WorldWideScience

Sample records for geometric variational crimes

  1. LGBTI Variations in Crime Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Miles-Johnson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that people vary in their willingness to report crime to police depending on the type of crime experienced, their gender, age, and their race or ethnicity. Whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI and heterosexual people vary in their willingness to report crime to the police is not well understood in the extant literature. In this article, I examine variations in LGBTI respondents’ attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on their intentions to report crimes to the police. Drawing on a survey of LGBTI individuals sampled from a Gay Pride community event and online LGBTI community forums (N = 329, I use quantitative statistical methods to examine whether LGBTI people’s beliefs in police homophobia are also directly associated with the behavioral intention to report crime. Overall, the results indicate that LGBTI and heterosexual people differ significantly in their intention to report crime to the police, and that a belief in police homophobia strongly influences LGBTI people’s intention to underreport crime to the police.

  2. Variations autour d’un crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Vân Ton-That

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available À partir d’une lecture des Châtiments et d’autres textes en prose autour du même thème, nous étudierons les variations de genres et d’écritures de Hugo qui en prose comme en poésie entend dénoncer et émouvoir. L’écriture semble dépasser les cloisonnements génériques et formels dans une prose aux inflexions poétiques et dans des vers où se mêlent narration, description et condamnation d’un crime qui prend alors une valeur universelle.On the basis of the reading of Les Châtiments and other prose texts centered on the same theme, we shall study Hugo’s genre and writing variations. In prose as well as in poetry, he intends to expose and to move. The way in which he writes seems to defy formal and generic classifications through a form of prose which is characterized by poetic overtones, and in lines in which narration and description intermingle with the exposition of a crime which takes on a universal meaning.A partir de una lectura de Châtiments y otros textos en prosa sobre el mismo tema, estudiaremos las variaciones de géneros y escrituras en Hugo quien, en prosa como en poesίa, pretende denunciar y conmover. La escritura parece superar las fronteras genéricas y formales en una prosa llena de inflexiones poéticas y en versos en los que se mezclan narración, descripción y condenación de un crimen que se viste por ende de un valor universal.

  3. Geometric Total Variation for Texture Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bespalov, Dmitriy; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Shokoufandeh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this work we propose a novel variational method that we intend to use for estimating non-rigid texture deformation. The method is able to capture variation in grayscale images with respect to the geometry of its features. Our experimental evaluations demonstrate that accounting for geometry of...

  4. Crime

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Updated daily postings on Montgomery County’s open data website, dataMontgomery, provide the public with direct access to crime statistic databases - including raw...

  5. Spatio-temporal variations in urban crime in Ogbomos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The causal factors of crime are examined within structuralism and individualism paradigms. On planning implications, it is suggested that principles guiding landuse zoning (or allocation), infrastructural planning, and building design be reviewed so as to prevent the creation of danger zone within the urban landscape.

  6. Spatio-temporal variations in urban crime in Ogbomos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Environmental Sciences ... Against the background of the increasing frequency, scope and sophistication of crime as well as the insurmountable problems associated with its seemingly uncontrollable tendencies in cities of the world generally and Nigerian urban centers in particular, this paper examines ...

  7. Transverse Kick Analysis of SSR1 Due to Possible Geometrical Variations in Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, V.P.; Awida, M.H.; Berrutti, P.; Gonin, I.V.; Khabiboulline, T.N.

    2012-01-01

    Due to fabrication tolerance, it is expected that some geometrical variations could happen to the SSR1 cavities of Project X, like small shifts in the transverse direction of the beam pipe or the spoke. It is necessary to evaluate the resultant transverse kick due to these geometrical variations, in order to make sure that they are within the limits of the correctors in the solenoids. In this paper, we report the transverse kick values for various fabrications errors and the sensitivity of the beam to these errors. Transverse kick that could happen in SSR1 cavities due to geometrical variations of the fabricated cavities from the designed geometry has been analysed and evaluated. From fabrication experience, three kinds of variations were under investigation concerning the alignment of both the beam pipe and spoke with respect to the beam axis. Simulation study has been carried out implementing these variations in the simulation model. CMM measurements of five fabricated SSR1 cavities were carried out to investigate the amount of physical misalignments of the beam pipe and spoke. Bead-pull measurements were also conducted to evaluate the transverse kick values in the fabricated cavities. Simulation and measurements are relatively in good agreement. Maximum kick in the fabricated cavities is within 154 keV that would induce about 1.12 mrad beam deviation, which could be definitely corrected with the 10 mrad specified correctors of Project X.

  8. Organ/patient geometric variation in external beam radiotherapy and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Di; Lockman, David

    2001-01-01

    Treatment variation in positioning of the organ/patient with respect to the radiation beams causes a temporal dose variation in critical normal tissues adjacent to the treatment target. This temporal variation induces uncertainties in understanding the normal tissue dose response, thereby limiting reliable treatment evaluation and optimization. The aim of this study is to model and analyze the temporal variation of organ dose distribution, and its effect on the biological effective dose. The study mainly focuses on the temporal dose variation caused by intertreatment organ motion/deformation and daily setup error. Sensitivity of the biological effective dose to organ/patient geometric variation, dose distribution, and treatment fractionation will be investigated. Significant deviation of the biological effective dose could be expected in a critical normal structure, even if the cumulative dose deviation in this structure is negligible. Patients with similar geometric variation characteristics can experience significantly different biological effective dose, and the differences are sensitive to the dose distribution and the total number of treatment fractions

  9. Geometric morphometrics in primatology: craniofacial variation in Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Wood, C G; Luboga, S A

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, morphometric studies have relied on statistical analysis of distances, angles or ratios to investigate morphometric variation among taxa. Recently, geometric techniques have been developed for the direct analysis of landmark data. In this paper, we offer a summary (with examples) of three of these newer techniques, namely shape coordinate, thin-plate spline and relative warp analyses. Shape coordinate analysis detected significant craniofacial variation between 4 modern human populations, with African and Australian Aboriginal specimens being relatively prognathous compared with their Eurasian counterparts. In addition, the Australian specimens exhibited greater basicranial flexion than all other samples. The observed relationships between size and craniofacial shape were weak. The decomposition of shape variation into affine and non-affine components is illustrated via a thin-plate spline analysis of Homo and Pan cranial landmarks. We note differences between Homo and Pan in the degree of prognathism and basicranial flexion and the position and orientation of the foramen magnum. We compare these results with previous studies of these features in higher primates and discuss the utility of geometric morphometrics as a tool in primatology and physical anthropology. We conclude that many studies of morphological variation, both within and between taxa, would benefit from the graphical nature of these techniques.

  10. Special Semester titled Geometric mechanics : variational and stochastic methods : CIB, Lausanne, Switzerland, January-June 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Cruzeiro, Ana; Holm, Darryl

    2017-01-01

    Collecting together contributed lectures and mini-courses, this book details the research presented in a special semester titled “Geometric mechanics – variational and stochastic methods” run in the first half of 2015 at the Centre Interfacultaire Bernoulli (CIB) of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The aim of the semester was to develop a common language needed to handle the wide variety of problems and phenomena occurring in stochastic geometric mechanics. It gathered mathematicians and scientists from several different areas of mathematics (from analysis, probability, numerical analysis and statistics, to algebra, geometry, topology, representation theory, and dynamical systems theory) and also areas of mathematical physics, control theory, robotics, and the life sciences, with the aim of developing the new research area in a concentrated joint effort, both from the theoretical and applied points of view. The lectures were given by leading specialists in different areas of mathematics a...

  11. Geometrical treatment of non-potential interactions: the exterior variational calculus, dynamical systems, physical 1-forms and variational selfadjointness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trostel, R.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical objective of this paper is to provide geometrical formulation of the integrability conditions for the existence of an action functional, that is, to provide a geometrical counterpart (similar to that by Abraham, Marsden, and Hughes) of the variational and functional approach to self-adjointness. This objective is achieved via the exterior variational calculus, an exterior differential calculus on the vector space of functions depending on time or space time, using from the outset extensively the concept of functional differentiation as its foundation. Variational self-adjointness equals the variational closure of the physical 1-form, the vanishing of a generalized curl-operation applied to the equations of motion. The convenience of this more formal approach is demonstrated, not only when deriving the conditions of variational self-adjointness for materials of differential type of arbitrary order (particles or fields), using roughly no more than Dirac's delta-distributions, but also when treating materials of a broader class (including causal and acausal constitutive functionals, materials of rate type, integral type, etc.). A physical objective of this paper is achieved by pointing out that, as physics is primarily concerned with the solutions of the evolution equations, i.e., with the set of the zero points of the physical 1-form, an equivalence relation among the physical 1-forms on the infinite dimensional vector space of functions is constructed by leaving the set of their zero points unchanged. Using this result, a direct Lagrangian universality is indicated and an almost one presented. Moreover, all physical 1-forms connected by invertible supermatrices (thus mixing the evolution law of different times or space-time) are equivalent. Choosing these supermatrices to be diagonal in time or space-time yields the indirect analytical representation factors

  12. Resultant geometric variation of a fixtured workpiece Part I: a simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supapan Sangnui Chaiprapat

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available When a workpiece is fixtured for a machining or inspection operation, the accuracy of an operation is mainly determined by the efficiency of the fixturing method. Variability in manufactured workpiece is hardly inevitable. When such variability is found at contact areas between the workpiece and the fixture, errors in location are expected. The errors will affect quality of features to be produced. This paper developed an algorithm to determine variant final locations of a displaced workpiece given normally distributed errorsat contact points. Resultant geometric variation of workpiece location reveals interesting information which is beneficial in tolerance planning.

  13. Effects of major geometric variations between intracavitary applications on pear-shaped isodose dimension in cancer of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, R. Y.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The basic principal of intracavitary brachytherapy for cancer of the cervix is based on specific loading rules to achieve a pear-shaped isodose distribution centered around the cervix. Recently, ICRU Report 38 recommends a dose reference volume for reporting. Our previous studies have confirmed that there is considerable variations of geometry between applications. This study is to evaluate the effect of major geometric variations on pear-shaped isodose dimension in manual afterloading low-dose-rate system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred orthogonal films of 50 patients with cancer of the cervix (2 applications/patient) were reviewed for comparative measurements of geometric variations between applications. Major geometric variations were found for 13 patients in lengths of tandem, 7 patients in colpostats separation and 16 patients in vaginal packing. The direct measurement of these geometric variations were compared with the three-dimensional measurement of the pear-shaped isodose enclosed by the point A between the two applications. RESULTS: The geometric variations in the width of colpostats separation and length of tandem were directly related to the width and height of the pear-shaped isodose dimension. The geometric relationship between the colpostats and distal tandem had an important effect on the thickness of the pear-shape. In optimization of poor geometry for rectum or bladder wall, high dose volume centered around the cervix is reduced without changing the overall pear-shaped volume due to changing configuration of the pear-shaped isodose. In our selected patients with two applications, variations in vaginal packing had no direct effect on the width and thickness of the pear-shape due to other variables. CONCLUSION: Major geometric variations between applications greatly affect the dimension of the pear-shaped isodose distribution. Optimization of poor geometry is quite limited without compromising the high-dose volume centered around the

  14. Boundary Equations and Regularity Theory for Geometric Variational Systems with Neumann Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikorra, Armin

    2018-02-01

    We study boundary regularity of maps from two-dimensional domains into manifolds which are critical with respect to a generic conformally invariant variational functional and which, at the boundary, intersect perpendicularly with a support manifold. For example, harmonic maps, or H-surfaces, with a partially free boundary condition. In the interior it is known, by the celebrated work of Rivière, that these maps satisfy a system with an antisymmetric potential, from which one can derive the interior regularity of the solution. Avoiding a reflection argument, we show that these maps satisfy along the boundary a system of equations which also exhibits a (nonlocal) antisymmetric potential that combines information from the interior potential and the geometric Neumann boundary condition. We then proceed to show boundary regularity for solutions to such systems.

  15. A geometric morphometric analysis of hominin lower molars: Evolutionary implications and overview of postcanine dental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Prado-Simón, Leyre; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-05-01

    Lower molars have been extensively studied in the context of hominin evolution using classic and geometric morphometric analyses, 2D and 3D approaches, evaluations of the external (outer enamel surface) and internal anatomy (dentine, pulp chamber, and radicular canals), and studies of the crown and root variation. In this study, we present a 2D geometric morphometric analysis of the crown anatomy of lower first, second, and third molars of a broad sample of hominins, including Pliocene and Lower, Middle, and Upper Pleistocene species coming from Africa, Asia, and Europe. We show that shape variability increases from first to second and third molars. While first molars tend to retain a relatively stable 5-cusped conformation throughout the hominin fossil record, second and third molars show marked distal reductions in later Homo species. This trend to distal reduction is similar to that observed in previous studies of premolars and upper second and third molars, and points to a correlated reduction of distal areas across the whole postcanine dentition. Results on lower molar variation, as well as on other postcanine teeth, show certain trends in European Pleistocene populations from the Atapuerca sites. Middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos show Neanderthal affinities and strong dental reduction, especially in the most distal molars. The degree of dental reduction in this population is stronger than that observed in classic Neanderthals. Homo antecessor hominins from Gran Dolina-TD6 have primitive lower teeth that contrast with their more derived upper teeth. The evolutionary implications of these dental affinities are discussed in light of recent paleogenetic studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The spectrum of the torus profile to a geometric variational problem with long range interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaofeng; Wei, Juncheng

    2017-08-01

    The profile problem for the Ohta-Kawasaki diblock copolymer theory is a geometric variational problem. The energy functional is defined on sets in R3 of prescribed volume and the energy of an admissible set is its perimeter plus a long range interaction term related to the Newtonian potential of the set. This problem admits a solution, called a torus profile, that is a set enclosed by an approximate torus of the major radius 1 and the minor radius q. The torus profile is both axially symmetric about the z axis and reflexively symmetric about the xy-plane. There is a way to set up the profile problem in a function space as a partial differential-integro equation. The linearized operator L of the problem at the torus profile is decomposed into a family of linear ordinary differential-integro operators Lm where the index m = 0 , 1 , 2 , … is called a mode. The spectrum of L is the union of the spectra of the Lm's. It is proved that for each m, when q is sufficiently small, Lm is positive definite. (0 is an eigenvalue for both L0 and L1, due to the translation and rotation invariance.) As q tends to 0, more and more Lm's become positive definite. However no matter how small q is, there is always a mode m of which Lm has a negative eigenvalue. This mode grows to infinity like q - 3 / 4 as q → 0.

  17. A geometric morphometric analysis of hominin upper premolars. Shape variation and morphological integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Prado-Simón, Leyre; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2011-12-01

    This paper continues the series of articles initiated in 2006 that analyse hominin dental crown morphology by means of geometric morphometric techniques. The detailed study of both upper premolar occlusal morphologies in a comprehensive sample of hominin fossils, including those coming from the Gran Dolina-TD6 and Sima de los Huesos sites from Atapuerca, Spain, complement previous works on lower first and second premolars and upper first molars. A morphological gradient consisting of the change from asymmetric to symmetric upper premolars and a marked reduction of the lingual cusp in recent Homo species has been observed in both premolars. Although percentages of correct classification based on upper premolar morphologies are not very high, significant morphological differences between Neanderthals (and European middle Pleistocene fossils) and modern humans have been identified, especially in upper second premolars. The study of morphological integration between premolar morphologies reveals significant correlations that are weaker between upper premolars than between lower ones and significant correlations between antagonists. These results have important implications for understanding the genetic and functional factors underlying dental phenotypic variation and covariation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Crime and Social Conflict in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Amaral; Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay; Samrat Bhattacharyais; Rudra Sensarmais

    2014-01-01

    This article has two goals. First, using district-level panel data we identify key determinants of violent crime, nonviolent crime, and crime against women in India, 1990-2007. Second, using district-level variation in regard to Maoist-driven social conflict, we examine how social conflict affects crime and its determinants. In addition to conventional determinants of crime (e.g., law enforcement and economic variables), we examine how variation in sex ratios affects crime. We also study whet...

  19. Attempted crime

    OpenAIRE

    Mežjāne, Kristīne

    2013-01-01

    The theme of the bachelor paper is "Attempted Crime." Attempted crime is unfinished criminal offense and the person carrying out an attempted crime threat to the interests protected by the Criminal Law. In the Judicial practice, there are problems of crime attempt qualification, distinguishing between the completed offenses, preparation for a crime. The judicial practice, there are problems of crime attempt qualification, distinguishing between the completed offense, preparation for a crime....

  20. A non-invasive geometric morphometrics method for exploring variation in dorsal head shape in urodeles: sexual dimorphism and geographic variation in Salamandra salamandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Ríos, Lucía; Velo-Antón, Guillermo; Kaliontzopoulou, Antigoni

    2017-04-01

    The study of morphological variation among and within taxa can shed light on the evolution of phenotypic diversification. In the case of urodeles, the dorso-ventral view of the head captures most of the ontogenetic and evolutionary variation of the entire head, which is a structure with a high potential for being a target of selection due to its relevance in ecological and social functions. Here, we describe a non-invasive procedure of geometric morphometrics for exploring morphological variation in the external dorso-ventral view of urodeles' head. To explore the accuracy of the method and its potential for describing morphological patterns we applied it to two populations of Salamandra salamandra gallaica from NW Iberia. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we detected differences in head shape between populations and sexes, and an allometric relationship between shape and size. We also determined that not all differences in head shape are due to size variation, suggesting intrinsic shape differences across sexes and populations. These morphological patterns had not been previously explored in S. salamandra, despite the high levels of intraspecific diversity within this species. The methodological procedure presented here allows to detect shape variation at a very fine scale, and solves the drawbacks of using cranial samples, thus increasing the possibilities of using collection specimens and alive animals for exploring dorsal head shape variation and its evolutionary and ecological implications in urodeles. J. Morphol. 278:475-485, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Biomechanical implications of intraspecific shape variation in chimpanzee crania: moving towards an integration of geometric morphometrics and finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda L.; Benazzi, Stefano; Ledogar, Justin A.; Tamvada, Kelli; Smith, Leslie C. Pryor; Weber, Gerhard W.; Spencer, Mark A.; Dechow, Paul C.; Grosse, Ian R.; Ross, Callum F.; Richmond, Brian G.; Wright, Barth W.; Wang, Qian; Byron, Craig; Slice, Dennis E.; Strait, David S.

