints, fault network, outcrop data). The positions of the various horizon surfaces are then compared. The procedure is equivalent to comparing data of various levels of detail and therefore structural complexity. This gives a measure of the structural significance of each data set in space and as a consequence areas of geometric complexity are identified. These areas are usually very data sensitive hence geometric variability in between individual data points in these areas is higher than in areas of low structural complexity. Instead of calculating a multitude of different models by varying some input data or parameters as it is done by Monte-Carlo-simulations, the aim of the second step of the evaluation procedure (which is part of the ongoing work) is to

  13. Modular Interactive Tiles for Rehabilitation – Evidence and Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2010-01-01

    years) in daily use in a hospital rehabilitation unit e.g. for cardiac patients. Also, the tiles were tested for performing physical rehabilitation of stroke patients both in hospital, rehabilitation centre and in their private home. In all test cases qualitative feedback indicate that the patients find......We developed modular interactive tiles to be used for playful physiotherapy, which is supposed to motivate patients to engage in and perform physical rehabilitation exercises. We report on evidence for elderly training. We tested the modular interactive tiles for an extensive period of time (4...... the playful use of modular interactive tiles engaging and motivating for them to perform the rehabilitation. Also, test data suggest that some playful exercises on the tiles demand an average heart rate of 75% and 86% of the maximum heart rate....

  14. Detection of beta radiation emitted from painted tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1988-06-01

    At the Kraftwerk Union (KWU), Erlangen, Federal Republic of Germany, it was confirmed that some types of painted tiles of italian origin were radioactive. In this work, performed at Institut fur Strahlenschutz, GSF, Munich, Germany, ultra-thin (60μm) thermoluminescent samples of CaSO 4 :Tm were used for the determination of absorved dose rates in air (at the tile surface and at the distance of 5 cm from it) and of transmission factors for different tissue equivalent material thicknesses. For comparison the absorved dose rates in air from cement walls without tile revestment and with simple tile revestment (tiles without painted ornaments) were also determined. In these cases the results were the same as those obtained normally from building materials. (author) [pt

  15. Detection of beta radiation emitted from painted tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1987-01-01

    At the Krafwerk Union (KWU), Erlangen, Germany, it was confirmed that some types of painted tiles of italian origin were radioactive. In this Work, performed at Institut fur Strahlenschutz, GSF, Germany, ultrathin 60μm) thermoluminescent samples of CaSO 4 :Tm were used for the determination of absorved dose rates in air (at the tile surface and at distance of 5cm from it) and of transmission factors for different tissue equivalent material thicknesses. For comparison the absorved dose rates in air from cement walls without tile revestment and with simple tile revestment (tiles without painted ornaments) were also determined. In these cases the results were the same as those obtained normally from building materials. (Author) [pt

  16. Bacterial contamination of tile drainage water and shallow groundwater under different application methods of liquid swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarajeewa, A D; Glasauer, S M; Lauzon, J D; O'Halloran, I P; Parkin, Gary W; Dunfield, K E

    2012-05-01

    A 2 year field experiment evaluated liquid manure application methods on the movement of manure-borne pathogens (Salmonella sp.) and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens) to subsurface water. A combination of application methods including surface application, pre-application tillage, and post-application incorporation were applied in a randomized complete block design on an instrumented field site in spring 2007 and 2008. Tile and shallow groundwater were sampled immediately after manure application and after rainfall events. Bacterial enumeration from water samples showed that the surface-applied manure resulted in the highest concentration of E. coli in tile drainage water. Pre-tillage significantly (p tile water and to shallow groundwater within 3 days after manure application (DAM) in 2008 and within 10 DAM in 2007. Pre-tillage also decreased the occurrence of Salmonella sp. in tile water samples. Indicator bacteria and pathogens reached nondetectable levels within 50 DAM. The results suggest that tillage before application of liquid swine manure can minimize the movement of bacteria to tile and groundwater, but is effective only for the drainage events immediately after manure application or initial rainfall-associated drainage flows. Furthermore, the study highlights the strong association between bacterial concentrations in subsurface waters and rainfall timing and volume after manure application.

  17. Electron beam-curing coating for pressed cement roof tiles with high-build and excellent durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tsutomu; Kiyata, Hiroaki

    1979-01-01

    Thick slate has expanded the demand steadily and spread to whole Japan except the northernmost part as a roof material, because it deals with rain water well, its strength, coldness resistance and endurance are excellent, and it can be worked easily. The ornamental finishing by urethane coating is not satisfactory in view of the improvement of productivity and the measures to pollution as well as the design and color. In order to meet this background, new coating has been sought, and electron beam-curing coating seems to be most suitable to cement roof tiles. The history and the present state of cement roof tiles are explained. About 700 tons/month of the coating for cement roof tiles is used at present, and acryl resin coating occupies about 75%, while urethane resin coating is used in Kyushu relatively more. The urethane coating is applied in shops by electrostatic coating, but the acryl coating is mostly applied in sites after tiling over. Electron beam curing used electron beam of 200 keV, and polymerization starts from the radicals formed through ionization, excitation and neutralization. The features of electron beam-curing coating are good adhesion to roof tiles, keeping luster and endurance to discoloration, strong film and feeling like porcelain, drying at normal temperature, productivity and economy. (J.P.N.)

  18. Analysis of the impact of thermal resistance of the roof on the performance of photovoltaic roof tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurz Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the issues related to the impact of thermal resistance of the roof on the electrical parameters of photovoltaic roof tiles. The methodology of determination of the thermal resistance and thermal transmittance factor was presented in accordance with the applicable legal regulations and standards. A test station was presented for the purpose of measurement of the parameters of photovoltaic roof tiles depending on the structure of the roof substrate. Detailed analysis of selected building components as well as their impact on the design thermal resistance factor and thermal transmittance factor was carried out. Results of our own studies, which indicated a relation between the type of the roof structure and the values of the electricity generated by photovoltaic tiles, were presented. Based on the calculations, it was concluded that the generated outputs in the respective constructions differ by maximum 6%. For cells with the highest temperature, the performance of the PV roof tiles on the respective roof constructions fell within the range between 0.4% and 1.2% (depending on the conducted measurement and amounted to 8.76% (in reference to 9.97% for roof tiles with the lowest temperature.

  19. Tile Drainage Expansion Detection using Satellite Soil Moisture Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Cho, E.; Jia, X.

    2017-12-01

    In the past two decades, tile drainage installation has accelerated throughout the Red River of the North Basin (RRB) in parts of western Minnesota, eastern North Dakota, and a small area of northeastern South Dakota, because the flat topography and low-permeability soils in this region necessitated the removal of excess water to improve crop production. Interestingly, streamflow in the Red River has markedly increased and six of 13 major floods during the past century have occurred since the late 1990s. It has been suggested that the increase in RRB flooding could be due to change in agricultural practices, including extensive tile drainage installation. Reliable information on existing and future tile drainage installation is greatly needed to capture the rapid extension of tile drainage systems and to locate tile drainage systems in the north central U.S. including the RRB region. However, there are few reliable data of tile drainage installation records, except tile drainage permit records in the Bois de Sioux watershed (a sub-basin in southern part of the RRB where permits are required for tile drainage installation). This study presents a tile drainage expansion detection method based on a physical principle that the soil-drying rate may increase with increasing tile drainage for a given area. In order to capture the rate of change in soil drying rate with time over entire RRB (101,500 km2), two satellite-based microwave soil moisture records from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and AMSR2 were used during 2002 to 2016. In this study, a sub-watershed level (HUC10) potential tile drainage growth map was developed and the results show good agreement with tile drainage permit records of six sub-watersheds in the Bois de Sioux watershed. Future analyses will include improvement of the potential tile drainage map through additional information using optical- and thermal-based sensor products and evaluation of its

  20. Surface Abrasion of Glazed Ceramic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito, L.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the proper surface of glazed ceramic tiles have a considerable influence on their mechanical response to the various stresses coming from the environment. In this regard, one of the most important parameters to define the correct use of these products is the wear behaviour of the proper surface. Since the glaze layer is the physical interface between the environment and ceramic body, its characteristics also determine the service life of the tile. The objective of the research reported here was to assess the influence of hardness, fracture toughness and porosity of the glaze layer on the wear behaviour of the proper surface of glazed ceramic tiles. The results obtained show a clear relationship between the characteristics of the glaze layer and the material removal in the form of normalised weight loss, which can be considered a useful tool to predict the wear behaviour of these products.

    Las características de la propia superficie de los azulejos cerámicos esmaltados tiene una influencia considerable en la respuesta mecánica de éstos a las distintas tensiones provenientes del entorno. De acuerdo con esto, uno de los parámetros más importantes que definen la correcta utilización de estos productos es el comportamiento ante el desgaste de la propia superficie. Debido a que la capa de esmalte es la conexión física entre el entorno y el cuerpo cerámico, sus características también determinan vida útil del azulejo. El objetivo de la investigación de la que damos cuenta aquí fue calcular la influencia de la dureza, resistencia a la fractura y porosidad de la capa de esmalte en el comportamiento ante el desgaste de la propia superficie de los azulejos cerámicos esmaltados. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una clara relación entre las características de la capa de esmalte y la eliminación del material en forma de pérdida de peso normalizada, que puede ser considerada como una herramienta útil para

  1. Dynamics in geometrical confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the dynamics of low molecular weight and polymeric molecules when they are constrained under conditions of geometrical confinement. It covers geometrical confinement in different dimensionalities: (i) in nanometer thin layers or self supporting films (1-dimensional confinement) (ii) in pores or tubes with nanometric diameters (2-dimensional confinement) (iii) as micelles embedded in matrices (3-dimensional) or as nanodroplets.The dynamics under such conditions have been a much discussed and central topic in the focus of intense worldwide research activities within the last two decades. The present book discusses how the resulting molecular mobility is influenced by the subtle counterbalance between surface effects (typically slowing down molecular dynamics through attractive guest/host interactions) and confinement effects (typically increasing the mobility). It also explains how these influences can be modified and tuned, e.g. through appropriate surface coatings, film thicknesses or pore...

  2. Lectures in geometric combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Rekha R

    2006-01-01

    This book presents a course in the geometry of convex polytopes in arbitrary dimension, suitable for an advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate student. The book starts with the basics of polytope theory. Schlegel and Gale diagrams are introduced as geometric tools to visualize polytopes in high dimension and to unearth bizarre phenomena in polytopes. The heart of the book is a treatment of the secondary polytope of a point configuration and its connections to the state polytope of the toric ideal defined by the configuration. These polytopes are relatively recent constructs with numerous connections to discrete geometry, classical algebraic geometry, symplectic geometry, and combinatorics. The connections rely on Gr�bner bases of toric ideals and other methods from commutative algebra. The book is self-contained and does not require any background beyond basic linear algebra. With numerous figures and exercises, it can be used as a textbook for courses on geometric, combinatorial, and computational as...

  3. Gravity, a geometrical course

    CERN Document Server

    Frè, Pietro Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    ‘Gravity, a Geometrical Course’ presents general relativity (GR) in a systematic and exhaustive way, covering three aspects that are homogenized into a single texture: i) the mathematical, geometrical foundations, exposed in a self consistent contemporary formalism, ii) the main physical, astrophysical and cosmological applications,  updated to the issues of contemporary research and observations, with glimpses on supergravity and superstring theory, iii) the historical development of scientific ideas underlying both the birth of general relativity and its subsequent evolution. The book is divided in two volumes.   Volume One is dedicated to the development of the theory and basic physical applications. It guides the reader from the foundation of special relativity to Einstein field equations, illustrating some basic applications in astrophysics. A detailed  account  of the historical and conceptual development of the theory is combined with the presentation of its mathematical foundations.  Differe...

  4. Relationship between meanings, emotions, product preferences and personal values. Application to ceramic tile floorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agost, María-Jesús; Vergara, Margarita

    2014-07-01

    This work aims to validate a conceptual framework which establishes the main relationships between subjective elements in human-product interaction, such as meanings, emotions, product preferences, and personal values. The study analyzes the relationships between meanings and emotions, and between these and preferences, as well as the influence of personal values on such relationships. The study was applied to ceramic tile floorings. A questionnaire with images of a neutral room with different ceramic tile floorings was designed and distributed via the web. Results from the study suggest that both meanings and emotions must be taken into account in the generation of product preferences. The meanings given to the product can cause the generation of emotions, and both types of subjective impressions give rise to product preferences. Personal reference values influence these relationships between subjective impressions and product preferences. As a consequence, not only target customers' demographic data but specifically their values and criteria must be taken into account from the beginning of the development process. The specific results of this paper can be used directly by ceramic tile designers, who can better adjust product design (and the subjective impressions elicited) to the target market. Consequently, the chance of product success is reinforced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Geometric homology revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffino, Fabio Ferrari

    2013-01-01

    Given a cohomology theory, there is a well-known abstract way to define the dual homology theory using the theory of spectra. In [4] the author provides a more geometric construction of the homology theory, using a generalization of the bordism groups. Such a generalization involves in its definition the vector bundle modification, which is a particular case of the Gysin map. In this paper we provide a more natural variant of that construction, which replaces the vector bundle modification wi...

