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Sample records for geometric variational crimes

  1. Variations autour d’un crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Vân Ton-That

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available À partir d’une lecture des Châtiments et d’autres textes en prose autour du même thème, nous étudierons les variations de genres et d’écritures de Hugo qui en prose comme en poésie entend dénoncer et émouvoir. L’écriture semble dépasser les cloisonnements génériques et formels dans une prose aux inflexions poétiques et dans des vers où se mêlent narration, description et condamnation d’un crime qui prend alors une valeur universelle.On the basis of the reading of Les Châtiments and other prose texts centered on the same theme, we shall study Hugo’s genre and writing variations. In prose as well as in poetry, he intends to expose and to move. The way in which he writes seems to defy formal and generic classifications through a form of prose which is characterized by poetic overtones, and in lines in which narration and description intermingle with the exposition of a crime which takes on a universal meaning.A partir de una lectura de Châtiments y otros textos en prosa sobre el mismo tema, estudiaremos las variaciones de géneros y escrituras en Hugo quien, en prosa como en poesίa, pretende denunciar y conmover. La escritura parece superar las fronteras genéricas y formales en una prosa llena de inflexiones poéticas y en versos en los que se mezclan narración, descripción y condenación de un crimen que se viste por ende de un valor universal.

  2. Geometric Total Variation for Texture Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bespalov, Dmitriy; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Shokoufandeh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this work we propose a novel variational method that we intend to use for estimating non-rigid texture deformation. The method is able to capture variation in grayscale images with respect to the geometry of its features. Our experimental evaluations demonstrate that accounting for geometry...... of features in texture images leads to significant improvements in localization of these features, when textures undergo geometrical transformations. Accurate localization of features in the presense of unkown deformations is a crucial property for texture characterization methods, and we intend to expoit...

  3. Crime

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    Montgomery County of Maryland — Updated daily postings on Montgomery County’s open data website, dataMontgomery, provide the public with direct access to crime statistic databases - including raw...

  4. Geometric treatment of electromagnetic phenomena in conducting materials: variational principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BadIa-Majos, A [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada-ICMA, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Carinena, J F [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Lopez, C [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2006-11-24

    The dynamical equations of an electromagnetic field coupled with a conducting material are studied. The properties of the interaction are described by a classical field theory with tensorial material laws in spacetime geometry. We show that the main features of superconducting response emerge in a natural way within the covariance, gauge invariance and variational formulation requirements. In particular, the Ginzburg-Landau theory follows straightforwardly from the London equations when fundamental symmetry properties are considered. Unconventional properties, such as the interaction of superconductors with electrostatic fields are naturally introduced in the geometric theory, at a phenomenological level. The BCS background is also suggested by macroscopic fingerprints of the internal symmetries. It is also shown that dissipative conducting behaviour may be approximately treated in a variational framework after breaking covariance for adiabatic processes. Thus, nonconservative laws of interaction are formulated by a purely spatial variational principle, in a quasi-stationary time discretized evolution. This theory justifies a class of nonfunctional phenomenological principles, introduced for dealing with exotic conduction properties of matter (BadIa and Lopez 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 127004)

  5. Spectral and geometrical variation of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of diffuse reflectance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Alejandro; Rabal, Ana María; Campos, Joaquín; Pons, Alicia; Hernanz, María Luisa

    2012-12-20

    A study on the variation of the spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of four diffuse reflectance standards (matte ceramic, BaSO(4), Spectralon, and white Russian opal glass) is accomplished through this work. Spectral BRDF measurements were carried out and, using principal components analysis, its spectral and geometrical variation respect to a reference geometry was assessed from the experimental data. Several descriptors were defined in order to compare the spectral BRDF variation of the four materials.

  6. A population based statistical model for daily geometric variations in the thorax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szeto, Yenny Z.; Witte, Marnix G.; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2017-01-01

    To develop a population based statistical model of the systematic interfraction geometric variations between the planning CT and first treatment week of lung cancer patients for inclusion as uncertainty term in future probabilistic planning. Deformable image registrations between the planning CT and

  7. Geometric morphometrics in primatology: craniofacial variation in Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Wood, C G; Luboga, S A

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, morphometric studies have relied on statistical analysis of distances, angles or ratios to investigate morphometric variation among taxa. Recently, geometric techniques have been developed for the direct analysis of landmark data. In this paper, we offer a summary (with examples) of three of these newer techniques, namely shape coordinate, thin-plate spline and relative warp analyses. Shape coordinate analysis detected significant craniofacial variation between 4 modern human populations, with African and Australian Aboriginal specimens being relatively prognathous compared with their Eurasian counterparts. In addition, the Australian specimens exhibited greater basicranial flexion than all other samples. The observed relationships between size and craniofacial shape were weak. The decomposition of shape variation into affine and non-affine components is illustrated via a thin-plate spline analysis of Homo and Pan cranial landmarks. We note differences between Homo and Pan in the degree of prognathism and basicranial flexion and the position and orientation of the foramen magnum. We compare these results with previous studies of these features in higher primates and discuss the utility of geometric morphometrics as a tool in primatology and physical anthropology. We conclude that many studies of morphological variation, both within and between taxa, would benefit from the graphical nature of these techniques.

  8. Special Semester titled Geometric mechanics : variational and stochastic methods : CIB, Lausanne, Switzerland, January-June 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Cruzeiro, Ana; Holm, Darryl

    2017-01-01

    Collecting together contributed lectures and mini-courses, this book details the research presented in a special semester titled “Geometric mechanics – variational and stochastic methods” run in the first half of 2015 at the Centre Interfacultaire Bernoulli (CIB) of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The aim of the semester was to develop a common language needed to handle the wide variety of problems and phenomena occurring in stochastic geometric mechanics. It gathered mathematicians and scientists from several different areas of mathematics (from analysis, probability, numerical analysis and statistics, to algebra, geometry, topology, representation theory, and dynamical systems theory) and also areas of mathematical physics, control theory, robotics, and the life sciences, with the aim of developing the new research area in a concentrated joint effort, both from the theoretical and applied points of view. The lectures were given by leading specialists in different areas of mathematics a...

  9. Geometrical treatment of non-potential interactions: the exterior variational calculus, dynamical systems, physical 1-forms and variational selfadjointness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trostel, R.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical objective of this paper is to provide geometrical formulation of the integrability conditions for the existence of an action functional, that is, to provide a geometrical counterpart (similar to that by Abraham, Marsden, and Hughes) of the variational and functional approach to self-adjointness. This objective is achieved via the exterior variational calculus, an exterior differential calculus on the vector space of functions depending on time or space time, using from the outset extensively the concept of functional differentiation as its foundation. Variational self-adjointness equals the variational closure of the physical 1-form, the vanishing of a generalized curl-operation applied to the equations of motion. The convenience of this more formal approach is demonstrated, not only when deriving the conditions of variational self-adjointness for materials of differential type of arbitrary order (particles or fields), using roughly no more than Dirac's delta-distributions, but also when treating materials of a broader class (including causal and acausal constitutive functionals, materials of rate type, integral type, etc.). A physical objective of this paper is achieved by pointing out that, as physics is primarily concerned with the solutions of the evolution equations, i.e., with the set of the zero points of the physical 1-form, an equivalence relation among the physical 1-forms on the infinite dimensional vector space of functions is constructed by leaving the set of their zero points unchanged. Using this result, a direct Lagrangian universality is indicated and an almost one presented. Moreover, all physical 1-forms connected by invertible supermatrices (thus mixing the evolution law of different times or space-time) are equivalent. Choosing these supermatrices to be diagonal in time or space-time yields the indirect analytical representation factors

  10. Resultant geometric variation of a fixtured workpiece Part I: a simulation

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    Supapan Sangnui Chaiprapat

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available When a workpiece is fixtured for a machining or inspection operation, the accuracy of an operation is mainly determined by the efficiency of the fixturing method. Variability in manufactured workpiece is hardly inevitable. When such variability is found at contact areas between the workpiece and the fixture, errors in location are expected. The errors will affect quality of features to be produced. This paper developed an algorithm to determine variant final locations of a displaced workpiece given normally distributed errorsat contact points. Resultant geometric variation of workpiece location reveals interesting information which is beneficial in tolerance planning.

  11. Effects of major geometric variations between intracavitary applications on pear-shaped isodose dimension in cancer of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, R. Y.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The basic principal of intracavitary brachytherapy for cancer of the cervix is based on specific loading rules to achieve a pear-shaped isodose distribution centered around the cervix. Recently, ICRU Report 38 recommends a dose reference volume for reporting. Our previous studies have confirmed that there is considerable variations of geometry between applications. This study is to evaluate the effect of major geometric variations on pear-shaped isodose dimension in manual afterloading low-dose-rate system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred orthogonal films of 50 patients with cancer of the cervix (2 applications/patient) were reviewed for comparative measurements of geometric variations between applications. Major geometric variations were found for 13 patients in lengths of tandem, 7 patients in colpostats separation and 16 patients in vaginal packing. The direct measurement of these geometric variations were compared with the three-dimensional measurement of the pear-shaped isodose enclosed by the point A between the two applications. RESULTS: The geometric variations in the width of colpostats separation and length of tandem were directly related to the width and height of the pear-shaped isodose dimension. The geometric relationship between the colpostats and distal tandem had an important effect on the thickness of the pear-shape. In optimization of poor geometry for rectum or bladder wall, high dose volume centered around the cervix is reduced without changing the overall pear-shaped volume due to changing configuration of the pear-shaped isodose. In our selected patients with two applications, variations in vaginal packing had no direct effect on the width and thickness of the pear-shape due to other variables. CONCLUSION: Major geometric variations between applications greatly affect the dimension of the pear-shaped isodose distribution. Optimization of poor geometry is quite limited without compromising the high-dose volume centered around the

  12. Length-scale effect due to periodic variation of geometrically necessary dislocation densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oztop, M. S.; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Strain gradient plasticity theories have been successful in predicting qualitative aspects of the length scale effect, most notably the increase in yield strength and hardness as the size of the deforming volume decreases. However new experimental methodologies enabled by recent developments...... of high spatial resolution diffraction methods in a scanning electron microscope give a much more quantitative understanding of plastic deformation at small length scales. Specifically, geometrically necessary dislocation densities (GND) can now be measured and provide detailed information about...... the microstructure of deformed metals in addition to the size effect. Recent GND measurements have revealed a distribution of length scales that evolves within a metal undergoing plastic deformation. Furthermore, these experiments have shown an accumulation of GND densities in cell walls as well as a variation...

  13. A numerical analysis of antithetic variates in Monte Carlo radiation transport with geometrical surface splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, P.K.; Prasad, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical study for effective implementation of the antithetic variates technique with geometric splitting/Russian roulette in Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations is presented. The study is based on the theory of Monte Carlo errors where a set of coupled integral equations are solved for the first and second moments of the score and for the expected number of flights per particle history. Numerical results are obtained for particle transmission through an infinite homogeneous slab shield composed of an isotropically scattering medium. Two types of antithetic transformations are considered. The results indicate that the antithetic transformations always lead to reduction in variance and increase in efficiency provided optimal antithetic parameters are chosen. A substantial gain in efficiency is obtained by incorporating antithetic transformations in rule of thumb splitting. The advantage gained for thick slabs (∼20 mfp) with low scattering probability (0.1-0.5) is attractively large . (author). 27 refs., 9 tabs

  14. Geometrical optics approach in liquid crystal films with three-dimensional director variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, G; Kelly, J; Gartland, E C; Allender, D W

    2003-04-01

    A formal geometrical optics approach (GOA) to the optics of nematic liquid crystals whose optic axis (director) varies in more than one dimension is described. The GOA is applied to the propagation of light through liquid crystal films whose director varies in three spatial dimensions. As an example, the GOA is applied to the calculation of light transmittance for the case of a liquid crystal cell which exhibits the homeotropic to multidomainlike transition (HMD cell). Properties of the GOA solution are explored, and comparison with the Jones calculus solution is also made. For variations on a smaller scale, where the Jones calculus breaks down, the GOA provides a fast, accurate method for calculating light transmittance. The results of light transmittance calculations for the HMD cell based on the director patterns provided by two methods, direct computer calculation and a previously developed simplified model, are in good agreement.

  15. Boundary Equations and Regularity Theory for Geometric Variational Systems with Neumann Data

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    Schikorra, Armin

    2018-02-01

    We study boundary regularity of maps from two-dimensional domains into manifolds which are critical with respect to a generic conformally invariant variational functional and which, at the boundary, intersect perpendicularly with a support manifold. For example, harmonic maps, or H-surfaces, with a partially free boundary condition. In the interior it is known, by the celebrated work of Rivière, that these maps satisfy a system with an antisymmetric potential, from which one can derive the interior regularity of the solution. Avoiding a reflection argument, we show that these maps satisfy along the boundary a system of equations which also exhibits a (nonlocal) antisymmetric potential that combines information from the interior potential and the geometric Neumann boundary condition. We then proceed to show boundary regularity for solutions to such systems.

  16. A geometric morphometric analysis of hominin lower molars: Evolutionary implications and overview of postcanine dental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Prado-Simón, Leyre; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-05-01

    Lower molars have been extensively studied in the context of hominin evolution using classic and geometric morphometric analyses, 2D and 3D approaches, evaluations of the external (outer enamel surface) and internal anatomy (dentine, pulp chamber, and radicular canals), and studies of the crown and root variation. In this study, we present a 2D geometric morphometric analysis of the crown anatomy of lower first, second, and third molars of a broad sample of hominins, including Pliocene and Lower, Middle, and Upper Pleistocene species coming from Africa, Asia, and Europe. We show that shape variability increases from first to second and third molars. While first molars tend to retain a relatively stable 5-cusped conformation throughout the hominin fossil record, second and third molars show marked distal reductions in later Homo species. This trend to distal reduction is similar to that observed in previous studies of premolars and upper second and third molars, and points to a correlated reduction of distal areas across the whole postcanine dentition. Results on lower molar variation, as well as on other postcanine teeth, show certain trends in European Pleistocene populations from the Atapuerca sites. Middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos show Neanderthal affinities and strong dental reduction, especially in the most distal molars. The degree of dental reduction in this population is stronger than that observed in classic Neanderthals. Homo antecessor hominins from Gran Dolina-TD6 have primitive lower teeth that contrast with their more derived upper teeth. The evolutionary implications of these dental affinities are discussed in light of recent paleogenetic studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of geometric morphometrics to identify ecophenotypic variation of juvenile Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus

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    Shima Bakhshalizadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of phenotypic variation is essential for identifying discrete phenotypic stocks. We sampled immature Persian sturgeon from the eastern and western portion of the southern Caspian Sea to test for morphological differences that could predict the ecophenotypic variation of Persian sturgeon. Geometric morphometric methods were used to quantify body shape. Configuration of landmark coordinates of fish body were scaled, translated and rotated using generalized Procrustes analysis, followed by univariate analysis of variance of resulting shape coordinates to evaluate potential morphological differences between regions. A principal component analysis was carried out to reduce the number of dimensions without the loss of information. The discriminate function analysis was performed to determine the efficacy of body landmarks for discrimination by geographic variants. Within-group linkage was inferred for dendrogram clusters using Pearson correlation distance on the basis of the average linkage method as a complement for discriminate analysis. Principle component analysis revealed that the largest differences were in body size. Most notable were differences in distance between head landmarks and the dorsal fin between eastern and western regions. Fish from the western region exhibited a longer distance from head landmarks to the dorsal fin than fish from the eastern region. Furthermore, the ventral portion of fish from the western region was longer than that of the eastern individuals. These findings show that juvenile Persian sturgeon already possess morphological traits that can be used to discriminate fish from different regions. Furthermore, these differences are discernible in spite of the volume of artificially-inseminated sturgeon larva that have been released during the past 40 years.

  18. A geometric morphometric analysis of hominin upper premolars. Shape variation and morphological integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Prado-Simón, Leyre; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2011-12-01

    This paper continues the series of articles initiated in 2006 that analyse hominin dental crown morphology by means of geometric morphometric techniques. The detailed study of both upper premolar occlusal morphologies in a comprehensive sample of hominin fossils, including those coming from the Gran Dolina-TD6 and Sima de los Huesos sites from Atapuerca, Spain, complement previous works on lower first and second premolars and upper first molars. A morphological gradient consisting of the change from asymmetric to symmetric upper premolars and a marked reduction of the lingual cusp in recent Homo species has been observed in both premolars. Although percentages of correct classification based on upper premolar morphologies are not very high, significant morphological differences between Neanderthals (and European middle Pleistocene fossils) and modern humans have been identified, especially in upper second premolars. The study of morphological integration between premolar morphologies reveals significant correlations that are weaker between upper premolars than between lower ones and significant correlations between antagonists. These results have important implications for understanding the genetic and functional factors underlying dental phenotypic variation and covariation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Interspecific variation in the tetradactyl manus of modern tapirs (Perissodactyla: Tapirus) exposed using geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Jamie A; Nauwelaerts, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    The distal forelimb (autopodium) of quadrupedal mammals is a key morphological unit involved in locomotion, body support, and interaction with the substrate. The manus of the tapir (Perissodactyla: Tapirus) is unique within modern perissodactyls, as it retains the plesiomorphic tetradactyl (four-toed) condition also exhibited by basal equids and rhinoceroses. Tapirs are known to exhibit anatomical mesaxonic symmetry in the manus, although interspecific differences and biomechanical mesaxony have yet to be rigorously tested. Here, we investigate variation in the manus morphology of four modern tapir species (Tapirus indicus, Tapirus bairdii, Tapirus pinchaque, and Tapirus terrestris) using a geometric morphometric approach. Autopodial bones were laser scanned to capture surface shape and morphology was quantified using 3D-landmark analysis. Landmarks were aligned using Generalised Procrustes Analysis, with discriminant function and partial least square analyses performed on aligned coordinate data to identify features that significantly separate tapir species. Overall, our results support the previously held hypothesis that T. indicus is morphologically separate from neotropical tapirs; however, previous conclusions regarding function from morphological differences are shown to require reassessment. We find evidence indicating that T. bairdii exhibits reduced reliance on the lateral fifth digit compared to other tapirs. Morphometric assessment of the metacarpophalangeal joint and the morphology of the distal facets of the lunate lend evidence toward high loading on the lateral digits of both the large T. indicus (large body mass) and the small, long limbed T. pinchaque (ground impact). Our results support other recent studies on T. pinchaque, suggesting subtle but important adaptations to a compliant but inclined habitat. In conclusion, we demonstrate further evidence that the modern tapir forelimb is a variable locomotor unit with a range of interspecific features

  20. Effect of variation of geometric parameters on the flow within a synthetic models of lower human airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Moreno, Andres Santiago; Duque Daza, Carlos Alberto

    2017-11-01

    The effects of variation of two geometric parameters, such as bifurcation angle and carina rounding radius, during the respiratory inhalation process, are studied numerically using two synthetic models of lower human airways. Laminar flow simulations were performed for six angles and three rounding radius, for 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 for Reynolds numbers. Numerical results showed the existence of a direct relationship between the deformation of the velocity profiles (effect produced by the bifurcation) and the vortical structures observed through the secondary flow patterns. It is observed that the location of the vortices (and their related saddle point) is associated with the displacement of the velocity peak. On the other hand, increasing the angle and the rounding radius seems to bring about a growth of the pressure drop, which in turn displaces the distribution and peaks of the maximum shear stresses of the carina, that is, of the bifurcation point. Some physiological effects associated with the phenomena produced by these geometric variations are also discussed.

  1. On numerical heat transfer characteristic study of flat surface subjected to variation in geometric thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umair, Siddique Mohammed; Kolawale, Abhijeet Rangnath; Bhise, Ganesh Anurath; Gulhane, Nitin Parashram

    Thermal management in the looming world of electronic packaging system is the most prior and conspicuous issue as far as the working efficiency of the system is concerned. The cooling in such systems can be achieved by impinging air jet over the heat sink as jet impingement cooling is one of the cooling technologies which are widely studied now. Here the modulation in impinging and geometric parameters results in the establishment of the characteristic cooling rate over the target surface. The characteristic cooling curve actually resembles non-uniformity in cooling rate. This non-uniformity favors the area average heat dissipation rate. In order to study the non-uniformity in cooling characteristic, the present study takes an initiative in plotting the local Nusselt number magnitude against the non-dimensional radial distance of the different thickness of target surfaces. For this, the steady temperature distribution over the target surface under the impingement of air jet is being determined numerically. The work is completely inclined towards the determination of critical value of geometric thickness below which the non-uniformity in the Nusselt profile starts. This is done by numerically examining different target surfaces under constant Reynolds number and nozzle-target spacing. The occurrences of non-uniformity in Nusselt profile contributes to over a 42% enhancement in area average Nusselt magnitude. The critical value of characteristic thickness (t/d) reported in the present investigation approximate to 0.05. Below this value, the impingement of air jet generates a discrete pressure zones over the target surface in the form of pressure spots. As a result of this, the air flowing in contact with the target surface experiences a damping potential, in due of which it gets more time and contact with the surface to dissipate heat.

  2. Variation and diversity in Homo erectus: a 3D geometric morphometric analysis of the temporal bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Claire E; Kimbel, William H; Lockwood, Charles A

    2007-07-01

    Although the level of taxonomic diversity within the fossil hominin species Homo erectus (sensu lato) is continually debated, there have been relatively few studies aiming to quantify the morphology of this species. Instead, most researchers have relied on qualitative descriptions or the evaluation of nonmetric characters, which in many cases display continuous variation. Also, only a few studies have used quantitative data to formally test hypotheses regarding the taxonomic composition of the "erectus" hypodigm. Despite these previous analyses, however, and perhaps in part due to these varied approaches for assessing variation within specimens typically referred to H. erectus (sensu lato) and the general lack of rigorous statistical testing of how variation within this taxon is partitioned, there is currently little consensus regarding whether this group is a single species, or whether it should instead be split into separate temporal or geographically delimited taxa. In order to evaluate possible explanations for variation within H. erectus, we tested the general hypothesis that variation within the temporal bone morphology of H. erectus is consistent with that of a single species, using great apes and humans as comparative taxa. Eighteen three-dimensional (3D) landmarks of the temporal bone were digitized on a total of 520 extant and fossil hominid crania. Landmarks were registered by Generalized Procrustes Analysis, and Procrustes distances were calculated for comparisons of individuals within and between the extant taxa. Distances between fossil specimens and between a priori groupings of fossils were then compared to the distances calculated within the extant taxa to assess the variation within the H. erectus sample relative to that of known species, subspecies, and populations. Results of these analyses indicate that shape variation within the entire H. erectus sample is generally higher than extant hominid intraspecific variation, and putative H. ergaster

  3. Supervised Variational Relevance Learning, An Analytic Geometric Feature Selection with Applications to Omic Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boareto, Marcelo; Cesar, Jonatas; Leite, Vitor B P; Caticha, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Supervised Variational Relevance Learning (Suvrel), a variational method to determine metric tensors to define distance based similarity in pattern classification, inspired in relevance learning. The variational method is applied to a cost function that penalizes large intraclass distances and favors small interclass distances. We find analytically the metric tensor that minimizes the cost function. Preprocessing the patterns by doing linear transformations using the metric tensor yields a dataset which can be more efficiently classified. We test our methods using publicly available datasets, for some standard classifiers. Among these datasets, two were tested by the MAQC-II project and, even without the use of further preprocessing, our results improve on their performance.

  4. Describing shell shape variations and sexual dimorphism of Golden Apple Snail, Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 using geometric morphometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Cabuga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pomacea caniculata or Golden Apple Snail (GAS existed to be a rice pest in the Philippines and in Asia. Likewise, geographic location also contributes its increasing populations thus making it invasive among freshwater habitats and rice field areas. This study was conducted in order to describe shell shape variations and sexual dimorphism among the populations of P. caniculata. A total of 180 were randomly collected in the three lakes of Esperanza, Agusan del Sur (Lake Dakong Napo, Lake Oro, and Lake Cebulan, of which each lake comprised of 60 samples (30 males and 30 females. To determine the variations and sexual dimorphism in the shell shape of golden apple snail, coordinates was administered to relative warp analysis and the resulting data were subjected to Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA. The results show statistically significant (P<0.05 from the appended male and female dorsal and ventral/apertural portion. While male and female spire height, body size, and shell shape opening also shows significant variations. These phenotypic distinctions could be associated with geographic isolation, predation and nutrient component of the gastropods. Thus, the importance of using geometric morphometric advances in describing sexual dimorphism in the shell shape of P. caniculata.

  5. Geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, Hubert L; Mazzeo, Rafe; Sesum, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    This volume includes expanded versions of the lectures delivered in the Graduate Minicourse portion of the 2013 Park City Mathematics Institute session on Geometric Analysis. The papers give excellent high-level introductions, suitable for graduate students wishing to enter the field and experienced researchers alike, to a range of the most important areas of geometric analysis. These include: the general issue of geometric evolution, with more detailed lectures on Ricci flow and Kähler-Ricci flow, new progress on the analytic aspects of the Willmore equation as well as an introduction to the recent proof of the Willmore conjecture and new directions in min-max theory for geometric variational problems, the current state of the art regarding minimal surfaces in R^3, the role of critical metrics in Riemannian geometry, and the modern perspective on the study of eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for Laplace-Beltrami operators.

  6. Geometric morphometric analysis of allometric variation in the mandibular morphology of the hominids of Atapuerca, Sima de los Huesos site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Antonio; Bastir, Markus

    2004-06-01

    Allometry is an important factor of morphological integration that contributes to the organization of the phenotype and its variation. Variation in the allometric shape of the mandible is particularly important in hominid evolution because the mandible carries important taxonomic traits. Some of these traits are known to covary with size, particularly the retromolar space, symphyseal curvature, and position of the mental foramen. The mandible is a well studied system in the context of the evolutionary development of complex morphological structures because it is composed of different developmental units that are integrated within a single bone. In the present study, we investigated the allometric variation of two important developmental units that are separated by the inferior nerve (a branch of CN V3). We tested the null hypothesis that there would be no difference in allometric variation between the two components. Procrustes-based geometric morphometrics of 20 two-dimensional (2D) landmarks were analyzed by multivariate regressions of shape on size in samples from 121 humans, 48 chimpanzees, and 50 gorillas (all recent specimens), eight fossil hominids from Atapuerca, Sima de los Huesos (AT-SH), and 17 Neandertals. The findings show that in all of the examined species, there was significantly greater allometric variation in the supra-nerve unit than in the infra-nerve unit. The formation of the retromolar space exhibited an allometric relationship with the supra-nerve unit in all of the species studied. The formation of the chin-like morphology is an "apodynamic" feature of the infra-nerve unit in the AT-SH hominids. The results of this study support the hypothesis that allometry contributes to the organization of variation in complex morphological structures. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Geometric Integration Of The Valsov-Maxwell System With A Variational Particle-in-cell Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squire, J.; Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    A fully variational, unstructured, electromagnetic particle-in-cell integrator is developed for integration of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. Using the formalism of Discrete Exterior Calculus [1], the field solver, interpolation scheme and particle advance algorithm are derived through minimization of a single discrete field theory action. As a consequence of ensuring that the action is invariant under discrete electromagnetic gauge transformations, the integrator exactly conserves Gauss's law.

  8. Geometric integration of the Vlasov-Maxwell system with a variational particle-in-cell scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squire, J.; Tang, W. M. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Qin, H. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2012-08-15

    A fully variational, unstructured, electromagnetic particle-in-cell integrator is developed for integration of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. Using the formalism of discrete exterior calculus [Desbrun et al., e-print arXiv:math/0508341 (2005)], the field solver, interpolation scheme, and particle advance algorithm are derived through minimization of a single discrete field theory action. As a consequence of ensuring that the action is invariant under discrete electromagnetic gauge transformations, the integrator exactly conserves Gauss's law.

  9. DETERMINING THE COMPOSITION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF FOSSIL FUEL BASED ON VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES AND GEOMETRIC PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velibor V Vujović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the algorithm and results of a computer program for calculation of complex equilibrium composition for the high temperature fossil fuel combustion products. The method of determining the composition of high temperatures combustion products at the temperatures appearing in the open cycle MHD power generation is given. The determination of combustion product composition is based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The number of equations to be solved is reduced by using variational principles and a method of geometric programming and is equal to the sum of the numbers of elements and phases. A short description of the computer program for the calculation of the composition and an example of the results are also given.

  10. Variation in the human ribs geometrical properties and mechanical response based on X-ray computed tomography images resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Rafał; Toczyski, Jacek; Subit, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Computational models of the human body are commonly used for injury prediction in automobile safety research. To create these models, the geometry of the human body is typically obtained from segmentation of medical images such as computed tomography (CT) images that have a resolution between 0.2 and 1mm/pixel. While the accuracy of the geometrical and structural information obtained from these images depend greatly on their resolution, the effect of image resolution on the estimation of the ribs geometrical properties has yet to be established. To do so, each of the thirty-four sections of ribs obtained from a Post Mortem Human Surrogate (PMHS) was imaged using three different CT modalities: standard clinical CT (clinCT), high resolution clinical CT (HRclinCT), and microCT. The images were processed to estimate the rib cross-section geometry and mechanical properties, and the results were compared to those obtained from the microCT images by computing the 'deviation factor', a metric that quantifies the relative difference between results obtained from clinCT and HRclinCT to those obtained from microCT. Overall, clinCT images gave a deviation greater than 100%, and were therefore deemed inadequate for the purpose of this study. HRclinCT overestimated the rib cross-sectional area by 7.6%, the moments of inertia by about 50%, and the cortical shell area by 40.2%, while underestimating the trabecular area by 14.7%. Next, a parametric analysis was performed to quantify how the variations in the estimate of the geometrical properties affected the rib predicted mechanical response under antero-posterior loading. A variation of up to 45% for the predicted peak force and up to 50% for the predicted stiffness was observed. These results provide a quantitative estimate of the sensitivity of the response of the FE model to the resolution of the images used to generate it. They also suggest that a correction factor could be derived from the comparison between microCT and

  11. Crime scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illuminate the significance of locations in TV series, in particular in crime series. The author presents different theoretical approaches on settings and landscapes in TV series and crime stories. By analysing both the Swedish and the British versions...... of the Wallander series, the author examines the various types of location used, focusing especially on their dramaturgic and aesthetic roles and on the various ways in which locations are conceptualized in the two series. The analysis also includes extra materials on the DVDs. Finally, the author discusses some...... theoretical and methodological challenges of analysing the significance and impact of locations in TV productions....

  12. Geometric variations in high index-contrast waveguides, coupled mode theory in curvilinear coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Jacobs, Steven; Johnson, Steven; Fink, Yoel

    2002-10-21

    Perturbation theory formulation of Maxwell's equations gives a theoretically elegant and computationally efficient way of describing small imperfections and weak interactions in electro-magnetic systems. It is generally appreciated that due to the discontinuous field boundary conditions in the systems employing high dielectric contrast profiles standard perturbation formulations fail when applied to the problem of shifted material boundaries. In this paper we developed a novel coupled mode and perturbation theory formulations for treating generic non-uniform (varying along the direction of propagation) perturbations of a waveguide cross-section based on Hamiltonian formulation of Maxwell equations in curvilinear coordinates. We show that our formulation is accurate and rapidly converges to an exact result when used in a coupled mode theory framework even for the high index-contrast discontinuous dielectric profiles. Among others, our formulation allows for an efficient numerical evaluation of induced PMD due to a generic distortion of a waveguide profile, analysis of mode filters, mode converters and other optical elements such as strong Bragg gratings, tapers, bends etc., and arbitrary combinations of thereof. To our knowledge, this is the first time perturbation and coupled mode theories are developed to deal with arbitrary non-uniform profile variations in high index-contrast waveguides.

  13. Small-scale variations in leaf shape under anthropogenic disturbance in dioecious forest forb mercurialis perennis: A geometric morphometric examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Vukica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to increasing levels of diverse human activities that have profound effects on their overall morphology and, specifically, on leaf morphology. Anthropogenic disturbances in urban and suburban forest recreational sites are attracting growing research interest. To explore the persisting recreational impact on leaf shape and size, we conducted a field study on the dioecious forb Mercurialis perennis L. (Euphorbiaceae, typical for undisturbed understory communities. We selected adjacent sites in a suburban forest, which experience contrasting regimes of disturbance by human trampling under otherwise concordant natural conditions. Patterns of leaf shape and size variation and putative sex-specific response to disturbance were analyzed using a geometric morphometric approach. In addition to leaf-level data, plant height, internode and leaf number were analyzed to explore the same response at the whole-plant level. The results show significant variations associated with disturbance at both levels: plants growing under a heavy disturbance regime had shorter stems with a greater number of wider and shorter leaves. Significant differences between sites were also found for leaf size, with larger leaves observed in an undisturbed site. The effects of sex and sex x site interaction on leaf size and shape were nonsignificant, pointing to the absence of sexual dimorphism and sex-specific response to disturbance. Contrary to leaf shape and size, all three analyzed shoot traits showed highly significant sexual dimorphism, with male plants being higher and having higher leaf and internode count. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173025

  14. Geometric morphometrics of functionally distinct floral organs in Iris pumila: Analyzing patterns of symmetric and asymmetric shape variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Sanja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iris flower is a complex morphological structure composed of two trimerous whorls of functionally distinct petaloid organs (the falls and the standards, one whorl of the stamens and one tricarpellary gynoecium. The petal-like style arms of the carpels are banded over the basal part of the falls, forming three pollination tunnels, each of which is perceived by the Iris pollinators as a single bilaterally symmetrical flower. Apart from the stamens, all petaloid floral organs are preferentially involved in advertising rewards to potential pollinators. Here we used the methods of geometric morphometrics to explore the shape variation in falls, standards and style arms of the Iris pumila flowers and to disentangle the symmetric and the asymmetric component of the total shape variance. Our results show that symmetric variation contributes mostly to the total shape variance in each of the three floral organs. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA was the dominant component of the asymmetric shape variation in the falls and the standards, but appeared to be marginally significant in the style arms. The values of FA indexes for the shape of falls (insects’ landing platforms and for the shape of standards (long-distance reward signals were found to be two orders of magnitude greater compared to that of the style arms. Directional asymmetry appeared to be very low, but highly statistically significant for all analyzed floral organs. Because floral symmetry can reliably indicate the presence of floral rewards, an almost perfect symmetry recorded for the style arm shape might be the outcome of pollinator preferences for symmetrical pollination units. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173007

  15. A three-dimensional geometric morphometrics view of the cranial shape variation and population history in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Manon; Friess, Martin

    2016-09-10

    Craniofacial variation in past and present Amerindians has been attributed to the effect of multiple founder events, or to one major migration followed by in situ differentiation and possibly recurrent contacts among Circum-Arctic groups. Our study aims to: (i) detect morphological differences that may indicate several migrations; (ii) test for the presence of genetic isolation; and (iii) test the correlation between shape data and competing settlement hypotheses by taking into account geography, chronology, climate effects, the presence of genetic isolation and recurrent gene flow. We analyzed a large sample of three-dimensional (3D) cranial surface scans (803 specimens) including past and modern groups from America and Australasia. Shape variation was investigated using geometric morphometrics. Differential external gene flow was evaluated by applying genetic concepts to morphometric data (Relethford-Blangero approach). Settlement hypotheses were tested using a matrix correlation approach (Mantel tests). Our results highlight the strong dichotomy between Circum-Arctic and continental Amerindians as well as the impact of climate adaptation, and possibly recurrent gene flow in the Circum-Arctic area. There is also evidence for the impact of genetic isolation on phenetic variation in Baja California. Several settlement hypotheses are correlated with our data. The three approaches used in this study highlight the importance of local processes especially in Baja California, and caution against the use of overly simplistic models when searching for the number of migration events. The results stress the complexity of the settlement of the Americas as well as the mosaic nature of the processes involved in this process. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:646-661, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Molecular dynamics study on the thermal conductivity and thermal rectification in graphene with geometric variations of doped boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Qi, E-mail: alfred_02030210@163.com; Wei, Yuan

    2014-03-15

    Thermal conductivity and thermal rectification of graphene with geometric variations have been investigated by using classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation, and analyzed theoretically the cause of the changes of thermal conductivity and thermal rectification. Two different structural models, triangular single-boron-doped graphene (SBDG) and parallel various-boron-doped graphene (VBDG), were considered. The results indicated that the thermal conductivities of two different models are about 54–63% lower than pristine graphene. And it was also found that the structure of parallel various-boron-doped graphene is inhibited more strongly on the heat transfer than that of triangular single-boron-doped graphene. The reduction in the thermal conductivities of two different models gradually decreases as the temperature rises. The thermal conductivities of triangular boron-doped graphene have a large difference in both directions, and the thermal rectification of this structure shows the downward trend with increasing temperature. However, the thermal conductivities of parallel various-boron-doped graphene are similar in both directions, and the thermal rectification effect is not obvious in this structure. The phenomenon of thermal rectification exits in SBDG. It implies that the SBDG might be a potential promising structure for thermal rectifier by controlling the boron-doped model.