    2014-01-01

    In a broad range of evolutionary studies, an understanding of intraspecific variation is needed in order to contextualize and interpret the meaning of variation between species. However, mechanical analyses of primate crania using experimental or modeling methods typically encounter logistical constraints that force them to rely on data gathered from only one or a few individuals. This results in a lack of knowledge concerning the mechanical significance of intraspecific shape variation that limits our ability to infer the significance of interspecific differences. This study uses geometric morphometric methods (GM) and finite element analysis (FEA) to examine the biomechanical implications of shape variation in chimpanzee crania, thereby providing a comparative context in which to interpret shape-related mechanical variation between hominin species. Six finite element models (FEMs) of chimpanzee crania were constructed from CT scans following shape-space Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of a matrix of 709 Procrustes coordinates (digitized onto 21 specimens) to identify the individuals at the extremes of the first three principal components. The FEMs were assigned the material properties of bone and were loaded and constrained to simulate maximal bites on the P3 and M2. Resulting strains indicate that intraspecific cranial variation in morphology is associated with quantitatively high levels of variation in strain magnitudes, but qualitatively little variation in the distribution of strain concentrations. Thus, interspecific comparisons should include considerations of the spatial patterning of strains rather than focus only their magnitude. PMID:25529239

  2. KETERKAITAN WHITE COLLAR CRIME DENGAN CORPORATE CRIME

    OpenAIRE

    R. Dyatmiko Soemodihardjo

    2003-01-01

    White collar crime is a crime that carried out by respected persons, whereas corporate crime is a crime that related to corporation. White collar crime and crime corporate are always related to economic crime. White collar crime can be committed by corporation, that is why a kind of crime emerges namely corporate crime.

  3. KETERKAITAN WHITE COLLAR CRIME DENGAN CORPORATE CRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dyatmiko Soemodihardjo

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available White collar crime is a crime that carried out by respected persons, whereas corporate crime is a crime that related to corporation. White collar crime and crime corporate are always related to economic crime. White collar crime can be committed by corporation, that is why a kind of crime emerges namely corporate crime.

  4. Sex Differences in Crime: Do Means and Within-Sex Variation Have Similar Causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates whether the determinants of males' higher level of delinquency, as compared to females, resemble determinants of within-sex variation. Results indicate that the mean difference in delinquency between males and females may arise because males are more exposed to etiologic factors, such as impulsivity and rebelliousness, than are…

  5. Effect of variation of geometric parameters on the flow within a synthetic models of lower human airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Moreno, Andres Santiago; Duque Daza, Carlos Alberto

    2017-11-01

    The effects of variation of two geometric parameters, such as bifurcation angle and carina rounding radius, during the respiratory inhalation process, are studied numerically using two synthetic models of lower human airways. Laminar flow simulations were performed for six angles and three rounding radius, for 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 for Reynolds numbers. Numerical results showed the existence of a direct relationship between the deformation of the velocity profiles (effect produced by the bifurcation) and the vortical structures observed through the secondary flow patterns. It is observed that the location of the vortices (and their related saddle point) is associated with the displacement of the velocity peak. On the other hand, increasing the angle and the rounding radius seems to bring about a growth of the pressure drop, which in turn displaces the distribution and peaks of the maximum shear stresses of the carina, that is, of the bifurcation point. Some physiological effects associated with the phenomena produced by these geometric variations are also discussed.

  6. Geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, Hubert L; Mazzeo, Rafe; Sesum, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    This volume includes expanded versions of the lectures delivered in the Graduate Minicourse portion of the 2013 Park City Mathematics Institute session on Geometric Analysis. The papers give excellent high-level introductions, suitable for graduate students wishing to enter the field and experienced researchers alike, to a range of the most important areas of geometric analysis. These include: the general issue of geometric evolution, with more detailed lectures on Ricci flow and Kähler-Ricci flow, new progress on the analytic aspects of the Willmore equation as well as an introduction to the recent proof of the Willmore conjecture and new directions in min-max theory for geometric variational problems, the current state of the art regarding minimal surfaces in R^3, the role of critical metrics in Riemannian geometry, and the modern perspective on the study of eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for Laplace-Beltrami operators.

  7. Variation and diversity in Homo erectus: a 3D geometric morphometric analysis of the temporal bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Claire E; Kimbel, William H; Lockwood, Charles A

    2007-07-01

    Although the level of taxonomic diversity within the fossil hominin species Homo erectus (sensu lato) is continually debated, there have been relatively few studies aiming to quantify the morphology of this species. Instead, most researchers have relied on qualitative descriptions or the evaluation of nonmetric characters, which in many cases display continuous variation. Also, only a few studies have used quantitative data to formally test hypotheses regarding the taxonomic composition of the "erectus" hypodigm. Despite these previous analyses, however, and perhaps in part due to these varied approaches for assessing variation within specimens typically referred to H. erectus (sensu lato) and the general lack of rigorous statistical testing of how variation within this taxon is partitioned, there is currently little consensus regarding whether this group is a single species, or whether it should instead be split into separate temporal or geographically delimited taxa. In order to evaluate possible explanations for variation within H. erectus, we tested the general hypothesis that variation within the temporal bone morphology of H. erectus is consistent with that of a single species, using great apes and humans as comparative taxa. Eighteen three-dimensional (3D) landmarks of the temporal bone were digitized on a total of 520 extant and fossil hominid crania. Landmarks were registered by Generalized Procrustes Analysis, and Procrustes distances were calculated for comparisons of individuals within and between the extant taxa. Distances between fossil specimens and between a priori groupings of fossils were then compared to the distances calculated within the extant taxa to assess the variation within the H. erectus sample relative to that of known species, subspecies, and populations. Results of these analyses indicate that shape variation within the entire H. erectus sample is generally higher than extant hominid intraspecific variation, and putative H. ergaster

  8. Describing shell shape variations and sexual dimorphism of Golden Apple Snail, Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 using geometric morphometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Cabuga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pomacea caniculata or Golden Apple Snail (GAS existed to be a rice pest in the Philippines and in Asia. Likewise, geographic location also contributes its increasing populations thus making it invasive among freshwater habitats and rice field areas. This study was conducted in order to describe shell shape variations and sexual dimorphism among the populations of P. caniculata. A total of 180 were randomly collected in the three lakes of Esperanza, Agusan del Sur (Lake Dakong Napo, Lake Oro, and Lake Cebulan, of which each lake comprised of 60 samples (30 males and 30 females. To determine the variations and sexual dimorphism in the shell shape of golden apple snail, coordinates was administered to relative warp analysis and the resulting data were subjected to Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA. The results show statistically significant (P<0.05 from the appended male and female dorsal and ventral/apertural portion. While male and female spire height, body size, and shell shape opening also shows significant variations. These phenotypic distinctions could be associated with geographic isolation, predation and nutrient component of the gastropods. Thus, the importance of using geometric morphometric advances in describing sexual dimorphism in the shell shape of P. caniculata.

  9. Geometric morphometric analysis of allometric variation in the mandibular morphology of the hominids of Atapuerca, Sima de los Huesos site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Antonio; Bastir, Markus

    2004-06-01

    Allometry is an important factor of morphological integration that contributes to the organization of the phenotype and its variation. Variation in the allometric shape of the mandible is particularly important in hominid evolution because the mandible carries important taxonomic traits. Some of these traits are known to covary with size, particularly the retromolar space, symphyseal curvature, and position of the mental foramen. The mandible is a well studied system in the context of the evolutionary development of complex morphological structures because it is composed of different developmental units that are integrated within a single bone. In the present study, we investigated the allometric variation of two important developmental units that are separated by the inferior nerve (a branch of CN V3). We tested the null hypothesis that there would be no difference in allometric variation between the two components. Procrustes-based geometric morphometrics of 20 two-dimensional (2D) landmarks were analyzed by multivariate regressions of shape on size in samples from 121 humans, 48 chimpanzees, and 50 gorillas (all recent specimens), eight fossil hominids from Atapuerca, Sima de los Huesos (AT-SH), and 17 Neandertals. The findings show that in all of the examined species, there was significantly greater allometric variation in the supra-nerve unit than in the infra-nerve unit. The formation of the retromolar space exhibited an allometric relationship with the supra-nerve unit in all of the species studied. The formation of the chin-like morphology is an "apodynamic" feature of the infra-nerve unit in the AT-SH hominids. The results of this study support the hypothesis that allometry contributes to the organization of variation in complex morphological structures. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. DETERMINING THE COMPOSITION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF FOSSIL FUEL BASED ON VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES AND GEOMETRIC PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velibor V Vujović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the algorithm and results of a computer program for calculation of complex equilibrium composition for the high temperature fossil fuel combustion products. The method of determining the composition of high temperatures combustion products at the temperatures appearing in the open cycle MHD power generation is given. The determination of combustion product composition is based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The number of equations to be solved is reduced by using variational principles and a method of geometric programming and is equal to the sum of the numbers of elements and phases. A short description of the computer program for the calculation of the composition and an example of the results are also given.

  11. Length-scale effect due to periodic variation of geometrically necessary dislocation densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oztop, M. S.; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Strain gradient plasticity theories have been successful in predicting qualitative aspects of the length scale effect, most notably the increase in yield strength and hardness as the size of the deforming volume decreases. However new experimental methodologies enabled by recent developments...... the microstructure of deformed metals in addition to the size effect. Recent GND measurements have revealed a distribution of length scales that evolves within a metal undergoing plastic deformation. Furthermore, these experiments have shown an accumulation of GND densities in cell walls as well as a variation...... of the saturation value of dislocation densities in these cell walls and dislocation structures. In this study, a strain gradient plasticity framework is extended by incorporating the physical quantities obtained from experimental observations: the quasi-periodicity and the saturation value of GND densities...

  12. Geometric variations in high index-contrast waveguides, coupled mode theory in curvilinear coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Jacobs, Steven; Johnson, Steven; Fink, Yoel

    2002-10-21

    Perturbation theory formulation of Maxwell's equations gives a theoretically elegant and computationally efficient way of describing small imperfections and weak interactions in electro-magnetic systems. It is generally appreciated that due to the discontinuous field boundary conditions in the systems employing high dielectric contrast profiles standard perturbation formulations fail when applied to the problem of shifted material boundaries. In this paper we developed a novel coupled mode and perturbation theory formulations for treating generic non-uniform (varying along the direction of propagation) perturbations of a waveguide cross-section based on Hamiltonian formulation of Maxwell equations in curvilinear coordinates. We show that our formulation is accurate and rapidly converges to an exact result when used in a coupled mode theory framework even for the high index-contrast discontinuous dielectric profiles. Among others, our formulation allows for an efficient numerical evaluation of induced PMD due to a generic distortion of a waveguide profile, analysis of mode filters, mode converters and other optical elements such as strong Bragg gratings, tapers, bends etc., and arbitrary combinations of thereof. To our knowledge, this is the first time perturbation and coupled mode theories are developed to deal with arbitrary non-uniform profile variations in high index-contrast waveguides.

  13. 3D geometric morphometrics of thorax variation and allometry in Hominoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastir, Markus; García-Martínez, Daniel; Williams, Scott A; Recheis, Wolfgang; Torres-Sánchez, Isabel; García Río, Francisco; Oishi, Motoharu; Ogihara, Naomichi

    2017-12-01

    Ever since the seminal papers of Keith and Schultz, hominoid primate ribcages have been described as either "funnel-" or "barrel-shaped." Following this dichotomic typology, it is currently held that Homo sapiens and hylobatids (gibbons and siamangs) share a barrel-shaped ribcage and that they are more similar to each other than to the funnel-shaped thoraces of great apes (Gorilla, Pan, and Pongo). Other researchers hypothesized that thoracic width and the invagination of the thoracic spine into the thorax are related to allometry. However, analyses that take into account the complex three-dimensional (3D) shape of the ribcage are lacking. Here, we address hypotheses about thorax shape and evolution using 3D morphometrics of thoraces in anatomical connection obtained by computed tomography scans of 23 hominoid cadavers and 10 humans and examining thorax compartments composed of seven ribs (1-7 thorax) and of 11 ribs (1-11 thorax). In the 1-7 thorax analyses, the human thorax is uniquely flat because of torsion of the upper and central ribs, differing from all non-human hominoids including hylobatids. In the 1-11 thorax analyses, humans are markedly different from African great apes, with hylobatids and orangutans intermediate. In full shape space analyses, affinities between orangutans and humans on the one hand and between hylobatids and African great apes on the other are evident. Therefore, we reject the hypothesis that humans and hylobatids bear any special affinities in overall 3D thorax shape to each other. We find that larger thoraces are wider and flatter, with a more invaginated spine, supporting the allometric hypothesis. Hominoid thorax variation shows complex interactions between allometry, rib curves, torsion, and declination, and the morphology of the costo-vertebral joint and the thoracic vertebral column. When considering functional specializations alongside phylogenetic relationships, an overly simplistic dichotomy between funnel-shaped and barrel

  14. Violence, Crime, and Violent Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Felson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available I propose a dual conceptualization of violent crime. Since violent crime is both violence and crime, theories of aggression and deviance are required to understand it. I argue that both harm-doing and rule breaking are instrumental behaviors and that a bounded rational choice approach can account for both behaviors. However, while some of the causes of harm-doing and deviance (and violent and nonviolent crime are the same, some are different. Theories of crime and deviance cannot explain why one only observes individual and group differences in violent crime and theories of aggression and violence cannot explain why one observes differences in all types of crimes. Such theories are “barking up the wrong tree.”

  15. Cyber crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bartůněk, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Development of information technology is one of the most dynamic parts of today's global society. Along with the coming of new technologies it generates new types of crime, eventually existing types of criminal activities in this area are moving from the real world to cyberspace. This rapid development of cyber crime enforces corresponding changes in the legislation related to cyberspace. In the Czech Republic the most fundamental changes in cyber crime law have been made along with the new C...

  16. A cure for crime? Psycho-pharmaceuticals and crime trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Dave E; Markowitz, Sara

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider possible links between the diffusion of new pharmaceuticals used for treating mental illness and crime rates. We describe recent trends in crime and review the evidence showing that mental illness is a clear risk factor both for criminal behavior and victimization. We summarize the development of a number of new pharmaceutical therapies for the treatment of mental illness that came into wide use during the “great American crime decline.” We examine limited international data, as well as more detailed American data, to assess the relationship between rates of prescriptions of psychotropic drugs and crime rates, while controlling for other factors that may explain trends in crime rates. Using state-level variation in the rates that various drug therapies disperse within populations to identify impacts on crime rates, we find some evidence that the expansion of psychiatric drugs is associated with decreased violent crime rates, but not property crime rates. We find no robust impacts on homicide rates and no effects on arrest rates. Further, the magnitudes of the estimated effects of expanded drug treatment on violent crime are small. Our estimates imply that about 5 percent of the decline in crime during the period of our study was due to expanded mental health treatment.

  17. Single Image Super-Resolution via Adaptive High-Dimensional Non-Local Total Variation and Adaptive Geometric Feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chao; He, Xiaohai; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2017-01-01

    Single image super-resolution (SR) is very important in many computer vision systems. However, as a highly ill-posed problem, its performance mainly relies on the prior knowledge. Among these priors, the non-local total variation (NLTV) prior is very popular and has been thoroughly studied in recent years. Nevertheless, technical challenges remain. Because NLTV only exploits a fixed non-shifted target patch in the patch search process, a lack of similar patches is inevitable in some cases. Thus, the non-local similarity cannot be fully characterized, and the effectiveness of NLTV cannot be ensured. Based on the motivation that more accurate non-local similar patches can be found by using shifted target patches, a novel multishifted similar-patch search (MSPS) strategy is proposed. With this strategy, NLTV is extended as a newly proposed super-high-dimensional NLTV (SHNLTV) prior to fully exploit the underlying non-local similarity. However, as SHNLTV is very high-dimensional, applying it directly to SR is very difficult. To solve this problem, a novel statistics-based dimension reduction strategy is proposed and then applied to SHNLTV. Thus, SHNLTV becomes a more computationally effective prior that we call adaptive high-dimensional non-local total variation (AHNLTV). In AHNLTV, a novel joint weight strategy that fully exploits the potential of the MSPS-based non-local similarity is proposed. To further boost the performance of AHNLTV, the adaptive geometric duality (AGD) prior is also incorporated. Finally, an efficient split Bregman iteration-based algorithm is developed to solve the AHNLTV-AGD-driven minimization problem. Extensive experiments validate the proposed method achieves better results than many state-of-the-art SR methods in terms of both objective and subjective qualities.

  18. [Economic crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinitz, S

    1976-01-01

    Economic crime, often also referred to as white collar crime, is one of the most incidious and predatory of offenses. Unlike street crime, for which there may well be some protection, the average citizen is completely at the mercy of the perpetrators of economic crimes. The concept of white collar crime was first identified by Edwin H. Sutherland. He dealt with the problem as a violation of trust involving either or both misrepresentation and duplicity. He argued for the use of criminal sanctions rather than civil remedies as a means of dealing with white collar offenses. Sutherland's views were attacked by the legal profession, by sociologists and criminologists and by public opinion specialists. They contended that an act treated in civil court is not a crime; that criminals are those persons who are defined as such and white collar criminals are neither so defined nor do they define themselves as criminals and, finally, that economic crime is universal. Can anyone be criminal, then, ask the critics? A number of studies by Clinard, Quinney, Black, Ball, Cressey, Newman and others have translated the interest in white collar crime into empirical terms. The last thirty-five years have also witnessed the elaboration and alteration of the theory itself. Geis' work has been particularly important in this respect. His "street" versus "suite" crime is a useful dichotomy. Most important, however, have been the monograph and papers by Herbert Edelhertz who has conceptualized the issues on various levels - from consumer fraud to the illegal activities of the multinational corporation. This article is concerned with the exposition of the theory and research in the field. Most significant, the paper raises serious doubts whether the problem of economic crime can be researched and studied; it raises even more difficult issues concerning the legal and sociological implications of economic crime and of its prevention, management and control.