  6. Geometric measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Waerden, B

    1996-01-01

    From the reviews: "... Federer's timely and beautiful book indeed fills the need for a comprehensive treatise on geometric measure theory, and his detailed exposition leads from the foundations of the theory to the most recent discoveries. ... The author writes with a distinctive style which is both natural and powerfully economical in treating a complicated subject. This book is a major treatise in mathematics and is essential in the working library of the modern analyst." Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society.

  7. Developing geometrical reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Margaret; Jones, Keith; Taylor, Ron; Hirst, Ann

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarises a report (Brown, Jones & Taylor, 2003) to the UK Qualifications and Curriculum Authority of the work of one geometry group. The group was charged with developing and reporting on teaching ideas that focus on the development of geometrical reasoning at the secondary school level. The group was encouraged to explore what is possible both within and beyond the current requirements of the UK National Curriculum and the Key Stage 3 strategy, and to consider the whole atta...

  8. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  9. Geometric theory of information

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together geometric tools and their applications for Information analysis. It collects current and many uses of in the interdisciplinary fields of Information Geometry Manifolds in Advanced Signal, Image & Video Processing, Complex Data Modeling and Analysis, Information Ranking and Retrieval, Coding, Cognitive Systems, Optimal Control, Statistics on Manifolds, Machine Learning, Speech/sound recognition, and natural language treatment which are also substantially relevant for the industry.

  10. Castellated tiles as the beam-facing components for the diagnostic calorimeter of the negative ion source SPIDER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peruzzo, S., E-mail: simone.peruzzo@igi.cnr.it; Cervaro, V.; Dalla Palma, M.; Delogu, R.; Fasolo, D.; Franchin, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Rizzolo, A.; Tollin, M.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); De Muri, M. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); INFN-LNL, v.le dell’Università 2, I-35020 Legnaro, PD (Italy); Pimazzoni, A. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Zampieri, L. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    This paper presents the results of numerical simulations and experimental tests carried out to assess the feasibility and suitability of graphite castellated tiles as beam-facing component in the diagnostic calorimeter of the negative ion source SPIDER (Source for Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from Radio frequency plasma). The results indicate that this concept could be a reliable, although less performing, alternative for the present design based on carbon fiber composite tiles, as it provides thermal measurements on the required spatial scale.

  11. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrió Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in the middle of 2014 during the first Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The Main Board will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the Daughter Board will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the super Read-Out Driver (sROD will perform processing tasks on them and will be the interface to the trigger levels 0, 1 and 2.

  12. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2024. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  13. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F

    2013-01-01

    This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  14. Condensate oscillations in a Penrose tiling lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, Z.; Vignolo, P.

    2017-07-01

    We study the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate subject to a particular Penrose tiling lattice. In such a lattice, the potential energy at each site depends on the neighbour sites, accordingly to the model introduced by Sutherland [16]. The Bose-Einstein wavepacket, initially at rest at the lattice symmetry center, is released. We observe a very complex time-evolution that strongly depends on the symmetry center (two choices are possible), on the potential energy landscape dispersion, and on the interaction strength. The condensate-width oscillates at different frequencies and we can identify large-frequency reshaping oscillations and low-frequency rescaling oscillations. We discuss in which conditions these oscillations are spatially bounded, denoting a self-trapping dynamics.

  15. Geometric leaf placement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenwick, J D; Temple, S W P; Clements, R W; Lawrence, G P; Mayles, H M O; Mayles, W P M

    2004-01-01

    Geometric leaf placement strategies for multileaf collimators (MLCs) typically involve the expansion of the beam's-eye-view contour of a target by a uniform MLC margin, followed by movement of the leaves until some point on each leaf end touches the expanded contour. Film-based dose-distribution measurements have been made to determine appropriate MLC margins-characterized through an index d 90 -for multileaves set using one particular strategy to straight lines lying at various angles to the direction of leaf travel. Simple trigonometric relationships exist between different geometric leaf placement strategies and are used to generalize the results of the film work into d 90 values for several different strategies. Measured d 90 values vary both with angle and leaf placement strategy. A model has been derived that explains and describes quite well the observed variations of d 90 with angle. The d 90 angular variations of the strategies studied differ substantially, and geometric and dosimetric reasoning suggests that the best strategy is the one with the least angular variation. Using this criterion, the best straightforwardly implementable strategy studied is a 'touch circle' approach for which semicircles are imagined to be inscribed within leaf ends, the leaves being moved until the semicircles just touch the expanded target outline

  16. Studies in geometric quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuynman, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis contains five chapters, of which the first, entitled 'What is prequantization, and what is geometric quantization?', is meant as an introduction to geometric quantization for the non-specialist. The second chapter, entitled 'Central extensions and physics' deals with the notion of central extensions of manifolds and elaborates and proves the statements made in the first chapter. Central extensions of manifolds occur in physics as the freedom of a phase factor in the quantum mechanical state vector, as the phase factor in the prequantization process of classical mechanics and it appears in mathematics when studying central extension of Lie groups. In this chapter the connection between these central extensions is investigated and a remarkable similarity between classical and quantum mechanics is shown. In chapter three a classical model is given for the hydrogen atom including spin-orbit and spin-spin interaction. The method of geometric quantization is applied to this model and the results are discussed. In the final chapters (4 and 5) an explicit method to calculate the operators corresponding to classical observables is given when the phase space is a Kaehler manifold. The obtained formula are then used to quantise symplectic manifolds which are irreducible hermitian symmetric spaces and the results are compared with other quantization procedures applied to these manifolds (in particular to Berezin's quantization). 91 refs.; 3 tabs

  17. Coal fly ash utilization: Low temperature sintering of wall tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Navin; Sharma, Priya; Pashkov, G.L.; Voskresenskaya, E.N.; Amritphale, S.S.; Baghel, Narendra S.

    2008-01-01

    We present here a study of the sintering of fly ash and its mixture with low alkali pyrophyllite in the presence of sodium hexa meta phosphate (SHMP), a complex activator of sintering, for the purpose of wall tile manufacturing. The sintering of fly ash with SHMP in the temperature range 925-1050 deg. C produces tiles with low impact strength; however, the incremental addition of low alkali pyrophyllite improves impact strength. The impact strength of composites with ≥40% (w/w) pyrophyllite in the fly ash-pyrophyllite mix satisfies the acceptable limit (19.6 J/m) set by the Indian Standards Institute for wall tiles. Increasing the pyrophyllite content results in an increase in the apparent density of tiles, while shrinkage and water absorption decrease. The strength of fly ash tiles is attributed to the formation of a silicophosphate phase; in pyrophyllite rich tiles, it is attributed to the formation of a tridymite-structured T-AlPO 4 phase. Scanning electron micrographs show that the reinforcing rod shaped T-AlPO 4 crystals become more prominent as the pyrophyllite content increases in the sintered tiles

  18. Spectral response data for development of cool coloured tile coverings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbra, Antonio; Tarozzi, Luca; Muscio, Alberto; Corticelli, Mauro A.

    2011-03-01

    Most ancient or traditional buildings in Italy show steep-slope roofs covered by red clay tiles. As the rooms immediately below the roof are often inhabited in historical or densely urbanized centres, the combination of low solar reflectance of tile coverings and low thermal inertia of either wooden roof structures or sub-tile insulation panels makes summer overheating a major problem. The problem can be mitigated by using tiles coated with cool colours, that is colours with the same spectral response of clay tiles in the visible, but highly reflecting in the near infrared range, which includes more than half of solar radiation. Cool colours can yield the same visible aspect of common building surfaces, but higher solar reflectance. Studies aimed at developing cool colour tile coverings for traditional Italian buildings have been started. A few coating solutions with the typical red terracotta colour have been produced and tested in the laboratory, using easily available materials. The spectral response and the solar reflectance have been measured and compared with that of standard tiles.

  19. Geometrical charged-particle optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are...

  20. Viewport: an object-oriented approach to integrate workstation software for tile and stack mode display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Andriole, K P; Avrin, D E

    1997-08-01

    Diagnostic workstation design has migrated towards display presentation in one of two modes: tiled images or stacked images. It is our impression that the workstation setup or configuration in each of these two modes is rather distinct. We sought to establish a commonality to simplify software design, and to enable a single descriptor method to facilitate folder manager development of "hanging" protocols. All current workstation designs use a combination of "off-screen" and "on-screen" memory whether or not they use a dedicated display subsystem, or merely a video board. Most diagnostic workstations also have two or more monitors. Our central concept is that of a "logical" viewport that can be smaller than, the same size as, or larger than a single monitor. Each port "views" an image data sequence loaded into offscreen memory. Each viewport can display one or more images in sequence in a one-on-one or traditionally tiled presentation. Viewports can be assigned to the available monitor "real estate" in any manner that fits. For example, a single sequence computed tomography (CT) study could be displayed across all monitors in a tiled appearance by assigning a single large viewport to the monitors. At the other extreme, a multisequence magnetic resonance (MR) study could be compared with a similar previous study by assigning four viewports to each monitor, single image display per viewport, and assigning four of the sequences of the current study to the left monitor viewports, and four of the earlier study to the right monitor viewports. Ergonomic controls activate scrolling through the off-screen image sequence data. Workstation folder manager hanging protocols could then specify viewports, number of images per viewport, and the automatic assignment of appropriately named sequences of current and previous studies to the viewports on a radiologist-specific basis. Furthermore, software development is simplified by common base objects and methods of the tile and stack

  1. Geometrical model of multiple production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikovani, Z.E.; Jenkovszky, L.L.; Kvaratshelia, T.M.; Struminskij, B.V.

    1988-01-01

    The relation between geometrical and KNO-scaling and their violation is studied in a geometrical model of multiple production of hadrons. Predictions concerning the behaviour of correlation coefficients at future accelerators are given

  2. Kinetic calculation of plasma deposition in castellated tile gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejarnac, R.; Gunn, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Plasma-facing divertors and limiters are armoured with castellated tiles to withstand intense heat fluxes. Recent experimental studies show that a non-negligible amount of deuterium is deposited in the gaps between tiles. We present here a numerical study of plasma deposition in this critical region. For this purpose we have developed a particle-in-cell code with realistic boundary conditions determined from kinetic calculations. We find a strong asymmetry of plasma deposition into the gaps. A significant fraction of the plasma influx is expelled from the gap to be deposited on the leading edge of the downstream tile

  3. LASER monitoring system for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viret, S.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN uses a scintillator-iron technique for its hadronic Tile Calorimeter (TileCal). Scintillating light is readout via 9852 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Calibration and monitoring of these PMTs are made using a LASER based system. Short light pulses are sent simultaneously into all the TileCal photomultiplier's tubes (PMTs) during ATLAS physics runs, thus providing essential information for ATLAS data quality and monitoring analyses. The experimental setup developed for this purpose is described as well as preliminary results obtained during ATLAS commissioning phase in 2008.

  4. Hierarchical Solution of the Traveling Salesman Problem with Random Dyadic Tilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár-Nagy, Tamás; Bak, Bendegúz Dezső

    We propose a hierarchical heuristic approach for solving the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) in the unit square. The points are partitioned with a random dyadic tiling and clusters are formed by the points located in the same tile. Each cluster is represented by its geometrical barycenter and a “coarse” TSP solution is calculated for these barycenters. Midpoints are placed at the middle of each edge in the coarse solution. Near-optimal (or optimal) minimum tours are computed for each cluster. The tours are concatenated using the midpoints yielding a solution for the original TSP. The method is tested on random TSPs (independent, identically distributed points in the unit square) up to 10,000 points as well as on a popular benchmark problem (att532 — coordinates of 532 American cities). Our solutions are 8-13% longer than the optimal ones. We also present an optimization algorithm for the partitioning to improve our solutions. This algorithm further reduces the solution errors (by several percent using 1000 iteration steps). The numerical experiments demonstrate the viability of the approach.