  17. Molecular dynamics study on the thermal conductivity and thermal rectification in graphene with geometric variations of doped boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Qi; Wei, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity and thermal rectification of graphene with geometric variations have been investigated by using classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation, and analyzed theoretically the cause of the changes of thermal conductivity and thermal rectification. Two different structural models, triangular single-boron-doped graphene (SBDG) and parallel various-boron-doped graphene (VBDG), were considered. The results indicated that the thermal conductivities of two different models are about 54–63% lower than pristine graphene. And it was also found that the structure of parallel various-boron-doped graphene is inhibited more strongly on the heat transfer than that of triangular single-boron-doped graphene. The reduction in the thermal conductivities of two different models gradually decreases as the temperature rises. The thermal conductivities of triangular boron-doped graphene have a large difference in both directions, and the thermal rectification of this structure shows the downward trend with increasing temperature. However, the thermal conductivities of parallel various-boron-doped graphene are similar in both directions, and the thermal rectification effect is not obvious in this structure. The phenomenon of thermal rectification exits in SBDG. It implies that the SBDG might be a potential promising structure for thermal rectifier by controlling the boron-doped model

  18. Fear of Crime in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Brown

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides analyses of data on crime-associated trepidation obtained from surveys administered to college students in South Korea. The survey contained questions about, and the analyses distinguished between, offense-specific fears (fear of burglary and fear of home invasion, perceived risk of victimization (day and night, and crime avoidance behaviors (avoidance of nocturnal activity and avoidance of particular areas. Regression analyses of the data show that victimization was not consistently associated with crime-associated trepidation, while gender significantly impacted all measures of concern about crime. Women were more likely than men to report being fearful, perceiving risk, and crime avoidance behaviors. Building upon prior scholarship (for example, Madriz 1997; Stanko 1989 and considering the social context in which the data were gathered, it is herein suggested that the gendered variation in crime-associated anxiety may reflect patriarchal power relations. The methodological and policy implications of the study are also discussed.

  19. Crime: social disorganization and relative deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P; Wilkinson, R G

    1999-03-01

    Crime is seldom considered as an outcome in public health research. Yet major theoretical and empirical developments in the field of criminology during the past 50 years suggest that the same social environmental factors which predict geographic variation in crime rates may also be relevant for explaining community variations in health and wellbeing. Understanding the causes of variability in crime across countries and across regions within a country will help us to solve one of the enduring puzzles in public health, viz. why some communities are healthier than others. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for investigating the influence of the social context on community health, using crime as the indicator of collective wellbeing. We argue that two sets of societal characteristics influence the level of crime: the degree of relative deprivation in society (for instance, measured by the extent of income inequality), and the degree of cohesiveness in social relations among citizens (measured, for instance, by indicators of 'social capital' and 'collective efficacy'). We provided a test of our conceptual framework using state-level ecologic data on violent crimes and property crimes within the USA. Violent crimes (homicide, assault, robbery) were consistently associated with relative deprivation (income inequality) and indicators of low social capital. Among property crimes, burglary was also associated with deprivation and low social capital. Areas with high crime rates tend also to exhibit higher mortality rates from all causes, suggesting that crime and population health share the same social origins. Crime is thus a mirror of the quality of the social environment.

  20. South African Crime Quarterly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...

  1. School Starting Age and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...

  2. How effective are geometric morphometric techniques for assessing functional shape variation? An example from the great ape temporomandibular joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Claire E

    2013-08-01

    Functional shape analyses have long relied on the use of shape ratios to test biomechanical hypotheses. This method is powerful because of the ease with which results are interpreted, but these techniques fall short in quantifying complex morphologies that may not have a strong biomechanical foundation but may still be functionally informative. In contrast, geometric morphometric methods are continually being adopted for quantifying complex shapes, but they tend to prove inadequate in functional analyses because they have little foundation in an explicit biomechanical framework. The goal of this study was to evaluate the intersection of these two methods using the great ape temporomandibular joint as a case study. Three-dimensional coordinates of glenoid fossa and mandibular condyle shape were collected using a Microscribe digitizer. Linear distances extracted from these landmarks were analyzed using a series of one-way ANOVAs; further, the landmark configurations were analyzed using geometric morphometric techniques. Results suggest that the two methods are broadly similar, although the geometric morphometric data allow for the identification of shape differences among taxa that were not immediately apparent in the univariate analyses. Furthermore, this study suggests several new approaches for translating these shape data into a biomechanical context by adjusting the data using a biomechanically relevant variable. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Media and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild; Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account......Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account...

  4. Crime, deterrence, and democracy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2012), s. 447-469 ISSN 1465-6485 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : crime under transition * deterrence * economics of crime Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.736, year: 2012

  5. Crime, deterrence, and democracy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2012), s. 447-469 ISSN 1465-6485 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : crime under transition * deterrence * economics of crime Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.736, year: 2012

  6. Internet and computer crimes

    OpenAIRE

    Janýšková, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    INTERNET AND COMPUTER CRIME (SUMMARY) The purpose of this thesis is to provide an introduction to the basic problems of Internet and computer crime (furthermore also "cyber crime"), which is a type of crime that is still relatively new, but fast developing in a similar pace as the information technologies. The thesis contains seven substantial chapters. First chapter is an introduction of this thesis, which focuses on its structure and summary of the content. Second chapter presents the most ...

  7. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities....

  8. Crime and Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    This paper tests whether being convicted of a crime affects marriage market outcomes. While it is relatively well documented that crime hurts in terms of reduced future income, there has been little systematic analysis on the association between crime and marriage market outcomes. This paper...

  9. Crime Scene Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Barbara; Kohlmeier, Kris; Kiel, Robert D.

    Casting students in grades 5 through 12 in the roles of reporters, lawyers, and detectives at the scene of a crime, this interdisciplinary activity involves participants in the intrigue and drama of crime investigation. Using a hands-on, step-by-step approach, students work in teams to investigate a crime and solve a mystery. Through role-playing…

  10. Does Movie Violence Increase Violent Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon Dahl; Stefano DellaVigna

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory experiments in psychology find that media violence increases aggression in the short run. We analyze whether media violence affects violent crime in the field. We exploit variation in the violence of blockbuster movies from 1995 to 2004, and study the effect on same-day assaults. We find that violent crime decreases on days with larger theater audiences for violent movies. The effect is partly due to voluntary incapacitation: between 6PM and 12AM, a one million increase in the audi...

  11. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  12. Combating transnational environmental crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental crime is a serious and growing international problem, and one which takes many different forms. It is not limited to criminals polluting the air, water and land and pushing commercially valuable wildlife species closer to extinction; it can also include crimes which speed up climate change, destroy fish stocks, annihilate forests and exhaust essential natural resources. These crimes can have a harmful impact on the economies and security of multiple nations, in some cases they may even threaten the very existence of a country or people. Furthermore, a significant proportion of both wildlife crime and pollution crime cases point to the involvement of organized crime networks. This is evidenced by the detailed planning of operations, substantial financial support, the careful management of international shipments and massive profits. Still, to date, transnational environmental crime has been poorly attended to by the transnational organised crime and transnational policing discourse. National and international institutions have prioritised other forms of organised crime, giving little thought to the nuances of environmental crime and how they should be reflected in policing. Intention of this paper is to point out the importance of international cooperation and to point out the its good examples.

  13. Crime and German Decadence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    In Crime Stories: Criminalistic Fantasy and the Culture of Crisis in Weimar Germany, Todd Herzog – explicitly or implicitly – deals with different established myths about crime fiction, criminality and its cultural presumptions. It is generally quite seldom – as Herzog does – that the three subje...... is indeed part of this needed and remarkable wave of theoretical and historical revisions of our understanding of crime through factual and fictional representations....

  14. Globalization theories of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miomira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization is affecting all areas of social life, and thus no exception crime. Its effect is most evident in the development of new forms of crime that transcends national borders and states receive a supranational character. This primarily refers to the various forms of organized crime, but also in certain of its forms, which are a kind of state violence and the consequences of which are reflected in the systematic violation of human rights. Also, the process of globalization of crime has caused the formation of international organizations aimed at combating of crime which transcends national boundaries. New forms of crime are conditioned by globalization demanded a new approach to their study. Existing criminological theories have proven inadequate in explaining all the causes that lead to crime. It was necessary to create new theories and new doctrines about the causes of crime. In the continuous process of development of criminology, in constant search for new explanations of the causes of crime, within the sociological theories have emerged and globalization theories of criminality, which the authors in their work special attention. The focus of the globalization theory on crime just on its prevention, to reduce the risk of its occurrence. This is certainly a positive step because it shifts the focus of criminologists with immediate causes of crime and focus on the study of their interactions, which is largely socially conditioned, which is especially prominent in the work. The aim of this paper is to point out that globalization theories should not be viewed in isolation from other criminological theories and doctrines, but that one, although relatively new, contribute to the creation of complete systems of criminological doctrines in order to find the optimal social response to crime.

  15. Crime and immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Bell

    2014-01-01

    Immigration is one of the most important policy debates in Western countries. However, one aspect of the debate is often mischaracterized by accusations that higher levels of immigration lead to higher levels of crime. The evidence, based on empirical studies of many countries, indicates that there is no simple link between immigration and crime. Crucially, the evidence points to substantial differences in the impact on property crime, depending on the labor market opportunities of immigrant ...

  16. Situational crime prevention and cross-border crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, Edward R.; Soudijn, Melvin R J; Weenink, Anton W.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the consequences of cross-border crime for situational crime prevention. Many types of organised crime involve international smuggling activities – such as drug trafficking, money laundering, smuggling illegal immigrants, and other transnational illegal activities. Based on

  17. Crime Mapping and Geographical Information Systems in Crime Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dağlar, Murat; Argun, Uğur

    2016-01-01

    As essential apparatus in crime analysis, crime mapping and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are being progressively more accepted by police agencies. Development in technology and the accessibility of geographic data sources make it feasible for police departments to use GIS and crime mapping. GIS and crime mapping can be utilized as devices to discover reasons contributing to crime, and hence let law enforcement agencies proactively take action against the crime problems before they b...

  18. Geometrical parton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebata, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1976-06-01

    The geometrical distribution inferred from the inelastic cross section is assumed to be proportional to the partial waves. The precocious scaling and the Q/sup 2/-dependence of various quantities are treated from the geometrical point of view. It is shown that the approximate conservation of the orbital angular momentum may be a very practical rule to understand the helicity structure of various hadronic and electromagnetic reactions. The rule can be applied to inclusive reactions as well. The model is also applied to large angle processes. Through the discussion, it is suggested that many peculiar properties of the quark-parton can be ascribed to the geometrical effects.

  19. Science against Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project involving students in forensic science and crime prevention to improve their investigative skills using a DNA fingerprinting workshop and designing burglar alarms, investigating blood splatter patterns, investigating vehicle collisions, and researching crime prevention advice on the Internet. (YDS)

  20. Crime and Crime Management in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebanjo, Margaret Adewunmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines crime and its management in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions today have become arenas for crime activities such as rape, cultism, murder, theft, internet fraud, drug abuse, and examination malpractices. This paper delves into what crime is, and its causes; and the positions of the law on crime management.…

  1. Database crime to crime match rate calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckleton, John; Bright, Jo-Anne; Walsh, Simon J

    2009-06-01

    Guidance exists on how to count matches between samples in a crime sample database but we are unable to locate a definition of how to estimate a match rate. We propose a method that does not proceed from the match counting definition but which has a strong logic.

  2. The crime kuznets curve

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...

  3. Crime-prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Lone

    In Denmark, crime prevention is embedded in state professional practices in kindergartens, schools and youth clubs. These welfare institutions are conceived as safe places that safeguard children and young people through inclusive learning environments, warm and empathic relationships between......-sectional cooperation called “SSP”. SSP is a locally anchored cooperation of the school (S), the social services (S) and the police (P) and its aim is to create a coordinated system of prevention, e.g., to prevent crime or school drop outs. In continuation of this, crime preventive work is understood as a practice...

  4. Sentencing Multiple Crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Most people assume that criminal offenders have only been convicted of a single crime. However, in reality almost half of offenders stand to be sentenced for more than one crime.The high proportion of multiple crime offenders poses a number of practical and theoretical challenges for the criminal......, and psychology offer their perspectives to the volume. A comprehensive examination of the dynamics involved with sentencing multiple offenders has the potential to be a powerful tool for legal scholars and professionals, particularly given the practical importance of the topic and the relative dearth of research...

  5. The Perception of Small Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2010-01-01

    Violations of social norms can be costly to society and they are, in the case of large crimes, followed by prosecution. Minor misbehaviors — small crimes — do not usually result in legal proceedings. Although the economic consequences of a single small crime can be low, such crimes generate

  6. Geometric metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethammer, Marc; Hart, Gabriel L; Pace, Danielle F; Vespa, Paul M; Irimia, Andrei; Van Horn, John D; Aylward, Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    Standard image registration methods do not account for changes in image appearance. Hence, metamorphosis approaches have been developed which jointly estimate a space deformation and a change in image appearance to construct a spatio-temporal trajectory smoothly transforming a source to a target image. For standard metamorphosis, geometric changes are not explicitly modeled. We propose a geometric metamorphosis formulation, which explains changes in image appearance by a global deformation, a deformation of a geometric model, and an image composition model. This work is motivated by the clinical challenge of predicting the long-term effects of traumatic brain injuries based on time-series images. This work is also applicable to the quantification of tumor progression (e.g., estimating its infiltrating and displacing components) and predicting chronic blood perfusion changes after stroke. We demonstrate the utility of the method using simulated data as well as scans from a clinical traumatic brain injury patient.

  7. Theory of digital crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraeva B. M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available hackers seem to be the most mysterious people in the contemporary world. Where legal actions are helpless, hackers can intervene. However, not only hackers but state employees commit cyber crimes once they get power. Is it just a coincidence or authorities and hackers have lots of things in common? This article is trying to cast light on the reasons why digital crimes are committed.

  8. A Simple Test of Abortion and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Ted Joyce

    2009-01-01

    I first replicate Donohue and Levitt's results for violent and property crime arrest rates. I apply their data and specification to an analysis of age-specific homicide rates and murder arrest rates. The coefficients on the abortion rate have the wrong sign for two of the four measures of crime and none is statistically significant at conventional levels. I then use the legalization of abortion in 1973 to exploit two sources of variation: between-state changes in abortion rates before and aft...

  9. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin S Hanley

    Full Text Available Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026 while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029 indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes. Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  10. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Quentin S; Khatun, Suniya; Yosef, Amal; Dyer, Rachel-May

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026) while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029) indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs) to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes). Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  11. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  12. Pragmatic geometric model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamer, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of subsurface model reliability is mathematically and technically demanding as there are many different sources of uncertainty and some of the factors can be assessed merely in a subjective way. For many practical applications in industry or risk assessment (e. g. geothermal drilling) a quantitative estimation of possible geometric variations in depth unit is preferred over relative numbers because of cost calculations for different scenarios. The talk gives an overview of several factors that affect the geometry of structural subsurface models that are based upon typical geological survey organization (GSO) data like geological maps, borehole data and conceptually driven construction of subsurface elements (e. g. fault network). Within the context of the trans-European project "GeoMol" uncertainty analysis has to be very pragmatic also because of different data rights, data policies and modelling software between the project partners. In a case study a two-step evaluation methodology for geometric subsurface model uncertainty is being developed. In a first step several models of the same volume of interest have been calculated by omitting successively more and more input data types (seismic constraints, fault network, outcrop data). The positions of the various horizon surfaces are then compared. The procedure is equivalent to comparing data of various levels of detail and therefore structural complexity. This gives a measure of the structural significance of each data set in space and as a consequence areas of geometric complexity are identified. These areas are usually very data sensitive hence geometric variability in between individual data points in these areas is higher than in areas of low structural complexity. Instead of calculating a multitude of different models by varying some input data or parameters as it is done by Monte-Carlo-simulations, the aim of the second step of the evaluation procedure (which is part of the ongoing work) is to

  13. Crime and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J L

    1995-01-01

    The conflict between knowing and not knowing, speech and silence, remembering and forgetting, is the central dialectic of psychological trauma. This conflict is manifest in the individual disturbances of memory, the amnesias and hypermnesias, of traumatized people. It is manifest also on a social level, in persisting debates over the historical reality of atrocities that have been documented beyond any reasonable doubt. Social controversy becomes particularly acute at moments in history when perpetrators face the prospect of being publicly exposed or held legally accountable for crimes long hidden or condoned. This situation obtains in many countries emerging from dictatorship, with respect to political crimes such as murder and torture. It obtains in this country with regard to the private crimes of sexual and domestic violence. This article examines a current public controversy, regarding the credibility of adult recall of childhood abuse, as a classic example of the dialectic of trauma.

  14. Cyber-crime Science = Crime Science + Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality,

  15. Geometric leaf placement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenwick, J D; Temple, S W P; Clements, R W; Lawrence, G P; Mayles, H M O; Mayles, W P M

    2004-01-01

    Geometric leaf placement strategies for multileaf collimators (MLCs) typically involve the expansion of the beam's-eye-view contour of a target by a uniform MLC margin, followed by movement of the leaves until some point on each leaf end touches the expanded contour. Film-based dose-distribution measurements have been made to determine appropriate MLC margins-characterized through an index d 90 -for multileaves set using one particular strategy to straight lines lying at various angles to the direction of leaf travel. Simple trigonometric relationships exist between different geometric leaf placement strategies and are used to generalize the results of the film work into d 90 values for several different strategies. Measured d 90 values vary both with angle and leaf placement strategy. A model has been derived that explains and describes quite well the observed variations of d 90 with angle. The d 90 angular variations of the strategies studied differ substantially, and geometric and dosimetric reasoning suggests that the best strategy is the one with the least angular variation. Using this criterion, the best straightforwardly implementable strategy studied is a 'touch circle' approach for which semicircles are imagined to be inscribed within leaf ends, the leaves being moved until the semicircles just touch the expanded target outline

  16. Less crime, more punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Mark; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2008-09-01

    Recasting Durkheim's "community of saints" thesis, the authors argue that the severity of punishment is predicted in part by the prevalence of the deviant behavior of which the deviant stands accused. Although there is some curvilinearity at low levels of prevalence, the relationship is generally negative. Thus, all else equal, where a particular crime is frequent, any punishment applied to it is likely to be mild; conversely, where a crime is infrequent, its punishment ought to be severe. Using hierarchical regression models, the authors support this hypothesis with 1988 homicide conviction and imprisonment decisions in 32 U.S. counties.

  17. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    promote evidence-based crime and violence reduction policies and strategies. ... Current available crime data ... Figure 1: The ecological framework: WHO examples of multi-level risk factors. Source: ... murder are the South African Police Service's (SAPS) ..... crime: testing social disorganization theory, American Journal.

  18. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Rick; Cadzow, Emma

    2004-01-01

    Applying CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) strategies to schools can significantly contribute to a safer learning environment by influencing the behaviour of students and visitors. CPTED has three overlapping primary concepts that are intended to reduce opportunities for crime as well as fear of crime: access control,…

  19. CRIME MAPS AND COMPUTER TECNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal KARAKAŞ

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Crime maps show crime density values and locations where crime have accured. For this reason it had been easy to examine the spatial distribution of crime locations with crime maps. There for crime maps have long been part of the process to crime analysis. In this study, the crime of home burglary was mapped with respect to general areal distribution by GIS (Geographic Information System in the city of Elazig The distribution of the crime was handled considering the parameters such as month, day and hour, and related to the land use. As a result, it was determined that there were differences in the distribution and concentration in the crime of theft with respect to the land use inside the city. The methods and findings in this study will provide rapid and accurate analyses for such kinds of studies. In addition, Interrelating the type of the crime with the regions or areas will contribute to preventing crime, and security in urban areas.

  20. Green Space, Violence, and Crime: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogar, Sandra; Beyer, Kirsten M

    2016-04-01

    To determine the state of evidence on relationships among urban green space, violence, and crime in the United States. Major bibliographic databases were searched for studies meeting inclusion criteria. Additional studies were culled from study references and authors' personal collections. Comparison among studies was limited by variations in study design and measurement and results were mixed. However, more evidence supports the positive impact of green space on violence and crime, indicating great potential for green space to shape health-promoting environments. Numerous factors influence the relationships among green space, crime, and violence. Additional research and standardization among research studies are needed to better understand these relationships. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Crime and Punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dostoevsky, Fyodor

    2005-01-01

    Crime and Punishment is the story of a brutal double murder and its aftermath. Raskolnikov, a poor student, kills a pawnbroker and her sister, and then has to face up to the moral consequences of his actions. The novel is compelling and rewarding, full of meaning and symbolism, and raises profound

  2. WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations Presentation By  Dr. Nyagudi MusanduForensic Criminologist 2nd International Securityand Safety Conference and Exhibition, 16th April, 2010 a forum hosted by Events Management Solutions at the Sarit Centre, Nairobi, Kenya  

  3. Gun Theft and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Philip J

    2018-06-01

    Some law enforcement officials and other observers have asserted that theft is the primary source of guns to crime. In fact, the role of theft in supplying the guns used in robbery, assault, and murder is unknown, and current evidence provides little guidance about whether an effective program to reduce gun theft would reduce gun violence. The current article analyzes publicly available national data on gun theft together with a unique data set for Chicago. The results tend to support a conclusion that stolen guns play only a minor role in crime. First, publicly available data are used to calculate that thefts are only about 1% of all gun transactions nationwide. Second, an analysis of original data from Chicago demonstrates that less than 3% of crime guns recovered by the police have been reported stolen to the Chicago Police Department (CPD). If a gun is reported stolen, there is a 20% chance that it will be recovered, usually in conjunction with an arrest for illegal carrying. Less than half of those picked up with a stolen gun have a criminal record that includes violent offenses. Third, results from surveys of convicted criminals, both nationally and in Chicago, suggest that it is rare for respondents to have stolen the gun used in their most recent crime. The data on which these results are based have various shortcomings. A research agenda is proposed that would provide more certainty about the role of theft.

  4. Theorising Nigerian Crime Problems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aigbovo & Eidenoje

    1971-09-08

    Sep 8, 1971 ... single theory or definition can be exhaustive on the issue of crime.4 A major objective ... weighing the level of satisfaction derivable, set off against the ... preventive measures like the provision of improved living standards and ..... There were several clusters of abandoned arms and combat gear which soon.

  5. International Crimes and Transitional Justice: where does organised crime fit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmentier Stephan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The last twenty years, since the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989, more than 120 violent conflicts waged across the globe and hundreds of thousands of people killed, disappeared, handicapped or left in distress.Violent conflicts involve frequent human rights violations as well as many crimes. These kinds of crimes are usually very serious and tend to involve many victims, and have attracted attention from a variety of disciplines, including social and political scientists and (criminal lawyers. Therefore, the author argues that criminology as an academic discipline has until recently hardly been interested in studying international crimes.In order to understand this, the author is firstly interested in sketching the background of the concept of international crimes and comparing it with the notion of political crimes and also with that of serious human rights violations. Secondly, international crimes will be situated in their political context of transitional justice and its links with organized crime will be explored.

  6. Geometric recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Borot, Gaëtan; Orantin, Nicolas

    We propose a general theory whose main component are functorial assignments ∑→Ω∑ ∈ E (∑), for a large class of functors E from a certain category of bordered surfaces (∑'s) to a suitable a target category of topological vector spaces. The construction is done by summing appropriate compositions...... as Poisson structures on the moduli space of flat connections. The theory has a wider scope than that and one expects that many functorial objects in low-dimensional geometry and topology should have a GR construction. The geometric recursion has various projections to topological recursion (TR) and we...... in particular show it retrieves all previous variants and applications of TR. We also show that, for any initial data for topological recursion, one can construct initial data for GR with values in Frobenius algebra-valued continuous functions on Teichmueller space, such that the ωg,n of TR are obtained...

  7. Variations of dose distribution in high energy electron beams as a function of geometrical parameters of irradiation. Application to computer calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villeret, O.

    1985-04-01

    An algorithm is developed for the purpose of compter treatment planning of electron therapy. The method uses experimental absorbed dose distribution data in the irradiated medium for electron beams in the 8-20 MeV range delivered by the Sagittaire linear accelerator (study of central axis depth dose, beam profiles) in various geometrical conditions. Experimental verification of the computer program showed agreement with 2% between dose measurement and computer calculation [fr

  8. [Abortion and crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citoni, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward.

  9. Women in crime

    OpenAIRE

    Campaniello, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, women’s participation in the labor market has increased considerably in most countries and is converging toward the participation rate of men. Though on a lesser scale, a similar movement toward gender convergence seems to be occurring in the criminal world, though many more men than women still engage in criminal activity. Technological progress and social norms have freed women from the home, increasing their participation in both the labor market and the crime market. ...

  10. Neighborhood Effects on Crime for Female and Male Youth: Evidence from a Randomized Housing Voucher Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey R. Kling; Jens Ludwig; Lawrence F. Katz

    2004-01-01

    The Moving to Opportunity (MTO) demonstration assigned housing vouchers via random lottery to public housing residents in five cities. We use the exogenous variation in residential locations generated by MTO to estimate neighborhood effects on youth crime and delinquency. The offer to relocate to lower-poverty areas reduces arrests among female youth for violent and property crimes, relative to a control group. For males the offer to relocate reduces arrests for violent crime, at least in the...

  11. Control in the coefficients with variational crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evgrafov, Anton; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi

    2012-01-01

    We study convergence of discontinuous Galerkin-type discretizations of the problems of control in the coefficients of uniformly elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). As a model problem we use that of the optimal design of thin (Kirchhoff) plates, where the governing equations...

  12. Comparison of morphological variations among three species of the genus Paracobitis in Iran using geometric morphometrics method with a taxonomical review on the genus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Jafari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to apply the landmark-based geometric morphometrics technique to differentiate three species of the genus Paracobitis (P. iranica, P. malapterura and P. rhadinaeus in Iran based on their body shape, because previous works, using traditional morphometrics, could not distinct them. A total of 150 specimens were sampled from the Zaringol, Madarsoo, Ghomrood, Kordan Rivers and Chahnimeh reservoir. The left side of the specimens was photographed using a digital camera and then fifteen landmark-points were digitized on two-dimensional images using TpsDig2. Landmark data were analyzed after a generalised procrustes analysis using PCA, CVA and cluster analysis. The patterns of body shape differences among the populations were illustrated in the deformation grids in relation to consensus configuration. The results showed a significant differences among the studied species and their populations in terms of morphological traits (P<0.0001. Some differences were found in the length and depth of head, depth of body, caudal peduncle length and position of eye and position of dorsal fin. The result also showed that P. iranica from Kordan River can be considered to be a distinct taxon compared to the Ghomrood taxon based on its morphological characteristics. In addition, our findings revealed that the geometric morphometrics approach can be a proper tool for morphological and taxonomic studies in species with small sizes including Nemachelinae.

  13. Storyboards of crimes. Examining crime scenario creation and investigative experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kemp, J.J.; de Gruijter, M.

    2011-01-01

    To solve a crime a chronological description of what went on, when, how, why and by who must be given; a crime scenario. As to avoid the risk of wrongful conviction due to tunnel vision in an investigation, Dutch investigators are obliged to create multiple scenarios and rule but one out. Although

  14. Transnational Activities of Chinese Crime Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Glenn E; Elan, Seth L; Hudson, Rexford A; Kollars, Nina A

    2003-01-01

    .... The report notes the participation of such groups in all major types of crime, including trafficking of human beings and various commodities, financial crimes, extortion, gambling, prostitution, and violent crimes...

  15. Effects of thickness and geometric variations in the oxide gate stack on the nonvolatile memory behaviors of charge-trap memory thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Jun Yong; Kim, So-Jung; Byun, Chun-Won; Pi, Jae-Eun; Ryu, Min-Ki; Hwang, Chi Sun; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Device designs of charge-trap oxide memory thin-film transistors (CTM-TFTs) were investigated to enhance their nonvolatile memory performances. The first strategy was to optimize the film thicknesses of the tunneling and charge-trap (CT) layers in order to meet requirements of both higher operation speed and longer retention time. While the program speed and memory window were improved for the device with a thinner tunneling layer, a long retention time was obtained only for the device with a tunneling layer thicker than 5 nm. The carrier concentration and charge-trap densities were optimized in the 30-nm-thick CT layer. It was observed that 10-nm-thick tunneling, 30-nm-thick CT, and 50-nm-thick blocking layers were the best configuration for our proposed CTM-TFTs, where a memory on/off margin higher than 107 was obtained, and a memory margin of 6.6 × 103 was retained even after the lapse of 105 s. The second strategy was to examine the effects of the geometrical relations between the CT and active layers for the applications of memory elements embedded in circuitries. The CTM-TFTs fabricated without an overlap between the CT layer and the drain electrode showed an enhanced program speed by the reduced parasitic capacitance. The drain-bias disturbance for the memory off-state was effectively suppressed even when a higher read-out drain voltage was applied. Appropriate device design parameters, such as the film thicknesses of each component layer and the geometrical relations between them, can improve the memory performances and expand the application fields of the proposed CTM-TFTs.

  16. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  17. CyberCrime and Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Susan J.; Gumpert, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Surveys ways in which criminal laws are finding their way into cyberspace, the implications of such actions for communicative rights and liabilities, and the media differentials of crime and punishment. Examines crime committed using email and the Internet; computer mediated felonies, misdemeanors, and violations committed in cyberspace; forgery;…

  18. Designing cities to minimise crime

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Saville, G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crime is, to a large degree, absent from the contemporary debate on sustainability. Yet it is difficult to think of sustainable cities without considering crime and safety in the design, planning and development process. Some argue that ecological...

  19. [Teaching about Crime and Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of a newsletter from the American Bar Association emphasizes teaching about crime and punishment. The first article offers an overview of the diversity and common assumptions that underpin the teaching of criminology. Student interest in crime and criminology creates an opportunity for instructors interested in challenging students'…

  20. Hate crimes and normative regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily devoted to issues related to the normative regulation of hate crimes, with special reference to the regulations of the Republic of Serbia, which are indirectly related to this matter. This kind of crimes are characterized by prejudices that perpetrators have towards injured parties, as members of certain, mostly, minority groups, due to which many hate crimes could be also called crimes of prejudice. In comparative law there are two different basic directions when it comes to regulating hate crimes: separation of hate crimes in a separate category on the one hand, and punishment of perpetrators of criminal acts with the detriment of minority groups through the usual charges of a given criminal justice system, on the other. The author finds that, regardless of the formal response forms, real life suggests that hate crimes can be essentially suppressed only by promoting values such as equality, respect for diversity and tolerance, and by continuous education of public about the danger of hate crimes.

  1. Crime, accidents and social control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; Terlouw, Gert-Jan; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses to questions. (1) Is there a demonstrable relation between accidents and crime, does this relation hold for each type of crime and each means of transport, and does it subsist after controlling for age and gender? (2) Can social control theory explain involvements in both

  2. Crime As Entertainment or Entertainment as A Crime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Angeline

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Article presents one part of pop culture is crime portrayed as entertainment in television shows. Television has the means of information and entertainment, resulting in the shift of crime shows, initially crime was portrayed in the news but due to the high popularity, it becomes part of the entertainment as well. In terms of information, the most famous of crime drama show is Crime Scene Investigation (CSI, and this show gave effect known as the CSI effect, which is people have more appreciation to scientific evidences and DNA testing in trials. On the other hand, with so many shows involving crime resulting in cultivation impact, which is accumulation and the formation of perception of reality. People who are more exposed to this crime show will form the same perception as the one depicted by television and resulted to changes in their behavior. Several proposals to reduce this negative effects are audience learning, the use of rating system and electronic key in television set.  

  3. On bivariate geometric distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayakumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of bivariate geometric distribution using univariate and bivariate geometric compounding are obtained. Autoregressive models with marginals as bivariate geometric distribution are developed. Various bivariate geometric distributions analogous to important bivariate exponential distributions like, Marshall-Olkin’s bivariate exponential, Downton’s bivariate exponential and Hawkes’ bivariate exponential are presented.

  4. Visualizing the Geometric Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Mathematical proofs often leave students unconvinced or without understanding of what has been proved, because they provide no visual-geometric representation. Presented are geometric models for the finite geometric series when r is a whole number, and the infinite geometric series when r is the reciprocal of a whole number. (MNS)

  5. Do Barriers to Crime Prevention Moderate the Effects of Situational Crime Prevention Policies on Violent Crime in High Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, Eric L.; Zhang, Gary

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates how barriers to school-based crime prevention programming moderate the effects of situational crime prevention (SCP) policies on levels of violent crime in U.S. public high schools. Using data from the 2008 School Survey on Crime and Safety, we estimate a series of negative binomial regression models with interactions to…

  6. Borderless Crime - Computer Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana POPA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the consideration that fighting cybercrime is a continuous process, the more the types of old crimes are committed today through modern means (computer fraud at distances of thousands of kilometers, international cooperation is vital to combat this phenomenon.In EU countries, still under financial crisis "the phrase", cybercrime has found a "positive environment" taking advantage of poor security management systems of these countries.Factors that led criminal groups to switch "their activities" are related to so-called advantages of the "gains" obtained with relatively low risk.In Romania, more than any of the EU member states criminal activities set as target financial institutions or foreign citizens, weakening confidence in financial systems and the security of communication networks in our country, people's confidence in electronic payment instruments and those available on the Internet.

  7. Preventing Financial Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... on this, the paper shows that the Swedish tax officials seek to motivate large construction contractors and municipalities to take preventive measures in relation to their sub-contractors to avoid and abate tax evasion. The paper shows the challenges in engaging and involving these external stakeholders...... has implications for how tax authorities (and other state authorities) reform their coercive regulation. If they decide to pursue a voluntary based approach where the actions of external partners play a central role, then the analysis helps to show some of the implied challenges and potentials....

  8. Crimes of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, L

    1990-01-01

    Everyday, thousands of women are targets of violation that range from simple cases of sexual harassment to extreme cases of dowry deaths. This article describes different forms of violence against women. Wife beating has been prevalent in all societies regardless of race, culture, and socioeconomic status. In India, incidents like bride burning and dowry death are common because laws against these crimes have never been enforced. In Chile, the constitution grants the husband marital authority over his wife, resulting to wife beating due to unequal power balance. Due to the prevalence of these violations, shelters, legal reforms, and various groups and agencies to combat violence against women all over the world have initiated programs. Coalitions have also been organized to promote awareness and denounce male violence.

  9. Organized crime impact study highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porteous, S D

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to address the issue of how organized crime impacts on Canadians and their communities both socially and economically. As far as environmental crime is concerned, three main areas of concern have been identified: (1) illicit trade in ozone depleting substances, (2) illicit hazardous waste treatment, and (3) disposal of illicit trade in endangered species. To gauge the magnitude of organized crime activity, the market value of worldwide illegal trafficking in illicit drugs was estimated to be as high as $100 billion worldwide (between $1.4 to 4 billion in Canada). It is suspected that Canada supplies a substantial portion of the U.S. black market in chlorofluorocarbons with most of the rest being supplied from Mexico. Another area of concern involves the disposal of hazardous wastes. Canada produces approximately 5.9 million tonnes of hazardous waste annually. Of these, 3.2 million tonnes are sent to off-site disposal facilities for specialized treatment and recycling. The treatment of hazardous waste is a very profitable business, hence vulnerable to fraudulent practices engaged in by organized crime groups. Environmental implications of this and other environmental crimes, as well as their economic, commercial, health and safety impact were examined. Other areas of organized crime activity in Canada (drugs, economic crimes, migrant trafficking, counterfeit products, motor vehicle theft, money laundering) were also part of the study.