  19. Virtual crimes

    OpenAIRE

    Pobořilová, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    Virtual crimes are a new specific area in the law system, which is associated with information technologies (mobile, Internet etc.). These are crimes that can be committed in cyberspace or in connection with it. Generally, cyberspace can be defined from different perspectives most often as social, technological and legal environment in which there is mutual interaction of its users. This environment, in particular the Internet, due to its characteristics such as unlimited local, speed, low co...

  20. Crime scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illuminate the significance of locations in TV series, in particular in crime series. The author presents different theoretical approaches on settings and landscapes in TV series and crime stories. By analysing both the Swedish and the British versions...... of the Wallander series, the author examines the various types of location used, focusing especially on their dramaturgic and aesthetic roles and on the various ways in which locations are conceptualized in the two series. The analysis also includes extra materials on the DVDs. Finally, the author discusses some...... theoretical and methodological challenges of analysing the significance and impact of locations in TV productions....

  1. Shape and size variations of Aegla uruguayana (Anomura, Aeglidae under laboratory conditions: A geometric morphometric approach to the growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria P. Diawol

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crustacean growth studies typically use modal analysis rather than focusing on the growth of individuals. In the present work, we use geometric morphometrics to determine how organism shape and size varies during the life of the freshwater crab, Aegla uruguayana Schmitt, 1942. A total of 66 individuals from diverse life cycle stages were examined daily and each exuvia was recorded. Digital images of the dorsal region of the cephalothorax were obtained for each exuvia and were subsequently used to record landmark configurations. Moult increment and intermoult period were estimated for each crab. Differences in shape between crabs of different sizes (allometry and sexes (sexual dimorphism; SD were observed. Allometry was registered among specimens; however, SD was not statistically significant between crabs of a given size. The intermoult period increased as size increased, but the moult frequency was similar between the sexes. Regarding ontogeny, juveniles had short and blunt rostrum, robust forehead region, and narrow cephalothorax. Unlike juveniles crabs, adults presented a well-defined anterior and posterior cephalothorax region. The rostrum was long and stylised and the forehead narrow. Geometric morphometric methods were highly effective for the analysis of aeglid-individual- growth and avoided excessive handling of individuals through exuvia analysis.

  2. Fear of Crime in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Brown

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides analyses of data on crime-associated trepidation obtained from surveys administered to college students in South Korea. The survey contained questions about, and the analyses distinguished between, offense-specific fears (fear of burglary and fear of home invasion, perceived risk of victimization (day and night, and crime avoidance behaviors (avoidance of nocturnal activity and avoidance of particular areas. Regression analyses of the data show that victimization was not consistently associated with crime-associated trepidation, while gender significantly impacted all measures of concern about crime. Women were more likely than men to report being fearful, perceiving risk, and crime avoidance behaviors. Building upon prior scholarship (for example, Madriz 1997; Stanko 1989 and considering the social context in which the data were gathered, it is herein suggested that the gendered variation in crime-associated anxiety may reflect patriarchal power relations. The methodological and policy implications of the study are also discussed.

  3. South African Crime Quarterly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...

  4. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...

  5. CRIME MAPS AND COMPUTER TECNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal KARAKAŞ; Sabri KARADOĞAN; Handan ARSLAN

    2004-01-01

    Crime maps show crime density values and locations where crime have accured. For this reason it had been easy to examine the spatial distribution of crime locations with crime maps. There for crime maps have long been part of the process to crime analysis. In this study, the crime of home burglary was mapped with respect to general areal distribution by GIS (Geographic Information System) in the city of Elazig The distribution of the crime was handled considering the parameters such as month,...

  6. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    This paper matches a comprehensive Danish employer-employee data set with individual crime information (timing of offenses, charges, convictions, and prison terms by crime type) to estimate the impact of job displacement on an individual’s propensity to commit crime. We focus on displaced...... no significantly increasing trend prior to displacement; and the crime rate of workers who will be displaced is not significantly higher than the crime rate of workers who will not be displaced. In contrast, displaced workers’ probability to commit any crime increases by 0.52 percentage points in the year of job...

  7. Geometric mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Muniz Oliva, Waldyr

    2002-01-01

    Geometric Mechanics here means mechanics on a pseudo-riemannian manifold and the main goal is the study of some mechanical models and concepts, with emphasis on the intrinsic and geometric aspects arising in classical problems. The first seven chapters are written in the spirit of Newtonian Mechanics while the last two ones as well as two of the four appendices describe the foundations and some aspects of Special and General Relativity. All the material has a coordinate free presentation but, for the sake of motivation, many examples and exercises are included in order to exhibit the desirable flavor of physical applications.

  8. Media and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild; Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account......Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account...

  9. Crime, deterrence, and democracy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2012), s. 447-469 ISSN 1465-6485 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : crime under transition * deterrence * economic s of crime Subject RIV: AH - Economic s Impact factor: 0.736, year: 2012

  10. Crimes against property & ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Zar Rokh, Ehsan; Radmanesh, Mansour

    2007-01-01

    The most primeval crimes in all countries are crimes against property such as: Burglary, Larceny, Arson, Embezzlement, False pretenses, Extortion, forgery, fraud, robbery, and etc these crimes engender when ownership existed. Lord can do any possession in his/her property .If anyone trespasses to another one ownership prevailing law punishment him/her. Also we define these crimes in Islamic criminal law; because Islamic rules are strange and prober must study very hard to understand ...

  11. Treating Juvenile Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelber, Seymour

    1983-01-01

    Although juvenile crime rates have not changed significantly in the last five years, the juvenile courts' ability to handle crime has deteriorated. To treat the problem of juvenile crime effectively requires intervention at the earliest sign of delinquency and an assessment of the juvenile courts and school system. (AM)

  12. Crime and Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    This paper tests whether being convicted of a crime affects marriage market outcomes. While it is relatively well documented that crime hurts in terms of reduced future income, there has been little systematic analysis on the association between crime and marriage market outcomes. This paper expl...

  13. Geovisualization Approaches for Spatio-temporal Crime Scene Analysis - Towards 4D Crime Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Markus; Asche, Hartmut

    This paper presents a set of methods and techniques for analysis and multidimensional visualisation of crime scenes in a German city. As a first step the approach implies spatio-temporal analysis of crime scenes. Against this background a GIS-based application is developed that facilitates discovering initial trends in spatio-temporal crime scene distributions even for a GIS untrained user. Based on these results further spatio-temporal analysis is conducted to detect variations of certain hotspots in space and time. In a next step these findings of crime scene analysis are integrated into a geovirtual environment. Behind this background the concept of the space-time cube is adopted to allow for visual analysis of repeat burglary victimisation. Since these procedures require incorporating temporal elements into virtual 3D environments, basic methods for 4D crime scene visualisation are outlined in this paper.

  14. The Effect of Compulsory Engagement on Youth Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Nikhil Jha

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the potential incapacitation effect on various categories of crime committed by youth offenders. I exploit exogenous variation generated by the increase in school-leaving age and compulsory education or work requirement in the state of New South Wales, Australia from 15 to 17. Using incidents of crime committed by offender of different age-group incorporates incapacitation effect on crimes that do not necessarily lead to arrests. Comparative Interrupted Time-Series analysi...

  15. Combating transnational environmental crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental crime is a serious and growing international problem, and one which takes many different forms. It is not limited to criminals polluting the air, water and land and pushing commercially valuable wildlife species closer to extinction; it can also include crimes which speed up climate change, destroy fish stocks, annihilate forests and exhaust essential natural resources. These crimes can have a harmful impact on the economies and security of multiple nations, in some cases they may even threaten the very existence of a country or people. Furthermore, a significant proportion of both wildlife crime and pollution crime cases point to the involvement of organized crime networks. This is evidenced by the detailed planning of operations, substantial financial support, the careful management of international shipments and massive profits. Still, to date, transnational environmental crime has been poorly attended to by the transnational organised crime and transnational policing discourse. National and international institutions have prioritised other forms of organised crime, giving little thought to the nuances of environmental crime and how they should be reflected in policing. Intention of this paper is to point out the importance of international cooperation and to point out the its good examples.

  16. School Starting Age and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...... who benefit most from being old-for-grade are those with high latent abilities whereas those with low latent ability seem to be unaffected by being old-for-grade in school....

  17. Situational crime prevention and cross-border crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, Edward R.; Soudijn, Melvin R J; Weenink, Anton W.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the consequences of cross-border crime for situational crime prevention. Many types of organised crime involve international smuggling activities – such as drug trafficking, money laundering, smuggling illegal immigrants, and other transnational illegal activities. Based on

  18. Globalization theories of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miomira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization is affecting all areas of social life, and thus no exception crime. Its effect is most evident in the development of new forms of crime that transcends national borders and states receive a supranational character. This primarily refers to the various forms of organized crime, but also in certain of its forms, which are a kind of state violence and the consequences of which are reflected in the systematic violation of human rights. Also, the process of globalization of crime has caused the formation of international organizations aimed at combating of crime which transcends national boundaries. New forms of crime are conditioned by globalization demanded a new approach to their study. Existing criminological theories have proven inadequate in explaining all the causes that lead to crime. It was necessary to create new theories and new doctrines about the causes of crime. In the continuous process of development of criminology, in constant search for new explanations of the causes of crime, within the sociological theories have emerged and globalization theories of criminality, which the authors in their work special attention. The focus of the globalization theory on crime just on its prevention, to reduce the risk of its occurrence. This is certainly a positive step because it shifts the focus of criminologists with immediate causes of crime and focus on the study of their interactions, which is largely socially conditioned, which is especially prominent in the work. The aim of this paper is to point out that globalization theories should not be viewed in isolation from other criminological theories and doctrines, but that one, although relatively new, contribute to the creation of complete systems of criminological doctrines in order to find the optimal social response to crime.

  19. Geometric recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Borot, Gaëtan; Orantin, Nicolas

    We propose a general theory whose main component are functorial assignments ∑→Ω∑ ∈ E (∑), for a large class of functors E from a certain category of bordered surfaces (∑'s) to a suitable a target category of topological vector spaces. The construction is done by summing appropriate compositions...... of the initial data over all homotopy classes of successive excisions of embedded pair of pants. We provide sufficient conditions to guarantee these infinite sums converge and as a result, we can generate mapping class group invariant vectors Ω∑ which we call amplitudes. The initial data encode the amplitude...... for pair of pants and tori with one boundary, as well as the "recursion kernels" used for glueing. We give this construction the name of "geometric recursion", abbreviated GR. As an illustration, we show how to apply our formalism to various spaces of continuous functions over Teichmueller spaces, as well...

  20. Crime Mapping and Geographical Information Systems in Crime Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dağlar, Murat; Argun, Uğur

    2016-01-01

    As essential apparatus in crime analysis, crime mapping and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are being progressively more accepted by police agencies. Development in technology and the accessibility of geographic data sources make it feasible for police departments to use GIS and crime mapping. GIS and crime mapping can be utilized as devices to discover reasons contributing to crime, and hence let law enforcement agencies proactively take action against the crime problems before they b...

  1. SAPS, Crime statistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perverse incentive' to under record violent crime, particularly the various forms of assault.6 In effect this has rendered the SAPS statistics for inter-personal. * Gould and Burger are senior researchers in the Crime and Justice Programme of the ISS ...

  2. Crime and Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Deborah; Turner, Robert; Selke, Karl

    Like intergroup violence (Chap. 7) and insurgency (Chap. 8), crime and ­corruption are nearly inevitable companions of an international intervention. Both contribute to the reasons why the intervention occurs, and both may even grow and fester as side-effects of an intervention. Moreover, crime and corruption frequently serve as obstacles to a successful termination of an intervention.

  3. Science against Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project involving students in forensic science and crime prevention to improve their investigative skills using a DNA fingerprinting workshop and designing burglar alarms, investigating blood splatter patterns, investigating vehicle collisions, and researching crime prevention advice on the Internet. (YDS)

  4. Crime and German Decadence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    In Crime Stories: Criminalistic Fantasy and the Culture of Crisis in Weimar Germany, Todd Herzog – explicitly or implicitly – deals with different established myths about crime fiction, criminality and its cultural presumptions. It is generally quite seldom – as Herzog does – that the three...

  5. Theorising Nigerian Crime Problems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aigbovo & Eidenoje

    1971-09-08

    Sep 8, 1971 ... government in Nigeria should be knowledgeable about crime theories so that they can fashion well ... single theory or definition can be exhaustive on the issue of crime.4 A major objective of criminological ...... parental kidnapping and kidnapping for sexual or slavery purposes). Yang63 adds a fourth ...

  6. Crime, deterrence, and democracy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2012), s. 447-469 ISSN 1465-6485 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : crime under transition * deterrence * economic s of crime Subject RIV: AH - Economic s Impact factor: 0.736, year: 2012

  7. Geometric interpretation of the geometric discord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yao; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the level surfaces of geometric measure of quantum discord, and provide a pictorial interpretation of geometric discord for Bell-diagonal states. We have observed its nonanalytic behavior under decoherence employing this approach and interestingly found if we expect geometric discord to remain constant under phase-flip channel for a finite period, the initial state must be separable. Besides, this geometric understanding can be applied to verify the hierarchical relationships between geometric discord and the original one. The present work makes us conjecture that the incompatibility of these two definitions may originate from the discrepancy of the geometric structures of them. -- Highlights: ► We investigate geometry structure of geometric measure of quantum discord. ► If geometric discord is assumed to remain constant, the initial state must be separable. ► Geometry interpretation can be applied to verify hierarchical relationships between geometric discord and the original one.

  8. Crime and Crime Management in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebanjo, Margaret Adewunmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines crime and its management in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions today have become arenas for crime activities such as rape, cultism, murder, theft, internet fraud, drug abuse, and examination malpractices. This paper delves into what crime is, and its causes; and the positions of the law on crime management.…

  9. Database crime to crime match rate calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckleton, John; Bright, Jo-Anne; Walsh, Simon J

    2009-06-01

    Guidance exists on how to count matches between samples in a crime sample database but we are unable to locate a definition of how to estimate a match rate. We propose a method that does not proceed from the match counting definition but which has a strong logic.

  10. Cyber-crime Science = Crime Science + Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information assets but is less strong on the empirical study of the effectiveness of these techniques. Crime Science studies the effect of crime prevention techniques empi...

  11. The Perception of Small Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2010-01-01

    Violations of social norms can be costly to society and they are, in the case of large crimes, followed by prosecution. Minor misbehaviors — small crimes — do not usually result in legal proceedings. Although the economic consequences of a single small crime can be low, such crimes generate

  12. Sentencing Multiple Crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Julian V.

    Most people assume that criminal offenders have only been convicted of a single crime. However, in reality almost half of offenders stand to be sentenced for more than one crime.The high proportion of multiple crime offenders poses a number of practical and theoretical challenges for the criminal......, and psychology offer their perspectives to the volume. A comprehensive examination of the dynamics involved with sentencing multiple offenders has the potential to be a powerful tool for legal scholars and professionals, particularly given the practical importance of the topic and the relative dearth of research...

  13. A Simple Test of Abortion and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Ted Joyce

    2009-01-01

    I first replicate Donohue and Levitt's results for violent and property crime arrest rates. I apply their data and specification to an analysis of age-specific homicide rates and murder arrest rates. The coefficients on the abortion rate have the wrong sign for two of the four measures of crime and none is statistically significant at conventional levels. I then use the legalization of abortion in 1973 to exploit two sources of variation: between-state changes in abortion rates before and aft...

  14. The Economic Epidemiology of Crime.

    OpenAIRE

    Philipson, Tomas J; Posner, Richard A

    1996-01-01

    Economic analysis of infectious diseases emphasizes the self-correcting character of epidemics, as rising risk of infection causes potential victims to take self-protective measures. We apply the analysis to crime, showing how rational potential victims of crime will take increased self-protective measures in response to rising crime rates, causing those rates to moderate. Victim responses to crime can offset public expenditures on crime control; this implies that there may be a "natural" rat...

  15. Anti Crime design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, Wim; Junger, Marianne

    Aan de Universiteit Twente is in 2009 de onderzoekgroep Crime Science Twente (CST) opgericht, waarin diverse faculteiten samenwerken. Inmiddels zijn verschillende onderzoekprojecten tot stand gebracht en is er een minor ontwikkeld waaraan studenten hebben deelgenomen. Vanuit de faculteit

  16. Psychopathy, Sociopathy, and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykken, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses psychopathology as portrayed in literature, followed by an examination of some theories of psychopathy and the association of sociopathy and crime. Also discusses using parental licensing as a preventive measure against the development of sociopathology in children. (GR)

  17. Theory of digital crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraeva B. M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available hackers seem to be the most mysterious people in the contemporary world. Where legal actions are helpless, hackers can intervene. However, not only hackers but state employees commit cyber crimes once they get power. Is it just a coincidence or authorities and hackers have lots of things in common? This article is trying to cast light on the reasons why digital crimes are committed.

  18. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin S Hanley

    Full Text Available Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026 while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029 indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes. Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  19. Effects of thickness and geometric variations in the oxide gate stack on the nonvolatile memory behaviors of charge-trap memory thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Jun Yong; Kim, So-Jung; Byun, Chun-Won; Pi, Jae-Eun; Ryu, Min-Ki; Hwang, Chi Sun; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Device designs of charge-trap oxide memory thin-film transistors (CTM-TFTs) were investigated to enhance their nonvolatile memory performances. The first strategy was to optimize the film thicknesses of the tunneling and charge-trap (CT) layers in order to meet requirements of both higher operation speed and longer retention time. While the program speed and memory window were improved for the device with a thinner tunneling layer, a long retention time was obtained only for the device with a tunneling layer thicker than 5 nm. The carrier concentration and charge-trap densities were optimized in the 30-nm-thick CT layer. It was observed that 10-nm-thick tunneling, 30-nm-thick CT, and 50-nm-thick blocking layers were the best configuration for our proposed CTM-TFTs, where a memory on/off margin higher than 107 was obtained, and a memory margin of 6.6 × 103 was retained even after the lapse of 105 s. The second strategy was to examine the effects of the geometrical relations between the CT and active layers for the applications of memory elements embedded in circuitries. The CTM-TFTs fabricated without an overlap between the CT layer and the drain electrode showed an enhanced program speed by the reduced parasitic capacitance. The drain-bias disturbance for the memory off-state was effectively suppressed even when a higher read-out drain voltage was applied. Appropriate device design parameters, such as the film thicknesses of each component layer and the geometrical relations between them, can improve the memory performances and expand the application fields of the proposed CTM-TFTs.