  5. Geometric Constructions with the Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Jen-chung

    The computer can be used as a tool to represent and communicate geometric knowledge. With the appropriate software, a geometric diagram can be manipulated through a series of animation that offers more than one particular snapshot as shown in a traditional mathematical text. Geometric constructions with the computer enable the learner to see and…

  6. FATALIC: a fully integrated electronics readout for the ATLAS tile calorimeter at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angelidakis, Stylianos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has started a vast program of upgrades in the context of high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) foreseen in 2024. The current readout electronics of every sub-detector, including the Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), must be upgraded to comply with the extreme HL-LHC operating conditions. The ASIC described in this document, named Front-end ATlAs tiLe Integrated Circuit (FATALIC), has been developed to fulfill these requirements. FATALIC is based on a $130\\,$nm CMOS technology and performs the complete processing of the signal, including amplification, shaping and digitization on a large dynamic range A dedicated channel for low current is also designed in order to perform absolute calibration with radioactive cesium source, producing a known but low signal with a typical frequency of $100\\,$Hz. In this document, the design of FATALIC is described and the measured performances as well as results of tests using beam of particles at CERN are discussed.

  7. Elliptical tiling method to generate a 2-dimensional set of templates for gravitational wave search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Kreckelbergh, Stephane; Porter, Edward K.

    2003-01-01

    Searching for a signal depending on unknown parameters in a noisy background with matched filtering techniques always requires an analysis of the data with several templates in parallel in order to ensure a proper match between the filter and the real waveform. The key feature of such an implementation is the design of the filter bank which must be small to limit the computational cost while keeping the detection efficiency as high as possible. This paper presents a geometrical method that allows one to cover the corresponding physical parameter space by a set of ellipses, each of them being associated with a given template. After the description of the main characteristics of the algorithm, the method is applied in the field of gravitational wave (GW) data analysis, for the search of damped sine signals. Such waveforms are expected to be produced during the deexcitation phase of black holes - the so-called 'ringdown' signals - and are also encountered in some numerically computed supernova signals. First, the number of templates N computed by the method is similar to its analytical estimation, despite the overlaps between neighbor templates and the border effects. Moreover, N is small enough to test for the first time the performances of the set of templates for different choices of the minimal match MM, the parameter used to define the maximal allowed loss of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to the mismatch between real signals and templates. The main result of this analysis is that the fraction of SNR recovered is on average much higher than MM, which dramatically decreases the mean percentage of false dismissals. Indeed, it goes well below its estimated value of 1-MM 3 used as input of the algorithm. Thus, as this feature should be common to any tiling algorithm, it seems possible to reduce the constraint on the value of MM - and indeed the number of templates and the computing power - without losing as many events as expected on average. This should be of great

  8. Thermal load resistance of erosion-monitoring beryllium maker tile for JET ITER like wall project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Sundelin, P.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.F.; Lungu, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The ITER reference materials, beryllium (Be), carbon fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten (W), have been tested separately in tokamaks. An integrated test demonstrating both compatibility of metal plasma facing components with high-power operation and acceptable tritium retention has not yet been carried out. At JET, the size, magnetic field strength and high plasma current allow to conducting tests with the combination of the materials. Thus, the ITER-like Wall (ILW) project has been launched. In the project, Be will be the plasmafacing material on the main chamber wall of JET. To assess the erosion of the Be tiles, a Be marker tile was proposed and designed. The test samples which simulate the JET Be marker tile have been produced in MEdC, Romania in order to study the thermal load resistance of the JET Be marker (20 x 20 mm 2 size with 30 mm height). The marker tile sample consists of bulk Be, high-Z interlayer (2-3 μm Ni coating) and 8-9 μm Be coating. Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) techniques based on the electron-induced evaporation have been selected for this purpose. In the present work, the global characterization of the maker tile samples and thermal load tests were performed. After the pre-characterization (microstructure observation by scanning electron microscope and elemental analysis by means of Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), the thermal loading tests were performed in the electron beam facility JUDITH. The coating consisted of tiny platelets of ∝0.1 um in diameter and localized larger platelets of 1 um in diameter. The surface and bulk temperature were observed during the tests. In the screening thermal load test, the samples were loaded to 6 MW/m 2 for 10 s. The layers did not show any macroscopic damages at up to 4.5 MW/m 2 for 10 s (45 MJ/m 2 ). However, the coating delaminated and the maker was damaged when the thermal loading reached at 5 MW/m 2 (∝50 MJ/m 2 ). Cyclic heat load tests were

  9. Geometric Algebra Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Corrochano, Eduardo Bayro

    2010-01-01

    This book presents contributions from a global selection of experts in the field. This useful text offers new insights and solutions for the development of theorems, algorithms and advanced methods for real-time applications across a range of disciplines. Written in an accessible style, the discussion of all applications is enhanced by the inclusion of numerous examples, figures and experimental analysis. Features: provides a thorough discussion of several tasks for image processing, pattern recognition, computer vision, robotics and computer graphics using the geometric algebra framework; int

  10. Geometric multipartite entanglement measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Reina, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of constructions for quantifying entanglement, we build a natural scenario for the assembly of multipartite entanglement measures based on Hopf bundle-like mappings obtained through Clifford algebra representations. Then, given the non-factorizability of an arbitrary two-qubit density matrix, we give an alternate quantity that allows the construction of two types of entanglement measures based on their arithmetical and geometrical averages over all pairs of qubits in a register of size N, and thus fully characterize its degree and type of entanglement. We find that such an arithmetical average is both additive and strongly super additive

  11. Geometric correlations and multifractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amritkar, R.E.

    1991-07-01

    There are many situations where the usual statistical methods are not adequate to characterize correlations in the system. To characterize such situations we introduce mutual correlation dimensions which describe geometric correlations in the system. These dimensions allow us to distinguish between variables which are perfectly correlated with or without a phase lag, variables which are uncorrelated and variables which are partially correlated. We demonstrate the utility of our formalism by considering two examples from dynamical systems. The first example is about the loss of memory in chaotic signals and describes auto-correlations while the second example is about synchronization of chaotic signals and describes cross-correlations. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs

  12. Plasma surface interactions at the JET X-point tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, A.P.; Behrisch, R.; Coad, J.P.; Kock, L. de

    1989-01-01

    Operation with a magnetic divertor, which leads to a zero poloidal field inside the volume of the discharge vessel (the X-point) has led to substantial improvements in confinement time in JET. In this mode the diverted plasma is conducted to a large number of graphite tiles (X-point tiles) near the top of the vessel. The power handling capability of these tiles limits the maximum additional heating power to the discharge. The study of the surface modifications of the X-point tiles of JET is therefore of interest both to correlate the magnetic configuration and plasma particle and energy fluxes with the surface modifications, and also to get information about the erosion and deposition at these wall areas. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs

  13. Measurement of Tritium Surface Distribution on TFTR Bumper Limiter Tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, K.; Tanabe, T.; Skinner, C.H.; Gentile, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    The tritium surface distribution on graphite tiles used in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter and exposed to TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) discharges from 1993 to 1997 was measured by the Tritium Imaging Plate Technique (TIPT). The TFTR bumper limiter shows both re-/co-deposition and erosion. The tritium images for all tiles measured are strongly correlated with erosion and deposition patterns, and long-term tritium retention was found in the re-/co-depositions and flakes. The CFC tiles located at erosion dominated areas clearly showed their woven structure in their tritium images owing to different erosion yields between fibers and matrix. Significantly high tritium retention was observed on all sides of the erosion tiles, indicating carbon transport via repetition of local erosion/deposition cycles

  14. Calibration and monitoring of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are then digitized at 40~MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator b...

  15. The optical instrumentation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, J [IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Adragna, P; Bosi, F [Pisa University and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Alexa, C; Boldea, V [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Alves, R [LIP and FCTUC Univ. of Coimbra (Portugal); Amaral, P; Andresen, X [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ananiev, A [LIP and IDMEC-IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Antonaki, A [University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Batusov, V [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bednar, P [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Bergeaas, E; Bohm, C [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Biscarat, C [LPC Clermont-Ferrand, Universite Blaise Pascal / CNRS-IN2P3, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bosman, M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Bromberg, C [Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); others, and

    2013-01-15

    The Tile Calorimeter, covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities of {+-}1.7, is a sampling device built with scintillating tiles that alternate with iron plates. The light is collected in wave-length shifting (WLS) fibers and is read out with photomultipliers. In the characteristic geometry of this calorimeter the tiles lie in planes perpendicular to the beams, resulting in a very simple and modular mechanical and optical layout. This paper focuses on the procedures applied in the optical instrumentation of the calorimeter, which involved the assembly of about 460,000 scintillator tiles and 550,000 WLS fibers. The outcome is a hadronic calorimeter that meets the ATLAS performance requirements, as shown in this paper.

  16. The optical instrumentation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, J; Adragna, P; Bosi, F; Alexa, C; Boldea, V; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Andresen, X; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Bohm, C; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter, covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities of ±1.7, is a sampling device built with scintillating tiles that alternate with iron plates. The light is collected in wave-length shifting (WLS) fibers and is read out with photomultipliers. In the characteristic geometry of this calorimeter the tiles lie in planes perpendicular to the beams, resulting in a very simple and modular mechanical and optical layout. This paper focuses on the procedures applied in the optical instrumentation of the calorimeter, which involved the assembly of about 460,000 scintillator tiles and 550,000 WLS fibers. The outcome is a hadronic calorimeter that meets the ATLAS performance requirements, as shown in this paper.

  17. FEM investigation and thermo-mechanic tests of the new solid tungsten divertor tile for ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksic, Nikola; Greuner, Henri; Herrmann, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New solid tungsten divertor for fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade. • Design validation in the high heat flux (HHF) test facility GLADIS (Garching Large Divertor Sample Test Facility). • FEA simulation. -- Abstract: A new solid tungsten divertor for the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade is under construction at present. A new divertor tile design has been developed to improve the thermal performance of the current divertor made of tungsten coated fine grain graphite. Compared to thin tungsten coatings, divertor tiles made of massive tungsten allow to extend the operational range and to study the plasma material interaction of tungsten in more detail. The improved design for the solid tungsten divertor was tested on different full scale prototypes with a hydrogen ion beam. The influence of a possible material degradation due to thermal cracking or recrystallization can be studied. Furthermore, intensive Finite Element Method (FEM) numerical analysis with the respective test parameters has been performed. The elastic–plastic calculation was applied to analyze thermal stress and the observed elastic and plastic deformation during the heat loading. Additionally, the knowledge gained by the tests and especially by the numerical analysis has been used to optimize the shape of the divertor tiles and the accompanying divertor support structure. This paper discusses the main results of the high heat flux tests and their numerical simulations. In addition, results from some special structural mechanic analysis by means of FEM tools are presented. Finally, first results from the numerical lifecycle analysis of the current tungsten tiles will be reported

  18. Robust Geometric Control of a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kymmel, Mogens; Andersen, Henrik Weisberg

    1987-01-01

    A frequency domain method, which makes it possible to adjust multivariable controllers with respect to both nominal performance and robustness, is presented. The basic idea in the approach is that the designer assigns objectives such as steady-state tracking, maximum resonance peaks, bandwidth, m...... is used to examine and improve geometric control of a binary distillation column....

  19. THz imaging of majolica tiles and biological attached marble fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Devices exploiting waves in the frequency range from 0.1 THz to 10 THz (corresponding to a free-space wavelength ranging from 30 μm to 3 mm) deserve attention as diagnostic technologies for cultural heritage. THz waves are, indeed, non-ionizing radiations capable of penetrating into non-metallic materials, which are opaque to both visible and infrared waves, without implying long term risks to the molecular stability of the exposed objects and humans. Moreover, THz surveys involve low poewr probing waves, are performed without contact with the object and, thanks to the recent developments, which have allowed the commercialization of compact, flexible and portable systems, maybe performed in loco (i.e. in the place where the artworks are usually located). On the other hand, THz devices can be considered as the youngest among the sensing and imaging electromagnetic techniques and their actual potentialities in terms of characterization of artworks is an ongoing research activity. As a contribution within this context, we have performed time of flight THz imaging [1,2] on ceramic and marble objects. In particular, we surveyed majolica tiles produced by Neapolitan ceramists in the 18th and 19th centuries with the aim to gather information on their structure, constructive technique and conservation state. Moreover, we investigated a Marmo di Candoglia fragment in order to characterize the biological attach affecting it. All the surveys were carried out by using the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System (FICO) developed by Z-Omega and available at the Institute of Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA). This system is equipped with fiber optic coupled transmitting and receiving probes and with an automatic positioning system enabling to scan a 150 mm x 150 mm area under a reflection measurement configuration. Based on the obtained results we can state that the use of THz waves allows: - the reconstruction of the object topography; - the geometrical

  20. Navigating the socio-bio-geo-chemistry and engineering of nitrogen management in two illinois tile-drained watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Mark B; Flint, Courtney G; Gentry, Lowell E; Dolan, Mallory K; Czapar, George F; Cooke, Richard A; Lavaire, Tito

    2015-03-01

    Reducing nitrate loads from corn and soybean, tile-drained, agricultural production systems in the Upper Mississippi River basin is a major challenge that has not been met. We evaluated a range of possible management practices from biophysical and social science perspectives that could reduce nitrate losses from tile-drained fields in the Upper Salt Fork and Embarras River watersheds of east-central Illinois. Long-term water quality monitoring on these watersheds showed that nitrate losses averaged 30.6 and 23.0 kg nitrate N ha yr (Embarras and Upper Salt Fork watersheds, respectively), with maximum nitrate concentrations between 14 and 18 mg N L. With a series of on-farm studies, we conducted tile monitoring to evaluate several possible nitrate reduction conservation practices. Fertilizer timing and cover crops reduced nitrate losses (30% reduction in a year with large nitrate losses), whereas drainage water management on one tile system demonstrated the problems with possible retrofit designs (water flowed laterally from the drainage water management tile to the free drainage system nearby). Tile woodchip bioreactors had good nitrate removal in 2012 (80% nitrate reduction), and wetlands had previously been shown to remove nitrate (45% reductions) in the Embarras watershed. Interviews and surveys indicated strong environmental concern and stewardship ethics among landowners and farmers, but the many financial and operational constraints that they operate under limited their willingness to adopt conservation practices that targeted nitrate reduction. Under the policy and production systems currently in place, large-scale reductions in nitrate losses from watersheds such as these in east-central Illinois will be difficult. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. SPECTRAL SETS AND TILES IN CARTESIAN PRODUCTS OVER ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    41

    Spectral set conjecture: A Borel set Ω ⊂ Rd of positive and finite. Lebesgue measure is a spectral set if and only if it ... Ω ⊂ G of positive and finite Haar measure is a spectral set if and only if it is a translational tile. ... Key words and phrases. p-adic number field, Cartesian product, tile, spectral set. This work was supported by ...