  10. Hate crimes hurt some more than others: implications for the just sentencing of offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iganski, Paul; Lagou, Spiridoula

    2015-06-01

    An accumulation of research evidence indicates that hate crimes are more serious than similar but otherwise motivated crimes in respect of the greater post-victimization distress for victims. Such evidence has been used by advocates of hate crime laws to justify greater penalties for hate crime offenders. However, in focusing on the commonalities of the post-victimization impacts inflicted by hate crimes, the research evidence to date has obscured the diversity of reactions between victims. Consequently, this article expands the evidence by illuminating the variation in reported victim impacts. The analysis presented uses data from the Crime Survey for England and Wales on racially motivated crime and reveals that not all victims report being affected by hate crime, not all victims are affected the same way, and some victims of racially motivated crime report less of an emotional impact than some victims of equivalent but otherwise motivated crimes. It is reasoned that in any individual case of hate crime the motivating sentiments of the offender provide an unreliable indicator of the harms inflicted on the victim. Therefore, a blanket uplift in penalty in every case which rests on the offender's motivations cannot be justified if the justification for sentence uplift is to give offenders their just deserts for the harms they inflict. Instead, the justification must rest on the culpability of the offender for the harms they may or may not actually inflict. Just as there is variation in victim impacts, there will be variation in offender culpability: Discretion and flexibility in sentencing is therefore necessary to ensure justice for offenders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Geographic phenetic variation of two eastern-Mediterranean non-commensal mouse species, Mus macedonicus and M. cypriacus (Rodentia: Muridae) based on traditional and geometric approaches to morphometrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macholán, Miloš; Mikula, Ondřej; Vohralík, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 247, - (2008), s. 67-80 ISSN 0044-5231 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6045307; GA ČR GA206/06/0707 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/2334 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Mus macedonicus * Mus cypriacus * phenotypic variation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2008

  12. White-Collar Crimes and Financial Corruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih ŞENTÜRK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crime, defined as act which is contrary to the law, creates negative influence in the society both economically and spiritually. There are various factors like professional experience as well as biological, psychological and sociological ones that make individuals turn to crime. Edwin Sutherland claim that life experiences and some facts learned from the environment account for occupational crimes in his study on the theory of crime in 1939. White-collar crime, which is perhaps the most important of types of crime in terms of havoc and committed by the superior contrary to common belief, has much more influence than conventional crime. This crime, which inflict significant financial loses and psychological collapse on states, communities, businesses and people, are committed by well-respected professionals in their business. In this study, white collar crimes are examined with conceptual view and detailed. Besides, this study explain this type of crime is so forceful, by giving remarkable examples on economic losses.

  13. The dynamics of poverty and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas.The economic theory of crime [1] demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime.The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.

  14. UNSOLVED AND LATENT CRIME: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Kleymenov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343Purpose of the article is to study the specific legal and informational nature of the unsolved crime in comparison with the phenomenon of delinquency, special study and analysis to improve the efficiency of law enforcement.Methods of research are abstract-logical, systematic, statistical, study of documents. The main results of research. Unsolved crime has specific legal, statistical and informational na-ture as the crime phenomenon, which is expressed in cumulative statistical population of unsolved crimes. An array of unsolved crimes is the sum of the number of acts, things of which is suspended and not terminated. The fault of the perpetrator in these cases is not proven, they are not considered by the court, it is not a conviction. Unsolved crime must be registered. Latent crime has a different informational nature. The main symptom of latent crimes is the uncertainty for the subjects of law enforcement, which delegated functions of identification, registration and accounting. Latent crime is not recorded. At the same time, there is a "border" area between the latent and unsolved crimes, which includes covered from the account of the crime. In modern Russia the majority of crimes covered from accounting by passing the decision about refusal in excitation of criminal case. Unsolved crime on their criminogenic consequences represents a significant danger to the public is higher compared to latent crime.It is conducted in the article a special analysis of the differences and similarities in the unsolved latent crime for the first time in criminological literature.The analysis proves the need for radical changes in the current Russian assessment of the state of crime and law enforcement to solve crimes. The article argues that an unsolved crime is a separate and, in contrast to latent crime, poorly understood phenomenon. However unsolved latent crime and have common features and areas of interaction.

  15. Crime, Teenage Abortion, and Unwantedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoesmith, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645

  16. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    SACQ). We believe ... justice and evolving forms of crime in South Africa, and the global South more broadly, complements the SACQ's ... These high-profile events, along with disruptions and conflict in Parliament, have served to create a political.

  17. Podcast: The Electronic Crimes Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sept 26, 2016. Chris Lukas, the Special Agent in Charge of the Electronic Crimes Division within the OIG's Office of Investigations talks about computer forensics, cybercrime in the EPA and his division's role in criminal investigations.

  18. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    and public policy at Edinburgh University. When the data ... violence, vigilantism and public and sexual assaults.13. Although ... Xhosa speakers, Xhosa-speaking translators helped facilitate ...... socioeconomic conditions that generate crime.

  19. Partners Against Crime (PAC) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Partners Against Crime (PAC) program promotes collaboration among police officers, Durham residents, and city and county government officials to find...

  20. Street Prostitution Zones and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bisschop, Paul; Kastoryano, Stephen; van der Klaauw, Bas

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of introducing legal street prostitution zones on both registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where legal street prostitution zones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. We provide evidence that the opening of these zones was not in response to changes in crime. Our difference-in-difference analysis using data on the largest 25 Dutch cities between 1994 and 2011 shows that opening a legal street pr...

  1. Challenges of organized environmental crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugarski Tatjana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment as the totality of natural and man-made values and their relationships, is a complex problem that is not just a challenge for the law in the sense that it is protected from intrusion, but also for the negative social phenomena such as crime. Dynamic negative social phenomenon, immanent to every society, crime is constantly in the process of 'adaptation' in terms of modification of existing and creation of new forms. One of the contemporary forms of crime is an environmental crime which multiplies its concrete forms of manifestation, which is due to the extraordinary diversity of the environment in which offenders constantly find new enforcement cases. Especially significant issues regarding the environment is waste whose collection, transport, treatment and disposal is one of the priority importance for humanity. However, insufficient awareness of the significance and importance of this issue, as well as the harmful consequences of failure in connection with the waste in an appropriate manner, together with the motive of greed is enough for offenders to deal with illegal activity and exercise in relation to different types of waste. In this type of criminal activity usually occur organized criminal group that this type of criminal activity makes it even more difficult. These problems are extremely important and complex, in this paper, attention is given to the organized environmental crime in connection with smuggling of hazardous waste, as one of the forms of organized environmental crime.

  2. Geometric Design Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Geometric Design Laboratory (GDL) is to support the Office of Safety Research and Development in research related to the geometric design...

  3. Virtual environments for scene of crime reconstruction and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Toby L. J.; Murta, Alan D.; Gibson, Simon

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes research conducted in collaboration with Greater Manchester Police (UK), to evalute the utility of Virtual Environments for scene of crime analysis, forensic investigation, and law enforcement briefing and training. We present an illustrated case study of the construction of a high-fidelity virtual environment, intended to match a particular real-life crime scene as closely as possible. We describe and evaluate the combination of several approaches including: the use of the Manchester Scene Description Language for constructing complex geometrical models; the application of a radiosity rendering algorithm with several novel features based on human perceptual consideration; texture extraction from forensic photography; and experiments with interactive walkthroughs and large-screen stereoscopic display of the virtual environment implemented using the MAVERIK system. We also discuss the potential applications of Virtual Environment techniques in the Law Enforcement and Forensic communities.

  4. Geometric Measure Theory and Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bombieri, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    W.K. ALLARD: On the first variation of area and generalized mean curvature.- F.J. ALMGREN Jr.: Geometric measure theory and elliptic variational problems.- E. GIUSTI: Minimal surfaces with obstacles.- J. GUCKENHEIMER: Singularities in soap-bubble-like and soap-film-like surfaces.- D. KINDERLEHRER: The analyticity of the coincidence set in variational inequalities.- M. MIRANDA: Boundaries of Caciopoli sets in the calculus of variations.- L. PICCININI: De Giorgi's measure and thin obstacles.

  5. SU-G-JeP3-12: Use of Cone Beam CT and Deformable Image Registration for Assessing Geometrical and Dosimetric Variations During Lung Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurkovic, I; Stathakis, S; Markovic, M; Papanikolaou, N [University of Texas Health Sciences Center San Antonio, San Antonio (United States); Mavroidis, P [University of Texas Health Sciences Center San Antonio, San Antonio (United States); University North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the value of cone beam CT (CBCT) combined with deformable image registration in estimating the accuracy of the delivered treatment and the suitability of the applied target margins. Methods: Two patients with lung tumor were selected. Using their CT images intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans were developed to deliver 66Gy to the 95% of the PTV in 2Gy fractions. Using the Velocity AI software, the planning CT of each patient was registered with the fractional CBCT images that were obtained through the course of the treatment. After a CT to CBCT deformable image registration (DIR), the same fractional deformation matrix was used for the deformation of the planned dose distributions, as well as of all the contoured volumes, to each CBCT dataset. The dosimetric differences between the planning target volume (PTV) and various organs at risk (OARs) were recorded and compared. Results: CBCT data such as CTV volume change and PTV coverage was analyzed. There was a moderate relationship between volume changes and contouring method (automatic contouring using the DIR transformation vs. manual contouring on each CBCT) for patient #1 (r = 0.49), and a strong relationship for patient #2 (r = 0.83). The average PTV volume coverage from all the CBCT datasets was 91.2% for patient #1 and 95.6% for patient #2. Conclusion: Daily setup variations, tumor volume motion and lung deformation due to breathing yield differences in the actual delivered dose distributions versus the planned ones. The results presented indicate that these differences are apparent even with the use of daily IGRT. In certain fractions, the margins used seem to be insufficient to ensure acceptable lung tumor coverage. The observed differences notably depend on the tumor volume size and location. A larger cohort of patient is under investigation to verify those findings.

  6. SU-G-JeP3-12: Use of Cone Beam CT and Deformable Image Registration for Assessing Geometrical and Dosimetric Variations During Lung Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkovic, I; Stathakis, S; Markovic, M; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the value of cone beam CT (CBCT) combined with deformable image registration in estimating the accuracy of the delivered treatment and the suitability of the applied target margins. Methods: Two patients with lung tumor were selected. Using their CT images intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans were developed to deliver 66Gy to the 95% of the PTV in 2Gy fractions. Using the Velocity AI software, the planning CT of each patient was registered with the fractional CBCT images that were obtained through the course of the treatment. After a CT to CBCT deformable image registration (DIR), the same fractional deformation matrix was used for the deformation of the planned dose distributions, as well as of all the contoured volumes, to each CBCT dataset. The dosimetric differences between the planning target volume (PTV) and various organs at risk (OARs) were recorded and compared. Results: CBCT data such as CTV volume change and PTV coverage was analyzed. There was a moderate relationship between volume changes and contouring method (automatic contouring using the DIR transformation vs. manual contouring on each CBCT) for patient #1 (r = 0.49), and a strong relationship for patient #2 (r = 0.83). The average PTV volume coverage from all the CBCT datasets was 91.2% for patient #1 and 95.6% for patient #2. Conclusion: Daily setup variations, tumor volume motion and lung deformation due to breathing yield differences in the actual delivered dose distributions versus the planned ones. The results presented indicate that these differences are apparent even with the use of daily IGRT. In certain fractions, the margins used seem to be insufficient to ensure acceptable lung tumor coverage. The observed differences notably depend on the tumor volume size and location. A larger cohort of patient is under investigation to verify those findings.

  7. Evaluations of Antigay Hate Crimes and Hate Crime Legislation: Independent and Differentially Predicted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Peters, Christopher S

    2017-08-11

    Minimal studies have investigated individuals' evaluations of antigay hate crimes and hate crime legislation simultaneously, with most research focusing on one or the other. In a sample of 246 heterosexual undergraduates, the present study found that evaluations of antigay hate crimes and hate crime legislation were unrelated. Higher social dominance orientation (SDO) and crime control orientation scores were associated with more positive evaluations of antigay hate crimes. Positive evaluations of hate crime legislation were associated with more positive attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. We also found that the relationship between SDO and evaluations were mediated by crime control beliefs (for hate crimes evaluations) and antigay attitudes (for hate crime legislation evaluations). The present findings have possible implications for the manner in which organizations advocate for the extension of hate crime legislation to include sexual orientation.

  8. Sexual Orientation in State Hate Crime Laws: Exploring Social Construction and Criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcore, Jace L

    2017-09-15

    Several studies have described and analyzed the development and diffusion of hate crime laws in the United States, but none specifically examined state-level differences in protected categories. Forty-five of the 50 states have a hate crime statute, but only 30 of those include sexual orientation. In this study the social construction framework is applied to the hate crime policy domain in order to determine whether or not variations in the social and political status of gays and lesbians are associated with the inclusion of sexual orientation in state hate crime laws. Content analysis of daily newspapers in six states revealed that a positive social construction is associated with groups seeking hate crime law protections, and that political influence may also be a key factor.

  9. Geometric Algorithms for Part Orienting and Probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panahi, F.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, detailed solutions are presented to several problems dealing with geometric shape and orientation of an object in the field of robotics and automation. We first have considered a general model for shape variations that allows variation along the entire boundary of an object, both in

  10. A Review of the Statistical and Quantitative Methods Used to Study Alcohol-Attributable Crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Fitterer

    Full Text Available Modelling the relationship between alcohol consumption and crime generates new knowledge for crime prevention strategies. Advances in data, particularly data with spatial and temporal attributes, have led to a growing suite of applied methods for modelling. In support of alcohol and crime researchers we synthesized and critiqued existing methods of spatially and quantitatively modelling the effects of alcohol exposure on crime to aid method selection, and identify new opportunities for analysis strategies. We searched the alcohol-crime literature from 1950 to January 2014. Analyses that statistically evaluated or mapped the association between alcohol and crime were included. For modelling purposes, crime data were most often derived from generalized police reports, aggregated to large spatial units such as census tracts or postal codes, and standardized by residential population data. Sixty-eight of the 90 selected studies included geospatial data of which 48 used cross-sectional datasets. Regression was the prominent modelling choice (n = 78 though dependent on data many variations existed. There are opportunities to improve information for alcohol-attributable crime prevention by using alternative population data to standardize crime rates, sourcing crime information from non-traditional platforms (social media, increasing the number of panel studies, and conducting analysis at the local level (neighbourhood, block, or point. Due to the spatio-temporal advances in crime data, we expect a continued uptake of flexible Bayesian hierarchical modelling, a greater inclusion of spatial-temporal point pattern analysis, and shift toward prospective (forecast modelling over small areas (e.g., blocks.

  11. Ethics in Crimes and Misdemeanors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Haraldsson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I employ Goodenough´s distinction between films that illustrate, are about and do philosophy to answer the question how we can identify the ethical content of movies. Crimes and Misdemeanors by Woody Allen is taken as an example but Mary L. Litch has argued that this movie illustrates ethical problems and is about ethics. On Litch´s reading the film reveals inherent flaws in utilitarianism and illustrates a Kantian insight as well as other ethical and religious theses. I argue, however, that Litch has relied on a too narrow method when identifying the ethics of Crimes and Misdemeanors. She focuses almost exclusively on dialogue and the general storyline. If we broaden our method to include sensitivity to filming, editing, camera angulation etc., we will not only realize a rather different ethical content in Crimes and Misdemeanors but also see how the movie stirkes close to home for most viewers of Hollywood movies.

  12. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  13. Old theories and new approaches: Evaluating Freda Adler's theory of low crime and its implications for criminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nivette, Amy E.

    Many years ago, Freda Adler (1983) sought to explain the full variation of crime rates through the notion of synnomie. Although Adler’s research was incomplete and somewhat flawed, it drew attention to low crime societies as the subject of criminological research. In this article I critically

  14. Organized crime-trafficking with human being

    OpenAIRE

    Jelenová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Organized crime - Trafficking in human beings This thesis deals with the criminal offence of trafficking in human beings under Sec. 168 of the Czech Criminal Code. A trafficking in human being is not a frequent criminal offence but with its consequences belongs to the most dangerous crimes. After the Velvet revolution the relevance of this crime has raised subsequently and therefore the regulation of this crime requires particular attention. It is important to find new ways and improve curren...

  15. Evolution and the Prevention of Violent Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Roach, Jason; Pease, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests how violence prevention can be better informed by embracing an evolutionary approach to understanding and preventing violent crime. Here, ethical crime control through an evolutionary lens is consid-ered and speculation is offered as to what an evolution-evidenced crime reduction programme might look like. The paper begins with an outline of the current landscape of crime prevention scholarship within criminology and presents some possible points of contact with actual or ...

  16. Comment: Theorising Nigerian Crime Problems | Aigbovo | Mizan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This comment presents an overview of criminological theories of crime and examines some contemporary crime problems in Nigeria against the backdrop of relevant theories. It also analyses society's response to each crime problem in the form of government policies and legislation. The paper argues that an appreciable ...

  17. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  18. Schools, Neighborhood Risk Factors, and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…

  19. Criminological problems of studying crime consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitov R.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of crime consequences is studied as a total social and not social, direct and indirect damage caused by crime. The quantitative and qualitative indicators of these consequences are shown. It is determined that concept of crime does not embrace its consequences and victims. The qualitative indicators of crime consequences imply the consequences’ character and structure; the quantitative indicators imply cumulative consequences of certain kinds of crime, the dynamics of certain kinds of consequences and coefficient of certain crime consequences. It is proved that not only physical and juridical persons, but also the public, authorities and associations (groups of people having no indication of juridical person must be recognized as crime sufferers. It is argued that crimes can cause property and moral damage (goodwill damage, ecological damage, considerable damage of interests protected by the law, information, managerial damage and other kinds of damage. Theoretically according to criminal law a crime sufferer is a physical, juridical person, an authority, the public, group of people who suffered from physical, property, moral or other kind of damage caused by a completed or uncompleted crime. The author proves the necessity to fix the concept of crime sufferer in criminal law. The concept of victim should include Russian criminal actualities, foreign experience and embrace not only physical but also juridical persons and groups of people suffered from crimes.

  20. Geometric phases in discrete dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E., E-mail: julyan.cartwright@csic.es [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC–Universidad de Granada, E-18100 Armilla, Granada (Spain); Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Piro, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.piro@epfl.ch [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Piro, Oreste, E-mail: piro@imedea.uib-csic.es [Departamento de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Tuval, Idan, E-mail: ituval@imedea.uib-csic.es [Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies, CSIC–Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07190 Mallorca (Spain)

    2016-10-14

    In order to study the behaviour of discrete dynamical systems under adiabatic cyclic variations of their parameters, we consider discrete versions of adiabatically-rotated rotators. Parallelling the studies in continuous systems, we generalize the concept of geometric phase to discrete dynamics and investigate its presence in these rotators. For the rotated sine circle map, we demonstrate an analytical relationship between the geometric phase and the rotation number of the system. For the discrete version of the rotated rotator considered by Berry, the rotated standard map, we further explore this connection as well as the role of the geometric phase at the onset of chaos. Further into the chaotic regime, we show that the geometric phase is also related to the diffusive behaviour of the dynamical variables and the Lyapunov exponent. - Highlights: • We extend the concept of geometric phase to maps. • For the rotated sine circle map, we demonstrate an analytical relationship between the geometric phase and the rotation number. • For the rotated standard map, we explore the role of the geometric phase at the onset of chaos. • We show that the geometric phase is related to the diffusive behaviour of the dynamical variables and the Lyapunov exponent.

  1. The perception of small crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we measure perceptions of incorrect behavior or ‘small crime’, based on a questionnaire administered to a large representative sample from the Dutch population. In the questionnaire we ask the respondents to rate the severity or justifiability of a number of small crimes. We present

  2. How 'Digital' is Traditional Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Measuring how much cybercrime exists is typically done by first defining cybercrime and then quantifying how many cases fit that definition. The drawback is that definitions vary across countries and many cybercrimes are recorded as traditional crimes. An alternative is to keep traditional

  3. Street prostitution zones and crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P.; Kastoryano, S.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of legal street prostitution zones on registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where these tippelzones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. Our difference-in-difference analysis of 25 Dutch cities between

  4. Preventing Crime through Selective Incapacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Making the length of a prison sentence conditional on an individual’s offense history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was some ten times longer than usual. We exploit

  5. Preventing Crime Through Selective Incapacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Making the length of a prison sentence conditional on an individual’s offense history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was some ten times longer than usual. We exploit

  6. Crime fiction and moral emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2011-01-01

    , and especially within literary studies, the inspiration from evolutionary studies has been strong in the last decade. Humans are adapted to group living, and emotions linked to fairness have an innate basis. The article then shows how different crime stories activate different stages in Kohlberg’s functional...

  7. Crime and Child-Rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Byron M.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the notion that heredity plays a powerful role in criminal behavior, including genetic evidence that can allow for antisocial behavior. Reviews suggestions for reversing rising crime rates in light of the hereditary connection, policy development, family cohesion, and child raising. (GR)

  8. High on Crime Fiction and Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2010-01-01

    how crime fiction activates strong salience (in some respects similar to the effect of dopamine-drugs like cocaine, Ritalin, and amphetamine) and discusses the role of social intelligence in crime fiction. It further contrasts the unempathic classical detector fictions with two subtypes of crime...... fiction that blend seeking with other emotions: the hardboiled crime fiction that blends detection with action and hot emotions like anger and bonding, and the moral crime fiction that strongly evokes moral disgust and contempt, often in conjunction with detectors that perform hard to fake signals...

  9. The impact of unilateral divorce on crime

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres-Delpiano, Julio; Giolito, Eugenio P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the impact of unilateral divorce on crime. First, using crime rates from the FBI's Uniform Crime Report program for the period 1965-1998 and differences in the timing in the introduction of the reform, we find that unilateral divorce has a positive impact on violent crime rates, with an 8% to 12% average increase for the period under consideration. Second, arrest data not only confirms the findings of a positive impact on violent crime but also shows that this impac...

  10. School Violent Crime and Academic Achievement in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia

    2013-10-01

    Educational outcomes vary dramatically across schools in the United States. Many under-performing schools, especially in Chicago, also deal with high levels of violent crime on school grounds. Exposure to this type of frequent violence may be an important factor shaping already disadvantaged students' educational experiences. However, estimating the effect of school violence on learning is difficult due to potential selection bias and the confounding of other school-level problems. Using detailed crime data from the Chicago Police Department, complete administrative records from the Chicago Public Schools, and school climate surveys conducted by the Consortium on Chicago School Research (2002-10), this study exploits variation in violent crime rates within schools over time to estimate its effect on academic achievement. School and neighborhood fixed-effects models show that violent crime rates have a negative effect on test scores, but not on grades. This effect is more likely related to direct reductions in learning, through cognitive stress and classroom disruptions, than changes in perceived safety, general school climate, or discipline practices.

  11. Dal computer crime al computer-related crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Apruzzese

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Digital Identity Theft has become one of the most lucrative illegitimate business. Also known as “phishing”, it consists in unauthorized access to an individual’s personal financial data aiming to capture information relative to on line banking and on line financial services. At the beginning people were the victims of such scams, currently the attention is directed to computer networks. “Pharming” and “keylogging” are some of the latest and utmost sophisticated data processing techniques used by computer crime fraudsters. Latest entries are the “botnets”, herds of infected machines, usually managed by one sole command centre which can determine serious damages to network systems. Botnets have made large scale identity theft much simpler to realize. Organized crime is becoming more and more involved in this new crime world that can easily assure huge profits. The Italian State Police, in order to respond more effectively to this new rising challenge, has created, with the Postal and Communication Police, an agency highly specialized in combating such new phenomenon

  12. Riemannian geometry and geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This established reference work continues to provide its readers with a gateway to some of the most interesting developments in contemporary geometry. It offers insight into a wide range of topics, including fundamental concepts of Riemannian geometry, such as geodesics, connections and curvature; the basic models and tools of geometric analysis, such as harmonic functions, forms, mappings, eigenvalues, the Dirac operator and the heat flow method; as well as the most important variational principles of theoretical physics, such as Yang-Mills, Ginzburg-Landau or the nonlinear sigma model of quantum field theory. The present volume connects all these topics in a systematic geometric framework. At the same time, it equips the reader with the working tools of the field and enables her or him to delve into geometric research.  The 7th edition has been systematically reorganized and updated. Almost no page has been left unchanged. It also includes new material, for instance on symplectic geometry, as well as the B...

  13. Guns, germs, and stealing: exploring the link between infectious disease and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Ilan; Wisman, Arnaud; Webster, Gregory

    2013-03-27

    Can variation in crime rates be traced to the threat of infectious disease? Pathogens pose an ongoing challenge to survival, leading humans to adapt defenses to manage this threat. In addition to the biological immune system, humans have psychological and behavioral responses designed to protect against disease. Under persistent disease threat, xenophobia increases and people constrict social interactions to known in-group members. Though these responses reduce disease transmission, they can generate favorable crime conditions in two ways. First, xenophobia reduces inhibitions against harming and exploiting out-group members. Second, segregation into in-group factions erodes people's concern for the welfare of their community and weakens the collective ability to prevent crime. The present study examined the effects of infection incidence on crime rates across the United States. Infection rates predicted violent and property crime more strongly than other crime covariates. Infections also predicted homicides against strangers but not family or acquaintances, supporting the hypothesis that in-group-out-group discrimination was responsible for the infections-crime link. Overall, the results add to evidence that disease threat shapes interpersonal behavior and structural characteristics of groups.

  14. Guns, Germs, and Stealing: Exploring the Link between Infectious Disease and Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Shrira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Can variation in crime rates be traced to the threat of infectious disease? Pathogens pose an ongoing challenge to survival, leading humans to adapt defenses to manage this threat. In addition to the biological immune system, humans have psychological and behavioral responses designed to protect against disease. Under persistent disease threat, xenophobia increases and people constrict social interactions to known in-group members. Though these responses reduce disease transmission, they can generate favorable crime conditions in two ways. First, xenophobia reduces inhibitions against harming and exploiting out-group members. Second, segregation into in-group factions erodes people's concern for the welfare of their community and weakens the collective ability to prevent crime. The present study examined the effects of infection incidence on crime rates across the United States. Infection rates predicted violent and property crime more strongly than other crime covariates. Infections also predicted homicides against strangers but not family or acquaintances, supporting the hypothesis that in-group—out-group discrimination was responsible for the infections—crime link. Overall, the results add to evidence that disease threat shapes interpersonal behavior and structural characteristics of groups.

  15. 5th Dagstuhl Seminar on Geometric Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Brunnett, Guido; Farin, Gerald; Goldman, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In 19 articles presented by leading experts in the field of geometric modelling the state-of-the-art on representing, modeling, and analyzing curves, surfaces as well as other 3-dimensional geometry is given. The range of applications include CAD/CAM-systems, computer graphics, scientific visualization, virtual reality, simulation and medical imaging. The content of this book is based on selected lectures given at a workshop held at IBFI Schloss Dagstuhl, Germany. Topics treated are: – curve and surface modelling – non-manifold modelling in CAD – multiresolution analysis of complex geometric models – surface reconstruction – variational design – computational geometry of curves and surfaces – 3D meshing – geometric modelling for scientific visualization – geometric models for biomedical applications

  16. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing on...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  17. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices.

  18. Geometric group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Druţu, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    The key idea in geometric group theory is to study infinite groups by endowing them with a metric and treating them as geometric spaces. This applies to many groups naturally appearing in topology, geometry, and algebra, such as fundamental groups of manifolds, groups of matrices with integer coefficients, etc. The primary focus of this book is to cover the foundations of geometric group theory, including coarse topology, ultralimits and asymptotic cones, hyperbolic groups, isoperimetric inequalities, growth of groups, amenability, Kazhdan's Property (T) and the Haagerup property, as well as their characterizations in terms of group actions on median spaces and spaces with walls. The book contains proofs of several fundamental results of geometric group theory, such as Gromov's theorem on groups of polynomial growth, Tits's alternative, Stallings's theorem on ends of groups, Dunwoody's accessibility theorem, the Mostow Rigidity Theorem, and quasiisometric rigidity theorems of Tukia and Schwartz. This is the f...

  19. Geometric and engineering drawing

    CERN Document Server

    Morling, K

    2010-01-01

    The new edition of this successful text describes all the geometric instructions and engineering drawing information that are likely to be needed by anyone preparing or interpreting drawings or designs with plenty of exercises to practice these principles.

  20. Differential geometric structures

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, Walter A

    2007-01-01

    This introductory text defines geometric structure by specifying parallel transport in an appropriate fiber bundle and focusing on simplest cases of linear parallel transport in a vector bundle. 1981 edition.

  1. Geometric ghosts and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1980-09-01

    A review is given of the geometrical identification of the renormalization ghosts and the resulting derivation of Unitarity equations (BRST) for various gauges: Yang-Mills, Kalb-Ramond, and Soft-Group-Manifold

  2. Asymptotic and geometrical quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasev, M.V.; Maslov, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    The main ideas of geometric-, deformation- and asymptotic quantizations are compared. It is shown that, on the one hand, the asymptotic approach is a direct generalization of exact geometric quantization, on the other hand, it generates deformation in multiplication of symbols and Poisson brackets. Besides investigating the general quantization diagram, its applications to the calculation of asymptotics of a series of eigenvalues of operators possessing symmetry groups are considered

  3. On geometrized gravitation theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Folomeshkin, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    General properties of the geometrized gravitation theories have been considered. Geometrization of the theory is realized only to the extent that by necessity follows from an experiment (geometrization of the density of the matter Lagrangian only). Aor a general case the gravitation field equations and the equations of motion for matter are formulated in the different Riemann spaces. A covariant formulation of the energy-momentum conservation laws is given in an arbitrary geometrized theory. The noncovariant notion of ''pseudotensor'' is not required in formulating the conservation laws. It is shown that in the general case (i.e., when there is an explicit dependence of the matter Lagrangian density on the covariant derivatives) a symmetric energy-momentum tensor of the matter is explicitly dependent on the curvature tensor. There are enlisted different geometrized theories that describe a known set of the experimental facts. The properties of one of the versions of the quasilinear geometrized theory that describes the experimental facts are considered. In such a theory the fundamental static spherically symmetrical solution has a singularity only in the coordinate origin. The theory permits to create a satisfactory model of the homogeneous nonstationary Universe

  4. Neighborhood crime and transit station access mode choice - phase III of neighborhood crime and travel behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report provides the findings from the third phase of a three-part study about the influences of neighborhood crimes on travel : mode choice. While previous phases found evidence that high levels of neighborhood crime discourage people from choos...

  5. Transnational Crime Fictions and Argentina's Criminal State

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Juan

    2013-01-01

    My dissertation, titled "Transnational Crime Fictions and Argentina's Criminal State," proposes a new understanding of the dictatorship novels of Ricardo Piglia, Juan José Saer, and Manuel Puig grounded in their shared appropriation from popular crime fiction. Across the 1940's, 50's, and 60's, a wide range of popular crime fiction was translated, written, theorized, printed and reprinted in Argentina, and these popular genres grew steadily in readership, visibility, and cultural legitimacy....

  6. How to become a victim of crime

    OpenAIRE

    Богдан Миколайович Головкін

    2017-01-01

    Victimization from crime – a higher degree of social vulnerability criminal, contributing to the commission of crimes against them in certain circumstances. Victimization takes place in space and time, and includes four stages: 1) the emergence of criminal threats; 2) increasing the degree of social vulnerability to criminal assault; 3) the harm to individuals who find themselves in a vulnerable state at appropriate conditions (situations); 4) increase the number of victims of crimes as regis...

  7. Does Violent Crime Deter Physical Activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Janke, Katharina; Propper, Carol; Shields, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Crime has potentially important externalities. We investigate the relationship between recorded violent crime at the local area level and individuals’ participation in their local area through walking and physical activity. We use a sample of nearly 1 million people residing in over 320 local areas across England over the period 2005 to 2011. We show that concerns about personal safety co-move with police recorded violent crime. Our analysis controls for individual-level characteristics, no...

  8. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    John Donohue; Steven Levitt

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  9. Internet Governance amp Cyber Crimes In UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ayesha Al Neyadi; Alia Al Kaabi; Laila Al Kaabi; Mariam Al Ghufli; Maitha Al Shamsi; Dr. Muhammad Khan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Most people in UAE dont feel safe while they are use the Internet because most internet users have been a victim for cyber crime. Cyber crime threat rate has increased which has targeted on citizen privacy property and governments also the reputation problems. There are many criminal activities such as indecent acts Copyright issues Terrorist Acts State security and Contempt of religion. Cyber crimes due to several reasons such as they have lack of social intelligence they are being ...

  10. Teen Births Keep American Crime High

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The United States has a teenage birth rate that is high relative to that of other developed countries, and falling more slowly. Children of teenagers may experience difficult childhoods and hence be more likely to commit crimes subsequently. I assess to what extent lagged teen birth rates can explain why the United States had the highest developed country crime rates in the 1980s, and why US rates subsequently fell so much. For this purpose, I use internationally comparable crime rates measur...

  11. A Survey of Cyber Crime in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papanikolaou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past years, the Internet has evolved into the so-called “Web 2.0”. Nevertheless, the wide use of the offered Internet services has rendered individual users a potential target to cyber criminals. The paper presents a review and analysis of various cyber crimes, based on the cases that were reported to the Cyber Crime and Computer Crime Unit of the Greek Police Force and compares them to similar data of other EU countries.

  12. Gun Laws and Crime: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Matti Viren

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of gun laws on crime. Several empirical analyses are carried to investigate the relationship between five different crime rates and alternative law variables. The tests are based on cross-section data from US sates. Three different law variables are used in the analysis, together with a set of control variables for income, poverty, unemployment and ethnic background of the population. Empirical analysis does not lend support to the notion that crime laws would...

  13. Crime, Compulsory Schooling Laws and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Bell; Rui Costa; Stephen Machin

    2015-01-01

    Do compulsory schooling laws reduce crime? Previous evidence for the U.S. from the 1960s and 1970s suggests they do, primarily working through their effect on educational attainment to generate a causal impact on crime. In this paper, we consider whether more recent experience replicates this. There are two key findings. First, there is a strong and consistent negative effect on crime from stricter compulsory schooling laws. Second, there is a weaker and sometimes non-existent link between su...

  14. Crime perception and Presidential evaluation in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo R. Gómez Vilchis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available How important are citizen perceptions of an increase in crime rate when they evaluate the President? This article uses Mexico as a case study to examine the relationship between perception of crime and citizen grading of the President. The research uses 11 national surveys from 1994 to 2006 to analyze the effects of perception of crime on citizen grading of the President before and after the 2000 presidential election. The main proposition is that, after the 2000 political transition, perception of crime, together with other economic variables, becomes more relevant and has stronger effects when citizens evaluate the President due to an increase of their expectations of the Executive's competence.

  15. Spatial Dependence of Crime in Monterrey, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Aguayo Téllez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact that the characteristics of the environment have on crime using neighborhood aggregate data of the Monterrey Metropolitan Area for the year 2010. Data spatial autocorrelation is corroborated, i.e. neighborhoods with high crime rates have a positive impact on the crime rates of its surrounding neighborhoods. Once it was controlled through the bias caused by spatial autocorrelation and data censoring, it is evidenced that the likelihood of being a crime victim and the probability of becoming an offender is positively related to variables such as unemployment, the percentage of young men and the existence of schools, hospitals or markets in the neighborhood.

  16. City of Durham Police Crime Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This metadata contains information on crime definitions and location obfuscation techniques to protect citizen identification data. Officers responding to incidents...

  17. Statistical physics of crime: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics of crime can relevantly inform the design of successful crime prevention strategies, as well as improve the accuracy of expectations about how different policing interventions should impact malicious human activity that deviates from social norms. We also outline possible directions for future research, related to the effects of social and coevolving networks and to the hierarchical growth of criminal structures due to self-organization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Joint Utility of Event-Dependent and Environmental Crime Analysis Techniques for Violent Crime Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joel M.; Kennedy, Leslie W.; Piza, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Violent crime incidents occurring in Irvington, New Jersey, in 2007 and 2008 are used to assess the joint analytical capabilities of point pattern analysis, hotspot mapping, near-repeat analysis, and risk terrain modeling. One approach to crime analysis suggests that the best way to predict future crime occurrence is to use past behavior, such as…

  19. Opportunities for Environmental Crime: A Test of Situational Crime Prevention Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, W.; van Erp, J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Situational Crime Prevention Theory (SCPT) has been proposed as an alternative to offender-based theories of white-collar crime. This paper uses the results of a cross-case analysis of 23 criminal investigations of environmental crime in the Netherlands to explore the fruitfulness of SCPT

  20. CMIS: Crime Map Information System for Safety Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Yee, Ng Peng; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Crime Map is an online web based geographical information system that assists the public and users to visualize crime activities geographically. It acts as a platform for the public communities to share crime activities they encountered. Crime and violence plague the communities we are living in. As part of the community, crime prevention is everyone's responsibility. The purpose of Crime Map is to provide insights of the crimes occurring around Malaysia and raise the public's awareness on crime activities in their neighbourhood. For that, Crime Map visualizes crime activities on a geographical heat maps, generated based on geospatial data. Crime Map analyse data obtained from crime reports to generate useful information on crime trends. At the end of the development, users should be able to make use of the system to access to details of crime reported, crime analysis and report crimes activities. The development of Crime Map also enable the public to obtain insights about crime activities in their area. Thus, enabling the public to work together with the law enforcer to prevent and fight crime.