  20. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  1. Cyber-crime Science = Crime Science + Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality,

  2. Green Space, Violence, and Crime: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogar, Sandra; Beyer, Kirsten M

    2016-04-01

    To determine the state of evidence on relationships among urban green space, violence, and crime in the United States. Major bibliographic databases were searched for studies meeting inclusion criteria. Additional studies were culled from study references and authors' personal collections. Comparison among studies was limited by variations in study design and measurement and results were mixed. However, more evidence supports the positive impact of green space on violence and crime, indicating great potential for green space to shape health-promoting environments. Numerous factors influence the relationships among green space, crime, and violence. Additional research and standardization among research studies are needed to better understand these relationships. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Crime and Psychiatry*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcheswalla, Yusuf; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatry and crime are linked in certain ways. On one hand, we have criminal offenders with serious psychopathology; and on the other hand, we have psychiatric patients who may commit criminal offences during the influence of a psychiatric disorder. The psychiatrist in practice has to come in contact with the criminal justice system at some point of time in his career. Forensic psychiatry under whose realm these issues reside is a branch yet underdeveloped in India. The present paper reviews the inter-relationship between crime and psychiatry and the factors involved therein. PMID:25838733

  4. Geographic phenetic variation of two eastern-Mediterranean non-commensal mouse species, Mus macedonicus and M. cypriacus (Rodentia: Muridae) based on traditional and geometric approaches to morphometrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macholán, Miloš; Mikula, Ondřej; Vohralík, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 247, - (2008), s. 67-80 ISSN 0044-5231 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6045307; GA ČR GA206/06/0707 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/2334 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Mus macedonicus * Mus cypriacus * phenotypic variation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2008

  5. Is Crime News Coverage Excessive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the frequency and manner in which various crime and noncrime news topics were presented in selected newspapers and television newscasts in 1976. Examines news flow data to determine whether news output was inflexible, and whether crime news coverage distorted the amount of real-life crime. (PD)

  6. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Rick; Cadzow, Emma

    2004-01-01

    Applying CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) strategies to schools can significantly contribute to a safer learning environment by influencing the behaviour of students and visitors. CPTED has three overlapping primary concepts that are intended to reduce opportunities for crime as well as fear of crime: access control,…

  7. CRIME MAPS AND COMPUTER TECNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal KARAKAŞ

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Crime maps show crime density values and locations where crime have accured. For this reason it had been easy to examine the spatial distribution of crime locations with crime maps. There for crime maps have long been part of the process to crime analysis. In this study, the crime of home burglary was mapped with respect to general areal distribution by GIS (Geographic Information System in the city of Elazig The distribution of the crime was handled considering the parameters such as month, day and hour, and related to the land use. As a result, it was determined that there were differences in the distribution and concentration in the crime of theft with respect to the land use inside the city. The methods and findings in this study will provide rapid and accurate analyses for such kinds of studies. In addition, Interrelating the type of the crime with the regions or areas will contribute to preventing crime, and security in urban areas.

  8. Education and youth crime : effects of introducing the Education Maintenance Allowance programme [Wider Benefits of Learning Research Report No. 14

    OpenAIRE

    Feinstein, Leon; Sabates, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Education is a potentially large influence on individual propensities to offend and possibly an important source of area-level variation in crime rates. Crime statistics for England indicate that crime rates are lower in areas with higher levels of education, which are also areas of higher per capita income and contain a higher proportion of families belonging to the highest socio-economic status (Home Office, 2003). Whether the association between education and crime is causal, or whether it...

  9. International Crimes and Transitional Justice: where does organised crime fit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmentier Stephan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The last twenty years, since the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989, more than 120 violent conflicts waged across the globe and hundreds of thousands of people killed, disappeared, handicapped or left in distress.Violent conflicts involve frequent human rights violations as well as many crimes. These kinds of crimes are usually very serious and tend to involve many victims, and have attracted attention from a variety of disciplines, including social and political scientists and (criminal lawyers. Therefore, the author argues that criminology as an academic discipline has until recently hardly been interested in studying international crimes.In order to understand this, the author is firstly interested in sketching the background of the concept of international crimes and comparing it with the notion of political crimes and also with that of serious human rights violations. Secondly, international crimes will be situated in their political context of transitional justice and its links with organized crime will be explored.

  10. On the Crime Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  11. Social Disadvantage and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Per-Olof H.; Treiber, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features – i.e., their exposure – which leads to their interaction. PMID:27524829

  12. The Crime Lab Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Crime Lab Project, which takes an economical, hands-on, interdisciplinary approach to studying the career of forensics in the middle or high school classroom. Includes step-by-step student requirements for the investigative procedure, a sample evidence request form, and an assessment rubric. (KHR)

  13. Violence, xenophobia and crime

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parties, 'the media', and parts of 'civil society') that speak of xenophobic sentiments and tensions therefore become 'peddlers of… rumours and lies who are hell-bent to dent our humanity as a people.'32 The crime discourse, by contrast, does not hold the same ideological and political tinder since 'criminals' are constructed ...

  14. WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations Presentation By  Dr. Nyagudi MusanduForensic Criminologist 2nd International Securityand Safety Conference and Exhibition, 16th April, 2010 a forum hosted by Events Management Solutions at the Sarit Centre, Nairobi, Kenya  

  15. Corporate Crime and Restitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Articulates need, nature, and form of a restitutionary approach to corporate crime. Considers small, in-prison production-oriented programs; residential in-community programs, and nonresidential in-community programs for individual offenders; also considers lump sum and continuous payments for corporations to make restitution. (NRB)

  16. Digging Up a Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Shelly Anne; Krockover, Gerald H.; Burgess, Wilella; Bayley, Bill

    2004-01-01

    Forensics can serve as the perfect vehicle for science exploration and learning. As part of a professional development workshop, teachers participated in various forensic activities. This article describes an archaeological dig simulation that provides the catalyst for an inquiry-based activity. In this activity, teachers make crime scene…

  17. Gender and Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruttschnitt, C.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with the last review of gender and crime that appeared in the Annual Review of Sociology (1996), I examine the developments in the more traditional approaches to this subject (the gender ratio problem and the problem of theoretical generalization), life course research, and feminist

  18. On Geometric Infinite Divisibility

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhya, E.; Pillai, R. N.

    2014-01-01

    The notion of geometric version of an infinitely divisible law is introduced. Concepts parallel to attraction and partial attraction are developed and studied in the setup of geometric summing of random variables.

  19. Geometric Design Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Geometric Design Laboratory (GDL) is to support the Office of Safety Research and Development in research related to the geometric design...

  20. Impact of drought on crime in California: A synthetic control approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Kara E.; Ahern, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Climate and weather have been linked to criminal activity. The connection between climatological conditions and crime is of growing importance as we seek to understand the societal implications of climate change. This study describes the mechanisms theorized to link annual variations in climate to crime in California and examines the effect of drought on statewide crime rates from 2011–2015. California has suffered severe drought since 2011, resulting in intensely dry winters and several of the hottest days on record. It is likely that the drought increased economic stress and shifted routine activities of the population, potentially increasing the likelihood of crime. We used a synthetic control method to estimate the impact of California’s drought on both property and violent crimes. We found a significant increase in property crimes during the drought, but no effect on violent crimes. This result was robust to several sensitivity analyses, including a negative control. PMID:28977002

  1. Control in the coefficients with variational crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evgrafov, Anton; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi

    2012-01-01

    We study convergence of discontinuous Galerkin-type discretizations of the problems of control in the coefficients of uniformly elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). As a model problem we use that of the optimal design of thin (Kirchhoff) plates, where the governing equations are of the......We study convergence of discontinuous Galerkin-type discretizations of the problems of control in the coefficients of uniformly elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). As a model problem we use that of the optimal design of thin (Kirchhoff) plates, where the governing equations...... to “volumetric” Lebesgue norm, changes of the coefficients is generally speaking not continuous. We utilize the lifting formulation of the discontinuous Galerkin method to deal with this issue.Our main result is that limit points of sequences of designs verifying discrete versions of stationarity can also...

  2. A Review of the Statistical and Quantitative Methods Used to Study Alcohol-Attributable Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterer, Jessica L; Nelson, Trisalyn A

    2015-01-01

    Modelling the relationship between alcohol consumption and crime generates new knowledge for crime prevention strategies. Advances in data, particularly data with spatial and temporal attributes, have led to a growing suite of applied methods for modelling. In support of alcohol and crime researchers we synthesized and critiqued existing methods of spatially and quantitatively modelling the effects of alcohol exposure on crime to aid method selection, and identify new opportunities for analysis strategies. We searched the alcohol-crime literature from 1950 to January 2014. Analyses that statistically evaluated or mapped the association between alcohol and crime were included. For modelling purposes, crime data were most often derived from generalized police reports, aggregated to large spatial units such as census tracts or postal codes, and standardized by residential population data. Sixty-eight of the 90 selected studies included geospatial data of which 48 used cross-sectional datasets. Regression was the prominent modelling choice (n = 78) though dependent on data many variations existed. There are opportunities to improve information for alcohol-attributable crime prevention by using alternative population data to standardize crime rates, sourcing crime information from non-traditional platforms (social media), increasing the number of panel studies, and conducting analysis at the local level (neighbourhood, block, or point). Due to the spatio-temporal advances in crime data, we expect a continued uptake of flexible Bayesian hierarchical modelling, a greater inclusion of spatial-temporal point pattern analysis, and shift toward prospective (forecast) modelling over small areas (e.g., blocks).

  3. SU-G-JeP3-12: Use of Cone Beam CT and Deformable Image Registration for Assessing Geometrical and Dosimetric Variations During Lung Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurkovic, I; Stathakis, S; Markovic, M; Papanikolaou, N [University of Texas Health Sciences Center San Antonio, San Antonio (United States); Mavroidis, P [University of Texas Health Sciences Center San Antonio, San Antonio (United States); University North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the value of cone beam CT (CBCT) combined with deformable image registration in estimating the accuracy of the delivered treatment and the suitability of the applied target margins. Methods: Two patients with lung tumor were selected. Using their CT images intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans were developed to deliver 66Gy to the 95% of the PTV in 2Gy fractions. Using the Velocity AI software, the planning CT of each patient was registered with the fractional CBCT images that were obtained through the course of the treatment. After a CT to CBCT deformable image registration (DIR), the same fractional deformation matrix was used for the deformation of the planned dose distributions, as well as of all the contoured volumes, to each CBCT dataset. The dosimetric differences between the planning target volume (PTV) and various organs at risk (OARs) were recorded and compared. Results: CBCT data such as CTV volume change and PTV coverage was analyzed. There was a moderate relationship between volume changes and contouring method (automatic contouring using the DIR transformation vs. manual contouring on each CBCT) for patient #1 (r = 0.49), and a strong relationship for patient #2 (r = 0.83). The average PTV volume coverage from all the CBCT datasets was 91.2% for patient #1 and 95.6% for patient #2. Conclusion: Daily setup variations, tumor volume motion and lung deformation due to breathing yield differences in the actual delivered dose distributions versus the planned ones. The results presented indicate that these differences are apparent even with the use of daily IGRT. In certain fractions, the margins used seem to be insufficient to ensure acceptable lung tumor coverage. The observed differences notably depend on the tumor volume size and location. A larger cohort of patient is under investigation to verify those findings.

  4. SU-G-JeP3-12: Use of Cone Beam CT and Deformable Image Registration for Assessing Geometrical and Dosimetric Variations During Lung Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkovic, I; Stathakis, S; Markovic, M; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the value of cone beam CT (CBCT) combined with deformable image registration in estimating the accuracy of the delivered treatment and the suitability of the applied target margins. Methods: Two patients with lung tumor were selected. Using their CT images intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans were developed to deliver 66Gy to the 95% of the PTV in 2Gy fractions. Using the Velocity AI software, the planning CT of each patient was registered with the fractional CBCT images that were obtained through the course of the treatment. After a CT to CBCT deformable image registration (DIR), the same fractional deformation matrix was used for the deformation of the planned dose distributions, as well as of all the contoured volumes, to each CBCT dataset. The dosimetric differences between the planning target volume (PTV) and various organs at risk (OARs) were recorded and compared. Results: CBCT data such as CTV volume change and PTV coverage was analyzed. There was a moderate relationship between volume changes and contouring method (automatic contouring using the DIR transformation vs. manual contouring on each CBCT) for patient #1 (r = 0.49), and a strong relationship for patient #2 (r = 0.83). The average PTV volume coverage from all the CBCT datasets was 91.2% for patient #1 and 95.6% for patient #2. Conclusion: Daily setup variations, tumor volume motion and lung deformation due to breathing yield differences in the actual delivered dose distributions versus the planned ones. The results presented indicate that these differences are apparent even with the use of daily IGRT. In certain fractions, the margins used seem to be insufficient to ensure acceptable lung tumor coverage. The observed differences notably depend on the tumor volume size and location. A larger cohort of patient is under investigation to verify those findings.

  5. Demography, foreclosure, and crime:: Assessing spatial heterogeneity in contemporary models of neighborhood crime rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Baumer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present research evaluates the possibility of spatial heterogeneity in the effects on neighborhood crime rates of both traditional demographic indicators - immigrant concentration, racial composition, socioeconomic disadvantage, and residential instability - and a contemporary aspect of housing transition - foreclosure - that has garnered significant attention in recent scholarship. OBJECTIVE This research advances previous research by explicitly assessing the merits of the typical "global" or "one size fits all" approach that has been applied in most neighborhood studies of demographic context and neighborhood crime rates by juxtaposing it against an alternative strategy - geographically weighted regression (GWR - that highlights the potentially significant "local" variability in model parameters. We assess the local variation of these relationships for census tracts within the city of Chicago. METHODS This paper utilizes GWR to test for spatial heterogeneity in the effects of demographic context and other predictors on neighborhood crime rates. We map local parameter estimates and t-values generated from the GWR models to highlight some of the patterns of demographic context observed in our analysis. CONCLUSIONS GWR results indicate significant variation across Chicago census tracts in the estimates of logged percent black, immigrant concentration, and foreclosure for both robbery and burglary rates. The observed effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on robbery rates and residential stability on burglary rates also are found to vary across local neighborhood clusters in Chicago. Visual inspection of these effects illuminates the importance of supplementing current approaches by "thinking locally" when developing theoretical explanations and empirical models of how demographic context shapes crime rates.

  6. Modelling the fear of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto Curiel, Rafael; Bishop, Steven

    2017-07-01

    How secure people feel in a particular region is obviously linked to the actual crime suffered in that region but the exact relationship between crime and its fear is quite subtle. Two regions may have the same crime rate but their local perception of security may differ. Equally, two places may have the same perception of security even though one may have a significantly lower crime rate. Furthermore, a negative perception might persist for many years, even when crime rates drop. Here, we develop a model for the dynamics of the perception of security of a region based on the distribution of crime suffered by the population using concepts similar to those used for opinion dynamics. Simulations under a variety of conditions illustrate different scenarios and help us determine the impact of suffering more, or less, crime. The inhomogeneous concentration of crime together with a memory loss process is incorporated into the model for the perception of security, and results explain why people are often more fearful than actually victimized; why a region is perceived as being insecure despite a low crime rate; and why a decrease in the crime rate might not significantly improve the perception of security.

  7. Modelling the fear of crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Steven

    2017-01-01

    How secure people feel in a particular region is obviously linked to the actual crime suffered in that region but the exact relationship between crime and its fear is quite subtle. Two regions may have the same crime rate but their local perception of security may differ. Equally, two places may have the same perception of security even though one may have a significantly lower crime rate. Furthermore, a negative perception might persist for many years, even when crime rates drop. Here, we develop a model for the dynamics of the perception of security of a region based on the distribution of crime suffered by the population using concepts similar to those used for opinion dynamics. Simulations under a variety of conditions illustrate different scenarios and help us determine the impact of suffering more, or less, crime. The inhomogeneous concentration of crime together with a memory loss process is incorporated into the model for the perception of security, and results explain why people are often more fearful than actually victimized; why a region is perceived as being insecure despite a low crime rate; and why a decrease in the crime rate might not significantly improve the perception of security. PMID:28804260

  8. Preventing Financial Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... to abating such tax evasion has been reformed and a new mix-method approach adopted. This approach combines a proactive strategy—Preventing Financial Crime—with a reactive inspection strategy. During one a month of intensive fieldwork in Sweden, I studied the daily work in Preventing Financial Crime. Based...... on this, the paper shows that the Swedish tax officials seek to motivate large construction contractors and municipalities to take preventive measures in relation to their sub-contractors to avoid and abate tax evasion. The paper shows the challenges in engaging and involving these external stakeholders...

  9. Is crime contagious?

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Jens; Kling, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding whether criminal behavior is %u201Ccontagious%u201D is important for law enforcement and for policies that affect how people are sorted across social settings. We test the hypothesis that criminal behavior is contagious by using data from the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) randomized housing-mobility experiment to examine the extent to which lower local-area crime rates decrease arrest rates among individuals. Our analysis exploits the fact that the effect of treatment group assign...

  10. More Guns, More Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Duggan

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between gun ownership and crime. Previous research has suffered from a lack of reliable data on gun ownership. I exploit a unique data set to reliably estimate annual gun ownership rates at both the state and the county level during the past two decades. My findings demonstrate that changes in gun ownership are significantly positively related to changes in the homicide rate, with this relationship driven entirely by the impact of gun ownership on murders ...

  11. Crime Scene Reconstruction Using a Fully Geomatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lingua

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on two main topics: crime scene reconstruction, based on a geomatic approach, and crime scene analysis, through GIS based procedures. According to the experience of the authors in performing forensic analysis for real cases, the aforesaid topics will be examined with the specific goal of verifying the relationship of human walk paths at a crime scene with blood patterns on the floor. In order to perform such analyses, the availability of pictures taken by first aiders is mandatory, since they provide information about the crime scene before items are moved or interfered with. Generally, those pictures are affected by large geometric distortions, thus - after a brief description of the geomatic techniques suitable for the acquisition of reference data (total station surveying, photogrammetry and laser scanning - it will be shown the developed methodology, based on photogrammetric algorithms, aimed at calibrating, georeferencing and mosaicking the available images acquired on the scene. The crime scene analysis is based on a collection of GIS functionalities for simulating human walk movements and creating a statistically significant sample. The developed GIS software component will be described in detail, showing how the analysis of this statistical sample of simulated human walks allows to rigorously define the probability of performing a certain walk path without touching the bloodstains on the floor.