  2. Characterization of double face adhesive sheets for ceramic tile installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Otavio L.; Mansur, Alexandra A.P.; Mansur, Herman S.

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this work was the characterization of an innovative ceramic tile installation product based on double face adhesive sheets. Density, hardness, tensile strength, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy coupled with spectroscopy of dispersive energy assays were conducted. The results are in agreement with some manufacture specifications and the obtained information will be crucial in the analysis of durability and stability of the ceramic tile system installed with this new product. (author)

  3. Spatial chaos of Wang tiles with two symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Yu; Chen, Yu-Jie; Hu, Wen-Guei; Lin, Song-Sun

    2016-02-01

    This investigation completely classifies the spatial chaos problem in plane edge coloring (Wang tiles) with two symbols. For a set of Wang tiles B , spatial chaos occurs when the spatial entropy h ( B ) is positive. B is called a minimal cycle generator if P ( B ) ≠ 0̸ and P ( B ' ) = 0̸ whenever B ' ⫋ B , where P ( B ) is the set of all periodic patterns on ℤ2 generated by B . Given a set of Wang tiles B , write B = C 1 ∪ C 2 ∪ ⋯ ∪ C k ∪ N , where Cj, 1 ≤ j ≤ k, are minimal cycle generators and B contains no minimal cycle generator except those contained in C1∪C2∪⋯∪Ck. Then, the positivity of spatial entropy h ( B ) is completely determined by C1∪C2∪⋯∪Ck. Furthermore, there are 39 equivalence classes of marginal positive-entropy sets of Wang tiles and 18 equivalence classes of saturated zero-entropy sets of Wang tiles. For a set of Wang tiles B , h ( B ) is positive if and only if B contains a MPE set, and h ( B ) is zero if and only if B is a subset of a SZE set.

  4. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter DCS for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Pedro Martins, Filipe Manuel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    TileCal is one of the ATLAS sub-detectors operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is taking data since 2010. The Detector Control System (DCS) was developed to ensure the coherent and safe operation of the whole ATLAS detector. Seventy thousand (70000) parameters are used for control and monitoring purposes of TileCal, requiring an automated system. The TileCal DCS is mainly responsible for the control and monitoring of the high and low voltage systems but it also supervises the detector infrastructure (cooling and racks), calibration systems, data acquisition and safety. During the first period of data taking (Run 1, 2010-12) the TileCal DCS allowed a smooth detector operation and should continue to do so for the second period (Run 2) that started in 2015. The TileCal DCS was updated in order to cope with the hardware and software requirements for Run 2 operation. These updates followed the general ATLAS guidelines on the software and hardware upgrade but also the new requirements from the TileCa...

  5. FATALIC: a fully integrated electronics readout for the ATLAS tile calorimeter at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angelidakis, Stylianos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has started a vast program of upgrades in the context of high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) foreseen in 2024. The current readout electronics of every sub-detector, including the Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), must be upgraded to comply with the extreme HL-LHC operating conditions. The ASIC described in this document, named Front-end ATlAs tiLe Integrated Circuit (FATALIC), has been developed to fulfill these requirements. FATALIC is based on a $130\\,$nm CMOS technology and performs the complete processing of the signal, including amplification, shaping and digitization on a large dynamic range from $25\\,$fC to $1.2\\,$nC. The overall architecture of this current-reading ASIC is composed by current conveyors, shapers, 12-bits pipeline analog-to-digital converters operating at $40\\,$Mhz and a digital block dealing with the three gains implemented in this electronics. A dedicated channel for low current is also designed in order to be able to perform absolute calibration with radioactive cesium so...

  6. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Fukun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics in 2024 for the high luminosity program of the LHC. The calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed and transmitted to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide a better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies are being employed to determine which option will be selected. The off-detector electronics are based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard and are equipped with high performance optical connectors. The system is designed to operate in a high radiation envi...

  7. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Fukun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS cover-ing the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics in 2024 for the high luminosity program of the LHC. The calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed and shipped to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide a better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies are being employed to determine which option will be selected. The off-detector electronic is based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard and is equipped with high performance optical connectors. The system is designed to operate in a high radiation environmen...

  8. Acid emissions monitoring needs in ceramic tile industry: challenges derived from new policy trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celades, Irina; Gomar, Salvador; Romero, Fernando; Chauhan, Amisha; Delpech, Bertrand; Jouhara, Hussam

    2017-11-01

    The emission of acid compounds during the manufacture of ceramic tiles is strongly related to the presence of precursors in the raw materials and/or fuels used, with some exceptions such as the production of thermal NOX. The stages with the potential to produce significant emissions of these compounds have been identified as the suspension spray drying and tile firing stages. The monitoring of emission levels of acid pollutants in these stages has turned in a great importance issue from a regulatory and industrial aspect. The DREAM project (https://www.spire2030.eu/dream) will tackle the regulation of acidic emissions focusing in the firing stage. The initial stages of the project have made it possible to identify the design requirements for the monitoring system. This will allow the control of acid pollutants emissions and other key parameters such as pressure, flow, temperature and humidity. One of the tasks developed has been the review and compilation of current emissions monitoring systems detailing technical specifications such as: position (in situ or extractive), measurement principle and frequency. The future policy trends in air pollution are encouraging the continuous monitoring across the European industry. The present document assesses the advantages regarding environmental impact control, highlighting the main challenges for the ceramic tile industry.

  9. Programmable disorder in random DNA tilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Grigory; Petersen, Philip; Qian, Lulu

    2017-03-01

    Scaling up the complexity and diversity of synthetic molecular structures will require strategies that exploit the inherent stochasticity of molecular systems in a controlled fashion. Here we demonstrate a framework for programming random DNA tilings and show how to control the properties of global patterns through simple, local rules. We constructed three general forms of planar network—random loops, mazes and trees—on the surface of self-assembled DNA origami arrays on the micrometre scale with nanometre resolution. Using simple molecular building blocks and robust experimental conditions, we demonstrate control of a wide range of properties of the random networks, including the branching rules, the growth directions, the proximity between adjacent networks and the size distribution. Much as combinatorial approaches for generating random one-dimensional chains of polymers have been used to revolutionize chemical synthesis and the selection of functional nucleic acids, our strategy extends these principles to random two-dimensional networks of molecules and creates new opportunities for fabricating more complex molecular devices that are organized by DNA nanostructures.

  10. Lead and Cadmium Toxicity in Tile Manufacturing Workers in Assiut, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragaa M Abd Elmaaboud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational lead and cadmium exposure are important health issues in developing countries. This study aimed to detect toxic metal contents in raw materials used to make tiles and to assess exposure health impacts on workers. The study sample consisted of 74 tile workers, having a mean age of 35.2 years, in the Industrial City of Arab El Awamer, Assiut (Egypt. Elemental analysis of the raw materials was performed by using scanning electron microscopy. The data collection questionnaire was divided into two parts; the first included demographic data, symptoms attributed to toxic elements and possible sources of exposure to metals. The second part was designated to assess heavy metal exposure health impacts through clinical examination and biological  investigations. Many toxic elements were identified in the raw materials used to make tiles, and the most abundant were lead and cadmium. Analysis of the clinical data revealed that 66% of the workers suffered from headache, constipation (8%, abdominal colic (33.8% and 30% suffered from a variety of respiratory problems such as dyspnea (60%, cough (13% and chest tightness (27%. Fifty percent of the workers complained of weak grip, 33.8% of foot drop, and 54% had tremors. Burton’s line in gums was present in 28% of workers and 28.2% were diagnosed with constrictive lung diseases. Of the 74 workers, 90.5 % showed toxic lead levels and 80% had toxic cadmium levels. 10.8% had abnormal alpha glutathione levels with a positive strong linear correlation between lead and cadmium levels and years of work. It is mandatory to develop and implement measures to prevent these hazardous exposure effects among tile industry workers.

  11. The TileCal Online Energy Estimation for the Next LHC Operation Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotto-Maior Peralva, B.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the detector used in the reconstruction of hadrons, jets and missing transverse energy from the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It covers the central part of the ATLAS detector (|η| occupancy, the pile-up, which is often modeled by a non-Gaussian distribution, can be seen as outlier events. Consequently, the classical covariance matrix estimation does not describe correctly the second order statistics of the background for the majority of the events, as this approach is very sensitive to outliers. As a result, the OF (or MF) coefficients are miscalculated leading to a larger variance and biased energy estimator. This work evaluates the usage of a robust covariance estimator, namely the Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) algorithm, to be applied in the OF design. The goal of the MCD estimator is to find a number of observations whose classical covariance matrix has the lowest determinant. Hence, this procedure avoids taking into account low likelihood events to describe the background. It is worth mentioning that the background covariance matrix as well as the OF coefficients for each TileCal channel are computed offline and stored for both online and offline use. In order to evaluate the impact of the MCD estimator on the performance of the OF, simulated data sets were used. Different average numbers of interactions per bunch crossing and bunch spacings were tested. The results show that the estimation of the background covariance matrix through MCD improves significantly the final energy resolution with respect to the identity matrix which is currently used. Particularly, for high occupancy cells, the final energy resolution is improved by more than 20%. Moreover, the use of the classical covariance matrix degrades the energy resolution for the majority of TileCal cells.

  12. Forward error correction based on algebraic-geometric theory

    CERN Document Server

    A Alzubi, Jafar; M Chen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the design, construction, and implementation of algebraic-geometric codes from Hermitian curves. Matlab simulations of algebraic-geometric codes and Reed-Solomon codes compare their bit error rate using different modulation schemes over additive white Gaussian noise channel model. Simulation results of Algebraic-geometric codes bit error rate performance using quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM and 64QAM) are presented for the first time and shown to outperform Reed-Solomon codes at various code rates and channel models. The book proposes algebraic-geometric block turbo codes. It also presents simulation results that show an improved bit error rate performance at the cost of high system complexity due to using algebraic-geometric codes and Chase-Pyndiah’s algorithm simultaneously. The book proposes algebraic-geometric irregular block turbo codes (AG-IBTC) to reduce system complexity. Simulation results for AG-IBTCs are presented for the first time.