  1. Neighborhood Effects on Youth Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Galster, George Charles

    We investigate the degree to which youth (ages 14-29) criminal offenses are influenced by neighbors, identifying causal effects with a natural experimental allocation of social housing in Copenhagen. We find that youth exposed to a one percentage point higher concentration of neighbors with drug...... criminal records are 6% more likely to be charged for criminal offenses (both drug and property crimes), and this impact manifests itself after six months of exposure. This neighborhood effect is stronger for previous offenders, and does not lead to criminal partnerships. Our exploration of alternative...

  2. Geometric approximation algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Har-Peled, Sariel

    2011-01-01

    Exact algorithms for dealing with geometric objects are complicated, hard to implement in practice, and slow. Over the last 20 years a theory of geometric approximation algorithms has emerged. These algorithms tend to be simple, fast, and more robust than their exact counterparts. This book is the first to cover geometric approximation algorithms in detail. In addition, more traditional computational geometry techniques that are widely used in developing such algorithms, like sampling, linear programming, etc., are also surveyed. Other topics covered include approximate nearest-neighbor search, shape approximation, coresets, dimension reduction, and embeddings. The topics covered are relatively independent and are supplemented by exercises. Close to 200 color figures are included in the text to illustrate proofs and ideas.

  3. Geometrical optical illusionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Geometrical optical illusions were given this title by Oppel in 1855. Variants on such small distortions of visual space were illustrated thereafter, many of which bear the names of those who first described them. Some original forms of the geometrical optical illusions are shown together with 'perceptual portraits' of those who described them. These include: Roget, Chevreul, Fick, Zöllner, Poggendorff, Hering, Kundt, Delboeuf Mach, Helmholtz, Hermann, von Bezold, Müller-Lyer, Lipps, Thiéry, Wundt, Münsterberg, Ebbinghaus, Titchener, Ponzo, Luckiesh, Sander, Ehrenstein, Gregory, Heard, White, Shepard, and. Lingelbach. The illusions are grouped under the headings of orientation, size, the combination of size and orientation, and contrast. Early theories of illusions, before geometrical optical illusions were so named, are mentioned briefly.

  4. The Dynamics of Crime and Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F.

    This article analyzes crime development which is one of the largest threats in today's world, frequently referred to as the war on crime. The criminal commits crimes in his free time (when not in jail) according to a non-stationary Poisson process which accounts for fluctuations. Expected values and variances for crime development are determined. The deterrent effect of imprisonment follows from the amount of time in imprisonment. Each criminal maximizes expected utility defined as expected benefit (from crime) minus expected cost (imprisonment). A first-order differential equation of the criminal's utility-maximizing response to the given punishment policy is then developed. The analysis shows that if imprisonment is absent, criminal activity grows substantially. All else being equal, any equilibrium is unstable (labile), implying growth of criminal activity, unless imprisonment increases sufficiently as a function of criminal activity. This dynamic approach or perspective is quite interesting and has to our knowledge not been presented earlier. The empirical data material for crime intensity and imprisonment for Norway, England and Wales, and the US supports the model. Future crime development is shown to depend strongly on the societally chosen imprisonment policy. The model is intended as a valuable tool for policy makers who can envision arbitrarily sophisticated imprisonment functions and foresee the impact they have on crime development.

  5. Aggression in children and youth towards crime.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTEFFLOVÁ, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.

  6. Economic Crimes In The Period Of Nazaret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam mansoori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Other Words, The Victim Of Crime Or Bad Act And Contrary To The Provisions Specified In A Society. Breaking The Law In One Way Or Another In All Sections Of Society Or Culture There And Just Not Certain. Given The Importance Of Nazareth As A Crucial Moment In History, Investigate The Crime As One Of The Most Important Events Of This Period Can Reveal Its Many Ambiguities In The Fields Of Committing Economic Crimes. Accordingly, In This Study We Try Economic Crimes Testament Naseri Typology And The Role Of Various Factors In This Phenomenon, Particularly In Its Dual Role Of Government Is. Therefore, Relying On Historical Documents And Library Resources Available And The Statistical Analysis Of Crimes Of This Period, The Description Of The Economic Situation Of Naseri Age, The Type Of Economic Crime In The Period Studied And Said Some Of The Factors Contributing To The Occurrence Of This Crime, As Far As Possible From The Viewpoint Of Analytical Thought. According To The Findings Obtained From Different Types Of Economic Crimes, The Murder Of A 7/58%, The Highest Rate Of Opium Drawing 2/0% Were Allocated To The Lowest. Although The Government Of Nazareth Was The Main Cause Of Action In Dealing With Criminals However Its Way To Provide Mass Media, And In Many Cases They Are Also Added On.

  7. Contextualizing Restorative Justice for Hate Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrielides, Theo

    2012-01-01

    The application of restorative justice (RJ) with hate crime remains an underdeveloped field of research, policy, and practice. This article aims to advance the understanding of these two areas of inquiry: RJ and hate crime. It is known that while most hate incidents involve minor, punishable offenses, their impact can be long lasting and…

  8. Individual Perceptions of Local Crime Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, M.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence that perceptions of crime risk are severely biased for many years after a move to a new neighborhood. Based on four successive waves of a large crime survey, matched with administrative records on household relocations, we find that the longer an individual lives in a

  9. The need for hate crime legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as hate crimes,3 undermine social cohesion4 and have been shown to have ... a bias motive'.8 A 'hate crime' is thus an act which constitutes a ... not report their experience to the police and that ... police officers appear to share such sentiments.28 ... considerable media attention. ..... opening the lodge to gay tourists. During ...

  10. On the behavorial economics of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.; Ash, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the brain sciences' mechanistic model of human behavior for our understanding of crime. The standard rational-choice crime model is refined by a behavioral approach, which proposes a decision model comprising cognitive and emotional decision systems. According

  11. Effectiveness of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined crime prevention strategies vis-a-vis perceived residents. feeling of safety in Osogbo Nigeria. The survey was conducted using systematic sampling. Four (4) crime prevention approaches were identified in the study area. Residents. perception of effectiveness of these safety strategies measured ...

  12. Lessons Learned from Crime Caught on Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Bernasco, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The widespread use of camera surveillance in public places offers criminologists the opportunity to systematically and unobtrusively observe crime, their main subject matter. The purpose of this essay is to inform the reader of current developments in research on crimes caught on came...

  13. 15 CFR 742.7 - Crime control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crime control. 742.7 Section 742.7... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.7 Crime control. (a) License requirements. In support of U.S. foreign policy to promote the...

  14. Crime analysis using open source information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Shah, Azhar Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of crime analysis from open source information. We employed un-supervised methods of data mining to explore the facts regarding the crimes of an area of interest. The analysis is based on well known clustering and association techniques. The results show...

  15. Contemporary Organized Crime. : Developments, Challenges and Responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelen, Hans; Siegel, Dina

    2017-01-01

    This is the third publication (after Siegel et al. (eds.) (2003) Global Organized Crime. Trends and Developments; and Siegel and Nelen (eds.) (2008). Organized Crime: Culture, Markets and Policies) in which the most relevant papers that were presented during seminars of the Centre for Information

  16. On the behavioral economics of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.; Ash, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the brain sciences’ mechanistic model of human behavior for our understanding of crime. The rational crime model is replaced with a behavioral approach, which proposes a decision model comprising cognitive and emotional decision systems. According to the

  17. Gambling Harm and Crime Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Chahal, Corinne; Humphreys, Leslie; Clifton, Alison; Francis, Brian; Reith, Gerda

    2017-03-01

    Incarcerated populations across the world have been found to be consistently and significantly more vulnerable to problem gambling than general populations in the same countries. In an effort to gain a more specific understanding of this vulnerability the present study applied latent class analysis and criminal career theory to gambling data collected from a sample of English and Scottish, male and female prisoners (N = 1057). Theoretical links between gambling and crime were tested through three hypotheses: (1) that prisoners in the UK would have higher rates of problem gambling behaviour than the national population; (2) that if the link between gambling and crime is coincidental, gambling behaviour would be highly prevalent in an offending population, and (3) if connections between gambling behaviour and offending are co-symptomatic a mediating factor would show a strong association. The first of these was supported, the second was not supported and the third was partially supported. Latent class analysis found six gambling behaviour clusters measured by responses to the Problem Gambling Severity Index, primarily distinguished by loss chasing behaviour. Longitudinal offending data drawn from the Police National Computer database found four criminal career types, distinguished by frequency and persistence over time. A significant association was found between higher level loss chasing and high rate offending in criminal careers suggesting that impulse control may be a mediating factor for both gambling harm and criminal careers.

  18. Designing a Data Warehouse for Cyber Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Yeol Song

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges facing modern society is the rising tide of cyber crimes. These crimes, since they rarely fit the model of conventional crimes, are difficult to investigate, hard to analyze, and difficult to prosecute. Collecting data in a unified framework is a mandatory step that will assist the investigator in sorting through the mountains of data. In this paper, we explore designing a dimensional model for a data warehouse that can be used in analyzing cyber crime data. We also present some interesting queries and the types of cyber crime analyses that can be performed based on the data warehouse. We discuss several ways of utilizing the data warehouse using OLAP and data mining technologies. We finally discuss legal issues and data population issues for the data warehouse.

  19. Systematic review of youth crime prevention interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new......This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12......-17 year olds, using experimental or quasi-experimental research designs and focusing on effects in terms of disruptive or criminal behavior. The review provides detailed descriptions of all identified studies, and the characteristics and effectiveness of the interventions is analyzed. This report has been...

  20. Geometric Liouville gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, H.

    1992-01-01

    A new geometric formulation of Liouville gravity based on the area preserving diffeo-morphism is given and a possible alternative to reinterpret Liouville gravity is suggested, namely, a scalar field coupled to two-dimensional gravity with a curvature constraint

  1. A Geometric Dissection Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 7. A Geometric Dissection Problem. M N Deshpande. Think It Over Volume 7 Issue 7 July 2002 pp 91-91. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/07/0091-0091. Author Affiliations.

  2. Geometric statistical inference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periwal, Vipul

    1999-01-01

    A reparametrization-covariant formulation of the inverse problem of probability is explicitly solved for finite sample sizes. The inferred distribution is explicitly continuous for finite sample size. A geometric solution of the statistical inference problem in higher dimensions is outlined

  3. Geometric Series via Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesman, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Infinite series is a challenging topic in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum for many students. In fact, there is a vast literature in mathematics education research on convergence issues. One of the most important types of infinite series is the geometric series. Their beauty lies in the fact that they can be evaluated explicitly and that…

  4. Álcool, drogas e crime Alcohol, drugs and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Chalub

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo descreve duas situações complexas e duplamente preocupantes em termos de saúde pública, seja, por sua alta prevalência e/ou por suas conseqüências. Trata-se dos transtornos do uso de substâncias psicoativas e a criminalidade. Será relatada a forma como diversos pesquisadores as associam, bem como a situação das perícias de usuários e dependentes de álcool e drogas. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma revisão das publicações sobre o tema, utilizando-se, como bancos de dados, o Medline e o Lilacs, cobrindo o período de 1986 a 2006. Os descritores usados foram: "alcoholism", "drug dependence", "drug abuse" e "crime". Resumos de congressos, artigos e livros relevantes sobre o tema, publicados por diferentes autoridades no assunto, em diversas fases de pesquisa, foram consultados e incluídos. CONCLUSÃO: As diversas pesquisas coincidem na afirmação de uma associação entre transtornos do uso de substâncias psicoativas e criminalidade. O que é possível constatar é a alta proporção de atos violentos quando o álcool ou as drogas ilícitas estão presentes entre agressores, suas vítimas ou em ambos. Quando se realiza um exame pericial em autores que alegam alguma relação do ato praticado com consumo de álcool/drogas, esta perícia deve levar em consideração a substância em uso, o quadro clínico por ela causado, bem como verificar a presença de um diagnóstico, a existência de nexo causal e possíveis alterações na capacidade de entendimento e/ou determinação do agente.OBJECTIVE: This article describes two complex and doubly preoccupying situations in terms of public health, either, for its high prevalence and/or its consequences. These problems are the psychoactive substance use disorder and crime. The form will be told as diverse researchers associate them, as well as the situation of the exam of users and alcohol dependents and drugs. METHOD: A revision of publications was become fulfilled on the

  5. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  6. Advising caution in studying seasonal oscillations in crime rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Dong

    Full Text Available Most types of crime are known to exhibit seasonal oscillations, yet the annual variations in the amplitude of this seasonality and their causes are still uncertain. Using a large collection of data from the Houston and Los Angeles Metropolitan areas, we extract and study the seasonal variations in aggravated assault, break in and theft from vehicles, burglary, grand theft auto, rape, robbery, theft, and vandalism for many years from the raw daily data. Our approach allows us to see various long term and seasonal trends and aberrations in crime rates that have not been reported before. We then apply an ecologically motivated stochastic differential equation to reproduce the data. Our model relies only on social interaction terms, and not on any exigent factors, to reproduce both the seasonality, and the seasonal aberrations observed in our data set. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the system is sufficient to reproduce the variations seen in the seasonal oscillations from year to year. Researchers should be very careful about trying to correlate these oscillations with external factors.

  7. Dynamics in geometrical confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the dynamics of low molecular weight and polymeric molecules when they are constrained under conditions of geometrical confinement. It covers geometrical confinement in different dimensionalities: (i) in nanometer thin layers or self supporting films (1-dimensional confinement) (ii) in pores or tubes with nanometric diameters (2-dimensional confinement) (iii) as micelles embedded in matrices (3-dimensional) or as nanodroplets.The dynamics under such conditions have been a much discussed and central topic in the focus of intense worldwide research activities within the last two decades. The present book discusses how the resulting molecular mobility is influenced by the subtle counterbalance between surface effects (typically slowing down molecular dynamics through attractive guest/host interactions) and confinement effects (typically increasing the mobility). It also explains how these influences can be modified and tuned, e.g. through appropriate surface coatings, film thicknesses or pore...

  8. Geometric group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bestvina, Mladen; Vogtmann, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Geometric group theory refers to the study of discrete groups using tools from topology, geometry, dynamics and analysis. The field is evolving very rapidly and the present volume provides an introduction to and overview of various topics which have played critical roles in this evolution. The book contains lecture notes from courses given at the Park City Math Institute on Geometric Group Theory. The institute consists of a set of intensive short courses offered by leaders in the field, designed to introduce students to exciting, current research in mathematics. These lectures do not duplicate standard courses available elsewhere. The courses begin at an introductory level suitable for graduate students and lead up to currently active topics of research. The articles in this volume include introductions to CAT(0) cube complexes and groups, to modern small cancellation theory, to isometry groups of general CAT(0) spaces, and a discussion of nilpotent genus in the context of mapping class groups and CAT(0) gro...

  9. Lectures in geometric combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Rekha R

    2006-01-01

    This book presents a course in the geometry of convex polytopes in arbitrary dimension, suitable for an advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate student. The book starts with the basics of polytope theory. Schlegel and Gale diagrams are introduced as geometric tools to visualize polytopes in high dimension and to unearth bizarre phenomena in polytopes. The heart of the book is a treatment of the secondary polytope of a point configuration and its connections to the state polytope of the toric ideal defined by the configuration. These polytopes are relatively recent constructs with numerous connections to discrete geometry, classical algebraic geometry, symplectic geometry, and combinatorics. The connections rely on Gr�bner bases of toric ideals and other methods from commutative algebra. The book is self-contained and does not require any background beyond basic linear algebra. With numerous figures and exercises, it can be used as a textbook for courses on geometric, combinatorial, and computational as...

  10. Geometric information provider platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Yousefzadeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Renovation of existing buildings is known as an essential stage in reduction of the energy loss. Considerable part of renovation process depends on geometric reconstruction of building based on semantic parameters. Following many research projects which were focused on parameterizing the energy usage, various energy modelling methods were developed during the last decade. On the other hand, by developing accurate measuring tools such as laser scanners, the interests of having accurate 3D building models are rapidly growing. But the automation of 3D building generation from laser point cloud or detection of specific objects in that is still a challenge.  The goal is designing a platform through which required geometric information can be efficiently produced to support energy simulation software. Developing a reliable procedure which extracts required information from measured data and delivers them to a standard energy modelling system is the main purpose of the project.

  11. Gravity, a geometrical course

    CERN Document Server

    Frè, Pietro Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    ‘Gravity, a Geometrical Course’ presents general relativity (GR) in a systematic and exhaustive way, covering three aspects that are homogenized into a single texture: i) the mathematical, geometrical foundations, exposed in a self consistent contemporary formalism, ii) the main physical, astrophysical and cosmological applications,  updated to the issues of contemporary research and observations, with glimpses on supergravity and superstring theory, iii) the historical development of scientific ideas underlying both the birth of general relativity and its subsequent evolution. The book is divided in two volumes.   Volume One is dedicated to the development of the theory and basic physical applications. It guides the reader from the foundation of special relativity to Einstein field equations, illustrating some basic applications in astrophysics. A detailed  account  of the historical and conceptual development of the theory is combined with the presentation of its mathematical foundations.  Differe...

  12. Geometric homology revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffino, Fabio Ferrari

    2013-01-01

    Given a cohomology theory, there is a well-known abstract way to define the dual homology theory using the theory of spectra. In [4] the author provides a more geometric construction of the homology theory, using a generalization of the bordism groups. Such a generalization involves in its definition the vector bundle modification, which is a particular case of the Gysin map. In this paper we provide a more natural variant of that construction, which replaces the vector bundle modification wi...

  13. Geometric measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Waerden, B

    1996-01-01

    From the reviews: "... Federer's timely and beautiful book indeed fills the need for a comprehensive treatise on geometric measure theory, and his detailed exposition leads from the foundations of the theory to the most recent discoveries. ... The author writes with a distinctive style which is both natural and powerfully economical in treating a complicated subject. This book is a major treatise in mathematics and is essential in the working library of the modern analyst." Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society.

  14. Developing geometrical reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Margaret; Jones, Keith; Taylor, Ron; Hirst, Ann

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarises a report (Brown, Jones & Taylor, 2003) to the UK Qualifications and Curriculum Authority of the work of one geometry group. The group was charged with developing and reporting on teaching ideas that focus on the development of geometrical reasoning at the secondary school level. The group was encouraged to explore what is possible both within and beyond the current requirements of the UK National Curriculum and the Key Stage 3 strategy, and to consider the whole atta...

  15. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  16. Geometric theory of information

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together geometric tools and their applications for Information analysis. It collects current and many uses of in the interdisciplinary fields of Information Geometry Manifolds in Advanced Signal, Image & Video Processing, Complex Data Modeling and Analysis, Information Ranking and Retrieval, Coding, Cognitive Systems, Optimal Control, Statistics on Manifolds, Machine Learning, Speech/sound recognition, and natural language treatment which are also substantially relevant for the industry.

  17. Studies in geometric quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuynman, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis contains five chapters, of which the first, entitled 'What is prequantization, and what is geometric quantization?', is meant as an introduction to geometric quantization for the non-specialist. The second chapter, entitled 'Central extensions and physics' deals with the notion of central extensions of manifolds and elaborates and proves the statements made in the first chapter. Central extensions of manifolds occur in physics as the freedom of a phase factor in the quantum mechanical state vector, as the phase factor in the prequantization process of classical mechanics and it appears in mathematics when studying central extension of Lie groups. In this chapter the connection between these central extensions is investigated and a remarkable similarity between classical and quantum mechanics is shown. In chapter three a classical model is given for the hydrogen atom including spin-orbit and spin-spin interaction. The method of geometric quantization is applied to this model and the results are discussed. In the final chapters (4 and 5) an explicit method to calculate the operators corresponding to classical observables is given when the phase space is a Kaehler manifold. The obtained formula are then used to quantise symplectic manifolds which are irreducible hermitian symmetric spaces and the results are compared with other quantization procedures applied to these manifolds (in particular to Berezin's quantization). 91 refs.; 3 tabs

  18. THE DETERMINATION OF CRIMES OF CORRUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rubantsova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to determination of starting conceptual positions of a concept and signs of corruption. In article it is noted that qualification of this type of crimes is rather difficult. To a basis of a corruption crime the illegal transaction having criminal character constitutes. The government employee, having the rights and obligations of the government employee, he sells to other persons that he by right doesn’t belong to it. The corruption crime becomes result of this transaction. It always has mercenary character and is made for the sake of receipt of benefit of property nature. Corruption in the state has system nature.

  19. The Employment-Crime Association for Individuals Convicted of a Sexual Offense in Their Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, C.J.W.; Mesters, Geert

    2017-01-01

    Objective We study the bi-directional relationship between employment and crime for individuals convicted for a sexual offense in their youth (JSO) and investigate the moderating influences of age and employment duration. Method A bi-variate dynamic binary choice model is developed to allow for

  20. "Hunger makes a thief of any man": poverty and crime in British colonial Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, K.I.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses rainfall variation as an instrumental variable for padi-rice production to estimate the impact of poverty on different types of crime across British colonies in South and South East Asia (1910-1940). Using original primary sources retrieved from annual administrative and statistical

  1. The Legal Framework Of Human Rights Crime As An Extraordinary Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Siswadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research reviews the legal framework of human rights crime as an extraordinary crime as an approach in the settlement of criminal cases. The outcomes of the research indicate that modern human rights law developed out of customs and theories that established the rights of the individual in relation to the state. Disagreements regarding human rights violations which can only be done by the state and its agents or can also be done by non-government units still exist at the moment. As it turns out in practice however it has certain weaknesses particularly in legislation concerning serious crimes of human rights both as ius constituendum and ius constitutum still needs to be improved especially in the implementation of human rights on judiciary system. Therefore serious crimes against human rights are included as an extraordinary crime. The handling of the cases was incredible and special has become a logical consequence to be included as an extraordinary crime.

  2. Watching the detectives: crime programming, fear of crime, and attitudes about the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J

    2011-01-01

    Research demonstrates a complex relationship between television viewing and fear of crime. Social critics assert that media depictions perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology about crime and criminal justice. This article examines whether program type differentially affects fear of crime and perceptions of the crime rate. Next, it tests whether such programming differentially affects viewers' attitudes about the criminal justice system, and if these relationships are mediated by fear. Results indicated that fear mediated the relationship between viewing nonfictional shows and lack of support for the justice system. Viewing crime dramas predicted support for the death penalty, but this relationship was not mediated by fear. News viewership was unrelated to either fear or attitudes. The results support the idea that program type matters when it comes to understanding people's fear of crime and their attitudes about criminal justice.

  3. Geometrical model of multiple production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikovani, Z.E.; Jenkovszky, L.L.; Kvaratshelia, T.M.; Struminskij, B.V.

    1988-01-01

    The relation between geometrical and KNO-scaling and their violation is studied in a geometrical model of multiple production of hadrons. Predictions concerning the behaviour of correlation coefficients at future accelerators are given

  4. Geometric Computing for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Wallner, J.; Pottmann, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Geometric computing has recently found a new field of applications, namely the various geometric problems which lie at the heart of rationalization and construction-aware design processes of freeform architecture. We report on our work in this area

  5. Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareck Martine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a major public health problem worldwide. Research has shown that neighbourhood of residence is independently associated with the likelihood of individuals' smoking. However, a fine comprehension of which neighbourhood characteristics are involved and how remains limited. In this study we examine the relative contribution of objective (police-recorded and subjective (resident-perceived measures of neighbourhood crime on residents' smoking behaviours. Methods Data from 2,418 men and women participating in the 2007/8 sweep of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study were analyzed. Smoking status and perceived crime were collected through face-to-face interviews with participants. Police-recorded crime rates were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website at the datazone scale. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the likelihood of current smoking using logistic regression models. Adjusted mean daily amount smoked and F statistics were calculated using general linear models. Analyses were conducted for all respondents and stratified by sex and age cohort. Results Compared to individuals living in low crime areas, those residing in an area characterized by high police-recorded crime rates or those perceiving high crime in their neighbourhood were more likely to be current smokers, after controlling for individual characteristics. The association with smoking was somewhat stronger for police-recorded crime than for perceived crime. Associations were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for either the objective or subjective crime measures, suggesting that these indicators may exert an independent influence on the risk of smoking. Stronger effects were observed for women compared to men. Police-recorded crime rates were more strongly related to smoking status among older respondents than among the younger cohort, whereas the strongest effect for perceived crime was observed

  6. Geometric morphometric footprint analysis of young women

    OpenAIRE

    Domjanic, Jacqueline; Fieder, Martin; Seidler, Horst; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Background Most published attempts to quantify footprint shape are based on a small number of measurements. We applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of the complete footprint outline in a sample of 83 adult women. Methods The outline of the footprint, including the toes, was represented by a comprehensive set of 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Results The first four principal components represented t...

  7. Geometric Constructions with the Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Jen-chung

    The computer can be used as a tool to represent and communicate geometric knowledge. With the appropriate software, a geometric diagram can be manipulated through a series of animation that offers more than one particular snapshot as shown in a traditional mathematical text. Geometric constructions with the computer enable the learner to see and…

  8. The effect of football matches on crime patterns in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Struse, Simon Planells; Montolio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Given the actual debate, in many European countries, about the need for public administrations to raise their revenues through taxing the crime externalities generated by some private leisure activities, this article analyzes the effect of football matches on crime focusing both on property crimes and interpersonal violent crimes. Our aim is to determine up to what extent a private leisure activity, such as football matches, induces negative crime externalities to the whole society. Using dat...

  9. Criminal sanctions: does imprisonment strategy reduce crimes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What works, in our views, is the delivery of appropriate correctional treatment, and ... adult criminal treatment among both Lagos and Enugu prisoners that summarized ... Keywords: Imprisonment, Sanctions, Crimes, Rehabilitation, Recidivism.

  10. Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...

  11. South African Crime Quarterly - Vol 42 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "Dip me in Chocolate and Thow me to the Lesbians": Homophobic hate crimes, the state and civil society · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. K Williams, 39-46 ...

  12. Essays in Education, Crime, and Job Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick

    , Crime, and Job Displacement”, analyzes the determinants and social implications of these three factors. While independent, each essay within this thesis examines the impact of factors such as education, in terms of reduced crime, job loss, in terms of increased crime, and discrimination, in terms of its......With a limited budget and resources, governments must decide how to allocate funds across a variety of factors which benefit society such as education, crime deterrence, and public safety. Each increase in spending on one area comes with the knowledge that this money cannot be spent on social...... problems in another area. As such, externalities and unexpected spillover effects impact the costs and benefits of public spending to society and may have large and meaningful implications on how to most effectively allocate resources across a multitude of outcomes. For example, an increase in education...

  13. Mapping crime scenes and cellular telephone usage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method that uses a desktop geographical information system (GIS) to plot cellular telephone conversations made when crimes are committed, such as hijackings, hostage taking, kidnapping, rape and murder. The maps produced...

  14. Workshop on Wildlife Crime: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Wildlife crime, computation, conservation, criminology , conservation biology, risk, poaching REPORT...Action items? Conference on “Conservation, Computation, Criminology ” C^3? Technology Transfer

  15. Introduction: Urban Crime and Poverty Nexus

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    1Institute of Statistical, Social & Economic Research (ISSER)/Department of ... nor democratic: unregulated, informal economic activities are very common in .... with crime in urban Ghana based on a household survey and a qualitative study.

  16. Nations Hospitable to Organized Crime and Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berry, LaVerle; Curtis, Glenn E; Gibbs, John N; Hudson, Rex A; Karacan, Tara; Kollars, Nina; Miro, Ramon

    2003-01-01

    .... Although the focus of the report is on transnational activity, domestic criminal activity is recognized as a key foundation for transnational crime, especially as the forces of globalization intensify...

  17. The Migrant Smuggling Crime in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta-Elena Buzatu

    2018-01-01

    The study below is meant to focus on the migrant smuggling crime in Romania, especially analysis of the migrant smuggling infraction provided in the Romanian Criminal Code. Being a component of the human trafficking activity, the illegal migration is a phenomenon that is continuously extending and harder to stop due to the involvement of the organized crime networks and also due the ingenuousness and maliciousness of the people and the criminals. Therewith, the migrant smuggling is highly con...

  18. On the behavioral economics of crime

    OpenAIRE

    van Winden, F.; Ash, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the brain sciences’ mechanistic model of human behavior for our understanding of crime. The rational crime model is replaced with a behavioral approach, which proposes a decision model comprising cognitive and emotional decision systems. According to the behavioral approach, a criminal is not irrational but rather ‘ecologically rational’, outfitted with evolutionarily conserved decision modules adapted for survival in the human ancestral environment. Se...

  19. Physics in the prevention of crime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.

    1976-01-01

    Physics is playing a significant role, particularly in Europe and North America, both as an aid to detect and prevent crime and also to assist in the provision of more precise information about crimes committed. Advances have resulted from fundamental studies in several fields. Among methods described are those of neutron activation analysis and proton microbeam X-ray production which show promise in the field of forensic science where the detection of minute quantities of trace elements may be of significance. (author)

  20. Geometric Algebra Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Corrochano, Eduardo Bayro

    2010-01-01

    This book presents contributions from a global selection of experts in the field. This useful text offers new insights and solutions for the development of theorems, algorithms and advanced methods for real-time applications across a range of disciplines. Written in an accessible style, the discussion of all applications is enhanced by the inclusion of numerous examples, figures and experimental analysis. Features: provides a thorough discussion of several tasks for image processing, pattern recognition, computer vision, robotics and computer graphics using the geometric algebra framework; int

  1. Geometric multipartite entanglement measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Reina, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of constructions for quantifying entanglement, we build a natural scenario for the assembly of multipartite entanglement measures based on Hopf bundle-like mappings obtained through Clifford algebra representations. Then, given the non-factorizability of an arbitrary two-qubit density matrix, we give an alternate quantity that allows the construction of two types of entanglement measures based on their arithmetical and geometrical averages over all pairs of qubits in a register of size N, and thus fully characterize its degree and type of entanglement. We find that such an arithmetical average is both additive and strongly super additive

  2. Geometric correlations and multifractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amritkar, R.E.

    1991-07-01

    There are many situations where the usual statistical methods are not adequate to characterize correlations in the system. To characterize such situations we introduce mutual correlation dimensions which describe geometric correlations in the system. These dimensions allow us to distinguish between variables which are perfectly correlated with or without a phase lag, variables which are uncorrelated and variables which are partially correlated. We demonstrate the utility of our formalism by considering two examples from dynamical systems. The first example is about the loss of memory in chaotic signals and describes auto-correlations while the second example is about synchronization of chaotic signals and describes cross-correlations. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs

  3. Childhood adversity, mental health, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Cornelius, Monica E; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is understood about childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and lifetime violent crime perpetration. The purpose was to evaluate TBI before the age of 15 years and other childhood environmental factors, mental health, and lifetime history of committing a violent crime. A cross-sectional study of 636 male and female offenders from a southeastern state prison population was conducted using Chi-squared tests, t tests, and logistic regression to determine factors associated with ever committing a violent crime. Committing a violent crime was associated with male gender, younger age, greater childhood sexual abuse (CSA), greater childhood emotional abuse, no TBI by the age of 15 years, and greater neighborhood adversity during childhood. Although TBI has been related to violent and nonviolent crime, this study showed that absence of TBI by the age of 15 years was associated with lifetime violent crime when adjusting for CSA, childhood emotional abuse, and neighborhood adversity during childhood. This builds upon neurobehavioral development literature suggesting that CSA and the stress of violence exposure without direct physical victimization may play a more critical role in lifetime violent criminal behavior than childhood TBI. Violence risk reduction must occur during childhood focusing on decreasing adversity, especially violence exposure as a witness as well as a direct victim.

  4. Crime: impacts of urban design and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Santana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The criminal research has confirmed that there are clear patterns of crime, with concentrations in specific places at specific times. That is to say, incidence of crime are not distributed randomly; rather, there are certain areas in cities that are relatively small, but where crimes occur much more frequently than elsewhere (the so-called “hotspots”, making them highly vulnerable and predictable. Urban design and environment may play a part in the decision of whether or not to commit a crime; for example, the lack of natural vigilance, poor lighting and other variables mean that a small area may easily be transformed into a potential crime hotspot. The relationship between specific aspects of urban design and the formation of “hotspots” is present in the theory of “Crime Prevention through Environmental Design” (CPTED. This paper examines the relationship between the “hotspots” and the characteristics of the environment, in accordance with CPTED Index, in one city from the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Amadora. The results highlight the need to reassess specific elements of urban design. This fact has drawn attention to the study of localities and urban design.

  5. Impact of Unemployment on Crime in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hsuan Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study discovers how unemployment rate explains the changes in the crime rate tendency in Europe by the two-stage-least square regression. The crime rate in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU area is found evidently more sensitive to unemployment than the non-EMU countries. The adoption of a common currency also strengthens the connections of the criminal problem among the EMU countries. We found the seriousness of the endogenous bias involved using the OLS methodology, so previous findings on the small effect of unemployment on crime rate obtained by employing the OLS methodology could be unreliable. Empirically, a one-percentage-point increase in unemployment increases the property crime by nearly 9% on average. The large unemployment effect implies that the increase in the unemployment rate that occurred after the financial crisis in 2008, followed by the European sovereign-debt crisis, may account for the trending increasing tendencies of the crime rate in Europe. The high unemployment effect revealed markedly different policy implications than those that have previously been considered in the literature. These findings suggest that the key determinants for governmental authorities in the EMU area successfully mitigating crime would greatly depend on how the governments resolve their economic recession.

  6. For Whom Does Hate Crime Hurt More? A Comparison of Consequences of Victimization Across Motives and Crime Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellgren, Caroline; Andersson, Mika; Ivert, Anna-Karin

    2017-12-01

    Hate crimes have been found to have more severe consequences than other parallel crimes that were not motivated by the offenders' hostility toward someone because of their real or perceived difference. Many countries today have hate crime laws that make it possible to increase the penalties for such crimes. The main critique against hate crime laws is that they punish thoughts. Instead, proponents of hate crime laws argue that sentence enhancement is justified because hate crimes cause greater harm. This study compares consequences of victimization across groups of victims to test for whom hate crimes hurt more. We analyzed data that were collected through questionnaires distributed to almost 3,000 students at Malmö University, Sweden, during 2013. The survey focused on students' exposure to, and experiences of, hate crime. A series of separate logistic regression analyses were performed, which analyzed the likelihood for reporting consequences following a crime depending on crime type, perceived motive, repeat victimization, gender, and age. Analyzed as one victim group, victims of hate crime more often reported any of the consequences following a crime compared with victims of parallel non-hate-motivated crimes. And, overall victims of threat more often reported consequences compared with victims of sexual harassment and minor assault. However, all hate crime victim groups did not report more consequences than the non-hate crime victim group. The results provide grounds for questioning that hate crimes hurt the individual victim more. It seems that hate crimes do not hurt all more but hate crimes hurt some victims of some crimes more in some ways.

  7. Police officer on the frontline or a soldier? The effect of police militarization on crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bove, Vincenzo; Gavrilova, Evelina

    2017-01-01

    Sparked by high-profile confrontations between police and citizens in Ferguson, Missouri, and elsewhere, many commentators have criticized the excessive militarization of law enforcement. We investigate whether surplus military-grade equipment acquired by local police departments from the Pentagon has an effect on crime rates. We use temporal variations in US military expenditure and between-counties variation in the odds of receiving a positive amount of military aid to identify the causal e...

  8. Crime victims‘ right to compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the most important documents of the United Nations, Council of Europe and the European Union relating to rights to damage compensation (restitution from offender and state compensation. The analysis shows that there is a gradual move from the concept of exercising the rights of victims in favor of a solidaristic model that takes less into account the rights of victims, and more the need to satisfy their legitimate interests. The economic crisis that is undermining the foundations of the welfare state could jeopardize the realization of this concept, especially in those European countries where the criminal justice system focuses solely on the offender, as is the case in Serbia. In such circumstances, regulation which protects the right to compensation, other rights and interests of victims, shall apply only to the extent that serves crime prevention. So it happens that in spite of a suitable normative framework and developments regarding the protection of victims of domestic violence and trafficking, the right to compensation and other rights of the victims do not actually get actualized in practice. In order to overcome this, a systemic reform to the criminal justice system should be undertaken with the aim to redirect the system towards the victim of the offense. Within these reforms a public fund for compensation of the victims of violence should be established and the process of mediation between the victim and the offender with the goal to make a settlement should be regulated, because these mechanisms do not exist in Serbia.