  12. Crime Scene Reconstruction Using a Fully Geomatic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Eros; Ajmar, Andrea; Boccardo, Piero; Giulio Tonolo, Fabio; Lingua, Andrea

    2008-10-08

    This paper is focused on two main topics: crime scene reconstruction, based on a geomatic approach, and crime scene analysis, through GIS based procedures. According to the experience of the authors in performing forensic analysis for real cases, the aforesaid topics will be examined with the specific goal of verifying the relationship of human walk paths at a crime scene with blood patterns on the floor. In order to perform such analyses, the availability of pictures taken by first aiders is mandatory, since they provide information about the crime scene before items are moved or interfered with. Generally, those pictures are affected by large geometric distortions, thus - after a brief description of the geomatic techniques suitable for the acquisition of reference data (total station surveying, photogrammetry and laser scanning) - it will be shown the developed methodology, based on photogrammetric algorithms, aimed at calibrating, georeferencing and mosaicking the available images acquired on the scene. The crime scene analysis is based on a collection of GIS functionalities for simulating human walk movements and creating a statistically significant sample. The developed GIS software component will be described in detail, showing how the analysis of this statistical sample of simulated human walks allows to rigorously define the probability of performing a certain walk path without touching the bloodstains on the floor.

  13. Reanalysing IT Crimes And Communication with Children Via Film Disconnect

    OpenAIRE

    UĞURLU, Elif Gizem

    2016-01-01

    Information Technology Crimes (IT crimes) are commonly known as Computer Crimes, Cyber Crimes, Internet Technology Crimes, Digital Crimes. The varied proliferation of these colloquialisms indicate that these crimes are becoming more and more common in Daily life. The 1999 Information Technology Crimes report drafted by the United Nations and European Union clearly defines types of crimes. The basis of commiting crimes establishes the differences between crimes. Emotional harassment and intimi...

  14. Geometric phases in discrete dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E., E-mail: julyan.cartwright@csic.es [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC–Universidad de Granada, E-18100 Armilla, Granada (Spain); Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Piro, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.piro@epfl.ch [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Piro, Oreste, E-mail: piro@imedea.uib-csic.es [Departamento de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Tuval, Idan, E-mail: ituval@imedea.uib-csic.es [Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies, CSIC–Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07190 Mallorca (Spain)

    2016-10-14

    In order to study the behaviour of discrete dynamical systems under adiabatic cyclic variations of their parameters, we consider discrete versions of adiabatically-rotated rotators. Parallelling the studies in continuous systems, we generalize the concept of geometric phase to discrete dynamics and investigate its presence in these rotators. For the rotated sine circle map, we demonstrate an analytical relationship between the geometric phase and the rotation number of the system. For the discrete version of the rotated rotator considered by Berry, the rotated standard map, we further explore this connection as well as the role of the geometric phase at the onset of chaos. Further into the chaotic regime, we show that the geometric phase is also related to the diffusive behaviour of the dynamical variables and the Lyapunov exponent. - Highlights: • We extend the concept of geometric phase to maps. • For the rotated sine circle map, we demonstrate an analytical relationship between the geometric phase and the rotation number. • For the rotated standard map, we explore the role of the geometric phase at the onset of chaos. • We show that the geometric phase is related to the diffusive behaviour of the dynamical variables and the Lyapunov exponent.

  15. Crime clocks and target performance maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available for the prevention and management of crime. This paper describes two innovative techniques that were developed by CSIR for analysing crime: "crime clocks" and "target performance maps"....

  16. Transnational Activities of Chinese Crime Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Glenn E; Elan, Seth L; Hudson, Rexford A; Kollars, Nina A

    2003-01-01

    .... The report notes the participation of such groups in all major types of crime, including trafficking of human beings and various commodities, financial crimes, extortion, gambling, prostitution, and violent crimes...

  17. Visualising Property Crime in Gauteng: Applying GIS to crime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the high rate of crime in South Africa has received much international attention, mainly focused on violent crime, the vast majority of offences reported to the South African Police Service concern property and other non-violent offences. The present study explores the relationship between one of the most frequently ...

  18. A Cure for Crime? Psycho-Pharmaceuticals and Crime Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Dave E.; Markowitz, Sara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider possible links between the diffusion of new pharmaceuticals used for treating mental illness and crime rates. We describe recent trends in crime and review the evidence showing that mental illness is a clear risk factor both for criminal behavior and victimization. We summarize the development of a number of new…

  19. Geometric Dimensioning Sentence Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuistion, Patrick J.

    1991-01-01

    Explanations of geometric dimensioning symbols are provided to assist in the comprehension of the implied basic sentence structure of modern geometric dimensioning and tolerance. The proper identification and interpretation of the substantive language within several exemplary engineering drawings, otherwise called feature control frames, is…

  20. Hate crimes and normative regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily devoted to issues related to the normative regulation of hate crimes, with special reference to the regulations of the Republic of Serbia, which are indirectly related to this matter. This kind of crimes are characterized by prejudices that perpetrators have towards injured parties, as members of certain, mostly, minority groups, due to which many hate crimes could be also called crimes of prejudice. In comparative law there are two different basic directions when it comes to regulating hate crimes: separation of hate crimes in a separate category on the one hand, and punishment of perpetrators of criminal acts with the detriment of minority groups through the usual charges of a given criminal justice system, on the other. The author finds that, regardless of the formal response forms, real life suggests that hate crimes can be essentially suppressed only by promoting values such as equality, respect for diversity and tolerance, and by continuous education of public about the danger of hate crimes.

  1. CyberCrime and Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Susan J.; Gumpert, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Surveys ways in which criminal laws are finding their way into cyberspace, the implications of such actions for communicative rights and liabilities, and the media differentials of crime and punishment. Examines crime committed using email and the Internet; computer mediated felonies, misdemeanors, and violations committed in cyberspace; forgery;…

  2. Archives: South African Crime Quarterly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 29 of 29 ... Archives: South African Crime Quarterly. Journal Home > Archives: South African Crime Quarterly. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 29 of 29 ...

  3. Juvenile Crime. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, A. E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explores many aspects of juvenile crime. It is a commonly held view that the number of crimes committed by juveniles is…

  4. Crime fiction and moral emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2011-01-01

    typology of moral systems and how different stages relate to different social systems. Further, a functional description of the various moral emotions is used to characterize crime fictions. The use of moral emotions in crime fiction is exemplified in Oplev’s The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2009), angry...

  5. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  6. Crime and the Hispanic Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Michael P.; And Others

    Although the determinants of experienced and reported crime have been fairly extensively studied, there is relatively little consensus about the predictors of victimization or likelihood of reporting crimes, and research on the elderly Hispanic Americans as victims and reporters is practically nonexistent. In l979-80, a national study used a…

  7. Postsecularism in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the postsecular turn in Scandinavian crime fiction. Postsecularism describes a renewed openness towards questions of spirituality, while maintaining the practice of critical scrutiny. Since 2000, we have seen an intensive increase in the number of titles treating religion and....../or spirituality in a way which differs from the genre’s usual approach. Firstly, I will frame the traditional attitude towards religion in crime fiction by Scandinavian welfare modernity, outlining the conspicuous absence of religion in the genre. Secondly, I propose a typology of the treatment of religion...... in crime fiction. My examples are all taken from the vast corpus of contemporary Scandinavian crime fiction, but it would be rather unproblematic to stretch the scope of the theory to an analysis of western crime fiction in general. Within this typology, I will introduce the phenomenon of a religious...

  8. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    Scandinavian media where religion has become mediatized. Consumers of popular culture no longer endorse confidence in institutionalized religion, but that does not mean that people are losing faith: Faith only seem to adjust itself and tiptoe into popular media and popular fiction. Hence, this paper seeks......In recent Scandinavian crime fiction an ongoing discussion on religion and religiosity is taking place. This undercurrent goes historically a long way back, but the past few decades seem to have left room for an altered view on religion in modern crime fiction. Crime fiction has usually been...... into popular crime fiction. In novels by Arne Dahl, Henning Mortensen, Gunnar Staalesen, A.J. Kazinski, Gretelise Holm and several other Scandinavian writers of crime fiction it is possible to locate an interest in theology and topics of religious philosophy which reflects this current trend in modern...

  9. Crime fiction and mediatized religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    Scandinavian media where religion has become mediatized. Consumers of popular culture no longer endorse confidence in institutionalized religion, but that does not mean that people are losing faith: Faith only seems to adjust itself and tiptoe into popular media and popular fiction. Hence, this paper seeks......In recent Scandinavian crime fiction an ongoing discussion on religion and religiosity is taking place. This undercurrent goes historically a long way back, but the past few decades seem to have left room for an altered view on religion in modern crime fiction. Crime fiction has usually been...... into popular crime fiction. In novels by Arne Dahl, Henning Mortensen, Gunnar Staalesen, A.J. Kazinski, Gretelise Holm and several other Scandinavian writers of crime fiction it is possible to locate an interest in theology and topics of religious philosophy which reflects this current trend in modern...

  10. Economic crime: does personality matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alalehto, Tage

    2003-06-01

    Since the publication of Edwin Sutherland's classical study, White Collar Crime, personality has been treated as completely irrelevant as a cause or as a correlating variable in studies of economic crime. This article questions that thesis. In an ongoing Swedish project studying economic crime in the areas of construction, engineering, and the music industry, 128 informants were interviewed regarding the personal character of the economic criminal compared to that of the law-abiding businessperson. Data were collected from five different regions in Sweden using the Big Five model, the personality model most often used within the field of personality research today. This article compares the results from the interviews with the few international studies that exist regarding economic crimes in these areas and common results are emphasized. It also presents nuanced analyses of the significance of personality in economic crime.

  11. Crime As Entertainment or Entertainment as A Crime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Angeline

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Article presents one part of pop culture is crime portrayed as entertainment in television shows. Television has the means of information and entertainment, resulting in the shift of crime shows, initially crime was portrayed in the news but due to the high popularity, it becomes part of the entertainment as well. In terms of information, the most famous of crime drama show is Crime Scene Investigation (CSI, and this show gave effect known as the CSI effect, which is people have more appreciation to scientific evidences and DNA testing in trials. On the other hand, with so many shows involving crime resulting in cultivation impact, which is accumulation and the formation of perception of reality. People who are more exposed to this crime show will form the same perception as the one depicted by television and resulted to changes in their behavior. Several proposals to reduce this negative effects are audience learning, the use of rating system and electronic key in television set.  

  12. Riemannian geometry and geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This established reference work continues to provide its readers with a gateway to some of the most interesting developments in contemporary geometry. It offers insight into a wide range of topics, including fundamental concepts of Riemannian geometry, such as geodesics, connections and curvature; the basic models and tools of geometric analysis, such as harmonic functions, forms, mappings, eigenvalues, the Dirac operator and the heat flow method; as well as the most important variational principles of theoretical physics, such as Yang-Mills, Ginzburg-Landau or the nonlinear sigma model of quantum field theory. The present volume connects all these topics in a systematic geometric framework. At the same time, it equips the reader with the working tools of the field and enables her or him to delve into geometric research.  The 7th edition has been systematically reorganized and updated. Almost no page has been left unchanged. It also includes new material, for instance on symplectic geometry, as well as the B...

  13. Predicting perceived risk of crime: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2011-12-01

    With a sample of Italians selected from 71 Italian counties (N = 1,868), we performed two multilevel analyses aimed at predicting the perceived risk of crime at local (i.e., in the participants' county of residence) and at societal (i.e., in the context of Italian society) levels. A significant proportion of the variation in local risk perception was at the county level. The following individual variables predicted higher levels of this variable: indirect victimization, the perception of social and physical disorder, being a woman, being poorly educated, and being an older person. Among the ecological predictors, the crime rate and unemployment rate predicted higher levels of local crime risk perception, while the immigrant rate did not. Perceived risk of crime at the societal level did not show significant variation at the county level. Education, being a man, trusting people, and adhesion to post-materialistic values predicted lower levels of societal crime risk perception, while number of sons/daughters and exposure to television news increased it. The limitations and possible development of this study are discussed.

  14. Geometric deviation modeling by kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weidong; Hu, Yueming; Liu, Yu; Dai, Wanyi

    2015-09-01

    Typical representation of dimension and geometric accuracy is limited to the self-representation of dimension and geometric deviation based on geometry variation thinking, yet the interactivity affection of geometric variation and gesture variation of multi-rigid body is not included. In this paper, a kinematic matrix model based on Lagrangian coordinate is introduced, with the purpose of unified model for geometric variation and gesture variation and their interactive and integrated analysis. Kinematic model with joint, local base and movable base is built. The ideal feature of functional geometry is treated as the base body; the fitting feature of functional geometry is treated as the adjacent movable body; the local base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the ideal geometry, and the movable base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the fitting geometry. Furthermore, the geometric deviation is treated as relative location or rotation variation between the movable base and the local base, and it's expressed by the Lagrangian coordinate. Moreover, kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate for different types of geometry tolerance zones is constructed, and total freedom for each kinematic model is discussed. Finally, the Lagrangian coordinate library, kinematic matrix library for geometric deviation modeling is illustrated, and an example of block and piston fits is introduced. Dimension and geometric tolerances of the shaft and hole fitting feature are constructed by kinematic matrix and Lagrangian coordinate, and the results indicate that the proposed kinematic matrix is capable and robust in dimension and geometric tolerances modeling.

  15. Do Barriers to Crime Prevention Moderate the Effects of Situational Crime Prevention Policies on Violent Crime in High Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, Eric L.; Zhang, Gary

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates how barriers to school-based crime prevention programming moderate the effects of situational crime prevention (SCP) policies on levels of violent crime in U.S. public high schools. Using data from the 2008 School Survey on Crime and Safety, we estimate a series of negative binomial regression models with interactions to…

  16. 5th Dagstuhl Seminar on Geometric Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Brunnett, Guido; Farin, Gerald; Goldman, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In 19 articles presented by leading experts in the field of geometric modelling the state-of-the-art on representing, modeling, and analyzing curves, surfaces as well as other 3-dimensional geometry is given. The range of applications include CAD/CAM-systems, computer graphics, scientific visualization, virtual reality, simulation and medical imaging. The content of this book is based on selected lectures given at a workshop held at IBFI Schloss Dagstuhl, Germany. Topics treated are: – curve and surface modelling – non-manifold modelling in CAD – multiresolution analysis of complex geometric models – surface reconstruction – variational design – computational geometry of curves and surfaces – 3D meshing – geometric modelling for scientific visualization – geometric models for biomedical applications

  17. Childhood victimization and crime victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away, homelessness, criminal history, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse) increase a person's risk for crime victimization? (c) Do lifestyle characteristics mediate the relationship between child abuse/ neglect and crime victimization? (d) Do these relationships vary by a person's sex or race/ethnicity? Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 497) were matched with nonabused and nonneglected children (n = 395), followed up, and interviewed in middle adulthood (approximate age 39.5). Logistic and ordinary least square regressions were conducted to assess risk for crime victimization and test for mediation. Child abuse and/ or neglect increased a person's risk for physical (OR = 2.56, p crime victimization. For the sample overall, running away served as a partial mediator between child abuse and neglect and physical and sexual crime victimization. In addition, results revealed sex and race/ethnicity differences in patterns of mediation. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.

  18. Organized crime impact study highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porteous, S.D.

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to address the issue of how organized crime impacts on Canadians and their communities both socially and economically. As far as environmental crime is concerned, three main areas of concern have been identified: (1) illicit trade in ozone depleting substances, (2) illicit hazardous waste treatment, and (3) disposal of illicit trade in endangered species. To gauge the magnitude of organized crime activity, the market value of worldwide illegal trafficking in illicit drugs was estimated to be as high as $100 billion worldwide (between $1.4 to 4 billion in Canada). It is suspected that Canada supplies a substantial portion of the U.S. black market in chlorofluorocarbons with most of the rest being supplied from Mexico. Another area of concern involves the disposal of hazardous wastes. Canada produces approximately 5.9 million tonnes of hazardous waste annually. Of these, 3.2 million tonnes are sent to off-site disposal facilities for specialized treatment and recycling. The treatment of hazardous waste is a very profitable business, hence vulnerable to fraudulent practices engaged in by organized crime groups. Environmental implications of this and other environmental crimes, as well as their economic, commercial, health and safety impact were examined. Other areas of organized crime activity in Canada (drugs, economic crimes, migrant trafficking, counterfeit products, motor vehicle theft, money laundering) were also part of the study.

  19. Geometric and engineering drawing

    CERN Document Server

    Morling, K

    2010-01-01

    The new edition of this successful text describes all the geometric instructions and engineering drawing information that are likely to be needed by anyone preparing or interpreting drawings or designs with plenty of exercises to practice these principles.

  20. Geometric ghosts and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1980-09-01

    A review is given of the geometrical identification of the renormalization ghosts and the resulting derivation of Unitarity equations (BRST) for various gauges: Yang-Mills, Kalb-Ramond, and Soft-Group-Manifold

  1. Differential geometric structures

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, Walter A

    2007-01-01

    This introductory text defines geometric structure by specifying parallel transport in an appropriate fiber bundle and focusing on simplest cases of linear parallel transport in a vector bundle. 1981 edition.

  2. Analyzing crime scene videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Cindy C.; Peloquin, Tracy D.

    1999-02-01

    Since late 1996 the Forensic Identification Services Section of the Ontario Provincial Police has been actively involved in state-of-the-art image capture and the processing of video images extracted from crime scene videos. The benefits and problems of this technology for video analysis are discussed. All analysis is being conducted on SUN Microsystems UNIX computers, networked to a digital disk recorder that is used for video capture. The primary advantage of this system over traditional frame grabber technology is reviewed. Examples from actual cases are presented and the successes and limitations of this approach are explored. Suggestions to companies implementing security technology plans for various organizations (banks, stores, restaurants, etc.) will be made. Future directions for this work and new technologies are also discussed.