  13. Fast geometric algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, M.T.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis addresses a number of important problems that fall within the framework of the new discipline of Computational Geometry. The list of topics covered includes sorting and selection, convex hull algorithms, the L 1 hull, determination of the minimum encasing rectangle of a set of points, the Euclidean and L 1 diameter of a set of points, the metric traveling salesman problem, and finding the superrange of star-shaped and monotype polygons. The main theme of all the work was to develop a set of very fast state-of-the-art algorithms that supersede any rivals in terms of speed and ease of implementation. In some cases existing algorithms were refined; for others new techniques were developed that add to the present database of fast adaptive geometric algorithms. What emerges is a collection of techniques that is successful at merging modern tools developed in analysis of algorithms with those of classical geometry

  14. Geometrization of quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ol'khov, O.A.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the Dirac equation for a free particle can be considered as a description of specific distortion of the space Euclidean geometry (space topological defect). This approach is based on the possibility of interpretation of the wave function as vector realizing representation of the fundamental group of the closed topological space-time 4-manifold. Mass and spin appear to be topological invariants. Such a concept explains all so-called 'strange' properties of quantum formalism: probabilities, wave-particle duality, nonlocal instantaneous correlation between noninteracting particles (EPR-paradox) and so on. Acceptance of the suggested geometrical concept means rejection of atomistic concept where all matter is considered as consisting of more and more small elementary particles. There are no any particles a priory, before measurement: the notions of particles appear as a result of classical interpretation of the contact of the region of the curved space with a device

  15. Geometrization of quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'Khov, O. A.

    2009-12-01

    It is shown that the Dirac equation for free particle can be considered as a description of specific distortion of the space euclidean geometry (space topological defect). This approach is based on possibility of interpretation of the wave function as vector realizing representation of the fundamental group of the closed topological space-time 4-manifold. Mass and spin appear to be topological invariants. Such concept explains all so called “strange” properties of quantum formalism: probabilities, wave-particle duality, nonlocal instantaneous correlation between noninteracting particles (EPR-paradox) and so on. Acceptance of suggested geometrical concept means rejection of atomistic concept where all matter is considered as consisting of more and more small elementary particles. There is no any particles a priori, before measurement: the notions of particles appear as a result of classical interpretation of the contact of the region of the curved space with a device.

  16. Geometrical Image Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Havelka, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá akcelerací geometrických transformací obrazu s využitím GPU a architektury NVIDIA (R) CUDA TM. Časově kritické části kódu jsou přesunuty na GPU a vykonány paralelně. Jedním z výsledků je demonstrační aplikace pro porovnání výkonnosti obou architektur: CPU, a GPU v kombinaci s CPU. Pro referenční implementaci jsou použity vysoce optimalizované algoritmy z knihovny OpenCV, od firmy Intel. This master's thesis deals with acceleration of geometrical image transfo...

  17. Testbeam Studies of Production Modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adragna, P; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Arabidze, A; Batkova, L; Batusov, V; Beck, H P; Bednar, P; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Biscarat, C; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Caprini, M; Caloba, L; Calvet, D; Carli, T; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castelo, J; Castillo, M V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Corso-Radu, A; Cuenca, C; Damazio, D O; David, M; Davidek, T; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Djobava, T; Dobson, M; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Efthymiopoulos, I; Eriksson, D; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Febbraro, R; Fedorko, I; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Francis, D; Fullana, E; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garde, V; Gellerstedt, K; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giokaris, N; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Gorini, B; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Gruwé, M; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Haeberli, C; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Holmgren, S; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Iglesias, C; Isaev, A; Jen-La Plante, I; Jon-And, K; Joos, M; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A; Kazarov, A; Khandanyan, H; Khramov, J; Khubua, J; Kolos, S; Korolkov, I; Krivkova, P; Kulchitsky, Y; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Lehmann, G; Leitner, R; Lembesi, M; Lesser, J; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Makouski, M; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Mapelli, L; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Mosidze, M; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nodulman, L; Nordkvist, B; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Petersen, J; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Pribyl, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Ramstedt, M; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Rumiantsev, V; Russakovich, N; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Satsunkevitch, I; Says, L-P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shalanda, N; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Silva, J; Da Silva, P; Simaitis, V; Simonyan, M; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Soloviev, I; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Starovoitov, P; Stavina, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Tremblet, L; Tsiareshka, P; Tylmad, M; Underwood, D; Ünel, G; Usai, G; Valero, A; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenine, A; Zenis, T

    2009-01-01

    We report test beam studies of {11\\,\\%} of the production ATLAS Tile Calorimeter modules. The modules were equipped with production front-end electronics and all the calibration systems planned for the final detector. The studies used muon, electron and hadron beams ranging in energy from 3~GeV to 350~GeV. Two independent studies showed that the light yield of the calorimeter was $\\sim 70$~pe/GeV, exceeding the design goal by {40\\,\\%}. Electron beams provided a calibration of the modules at the electromagnetic energy scale. Over 200~calorimeter cells the variation of the response was {2.4\\,\\%}. The linearity with energy was also measured. Muon beams provided an intercalibration of the response of all calorimeter cells. The response to muons entering in the ATLAS projective geometry showed an RMS variation of 2.5\\,\\% for 91~measurements over a range of rapidities and modules. The mean response to hadrons of fixed energy had an RMS variation of {1.4\\,\\%} for the modules and projective angles studied. The respon...

  18. Testbeam studies of production modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adragna, P.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, A.; Batkova, L.; Batusov, V.; Beck, H.P.; Bednar, P.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Biscarat, C.; Blanchot, G.; Bogush, A.; Bohm, C.; Boldea, V.; Bosman, M.; Bromberg, C.; Budagov, J.; Burckhart-Chromek, D.; Caprini, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report test beam studies of 11% of the production ATLAS Tile Calorimeter modules. The modules were equipped with production front-end electronics and all the calibration systems planned for the final detector. The studies used muon, electron and hadron beams ranging in energy from 3 to 350 GeV. Two independent studies showed that the light yield of the calorimeter was ∼70pe/GeV, exceeding the design goal by 40%. Electron beams provided a calibration of the modules at the electromagnetic energy scale. Over 200 calorimeter cells the variation of the response was 2.4%. The linearity with energy was also measured. Muon beams provided an intercalibration of the response of all calorimeter cells. The response to muons entering in the ATLAS projective geometry showed an RMS variation of 2.5% for 91 measurements over a range of rapidities and modules. The mean response to hadrons of fixed energy had an RMS variation of 1.4% for the modules and projective angles studied. The response to hadrons normalized to incident beam energy showed an 8% increase between 10 and 350 GeV, fully consistent with expectations for a noncompensating calorimeter. The measured energy resolution for hadrons of σ/E=52.9%/√(E)+5.7% was also consistent with expectations. Other auxiliary studies were made of saturation recovery of the readout system, the time resolution of the calorimeter and the performance of the trigger signals from the calorimeter.

  19. Testbeam studies of production modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adragna, P [Pisa University and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Alexa, C [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Antonaki, A; Arabidze, A [University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Batkova, L [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Batusov, V [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Beck, H P [Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern (Switzerland); Bednar, P [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Bergeaas Kuutmann, E [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Biscarat, C [LPC Clermont-Ferrand, Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Blanchot, G [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Bogush, A [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus); Bohm, C [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Boldea, V [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Bosman, M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Bromberg, C [Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Budagov, J [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Burckhart-Chromek, D [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Caprini, M [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-07-21

    We report test beam studies of 11% of the production ATLAS Tile Calorimeter modules. The modules were equipped with production front-end electronics and all the calibration systems planned for the final detector. The studies used muon, electron and hadron beams ranging in energy from 3 to 350 GeV. Two independent studies showed that the light yield of the calorimeter was {approx}70pe/GeV, exceeding the design goal by 40%. Electron beams provided a calibration of the modules at the electromagnetic energy scale. Over 200 calorimeter cells the variation of the response was 2.4%. The linearity with energy was also measured. Muon beams provided an intercalibration of the response of all calorimeter cells. The response to muons entering in the ATLAS projective geometry showed an RMS variation of 2.5% for 91 measurements over a range of rapidities and modules. The mean response to hadrons of fixed energy had an RMS variation of 1.4% for the modules and projective angles studied. The response to hadrons normalized to incident beam energy showed an 8% increase between 10 and 350 GeV, fully consistent with expectations for a noncompensating calorimeter. The measured energy resolution for hadrons of {sigma}/E=52.9%/{radical}(E)+5.7% was also consistent with expectations. Other auxiliary studies were made of saturation recovery of the readout system, the time resolution of the calorimeter and the performance of the trigger signals from the calorimeter.

  20. Construction of 2D quasi-periodic Rauzy tiling by similarity transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, V. G.; Maleev, A. V.

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to constructing self-similar fractal tilings is proposed based on the construction of semigroups generated by a finite set of similarity transformations. The Rauzy tiling-a 2D analog of 1D Fibonacci tiling generated by the golden mean-is used as an example to illustrate this approach. It is shown that the Rauzy torus development and the elementary fractal boundary of Rauzy tiling can be constructed in the form of a set of centers of similarity semigroups generated by two and three similarity transformations, respectively. A centrosymmetric tiling, locally dual to the Rauzy tiling, is constructed for the first time and its parameterization is developed.

  1. Automatic generation of aesthetic patterns on fractal tilings by means of dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.W.; Ma, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    A fractal tiling or f-tiling is a tiling which possesses self-similarity and the boundary of which is a fractal. In this paper, we investigate the classification of fractal tilings with kite-shaped and dart-shaped prototiles from which three new f-tilings are found. Invariant mappings are constructed for the creation of aesthetic patterns on such tilings. A modified convergence time scheme is described, which reflects the rate of convergence of various orbits and at the same time, enhances the artistic appeal of a generated image. A scheme based on the frequency of visit at a pixel is used to generate chaotic attractors

  2. Discrete geometric structures for architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-06-13

    The emergence of freeform structures in contemporary architecture raises numerous challenging research problems, most of which are related to the actual fabrication and are a rich source of research topics in geometry and geometric computing. The talk will provide an overview of recent progress in this field, with a particular focus on discrete geometric structures. Most of these result from practical requirements on segmenting a freeform shape into planar panels and on the physical realization of supporting beams and nodes. A study of quadrilateral meshes with planar faces reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. In particular, we discuss meshes which discretize the network of principal curvature lines. Conical meshes are among these meshes; they possess conical offset meshes at a constant face/face distance, which in turn leads to a supporting beam layout with so-called torsion free nodes. This work can be generalized to a variety of multilayer structures and laid the ground for an adapted curvature theory for these meshes. There are also efforts on segmenting surfaces into planar hexagonal panels. Though these are less constrained than planar quadrilateral panels, this problem is still waiting for an elegant solution. Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we present a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' in-circles form a packing, i.e., the in-circles of two triangles with a common edge have the same contact point on that edge. These "circle packing (CP) meshes" exhibit an aesthetic balance of shape and size of their faces. They are closely tied to sphere packings on surfaces and to various remarkable structures and patterns which are of interest in art, architecture, and design. CP meshes constitute a new link between architectural freeform design and computational conformal geometry. Recently, certain timber structures motivated us to study discrete patterns of geodesics on surfaces. This

  3. Numerical Study of High Heat Flux Performances of Flat-Tile Divertor Mock-ups with Hypervapotron Cooling Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Xiang; Lian, Youyun; Cai, Laizhong

    2015-09-01

    The hypervapotron (HV), as an enhanced heat transfer technique, will be used for ITER divertor components in the dome region as well as the enhanced heat flux first wall panels. W-Cu brazing technology has been developed at SWIP (Southwestern Institute of Physics), and one W/CuCrZr/316LN component of 450 mm×52 mm×166 mm with HV cooling channels will be fabricated for high heat flux (HHF) tests. Before that a relevant analysis was carried out to optimize the structure of divertor component elements. ANSYS-CFX was used in CFD analysis and ABAQUS was adopted for thermal-mechanical calculations. Commercial code FE-SAFE was adopted to compute the fatigue life of the component. The tile size, thickness of tungsten tiles and the slit width among tungsten tiles were optimized and its HHF performances under International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) loading conditions were simulated. One brand new tokamak HL-2M with advanced divertor configuration is under construction in SWIP, where ITER-like flat-tile divertor components are adopted. This optimized design is expected to supply valuable data for HL-2M tokamak. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2011GB110001 and 2011GB110004)

  4. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter in Run-2 and its upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00223789; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tauparticles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudo-rapidity up to 1.7, with almost 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ∼30 MeV to ∼2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction, is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the Tile calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions, acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum from electroweak bosons decays are employed to study the energy response of the calorimeter at the electromagnetic scale. The calorimeter response to hadronic particles is evaluated with a sample of isolated hadrons. The modelling of the response by the Monte Carlo simulation is discussed. T...