  9. A Crime Analysis Decision Support System for Crime Report Classification and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chih-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Today's Internet-based crime reporting systems make timely and anonymous crime reporting possible. However, these reports also result in a rapidly growing set of unstructured text files. Complicating the problem is that the information has not been filtered or guided in a detective-led interview resulting in much irrelevant information. To…

  10. Generic and crime type specific correlates of youth crime: a Finnish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Sourander, Andre; Niemelä, Solja; Helenius, Hans

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychosocial correlates of various crime types among adolescent males born in Finland in 1981. Data on crime registered in the Finnish National Police Register between 1998 and 2001 were received for 2,866 boys, of whom 81% (n = 2,330) filled in a questionnaire at obligatory military call-up at age 18 in 1999. Crime was divided into five types: drug, violent, property, traffic, and drunk driving offences. Of the 2,866 boys, 23% had been registered for offending; 4% for drug, 7% for violent, 11% for property, 11% for traffic, and 5% for drunk driving offences during the 4-year period in late adolescence. All the crime types correlated with each other and shared many of the psychosocial problems. Small community size, parents' divorce, aggressiveness, daily smoking, and weekly drunkenness were generic correlates of crime, being independently related to various crime types. The results support general rather than specific accounts of youth crime. In particular, measures moderating the adverse effects of divorce, alleviating parental adversities and supporting parenthood, and tackling substance abuse seem relevant in social and criminal policy because they address psychosocial problems characterizing youth crime in general.

  11. The Symbiosis of War Crime and Organized Crime in the Former Yugoslavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Axboe

    The growth of organized crime and its interconnection with European organized crime both presaged and informed the collapse of the Yugoslav state in the early 1990s.  A tight nexus emerged between state security services and militaries and organized criminal gangs who converged to enjoy parasitic...... significant challenges that these societies still confront on their road to European Union membership....

  12. Gender, general theory of crime and computer crime: an empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; McCluskey, John D; McCluskey, Cynthia P; Lee, Sangwon

    2013-04-01

    Regarding the gender gap in computer crime, studies consistently indicate that boys are more likely than girls to engage in various types of computer crime; however, few studies have examined the extent to which traditional criminology theories account for gender differences in computer crime and the applicability of these theories in explaining computer crime across gender. Using a panel of 2,751 Korean youths, the current study tests the applicability of the general theory of crime in explaining the gender gap in computer crime and assesses the theory's utility in explaining computer crime across gender. Analyses show that self-control theory performs well in predicting illegal use of others' resident registration number (RRN) online for both boys and girls, as predicted by the theory. However, low self-control, a dominant criminogenic factor in the theory, fails to mediate the relationship between gender and computer crime and is inadequate in explaining illegal downloading of software in both boy and girl models. Theoretical implication of the findings and the directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Distribution and Correlates of Self-Reported Crimes of Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G.; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to “conventional” property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11–18 years old in 1976–77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36–44) in 2002–2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002–2003 (total age range 11–88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes. PMID:22347761

  14. Fast geometric algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, M.T.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis addresses a number of important problems that fall within the framework of the new discipline of Computational Geometry. The list of topics covered includes sorting and selection, convex hull algorithms, the L 1 hull, determination of the minimum encasing rectangle of a set of points, the Euclidean and L 1 diameter of a set of points, the metric traveling salesman problem, and finding the superrange of star-shaped and monotype polygons. The main theme of all the work was to develop a set of very fast state-of-the-art algorithms that supersede any rivals in terms of speed and ease of implementation. In some cases existing algorithms were refined; for others new techniques were developed that add to the present database of fast adaptive geometric algorithms. What emerges is a collection of techniques that is successful at merging modern tools developed in analysis of algorithms with those of classical geometry

  15. Geometrization of quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ol'khov, O.A.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the Dirac equation for a free particle can be considered as a description of specific distortion of the space Euclidean geometry (space topological defect). This approach is based on the possibility of interpretation of the wave function as vector realizing representation of the fundamental group of the closed topological space-time 4-manifold. Mass and spin appear to be topological invariants. Such a concept explains all so-called 'strange' properties of quantum formalism: probabilities, wave-particle duality, nonlocal instantaneous correlation between noninteracting particles (EPR-paradox) and so on. Acceptance of the suggested geometrical concept means rejection of atomistic concept where all matter is considered as consisting of more and more small elementary particles. There are no any particles a priory, before measurement: the notions of particles appear as a result of classical interpretation of the contact of the region of the curved space with a device

  16. Geometrization of quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'Khov, O. A.

    2009-12-01

    It is shown that the Dirac equation for free particle can be considered as a description of specific distortion of the space euclidean geometry (space topological defect). This approach is based on possibility of interpretation of the wave function as vector realizing representation of the fundamental group of the closed topological space-time 4-manifold. Mass and spin appear to be topological invariants. Such concept explains all so called “strange” properties of quantum formalism: probabilities, wave-particle duality, nonlocal instantaneous correlation between noninteracting particles (EPR-paradox) and so on. Acceptance of suggested geometrical concept means rejection of atomistic concept where all matter is considered as consisting of more and more small elementary particles. There is no any particles a priori, before measurement: the notions of particles appear as a result of classical interpretation of the contact of the region of the curved space with a device.

  17. Geometrical Image Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Havelka, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá akcelerací geometrických transformací obrazu s využitím GPU a architektury NVIDIA (R) CUDA TM. Časově kritické části kódu jsou přesunuty na GPU a vykonány paralelně. Jedním z výsledků je demonstrační aplikace pro porovnání výkonnosti obou architektur: CPU, a GPU v kombinaci s CPU. Pro referenční implementaci jsou použity vysoce optimalizované algoritmy z knihovny OpenCV, od firmy Intel. This master's thesis deals with acceleration of geometrical image transfo...

  18. A GEOMETRICAL HEIGHT SCALE FOR SUNSPOT PENUMBRAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puschmann, K. G.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; MartInez Pillet, V.

    2010-01-01

    Inversions of spectropolarimetric observations of penumbral filaments deliver the stratification of different physical quantities in an optical depth scale. However, without establishing a geometrical height scale, their three-dimensional geometrical structure cannot be derived. This is crucial in understanding the correct spatial variation of physical properties in the penumbral atmosphere and to provide insights into the mechanism capable of explaining the observed penumbral brightness. The aim of this work is to determine a global geometrical height scale in the penumbra by minimizing the divergence of the magnetic field vector and the deviations from static equilibrium as imposed by a force balance equation that includes pressure gradients, gravity, and the Lorentz force. Optical depth models are derived from the inversion of spectropolarimetric data of an active region observed with the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. We use a genetic algorithm to determine the boundary condition for the inference of geometrical heights. The retrieved geometrical height scale permits the evaluation of the Wilson depression at each pixel and the correlation of physical quantities at each height. Our results fit into the uncombed penumbral scenario, i.e., a penumbra composed of flux tubes with channeled mass flow and with a weaker and more horizontal magnetic field as compared with the background field. The ascending material is hotter and denser than their surroundings. We do not find evidence of overturning convection or field-free regions in the inner penumbral area analyzed. The penumbral brightness can be explained by the energy transfer of the ascending mass carried by the Evershed flow, if the physical quantities below z = -75 km are extrapolated from the results of the inversion.

  19. CORPORATION CRIME LIABILITY OF PERSPECTIVE PENAL REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Salam Siku

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The setting of the responsibility criminal against corporations in Indonesia starting from the inception of the emergency law number 7 of 1955 on Economic Crime, then followed by some of the last act is Act No. 8 of 2010 on prevention and eradication of the crime of money laundering. In the framework of the renewal of national criminal law and the draft law on The Criminal law (Criminal Code systematically have set the criminal liability of corporations, whether incorporated corporation law and Corporation who is not a legal entity. Although there have been laws governing corporate crime responsibility about but are still have problems in its application. It can be seen from the lack of a corporate criminal sentenced by the Court.

  20. Promoting health equity to prevent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G

    2018-05-17

    Traditionally, research activities aimed at diminishing health inequalities and preventing crime have been conducted in isolation, with relatively little cross-fertilization. We argue that moving forward, transdisciplinary collaborations that employ a life-course perspective constitute a productive approach to minimizing both health disparities and early delinquent involvement. Specifically, we propose a multidimensional framework that integrates findings on health disparities and crime across the early life-course and emphasizes the role of racial and socioeconomic disparities in health. Developing the empirical nexus between health disparities research and criminological research through this multidimensional framework could fruitfully direct and organize research that contributes to reductions in health inequalities and the prevention of crime during the early life course. We also propose that this unified approach can ultimately enhance public safety policies and attenuate the collateral consequences of incarceration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fear of crime in urban parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maruthaveeran, Sreetheran; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attributes which evoke ‘fear of crime’ and to determine the defensive behaviour among the urban park users. Findings are based on qualitative studies undertaken in the city of Kuala Lumpur among the park and non-park users (N = 19) by means of semi......-structured in-depth interviews. The interview consists of respondents from various age, gender and race. The results revealed universal similarities to other cultures on fear of crime in urban green spaces. This study has highlighted eight themes on the attributes which evoke fear among the residents of Kuala...... behaviour towards crime in urban parks but this was only observed among the women. This paper has also highlighted the implications on park planning and management from the comments given by the respondents. Though the aspect of fear towards crime in urban green spaces is not a major focus in Malaysia...

  2. FINANCIAL CRIME IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINIŢA DRAGNE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The crime in the financial and banking system, through the disasters it produces, damages and large amount of victims, generates the largest economy damages, both national and international level. This phenomenon occurs and is manifested in a specific environment, the economy and finances one, takes different forms and operates with appropriate techniques. Most of the times, the banking system from Romania, has been used for personal grounds, which leads to serious damage of the Romanian economy. Insufficiently matured economic or imperfect judicial environments are only some of the factors that led to the commission of crimes in this area. Also, this type of crime has been determined, among other things, by the economic status, the social structure or the stage of development of the society.

  3. Public Danger of Ecological Crime: Criminological Aspect​

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Natalya I.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the characteristics of public danger of ecological crime. Specific features that distinguish it from other types of criminality are analyzed. Identified and justified are such features of environmental crime as an increased level of public danger, a wider range of victims, the continuing and deferred nature of the negative consequences, their transboundary nature, the irreversibility of the consequences, causing significant harm to the economic interests of the state, expressed in the withdrawal from the legal turnover of huge amounts of valuable natural resources. On the basis of the conducted research the author suggests wide use of the integrated criminological approach to studying the public danger of environmental crime taking into account its quantitative and qualitative characteristics.

  4. Crime Modeling using Spatial Regression Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ahmar, Ansari; Adiatma; Kasim Aidid, M.

    2018-01-01

    Act of criminality in Indonesia increased both variety and quantity every year. As murder, rape, assault, vandalism, theft, fraud, fencing, and other cases that make people feel unsafe. Risk of society exposed to crime is the number of reported cases in the police institution. The higher of the number of reporter to the police institution then the number of crime in the region is increasing. In this research, modeling criminality in South Sulawesi, Indonesia with the dependent variable used is the society exposed to the risk of crime. Modelling done by area approach is the using Spatial Autoregressive (SAR) and Spatial Error Model (SEM) methods. The independent variable used is the population density, the number of poor population, GDP per capita, unemployment and the human development index (HDI). Based on the analysis using spatial regression can be shown that there are no dependencies spatial both lag or errors in South Sulawesi.

  5. Multi-stream face recognition for crime-fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Sabah A.; Sellahewa, Harin

    2007-04-01

    Automatic face recognition (AFR) is a challenging task that is increasingly becoming the preferred biometric trait for identification and has the potential of becoming an essential tool in the fight against crime and terrorism. Closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras have increasingly been used over the last few years for surveillance in public places such as airports, train stations and shopping centers. They are used to detect and prevent crime, shoplifting, public disorder and terrorism. The work of law-enforcing and intelligence agencies is becoming more reliant on the use of databases of biometric data for large section of the population. Face is one of the most natural biometric traits that can be used for identification and surveillance. However, variations in lighting conditions, facial expressions, face size and pose are a great obstacle to AFR. This paper is concerned with using waveletbased face recognition schemes in the presence of variations of expressions and illumination. In particular, we will investigate the use of a combination of wavelet frequency channels for a multi-stream face recognition using various wavelet subbands as different face signal streams. The proposed schemes extend our recently developed face veri.cation scheme for implementation on mobile devices. We shall present experimental results on the performance of our proposed schemes for a number of face databases including a new AV database recorded on a PDA. By analyzing the various experimental data, we shall demonstrate that the multi-stream approach is robust against variations in illumination and facial expressions than the previous single-stream approach.

  6. 246 CONCEPT OF CRIME IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF PENAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    There are various definitions of crime from the perspectives of moralists, ... only precise and administrative applicable definition and that sociologist may strive to .... moralist position on crimes, the libertarians put forward another view that self-.

  7. The Association between Fear of Crime and Social Cohesion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in its own right, with a notable share of citizens ... windows theory', which maintains that minor signs ... Fear of crime, like crime itself, is thought to be a factor that constrains efforts by .... variables: province, gender, population group and age.

  8. Crime and poverty in urban Ghana | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... The ways in which crime and poverty interact have been much studied and ... Social and Economic Research, on the relationship between poverty and crime in ... Poverty, population growth, and youth violence in DRC's cities.

  9. Deploying ICT with Entrepreneurship Culture can Fight Cyber-Crime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deploying ICT with Entrepreneurship Culture can Fight Cyber-Crime Menace ... Again he innovates, introducing new products & technologies by the ... Keywords: Cyber-crimes, entrepreneurs, compupreneur, firewalls, computer forensics, ICT, ...

  10. Perfil do idoso acusado de cometer crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Vieira Brandão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available É verdade que o idoso, muitas vezes, é vítima de diversas formas de agressões, mas também é agente da prática de delitos. Por meio de pesquisa documental realizada em 2013 com todos os boletins de ocorrência registrados na delegacia de polícia de Imbé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, realizamos análise estatística e evidenciamos o perfil do idoso acusado de cometer crime e os tipos de crimes cometidos. No período pesquisado, 3,28% do total de idosos de Imbé foi acusado de cometer algum tipo de crime. Este artigo recomenda uma ação contínua e integrada da rede de saúde e de segurança pública com as demais áreas sociais para antecipar situações de risco para idosos (e comunidade em geral, de modo a promover a cidadania, gerenciar conflitos e reduzir a violência urbana. It is genuine that the elderly frequently are victims of several kinds of hostility, but the fact remains that he or she, too, is also an agent of the committal of criminal offenses. Through documentary research realized in 2013 with the total occurrences bulletins registered in police stations in Imbé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, we realize statistical analysis and show the profile of the elderly accused of committing crime and the types of crimes committed. In the period surveyed, 3.28% of the total number of elderly of Imbé was accused of committing some type of crime. Profile of the Elderly Accused of Committing Crime recommends a continuous and integrated action of the health and public safety network with the other social areas to anticipate risk situations for the elderly (and the community in general, in order to promote citizenship, manage conflicts and reduce urban violence. Keywords: violence, seniors, aging, public health, crime

  11. The Effect of Workfare on Crime:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Imai, Susumu

    In this paper, we estimate the effect of workfare policy on crime by exploiting two exogenous welfare policy changes in Denmark. Our results show a strong decline in the crime rate among treated unemployment uninsured men relative to untreated uninsured and unemployment insured men, and part...... of this decline can be identified as a direct effect of workfare participation. Moreover, we find that criminal activity was also reduced during weekends, when the workfare programs were closed, allowing us to distinguishing the pure program effect from the incapacitation effect. These results imply a strong...

  12. Active labor market policies and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti......-social behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...... market programs....

  13. ORGANIZED CRIME IN ALGERIA: TYPOLOGIES AND CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem BENAZOUZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay tries to analyse the phenomenon of national and transnational organized crime, which focuses the attention of several countries, governments, security and judicial apparatus throughout the world, on its threat to world stability and its destructive impact on the economic, social and security plans. The various aspects of this phenomenon are described through the follow-up of the various stages in which organized crime in Algeria developed. Its impact on the stability of neighbour countries is also worth mentioning, because is increasing in intensity and diversifying national and transnational criminal activities.

  14. Income inequality, poverty and crime across nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Paul-Philippe; Felson, Richard

    2014-09-01

    We examine the relationship between income inequality, poverty, and different types of crime. Our results are consistent with recent research in showing that inequality is unrelated to homicide rates when poverty is controlled. In our multi-level analyses of the International Crime Victimization Survey we find that inequality is unrelated to assault, robbery, burglary, and theft when poverty is controlled. We argue that there are also theoretical reasons to doubt that the level of income inequality of a country affects the likelihood of criminal behaviour. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  15. Crime, In/Security and Mob Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe

    2014-01-01

    from violent crime. The widespread sense of anxiety over various forms of violent crime and state failure to guarantee protection for citizens generates a quest for alternative practices of safety-making that, in turn, evoke serious concerns over state power and sovereignty in Africa. Focusing on mob...... justice in Cameroon, this article argues that the political contextualisation of sovereignty must pay attention not only to the sovereign’s right to kill and let live, but also its responsibility to guarantee safety for those citizens it chooses to let live. The paper demonstrates that in Cameroon mob...

  16. Book review: Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Díaz Rozas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Book review. Tore Bjørgo. Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 9781137560476 (Hb 93.59€, 9781349569786 (Pb 41.59€, 9781137560483 (eBook 76.99€.Reseña. Tore Bjørgo. Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach. Londres: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 9781137560476 (Td 93.59€, 9781349569786 (Tb 41.59€, 9781137560483 (e-Libro 76.99€.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3092188

  17. Crime clocks and target performance maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available the period of analysis. Each segment of a pie chart represents a selected part of the day (eg: a two- or three-hour period) or a day of the week. The first and last segments in the day or week are then adjacent, ensuring that there is no artificial break... clocks We have also used crime clocks to map the proportion of crimes that occur during normal police working hours (07:00 to 16:00, Monday to Friday, in the case of the Johannesburg Area), against those that occur outside these hours. 3. Target...

  18. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    in the way that the certain actions and events which have taken place have left a variety of marks and traces which may be read and interpreted. Traces of blood, nails, hair constitutes (DNA)codes which can be decrypted and deciphered, in the same way as traces of gun powder, bullet holes, physical damage...... and interpretation. During her investigation the detective's ability to make logical reasoning and deductive thinking as well as to make use of her imagination is crucial to how the crime scene is first deconstructed and then reconstructed as a setting for the story (that is the actions of crime). By decoding...

  19. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders. For this group, property crime is reduced, and our results indicate that the effect is unlikely to be the result of incapacitation only. We find...... no effect of military service on violent crime, on educational attainment, or on employment and earnings, either in the short run or in the long run. These results suggest that military service does not upgrade productive human capital directly, but rather affects criminal activity through other channels (e...

  20. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect...... is therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does...

  1. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect...... is therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does...

  2. Political crimes in the transition to modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    the most celebrated political revolutions within the European tradition, including the French and the Russian Revolutions, are critically tied to the emergence of new forms of political crime originating in crowd behavior. The framework elaborated throughout the article relies on contributions of classical......” and the “political”. In the second part, I will discuss how the social sciences emerged in the late 19th century as a reflection on the nature of crime in the transition to modernity. The importance of some almost forgotten “classical traditions” will be stressed. In the third part I will briefly indicate how...

  3. Harmonic and geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Citti, Giovanna; Pérez, Carlos; Sarti, Alessandro; Zhong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an expanded version of four series of lectures delivered by the authors at the CRM. Harmonic analysis, understood in a broad sense, has a very wide interplay with partial differential equations and in particular with the theory of quasiconformal mappings and its applications. Some areas in which real analysis has been extremely influential are PDE's and geometric analysis. Their foundations and subsequent developments made extensive use of the Calderón–Zygmund theory, especially the Lp inequalities for Calderón–Zygmund operators (Beurling transform and Riesz transform, among others) and the theory of Muckenhoupt weights.  The first chapter is an application of harmonic analysis and the Heisenberg group to understanding human vision, while the second and third chapters cover some of the main topics on linear and multilinear harmonic analysis. The last serves as a comprehensive introduction to a deep result from De Giorgi, Moser and Nash on the regularity of elliptic partial differen...

  4. Weighing up crime: the over estimation of drug-related crime

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Background: It is generally accepted that harms from crime cause a very large part of the total social harm that can be attributed to drug use. For example, crime harms accounted for 70% of the weighting of the British Drug Harm Index in 2004. This paper explores the linkage of criminal harm to drug use and challenges the current overestimation of the proportion of crime that can be causally attributed to drug use. It particularly examines the use of data from arrested drug users to estimate ...

  5. Regular Polygons and Geometric Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Joscelyn A.

    1982-01-01

    Examples of some geometric illustrations of limits are presented. It is believed the limit concept is among the most important topics in mathematics, yet many students do not have good intuitive feelings for the concept, since it is often taught very abstractly. Geometric examples are suggested as meaningful tools. (MP)

  6. Geometric Invariants and Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    University of Chicago Press. Maybank , S.J. [1992], "The Projection of Two Non-coplanar Conics", in Geometric Invariance in Machine Vision, eds. J.L...J.L. Mundy and A. Zisserman, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Mundy, J.L., Kapur, .. , Maybank , S.J., and Quan, L. [1992a] "Geometric Inter- pretation of

  7. THE CRIME OF UNJUSTIFIED ABSENCE IN THE ROMANIAN CRIMINAL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code of Romania regulates in Title XI of its Special Part the crimes against the combat capability of the military forces. Under this title, Chapter I is dedicated to the crimes committed by the military and defines the crime of unjustified absence. In this study, the author analysed the specific elements of this crime, including: the specific legal object - military discipline, the field of the active subject and the essential requirements imposed by its objective side.

  8. The Impact of Legalized Casino Gambling on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Mark W. Nichols; Mehmet Serkan Tosun

    2013-01-01

    We examine the impact of legalized casino gambling, including Indian casinos, on crime. Using county-level data between 1994 and 2009, the impact that casino legalization had on crime is examined. Our results show an increase in crime associated with casinos in some circumstances, but not others. Crime impact results are quite sensitive to data, sample periods and econometric specifications. In addition to known Part 1 offenses (assault, burglary, larceny, robbery, rape, and auto theft), we a...

  9. Bilateral Cooperation Between Indonesia and Malaysia in Combating Transnational Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Mustofa, Prof. Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    This paper us discuss that bilateral cooperation between Indonesia and Malaysia in combating transnational crime or trans-border crime. First of all, it should be based on understanding the root of the problem in trans-border crime problems. Furthermore, the effective bilateral cooperation can occur when notice the same aspects in the definition of the crime, the existence of law, the recognition of the evidence, extradition agreement, and the network information between the states.

  10. Temporal dimensions of vulnerability to crime in economic sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Klima, Noel

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research into vulnerability to crime in two economic sectors in Belgium. Vulnerability to crime is an integration of diverse temporal factors. We address pre-crime and post-crime aspects of vulnerability, arising before and after the criminal event in an economic context. Based on interviews with professionals, security staff, law enforcement agents and with criminals in the transport sector and the hotel and catering industry, a study of police files, and i...

  11. Transmuted Complementary Weibull Geometric Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Z. A…fify

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new generalization of the complementary Weibull geometric distribution that introduced by Tojeiro et al. (2014, using the quadratic rank transmutation map studied by Shaw and Buckley (2007. The new distribution is referred to as transmuted complementary Weibull geometric distribution (TCWGD. The TCWG distribution includes as special cases the complementary Weibull geometric distribution (CWGD, complementary exponential geometric distribution(CEGD,Weibull distribution (WD and exponential distribution (ED. Various structural properties of the new distribution including moments, quantiles, moment generating function and RØnyi entropy of the subject distribution are derived. We proposed the method of maximum likelihood for estimating the model parameters and obtain the observed information matrix. A real data set are used to compare the ‡exibility of the transmuted version versus the complementary Weibull geometric distribution.

  12. The relationship between mental disorders and different types of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, David J.; De Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rinne, Thomas; Hoek, Hans W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies of relationships between mental disorder and crime have tended to group the mental disorders, the crimes or both, leaving uncertainty about a more specific mental disorder: crime relationships. Objective To examine the relationship between types of mental disorder and

  13. The effect of police on crime, disorder and victim precaution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.; Koning, P.W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Using individual data from a large-scale Dutch crime victimization survey, we are able to expand the analysis of the effect of police on crime to crimes types that do not easily find their way into police statistics, and to public disorder and victim precaution. To address heterogeneity and

  14. Forty years of crime prevention in the Dutch Polder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J.J.M.; de Waard, J.; Crawford, A.

    2009-01-01

    For the past two decades the growth of public policies and strategies aimed at crime prevention and community safety has constituted one of the major innovations in crime control, with significant implications for the manner in which crime and safety are governed. But how has 'the preventive turn'

  15. Chemistry and Crime: From Sherlock Holmes to Today's Courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Samuel M., Ed.

    The application of the principles of chemistry both for committing crimes and for tracking down criminals interests audiences of all ages and walks of life. This interest is the reason for the long-standing popularity of fictional works that describe crimes made possible by the criminal's knowledge of chemistry and crimes solved by the sleuth's…

  16. Natural Born Killers? Preventing the Coming Explosion of Teenage Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the rise of juvenile crime in the United States, explores the failure of the juvenile justice system to stem the tide of youth crime, and examines the issue of prevention. The author argues the need to always hold youth offenders accountable for the crimes they commit and suggests several means by which restitution may be made. (GR)

  17. 76 FR 20827 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... victims of crime each year. For many citizens, a sense of security remains painfully elusive, and we must... survivors. We have shined a light on hidden crimes like cyberbullying, online child sexual exploitation, and... working to prevent and prosecute financial crimes. My Administration's Financial Fraud Enforcement Task...

  18. Students Perception of Cyber Crime in Edo State: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the perception of students toward committing cyber crime the study will determine the level of success and the gender mostly prone to commit this crime. The study employed the use of descriptive survey to find out students perception towards cyber crime in Edo State. A sample of 500 students ...

  19. TRANSNATIONAL ORGANISED CRIME IN INDIA: A NEW FRAMEWORK OF ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Nafiu Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Organized Crimes are no longer confined to geographical jurisdictions or national boundaries; instead, they have become transnational problems. Such crimes have existed in different forms, but the contemporary patterns are more complex that they have been in history. Transnational Organized Crimes (TOCs) affect almost every country, and are promoted by various factors including globalization, poverty and unequal wealth distribution, technological innovations, corruption, inadequate governance...

  20. Geometric interpretation of optimal iteration strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between inner and outer iteration errors is extremely complex, and even formal description of total error behavior is difficult. Inner and outer iteration error propagation is analyzed in a variational formalism for a reactor model describing multidimensional, one-group theory. In a generalization the work of Akimov and Sabek, the number of inner iterations performed during each outer serial that minimizes the total computation time is determined. The generalized analysis admits a geometric interpretation of total error behavior. The results can be applied to both transport and diffusion theory computer methods. 1 figure

  1. Poverty and crime: Uncovering the hidden face of sexual crimes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    Key words: gender; poverty; sexual crimes; urban low-income communities; Ghana. 1Charlotte .... juvenile offences, and child delinquency cases. ... In effect, vulnerability has now become an integral aspect of poverty analysis and is looked.

  2. TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME. AN (INTERNATIONAL SECURITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Stoica

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For the past two decades organized crime has become a transnational phenomenon, and its impact is still far from being fully known and understood by common people. Its forms of manifestation, whether explicit, or subtle, are permanently evolving and adapting. As a result, its interference with the activities from the legal area makes it difficult to identify and counteract. After a long period of time when it was more a peripheral phenomenon, current transnational organized crime tends to become a major danger to the political, social and economic stability of the states. Through its nature and goals, as well as through the complexity of its forms of manifestation, transnational organized crime represents a major challenge for the state and nonstate organizations that deal with national and international security This paper focuses on the phenomenon starting from some of the most influent theories in international relations, presents the current features of transnational organized criminal groups and analyzes the causes and the favoring factors of the phenomenon, as well as the impact of the phenomenon upon national and international security at political, economic-financial and military level. The approach is an interdisciplinary one and also covers the nexus between transnational organized crime and international terrorism.

  3. FIGHTING ECONOMIC CRIME IN THE EUROPEAN ARENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.

  4. Corporate Crime and Crisis: Causation Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, W.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines four possible relationships between the credit crunch and corporate crime. A first relation is that cases of accounting fraud have contributed to the causes of the crisis. Because of these accounting scandals, the trust in large corporations and the financial sector possibly

  5. Honor crimes: review and proposed definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elakkary, S.; Franke, B.; Shokri, D.; Hartwig, S.; Tsokos, M.; Puschel, K.

    2014-01-01

    There is every reason to believe that honor based violence is one of the forms of domestic violence that is being practiced against females all over the world. This type of violence includes a wide range of crimes, the severest of which is honor killing. Many studies have adopted different

  6. PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCE INTAKE AND GENDER ON CRIME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Knudten (1970) see crime as a conduct or an action that is defined ..... Among heavy consumers of alcohol (15.79%) were: (6.84%), 5.79% .... Rather than promoting drug use through advertisement, the media also should be used to enlighten ...

  7. Prediction of crime and early interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    This paper presents a prospective longitudinal study that attempts to predict juvenile delinquency measured by first contact with the police (arrest, pre-trial detention or charges of crimes) taking a complete cohort of all children born in Denmark in 1984 (N=54,458). The children are followed from...

  8. Crime-social risk in contemporary society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilić Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crime, as a form of violation of law (A. Giddens, is one of the social risks. One of the negative consequences of the development of a modern, global society is the globalization of criminality (M. Kostić & F. Mirić. Criminality can only be discussed with the development and elaboration of the legal system in the modern sense of the word (including criminal law, but in societies there have always been certain types of norms and beliefs that have influenced human behavior and against which (in correctness (M. Ivanović. Unlike a positive right that cannot fully follow the dynamics of change in society that influence the definition of a crime, sociology should constantly seek new elements that extend this notion (new, unpredictable, unlimited. The paper analyzes the causes of criminality, its distribution, types (violent, property, etc., relation to other notions (deviance, delinquency and crime and its consequences in contemporary society, in order to look at the risk of crime, to seek an adequate social response to This negative phenomenon, and provides an analysis of the penal policy and the role of a prison institution for the offender's conversion (M. Foucault.

  9. Indicators of School Crime Safety, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Phillip; Chen, Xianglei; Choy, Susan P.; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Fleury, Jill K.; Chandler, Kathryn A.; Rand, Michael R.; Klaus, Patsy; Planty, Michael

    Providing the latest data, this report on school safety presents a mixed picture: while overall crime has declined, violence, gangs, and drugs remain at some schools. Victimization at school declined from 1995-99, though rates for fighting and weapon threats remain steady. Students seem more secure, and gang activity decreased; however, in grades…

  10. Entrepreneurs' Responses to Organized Crime and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jacobo; Gómez, Sergio Manuel Madero; Muñiz, Carlos

    This research aims to investigate the various direct and indirect impacts of organized violence and crime on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as well as entrepreneurs’ responses to violent acts. A mixed-method design based on a quantitative content analysis of 204 news stories found in ...

  11. Internet Governance amp Cyber Crimes In UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Al Neyadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most people in UAE dont feel safe while they are use the Internet because most internet users have been a victim for cyber crime. Cyber crime threat rate has increased which has targeted on citizen privacy property and governments also the reputation problems. There are many criminal activities such as indecent acts Copyright issues Terrorist Acts State security and Contempt of religion. Cyber crimes due to several reasons such as they have lack of social intelligence they are being greedy and not being content also some of them have financial troubles these reasons usually exploited by criminals. Thus the decree will be a punishment or criminalizes formally on any person who using any kind of information technology and any others private life to blackmail or to threaten others online. In addition at the present time with the most detailed new cybercrime law that can be used to prove found guilty. As well the author discusses that the new cyber-crime law provides protection of personal information including banking information credit cards and electronic payment information.

  12. Target Selection Models with Preference Variation Between Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Townsley, Michael; Birks, Daniel; Ruiter, Stijn; Bernasco, Wim; White, Gentry

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study explores preference variation in location choice strategies of residential burglars. Applying a model of offender target selection that is grounded in assertions of the routine activity approach, rational choice perspective, crime pattern and social disorganization theories,

  13. The Effect of Police on Recorded Crime vs. The Effect of Police on Victimisation of Crime. Evidence for England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.; Hamed, J.

    2009-01-01

    Using two sources of crime data, police statistics on recorded crime and victimization data from the British Crime Survey, we provide evidence that measurement error in recorded crime statistics results in underestimation of the effect of police on violent crime. We do not find a similar estimation

  14. Review of "Overcoming the insider: reducing employee computer crime through situational crime prevention, Willison R., Siponen M."

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.

    2009-01-01

    Situational crime prevention (SCP) is a criminological theory, proposed by Ronald Clarke in the 1980s and developed over the last 30 years, that focuses on the crime event rather than the criminal. A number of highly effective crime prevention techniques in the physical world have been developed

  15. Hate crimes: American and Balkan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Jovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the nineties of the last century it was noticed in the U.S.A. that suddenly the number of crimes with violence in the inter-racial and inter-ethnical conflicts rose. Also the phenomenon of ignition of churches, religious and sacral objects, especially in the south of the U.S.A., objects which were used by black people, was recorded. Directly in relation to that - the term „hate crimes“ then arose in science and became outspread very quickly, primarily in criminology. Several events, and above all the murder of a young homosexual in Wyoming influenced for both the violence and the crimes commited towards the homosexuals and all due to the prejudices towards this sexual minority to be included in this term. Today, this term is used not only in the U.S.A. and not only in a criminological sense, but also in a purely legal sense to denote the crimes which were carried out under the influence of hate towards a correspondent racial, ethnical or sexual minority. This term is linked also to the terminology and thus the problems which are related to the „hate speech“. The author of this paper writes about how this term arose in the first place and which problems emerge related to hate crimes and primarily in relation to the issues of expansion of democracy and tolerance, and also education, primarily among the police force and the young population. The author also ascertains that only with the law, no great effects in the battle against this phenomenon can be achieved and that before the criminal-legal intervention some other measures have to be approached, like the creation of an atmosphere of tolerance and the education of the citizens about the phenomenon of hate crimes.

  16. Geometrical method of decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgarten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E[over →], B[over →], and P[over →], which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When

  17. School Starting Age and the Crime-Age Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise...... to a discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting age lowers the propensity to commit crime at young ages. We also find effects on the number of crimes...

  18. TRANSNATIONAL ORGANISED CRIME IN INDONESIA: THE NEED FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mitchell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the growing infuence of transnational organised crime on the nations of South East Asia. Human trafficking, maritime piracy, terrorism and wildlife trafficking are major transnational crimes that cause significant harm to both individuals and national economies. This article examines the continuing domestic and international legislative, law enforcement and policy efforts of South East Asian nations to address transnational organised crime. it is concluded that to effectively counter transnational organised crime there is a need to employ international cooperation that is focused on addressing the unique factors of each crime.

  19. Application of pattern recognition techniques to crime analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Cox, L.A. Jr.; Chappell, G.A.

    1976-08-15

    The initial goal was to evaluate the capabilities of current pattern recognition techniques when applied to existing computerized crime data. Performance was to be evaluated both in terms of the system's capability to predict crimes and to optimize police manpower allocation. A relation was sought to predict the crime's susceptibility to solution, based on knowledge of the crime type, location, time, etc. The preliminary results of this work are discussed. They indicate that automatic crime analysis involving pattern recognition techniques is feasible, and that efforts to determine optimum variables and techniques are warranted. 47 figures (RWR)

  20. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dain, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  1. Geometric Computing for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Wallner, J.

    2011-06-03

    Geometric computing has recently found a new field of applications, namely the various geometric problems which lie at the heart of rationalization and construction-aware design processes of freeform architecture. We report on our work in this area, dealing with meshes with planar faces and meshes which allow multilayer constructions (which is related to discrete surfaces and their curvatures), triangles meshes with circle-packing properties (which is related to conformal uniformization), and with the paneling problem. We emphasize the combination of numerical optimization and geometric knowledge.