  3. Borderless Crime - Computer Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana POPA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the consideration that fighting cybercrime is a continuous process, the more the types of old crimes are committed today through modern means (computer fraud at distances of thousands of kilometers, international cooperation is vital to combat this phenomenon.In EU countries, still under financial crisis "the phrase", cybercrime has found a "positive environment" taking advantage of poor security management systems of these countries.Factors that led criminal groups to switch "their activities" are related to so-called advantages of the "gains" obtained with relatively low risk.In Romania, more than any of the EU member states criminal activities set as target financial institutions or foreign citizens, weakening confidence in financial systems and the security of communication networks in our country, people's confidence in electronic payment instruments and those available on the Internet.

  4. Secrecy, Betrayal and Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Siegel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years numerous secret transgressions and crimes have been revealed in the media. Whistleblowers reveal clandestine agreements between managers and directors of large companies; criminals (pentiti make deals with criminal justice officials; cyclists and athletes make public confessions about drug use; victims of sexual abuse come forward with their testimonies.  In this paper, I try to analyze why attitudes about secrecy have changed in the last couple of decades and how and why so many secrets have been revealed, either by individuals who are complicit (whistleblowers or cyclists, by victims (of child abuse by the Catholic clergy and by outsiders (WikiLeaks activists. In addition, some suggestions on the methods of criminological research in closed and isolated groups which consider such information leaks a form of betrayal are provided.

  5. South African Crime Quarterly: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...

  6. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  7. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  8. 'Just crime'?: Violence, xenophobia and crime: discourse and practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 33 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. White-Collar Crimes and Financial Corruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih ŞENTÜRK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crime, defined as act which is contrary to the law, creates negative influence in the society both economically and spiritually. There are various factors like professional experience as well as biological, psychological and sociological ones that make individuals turn to crime. Edwin Sutherland claim that life experiences and some facts learned from the environment account for occupational crimes in his study on the theory of crime in 1939. White-collar crime, which is perhaps the most important of types of crime in terms of havoc and committed by the superior contrary to common belief, has much more influence than conventional crime. This crime, which inflict significant financial loses and psychological collapse on states, communities, businesses and people, are committed by well-respected professionals in their business. In this study, white collar crimes are examined with conceptual view and detailed. Besides, this study explain this type of crime is so forceful, by giving remarkable examples on economic losses.

  10. The dynamics of poverty and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas.The economic theory of crime [1] demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime.The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.

  11. Why Is There More Crime in Cities?

    OpenAIRE

    Edward L. Glaeser; Bruce Sacerdote

    1999-01-01

    Crime rates are much higher in big cities than in either small cities or rural areas, and this situation has been relatively pervasive for several centuries. This paper attempts to explain this connection by using victimization data, evidence from the NLSY on criminal behavior and the Uniform Crime Reports. Higher pecuniary benefits for crime in large cities can explain approximately 27% of the effect for overall crime, though obviously much less of the urban- crime connection for non-pecunia...

  12. Robust topology optimization accounting for geometric imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schevenels, M.; Jansen, M.; Lombaert, Geert

    2013-01-01

    performance. As a consequence, the actual structure may be far from optimal. In this paper, a robust approach to topology optimization is presented, taking into account two types of geometric imperfections: variations of (1) the crosssections and (2) the locations of structural elements. The first type...

  13. Podcast: The Electronic Crimes Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sept 26, 2016. Chris Lukas, the Special Agent in Charge of the Electronic Crimes Division within the OIG's Office of Investigations talks about computer forensics, cybercrime in the EPA and his division's role in criminal investigations.

  14. Partners Against Crime (PAC) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Partners Against Crime (PAC) program promotes collaboration among police officers, Durham residents, and city and county government officials to find...

  15. Crime fiction and moral emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2011-01-01

    The article first discusses how crime fiction centrally activates moral emotions related to feelings of social trust and social conflicts. The article uses psychological theory to analyse audio-visual fiction, and it takes an evolutionary stance in relation to morality; within film studies......, and especially within literary studies, the inspiration from evolutionary studies has been strong in the last decade. Humans are adapted to group living, and emotions linked to fairness have an innate basis. The article then shows how different crime stories activate different stages in Kohlberg’s functional...... typology of moral systems and how different stages relate to different social systems. Further, a functional description of the various moral emotions is used to characterize crime fictions. The use of moral emotions in crime fiction is exemplified in Oplev’s The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2009), angry...

  16. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    SACQ). We believe that the UCT. Centre of Criminology's commitment to advancing policy-relevant research and analysis on public safety, criminal justice and evolving forms of crime in South Africa, and the global South more broadly, ...

  17. Considerations Regarding Crimes Against Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Birzu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available the Second World War offered the opportunity, to the international community, to realize the total lack of international law prohibiting the worst inhumane acts. Particular gravity, the large number of casualties as a result of persecution or extermination of whole groups of people highlights crimes against humanity among offenses punishable by the criminal law, thus requiring additional scientific research and a more elaborate analysis. Effective punishment of crimes against humanity is an important element in the prevention of such crimes, the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, such as to encourage promote international peace and security. Crimes against humanity were first regulated by the rules of international criminal law after the Second World War as a response to the atrocities committed by the Nazi and Japanese fighting forces in the occupied territories, against the local population and in the death camps, of broad categories of people based on national, ethnic or racial.

  18. Crime, Teenage Abortion, and Unwantedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoesmith, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645

  19. Challenges of organized environmental crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugarski Tatjana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment as the totality of natural and man-made values and their relationships, is a complex problem that is not just a challenge for the law in the sense that it is protected from intrusion, but also for the negative social phenomena such as crime. Dynamic negative social phenomenon, immanent to every society, crime is constantly in the process of 'adaptation' in terms of modification of existing and creation of new forms. One of the contemporary forms of crime is an environmental crime which multiplies its concrete forms of manifestation, which is due to the extraordinary diversity of the environment in which offenders constantly find new enforcement cases. Especially significant issues regarding the environment is waste whose collection, transport, treatment and disposal is one of the priority importance for humanity. However, insufficient awareness of the significance and importance of this issue, as well as the harmful consequences of failure in connection with the waste in an appropriate manner, together with the motive of greed is enough for offenders to deal with illegal activity and exercise in relation to different types of waste. In this type of criminal activity usually occur organized criminal group that this type of criminal activity makes it even more difficult. These problems are extremely important and complex, in this paper, attention is given to the organized environmental crime in connection with smuggling of hazardous waste, as one of the forms of organized environmental crime.

  20. The spatial extent of the effect of foreclosures on crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Seth B; Stucky, Thomas D; Ottensmann, John R

    2015-01-01

    Although neighborhood stability has long been considered a substantial determinant of crime, foreclosures have not been the subject of concerted research among criminologists until recently. A number of recent studies have examined the linkage between home foreclosures and crime. Though generally finding a significant relationship, studies have used different approaches and units of analysis. This variation led us to examine the spatial extent to which foreclosures affect a relatively small surrounding area. In this paper, we consider the spatial extent of the foreclosure effect on crime by estimating fixed effect negative binomial models using geocoded UCR data for 2003-2008 and foreclosure data to predict crime counts using the number of foreclosures within various small area radii. Results show that, independently and jointly, foreclosures are a predictor of crime up to at least a distance of 2250 feet. Importantly, that effect declines with distance. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of those findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Geometrical optical illusionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Geometrical optical illusions were given this title by Oppel in 1855. Variants on such small distortions of visual space were illustrated thereafter, many of which bear the names of those who first described them. Some original forms of the geometrical optical illusions are shown together with 'perceptual portraits' of those who described them. These include: Roget, Chevreul, Fick, Zöllner, Poggendorff, Hering, Kundt, Delboeuf Mach, Helmholtz, Hermann, von Bezold, Müller-Lyer, Lipps, Thiéry, Wundt, Münsterberg, Ebbinghaus, Titchener, Ponzo, Luckiesh, Sander, Ehrenstein, Gregory, Heard, White, Shepard, and. Lingelbach. The illusions are grouped under the headings of orientation, size, the combination of size and orientation, and contrast. Early theories of illusions, before geometrical optical illusions were so named, are mentioned briefly.

  2. The philosophical aspects of hate crime and hate crime legislation: introducing the special section on the philosophy of hate crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brax, David; Munthe, Christian

    2015-06-01

    In this introduction to the special symposium on the philosophy of hate crime, we provide an overview of the main philosophical aspects of hate crime and hate crime legislation. We point out that there are two overarching philosophical issues that span over the literature: the Conceptual Question--concerning what hate crime is--and the Normative Question--concerning the status of hate crimes and the justification of hate crime legislation. We also provide brief summaries of the articles in the special section and point to their relations to the broader themes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Robust topology optimization accounting for geometric imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schevenels, M.; Jansen, M.; Lombaert, Geert

    2013-01-01

    performance. As a consequence, the actual structure may be far from optimal. In this paper, a robust approach to topology optimization is presented, taking into account two types of geometric imperfections: variations of (1) the crosssections and (2) the locations of structural elements. The first type......Topology optimization is a powerful method to optimize the performance of macro, micro, or nano structures. However, the geometry of the actual structure may differ from the optimized design due to manufacturing errors. Such geometric imperfections can have a significant impact on the structural...

  4. PREFACE: Geometrically frustrated magnetism Geometrically frustrated magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jason S.

    2011-04-01

    Frustrated magnetism is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics that has grown tremendously over the past 20 years. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement in the field of geometrically frustrated magnets and is inspired by the 2010 Highly Frustrated Magnetism (HFM 2010) meeting in Baltimore, MD, USA. Geometric frustration is a broad phenomenon that results from an intrinsic incompatibility between some fundamental interactions and the underlying lattice geometry based on triangles and tetrahedra. Most studies have centred around the kagomé and pyrochlore based magnets but recent work has looked at other structures including the delafossite, langasites, hyper-kagomé, garnets and Laves phase materials to name a few. Personally, I hope this issue serves as a great reference to scientist both new and old to this field, and that we all continue to have fun in this very frustrated playground. Finally, I want to thank the HFM 2010 organizers and all the sponsors whose contributions were an essential part of the success of the meeting in Baltimore. Geometrically frustrated magnetism contents Spangolite: an s = 1/2 maple leaf lattice antiferromagnet? T Fennell, J O Piatek, R A Stephenson, G J Nilsen and H M Rønnow Two-dimensional magnetism and spin-size effect in the S = 1 triangular antiferromagnet NiGa2S4 Yusuke Nambu and Satoru Nakatsuji Short range ordering in the modified honeycomb lattice compound SrHo2O4 S Ghosh, H D Zhou, L Balicas, S Hill, J S Gardner, Y Qi and C R Wiebe Heavy fermion compounds on the geometrically frustrated Shastry-Sutherland lattice M S Kim and M C Aronson A neutron polarization analysis study of moment correlations in (Dy0.4Y0.6)T2 (T = Mn, Al) J R Stewart, J M Hillier, P Manuel and R Cywinski Elemental analysis and magnetism of hydronium jarosites—model kagome antiferromagnets and topological spin glasses A S Wills and W G Bisson The Herbertsmithite Hamiltonian: μSR measurements on single crystals

  5. Geometric Series via Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesman, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Infinite series is a challenging topic in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum for many students. In fact, there is a vast literature in mathematics education research on convergence issues. One of the most important types of infinite series is the geometric series. Their beauty lies in the fact that they can be evaluated explicitly and that…

  6. A Geometric Dissection Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 7. A Geometric Dissection Problem. M N Deshpande. Think It Over Volume 7 Issue 7 July 2002 pp 91-91. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/07/0091-0091. Author Affiliations.

  7. Geometric statistical inference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periwal, Vipul

    1999-01-01

    A reparametrization-covariant formulation of the inverse problem of probability is explicitly solved for finite sample sizes. The inferred distribution is explicitly continuous for finite sample size. A geometric solution of the statistical inference problem in higher dimensions is outlined

  8. Crime clocks and target performance maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Anthony K

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available View), spreadsheets (eg: Excel) and data bases (eg: Access). 2. Crime clocks A map of crime clocks displays the distribution of crime in time and space using scaled pie charts to show the relative crime rates for the selected period being analysed. Each... pie chart shows the total aggregated crime for an area (eg: CAS Block or precinct) and is positioned on the centroid of the relevant area. Hence, the size of each pie chart is proportional to the amount of crime that occurred in that area over...

  9. A Review of the Statistical and Quantitative Methods Used to Study Alcohol-Attributable Crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Fitterer

    Full Text Available Modelling the relationship between alcohol consumption and crime generates new knowledge for crime prevention strategies. Advances in data, particularly data with spatial and temporal attributes, have led to a growing suite of applied methods for modelling. In support of alcohol and crime researchers we synthesized and critiqued existing methods of spatially and quantitatively modelling the effects of alcohol exposure on crime to aid method selection, and identify new opportunities for analysis strategies. We searched the alcohol-crime literature from 1950 to January 2014. Analyses that statistically evaluated or mapped the association between alcohol and crime were included. For modelling purposes, crime data were most often derived from generalized police reports, aggregated to large spatial units such as census tracts or postal codes, and standardized by residential population data. Sixty-eight of the 90 selected studies included geospatial data of which 48 used cross-sectional datasets. Regression was the prominent modelling choice (n = 78 though dependent on data many variations existed. There are opportunities to improve information for alcohol-attributable crime prevention by using alternative population data to standardize crime rates, sourcing crime information from non-traditional platforms (social media, increasing the number of panel studies, and conducting analysis at the local level (neighbourhood, block, or point. Due to the spatio-temporal advances in crime data, we expect a continued uptake of flexible Bayesian hierarchical modelling, a greater inclusion of spatial-temporal point pattern analysis, and shift toward prospective (forecast modelling over small areas (e.g., blocks.

  10. Dynamic Simulation of Community Crime and Crime-Reporting Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonas, Michael A.; Borrebach, Jeffrey D.; Burke, Jessica G.; Brown, Shawn T.; Philp, Katherine D.; Burke, Donald S.; Grefenstette, John J.

    An agent-based model was developed to explore the effectiveness of possible interventions to reduce neighborhood crime and violence. Both offenders and non-offenders (or citizens) were modeled as agents living in neighborhoods, with a set of rules controlling changes in behavior based on individual experience. Offenders may become more or less inclined to actively commit criminal offenses, depending on the behavior of the neighborhood residents and other nearby offenders, and on their arrest experience. In turn, citizens may become more or less inclined to report crimes, based on the observed prevalence of criminal activity within their neighborhood. This paper describes the basic design and dynamics of the model, and how such models might be used to investigate practical crime intervention programs.

  11. From white-collar crime to red-collar crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Richard G; Kiehl, Kent A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of violence with respect to white-collar criminals. The analysis is conceptual, focusing on the historical underpinnings of white-collar crime and reviewing the evolution of white-collar criminals. Findings suggest that white-collar criminals do display violent tendencies and, contrary to popular belief, can become dangerous individuals. The paper represents an extremely useful and practical source for fraud examiners and other white-collar crime investigators. Raising the mvareness of investigators dealing with white-collar criminals may prevent them from becoming victims of a violent act. The paper fulfills a need to highlight a dangerous trend with white-collar criminals in that they may be driven to violence against those involved in investigating their crimes.

  12. Old theories and new approaches: Evaluating Freda Adler's theory of low crime and its implications for criminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nivette, Amy E.

    Many years ago, Freda Adler (1983) sought to explain the full variation of crime rates through the notion of synnomie. Although Adler’s research was incomplete and somewhat flawed, it drew attention to low crime societies as the subject of criminological research. In this article I critically

  13. Planning against crime: preventing crime with people not barriers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, K

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available committees to work closely with the police, and in some instances involving local employees (such as domestic workers) to act as the ‘eyes on the street’ and report suspicious behaviour.7 The question that arises is, therefore, how to plan against crime... AND LIEBERMANN six policing areas in the Northern Cape and is also being used in KwaZulu-Natal as part of a broader local crime prevention strategy. So far, the evidence suggests that the model has significant potential to enhance local safety. The model...

  14. Analysis of crimes committed against scheduled tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, Vivek P.; Akhil, P.; Anto, Christopher; Gnanasigamani, Lydia J.

    2017-11-01

    One of the curses to the society is a crime which has a deep impact on the society. Victims of crimes are the one who is impacted the most. All communities in the world are affected by crime and the criminal justice system, but largely impacted communities are the backward classes. There are many cases reported of crime committed against scheduled tribes from the year 2005 till date. This paper states the analysis of Crimes Committed against Scheduled Tribes in the year 2015 in various states and union territories in India. In this study, Multiple Linear regression techniques have been used to analyze the crimes committed against scheduled tribes’ community in India. This study compares the number of cases reported to the police station and rate of crime committed in different states in India. It also states the future prediction of the crime that would happen. It will also predict the number of cases of crime committed against the scheduled tribe that can be reported in future. The dataset which has been used in this study is taken from official Indian government repository for crimes which include different information of crimes committed against scheduled tribes in different states and union territories measured under the population census of the year 2011. This study will help different Indian states and union territory government to analyze and predict the future crimes that may occur and take appropriate measures against it before the actual crime would occur.

  15. When Colour Matters: Policing and Hate Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Wigerfelt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the image of Sweden as a tolerant, colour-blind and non-racial country, which is based on the narrative of a country for instance associated with solidarity with the so-called Third World; in this article we argue that racial attributes, e.g. visible differences, account for people’s different life possibilities and circumstances in Swedish society. This article explores and discusses whether, and if so why, people who belong to the group that is categorised as “non-white”, with an emphasis on Afroswedes, and depicted as racially different, experience being targets of diverse variations of bias-based policing, harassment and hate crime. Theories relating to colonial stereotypes, racism, doing difference, the geography of hate, race/ethnicity profiling and intersectionality are used to analyse our material. Based on individual and focus group interviews with “non-whites”, this article discusses how visible differences are highlighted in different kinds of social contexts. The interview results show that people with dark skin are often targets of different kinds of private and public policing based on race- and ethnicity profiling that often occurs on or near borders/boundaries. When those who are targets of racial harassment and exclusion resist such treatment, e.g. by crossing borders/boundaries, they are at risk of becoming victims of hate crime.