  5. Numerical Study of High Heat Flux Performances of Flat-Tile Divertor Mock-ups with Hypervapotron Cooling Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lei; Liu Xiang; Lian Youyun; Cai Laizhong

    2015-01-01

    The hypervapotron (HV), as an enhanced heat transfer technique, will be used for ITER divertor components in the dome region as well as the enhanced heat flux first wall panels. W-Cu brazing technology has been developed at SWIP (Southwestern Institute of Physics), and one W/CuCrZr/316LN component of 450 mm×52 mm×166 mm with HV cooling channels will be fabricated for high heat flux (HHF) tests. Before that a relevant analysis was carried out to optimize the structure of divertor component elements. ANSYS-CFX was used in CFD analysis and ABAQUS was adopted for thermal–mechanical calculations. Commercial code FE-SAFE was adopted to compute the fatigue life of the component. The tile size, thickness of tungsten tiles and the slit width among tungsten tiles were optimized and its HHF performances under International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) loading conditions were simulated. One brand new tokamak HL-2M with advanced divertor configuration is under construction in SWIP, where ITER-like flat-tile divertor components are adopted. This optimized design is expected to supply valuable data for HL-2M tokamak. (paper)

  6. Tritium Decontamination of TFTR D-T Graphite Tiles Employing Ultra Violet Light and a Nd:YAG Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Young, K.M.; Ciebiera, L.

    1999-01-01

    The use of an ultra violet (UV) light source (wavelength = 172 nm) and a Nd:YAG Laser for the decontamination of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) deuterium-tritium (D-T) tiles will be investigated at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The development of this form of tritium decontamination may be useful for future D-T burning fusion devices which employ carbon plasma-facing components on the first wall. Carbon tiles retain hydrogen isotopes, and the in-situ tritium decontamination of carbon can be extremely important in maintaining resident in-vessel tritium inventory to a minimum. A test chamber has been designed and fabricated at PPPL. The chamber has the ability to be maintained under vacuum, be baked to 200 *C, and provides sample ports for gas analyses. Tiles from TFTR that have been exposed to D-T plasmas will be placed within the chamber and exposed to either an UV light source or the ND:YAG Laser. The experiment will determine the effectiveness of these two techniques for the removal of tritium. In addition, exposure rates and scan times for the UV light source and/or Nd:YAG Laser will be determined for tritium removal optimization from D-T tiles

  7. Leaching of dissolved phosphorus from tile-drained agricultural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, H E; Windolf, J; Kronvang, B

    2016-01-01

    We investigated leaching of dissolved phosphorus (P) from 45 tile-drains representing animal husbandry farms in all regions of Denmark. Leaching of P via tile-drains exhibits a high degree of spatial heterogeneity with a low concentration in the majority of tile-drains and few tile-drains (15% in our investigation) having high to very high concentration of dissolved P. The share of dissolved organic P (DOP) was high (up to 96%). Leaching of DOP has hitherto been a somewhat overlooked P loss pathway in Danish soils and the mechanisms of mobilization and transport of DOP needs more investigation. We found a high correlation between Olsen-P and water extractable P. Water extractable P is regarded as an indicator of risk of loss of dissolved P. Our findings indicate that Olsen-P, which is measured routinely in Danish agricultural soils, may be a useful proxy for the P leaching potential of soils. However, we found no straight-forward correlation between leaching potential of the top soil layer (expressed as either degree of P saturation, Olsen-P or water extractable P) and the measured concentration of dissolved P in the tile-drain. This underlines that not only the source of P but also the P loss pathway must be taken into account when evaluating the risk of P loss.

  8. Valorization of rice straw waste: production of porcelain tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Guzmán A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rice industry generates huge amounts of rice straw ashes (RSA. This paper presents the results of an experimental research work about the incorporation of RSA waste as a new alternative raw material for production of porcelain tiles. The RSA replaces, partially or completely, the non-plastic raw materials (quartz (feldspathic sand in this research and feldspar, that together with the clays, constitute the major constituents of formulations of porcelain tiles. A standard industrial composition (0% RSA and two more compositions in which feldspar and feldspathic sand were replaced with two percentages of RSA (12.5% RSA and 60% RSA were formulated, keeping the clay content constant. The mixtures were processed, reproducing industrial porcelain tile manufacturing conditions by the dry route and fired at peak temperatures varying from 1140-1260 ºC. The results showed that additions of 12.5% RSA in replacement of feldspar and feldspathic sand allowed producing porcelain tiles that did not display marked changes in processing behaviour, in addition to obtain a microstructure and the typical mineralogical phases of porcelain tile. Thus, an alternative use of an agricultural waste material is proposed, which can be translated into economic and environmental benefits.

  9. Preparation of porcelain tile granulates by more environmentally sustainable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, C.; Silvestre, D.; Piquer, J.; Garcia-Ten, J.; Quereda, E.; Vicente, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the feasibility of manufacturing glazed porcelain tiles with a more environmentally friendly manufacturing process, by reducing water and thermal energy consumption. The process studied in this paper is dry milling in a pendulum mill, with subsequent granulation (in order to obtain a press powder with similar flow ability to that of spray dried powders). The different morphology of the new granulate with respect to the standard spray-dried granulate modifies the microstructure of the green compacts and thus, their behaviour and fired tile properties. In order to obtain porcelain tiles with the required properties (water absorption, mechanical strength,) changes have been made in the raw materials mixture and in the processing variables. Finally, porcelain tiles measuring 50x50 cm have been manufactured at industrial scale with the new granulate using a conventional firing cycle, obtaining quality levels identical to those provided by the spray-dried granulate. These results open the possibility of preparing porcelain tile body compositions through a manufacturing process alternative to the standard one, more environmentally friendly and with lower costs. (Author)

  10. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter DCS for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Pedro Martins, Filipe Manuel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    TileCal is one of the ATLAS subdetectors operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is taking data since 2010. Seventy thousand (70000) parameters are used for control and monitoring purposes, requiring an automated system. The Detector Control System (DCS) was developed to ensure the coherent and safe operation of the whole ATLAS detector. The TileCal DCS is mainly responsible for the control and monitoring of the high and low voltage systems but it also supervises the detector infrastructure (cooling and racks), calibration systems, data acquisition and safety. During the first period of data taking (Run 1, 2010-12) the TileCal DCS allowed a smooth detector operation and should continue to do so for the second period (Run 2) that started in 2015. The TileCal DCS was updated in order to cope with the hardware and software requirements for Run 2 operation. These updates followed the general ATLAS guidelines on the software and hardware upgrade but also the new requirements from the TileCal detector. ...

  11. Stoneware tile manufacturing using rice straw ash as feldspar replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvaro Guzman, A.; John Torres, L.; Martha Cedeno, V.; Silvio Delvasto, A.; Vicente Amigo, B.; Enrique Sanchez, V.

    2013-01-01

    In this research are presented the results of using rice straw ash (RSA) in low proportions as substitute of feldspar for manufacturing stoneware tiles. Specimens of semidry triaxial mixtures, where feldspar was substituted for different percentages (25 % and 50 %) of RSA, were prepared by uniaxial pressing, followed by drying and sintering. Physical and mechanical properties of sintered bodies were evaluated. Porcelain stoneware tile specimens C0 and CF25 reached bending strength and water absorption values were in accordance with standard ISO 13006 (Annex G, BIa) ( ≥ 35 MPa and ≤ 0.5 %, respectively). However, in porcelain stoneware tile specimens CF50 due to bloating phenomenon was not possible obtain commercial tiles in accordance with standard ISO 13006. By using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) needles of primary and secondary mullite were identified in a vitreous phase; and by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) mullite and quartz phases were identified. It was concluded that feldspar can be substituted positively by RSA in stoneware tile pastes. (Author)

  12. Harmonic and geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Citti, Giovanna; Pérez, Carlos; Sarti, Alessandro; Zhong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an expanded version of four series of lectures delivered by the authors at the CRM. Harmonic analysis, understood in a broad sense, has a very wide interplay with partial differential equations and in particular with the theory of quasiconformal mappings and its applications. Some areas in which real analysis has been extremely influential are PDE's and geometric analysis. Their foundations and subsequent developments made extensive use of the Calderón–Zygmund theory, especially the Lp inequalities for Calderón–Zygmund operators (Beurling transform and Riesz transform, among others) and the theory of Muckenhoupt weights.  The first chapter is an application of harmonic analysis and the Heisenberg group to understanding human vision, while the second and third chapters cover some of the main topics on linear and multilinear harmonic analysis. The last serves as a comprehensive introduction to a deep result from De Giorgi, Moser and Nash on the regularity of elliptic partial differen...

  13. Regular Polygons and Geometric Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Joscelyn A.

    1982-01-01

    Examples of some geometric illustrations of limits are presented. It is believed the limit concept is among the most important topics in mathematics, yet many students do not have good intuitive feelings for the concept, since it is often taught very abstractly. Geometric examples are suggested as meaningful tools. (MP)

  14. Geometric Invariants and Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    University of Chicago Press. Maybank , S.J. [1992], "The Projection of Two Non-coplanar Conics", in Geometric Invariance in Machine Vision, eds. J.L...J.L. Mundy and A. Zisserman, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Mundy, J.L., Kapur, .. , Maybank , S.J., and Quan, L. [1992a] "Geometric Inter- pretation of

  15. Transmuted Complementary Weibull Geometric Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Z. A…fify

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new generalization of the complementary Weibull geometric distribution that introduced by Tojeiro et al. (2014, using the quadratic rank transmutation map studied by Shaw and Buckley (2007. The new distribution is referred to as transmuted complementary Weibull geometric distribution (TCWGD. The TCWG distribution includes as special cases the complementary Weibull geometric distribution (CWGD, complementary exponential geometric distribution(CEGD,Weibull distribution (WD and exponential distribution (ED. Various structural properties of the new distribution including moments, quantiles, moment generating function and RØnyi entropy of the subject distribution are derived. We proposed the method of maximum likelihood for estimating the model parameters and obtain the observed information matrix. A real data set are used to compare the ‡exibility of the transmuted version versus the complementary Weibull geometric distribution.

  16. Dolomite addition effects on the thermal expansion of ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Luis Fernando Bruno; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega

    1997-01-01

    The thermal expansion of ceramic tiles is of greater importance in engineering applications because the ceramics are relatively brittle and cannot tolerate large internal strain imposed by thermal expansion. When ceramic bodies are produced for glazed ties the compatibility of this property of the components should be considered to avoid damage in the final products. Carbonates are an important constituent of ceramic wall-title bodies and its presence in formulations and the reactions that occur between them and other components modify body properties. The influence in expansivity by additions of calcium magnesium carbonate in a composition of wall tile bodies has been investigated. The relative content of mineralogical components was determined by X-ray diffraction and thermal expansion by dilatometric measurements. The results was indicated that with the effect of calcium-magnesium phases and porosity on thermal expansion of wall tile bodies. (author)

  17. Inflation and wavelets for the icosahedral Danzer tiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Peter; Andrle, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of atoms in quasi-crystals lacks periodicity and displays point symmetry associated with non-crystallographic modules. Often it can be described by quasi-periodic tilings on R 3 built from a finite number of prototiles. The modules and the canonical tilings of five-fold and icosahedral point symmetry admit inflation symmetry. In the simplest case of stone inflation, any prototile when scaled by the golden section number τ can be packed from unscaled prototiles. Observables supported on R 3 for quasi-crystals require symmetry-adapted function spaces. We construct wavelet bases on R 3 for the icosahedral Danzer tiling. The stone inflation of the four Danzer prototiles is given explicitly in terms of Euclidean group operations acting on R 3 . By acting with the unitary representations inverse to these operations on the characteristic functions of the prototiles, we recursively provide a full orthogonal wavelet basis of R 3 . It incorporates the icosahedral and inflation symmetry

  18. Machining of scintillator tiles for the SDC calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, M.; Bartosz, E.; Davis, C.; Hagopian, V.; Hernandez, E.; Hu, K.; Immer, C.; Thomaston, J.

    1992-01-01

    This research and development on the grooving methods for the scintillating tiles of the SDC calorimeter was done to maximize the light output of scintillator plates and improve the uniformity among tiles through machining procedures. Grooves for wavelength shifting fibers in SCSN-81 can be machined from 10,000 to 60,000 RPM with a feed rate of more than 30cm/min if the plate is kept cool and the chips are removed quickly by blowing dry, cold, clean air over the cutting tool. BC499-27, a polystyrene-based scintillator, is softer and more difficult to machine. It allows a maximum rotation speed of 20,000 RPM and a maximum feed rate of 15 cm/min. A new half-keyhole shape was used for grooves, allowing safer, faster top-loading of the fibers. Three hundred tiles were machined, achieving a standard deviation of the light output of less than 7%. (Author)

  19. Pattern overlap implies runaway growth in hierarchical tile systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Doty

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that in the hierarchical tile assembly model, if there is a producible assembly that overlaps a nontrivial translation of itself consistently (i.e., the pattern of tile types in the overlap region is identical in both translations, then arbitrarily large assemblies are producible. The significance of this result is that tile systems intended to controllably produce finite structures must avoid pattern repetition in their producible assemblies that would lead to such overlap.This answers an open question of Chen and Doty (SODA 2012, who showed that so-called "partial-order" systems producing a unique finite assembly and avoiding such overlaps must require time linear in the assembly diameter. An application of our main result is that any system producing a unique finite assembly is automatically guaranteed to avoid such overlaps, simplifying the hypothesis of Chen and Doty's main theorem.