  2. Optical traps with geometric aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roichman, Yael; Waldron, Alex; Gardel, Emily; Grier, David G.

    2006-01-01

    We assess the influence of geometric aberrations on the in-plane performance of optical traps by studying the dynamics of trapped colloidal spheres in deliberately distorted holographic optical tweezers. The lateral stiffness of the traps turns out to be insensitive to moderate amounts of coma, astigmatism, and spherical aberration. Moreover holographic aberration correction enables us to compensate inherent shortcomings in the optical train, thereby adaptively improving its performance. We also demonstrate the effects of geometric aberrations on the intensity profiles of optical vortices, whose readily measured deformations suggest a method for rapidly estimating and correcting geometric aberrations in holographic trapping systems

  3. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  4. URBAN REVITALIZATION AND SEATTLE CRIME, 1982-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A; Lyons, Christopher J; Hays, Zachary R

    2011-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20 th century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent and limited. Using two measures of gentrification and longitudinal tract-level demographic and crime data for the city of Seattle, we find that many of Seattle's downtown tracts underwent rapid revitalization during the 1990's, and that these areas 1) saw reductions in crime relative to similar tracts that did not gentrify, and 2) were areas with higher-than-average crime at the beginning of the decade. Moreover, using a within-tract longitudinal design, we find that yearly housing investments in the 1980's showed a modest positive association with crime change, while yearly investments in the 1990's showed the opposite pattern. Our findings suggest a curvilinear gentrification-crime relationship, whereby gentrification in its earlier stages is associated with small increases in crime, but gentrification in its more consolidated form is associated with modest crime declines. Implications of these results for criminological theory, urban development, and broader crime patterns are discussed.

  5. URBAN REVITALIZATION AND SEATTLE CRIME, 1982–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Lyons, Christopher J.; Hays, Zachary R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20th century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent and limited. Using two measures of gentrification and longitudinal tract-level demographic and crime data for the city of Seattle, we find that many of Seattle’s downtown tracts underwent rapid revitalization during the 1990’s, and that these areas 1) saw reductions in crime relative to similar tracts that did not gentrify, and 2) were areas with higher-than-average crime at the beginning of the decade. Moreover, using a within-tract longitudinal design, we find that yearly housing investments in the 1980’s showed a modest positive association with crime change, while yearly investments in the 1990’s showed the opposite pattern. Our findings suggest a curvilinear gentrification-crime relationship, whereby gentrification in its earlier stages is associated with small increases in crime, but gentrification in its more consolidated form is associated with modest crime declines. Implications of these results for criminological theory, urban development, and broader crime patterns are discussed. PMID:25505350

  6. Entering the Black Hole: The Taliban, Terrorism, and Organised Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Phillips

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 'Cooperation and imitation among crime and terror groups in recent years has given rise to a crime-terror nexus. A linear conceptualisation of a crime-terror spectrum, suggests that complete convergence of crime and terror in a failed state can give rise to a ‘black hole.’ Theoretical models of the crime-terror nexus, however, do not specify the means by which a crime-terror group enters this black hole state, yet others do not. Using the Taliban movement as a case study, this article presents a theoretical extension of black hole theory, using organisation-level characteristics to merge black hole theory with the crime-terror continuum.'

  7. Sexual violence in armed conflict: the least condemned of war crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mike

    2014-03-01

    Sexual violence in armed conflict has traditionally received poor attention until recent years. It has been the "least condemned of war crimes" although, with the inception of the International Criminal Court and various other international courts and tribunals, convictions of high-profile aggressors are increasing. Only recently Charles Taylor, the President of Liberia, was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity which included rape and sexual slavery. He was sentenced to 50 years imprisonment. Is prosecution of these crimes sufficient to minimise sexual violence in war? That seems unlikely given the potential for such violence to be a cheap and effective strategy to terrorise a civilian population and "ethnically cleanse" the newly won territory. However, there is a remarkable variation in the levels of sexual violence in armed conflicts. Some, such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, have extremely low levels, whereas in Bosnia and many African states the prevalence of sexual violence is at epidemic levels. The reasons for such differences are many, however, some precipitating factors may be improved by strong military discipline, improved gender balance in armed forces, better political awareness by combatants of the aims of a campaign and pre-deployment ethical training.

  8. Discrete geometric structures for architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    . The talk will provide an overview of recent progress in this field, with a particular focus on discrete geometric structures. Most of these result from practical requirements on segmenting a freeform shape into planar panels and on the physical realization

  9. Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First

  10. Geometrical optics in general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Loinger, A.

    2006-01-01

    General relativity includes geometrical optics. This basic fact has relevant consequences that concern the physical meaning of the discontinuity surfaces propagated in the gravitational field - as it was first emphasized by Levi-Civita.

  11. Mobile Watermarking against Geometrical Distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile watermarking robust to geometrical distortions is still a great challenge. In mobile watermarking, efficient computation is necessary because mobile devices have very limited resources due to power consumption. In this paper, we propose a low-complexity geometrically resilient watermarking approach based on the optimal tradeoff circular harmonic function (OTCHF correlation filter and the minimum average correlation energy Mellin radial harmonic (MACE-MRH correlation filter. By the rotation, translation and scale tolerance properties of the two kinds of filter, the proposed watermark detector can be robust to geometrical attacks. The embedded watermark is weighted by a perceptual mask which matches very well with the properties of the human visual system. Before correlation, a whitening process is utilized to improve watermark detection reliability. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed watermarking approach is computationally efficient and robust to geometrical distortions.

  12. Geometric inequalities methods of proving

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakyan, Hayk

    2017-01-01

    This unique collection of new and classical problems provides full coverage of geometric inequalities. Many of the 1,000 exercises are presented with detailed author-prepared-solutions, developing creativity and an arsenal of new approaches for solving mathematical problems. This book can serve teachers, high-school students, and mathematical competitors. It may also be used as supplemental reading, providing readers with new and classical methods for proving geometric inequalities. .

  13. How to become a victim of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Богдан Миколайович Головкін

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Victimization from crime – a higher degree of social vulnerability criminal, contributing to the commission of crimes against them in certain circumstances. Victimization takes place in space and time, and includes four stages: 1 the emergence of criminal threats; 2 increasing the degree of social vulnerability to criminal assault; 3 the harm to individuals who find themselves in a vulnerable state at appropriate conditions (situations; 4 increase the number of victims of crimes as registered and latent, which helps re-victimization of some of them. As a result of our Internet survey of more than 3002 people (2015 defined the proportion of citizens who every year are victims of crime. By 2015 it is 37 %. However, one in seven respondents already had experience of victimization before. In our view, there is a threshold of permissible viktymizovanosti population not exceeding 40 % and is independent of the level of crime in a calendar year or an. Typically, victims of crime every year are new faces. Re-victimization experiences 15 % of citizens. The risk of becoming a victim of crime depends on the accuracy and timeliness of recognition of sources and types of criminal threats. Showed a rather stereotypical ideas of the criminal threat and showed a disorientation in identifying their sources. The last mentioned some time. Traditionally people cautious attitude to strangers, suspicious issued and may bear criminal intent (62 %; alarming stay at poorly attended locations in the dark (67 % and likelihood of falling into unpredictable situations (44 %. Only 15% of respondents sees the source of victimization in their own dangerous behavior. While the public understanding of the sources of victimization are largely abstract and false character. So, to our knowledge, most people are afraid of violent crime (64 %, but actually experiencing mercenary crimes (60 %. In the context of what has been said quite expected the place called criminal

  14. Geometrical resonance effects in thin superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedellec, P.

    1977-01-01

    Electron tunneling density of states measurements on thick and clear superconducting films (S 1 ) backed by films in the normal or superconducting state (S 2 ) show geometrical resonance effects associated with the spatial variation of Δ(x), the pair potential, near the interface S 1 -S 2 . The present understanding of this so-called 'Tomasch effect' is described. The dispersion relation and the nature of excitations in the superconducting state are introduced. It is shown that the introduction of Green functions give a general description of the superconducting state. The notion of Andreev scattering at the S 1 -S 2 interface is presented and connect the geometrical resonance effects to interference process between excitations. The different physical parameters involved are defined and used in the discussion of some experimental results: the variation of the period in energy with the superconducting thickness is connected to the renormalized group velocity of excitations traveling perpendicular to the film. The role of the barrier potential at the interface on the Tomasch effect is described. The main results discussed are: the decrease of the amplitude of the Tomasch structures with energy is due to the loss of the mixed electron-hole character of the superconducting excitations far away from the Fermi level; the variation of the pair potential at the interface is directly related to the amplitude of the oscillations; the tunneling selectivity is an important parameter as the amplitude as well as the phase of the oscillations are modified depending on the value of the selectivity; the phase of the Tomasch oscillations is different for an abrupt change of Δ at the interface and for a smooth variation. An ambiguity arises due to the interplay between these parameters. Finally, some experiments, which illustrate clearly the predicted effects are described [fr

  15. Corporate crime: Criminological and cultural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of economic transition in Serbia has highlighted the problem of socially responsible behavior of corporations and especially the growing phenomenon of corporate crime. The consequences of corporate wrongdoing are almost everywhere and cannot be overseen. The most tremendous ones are those related to human casualties, environmental disasters, long-term negative health effects and great material budget losses on local and state levels. The fact that corporations are profiting from criminal activity which causes enormous damage to society and individuals makes public policy makers face the ultimate choice - either to devise new effective measures for reducing and controlling this phenomenon or to retain the standard model of crime control, in accordance with the principles of classical criminal law. The first choice would require one of the pillars of criminal law - the principle of individual and subjective guilt of physical persons as the exclusive grounds for imposing criminal liability - to be either modified and widened in order to be used as a base for imposing corporate criminal liability or partially changed by new criminal law categories which would introduce different grounds for imposing criminal liability on an organization. The second choice would require the decision-makers to refuse to change old and well-established principles. The criminal reality, however, has made most legislatures in Europe and around the world choose the first option and introduce different forms of corporate criminal liability. Serbian criminal legislation has been headed in the same direction since 2008, when it was changed in order to enable the imposing of liability for criminal acts on corporations. However, although corporate criminal liability is becoming the European legislative standard, one question remains - Is this the only measure of criminal politics which can be used as a means of reducing and preventing corporate crime? The authors

  16. Schizophrenia, substance abuse, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Hjern, Anders; Grann, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2009-05-20

    Persons with schizophrenia are thought to be at increased risk of committing violent crime 4 to 6 times the level of general population individuals without this disorder. However, risk estimates vary substantially across studies, and considerable uncertainty exists as to what mediates this elevated risk. Despite this uncertainty, current guidelines recommend that violence risk assessment should be conducted for all patients with schizophrenia. To determine the risk of violent crime among patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia and the role of substance abuse in mediating this risk. Longitudinal designs were used to link data from nationwide Swedish registers of hospital admissions and criminal convictions in 1973-2006. Risk of violent crime in patients after diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 8003) was compared with that among general population controls (n = 80 025). Potential confounders (age, sex, income, and marital and immigrant status) and mediators (substance abuse comorbidity) were measured at baseline. To study familial confounding, we also investigated risk of violence among unaffected siblings (n = 8123) of patients with schizophrenia. Information on treatment was not available. Violent crime (any criminal conviction for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, illegal threats, or intimidation). In patients with schizophrenia, 1054 (13.2%) had at least 1 violent offense compared with 4276 (5.3%) of general population controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.2). The risk was mostly confined to patients with substance abuse comorbidity (of whom 27.6% committed an offense), yielding an increased risk of violent crime among such patients (adjusted OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9-5.0), whereas the risk increase was small in schizophrenia patients without substance abuse comorbidity (8.5% of whom had at least 1 violent offense; adjusted OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4; Pgenetic or early environmental) confounding of the

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Crime Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Collins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Information is limited on how firearms move from legal possession to illegal possession and use in criminal activities, largely because of data collection capacity and a lack of recent, exhaustive recovery data across jurisdictions. This article includes both an analysis of firearms trace data and prisoner interviews across multiple jurisdictions: New Orleans, Louisiana, Prince George’s County, Maryland, and Chicago, Illinois. Findings indicate that recoveries and trace successes vary across jurisdictions and by type of crime. Jurisdiction regulations were associated with the proportion of guns purchased in state and time to recovery but not with purchaser characteristics. Interviews from imprisoned offenders in two jurisdictions revealed the most common method of obtaining a crime gun was to steal it or buy it off the street.

  18. The temporal relationship between schizophrenia and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the temporal relationship between illness onset and the possible beginning of a criminal career among people with schizophrenia, even though criminality, especially violent criminality, has been shown to be more common among people with schizophrenia than among...... people in general. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the temporal relationship between registered crime and contact to the psychiatric hospital system. METHOD: This is a register-based study merging data on the psychiatric career with criminal records. RESULTS: Among the males with schizophrenia......, 37% started a criminal career and 13% had committed first violent crime before first contact with the psychiatric hospital system. CONCLUSION: The criminality committed before first contact to the psychiatric hospital system is substantial, especially among males with schizophrenia....

  19. Emotional reactions to crime across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Hwang, Hyisung C

    2015-10-01

    Information about the emotions experienced by observers when they witness crimes would have important theoretical and practical implications, but to date no study has broadly assessed such emotional reactions. This study addressed this gap in the literature. Observers in seven countries viewed seven videos portraying actual crimes and rated their emotional reactions to each using 14 emotion scales. Observers reported significantly high levels of negative emotions including anger, contempt, disgust, fear and sadness-related emotions, and anger, contempt and disgust were the most salient emotions experienced by viewers across all countries. Witnesses also reported significantly high levels of positive emotions as well (compared to not feeling the emotion at all), which was unexpected. Country moderated the emotion ratings; post-hoc analyses indicated that masculine-oriented cultures reported less nervousness, surprise, excitement, fear and embarrassment than feminine cultures. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. Crime and criminal justice in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ghiringhelli de Azevedo

    Full Text Available After a presentation of indicators that allow assessing the degree of democratization of the criminal justice system in the context of democratization process in Latin America, this article points out the discrepancy existing in that domain, in the several instances that make up the justice system, from criminal legislation to the prison system. Examining the specific situation of Brazil and Argentina, problems in the functioning of institutions responsible by crime as well as the increase in crime control are pointed out as factors that cause a growing loss of legitimacy for the system, which is unable to justify its high degree of selectivity and authoritarianism. Some efforts under way to approach that phenomenon are listed. Finally, a few alternatives for institutional improvement are presented, among which the action of social scientists by producing research and analyses, as a crucial instrument to enlarge institutional ability to deal with current social conflict on democratic bases.

  1. The cost of crime to society: new crime-specific estimates for policy and program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollister, Kathryn E; French, Michael T; Fang, Hai

    2010-04-01

    Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than 10 years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost to society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Issues surrounding the money laundering crime

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Money laundering took advantage of the increasing openness and expanding markets to improve their techniques, taking advantage of the vulnerability of the weaker countries. In an evolutionary perspective, we understand how this phenomenon has progressed and how countries and referenced organizations have an important role to play in its prevention. This crime was defined and framed in an evolutionary perspective, whether legislative, or jurisprudential doctrine in order to better understand t...

  3. Some Problems of Pedophilia Crimes Delimitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova I. A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the changes contributed by the lawmaker to the RF Criminal Code. Here are distinguished contradictory and collision norms, the problems of their qualification. Some scientific points of view are quoted. The authors offer the ways of solving problematic issues connected with strengthening of the responsibility for crimes of sexual character committed in relation to non-adults

  4. Entrepreneurs’ Responses to Organized Crime and Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Jacobo; Gómez, Sergio Manuel Madero; Muñiz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the various direct and indirect impacts of organized violence and crime on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as well as entrepreneurs’ responses to violent acts. A mixed-method design based on a quantitative content analysis of 204 news stories found in the international press and a multi-case study covering 10 SMEs operating in Monterrey, Mexico, is used to explore entrepreneurs’ responses to the direct and indirect effects of viol...

  5. Crime and the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo; Zanella, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    We provide first-pass evidence that the legalization of the cannabis market across US states may be inducing a crime drop. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the adjacent states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we find, combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that the legalization of recreational marijuana caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 20...

  6. Factors influencing crime rates: an econometric analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothos, John M. A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    The scope of the present study is to research the dynamics that determine the commission of crimes in the US society. Our study is part of a model we are developing to understand urban crime dynamics and to enhance citizens' "perception of security" in large urban environments. The main targets of our research are to highlight dependence of crime rates on certain social and economic factors and basic elements of state anticrime policies. In conducting our research, we use as guides previous relevant studies on crime dependence, that have been performed with similar quantitative analyses in mind, regarding the dependence of crime on certain social and economic factors using statistics and econometric modelling. Our first approach consists of conceptual state space dynamic cross-sectional econometric models that incorporate a feedback loop that describes crime as a feedback process. In order to define dynamically the model variables, we use statistical analysis on crime records and on records about social and economic conditions and policing characteristics (like police force and policing results - crime arrests), to determine their influence as independent variables on crime, as the dependent variable of our model. The econometric models we apply in this first approach are an exponential log linear model and a logit model. In a second approach, we try to study the evolvement of violent crime through time in the US, independently as an autonomous social phenomenon, using autoregressive and moving average time-series econometric models. Our findings show that there are certain social and economic characteristics that affect the formation of crime rates in the US, either positively or negatively. Furthermore, the results of our time-series econometric modelling show that violent crime, viewed solely and independently as a social phenomenon, correlates with previous years crime rates and depends on the social and economic environment's conditions during previous years.

  7. Status and tendencies in combating computer crime at European level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Without certain adjustments to specifics of computer crime, as to a phenomenon of global proportions, detection, investigation and prosecution of this type of crime is almost impossible. Therefore, the need for setting up a legal framework for combating cyber crime has been identified, in order to define which activities related to information systems are considered computer crime; to determine the specific procedural rules, which would enable the access to data, computer and networks during investigating and prosecuting computer crime and to provide continuous training of members of the institutions responsible for countering this form of crime. This legal framework should consist of substantive and procedural rules adapted to this type of crime due its aim is the improvement of international cooperation in the framework of global and regional approach to combating cyber crime. In this this paper the current situation of strategic and legal framework of countering cyber crime is presented (at the level of the Council of Europe and of the European Union as well as trends in the development of systematic approach towards countering the mentioned abuses within these regional organizations. At the European level, the legal framework to combat cyber crime is set in the Council of Europe Convention on cyber crime and the Council of EU Framework Decision on attacks against information systems. In a series of documents organs of EU confirmed the strategic support of COE Convention and the encouragement of Member States to ratify the Convention. In addition, the Convention represent the base of the said Framework Decision. These two legal instruments have the same goal - removing the differences between national legislation, the introduction of new powers in the discovery and evidence of computer crime and improvement of the international cooperation in combating cyber crime. Although their legal nature and scope vary, its objectives will be achieved

  8. Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Jorge; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2015-01-01

    Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number--in an inertialess environment--is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the "belly phase," peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing.

  9. Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Arrieta

    Full Text Available Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number--in an inertialess environment--is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the "belly phase," peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing.

  10. Crime victims in the criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.

  11. A new approach to estimate the geometrical factors, solid angle approximation, geometrical efficiency and their use in basic interaction cross section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, D V; Brunetti, A; Gigante, G E; Takeda, T; Itai, Y; Akatsuka, T

    2002-01-01

    A new approach is developed to estimate the geometrical factors, solid angle approximation and geometrical efficiency for a system with experimental arrangements using X-ray tube and secondary target as an excitation source in order to produce the nearly monoenergetic K alpha radiation to excite the sample. The variation of the solid angle is studied by changing the radius and length of the collimators towards and away from the source and sample. From these values the variation of the total solid angle and geometrical efficiency is deduced and the optimum value is used for the experimental work. (authors)

  12. A new approach to estimate the geometrical factors, solid angle approximation, geometrical efficiency and their use in basic interaction cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, D.V.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A. [Sassari University, Istituto di Matematica e Fisica (Italy); Gigante, G.E. [Roma Universita, Dipt. di Fisica (Italy); Takeda, T.; Itai, Y. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Akatsuka, T. [Yamagata Univ., Yonezawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2002-10-01

    A new approach is developed to estimate the geometrical factors, solid angle approximation and geometrical efficiency for a system with experimental arrangements using X-ray tube and secondary target as an excitation source in order to produce the nearly monoenergetic K{alpha} radiation to excite the sample. The variation of the solid angle is studied by changing the radius and length of the collimators towards and away from the source and sample. From these values the variation of the total solid angle and geometrical efficiency is deduced and the optimum value is used for the experimental work. (authors)

  13. A new approach to estimate the geometrical factors, solid angle approximation, geometrical efficiency and their use in basic interaction cross section measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. V.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G. E.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.

    2002-10-01

    A new approach is developed to estimate the geometrical factors, solid angle approximation and geometrical efficiency for a system with experimental arrangements using X-ray tube and secondary target as an excitation source in order to produce the nearly monoenergetic Kα radiation to excite the sample. The variation of the solid angle is studied by changing the radius and length of the collimators towards and away from the source and sample. From these values the variation of the total solid angle and geometrical efficiency is deduced and the optimum value is used for the experimental work.

  14. Spectral feature characterization methods for blood stain detection in crime scene backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Mathew, Jobin J.; Dube, Roger R.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Blood stains are one of the most important types of evidence for forensic investigation. They contain valuable DNA information, and the pattern of the stains can suggest specifics about the nature of the violence that transpired at the scene. Blood spectral signatures containing unique reflectance or absorption features are important both for forensic on-site investigation and laboratory testing. They can be used for target detection and identification applied to crime scene hyperspectral imagery, and also be utilized to analyze the spectral variation of blood on various backgrounds. Non-blood stains often mislead the detection and can generate false alarms at a real crime scene, especially for dark and red backgrounds. This paper measured the reflectance of liquid blood and 9 kinds of non-blood samples in the range of 350 nm - 2500 nm in various crime scene backgrounds, such as pure samples contained in petri dish with various thicknesses, mixed samples with different colors and materials of fabrics, and mixed samples with wood, all of which are examined to provide sub-visual evidence for detecting and recognizing blood from non-blood samples in a realistic crime scene. The spectral difference between blood and non-blood samples are examined and spectral features such as "peaks" and "depths" of reflectance are selected. Two blood stain detection methods are proposed in this paper. The first method uses index to denote the ratio of "depth" minus "peak" over"depth" add"peak" within a wavelength range of the reflectance spectrum. The second method uses relative band depth of the selected wavelength ranges of the reflectance spectrum. Results show that the index method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples in most tested crime scene backgrounds, but is not able to detect it from black felt. Whereas the relative band depth method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples on all of the tested background material types and colors.

  15. A new geometrical gravitational theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, T.; Chiba, J.; Oshima, H.

    1981-01-01

    A geometrical gravitational theory is developed. The field equations are uniquely determined apart from one unknown dimensionless parameter ω 2 . It is based on an extension of the Weyl geometry, and by the extension the gravitational coupling constant and the gravitational mass are made to be dynamical and geometrical. The fundamental geometrical objects in the theory are a metric gsub(μν) and two gauge scalars phi and psi. The theory satisfies the weak equivalence principle, but breaks the strong one generally. u(phi, psi) = phi is found out on the assumption that the strong one keeps holding good at least for bosons of low spins. Thus there is the simple correspondence between the geometrical objects and the gravitational objects. Since the theory satisfies the weak one, the inertial mass is also dynamical and geometrical in the same way as is the gravitational mass. Moreover, the cosmological term in the theory is a coscalar of power -4 algebraically made of psi and u(phi, psi), so it is dynamical, too. Finally spherically symmetric exact solutions are given. The permissible range of the unknown parameter ω 2 is experimentally determined by applying the solutions to the solar system. (author)

  16. Multiscale geometric modeling of macromolecules II: Lagrangian representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Xia, Kelin; Chen, Zhan; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Geometric modeling of biomolecules plays an essential role in the conceptualization of biolmolecular structure, function, dynamics and transport. Qualitatively, geometric modeling offers a basis for molecular visualization, which is crucial for the understanding of molecular structure and interactions. Quantitatively, geometric modeling bridges the gap between molecular information, such as that from X-ray, NMR and cryo-EM, and theoretical/mathematical models, such as molecular dynamics, the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the Nernst-Planck equation. In this work, we present a family of variational multiscale geometric models for macromolecular systems. Our models are able to combine multiresolution geometric modeling with multiscale electrostatic modeling in a unified variational framework. We discuss a suite of techniques for molecular surface generation, molecular surface meshing, molecular volumetric meshing, and the estimation of Hadwiger’s functionals. Emphasis is given to the multiresolution representations of biomolecules and the associated multiscale electrostatic analyses as well as multiresolution curvature characterizations. The resulting fine resolution representations of a biomolecular system enable the detailed analysis of solvent-solute interaction, and ion channel dynamics, while our coarse resolution representations highlight the compatibility of protein-ligand bindings and possibility of protein-protein interactions. PMID:23813599

  17. Risk of Being Subjected to Crime, Including Violent Crime, After Onset of Mental Illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Kimberlie; Laursen, Thomas M; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2018-01-01

    Importance: People with mental illness are more likely to have contact with the criminal justice system, but research to date has focused on risk of offense perpetration, while less is known about risk of being subjected to crime and violence. Objectives: To establish the incidence of being...... subjected to all types of criminal offenses, and by violent crimes separately, after onset of mental illness across the full diagnostic spectrum compared with those in the population without mental illness. Design, Setting, and Participants: This investigation was a longitudinal national cohort study using...... of mental illness, recorded as first contact with outpatient or inpatient mental health services. Diagnoses across the full spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses were considered separately for men and women. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated for first subjection to crime...

  18. Geometric group theory an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Löh, Clara

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by classical geometry, geometric group theory has in turn provided a variety of applications to geometry, topology, group theory, number theory and graph theory. This carefully written textbook provides a rigorous introduction to this rapidly evolving field whose methods have proven to be powerful tools in neighbouring fields such as geometric topology. Geometric group theory is the study of finitely generated groups via the geometry of their associated Cayley graphs. It turns out that the essence of the geometry of such groups is captured in the key notion of quasi-isometry, a large-scale version of isometry whose invariants include growth types, curvature conditions, boundary constructions, and amenability. This book covers the foundations of quasi-geometry of groups at an advanced undergraduate level. The subject is illustrated by many elementary examples, outlooks on applications, as well as an extensive collection of exercises.

  19. Geometric procedures for civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Tonias, Elias C

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a multitude of geometric constructions usually encountered in civil engineering and surveying practice.  A detailed geometric solution is provided to each construction as well as a step-by-step set of programming instructions for incorporation into a computing system. The volume is comprised of 12 chapters and appendices that may be grouped in three major parts: the first is intended for those who love geometry for its own sake and its evolution through the ages, in general, and, more specifically, with the introduction of the computer. The second section addresses geometric features used in the book and provides support procedures used by the constructions presented. The remaining chapters and the appendices contain the various constructions. The volume is ideal for engineering practitioners in civil and construction engineering and allied areas.

  20. Problematising internal security: Crime, community and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Bruun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the problematisation of crime, crime prevention and security in contemporary security policy programmes using three Finnish internal security programmes and theory-based content analysis. The study is based on the theory (the perspective of an analytics of government. The findings highlight the central meaning of social exclusion and community as security practices wherein social exclusion is seen as a threat to security and a risk for crime. Indeed, community-based crime prevention plays a central role in the programmes along with the worry about serious crimes and the high level of homicides. A fluid governing policy without crime and accidents is the implicit goal of these programmes.

  1. HATE CRIMES DI INDONESIA DALAM PERSPEKTIF PERBANDINGAN HUKUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widati Wulandari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the deficiency of the Indonesian criminal law with regard to the criminalization of hate crimes. Taking into consideration the fact that Indonesia faces a high incidence of social conflict due to rising intolerance and discrimination targeting minority groups.  The combination of (racial-ethnic-religious discrimination and hatred against minority groups in most cases results in various forms of common crimes which generally is known as hate crimes. Using a comparative law method, by and between Indonesian criminal law and the criminal law of other countries experiencing hate crimes, the author highlights options for eradicating hate crimes. One important finding is the tendency of a number of countries to perceive hatred or prejudice which motivate the perpetrator of hate crimes as aggravating factor and not to as as separate substantive offence.

  2. The Impact of Racial Slurs and Racism on the Perceptions and Punishment of Violent Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Donald A.; Hockett, Jericho M.; Wallenberg, Andrew S.

    2008-01-01

    When a crime is committed by an individual of one race against an individual of another race, there is the possibility that the crime is a hate crime. Legislation often mandates harsher penalties for perpetrators convicted of crimes determined to be hate crimes, yet this determination is difficult to make. This study used vignettes of violent…

  3. Variational principles for locally variational forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brajercik, J.; Krupka, D.

    2005-01-01

    We present the theory of higher order local variational principles in fibered manifolds, in which the fundamental global concept is a locally variational dynamical form. Any two Lepage forms, defining a local variational principle for this form, differ on intersection of their domains, by a variationally trivial form. In this sense, but in a different geometric setting, the local variational principles satisfy analogous properties as the variational functionals of the Chern-Simons type. The resulting theory of extremals and symmetries extends the first order theories of the Lagrange-Souriau form, presented by Grigore and Popp, and closed equivalents of the first order Euler-Lagrange forms of Hakova and Krupkova. Conceptually, our approach differs from Prieto, who uses the Poincare-Cartan forms, which do not have higher order global analogues

  4. An introduction to geometrical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Aldrovandi, R

    1995-01-01

    This book stresses the unifying power of the geometrical framework in bringing together concepts from the different areas of physics. Common underpinnings of optics, elasticity, gravitation, relativistic fields, particle mechanics and other subjects are underlined. It attempts to extricate the notion of space currently in the physical literature from the metric connotation.The book's goal is to present mathematical ideas associated with geometrical physics in a rather introductory language. Included are many examples from elementary physics and also, for those wishing to reach a higher level o

  5. Geometric scaling as traveling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, S.; Peschanski, R.

    2003-01-01

    We show the relevance of the nonlinear Fisher and Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov (KPP) equation to the problem of high energy evolution of the QCD amplitudes. We explain how the traveling wave solutions of this equation are related to geometric scaling, a phenomenon observed in deep-inelastic scattering experiments. Geometric scaling is for the first time shown to result from an exact solution of nonlinear QCD evolution equations. Using general results on the KPP equation, we compute the velocity of the wave front, which gives the full high energy dependence of the saturation scale

  6. Asymptotic geometric analysis, part I

    CERN Document Server

    Artstein-Avidan, Shiri

    2015-01-01

    The authors present the theory of asymptotic geometric analysis, a field which lies on the border between geometry and functional analysis. In this field, isometric problems that are typical for geometry in low dimensions are substituted by an "isomorphic" point of view, and an asymptotic approach (as dimension tends to infinity) is introduced. Geometry and analysis meet here in a non-trivial way. Basic examples of geometric inequalities in isomorphic form which are encountered in the book are the "isomorphic isoperimetric inequalities" which led to the discovery of the "concentration phenomen

  7. Geometric integration for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, Etienne

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a very personal view of the field of geometric integration in accelerator physics-a field where often work of the highest quality is buried in lost technical notes or even not published; one has only to think of Simon van der Meer Nobel prize work on stochastic cooling-unpublished in any refereed journal. So I reconstructed the relevant history of geometrical integration in accelerator physics as much as I could by talking to collaborators and using my own understanding of the field. The reader should not be too surprised if this account is somewhere between history, science and perhaps even fiction

  8. Geometrical spin symmetry and spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, I. B.

    2011-01-01

    Unification of General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics leads to General Quantum Mechanics which includes into itself spindynamics as a theory of spin phenomena. The key concepts of spindynamics are geometrical spin symmetry and the spin field (space of defining representation of spin symmetry). The essence of spin is the bipolar structure of geometrical spin symmetry induced by the gravitational potential. The bipolar structure provides a natural derivation of the equations of spindynamics. Spindynamics involves all phenomena connected with spin and provides new understanding of the strong interaction.

  9. Geometric integration for particle accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Étienne

    2006-05-01

    This paper is a very personal view of the field of geometric integration in accelerator physics—a field where often work of the highest quality is buried in lost technical notes or even not published; one has only to think of Simon van der Meer Nobel prize work on stochastic cooling—unpublished in any refereed journal. So I reconstructed the relevant history of geometrical integration in accelerator physics as much as I could by talking to collaborators and using my own understanding of the field. The reader should not be too surprised if this account is somewhere between history, science and perhaps even fiction.

  10. Lattice degeneracies of geometric fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raszillier, H.

    1983-05-01

    We give the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom carried by geometric fermions on all lattices of maximal symmetries in d = 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. These numbers are lattice dependent, but in the (free) continuum limit, part of the degrees of freedom have to escape to infinity by a Wilson mechanism built in, and 2sup(d) survive for any lattice. On self-reciprocal lattices we compare the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom of geometric fermions with the minimal numbers of naive fermions on these lattices and argue that these numbers are equal. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of Increasing Malwares and Cyber Crimes Using Economic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Asgher, Umer; Dar, Fahad Moazzam; Hamza, Ali; Paracha, Abdul Moeed

    2014-01-01

    The economics of an internet crime has newly developed into a field of controlling black money. This economic approach not only provides estimated technique of analyzing internet crimes but also gives details to analyzers of system dependability and divergence. This paper will highlight on the subject of online crime, which has formed its industry since. It all started from amateur hackers who cracked websites and wrote malicious software in pursuit of fun or achieving limited objectives to p...

  12. Crime, Inequality and Unemployment in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Dongxu Wu; Zhongmin Wu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A model of crime is developed based on principles from the existing literature with some original insight. The implications of the model are that income inequality and unemployment are important explanatory variables for crimes motivated by economic gain, but do not offer much explanatory power for other types of crime. A panel data of UK regions over the years from 2002 to 2007 is then used to test these predictions. The empirical results strongly support the hypothesis t...

  13. Crime, perceived safety, and physical activity: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees-Punia, Erika; Hathaway, Elizabeth D; Gay, Jennifer L

    2018-06-01

    Perceived safety from crime and objectively-measured crime rates may be associated with physical inactivity. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to estimate the odds of accumulating high levels of physical activity (PA) when the perception of safety from crime is high and when objectively-measured crime is high. Peer-reviewed studies were identified through PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest Criminal Justice, and ScienceDirect from earliest record through 2016. Included studies measured total PA, leisure-time PA, or walking in addition to perceived safety from crime or objective measures of crime. Mean odds ratios were aggregated with random effects models, and meta-regression was used to examine effects of potential moderators: country, age, and crime/PA measure. Sixteen cross-sectional studies yielded sixteen effects for perceived safety from crime and four effects for objective crime. Those reporting feeling safe from crime had a 27% greater odds of achieving higher levels of physical activity (OR=1.27 [1.08, 1.49]), and those living in areas with higher objectively-measured crime had a 28% reduced odds of achieving higher levels of physical activity (OR=0.72 [0.61, 0.83]). Effects of perceived safety were highly heterogeneous (I 2 =94.09%), but explored moderators were not statistically significant, likely because of the small sample size. Despite the limited number of effects suitable for aggregation, the mean association between perceived safety and PA was significant. As it seems likely that perceived lack of safety from crime constrains PA behaviors, future research exploring moderators of this association may help guide public health recommendations and interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Safer communities: investigating the international response to knife crime

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols-Drew, L.

    2018-01-01

    The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences Annual Conference 2018 Violent crime is a frequent occurrence in the UK, predominantly due to knives, with both urban and rural areas significantly impacted. Personal casework experience of the author has involved the forensic laboratory examination of bladed weapons from including murder, sexual offences, armed robberies, aggravated burglaries, wildlife crime, cold case reviews and terrorism offences. The September 2017 Crime Survey of England...

  15. A theory of organized crime, corruption and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, MP; Blackbourn, K; Neanidis, KC

    2017-01-01

    We develop a framework for studying the interactions between organized crime and corruption, together with the individual and combined effects of these phenomena on economic growth. Criminal organizations co-exist with law-abiding productive agents and potentially corrupt law enforcers. The crime syndicate obstructs the economic activities of agents through extortion, and may pay bribes to law enforcers in return for their compliance in this. We show how organized crime has a negative effect ...