  16. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...... to understand the concept of augmentet reality. The crime scene is an encoded place due to certain actions and events which have taken place and which have left various traces which in turn may be read and interpreted: blood, nails, hair are all (DNA) codes to be cracked as are traces of gun powder, shot holes...

  17. Ethics in Crimes and Misdemeanors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Haraldsson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I employ Goodenough´s distinction between films that illustrate, are about and do philosophy to answer the question how we can identify the ethical content of movies. Crimes and Misdemeanors by Woody Allen is taken as an example but Mary L. Litch has argued that this movie illustrates ethical problems and is about ethics. On Litch´s reading the film reveals inherent flaws in utilitarianism and illustrates a Kantian insight as well as other ethical and religious theses. I argue, however, that Litch has relied on a too narrow method when identifying the ethics of Crimes and Misdemeanors. She focuses almost exclusively on dialogue and the general storyline. If we broaden our method to include sensitivity to filming, editing, camera angulation etc., we will not only realize a rather different ethical content in Crimes and Misdemeanors but also see how the movie stirkes close to home for most viewers of Hollywood movies.

  18. Assessing Crime as a Problem: The Relationship between Residents' Perception of Crime and Official Crime Rates over 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the relationship between official crime rates in census tracts and resident perceptions of crime. Using a unique data set that links household-level data from the American Housing Survey metro samples over 25 years (1976-1999) with official crime rate data for census tracts in selected cities during selected years, this study…

  19. Teaching about Crime in Communist Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Philip L.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information on developing a short college level module on crime and societal reaction in communist society. Presented are techniques for gauging student knowledge of crime in communist states, theories by communist criminologists, and comparative criminology suggestions. (Author/DB)

  20. The state of crime in South Africa: An analysis of the SAPS crime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The statistics for the 2009/10 period show an overall increase in crime at a national level that is driven by increases in five categories of crime: shoplifting, commercial crime, residential and business burglaries, and theft from motor vehicles. While the statistics suggest that violent crime has decreased, there are a number of ...

  1. Dynamics in geometrical confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the dynamics of low molecular weight and polymeric molecules when they are constrained under conditions of geometrical confinement. It covers geometrical confinement in different dimensionalities: (i) in nanometer thin layers or self supporting films (1-dimensional confinement) (ii) in pores or tubes with nanometric diameters (2-dimensional confinement) (iii) as micelles embedded in matrices (3-dimensional) or as nanodroplets.The dynamics under such conditions have been a much discussed and central topic in the focus of intense worldwide research activities within the last two decades. The present book discusses how the resulting molecular mobility is influenced by the subtle counterbalance between surface effects (typically slowing down molecular dynamics through attractive guest/host interactions) and confinement effects (typically increasing the mobility). It also explains how these influences can be modified and tuned, e.g. through appropriate surface coatings, film thicknesses or pore...

  2. Geometric group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bestvina, Mladen; Vogtmann, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Geometric group theory refers to the study of discrete groups using tools from topology, geometry, dynamics and analysis. The field is evolving very rapidly and the present volume provides an introduction to and overview of various topics which have played critical roles in this evolution. The book contains lecture notes from courses given at the Park City Math Institute on Geometric Group Theory. The institute consists of a set of intensive short courses offered by leaders in the field, designed to introduce students to exciting, current research in mathematics. These lectures do not duplicate standard courses available elsewhere. The courses begin at an introductory level suitable for graduate students and lead up to currently active topics of research. The articles in this volume include introductions to CAT(0) cube complexes and groups, to modern small cancellation theory, to isometry groups of general CAT(0) spaces, and a discussion of nilpotent genus in the context of mapping class groups and CAT(0) gro...

  3. Gravity, a geometrical course

    CERN Document Server

    Frè, Pietro Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    ‘Gravity, a Geometrical Course’ presents general relativity (GR) in a systematic and exhaustive way, covering three aspects that are homogenized into a single texture: i) the mathematical, geometrical foundations, exposed in a self consistent contemporary formalism, ii) the main physical, astrophysical and cosmological applications,  updated to the issues of contemporary research and observations, with glimpses on supergravity and superstring theory, iii) the historical development of scientific ideas underlying both the birth of general relativity and its subsequent evolution. The book is divided in two volumes.   Volume One is dedicated to the development of the theory and basic physical applications. It guides the reader from the foundation of special relativity to Einstein field equations, illustrating some basic applications in astrophysics. A detailed  account  of the historical and conceptual development of the theory is combined with the presentation of its mathematical foundations.  Differe...

  4. The Effect of Trees on Crime in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2012-01-01

    The authors estimate the relationship between trees and three crime aggregates (all crime, violent crime, and property crime) and two individual crimes (burglary and vandalism) in Portland, Oregon. During the study period (2005-2007), 431 crimes were reported at the 2,813 single-family homes in our sample. In general, the authors find that trees in the public right of...

  5. Predicting Financial Crime: Augmenting the Predictive Policing Arsenal

    OpenAIRE

    Lavigne, Sam; Clifton, Brian; Tseng, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Financial crime is a rampant but hidden threat. In spite of this, predictive policing systems disproportionately target "street crime" rather than white collar crime. This paper presents the White Collar Crime Early Warning System (WCCEWS), a white collar crime predictive model that uses random forest classifiers to identify high risk zones for incidents of financial crime.

  6. Geometric measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Waerden, B

    1996-01-01

    From the reviews: "... Federer's timely and beautiful book indeed fills the need for a comprehensive treatise on geometric measure theory, and his detailed exposition leads from the foundations of the theory to the most recent discoveries. ... The author writes with a distinctive style which is both natural and powerfully economical in treating a complicated subject. This book is a major treatise in mathematics and is essential in the working library of the modern analyst." Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society.

  7. Geometric theory of information

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together geometric tools and their applications for Information analysis. It collects current and many uses of in the interdisciplinary fields of Information Geometry Manifolds in Advanced Signal, Image & Video Processing, Complex Data Modeling and Analysis, Information Ranking and Retrieval, Coding, Cognitive Systems, Optimal Control, Statistics on Manifolds, Machine Learning, Speech/sound recognition, and natural language treatment which are also substantially relevant for the industry.

  8. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  9. Cyber Crime in Uganda: Myth or Reality?

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Tushabe; Venansius Baryamureeba

    2007-01-01

    There is a general feeling that Internet crime is an advanced type of crime that has not yet infiltrated developing countries like Uganda. The carefree nature of the Internet in which anybody publishes anything at anytime poses a serious security threat for any nation. Unfortunately, there are no formal records about this type of crime for Uganda. Could this mean that it does not exist there? The author conducted an independent research to ascertain whether cyber crimes h...

  10. Studies in geometric quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuynman, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis contains five chapters, of which the first, entitled 'What is prequantization, and what is geometric quantization?', is meant as an introduction to geometric quantization for the non-specialist. The second chapter, entitled 'Central extensions and physics' deals with the notion of central extensions of manifolds and elaborates and proves the statements made in the first chapter. Central extensions of manifolds occur in physics as the freedom of a phase factor in the quantum mechanical state vector, as the phase factor in the prequantization process of classical mechanics and it appears in mathematics when studying central extension of Lie groups. In this chapter the connection between these central extensions is investigated and a remarkable similarity between classical and quantum mechanics is shown. In chapter three a classical model is given for the hydrogen atom including spin-orbit and spin-spin interaction. The method of geometric quantization is applied to this model and the results are discussed. In the final chapters (4 and 5) an explicit method to calculate the operators corresponding to classical observables is given when the phase space is a Kaehler manifold. The obtained formula are then used to quantise symplectic manifolds which are irreducible hermitian symmetric spaces and the results are compared with other quantization procedures applied to these manifolds (in particular to Berezin's quantization). 91 refs.; 3 tabs

  11. Perspective: Geometrically frustrated assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grason, Gregory M.

    2016-09-01

    This perspective will overview an emerging paradigm for self-organized soft materials, geometrically frustrated assemblies, where interactions between self-assembling elements (e.g., particles, macromolecules, proteins) favor local packing motifs that are incompatible with uniform global order in the assembly. This classification applies to a broad range of material assemblies including self-twisting protein filament bundles, amyloid fibers, chiral smectics and membranes, particle-coated droplets, curved protein shells, and phase-separated lipid vesicles. In assemblies, geometric frustration leads to a host of anomalous structural and thermodynamic properties, including heterogeneous and internally stressed equilibrium structures, self-limiting assembly, and topological defects in the equilibrium assembly structures. The purpose of this perspective is to (1) highlight the unifying principles and consequences of geometric frustration in soft matter assemblies; (2) classify the known distinct modes of frustration and review corresponding experimental examples; and (3) describe outstanding questions not yet addressed about the unique properties and behaviors of this broad class of systems.

  12. 'Just crime'?: Violence, xenophobia and crime: discourse and practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The minister of police and other prominent politicians have interpreted violence against foreign nationals as 'just crime', implying that it is criminally motivated, and thus denying the presence or relevance of xenophobic motivations. This article deconstructs this claim by showing that the police have in fact reacted strongly ...

  13. CSI (Crime Scene Induction): Creating False Memories of Committing Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen B; Baker, Alysha T

    2015-12-01

    We describe two merging lines of empirical inquiry: entire false memories for autobiographical events and false confessions. A recent study showed that people can be led to remember, and confess to, perpetrating serious crimes that never occurred when confronted with suggestive interview tactics commonly used in police interrogations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Workfare on Crime:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Imai, Susumu

    In this paper, we estimate the effect of workfare policy on crime by exploiting two exogenous welfare policy changes in Denmark. Our results show a strong decline in the crime rate among treated unemployment uninsured men relative to untreated uninsured and unemployment insured men, and part...... and potentially lasting crime reducing effect of workfare policy....

  15. New Campus Crime Prevention Resources Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campus Law Enforcement Journal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Campus Crime Prevention Committee has compiled a list of university and college crime prevention agencies and resources, which includes contact information, links to agency crime prevention web pages, and a list of resources they offer (i.e., brochures, guides, PowerPoint programs, videos, etc.) as well as a spreadsheet showing organizations…

  16. 15 CFR 742.7 - Crime control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crime control. 742.7 Section 742.7... CONTROLS § 742.7 Crime control. (a) License requirements. In support of U.S. foreign policy to promote the observance of human rights throughout the world, a license is required to export and reexport crime control...

  17. Schools, Neighborhood Risk Factors, and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…

  18. Comment: Theorising Nigerian Crime Problems | Aigbovo | Mizan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This comment presents an overview of criminological theories of crime and examines some contemporary crime problems in Nigeria against the backdrop of relevant theories. It also analyses society's response to each crime problem in the form of government policies and legislation. The paper argues that an appreciable ...

  19. Does School Quality Affect Juvenile Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandjiris, Amy

    2003-01-01

    This essay investigates whether students who attend higher-quality schools commit fewer crimes. If so, improving school quality might be worth considering as an approach to reducing juvenile crime. The author finds some evidence that higher-quality schools are associated with lower probabilities of committing some types of crime. (Contains 1…

  20. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  1. Forced marriage as a crime against humanity

    OpenAIRE

    Czelusniak, Tanja Erika Andersen

    2016-01-01

    Forced marriage is one of the newest crimes against humanity adjudicated at international criminal tribunals. This thesis shall discuss the evolution of this new crime, asking: Has international jurisprudence come to a point of recognition of forced marriage as a separate crime against humanity and if so, is it viable?

  2. Youth at Risk: Teens and Crime Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Judith A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes four activities for secondary students which deal with teenagers and crime. States that through these activities students will be able to identify those who are commonly victimized, discuss community services for victims, talk about the causes of crime, and explain how teens can play a role in community crime prevention. (GEA)

  3. Geometric diffusion of quantum trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2015-07-01

    A quantum object can acquire a geometric phase (such as Berry phases and Aharonov-Bohm phases) when evolving along a path in a parameter space with non-trivial gauge structures. Inherent to quantum evolutions of wavepackets, quantum diffusion occurs along quantum trajectories. Here we show that quantum diffusion can also be geometric as characterized by the imaginary part of a geometric phase. The geometric quantum diffusion results from interference between different instantaneous eigenstate pathways which have different geometric phases during the adiabatic evolution. As a specific example, we study the quantum trajectories of optically excited electron-hole pairs in time-reversal symmetric insulators, driven by an elliptically polarized terahertz field. The imaginary geometric phase manifests itself as elliptical polarization in the terahertz sideband generation. The geometric quantum diffusion adds a new dimension to geometric phases and may have applications in many fields of physics, e.g., transport in topological insulators and novel electro-optical effects.

  4. Cyber Crime Nation Typologies: K-Means Clustering of Countries Based on Cyber Crime Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Kigerl, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Cyber crime is a worldwide problem, with a global reach. Cyber crimes do not respect national boundaries, and so can be sent to and from anywhere in the world. Many reports, mostly by cyber security firms, regularly release information ranking the different nations in terms of top cyber crime output, broken down into varying cyber crime types. However, little has been done to classify nations according to separate cyber crime typologies using any multivariate methods. Instead, reporting is de...

  5. Crime as Pollution? Theoretical, Definitional and Policy Concerns with Conceptualizing Crime as Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Michael; Barrett, Kimberly; Stretesky, Paul; Long, Michael; Jarrell, Melissa; Ozymy, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Criminologists have advocated understanding ‘crime as pollution’ to argue for market based crime control policy initiatives that mirror pollution control policy initiatives. However, the concept of crime as pollution is misleading, and threatens to give rise to misguided policy initiatives in efforts to control street crime. Crime as pollution risks reproducing and reinforcing race, ethnic, and class-based inequalities that are characteristic of pollution control responses. Alternatively, we ...

  6. The Unintended Consequences on Crime of "Pennies from Heaven"

    OpenAIRE

    Montolio, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how an infrastructure investment policy, implemented nationwide at the local level, has affected local crime rates. This policy, developed in the wake of the global recession of 2008-09, was designed to boost local economies through job creation. Using monthly figures from the Spanish region of Catalonia's more than 900 municipalities, the paper exploits geographic and time variation in the Spanish Ministry of Public Administration's random approvals of local investment po...

  7. Preventing crime through selective incapacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.

    Making the length of a prison sentence conditional upon an individual’s offence history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was approximately 10 times longer than usual. We

  8. South African Crime Quarterly: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. SACQ is a quarterly journal published by the Crime and Justice Programme of the Institute for Security Studies. The journal is published in hard copy and is available on our website: www.issafrica.org. The journal is widely read nationally and internationally by criminal justice practitioners, researchers ...

  9. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    We are very pleased to announce that the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) has partnered with the University of Cape Town (UCT) as co-custodians of the South African Crime Quarterly (SACQ). We believe that the UCT. Centre of Criminology's commitment to advancing policy-relevant research and analysis on public ...

  10. The perception of small crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we measure perceptions of incorrect behavior or ‘small crime’, based on a questionnaire administered to a large representative sample from the Dutch population. In the questionnaire we ask the respondents to rate the severity or justifiability of a number of small crimes. We present

  11. South African Crime Quarterly 59

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mark Shaw is the Director of the Global Initiative against. Transnational Organised Crime in Geneva and Senior Visiting. Fellow at the London School of Economics and Political Science. (LSE) IDEAS International Drug Policy Project. He was until recently. National Research Foundation Professor of Justice and Security.

  12. Street prostitution zones and crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, Paul; Kastoryano, Stephen; van der Klaauw, Bas

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of legal street prostitution zones on registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where these tippelzones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. Our difference-in-difference analysis of 25 Dutch cities between

  13. Crime Solving Techniques: Training Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Jack M.

    The document is a training bulletin for criminal investigators, explaining the use of probability, logic, lateral thinking, group problem solving, and psychological profiles as methods of solving crimes. One chpater of several pages is devoted to each of the five methods. The use of each method is explained; problems are presented for the user to…

  14. How 'Digital' is Traditional Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Measuring how much cybercrime exists is typically done by first defining cybercrime and then quantifying how many cases fit that definition. The drawback is that definitions vary across countries and many cybercrimes are recorded as traditional crimes. An alternative is to keep traditional

  15. Crime News Coverage in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    According to one sociological model, news is a product of socially determined notions of who and what is important and the organizational structures that result for routinizing news collection; events that deviate from these notions are ignored. This report describes a study of crime news coverage in the media that used this model to examine the…

  16. Systematic review of youth crime prevention interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12...... produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new...

  17. Photoperiodicity and annual rhythms of wars and violent crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, G; Avissar, S; Tzahor, Z; Barak-Glantz, I; Grisaru, N

    1997-01-01

    The seasonal variations of individual violent crimes, i.e. sexual offenses and aggravated assaults, and non-violent offenses, i.e. burglary, in Israel, the USA, Denmark and New South Wales, Australia, representing four continents, were analyzed. Seasonal variations in the opening dates of wars were similarly analyzed. In northern hemisphere countries, although non-violent offenses are distributed equally throughout the year, individual violent crimes and collective acts of hostility are characterized by an annual rhythm of incidence, with a peak in the months of July-August and a nadir in December-February. Inverse rhythms were obtained in southern hemisphere countries. These rhythms were found to be correlated in a statistically significant manner with the duration of the daily photoperiod. The existence of similar patterns of annual variations in violent crimes and in the opening dates of wars indicate similarities between individual and collective aggressiveness with respect to the underlying mechanisms and probably also to the means of their prevention.

  18. Geometric Algebra Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Corrochano, Eduardo Bayro

    2010-01-01

    This book presents contributions from a global selection of experts in the field. This useful text offers new insights and solutions for the development of theorems, algorithms and advanced methods for real-time applications across a range of disciplines. Written in an accessible style, the discussion of all applications is enhanced by the inclusion of numerous examples, figures and experimental analysis. Features: provides a thorough discussion of several tasks for image processing, pattern recognition, computer vision, robotics and computer graphics using the geometric algebra framework; int

  19. Geometric correlations and multifractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amritkar, R.E.

    1991-07-01

    There are many situations where the usual statistical methods are not adequate to characterize correlations in the system. To characterize such situations we introduce mutual correlation dimensions which describe geometric correlations in the system. These dimensions allow us to distinguish between variables which are perfectly correlated with or without a phase lag, variables which are uncorrelated and variables which are partially correlated. We demonstrate the utility of our formalism by considering two examples from dynamical systems. The first example is about the loss of memory in chaotic signals and describes auto-correlations while the second example is about synchronization of chaotic signals and describes cross-correlations. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs

  20. Geometric analysis and PDEs

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosetti, Antonio; Malchiodi, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes on some topics in geometric analysis, a growing mathematical subject which uses analytical techniques, mostly of partial differential equations, to treat problems in differential geometry and mathematical physics. The presentation of the material should be rather accessible to non-experts in the field, since the presentation is didactic in nature. The reader will be provided with a survey containing some of the most exciting topics in the field, with a series of techniques used to treat such problems.