  20. Consolidation and upgrades of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Cerda Alberich, Leonor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This is a presentation of the status of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the EYETS and before starting 2017 data-taking. Updates on the upgrade of the readout system such as doubling the RODs output links and the number of processing units (PUs) are being worked on at the moment as well as items concerning the maintenance of the detector which involves issues such as cooling leaks and consolidation of the Low Voltage Power Supplies, which are being replaced if necessary. Other updates include works on the Tile calibration, in particular on the Cesium system. In addition, the whole Tile readout electronics is being replaced for Phase-II and it is being tested in Test Beam area.

  1. Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanoka, Jack I.; Real, Markus

    1999-11-16

    A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

  2. Summer Thermal Performance of Ventilated Roofs with Tiled Coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoloni, M; Bottarelli, M; Piva, S

    2017-01-01

    The thermal performance of a ventilated pitched roof with tiled coverings is analysed and compared with unventilated roofs. The analysis is carried out by means of a finite element numerical code, by solving both the fluid and thermal problems in steady-state. A whole one-floor building with a pitched roof is schematized as a 2D computational domain including the air-permeability of tiled covering. Realistic data sets for wind, temperature and solar radiation are used to simulate summer conditions at different times of the day. The results demonstrate that the batten space in pitched roofs is an effective solution for reducing the solar heat gain in summer and thus for achieving better indoor comfort conditions. The efficiency of the ventilation is strictly linked to the external wind conditions and to buoyancy forces occurring due to the heating of the tiles. (paper)

  3. Summer Thermal Performance of Ventilated Roofs with Tiled Coverings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoloni, M.; Bottarelli, M.; Piva, S.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal performance of a ventilated pitched roof with tiled coverings is analysed and compared with unventilated roofs. The analysis is carried out by means of a finite element numerical code, by solving both the fluid and thermal problems in steady-state. A whole one-floor building with a pitched roof is schematized as a 2D computational domain including the air-permeability of tiled covering. Realistic data sets for wind, temperature and solar radiation are used to simulate summer conditions at different times of the day. The results demonstrate that the batten space in pitched roofs is an effective solution for reducing the solar heat gain in summer and thus for achieving better indoor comfort conditions. The efficiency of the ventilation is strictly linked to the external wind conditions and to buoyancy forces occurring due to the heating of the tiles.

  4. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter time calibration, monitoring and performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00075913; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This sampling device is made of plastic scintillating tiles alternated with iron plates and its response is calibrated to electromagnetic scale by means of several dedicated calibration systems. The accurate time calibration is important for the energy reconstruction, non-collision background removal as well as for specific physics analyses. The initial time calibration with so-called splash events and subsequent fine-tuning with collision data are presented. The monitoring of the time calibration with laser system and physics collision data is discussed as well as the corrections for sudden changes performed still before the recorded data are processed for physics analyses. Finally, the time resolution as measured with jets and isolated muons particles is presented.

  5. Geometric asymmetry driven Janus micromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanjia; Pumera, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The production and application of nano-/micromotors is of great importance. In order for the motors to work, asymmetry in their chemical composition or physical geometry must be present if no external asymmetric field is applied. In this paper, we present a ``coconut'' micromotor made of platinum through the partial or complete etching of the silica templates. It was shown that although both the inner and outer surfaces are made of the same material (Pt), motion of the structure can be observed as the convex surface is capable of generating oxygen bubbles. This finding shows that not only the chemical asymmetry of the micromotor, but also its geometric asymmetry can lead to fast propulsion of the motor. Moreover, a considerably higher velocity can be seen for partially etched coconut structures than the velocities of Janus or fully etched, shell-like motors. These findings will have great importance on the design of future micromotors.The production and application of nano-/micromotors is of great importance. In order for the motors to work, asymmetry in their chemical composition or physical geometry must be present if no external asymmetric field is applied. In this paper, we present a ``coconut'' micromotor made of platinum through the partial or complete etching of the silica templates. It was shown that although both the inner and outer surfaces are made of the same material (Pt), motion of the structure can be observed as the convex surface is capable of generating oxygen bubbles. This finding shows that not only the chemical asymmetry of the micromotor, but also its geometric asymmetry can lead to fast propulsion of the motor. Moreover, a considerably higher velocity can be seen for partially etched coconut structures than the velocities of Janus or fully etched, shell-like motors. These findings will have great importance on the design of future micromotors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional SEM images, data analysis, Videos S

  6. A practical guide to experimental geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Garbovskiy, Yuriy A

    2017-01-01

    A concise, yet deep introduction to experimental, geometrical optics, this book begins with fundamental concepts and then develops the practical skills and research techniques routinely used in modern laboratories. Suitable for students, researchers and optical engineers, this accessible text teaches readers how to build their own optical laboratory and to design and perform optical experiments. It uses a hands-on approach which fills a gap between theory-based textbooks and laboratory manuals, allowing the reader to develop their practical skills in this interdisciplinary field, and also explores the ways in which this knowledge can be applied to the design and production of commercial optical devices. Including supplementary online resources to help readers track and evaluate their experimental results, this text is the ideal companion for anyone with a practical interest in experimental geometrical optics.

  7. Healing assessment of tile sets for error tolerance in DNA self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashempour, M; Mashreghian Arani, Z; Lombardi, F

    2008-12-01

    An assessment of the effectiveness of healing for error tolerance in DNA self-assembly tile sets for algorithmic/nano-manufacturing applications is presented. Initially, the conditions for correct binding of a tile to an existing aggregate are analysed using a Markovian approach; based on this analysis, it is proved that correct aggregation (as identified with a so-called ideal tile set) is not always met for the existing tile sets for nano-manufacturing. A metric for assessing tile sets for healing by utilising punctures is proposed. Tile sets are investigated and assessed with respect to features such as error (mismatched tile) movement, punctured area and bond types. Subsequently, it is shown that the proposed metric can comprehensively assess the healing effectiveness of a puncture type for a tile set and its capability to attain error tolerance for the desired pattern. Extensive simulation results are provided.

  8. An automated data management/analysis system for space shuttle orbiter tiles. [stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, G. L.; Ballas, M.

    1982-01-01

    An engineering data management system was combined with a nonlinear stress analysis program to provide a capability for analyzing a large number of tiles on the space shuttle orbiter. Tile geometry data and all data necessary of define the tile loads environment accessed automatically as needed for the analysis of a particular tile or a set of tiles. User documentation provided includes: (1) description of computer programs and data files contained in the system; (2) definitions of all engineering data stored in the data base; (3) characteristics of the tile anaytical model; (4) instructions for preparation of user input; and (5) a sample problem to illustrate use of the system. Description of data, computer programs, and analytical models of the tile are sufficiently detailed to guide extension of the system to include additional zones of tiles and/or additional types of analyses

  9. PROTVINO: Mass-production of scintillator tiles by injection moulding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The technique of the segmented sandwich-calorimeters with wavelength-shifting readout, especially its large-scale application in big detectors, requires enormous quantities of a cheap scintillator tiles of moderate dimensions (20 x 20 cm 2 ). Initial trials carried out in the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP), Protvino, Russia almost ten years ago showed that manufacturing such scintillator tiles was possible using an ordinary commercially-available granulated optical polystyrene, an existing technology of plastic dyeing, and a well-known process of the injection moulding, used to produce plastic goods (like buttons!)

  10. High-Performance Tiled WMS and KML Web Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This software is an Apache 2.0 module implementing a high-performance map server to support interactive map viewers and virtual planet client software. It can be used in applications that require access to very-high-resolution geolocated images, such as GIS, virtual planet applications, and flight simulators. It serves Web Map Service (WMS) requests that comply with a given request grid from an existing tile dataset. It also generates the KML super-overlay configuration files required to access the WMS image tiles.

  11. Fast decoding algorithms for geometric coded apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byard, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Fast decoding algorithms are described for the class of coded aperture designs known as geometric coded apertures which were introduced by Gourlay and Stephen. When compared to the direct decoding method, the algorithms significantly reduce the number of calculations required when performing the decoding for these apertures and hence speed up the decoding process. Experimental tests confirm the efficacy of these fast algorithms, demonstrating a speed up of approximately two to three orders of magnitude over direct decoding.

  12. Results of high heat flux tests and structural analysis of the new solid tungsten divertor tile for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaksic, Nikola, E-mail: nikola.jaksic@ipp.mpg.de; Greuner, Henri; Herrmann, Albrecht; Böswirth, Bernd; Vorbrugg, Stefan

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The main motivation for the HHF investigation of tungsten tiles was an untypical deformation of some specimens under thermal loading, observed during the previous tests in GLADIS test facility. • A nonlinear finite element (FE) model for simulations of the GLADIS tests has been built. • The unexpected plastic deformations are mainly caused by internal stresses due to the manufacturing process. The small discrepancies among the FEA investigated and measured plastic deformations are most likely caused, beside of the practical difficulties by measuring of low items, also by tile internal stresses. • The influences of the residual stresses caused by special production processes have to be taken into account by design of the structural part made of solid tungsten. - Abstract: Tungsten as plasma-facing material for fusion devices is currently the most favorable candidate. In general solid tungsten is used for shielding the plasma chamber interior against the high heat generated from the plasma. For the purposes of implementation at ASDEX Upgrade and as a contribution to ITER the thermal performance of tungsten tiles has been extensively tested in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS during the development phase and beyond. These tests have been performed on full scale tungsten tile prototypes including their clamping and cooling structure. Simulating the adiabatically thermal loading due to plasma operation in ASDEX Upgrade, the tungsten tiles have been subjected to a thermal load with central heat flux of 10–24 MW/m{sup 2} and absorbed energy between 370 and 680 kJ. This loading results in maximum surface temperatures between 1300 °C and 2800 °C. The tests in GLADIS have been accompanied by intensive numerical investigations using FEA methods. For this purpose a multiple nonlinear finite element model has been set up. This paper discusses the main results of the high heat flux final tests and their numerical simulation. Moreover, first

  13. Results of high heat flux tests and structural analysis of the new solid tungsten divertor tile for ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksic, Nikola; Greuner, Henri; Herrmann, Albrecht; Böswirth, Bernd; Vorbrugg, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The main motivation for the HHF investigation of tungsten tiles was an untypical deformation of some specimens under thermal loading, observed during the previous tests in GLADIS test facility. • A nonlinear finite element (FE) model for simulations of the GLADIS tests has been built. • The unexpected plastic deformations are mainly caused by internal stresses due to the manufacturing process. The small discrepancies among the FEA investigated and measured plastic deformations are most likely caused, beside of the practical difficulties by measuring of low items, also by tile internal stresses. • The influences of the residual stresses caused by special production processes have to be taken into account by design of the structural part made of solid tungsten. - Abstract: Tungsten as plasma-facing material for fusion devices is currently the most favorable candidate. In general solid tungsten is used for shielding the plasma chamber interior against the high heat generated from the plasma. For the purposes of implementation at ASDEX Upgrade and as a contribution to ITER the thermal performance of tungsten tiles has been extensively tested in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS during the development phase and beyond. These tests have been performed on full scale tungsten tile prototypes including their clamping and cooling structure. Simulating the adiabatically thermal loading due to plasma operation in ASDEX Upgrade, the tungsten tiles have been subjected to a thermal load with central heat flux of 10–24 MW/m"2 and absorbed energy between 370 and 680 kJ. This loading results in maximum surface temperatures between 1300 °C and 2800 °C. The tests in GLADIS have been accompanied by intensive numerical investigations using FEA methods. For this purpose a multiple nonlinear finite element model has been set up. This paper discusses the main results of the high heat flux final tests and their numerical simulation. Moreover, first results

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) for Phosphorus Loads in Tile-Drained Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W; King, K; Williams, M; Williams, J; Fausey, N

    2015-07-01

    Numerical modeling is an economical and feasible approach for quantifying the effects of best management practices on dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) loadings from agricultural fields. However, tools that simulate both surface and subsurface DRP pathways are limited and have not been robustly evaluated in tile-drained landscapes. The objectives of this study were to test the ability of the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX), a widely used field-scale model, to simulate surface and tile P loadings over management, hydrologic, biologic, tile, and soil gradients and to better understand the behavior of P delivery at the edge-of-field in tile-drained midwestern landscapes. To do this, a global, variance-based sensitivity analysis was performed, and model outputs were compared with measured P loads obtained from 14 surface and subsurface edge-of-field sites across central and northwestern Ohio. Results of the sensitivity analysis showed that response variables for DRP were highly sensitive to coupled interactions between presumed important parameters, suggesting nonlinearity of DRP delivery at the edge-of-field. Comparison of model results to edge-of-field data showcased the ability of APEX to simulate surface and subsurface runoff and the associated DRP loading at monthly to annual timescales; however, some high DRP concentrations and fluxes were not reflected in the model, suggesting the presence of preferential flow. Results from this study provide new insights into baseline tile DRP loadings that exceed thresholds for algal proliferation. Further, negative feedbacks between surface and subsurface DRP delivery suggest caution is needed when implementing DRP-based best management practices designed for a specific flow pathway. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Frost damage of roof tiles: A study on moisture boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Iba, Chiemi; Ueda, Ayumi; Hokoi, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Freeze-thaw cycles are the most serious cause of roof tile deterioration; thus, it is important to know the temperature and moisture distributions in tile materials for protection against frost damage. This study focused on moisture boundary conditions for air layers under the tile. Temperature and humidity were measured using model structures with different types of roof tiles. The results showed that the temperatures around the roof were strongly influenced by solar and longwave radiation, ...