  16. 'Organized Crime, Corruption and Growth: Theory and Evidence'

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Blackburn; Kyriakos C. Neanidis; Maria Paola Rana

    2015-01-01

    We develop a framework for studying the interactions between organized crime and corruption, together with the individual and combined effects of these phenomena on economic growth. Criminal organizations co-exist with law-abiding productive agents and potentially corrupt law enforcers. The crime syndicate obstructs the economic activities of agents through extortion, and may pay bribes to law enforcers in return for their compliance in this. We show how organized crime has a negative e¤ect o...

  17. A Theory of Organized Crime, Corruption and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Keith; Neanidis, Kyriakos; Rana, Maria Paola

    2017-01-01

    We develop a framework for studying the interactions between organized crime and corruption, together with the individual and combined e¤ects of these phenomena on economic growth. Criminal organizations co-exist with law-abiding productive agents and potentially corrupt law enforcers. The crime syndicate obstructs the economic activities of agents through extortion, and may pay bribes to law enforcers in return for their compliance in this. We show how organized crime has a negative e¤ect on...

  18. Evaluation procedures for drug crimes, the Iranian legal system

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Hariri; Saeid Darougari

    2014-01-01

    Today, drug trafficking, transnational organized crime of, comes into account. Distributors and consumers of drugs, distribution and consumption gradually, the traditional process lubricants Battalion (mechanical and chemical), and this would have altered, requires the development of formal and substantial rights.  The law of success in fighting crime, completely dependent on the integrity, transparency and efficiency of criminal procedure, and the amount of punishment that fits the crime app...

  19. Subject description form of crime prevention (morphological analysis)

    OpenAIRE

    Валерій Федорович Оболенцев

    2016-01-01

    Activities of the National Crime Prevention is a system object. Therefore, it should be improving on the basis of systems analysis techniques. The practice of systematic approach was realized in the works of  N. F. Kuznetsova, A. I. Dolgova, D. O. Li, V. M. Dryomin, O. Y. Manokha, O. G. Frolova. Crime models developed C. Y. Vitsin, Y. D. Bluvshteyn, N. V. Smetanina. We previously disclosed basic principles of system analysis system to prevent crime and its genetic and prognostic aspec...

  20. Toward Understanding the Biology of Crime in Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, D

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Serious crime is a scourge within Trinidad and Tobago's borders and seems to be escalating yearly with no resolution in sight. It is commonplace for governments to view/implement policies targeting crime based on sociological and psychological paradigms. What is most often overlooked, however, is that crime has unique biological underpinnings, which, if characterized, could lead toward clinical interventions that could mitigate its incidence within the population. PMID:25803384

  1. Crime, poverty and police corruption: a review of issues

    OpenAIRE

    Andvig, Jens Chr.; Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge

    2008-01-01

    Crime and the fear of being hit by crime and small-scale violence are key economic and social problems in most developing countries, not least felt strongly by the poor. Extensive corruption in the police, experienced or perceived, contributes seriously to the problem. A key question raised in the paper is: How is police corruption linked to the wider processes of development - including crime, violence and poverty? The paper examines (i) how and why corruption may arise in the daily routines...

  2. Paths to destruction: the lives and crimes of two serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Barbara C; Lavezzi, Wendy A

    2007-01-01

    Although research into the phenomenon of serial murder has revealed that serial killers frequently do not fit the initially described paradigm in terms of their physical and psychological profiles, backgrounds, and motives to kill, the media continues to sensationalize the figures of such killers and the investigators who attempt to analyze them on the basis of aspects of their crimes. Although the so-called "typical" profile of the serial murderer has proven accurate in some instances, in many other cases the demographics and behaviors of these killers have deviated widely from the generalized assumptions. This report details two unusual cases in which five and eight murders were committed in upstate New York. The lives and crimes of these offenders illustrate the wide spectrum of variations in the backgrounds, demographics, motivations, and actions witnessed among serial murderers, and highlight the limitations and dangers of profiling based on generalities.

  3. Crime Forecasting System (An exploratory web-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen Ahmed Meenai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous rise in crimes in some big cities of the world like Karachi and the increasing complexity of these crimes, the difficulties the law enforcing agencies are facing in tracking down and taking out culprits have increased manifold. To help cut back the crime rate, a Crime Forecasting System (CFS can be used which uses historical information maintained by the local Police to help them predict crime patterns with the support of a huge and self-updating database. This system operates to prevent crime, helps in apprehending criminals, and to reduce disorder. This system is also vital in helping the law enforcers in forming a proactive approach by helping them in identifying early warning signs, take timely and necessary actions, and eventually help stop crime before it actually happens. It will also be beneficial in maintaining an up to date database of criminal suspects includes information on arrest records, communication with police department, associations with other known suspects, and membership in gangs/activist groups. After exploratory analysis of the online data acquired from the victims of these crimes, a broad picture of the scenario can be analyzed. The degree of vulnerability of an area at some particular moment can be highlighted by different colors aided by Google Maps. Some statistical diagrams have also been incorporated. The future of CFS can be seen as an information engine for the analysis, study and prediction of crimes.

  4. Antiterrorism in the context of the war against organised crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Šegvić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenological picture of crime is constantly changing. In modern times an increase in criminal behaviour as a whole and in the number of new forms of crimes, in particular grave criminal offences, has been noted. New and especially dangerous forms of crime are considered to be: organised crime, terrorism, business crime, corruption, illegal trafficking of drugs, weapons and people, and grave forms of violence. Recently, the particular attention of all democratic world powers and their special services has been seized by the ever increasing and more intensive collusion of organised crime and terrorism. This is a symbiosis which, apart from the need to create new and specialised services, could even result in some changes to criminal legal theory and practice. In this paper, within the analysis of the collusion between terrorism and organised crime, only one aspect is problematised. This aspect deals with financing terrorism and the measures which the international community and national legislation undertake in the fight against terrorism. The intention of the measures is to prevent not only the collusion of terrorist groups and organised crime in the commission of criminal offences but also the disposal of funds acquired by such means as financial transactions and ‘money laundering’. These measures do not only have a direct effect on the survival and activity of future terrorist groups. They also have a direct influence on the comprehensive fight against organised crime which poses fundamental threats to contemporary civilisation.

  5. Crimes In New York And Seoul A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia G. Patino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Across the world highly populated urban areas are widely regarded as generators of various crimes. From petty crimes to organized crime activities cities and other urban areas provide some form of haven for criminal activities and their proponents. In this paper we look at two highly-urbanized areas New York City and Seoul South Korea. We look to compare the crime trends and activities in these two areas and see if there are points of comparison by which these two are similar or if they are separated by some factors..

  6. The nature of crime : Is cheating necessary for cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalek, R; Cohen, L E

    1991-09-01

    The classical social theorist Emile Durkheim proposed the counterintuitive thesis that crime is beneficial for society because it provokes punishment, which enhances social solidarity. His logic, however, is blemished by a reified view of society that leads to group-selectionist thinking and a teleological account of the causes of crime. Reconceptualization of the relationship between crime and punishment in terms of evolutionary game theory, however, suggests that crime (cheating) may confer benefits on cooperating individuals by promoting stability in their patterns of cooperation.

  7. Does the Magnitude of the Link between Unemployment and Crime Depend on the Crime Level? A Quantile Regression Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Entorf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two alternative hypotheses – referred to as opportunity- and stigma-based behavior – suggest that the magnitude of the link between unemployment and crime also depends on preexisting local crime levels. In order to analyze conjectured nonlinearities between both variables, we use quantile regressions applied to German district panel data. While both conventional OLS and quantile regressions confirm the positive link between unemployment and crime for property crimes, results for assault differ with respect to the method of estimation. Whereas conventional mean regressions do not show any significant effect (which would confirm the usual result found for violent crimes in the literature, quantile regression reveals that size and importance of the relationship are conditional on the crime rate. The partial effect is significantly positive for moderately low and median quantiles of local assault rates.

  8. Implicit face prototype learning from geometric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Charles C-F; Wilson, Hugh R

    2013-04-19

    There is evidence that humans implicitly learn an average or prototype of previously studied faces, as the unseen face prototype is falsely recognized as having been learned (Solso & McCarthy, 1981). Here we investigated the extent and nature of face prototype formation where observers' memory was tested after they studied synthetic faces defined purely in geometric terms in a multidimensional face space. We found a strong prototype effect: The basic results showed that the unseen prototype averaged from the studied faces was falsely identified as learned at a rate of 86.3%, whereas individual studied faces were identified correctly 66.3% of the time and the distractors were incorrectly identified as having been learned only 32.4% of the time. This prototype learning lasted at least 1 week. Face prototype learning occurred even when the studied faces were further from the unseen prototype than the median variation in the population. Prototype memory formation was evident in addition to memory formation of studied face exemplars as demonstrated in our models. Additional studies showed that the prototype effect can be generalized across viewpoints, and head shape and internal features separately contribute to prototype formation. Thus, implicit face prototype extraction in a multidimensional space is a very general aspect of geometric face learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2009-01-01

    compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...

  10. In Defence of Geometrical Algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasjo, V.N.E.

    The geometrical algebra hypothesis was once the received interpretation of Greek mathematics. In recent decades, however, it has become anathema to many. I give a critical review of all arguments against it and offer a consistent rebuttal case against the modern consensus. Consequently, I find that

  11. Geometrical interpretation of extended supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, P.K.; Nieuwenhuizen, P.van

    1977-01-01

    SO 2 extended supergravity is shown to be a geometrical theory, whose underlying gauge group is OSp(4,2). The couplings which gauge the SO 2 symmetry as well as the accompanying cosmological and masslike terms are directly obtained, and the usual SO 2 model is obtained after a Wigner-Inoenue group contraction. (Auth.)

  12. Geometric scaling in exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, S.; Wallon, S.

    2003-01-01

    We show that according to the present understanding of the energy evolution of the observables measured in deep-inelastic scattering, the photon-proton scattering amplitude has to exhibit geometric scaling at each impact parameter. We suggest a way to test this experimentally at HERA. A qualitative analysis based on published data is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  13. Geometric quantization and general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.-M.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of geometric quantization is to give a rigorous mathematical content to the 'correspondence principle' between classical and quantum mechanics. The main tools are borrowed on one hand from differential geometry and topology (differential manifolds, differential forms, fiber bundles, homology and cohomology, homotopy), on the other hand from analysis (functions of positive type, infinite dimensional group representations, pseudo-differential operators). Some satisfactory results have been obtained in the study of dynamical systems, but some fundamental questions are still waiting for an answer. The 'geometric quantization of fields', where some further well known difficulties arise, is still in a preliminary stage. In particular, the geometric quantization on the gravitational field is still a mere project. The situation is even more uncertain due to the fact that there is no experimental evidence of any quantum gravitational effect which could give us a hint towards what we are supposed to look for. The first level of both Quantum Theory, and General Relativity describes passive matter: influence by the field without being a source of it (first quantization and equivalence principle respectively). In both cases this is only an approximation (matter is always a source). But this approximation turns out to be the least uncertain part of the description, because on one hand the first quantization avoids the problems of renormalization and on the other hand the equivalence principle does not imply any choice of field equations (it is known that one can modify Einstein equations at short distances without changing their geometrical properties). (Auth.)

  14. Geometric origin of central charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.; Rytel, L.

    1981-05-01

    The complete set of N(N-1) central charge generators for D=4 N-extended super Poincare algebra is obtained by suitable contraction of OSp (2N; 4) superalgebra. The superspace realizations of the spinorial generators with central charges are derived. The conjugate set of N(N-1) additional bosonic superspace coordinates is introduced in an unique and geometric way. (author)

  15. Vergence, Vision, and Geometric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Michael P.

    1975-01-01

    Provides a definition of vergence in terms of the curvature of the wave fronts, and gives examples to illustrate the advantages of this approach. The vergence treatment of geometrical optics provides both conceptual and algebraic advantages, particularly for the life science student, over the traditional object distance-image distance-focal length…

  16. Geometric phases and quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedral, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In my lectures I will talk about the notion of the geometric phase and explain its relevance for both fundamental quantum mechanics as well as quantum computation. The phase will be at first introduced via the idea of Pancharatnam which involves interference of three or more light beams. This notion will then be generalized to the evolving quantum systems. I will discuss both pure and mixed states as well as unitary and non-unitary evolutions. I will also show how the concept of the vacuum induced geometric phase arises in quantum optics. A simple measurement scheme involving a Mach Zehnder interferometer will be presented and will be used to illustrate all the concepts in the lecture. Finally, I will expose a simple generalization of the geometric phase to evolving degenerate states. This will be seen to lead to the possibility of universal quantum computation using geometric effects only. Moreover, this contains a promise of intrinsically fault tolerant quantum information processing, whose prospects will be outlined at the end of the lecture. (author)

  17. Cartan's geometrical structure of supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baaklini, N.S.

    1977-06-01

    The geometrical partnership of the vierbein and the spin-3/2 field in the structure of the supergravity Lagrangian is emphasized. Both fields are introduced as component of the same matrix differential form. The only local symmetry of the theory is SL(2,C)

  18. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Crime Definitions in Accordance With the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting Program. The definitions for murder; robbery; aggravated... person through gross negligence. Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter The willful...

  19. Analyzing Crime and Crime Control: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Ruth I.; And Others

    This document, the fourth in a series of resource guides emphasizing economic-political analysis of contemporary public policies and issues, focuses on crime control. Designed as a three-week unit for secondary school students, the guide is presented in three sections. The introduction presents an economic and a political science framework for…

  20. Prevenção ao crime e teoria social Crime prevention and social theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Trajano Sento-Sé

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo estabelece um diálogo entre a criminologia positivista e algumas correntes contemporâneas da prevenção ao crime inspiradas em teorias sociológicas. Através desse exercício, busca-se evidenciar que algumas das formulações focadas no campo da prevenção já aparecem, em estado embrionário, na agenda teórica positivista. Do mesmo modo, torna-se possível explicitar que alguns postulados empíricos e práticos do positivismo são menos estranhos às teorias contemporâneas de prevenção ao crime do que se costuma reconhecer.The article establishes a dialogue between positivist criminology and some contemporary currents on crime prevention inspired in sociological theories. Through this exercise, we seek to highlight that some of the formulations focused in the preventions field appear, in embryonic state, in the positivist theoretical agenda. Likewise, it is possible to explicit that some empirical and practical tenets of positivism are less foreign to contemporary theories of crime prevention than is usually recognized.

  1. Crime story: the role of crime and immigration in the anti-immigration vote

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinas, E.; van Spanje, J.

    2011-01-01

    Some scholars have found that mass immigration fuels the success of anti-immigration parties, whereas others have found that it does not. In this paper, we propose a reason for these contradictory results. We advance a set of hypotheses that revolves around a commonly ignored factor, crime. To test

  2. Poverty and crime: Uncovering the hidden face of sexual crimes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the debate about the link between poverty and the incidence of urban crime in developing countries is complex, nowhere is the link more persuasive than in the urban low-income communities of these countries. Based on official police data, key informant interviews (KIIs), and focus group discussions (FGDs) from ...

  3. Geometric Transformations in Engineering Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Borovikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, for business purposes, in view of current trends and world experience in training engineers, research and faculty staff there has been a need to transform traditional courses of descriptive geometry into the course of engineering geometry in which the geometrical transformations have to become its main section. On the basis of critical analysis the paper gives suggestions to improve a presentation technique of this section both in the classroom and in academic literature, extend an application scope of geometrical transformations to solve the position and metric tasks and simulation of surfaces, as well as to design complex engineering configurations, which meet a number of pre-specified conditions.The article offers to make a number of considerable amendments to the terms and definitions used in the existing courses of descriptive geometry. It draws some conclusions and makes the appropriate proposals on feasibility of coordination in teaching the movement transformation in the courses of analytical and descriptive geometry. This will provide interdisciplinary team teaching and allow students to be convinced that a combination of analytical and graphic ways to solve geometric tasks is useful and reasonable.The traditional sections of learning courses need to be added with a theory of projective and bi-rational transformations. In terms of application simplicity and convenience it is enough to consider the central transformations when solving the applied tasks. These transformations contain a beam of sub-invariant (low-invariant straight lines on which the invariant curve induces non-involution and involution projectivities. The expediency of nonlinear transformations application is shown in the article by a specific example of geometric modeling of the interfacing surface "spar-blade".Implementation of these suggestions will contribute to a real transformation of a traditional course of descriptive geometry to the engineering geometry

  4. Robust topology optimization accounting for geometric imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schevenels, M.; Jansen, M.; Lombaert, Geert

    2013-01-01

    performance. As a consequence, the actual structure may be far from optimal. In this paper, a robust approach to topology optimization is presented, taking into account two types of geometric imperfections: variations of (1) the crosssections and (2) the locations of structural elements. The first type...... is modeled by means of a scalar non-Gaussian random field, which is represented as a translation process. The underlying Gaussian field is simulated by means of the EOLE method. The second type of imperfections is modeled as a Gaussian vector-valued random field, which is simulated directly by means...... of the EOLE method. In each iteration of the optimization process, the relevant statistics of the structural response are evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed methodology is successfully applied to a test problem involving the design of a compliant mechanism (for the first type...

  5. Estate Society: Crime and Power Owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Manente Melhem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through literature review and qualitative analysis the work deals with the category "stand society" in Faoro, relating to the Ideology of Social Defense, treated in the marxist context presented by Baratta as the dominant discourse on crime in capitalism and has among its postulates the claim that the conduct is considered criminal because of social interest, and the law is the expression of the general will. It seeks to demonstrate that the law does not actually represent the interests of society but of the influential groups in the legislative process, here called: “stands”.

  6. Chemistry and crime detection: application to NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Swain, K.K.; Kayasth, S.; Mukherjee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is extensively used for the analysis of gun shot residues (GSR). But the analysis becomes increasingly difficult when the exhibits collected from the scene of crime are contaminated with various contaminants. During this work, systematic experiments were carried out to study the interferences from various common contaminants like soil, rust, grease, blood, etc., along with difficulties in the determination of GSR elements in presence of these contaminants. An attempt has been made to demonstrate in this paper how contaminations can mislead the investigation. In such cases careful analysis followed by proper evaluation of the analytical data of control and also exhibits can provide meaningful results

  7. Crimes contra o mercado de capitais

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Alonso

    2009-01-01

    A necessidade de tutela eficiente do Mercado de Capitais é, atualmente, indiscutível. O advento de novas tecnologias e o tráfego internacional de capital cada vez maior; tornam o Mercado de Capitais, contemporaneamente, sujeito a amplos riscos e danos. Nesse contexto, o legislador tem respondido com a incriminação de condutas ofensivas ao mercado, contudo a formulação de tipos penais nem sempre se mostra adequada. Dessa forma, questiona-se qual o bem juridicamente tutelado pelos crimes contra...

  8. Criminal psychological profiling of serial arson crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W

    2002-12-01

    The practice of criminal psychological profiling is frequently cited as being applicable to serial arson crimes. Despite this claim, there does not appear to be any empirical research that examines serial arson offence behaviors in the context of profiling. This study seeks to develop an empirical model of serial arsonist behaviors that can be systematically associated with probable offender characteristics. Analysis has produced a model of offence behaviors that identify four discrete behavior patterns, all of which share a constellation of common nondiscriminatory behaviors. The inherent behavioral themes of each of these patterns are explored with discussion of their broader implications for our understanding of serial arson and directions for future research.

  9. Alcohol-related crime in city entertainment precincts: Public perception and experience of alcohol-related crime and support for strategies to reduce such crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Jenny; Groombridge, Daniel; Wiggers, John; Gillham, Karen; Palmer, Darren; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Miller, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Bars, pubs and taverns in cities are often concentrated in entertainment precincts that are associated with higher rates of alcohol-related crime. This study assessed public perception and experiences of such crime in two city entertainment precincts, and support for alcohol-related crime reduction strategies. A cross-sectional household telephone survey in two Australian regions assessed: perception and experiences of crime; support for crime reduction strategies; and differences in such perceptions and support. Six hundred ninety-four people completed the survey (32%). Most agreed that alcohol was a problem in their entertainment precinct (90%) with violence the most common alcohol-related problem reported (97%). Almost all crime reduction strategies were supported by more than 50% of participants, including visitors to the entertainment precincts, with the latter being slightly less likely to support earlier closing and restrictions on premises density. Participants in one region were more likely to support earlier closing and lock-out times. Those at-risk of acute alcohol harm were less likely to support more restrictive policies. High levels of community concern and support for alcohol harm-reduction strategies, including restrictive strategies, provide policy makers with a basis for implementing evidence-based strategies to reduce such harms in city entertainment precincts. [Tindall J, Groombridge D, Wiggers J, Gillham K, Palmer D, Clinton-McHarg T, Lecathelinais C, Miller P. Alcohol-related crime in city entertainment precincts: Public perception and experience of alcohol-related crime and support for strategies to reduce such crime. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:263-272]. © 2015 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Stress measurement in thin films by geometrical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Gilstrap, P.; Rujkorakarn, R.

    1982-01-01

    A variation of Newton's rings experiment is proposed for measuring film stress. The procedure described, the geometrical optics method, is used to measure radii of curvature for a series of film depositions with Ta, Al, and Mo films. The method has a sensitivity of 1 x 10 to the 9th dyn/sq cm, corresponding to the practical radius limit of about 50 m, and a repeatability usually within five percent. For the purposes of comparison, radii are also measured by Newton's rings method and the Talysurf method; all results are found to be in general agreement. Measurement times are also compared: the geometrical optics method requires only 1/2-1 minute. It is concluded that the geometrical optics method provides an inexpensive, fast, and a reasonably correct technique with which to measure stresses in film.

  11. Participatory mapping for crime prevention in South Africa - local solutions to local problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Liebermann, S

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available . suburban parts or the central business districts in urban areas is property- related.(3) Links between land use and crime types became apparent when crime statistics were broken down by location at the local scale. Adirect link between undeveloped... step involves setting the scene and discussing crime, place and crime prevention. Many of the resident community participants have never heard of crime prevention, therefore this introductory step outlines the three factors necessary for a crime...

  12. Multiscale geometric modeling of macromolecules I: Cartesian representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kelin; Feng, Xin; Chen, Zhan; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the geometric modeling and computational algorithm development of biomolecular structures from two data sources: Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) in the Eulerian (or Cartesian) representation. Molecular surface (MS) contains non-smooth geometric singularities, such as cusps, tips and self-intersecting facets, which often lead to computational instabilities in molecular simulations, and violate the physical principle of surface free energy minimization. Variational multiscale surface definitions are proposed based on geometric flows and solvation analysis of biomolecular systems. Our approach leads to geometric and potential driven Laplace-Beltrami flows for biomolecular surface evolution and formation. The resulting surfaces are free of geometric singularities and minimize the total free energy of the biomolecular system. High order partial differential equation (PDE)-based nonlinear filters are employed for EMDB data processing. We show the efficacy of this approach in feature-preserving noise reduction. After the construction of protein multiresolution surfaces, we explore the analysis and characterization of surface morphology by using a variety of curvature definitions. Apart from the classical Gaussian curvature and mean curvature, maximum curvature, minimum curvature, shape index, and curvedness are also applied to macromolecular surface analysis for the first time. Our curvature analysis is uniquely coupled to the analysis of electrostatic surface potential, which is a by-product of our variational multiscale solvation models. As an expository investigation, we particularly emphasize the numerical algorithms and computational protocols for practical applications of the above multiscale geometric models. Such information may otherwise be scattered over the vast literature on this topic. Based on the curvature and electrostatic analysis from our multiresolution surfaces, we introduce a new concept, the

  13. Multiscale geometric modeling of macromolecules I: Cartesian representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Kelin [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, MI 48824 (United States); Feng, Xin [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, MI 48824 (United States); Chen, Zhan [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, MI 48824 (United States); Tong, Yiying [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, MI 48824 (United States); Wei, Guo-Wei, E-mail: wei@math.msu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    This paper focuses on the geometric modeling and computational algorithm development of biomolecular structures from two data sources: Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) in the Eulerian (or Cartesian) representation. Molecular surface (MS) contains non-smooth geometric singularities, such as cusps, tips and self-intersecting facets, which often lead to computational instabilities in molecular simulations, and violate the physical principle of surface free energy minimization. Variational multiscale surface definitions are proposed based on geometric flows and solvation analysis of biomolecular systems. Our approach leads to geometric and potential driven Laplace–Beltrami flows for biomolecular surface evolution and formation. The resulting surfaces are free of geometric singularities and minimize the total free energy of the biomolecular system. High order partial differential equation (PDE)-based nonlinear filters are employed for EMDB data processing. We show the efficacy of this approach in feature-preserving noise reduction. After the construction of protein multiresolution surfaces, we explore the analysis and characterization of surface morphology by using a variety of curvature definitions. Apart from the classical Gaussian curvature and mean curvature, maximum curvature, minimum curvature, shape index, and curvedness are also applied to macromolecular surface analysis for the first time. Our curvature analysis is uniquely coupled to the analysis of electrostatic surface potential, which is a by-product of our variational multiscale solvation models. As an expository investigation, we particularly emphasize the numerical algorithms and computational protocols for practical applications of the above multiscale geometric models. Such information may otherwise be scattered over the vast literature on this topic. Based on the curvature and electrostatic analysis from our multiresolution surfaces, we introduce a new concept, the

  14. On Geometric Variational Models for Inpainting Surface Holes (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    email: haro@ima.umn.edu Phone: (612) 626-1501 Fax: (612) 626-7370 Affiliations: 1 Dept. de Tecnologia , University of Pompeu-Fabra, Passeig de...regions where the 3D model is incomplete. The main cause of holes are occlusions, but these can also be due to low reflectance, constraints in the...major areas where range scanners are used. With the increasing popularity of range scanners as 3D shape acquisition devices, with applications in

  15. On Geometric Variational Models for Inpainting Surface Holes (PREPRINT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caselles, Vicent; Haro, Gloria; Sapiro, Guillermo; Verdera, Joan

    2006-01-01

    .... These equations include a system for the joint interpolation of scalar and vector fields, a Laplacian-based minimization, a mean curvature diffusion flow, and an absolutely minimizing Lipschitz extension...

  16. A comparative study of urban crime between Malaysia and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubairu Abubakar Ghani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization has created numerous social problems, among which is crime that became a common phenomenon to all urban areas in both developed and developing nations. Recent unimaginable levels of the world urbanization coincides with rise in urban crimes in many parts of the world, as the rate of unemployment had been on the increase and coupled with increased poverty among the urban poor. Nature of crime is not uniform but varies from one geographical region to another. In some areas, property crime is more common while in others, crime on person (violent is prevalent. Crime is not being plagued by a singular factor anywhere it occurred, there are variant factors that influence criminal activities. However, key factors that persuade criminal behaviours of potential offenders includes: unemployment, poverty, bad governance and weaknesses in law enforcement or crime-control agencies. These four key factors were discussed in this paper with hope of bringing out nature of urban crimes that bedevilled properties and people safety for taking management and prevention measures.

  17. Introduction: Urban Crime and Poverty Nexus | Owusu | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A key issue that has attracted the attention of criminologists and others in the field of crime studies is the extent to which crime influence poverty and vis-à-vis. While this debate has extensively engaged the attention of criminologists and other social scientists in the developed world, little academic attention has been given to ...

  18. 77 FR 25345 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... our criminal justice system, and preventing crimes before they occur. The incidence of crime in the.... Moreover, women suffer the vast majority of intimate partner violence, sexual assault, and rape. These... violence in communities across our Nation. We are partnering with organizations and agencies at every level...

  19. The relationship between psychopathy and crime-related amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima-Knijff, M.J.; van Oorsouw, K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether levels of psychopathy predicted claims of crime-related amnesia. Different characteristics of psychopathy were based on the factor structure of the self-report questionnaire Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). Crime-related amnesia claims

  20. Understanding recurrent crime as system-immanent collective behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž; Donnay, Karsten; Helbing, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Containing the spreading of crime is a major challenge for society. Yet, since thousands of years, no effective strategy has been found to overcome crime. To the contrary, empirical evidence shows that crime is recurrent, a fact that is not captured well by rational choice theories of crime. According to these, strong enough punishment should prevent crime from happening. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between crime and punishment, we consider that the latter requires prior discovery of illicit behavior and study a spatial version of the inspection game. Simulations reveal the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between "criminals", "inspectors", and "ordinary people" as a consequence of spatial interactions. Such cycles dominate the evolutionary process, in particular when the temptation to commit crime or the cost of inspection are low or moderate. Yet, there are also critical parameter values beyond which cycles cease to exist and the population is dominated either by a stable mixture of criminals and inspectors or one of these two strategies alone. Both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions to different final states are possible, indicating that successful strategies to contain crime can be very much counter-intuitive and complex. Our results demonstrate that spatial interactions are crucial for the evolutionary outcome of the inspection game, and they also reveal why criminal behavior is likely to be recurrent rather than evolving towards an equilibrium with monotonous parameter dependencies.

  1. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  2. Vioent Crimes, Economic Development and the Morality of Capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Violent crimes such as murder, armed robbery, kidnapping and terrorism are the cruelest, most inhuman and disparaging crimes plaguing Nigeria today. Lately, kidnapping and terrorism have taken the centre stage leading to horrible bloodshed and serious economic set-backs. For this reason, many civilized nations ...

  3. Schizophrenia and Crime: How Predictable Are Charges, Convictions and Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, R. Walter; Sam, Eleanor P.

    2012-01-01

    The schizophrenia-crime relationship was studied in 151 research participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and with histories positive or negative for criminal charges, convictions and offences involving violence. These crime-related variables were regressed on a block of nine predictors reflecting…

  4. National Differences in Intelligence, Crime, Income, and Skin Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Templer, Donald I.

    2009-01-01

    National differences in murder, rape, and serious assault were examined in 113 countries in relation to national IQ, income, skin color, birth rate, life expectancy, infant mortality, and HIV/AIDS. Data were collated from the 1993-1996 International Crime Statistics published by INTERPOL. Violent crime was found to be lower in countries with…

  5. Xenophobia: A crime against humanity and its attendant implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and in conclusion, it puts forward amongst other recommendations that the provisions of Article 7 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court should be enlarged to provide for xenophobia as a crime against humanity. Keywords: Xenophobia, Duty of State, Crime against Humanity, Migrants, Rights, Aliens ...

  6. The Impact of a Casino on Education and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Milo

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the Las Vegas-style casino opened by the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska on crime and education. Since the opening of the casino in 1992, the Tribe significantly reduced unemployment, upgraded and modernized its entire education system, and reduced crime by 67% in one year. Contains 11 references. (VWC)

  7. Aspects of the crime geography of Calabar urban | Afangideh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main focus of this research is to established, through an objective empirical process, the spatial pattern and trend with regards to the crime geography of Calabar Urban. Six, of the Police posts in the town, two from each of the three zones into which the town has been sub-divided became the sample points. The crime ...

  8. Sex Crimes, Children, and Pornography: Public Views and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Mancini, Christina; Gertz, Marc; Bratton, Jake

    2008-01-01

    "Get tough" approaches for responding to sex crimes have proliferated during the past decade. Child pornography in particular has garnered attention in recent years. Policy makers increasingly have emphasized incarceration as a response to such crime, including accessing child pornography. Juxtaposed against such efforts is a dearth of knowledge…

  9. Translating guilt: Identifying leadership liability for mass atrocity crimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steer, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    The truism that crimes of mass atrocity are by definition collective may be one of the greater banes of criminal law lawyers attempting to solve the problem of liability. Collective crimes are familiar to all domestic criminal law systems, however the context in which mass atrocity takes place is

  10. Motivation of Crime in A Study in Scarlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Li

    2016-01-01

    Stories of Sherlock Holmes is the classic leader of detective literature. At the present time, most readers and writers put their focus on Sherlock Holmes, and they ignore another important role—the criminals. Motivation of crime is an attractive subject. Studying the psychological motivation of crime in A Study in Scarlet has realistic meaning on modern society.

  11. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mudassar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows are questionable in the field of research signifying diverse cultural contexts. A large number of people are habitual to watch these shows, which may probably come out with negative behavioural outcomes. Especially the children who are at their behavioural developmental phase; are more susceptible to adopt negative behavioural leanings. In this research effort, introduction and detail of TV crime shows in Pakistan are provided, the literature concerning “media as risk factor“ in children development is discussed, and relevant theories inferences are deliberated.it was found that media has powerful role in behaviour formulating of children and violence media portrayal (TV crime shows may appear with grave concerns. Previous scientific literature was reviewed to find and discuss the problem in hand. In the research effort, the literature review provides research propositions to explore further dimensions to TV crime shows’ effects and possible negative or positive behavioural outcomes in children behaviour.

  12. Crime Victims and Offenders: A Question of Race and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, B.J.; Smith, Willy Demarcell

    1981-01-01

    This study of the interactive effects of race and sex on crime reaffirms previous conclusions that Black males are disproportionately and adversely affected by crime and the administration of criminal law. Interpretations of statistical data on victimization and imprisonment rates are presented. (JCD)

  13. Crime and public transport: designing a safer journey

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, Tinus

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses issues related to transport and security with a particular focus on the role that the physical environment plays in increasing or reducing opportunities for crime. The focus is on crime problems on public transport and the use...

  14. Effects of prior interpretation on situation assessment is crime analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstholt, J.H.; Eikelboom, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - To investigate the effects of prior case knowledge on the judgement of crime analysts. Design/methodology/approach - Explains that crime analysts assist when an investigation team has converged/agreed on a probable scenario, attributes this convergence to group-think, but points out this

  15. How Algorithms Inscribe the Understanding of Crime in Police Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waardenburg, L.; Sergeeva, A.; Huysman, Marleen

    2018-01-01

    This research focuses on the consequences of the shift to data-driven work for daily police work. Our ongoing ethnographic field study of a team of police officers shows that predictive policing algorithms inscribe a different crime theory-in-use – i.e., the understanding of why crime occurs and how

  16. Understanding recurrent crime as system-immanent collective behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Perc

    Full Text Available Containing the spreading of crime is a major challenge for society. Yet, since thousands of years, no effective strategy has been found to overcome crime. To the contrary, empirical evidence shows that crime is recurrent, a fact that is not captured well by rational choice theories of crime. According to these, strong enough punishment should prevent crime from happening. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between crime and punishment, we consider that the latter requires prior discovery of illicit behavior and study a spatial version of the inspection game. Simulations reveal the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between "criminals", "inspectors", and "ordinary people" as a consequence of spatial interactions. Such cycles dominate the evolutionary process, in particular when the temptation to commit crime or the cost of inspection are low or moderate. Yet, there are also critical parameter values beyond which cycles cease to exist and the population is dominated either by a stable mixture of criminals and inspectors or one of these two strategies alone. Both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions to different final states are possible, indicating that successful strategies to contain crime can be very much counter-intuitive and complex. Our results demonstrate that spatial interactions are crucial for the evolutionary outcome of the inspection game, and they also reveal why criminal behavior is likely to be recurrent rather than evolving towards an equilibrium with monotonous parameter dependencies.

  17. The Effect of Police Response Time on Crime Clearance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom

    2018-01-01

    significant effects: in our preferred estimate, a 10% increase in response time leads to a 4.7 percentage points decrease in the likelihood of clearing the crime. We find stronger effects for thefts than for violent offenses, although the effects are large for every type of crime. We find suggestive evidence...

  18. [Crime-related amnesia: real or feigned?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, P; Merten, T; Merckelbach, H

    2012-07-01

    In the context of criminal forensic evaluations, experts are often confronted with the problem of offenders' claims of crime-related amnesia. Because of the far-reaching legal consequences of the expert opinion, the nature of the suspected memory disorder has to be investigated with special care and due consideration of differential diagnoses. While the diagnosis of organic amnesia is comparatively easy to make, the same is not true for dissociative amnesia. Despite existing theoretical explanations such as stress, peritraumatic dissociation or repression, to date there is no sound, scientifically based and empirically supported explanation for the occurrence of genuine, non-organic crime-related amnesia. In the criminal context of claimed amnesia, secondary gain is usually obvious; thus, possible malingering of memory loss has to be carefully investigated by the forensic expert. To test this hypothesis, the expert has to resort to methods based on a high methodological level. The diagnosis of dissociative amnesia cannot be made by mere exclusion of evidence for organic amnesia; instead, malingering has to be ruled out on an explicit basis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Decision to commit crime: rational or nonrational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn D. Walters

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to prove the necessity to take into account the influence of emotions on decision making to describe a combined model of the decision making process which unites rational and irrational components of choice in crime commitment. Methods dialectic systemic historicallegal formaljuridical methods summarization. Results the paper gives a complex analysis of the criminal decisionmaking process and reveals the factors increasing the probability of antisocial actions. The value of the combined cognitiveemotive model is that emotions can give more significant information to the decisionmaker than reasoning. Scientific novelty the author proposes a theory of decision making which says that a person chooses to act or not to act under hedonistic or moral emotions while the irrelevant emotions are increased and the relevant ones are suppressed by cognitive and situational factors serving as a basis for criminal decision making. Practical significance studying the role of emotions in the criminal and noncriminal decision making will significantly contribute to the development of criminology. The research results will be useful for researchers and lawenforcement bodies as well as for all those who are interested in the issues of crime control and prevention.

  20. SWEDISH CRIME FICTION AS SOCIALLY INVOLVED LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Samsel-Chojnacka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swedish crime novel has been transforming for many years to become more socially involved. The ambition of many writers is not only to entertain the readers but also to participating in the social debate, criticizing the political and economical system, focusing on important issues such as violence against women, exploitation of working class by the privileged ruling class, the problems of a modern family and the situation of immigrants. Since the moment when in the mid 60’s two journalists Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö decided to use popular literature to spread social matters many other Swedish writers have decided to follow their way. Some of them are journalists – like Liza Marklund, Börge Hellström and Anders Roslund or Stieg Larsson. Their novels as well as the ones written by Henning Mannkel on Kurt Wallander have become crucial evidence of changes of Swedish society in the past twenty years. Modern Swedish crime fiction illustrates the population in the model fashion that is the reason why it can become one of the interests of the sociology of literature.

  1. Symmetry analysis of talus bone: A Geometric morphometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, K; Dobbe, A; Komeili, A; Duke, K; El-Rich, M; Dhillon, S; Adeeb, S; Jomha, N M

    2014-01-01

    The main object of this study was to use a geometric morphometric approach to quantify the left-right symmetry of talus bones. Analysis was carried out using CT scan images of 11 pairs of intact tali. Two important geometric parameters, volume and surface area, were quantified for left and right talus bones. The geometric shape variations between the right and left talus bones were also measured using deviation analysis. Furthermore, location of asymmetry in the geometric shapes were identified. Numerical results showed that talus bones are bilaterally symmetrical in nature, and the difference between the surface area of the left and right talus bones was less than 7.5%. Similarly, the difference in the volume of both bones was less than 7.5%. Results of the three-dimensional (3D) deviation analyses demonstrated the mean deviation between left and right talus bones were in the range of -0.74 mm to 0.62 mm. It was observed that in eight of 11 subjects, the deviation in symmetry occurred in regions that are clinically less important during talus surgery. We conclude that left and right talus bones of intact human ankle joints show a strong degree of symmetry. The results of this study may have significance with respect to talus surgery, and in investigating traumatic talus injury where the geometric shape of the contralateral talus can be used as control. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:139-45.

  2. On chromatic and geometrical calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folm-Hansen, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The main subject of the present thesis is different methods for the geometrical and chromatic calibration of cameras in various environments. For the monochromatic issues of the calibration we present the acquisition of monochrome images, the classic monochrome aberrations and the various sources...... the correct interpolation method is described. For the chromatic issues of calibration we present the acquisition of colour and multi-spectral images, the chromatic aberrations and the various lens/camera based non-uniformities of the illumination of the image plane. It is described how the monochromatic...... to design calibration targets for both geometrical and chromatic calibration are described. We present some possible systematical errors on the detection of the objects in the calibration targets, if viewed in a non orthogonal angle, if the intensities are uneven or if the image blurring is uneven. Finally...

  3. Geometrical approach to tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    Tumor growth has a number of features in common with a physical process known as molecular beam epitaxy. Both growth processes are characterized by the constraint of growth development to the body border, and surface diffusion of cells and particles at the growing edge. However, tumor growth implies an approximate spherical symmetry that makes necessary a geometrical treatment of the growth equations. The basic model was introduced in a former paper [C. Escudero, Phys. Rev. E 73, 020902(R) (2006)], and in the present work we extend our analysis and try to shed light on the possible geometrical principles that drive tumor growth. We present two-dimensional models that reproduce the experimental observations, and analyze the unexplored three-dimensional case, for which interesting conclusions on tumor growth are derived.

  4. The Dynamic Relationship between Crime and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekoya Adenuga Fabian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Crime is a major impediment to economic growth and development in Nigeria despite measures taken to reduce it. There is, however, currently no major statistical analysis of how crime affects economic growth in that country. This study examines the link between crime and growth based on the theory of rational choice and empirical data. Exogenous and endogenous growth models are employed, and include deterrence variables. The period examined is 1970–2013 and estimation is done using the autoregressive distributed lag model. The results of our study show that crime affects economic growth at a 1% and 10% level of significance. In other words, crime imposes the costs of prosecution and punishment on the citizens and country, which influences the growth of the economy. Given our results, we suggest that police and the system of justice should be strengthened. Indeed, this may be necessary if the development target stated in Nigeria vision 20: 2020 is to be reached.

  5. Tests of Theories of Crime in Female Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marc A; Fugett, April; Adkins, Ashtin; Cook, Kelsey

    2017-02-01

    Several general theories of crime were tested with path models on 293 female prisoners in a U.S. State prison. The theories tested included Social Bond and Control, Thrill/Risk Seeking, and a new attachment-based Developmental Dynamic Systems model. A large battery of different instruments ranging from measures of risk taking, to a crime addiction scale, to Childhood Adverse Events, to attachments and clinical issues were used. The older general theories of crime did not hold up well under the rigor of path modeling. The new dynamic systems model was supported that incorporated adverse childhood events leading to (a) peer crime, (b) crime addiction, and (c) a measure derived from the Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire (ACIQ) that takes individual differences in attachments and clinical issues into account. The results were discussed in terms of new approaches to Research Defined Criteria of Diagnosis (RDoC) and new approaches to intervention.

  6. THE ROLE OF ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS IN FIGHTING ORGANISED CRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana B. Petrevska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Criminal activities and organised crime became the main generators of social and state instability in the recent years, much more that the wars. They generate significant illegal money and need to launder this money so that they can be integrated into the legitimate financial system. Economic and financial crimes that called white collar crimes, typically has diffuse costs to society and concentrated benefits for the perpetrators. The social expectations are that the auditors should play an effective role in reducing, if not eliminating, these crimes.New auditing standards require auditors to take a proactive approach to assessing whether management has in place appropriate systems and controls to manage the risk of fraud.This paper shed light on nature, impacts and types of economic and financial crimes, and then the role of auditing profession in fighting against them.

  7. Geometrical interpretation of optical absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzon, J. J.; Barriuso, A. G.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L. [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Montesinos-Amilibia, J. M. [Departamento de Geometria y Topologia, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    We reinterpret the transfer matrix for an absorbing system in very simple geometrical terms. In appropriate variables, the system appears as performing a Lorentz transformation in a (1 + 3)-dimensional space. Using homogeneous coordinates, we map that action on the unit sphere, which is at the realm of the Klein model of hyperbolic geometry. The effects of absorption appear then as a loxodromic transformation, that is, a rhumb line crossing all the meridians at the same angle.

  8. Parametric FEM for geometric biomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Andrea; Nochetto, Ricardo H.; Sebastian Pauletti, M.

    2010-05-01

    We consider geometric biomembranes governed by an L2-gradient flow for bending energy subject to area and volume constraints (Helfrich model). We give a concise derivation of a novel vector formulation, based on shape differential calculus, and corresponding discretization via parametric FEM using quadratic isoparametric elements and a semi-implicit Euler method. We document the performance of the new parametric FEM with a number of simulations leading to dumbbell, red blood cell and toroidal equilibrium shapes while exhibiting large deformations.

  9. Geometrical methods in learning theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdet, G.; Combe, Ph.; Nencka, H.

    2001-01-01

    The methods of information theory provide natural approaches to learning algorithms in the case of stochastic formal neural networks. Most of the classical techniques are based on some extremization principle. A geometrical interpretation of the associated algorithms provides a powerful tool for understanding the learning process and its stability and offers a framework for discussing possible new learning rules. An illustration is given using sequential and parallel learning in the Boltzmann machine

  10. Geometrical approach to tumor growth

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Tumor growth has a number of features in common with a physical process known as molecular beam epitaxy. Both growth processes are characterized by the constraint of growth development to the body border, and surface diffusion of cells/particles at the growing edge. However, tumor growth implies an approximate spherical symmetry that makes necessary a geometrical treatment of the growth equations. The basic model was introduced in a former article [C. Escudero, Phys. Rev. E 73, 020902(R) (200...

  11. Geometric mean for subspace selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong; Maybank, Stephen J

    2009-02-01

    Subspace selection approaches are powerful tools in pattern classification and data visualization. One of the most important subspace approaches is the linear dimensionality reduction step in the Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA), which has been successfully employed in many fields such as biometrics, bioinformatics, and multimedia information management. However, the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA has a critical drawback: for a classification task with c classes, if the dimension of the projected subspace is strictly lower than c - 1, the projection to a subspace tends to merge those classes, which are close together in the original feature space. If separate classes are sampled from Gaussian distributions, all with identical covariance matrices, then the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA maximizes the mean value of the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergences between different classes. Based on this viewpoint, the geometric mean for subspace selection is studied in this paper. Three criteria are analyzed: 1) maximization of the geometric mean of the KL divergences, 2) maximization of the geometric mean of the normalized KL divergences, and 3) the combination of 1 and 2. Preliminary experimental results based on synthetic data, UCI Machine Learning Repository, and handwriting digits show that the third criterion is a potential discriminative subspace selection method, which significantly reduces the class separation problem in comparing with the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA and its several representative extensions.

  12. Geometrical and fluidic tuning of periodically modulated thin metal films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilardi, Giovanni; Xiao, Sanshui; Beccherelli, Romeo

    2012-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate near-zero transmission of light through two-dimensional arrays of isolated gold rings. The analysis of the device as an optofluidic sensor is presented to demonstrate the tuning of the device in relation to variations of volume and refractive index of an isotropic fluid...... positioned over the structure. We also evaluate the performance of the device with respect to geometrical parameters of the rings....

  13. Legal nature of the crimes at Paris. Terrorism or war crimes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl F. Campusano Droguett

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this text we analyse from a legal point of view, the crimes committed in Paris on November 13th of 2015 by the criminal organization ISIS. As a general perception, these acts are understood as “acts of terrorism”, witch we think it is not the best option, not only because there is not an international definition of “acts of terrorism”, but also because the definitions domestic legislation use for such kind of acts are technically wrong and usually affect the due process of law. We think, as a second option, that these acts are actually war crimes under the Rome Statute of 1998 and the Geneva Convention with their Additional Protocols, which could become an effective option under procedure law.

  14. Exact Solutions for Einstein's Hyperbolic Geometric Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chunlei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the Einstein's hyperbolic geometric flow and obtain some interesting exact solutions for this kind of flow. Many interesting properties of these exact solutions have also been analyzed and we believe that these properties of Einstein's hyperbolic geometric flow are very helpful to understanding the Einstein equations and the hyperbolic geometric flow

  15. The Economics of Crime and Money Laundering: Does Anti-Money Laundering Policy Reduce Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ferwerda

    2008-01-01

    Anti-money laundering policy has become a major issue in the Western world, especially in the United States after 9-11. Basically all countries in the world are more or less forced to cooperate in the global fight against money laundering. In this paper, the criminalization of money laundering is modelled, assuming rational behaviour of criminals, following the law and economics strand of the literature which is described as the economics of crime. The theoretical model shows that a) the prob...

  16. Situational Crime Prevention in Nightlife Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Dilkes-Frayne, Ella

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we present a brief introduction to SCP and ANT, followed by ANT analyses of two crime prevention strategies: Passive Alert Detection (PAD) dogs at music festivals (Case I) and “doorwork” (Case II) at licensed venues. The first case examines the use of PAD, or sniffer, dogs to assist...... police in detecting illicit drugs at music festivals in Australia, whereby police display law enforcement as a strategy to prevent illicit drug use and possession. The case extends the analysis of nightlife spaces into the daytime and rather different venues, recognizing festivals as sites of leisure...... pursuits commonly associated with nightlife. The case examines how the use of PAD dogs at festival entrances influences police, young people, drug use, and the entrance space, such that the agencies and actions of each are transformed. The analysis also highlights the lasting effects of such prevention...

  17. Crime prevention through sports and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Darko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the definition of sport, the author has presented the possibilities its application in the prevention of crime and delinquency. In that context, the author analyzes the rate of juvenile delinquency in specific countries, such as Canada, and underlines the fact that the classical criminal measures do not give adequate results. The author points out that it is, therefore, necessary to apply some other preventive measures, which embody the application of sports and physical activity. The author provides examples of good practice in the states which has achieved the best results in the development of such programs. Finally, in view of the increasing number of reported criminal offences committed by both juveniles and adults, the author highlights the need for developing such programs in the Republic of Serbia.

  18. A spatial approach to combatting wildlife crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, S C; Stevens, M C A; Romañach, S S; Lindsey, P A; Le Comber, S C

    2018-06-01

    Poaching can have devastating impacts on animal and plant numbers, and in many countries has reached crisis levels, with illegal hunters employing increasingly sophisticated techniques. We used data from an 8-year study in Savé Valley Conservancy, Zimbabwe, to show how geographic profiling-a mathematical technique originally developed in criminology and recently applied to animal foraging and epidemiology-can be adapted for use in investigations of wildlife crime. The data set contained information on over 10,000 incidents of illegal hunting and the deaths of 6,454 wild animals. We used a subset of data for which the illegal hunters' identities were known. Our model identified the illegal hunters' home villages based on the spatial locations of the hunting incidences (e.g., snares). Identification of the villages was improved by manipulating the probability surface inside the conservancy to reflect the fact that although the illegal hunters mostly live outside the conservancy, the majority of hunting occurs inside the conservancy (in criminology terms, commuter crime). These results combined with rigorous simulations showed for the first time how geographic profiling can be combined with GIS data and applied to situations with more complex spatial patterns, for example, where landscape heterogeneity means some parts of the study area are less likely to be used (e.g., aquatic areas for terrestrial animals) or where landscape permeability differs (e.g., forest bats tend not to fly over open areas). More broadly, these results show how geographic profiling can be used to target antipoaching interventions more effectively and more efficiently and to develop management strategies and conservation plans in a range of conservation scenarios. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Geometrically Induced Interactions and Bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate the proper boundary conditions in spin dynamics eventually leading to the emergence of natural and artificial solitons providing for strong interactions and potentials with monopole charges, the paper outlines a new concept referring to a curvature-invariant formalism, where superintegrability is given by a special isometric condition. Instead of referring to the spin operators and Casimir/Euler invariants as the generator of rotations, a curvature-invariant description is introduced utilizing a double Gudermann mapping function (generator of sine Gordon solitons and Mercator projection) cross-relating two angular variables, where geometric phases and rotations arise between surfaces of different curvature. Applying this stereographic projection to a superintegrable Hamiltonian can directly map linear oscillators to Kepler/Coulomb potentials and/or monopoles with Pöschl-Teller potentials and vice versa. In this sense a large scale Kepler/Coulomb (gravitational, electro-magnetic) wave dynamics with a hyperbolic metric could be mapped as a geodesic vertex flow to a local oscillator singularity (Dirac monopole) with spherical metrics and vice versa. Attracting fixed points and dynamic constraints are given by special isometries with magic precession angles. The nonlinear angular encoding directly provides for a Shannon mutual information entropy measure of the geodesic phase space flow. The emerging monopole patterns show relations to spiral Fresnel holography and Berry/Aharonov-Bohm geometric phases subject to bifurcation instabilities and singularities from phase ambiguities due to a local (entropy) overload. Neutral solitons and virtual patterns emerging and mediating in the overlap region between charged or twisted holographic patterns are visualized and directly assigned to the Berry geometric phase revealing the role of photons, neutrons, and neutrinos binding repulsive charges in Coulomb, strong and weak interaction.

  20. Three-dimensional measurement system for crime scene documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Marcin; Hołowko, Elwira; Lech, Krzysztof; Michoński, Jakub; MÄ czkowski, Grzegorz; Bolewicki, Paweł; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Sitnik, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Three dimensional measurements (such as photogrammetry, Time of Flight, Structure from Motion or Structured Light techniques) are becoming a standard in the crime scene documentation process. The usage of 3D measurement techniques provide an opportunity to prepare more insightful investigation and helps to show every trace in the context of the entire crime scene. In this paper we would like to present a hierarchical, three-dimensional measurement system that is designed for crime scenes documentation process. Our system reflects the actual standards in crime scene documentation process - it is designed to perform measurement in two stages. First stage of documentation, the most general, is prepared with a scanner with relatively low spatial resolution but also big measuring volume - it is used for the whole scene documentation. Second stage is much more detailed: high resolution but smaller size of measuring volume for areas that required more detailed approach. The documentation process is supervised by a specialised application CrimeView3D, that is a software platform for measurements management (connecting with scanners and carrying out measurements, automatic or semi-automatic data registration in the real time) and data visualisation (3D visualisation of documented scenes). It also provides a series of useful tools for forensic technicians: virtual measuring tape, searching for sources of blood spatter, virtual walk on the crime scene and many others. In this paper we present our measuring system and the developed software. We also provide an outcome from research on metrological validation of scanners that was performed according to VDI/VDE standard. We present a CrimeView3D - a software-platform that was developed to manage the crime scene documentation process. We also present an outcome from measurement sessions that were conducted on real crime scenes with cooperation with Technicians from Central Forensic Laboratory of Police.

  1. Penitentiary crime as an object of legal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Aleksandrovich Khokhrin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on statistical data and generalized empirical material to study the structure and dynamic properties of the penitentiary crime which are necessary to elaborate measures to prevent crimes involving the penitentiary system. Methods comparativelegal logicaljuridical analysis of documents survey results statistics and litigation. Results basing on the analysis of more than 1400 convictions for committing crimes by convicts while being imprisoned as well as statistical indicators of crime in penitentiary institutions since 2005 it is proposed to divide all the recorded facts of crime into categories. This will allow to define some categories of crimes committed in penitentiary institutions. Comparing the results of the analysis of judicial practice the survey of the staff and the statistical reports suggests that convicts with two or three convictions are most likely to commit crimes in the penitentiary institution. In our view an effective incentive to forgo crimes and resocialize may be a legal norm regulating sentencing for offences committed during the period of serving the sentence Article 68 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation quotSentencing for the offence during the period of serving the sentence quot. Scientific novelty the conclusion is made about the need to extinguish the risk groups by committing crimes in penitentiary institutions. The proposals are formulated to supplement the criminal law. Practical significance the materials and conclusions of the article can be used in lawmaking activity for the development of draft laws on amendments and additions to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation in scientific work in the preparation of the dissertation research monographs textbooks and articles teaching the courses quotCriminal lawquot and quotCriminologyquot as well as courses for qualificationnbsp promotion. nbsp

  2. Moving walls and geometric phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.facchi@ba.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Università di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Garnero, Giancarlo, E-mail: giancarlo.garnero@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Università di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marmo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche and MECENAS, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Samuel, Joseph [Raman Research Institute, 560080 Bangalore (India)

    2016-09-15

    We unveil the existence of a non-trivial Berry phase associated to the dynamics of a quantum particle in a one dimensional box with moving walls. It is shown that a suitable choice of boundary conditions has to be made in order to preserve unitarity. For these boundary conditions we compute explicitly the geometric phase two-form on the parameter space. The unboundedness of the Hamiltonian describing the system leads to a natural prescription of renormalization for divergent contributions arising from the boundary.

  3. Geometric Topology and Shape Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, Jack

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this international conference the third of its type was to survey recent developments in Geometric Topology and Shape Theory with an emphasis on their interaction. The volume contains original research papers and carefully selected survey of currently active areas. The main topics and themes represented by the papers of this volume include decomposition theory, cell-like mappings and CE-equivalent compacta, covering dimension versus cohomological dimension, ANR's and LCn-compacta, homology manifolds, embeddings of continua into manifolds, complement theorems in shape theory, approximate fibrations and shape fibrations, fibered shape, exact homologies and strong shape theory.

  4. Geometric approach to soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, R.

    1979-09-01

    A class of nonlinear equations that can be solved in terms of nxn scattering problem is investigated. A systematic geometric method of exploiting conservation laws and related equations, the so-called prolongation structure, is worked out. The nxn problem is reduced to nsub(n-1)x(n-1) problems and finally to 2x2 problems, which have been comprehensively investigated recently by the author. A general method of deriving the infinite numbers of polynomial conservation laws for an nxn problem is presented. The cases of 3x3 and 2x2 problems are discussed explicitly. (Auth.)

  5. Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2016-06-20

    The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First, aesthetic constraints are important because the buildings have to be visually impressive. Sec- ond, functional constraints are important for the performance of a building and its e cient construction. This thesis contributes to the area of architectural geometry. Specifically, we are interested in the geometric rationalization of freeform architec- ture with the goal of combining aesthetic and functional constraints and construction requirements. Aesthetic requirements typically come from designers and architects. To obtain visually pleasing structures, they favor smoothness of the building shape, but also smoothness of the visible patterns on the surface. Functional requirements typically come from the engineers involved in the construction process. For exam- ple, covering freeform structures using planar panels is much cheaper than using non-planar ones. Further, constructed buildings have to be stable and should not collapse. In this thesis, we explore the geometric rationalization of freeform archi- tecture using four specific example problems inspired by real life applications. We achieve our results by developing optimization algorithms and a theoretical study of the underlying geometrical structure of the problems. The four example problems are the following: (1) The design of shading and lighting systems which are torsion-free structures with planar beams based on quad meshes. They satisfy the functionality requirements of preventing light from going inside a building as shad- ing systems or reflecting light into a building as lighting systems. (2) The Design of freeform honeycomb structures that are constructed based on hex-dominant meshes with a planar beam mounted along each edge. The beams intersect without

  6. Field guide to geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Greivenkamp, John E

    2004-01-01

    This Field Guide derives from the treatment of geometrical optics that has evolved from both the undergraduate and graduate programs at the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona. The development is both rigorous and complete, and it features a consistent notation and sign convention. This volume covers Gaussian imagery, paraxial optics, first-order optical system design, system examples, illumination, chromatic effects, and an introduction to aberrations. The appendices provide supplemental material on radiometry and photometry, the human eye, and several other topics.

  7. Geometric phase from dielectric matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    2005-10-01

    The dielectric property of the anisotropic optical medium is found by considering the polarized photon as two component spinor of spherical harmonics. The Geometric Phase of a polarized photon has been evaluated in two ways: the phase two-form of the dielectric matrix through a twist and the Pancharatnam phase (GP) by changing the angular momentum of the incident polarized photon over a closed triangular path on the extended Poincare sphere. The helicity in connection with the spin angular momentum of the chiral photon plays the key role in developing these phase holonomies. (author)

  8. A history of geometrical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Coolidge, Julian Lowell

    2013-01-01

    Full and authoritative, this history of the techniques for dealing with geometric questions begins with synthetic geometry and its origins in Babylonian and Egyptian mathematics; reviews the contributions of China, Japan, India, and Greece; and discusses the non-Euclidean geometries. Subsequent sections cover algebraic geometry, starting with the precursors and advancing to the great awakening with Descartes; and differential geometry, from the early work of Huygens and Newton to projective and absolute differential geometry. The author's emphasis on proofs and notations, his comparisons betwe

  9. Geometrical optics and optimal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Jacob; Wolansky, Gershon

    2017-10-01

    The Fermat principle is generalized to a system of rays. It is shown that all the ray mappings that are compatible with two given intensities of a monochromatic wave, measured at two planes, are stationary points of a canonical functional, which is the weighted average of the actions of all the rays. It is further shown that there exist at least two stationary points for this functional, implying that in the geometrical optics regime the phase from intensity problem has inherently more than one solution. The caustic structures of all the possible ray mappings are analyzed. A number of simulations illustrate the theoretical considerations.

  10. Destabilizing geometrical and bimaterial effects in frictional sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldam, M.; Bar Sinai, Y.; Svetlizky, I.; Fineberg, J.; Brener, E.; Xu, S.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Bouchbinder, E.

    2017-12-01

    Asymmetry of the two blocks forming a fault plane, i.e. the lack of reflection symmetry with respect to the fault plane, either geometrical or material, gives rise to generic destabilizing effects associated with the elastodynamic coupling between slip and normal stress variations. While geometric asymmetry exists in various geophysical contexts, such as thrust faults and landslide systems, its effect on fault dynamics is often overlooked. In the first part of the talk, I will show that geometrical asymmetry alone can destabilize velocity-strengthening faults, which are otherwise stable. I will further show that geometrical asymmetry accounts for a significant weakening effect observed in rupture propagation and present laboratory data that support the theory. In the second part of the talk, I will focus on material asymmetry and discuss an unexpected property of the well-studied frictional bimaterial effect. I will show that while the bimaterial coupling between slip and normal stress variations is a monotonically increasing function of the bimaterial contrast, when it is coupled to interfacial shear stress perturbations through a friction law, various physical quantities exhibit a non-monotonic dependence on the bimaterial contrast. This non-monotonicity is demonstrated for the stability of steady-sliding and for unsteady rupture propagation in faults described by various friction laws (regularized Coulomb, slip-weakening, rate-and-state friction), using analytic and numerical tools. All in all, the importance of bulk asymmetry to interfacial fault dynamics is highlighted. [1] Michael Aldam, Yohai Bar-Sinai, Ilya Svetlizky, Efim A. Brener, Jay Fineberg, and Eran Bouchbinder. Frictional Sliding without Geometrical Reflection Symmetry. Phys. Rev. X, 6(4):041023, 2016. [2] Michael Aldam, Shiqing Xu, Efim A. Brener, Yehuda Ben-Zion, and Eran Bouchbinder. Non-monotonicity of the frictional bimaterial effect. arXiv:1707.01132, 2017.

  11. Mechanisms of geometrical seismic attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Morozov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In several recent reports, we have explained the frequency dependence of the apparent seismic quality-factor (Q observed in many studies according to the effects of geometrical attenuation, which was defined as the zero-frequency limit of the temporal attenuation coefficient. In particular, geometrical attenuation was found to be positive for most waves traveling within the lithosphere. Here, we present three theoretical models that illustrate the origin of this geometrical attenuation, and we investigate the causes of its preferential positive values. In addition, we discuss the physical basis and limitations of both the conventional and new attenuation models. For waves in media with slowly varying properties, geometrical attenuation is caused by variations in the wavefront curvature, which can be both positive (for defocusing and negative (for focusing. In media with velocity/density contrasts, incoherent reflectivity leads to geometrical-attenuation coefficients which are proportional to the mean squared reflectivity and are always positive. For «coherent» reflectivity, the geometrical attenuation is approximately zero, and the attenuation process can be described according to the concept of «scattering Q». However, the true meaning of this parameter is in describing the mean reflectivity within the medium, and not that of the traditional resonator quality factor known in mechanics. The general conclusion from these models is that non-zero and often positive levels of geometrical attenuation are common in realistic, heterogeneous media, both observationally and theoretically. When transformed into the conventional Q-factor form, this positive geometrical attenuation leads to Q values that quickly increase with frequency. These predictions show that the positive frequency-dependent Q observed in many datasets might represent artifacts of the transformations of the attenuation coefficients into Q.

  1. Geometrical approach to fluid models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Schep, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Differential geometry based upon the Cartan calculus of differential forms is applied to investigate invariant properties of equations that describe the motion of continuous media. The main feature of this approach is that physical quantities are treated as geometrical objects. The geometrical notion of invariance is introduced in terms of Lie derivatives and a general procedure for the construction of local and integral fluid invariants is presented. The solutions of the equations for invariant fields can be written in terms of Lagrange variables. A generalization of the Hamiltonian formalism for finite-dimensional systems to continuous media is proposed. Analogously to finite-dimensional systems, Hamiltonian fluids are introduced as systems that annihilate an exact two-form. It is shown that Euler and ideal, charged fluids satisfy this local definition of a Hamiltonian structure. A new class of scalar invariants of Hamiltonian fluids is constructed that generalizes the invariants that are related with gauge transformations and with symmetries (Noether). copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. The Crime-Conflict Nexus and the Civil War in Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Steenkamp

    2017-01-01

    There is a strong relationship between organised crime and civil war. This article contributes to the crime-conflict nexus literature by providing a consideration of the role of organised crime in the Syrian conflict. It provides an overview of pre- and post-war organised crime in Syria. The article then builds the argument that war provides opportunities for organised crime through the state’s diminished law enforcement ability; the economic hardship which civilians face during war; and the ...

  3. On the Sanctioning of Economic Crime in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    present a theoretical framework that allows for a determination of optimal levels of sanctions and enforcement of crime. In the second part, I compare actual levels of sanctions in Denmark for various kinds of crime involving either economic or bodily harm, and discuss whether differences can be explained......This article - written for a symposium on comparative criminal law - discusses whether sanctions for economic crime have become excessive in the Danish context either in absolute terms or in comparison with sanctions for crimes involving physical harm. The text has three parts. In the first part, I...... by the theory. In the third part, I compare a recent increase in the level of the sanction for breach of competition law and for insider trading with the theoretically optimal levels and I tentatively suggest that the increase may well have been warranted from a deterrence perspective. However, I stress...

  4. Security and Crime Challenges in Academic Libraries in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Security and prevention of crimes in academic libraries is essential library duties .... From the earliest time to the present, librarians are bothered on how to ensure the protection ..... OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue) computer system etc.

  5. Crime and Punishment in Igbo Customary Law: The Challenge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crime and Punishment in Igbo Customary Law: The Challenge of Nigerian ... has its own means of controlling the social behaviour of its citizens in order to reach ... of the customary practices are immersed gives an added fillip to this disregard.

  6. Making Central American cities safer: Community response to crime ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... ... similar conditions of social exclusion experience different levels of violence? ... answers to this question and what it means for reducing crime and violence. ... But how does the relationship play out in the domestic sphere?

  7. geo-spatial analysis of crime in kaduna metropolis, nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    2017-02-24

    Feb 24, 2017 ... Geographic Information System (GIS) as a tool can be used by relevant agencies such as ... enforcement, information about the location of a crime incident, suspect, or victim is ..... Development Report in Nigeria. Available at:.

  8. Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosilong, KP

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Chapter Title: Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa Bosilong, KP: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria Mbecke, P: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria ABSTRACT: This chapter begins with a brief tour of South Africa's justice and political systems, demographics...

  9. The contemporary foreclosure crisis and US crime rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnio, Ashley N; Baumer, Eric P; Wolff, Kevin T

    2012-11-01

    Foreclosure rates in America reached unprecedented levels during the last half of the 2000s, and many observers have speculated that elevated crime rates were one of the probable negative collateral consequences of this trend. We examine this issue with a comprehensive county-level analysis of the role of foreclosure in shaping contemporary crime patterns, highlighting the possibility of theoretically informed non-linear and conditional relationships. Multivariate regression models that account for the well-documented spatial autocorrelation of crime rates and the possible endogeneity of foreclosure reveal a positive association between rates of foreclosure and property crime that accelerates significantly once foreclosure rates attain historically high levels. Multiplicative models indicate that this pattern holds for burglary across diverse county conditions, but the observed non-linear effect of foreclosure on robbery rates is limited primarily to areas that also exhibit relatively high levels of resource deprivation and limited new housing construction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genderedperceptionof crime and safety: Insights from different socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    each role affect the crime rates of males and females and that females are less ..... higher in their communities certainly has implications for safety and feelings of ..... Heimer, K. & De Coster, S. (1999): The gendering of violent delinquency.

  11. Forensic Accounting and Financial Crimes: Adopting the Inference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    , payroll frauds, fraudulent billing systems, ... the effects of financial crimes in corporate organizations are very grave ..... internal controls, poor management oversight, among others; while ... evidence and facts in legal matters.

  12. Delusional Ideation, Cognitive Processes and Crime Based Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dean J; Caulfield, Laura S

    2017-08-01

    Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks. Study one explored delusional ideation when completing a visually presented crime based reasoning task. Study two explored the same task in an auditory presentation. Study three utilised a dual task paradigm to explore modality and executive functioning. Study four extended this paradigm to the auditory modality. The results indicated that modality and delusional ideation have a significant effect on individuals reasoning about violent and non-violent crime (p < .05), which could have implication for the presentation of evidence in applied setting such as the courtroom.

  13. Testing the Perturbation Sensitivity of Abortion-Crime Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Brzeziński

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that the legalisation of abortion contributed significantly to the reduction of crime in the United States in 1990s is one of the most prominent ideas from the recent “economics-made-fun” movement sparked by the book Freakonomics. This paper expands on the existing literature about the computational stability of abortion-crime regressions by testing the sensitivity of coefficients’ estimates to small amounts of data perturbation. In contrast to previous studies, we use a new data set on crime correlates for each of the US states, the original model specifica-tion and estimation methodology, and an improved data perturbation algorithm. We find that the coefficients’ estimates in abortion-crime regressions are not computationally stable and, therefore, are unreliable.

  14. Crime and the “poverty penalty” in urban Ghana

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    difficult to draw, among the related social, psychological, and economic factors ... Children are forced to sleep outside which makes them more vulnerable ... through official police data, analysis of media reporting of crime, and a survey of more ...

  15. Transnational Crime and the U.S. Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartmann, David

    1997-01-01

    The collapse of the former Soviet Union and other communist regimes in Eurasia contributed significantly to a dramatic increase in the national security threat, especially to European states, from transnational crime...

  16. Forensic challenges for handling incidents and crime in cyberspace

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taute, B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available their goals. Who will bring law and order to cyberspace? This presentation focuses on the technology challenges for dealing with digital forensics and the time factor in dealing with incidents and crime in cyberspace....

  17. Sexual murderers of children: developmental, precrime, crime, and postcrime factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Eric; Stone, Maryann R; Proulx, Jean; Michaud, Patrick

    2008-06-01

    The amount of empirical research on men who commit sexual murders is scarce, and no distinction has been made between those who have victimized adults and those who have victimized children. Therefore, to better understand specifically sexual murderers of children (n = 11), comparisons were performed with a group of sexual murderers of adult women (n = 66) on developmental, precrime, crime, and postcrime factors. It appears that sexual murderers of children are more often victims of sexual abuse during childhood and present more often deviant sexual fantasies as compared to sexual murderers of women. The results show also that sexual murderers of children more often use pornography prior to crime, have contact with the victim prior to crime, and commit a crime more often characterized by premeditation, strangulation, the hiding of the body, and its dismemberment than the sexual murderers of women.

  18. Foreign Nationals as Offenders and Victims in Malaysian Crime News

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    Misman Norealyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign nationals in Malaysia come from all corners of the world. They are here as migrant labour, highly skilled and professional migrants (expatriates, illegal migrants, refugees, asylum-seekers (Burmese asylum seekers with UNHCR card, forced migrants (human trafficking victims, students, and tourists. The influx of foreign nationals residing in Malaysia coincides with greater number of crime news featuring foreign nationals. This study explores the social construction of foreign nationals as the ‘other’ in the local crime news published by Malaysian newspapers. 94 news headlines and lead sentences of local crime news involving foreign nationals were identified and analysed for this study. Findings suggest that Malaysian newspapers magnify foreign nationals’ migration status in each crime news.

  19. CRIMINAL LEGAL PROTECTION OF CHILD VICTIMS AND WITNESSES OF CRIMES

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    Monika Mushevska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term victim indicates a natural person that underwent some kind of crime, including psychological and mental disorder, and emotional suffering or monetary loss, that were caused by accomplishing or not accomplishing a certain kind of activity that violates the law in one state. The term Victim also includes the close members of the victim’s family that depend on the victim. “Kids, victims and witnesses of crimes” indicates kids and adolescents under 18 years of age, which are victims of different kinds of crime or witnesses of different kinds of crime, in spite of the role that they have in the crime act. In all proceedings that directly or indirectly child victims involved it is important to act in a way that is the best and most appropriate for the child.

  20. The commerce crime and ways of conducting a financial security

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    Đekić Milica D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It's well-known that the developing countries such as Republic of Serbia lose many funds through the financial crime. The corruption and bribe, industrial frauds, money laundering, organized crime, insider's threats and much more are some of the examples of well-planned and conducted crimes within the commerce and financial sector. What drags our attention here are socio-economical consequences of those activities. In this paper, we would talk a bit more about how to prevent and effectively resolve such cases. It's quite clear that it's not all about the rising a competitiveness of domestic economy, but rather it's about the saving the already existing resources. Finally, this paper would bring a brief overview of typical commerce crimes as well as the measures of assuring the financial sector.