  16. Geometrical method of decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgarten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E[over →], B[over →], and P[over →], which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When

  17. Geometric Phase Generated Optical Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fuyong; Zang, Xiaofei; Wen, Dandan; Li, Zile; Zhang, Chunmei; Liu, Huigang; Gerardot, Brian D; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Guoxing; Chen, Xianzhong

    2017-09-12

    An optical illusion, such as "Rubin's vase", is caused by the information gathered by the eye, which is processed in the brain to give a perception that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. Metasurfaces are metamaterials of reduced dimensionality which have opened up new avenues for flat optics. The recent advancement in spin-controlled metasurface holograms has attracted considerate attention, providing a new method to realize optical illusions. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a metasurface device to generate an optical illusion. The metasurface device is designed to display two asymmetrically distributed off-axis images of "Rubin faces" with high fidelity, high efficiency and broadband operation that are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of the incident light. Upon the illumination of a linearly polarized light beam, the optical illusion of a 'vase' is perceived. Our result provides an intuitive demonstration of the figure-ground distinction that our brains make during the visual perception. The alliance between geometric metasurface and the optical illusion opens a pathway for new applications related to encryption, optical patterning, and information processing.

  18. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dain, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  19. Optical traps with geometric aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roichman, Yael; Waldron, Alex; Gardel, Emily; Grier, David G.

    2006-01-01

    We assess the influence of geometric aberrations on the in-plane performance of optical traps by studying the dynamics of trapped colloidal spheres in deliberately distorted holographic optical tweezers. The lateral stiffness of the traps turns out to be insensitive to moderate amounts of coma, astigmatism, and spherical aberration. Moreover holographic aberration correction enables us to compensate inherent shortcomings in the optical train, thereby adaptively improving its performance. We also demonstrate the effects of geometric aberrations on the intensity profiles of optical vortices, whose readily measured deformations suggest a method for rapidly estimating and correcting geometric aberrations in holographic trapping systems

  20. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  1. GROWTH EVALUATION OF FUNGI (PENICILLIUM AND ASPERGILLUS SPP.) ON CEILING TILES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of the potential for fungal growth on four different ceiling tiles in static chambers. It was found that even new ceiling tiles supported fungal growth under favorable conditions. Used ceiling tiles appeared to be more susceptible to funga...

  2. Development of SiPM-based scintillator tile detectors for a multi-layer fast neutron tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubek J.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We are developing thin tile scintillator detectors with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM readout for use in a multi-layer fast-neutron tracker. The tracker is based on interleaved Timepix and plastic scintillator layers. The thin 15 × 15 × 2 mm plastic scintillators require suitable optical readout in order to detect and measure the energy lost by energetic protons that have been recoiled by fast neutrons. Our first prototype used dual SiPMs, coupled to opposite edges of the scintillator tile using light-guides. An alternative readout geometry was designed in an effort to increase the fraction of scintillation light detected by the SiPMs. The new prototype uses a larger SiPM array to cover the entire top face of the tile. This paper details the comparative performance of the two prototype designs. A deuterium-tritium (DT fast-neutron source was used to compare the relative light collection efficiency of the two designs. A collimated UV light source was scanned across the detector face to map the uniformity. The new prototype was found to have 9.5 times better light collection efficiency over the original design. Both prototypes exhibit spatial non-uniformity in their response. Methods of correcting this non-uniformity are discussed.

  3. Development and Test of the Cooling System for the ATLAS Hadron Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Schlager, Gerolf

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is a general-purpose experiment for proton-proton collisions designed to investigate the full range of physical processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The ATLAS Tile Hadron Calorimeter is designed to measure the energies of jets with a resolution of E/E = 50%/pE 3%, for j j<3. This thesis presents the detailed studies which were carried out with prototypes of the Tilecal cooling system during my year as technical student at CERN. The results will be used to validate and to determine the nal design of the cooling system of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter. The performance of the cooling unit built for the calibration of Tilecal modules was evaluated for various parameters like temperature stability and safety conditions during operation. Additionally I contributed to the analysis of the calorimeter response for di erent cooling temperatures. These results determined the constraints on the operation conditions of the cooling system in terms of temperature stability that will be needed d...

  4. The Effects of Computer-assisted and Distance Learning of Geometric Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Sozcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of computer-assisted and distance learning of geometric modeling and computer aided geometric design are studied. It was shown that computer algebra systems and dynamic geometric environments can be considered as excellent tools for teaching mathematical concepts of mentioned areas, and distance education technologies would be indispensable for consolidation of successfully passed topics

  5. An On-Demand Retrieval Method Based on Hybrid NoSQL for Multi-Layer Image Tiles in Disaster Reduction Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyao Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring, response, mitigation and damage assessment of disasters places a wide variety of demands on the spatial and temporal resolutions of remote sensing images. Images are divided into tile pyramids by data sources or resolutions and published as independent image services for visualization. A disaster-affected area is commonly covered by multiple image layers to express hierarchical surface information, which generates a large amount of namesake tiles from different layers that overlay the same location. The traditional tile retrieval method for visualization cannot distinguish between distinct layers and traverses all image datasets for each tile query. This process produces redundant queries and invalid access that can seriously affect the visualization performance of clients, servers and network transmission. This paper proposes an on-demand retrieval method for multi-layer images and defines semantic annotations to enrich the description of each dataset. By matching visualization demands with the semantic information of datasets, this method automatically filters inappropriate layers and finds the most suitable layer for the final tile query. The design and implementation are based on a two-layer NoSQL database architecture that provides scheduling optimization and concurrent processing capability. The experimental results reflect the effectiveness and stability of the approach for multi-layer retrieval in disaster reduction visualization.

  6. Discrete geometric structures for architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    . The talk will provide an overview of recent progress in this field, with a particular focus on discrete geometric structures. Most of these result from practical requirements on segmenting a freeform shape into planar panels and on the physical realization

  7. Geometrical optics in general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Loinger, A.

    2006-01-01

    General relativity includes geometrical optics. This basic fact has relevant consequences that concern the physical meaning of the discontinuity surfaces propagated in the gravitational field - as it was first emphasized by Levi-Civita.

  8. Mobile Watermarking against Geometrical Distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile watermarking robust to geometrical distortions is still a great challenge. In mobile watermarking, efficient computation is necessary because mobile devices have very limited resources due to power consumption. In this paper, we propose a low-complexity geometrically resilient watermarking approach based on the optimal tradeoff circular harmonic function (OTCHF correlation filter and the minimum average correlation energy Mellin radial harmonic (MACE-MRH correlation filter. By the rotation, translation and scale tolerance properties of the two kinds of filter, the proposed watermark detector can be robust to geometrical attacks. The embedded watermark is weighted by a perceptual mask which matches very well with the properties of the human visual system. Before correlation, a whitening process is utilized to improve watermark detection reliability. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed watermarking approach is computationally efficient and robust to geometrical distortions.

  9. Hardware Algorithms For Tile-Based Real-Time Rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crisu, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present the GRAphics AcceLerator (GRAAL) framework for developing embedded tile-based rasterization hardware for mobile devices, meant to accelerate real-time 3-D graphics (OpenGL compliant) applications. The goal of the framework is a low-cost, low-power, high-performance

  10. A Median-Type Condition for Graph Tiling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piguet, Diana; Saumell, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, August (2017), s. 979-985 ISSN 1571-0653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-07822Y Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1506 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * graph tiling * regularity lemma * LP-duality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics

  11. Evaluation Of A Multipurpose Tile Body Developed From Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile samples from this body were prepared by the semi-dry pressing technique and fired at different temperatures in order to determine the different firing properties. After soaking the samples at the temperatures for 30 minutes and cooling them to room temperature, strong differences in physical and mechanical properties ...

  12. ATLAS barrel hadron tile calorimeter: spacers plates mass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.M.; Budagov, Yu.A.; Khubua, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this article we expose the main problems of the mass production of the so-called 'spacer plates' for the ATLAS Barrel Hadron Tile Calorimeter. We describe all practical solutions of these problems. Particularly we present the measurement procedures and calculation schemes we used for the spacers dimensions determination. The results of the calculations are presented

  13. EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH (PENICILLIUM GLABRUM) ON A CEILING TILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. Amplification of the mold, Penicillium glabrum, occurred at R...

  14. Tile forts of the Liesbeeck Frontier | Sleigh | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 27 (1997) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Tile forts of the Liesbeeck Frontier.

  15. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter central barrel assembly and installation.

    CERN Multimedia

    nikolai topilin

    2009-01-01

    These photos belong to the self-published book by Nikolai Topilin "ATLAS Hadron Calorimeter Assembly". The book is a collection of souvenirs from the years of assembly and installation of the Tile Hadron Calorimeter, which extended from November 2002 until May 2006.

  16. Tritium decontamination of TFTR carbon tiles employing ultra violet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, W.M.; Ohira, S.; Gentile, C.A.; Oya, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Hayashi, T.; Iwai, Y.; Kawamura, Y.; Konishi, S.; Nishi, M.F.; Young, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    Tritium decontamination on the surface of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter tiles used during the Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) phase of TFTR operations was investigated employing an ultra violet light source with a mean wavelength of 172 nm and a maximum radiant intensity of 50 mW/cm 2 . The partial pressures of H 2 , HD, C and CO 2 during the UV exposure were enhanced more than twice, compared to the partial pressures before UV exposure. In comparison, the amount of O 2 decreased during the UV exposure and the production of a small amount of O 3 was observed when the UV light was turned on. Unlike the decontamination method of baking in air or oxygen, the UV exposure removed hydrogen isotopes from the tile to vacuum predominantly in forms of gases of hydrogen isotopes. The tritium surface contamination on the tile in the area exposed to the UV light was reduced after the UV exposure. The results show that the UV light with a wavelength of 172 nm can remove hydrogen isotopes from carbon-based tiles at the very surface

  17. Detritiation of tiles from tokamaks by laser cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coad, J. Paul; Widdowson, Anna; Farcage, Daniel; Semerok, Alexander; Thro, P.-Y.; Likonen, Jari; Renvall, Tommi

    2007-01-01

    Laser ablation has been used to clean surfaces or to decontaminate hot cells by removing paint, and has been tested on deposited carbon layers from the TEXTOR tokamak. This paper reports on successful trials in the Beryllium Handling Facility of a pulsed laser cleaning system to remove H-isotope containing carbon deposits on tiles from the JET tokamak. The laser beam is rastered over the surface of the tiles to remove the deposit. Two types of JET carbon-fibre composite (CFC) tiles were treated. The first was covered with carbon-based deposits up to 300 μm thick with high H-isotope content, the other was covered with a mixed Be/C film ∼ 50 microns thick. One scan of the laser was sufficient to completely change the appearance and expose the fibre planes. From cross-sectional micrographs, it was found that overall three scans provided the most effective settings for complete film removal. An area 250 cm 2 of the second tile was cleaned in 20 minutes, clearly demonstrating the efficiency of laser cleaning for the removal of tokamak deposits such as likely to occur in ITER. (authors)

  18. Testing method for ceramic armour and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    TNO developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this alternative test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armour are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  19. ATLAS TileCal Read Out Driver production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, A; Abdallah, J; Castillo, V; Cuenca, C; Ferrer, A; Fullana, E; Gonzalez, V; Higon, E; Poveda, J; Ruiz-MartInez, A; Saez, M A; Salvachua, B; SanchIs, E; Solans, C; Valls, J A

    2007-01-01

    The production tests of the 38 ATLAS TileCal Read Out Drivers (RODs) are presented in this paper. The hardware specifications and firmware functionality of the RODs modules, the test-bench and the test procedure to qualify the boards are described. Finally the performance results, the temperature studies and high rate tests are shown and discussed

  20. Phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...