  1. GEOMETRIC PROGRESSIONS ON ELLIPTIC CURVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciss, Abdoul Aziz; Moody, Dustin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we look at long geometric progressions on different model of elliptic curves, namely Weierstrass curves, Edwards and twisted Edwards curves, Huff curves and general quartics curves. By a geometric progression on an elliptic curve, we mean the existence of rational points on the curve whose x -coordinate (or y -coordinate) are in geometric progression. We find infinite families of twisted Edwards curves and Huff curves with geometric progressions of length 5, an infinite family of Weierstrass curves with 8 term progressions, as well as infinite families of quartic curves containing 10-term geometric progressions.

  2. High on Crime Fiction and Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the psychological and neurological underpinnings of crime fiction and discusses the interrelation between cultural and biological-evolutionary determinants of fictions of detection. It argues that although crime fiction is a product of modern life conditions, it is also...... how crime fiction activates strong salience (in some respects similar to the effect of dopamine-drugs like cocaine, Ritalin, and amphetamine) and discusses the role of social intelligence in crime fiction. It further contrasts the unempathic classical detector fictions with two subtypes of crime...... fiction that blend seeking with other emotions: the hardboiled crime fiction that blends detection with action and hot emotions like anger and bonding, and the moral crime fiction that strongly evokes moral disgust and contempt, often in conjunction with detectors that perform hard to fake signals...

  3. Guns, Germs, and Stealing: Exploring the Link between Infectious Disease and Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Shrira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Can variation in crime rates be traced to the threat of infectious disease? Pathogens pose an ongoing challenge to survival, leading humans to adapt defenses to manage this threat. In addition to the biological immune system, humans have psychological and behavioral responses designed to protect against disease. Under persistent disease threat, xenophobia increases and people constrict social interactions to known in-group members. Though these responses reduce disease transmission, they can generate favorable crime conditions in two ways. First, xenophobia reduces inhibitions against harming and exploiting out-group members. Second, segregation into in-group factions erodes people's concern for the welfare of their community and weakens the collective ability to prevent crime. The present study examined the effects of infection incidence on crime rates across the United States. Infection rates predicted violent and property crime more strongly than other crime covariates. Infections also predicted homicides against strangers but not family or acquaintances, supporting the hypothesis that in-group—out-group discrimination was responsible for the infections—crime link. Overall, the results add to evidence that disease threat shapes interpersonal behavior and structural characteristics of groups.

  4. Guns, germs, and stealing: exploring the link between infectious disease and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Ilan; Wisman, Arnaud; Webster, Gregory

    2013-03-27

    Can variation in crime rates be traced to the threat of infectious disease? Pathogens pose an ongoing challenge to survival, leading humans to adapt defenses to manage this threat. In addition to the biological immune system, humans have psychological and behavioral responses designed to protect against disease. Under persistent disease threat, xenophobia increases and people constrict social interactions to known in-group members. Though these responses reduce disease transmission, they can generate favorable crime conditions in two ways. First, xenophobia reduces inhibitions against harming and exploiting out-group members. Second, segregation into in-group factions erodes people's concern for the welfare of their community and weakens the collective ability to prevent crime. The present study examined the effects of infection incidence on crime rates across the United States. Infection rates predicted violent and property crime more strongly than other crime covariates. Infections also predicted homicides against strangers but not family or acquaintances, supporting the hypothesis that in-group-out-group discrimination was responsible for the infections-crime link. Overall, the results add to evidence that disease threat shapes interpersonal behavior and structural characteristics of groups.

  5. Dal computer crime al computer-related crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Apruzzese

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Digital Identity Theft has become one of the most lucrative illegitimate business. Also known as “phishing”, it consists in unauthorized access to an individual’s personal financial data aiming to capture information relative to on line banking and on line financial services. At the beginning people were the victims of such scams, currently the attention is directed to computer networks. “Pharming” and “keylogging” are some of the latest and utmost sophisticated data processing techniques used by computer crime fraudsters. Latest entries are the “botnets”, herds of infected machines, usually managed by one sole command centre which can determine serious damages to network systems. Botnets have made large scale identity theft much simpler to realize. Organized crime is becoming more and more involved in this new crime world that can easily assure huge profits. The Italian State Police, in order to respond more effectively to this new rising challenge, has created, with the Postal and Communication Police, an agency highly specialized in combating such new phenomenon

  6. Geometric Phase Of The Faraday Rotation Of Electromagnetic Waves In Magnetized Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian Liu and Hong Qin

    2011-11-07

    The geometric phase of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves in nonuniform magnetized plasmas is studied theoretically. The variation of the propagation direction of circularly polarized waves results in a geometric phase, which also contributes to the Faraday rotation, in addition to the standard dynamical phase. The origin and properties of the geometric phase is investigated. The in uence of the geometric phase to plasma diagnostics using Faraday rotation is also discussed as an application of the theory.

  7. Fluctuation Scaling, Taylor’s Law, and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Quentin S.; Khatun, Suniya; Yosef, Amal; Dyer, Rachel-May

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor’s law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor’s law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057±0.026) while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292±0.029) indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor’s law exponents from 1.43±0.12 (Drugs) to 2.094±0081 (Other Crimes). Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation. PMID:25271781

  8. Geometrical pattern learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, P.W.

    1993-04-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of learning the positions of spheres in metric spaces, given as data randomly drawn points classified according to whether they are internal or external to an unknown sphere. The particular metrics under consideration are geometrical shape metrics, and the results are intended to be applicable to the problem of learning to identify a shape from related shapes classified according to whether they resemble it visually. While it is typically NP-hard to locate a central point for a hypothesis sphere, we find that it is however often possible to obtain a non-spherical hypothesis which can accurately predict whether further random points lie within the unknown sphere. We exhibit algorithms which achieve this, and in the process indicate useful general techniques for computational learning. Finally we exhibit a natural shape metric and show that it defines a class of spheres not predictable in this sense, subject to standard cryptographic assumptions.

  9. Neighborhood Effects on Youth Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Galster, George Charles

    We investigate the degree to which youth (ages 14-29) criminal offenses are influenced by neighbors, identifying causal effects with a natural experimental allocation of social housing in Copenhagen. We find that youth exposed to a one percentage point higher concentration of neighbors with drug...... mechanisms suggests youth interaction in proximate residential context with older adults with drug crime experience as the most plausible source of neighborhood effects....

  10. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  11. Environmental criminal offences - victimless crimes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrićević Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological criminal offences, the most serious forms of harming and threatening of environment or its integral parts, represents a global phenomenon of great social hazard. They are often connected with organized transnational criminality, criminal offences against life and bodily integrity, corruption, tax evasion and discrimination. Disputable nature of the subject these incriminations protect imposes a question: “Who are the victims of ecological criminal offences - individuals, social groups, entire society or environment as value per se?” Perceiving ecological criminal offences as victimless crimes diminishes their importance and the circle of subjects interested to unveil, prove, prevent, suppress and impose punishments for these offences. Therefore, the author discusses the sustainability of the traditional, anthropocentrically defined term of victim in the context of biocentrism and its growing influence on criminal law, criminology and victimology. Attempting to determine whether ecological criminal offences represent victimless crimes, the author analyzes their term, characteristics and significance. Starting from the traditional definition of victim, she analyzes the term of “victimless crimes“ and its (unsustainability in the context of environmental crime, focusing on its most frequent victims and the necessity of their protection.

  12. Crime and Criminal Policy Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Juan Sanabria Landazábal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically the construction of legitimacy or border crime is admitted as a dynamic cultural result, able to feed off itself and with temporal and geographical boundaries. In this paper it is argued that the problem of criminal policy or design that marks the boundary between legal and illegal cannot circumscribe the penal and criminal procedure code, but requires: understanding crime as an illegitimate market keeping close relations with the legitimate as both exist in the communications space and the social construction of civilization and this is a result of cultural dynamics. Methodologically proceeded with: a theoretical discussion of these issues and statistical modeling and reports from different agencies working in this field in Bogotá, DC management. The contrasting theory and evidence shed light on the problem is complex, the assumptions of economic motivations theories, among others are not met and is not easily solvable in a linear relationship expressed in the trinomial crime - delinquent - penalty. Your solution may be the anthropological and schemes proposed as solution game theory.

  13. 75 FR 20889 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... crime and property crime, we must also fight white-collar crime and protect its victims, including those... National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation..., emotional, and psychological pain of past offenses. This week, we renew our commitment to supporting crime...

  14. Neighborhood crime and transit station access mode choice - phase III of neighborhood crime and travel behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report provides the findings from the third phase of a three-part study about the influences of neighborhood crimes on travel : mode choice. While previous phases found evidence that high levels of neighborhood crime discourage people from choos...

  15. Gun Laws and Crime: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Matti Viren

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of gun laws on crime. Several empirical analyses are carried to investigate the relationship between five different crime rates and alternative law variables. The tests are based on cross-section data from US sates. Three different law variables are used in the analysis, together with a set of control variables for income, poverty, unemployment and ethnic background of the population. Empirical analysis does not lend support to the notion that crime laws would...

  16. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    have concluded their work collecting, preserving and cataloguing various traces like fingerprints, bloodstains and so on. But the analysis will also show similarities between real-life and fictional crime scene investigations: also in real-life practices reconstruction and interpretation of the crime...... scene is conducted by investigators (crime scene coordinators) who's task it is to decide how the investigation should be carried out and which is best described as a narrative practice; a systematic - and expertise based - work of imagination...

  17. Crime, Compulsory Schooling Laws and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Bell; Rui Costa; Stephen Machin

    2015-01-01

    Do compulsory schooling laws reduce crime? Previous evidence for the U.S. from the 1960s and 1970s suggests they do, primarily working through their effect on educational attainment to generate a causal impact on crime. In this paper, we consider whether more recent experience replicates this. There are two key findings. First, there is a strong and consistent negative effect on crime from stricter compulsory schooling laws. Second, there is a weaker and sometimes non-existent link between su...

  18. A Survey of Cyber Crime in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papanikolaou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past years, the Internet has evolved into the so-called “Web 2.0”. Nevertheless, the wide use of the offered Internet services has rendered individual users a potential target to cyber criminals. The paper presents a review and analysis of various cyber crimes, based on the cases that were reported to the Cyber Crime and Computer Crime Unit of the Greek Police Force and compares them to similar data of other EU countries.

  19. Journeys to Crime: Assessing the Effects of a Light Rail Line on Crime in the Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Liggett, Robin; Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    The implementation of new transit lines is some times dogged by concerns that such lines may increase crime rates in station neighborhoods. Affluent communities have often complained that transit lines transport crime to the suburbs. This study focuses on the Green Line transit system in Los Angeles and examines its effects on crime in the adjacent areas. The Green Line light rail system passes through some high-crime inner city neighborhoods and terminates at its western end in affluent subu...

  20. Statistical physics of crime: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics of crime can relevantly inform the design of successful crime prevention strategies, as well as improve the accuracy of expectations about how different policing interventions should impact malicious human activity that deviates from social norms. We also outline possible directions for future research, related to the effects of social and coevolving networks and to the hierarchical growth of criminal structures due to self-organization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial Dependence of Crime in Monterrey, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Aguayo Téllez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact that the characteristics of the environment have on crime using neighborhood aggregate data of the Monterrey Metropolitan Area for the year 2010. Data spatial autocorrelation is corroborated, i.e. neighborhoods with high crime rates have a positive impact on the crime rates of its surrounding neighborhoods. Once it was controlled through the bias caused by spatial autocorrelation and data censoring, it is evidenced that the likelihood of being a crime victim and the probability of becoming an offender is positively related to variables such as unemployment, the percentage of young men and the existence of schools, hospitals or markets in the neighborhood.

  2. Politik Kriminal Terhadap White Collar Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Amrani, Hanafi

    1994-01-01

    Merebaknya White Collar Crime (WCC), bagaimanapun juga memerlukan sebuah terapi yang antisipatif dengan upaya yang multidimensi. Berikut ini, secara panjang lebar mengulas tentang politik kriminal terhadap WCC

  3. Information War Crimes: Mitnick Meets Milosevic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banks, Darwyn

    2001-01-01

    ...) and traditional war crimes as defined by the internationally accepted laws of armed conflict paying special attention to the principles of chivalry, humanity, proportionality, and military necessity...

  4. City of Durham Police Crime Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This metadata contains information on crime definitions and location obfuscation techniques to protect citizen identification data. Officers responding to incidents...

  5. Joint Utility of Event-Dependent and Environmental Crime Analysis Techniques for Violent Crime Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joel M.; Kennedy, Leslie W.; Piza, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Violent crime incidents occurring in Irvington, New Jersey, in 2007 and 2008 are used to assess the joint analytical capabilities of point pattern analysis, hotspot mapping, near-repeat analysis, and risk terrain modeling. One approach to crime analysis suggests that the best way to predict future crime occurrence is to use past behavior, such as…

  6. Mobilizing Support for Social Control in a Declining Economy: Exploring Ideologies of Crime within Crime News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Melissa Hickman; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Extends exploration of ideologies of crime in the news by examining reports about the causes of crime and commands of what to do about crime in "Time" magazine. Argues that criminal justice policy and ideology have played an important role in developments within the postwar political economy in the United States. (LKS)

  7. The Timing of Property Crime, Violent Crime, and Substance Use among Juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Denise C.; Soule, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the timing of juvenile delinquent behavior by crime type. A study of 513 youths participating in after-school programs indicates that crimes against persons are elevated during the after-school hours but not as much as during school. Property crime and drug use are not particularly elevated during the after-school hours.…

  8. Opportunities for Environmental Crime: A Test of Situational Crime Prevention Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, W.; van Erp, J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Situational Crime Prevention Theory (SCPT) has been proposed as an alternative to offender-based theories of white-collar crime. This paper uses the results of a cross-case analysis of 23 criminal investigations of environmental crime in the Netherlands to explore the fruitfulness of SCPT

  9. Harmonic and geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Citti, Giovanna; Pérez, Carlos; Sarti, Alessandro; Zhong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an expanded version of four series of lectures delivered by the authors at the CRM. Harmonic analysis, understood in a broad sense, has a very wide interplay with partial differential equations and in particular with the theory of quasiconformal mappings and its applications. Some areas in which real analysis has been extremely influential are PDE's and geometric analysis. Their foundations and subsequent developments made extensive use of the Calderón–Zygmund theory, especially the Lp inequalities for Calderón–Zygmund operators (Beurling transform and Riesz transform, among others) and the theory of Muckenhoupt weights.  The first chapter is an application of harmonic analysis and the Heisenberg group to understanding human vision, while the second and third chapters cover some of the main topics on linear and multilinear harmonic analysis. The last serves as a comprehensive introduction to a deep result from De Giorgi, Moser and Nash on the regularity of elliptic partial differen...

  10. The Impact of Crime on Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Afriyanto, Muhammad Mukhlis

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the impact of crime incidence on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Indonesian provinces. This study uses panel data covering 31 provinces for the period 2005 to 2015. We involve Total Crime, Property Crime, Violence, Vandalism, Arson, Fraud, Homicides and Kidnapping as variable of crime. The results show that crime variables have significant impact on FDI. We find that for every increase in total crime incidence per 100,000 people by ten percent, FDI is expected to decrea...

  11. The socioeconomic determinants of crime : the case of Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Balthazar, Kristin Ross

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between various socioeconomic factors and crime, especially income inequality and poverty. As crime rates have steadily increased over time, ecological theories of crime have been developed to explain the behavior of both property crime and violent crime. Identifying possible predictors of crime is one step into developing social policies that will help lower the vast social costs of criminal activity. The first part of this paper discusses the three m...

  12. Rethinking the Criminology of Crimes of States: Monumental, Mundane, Mislabeled and Miscalculated Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Friedrichs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a reflexive account on criminological engagement with crimes of states, with special attention to the case of Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, and Berlin and Germany today. The emergence of a criminology of crimes of states is reviewed, along with arguments for and against criminological engagement with such crime. In particular, a response to Carrier and Park’s (2013 critique of ‘entrepreneurial criminology’ is provided in this context. Distinctions are drawn between monumental and mundane crimes of states, and mislabeled and miscalculated crimes of states, with special attention to mundane and miscalculated crimes. A brief concluding section identifies some issues that might be included in an agenda for a criminology of crimes of states, going forward.

  13. Individual Perceptions of Local Crime Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, M.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence that perceptions of crime risk are severely biased for many years after a move to a new neighborhood. Based on four successive waves of a large crime survey, matched with administrative records on household relocations, we find that the longer an individual lives in a

  14. [The M-cycle of crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antholz, Birger

    2012-01-01

    Crime development measured by means of the changes in police recorded crime statistics (criminal offences per 100.000 inhabitants) shows periodical cycles, which can be described by the capital letter M. Starting from a low rate of criminality, crime rises over 1-3 years followed by an interim decline lasting for about one year. Then crime increases again for approximately 2 years to a second peak. After that, crime strongly declines to the next low point over a period of about two years. The course of this development is not uniform with equal amplitudes, but resembles an M-curve. Since 1950, seven such M-cycles have been observed with the 3rd M-cycle from 1965-1973, the 4th M-cycle from 1973-1984, the 5th M-cycle from 1984-1994, the 6th M-cycle from 1994-2005 and the 7th M-cycle from 2005-2010 being particularly distinct. The M-curve of crime may be explained by the M-form of the business cycle. Since World War II, the M-cycle of crime and the M-cycle of the economy have run approximately parallel. Up to the first large oil crisis, the M-cycle of crime preceded the economic situation by 1-2 years, whereas since 1976 it has followed the economic development with a time lag of one to two years.

  15. Community Violent Crime Rates and School Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gary L.; Van Dorn, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the association between community violent crime rates and middle school students' (N=857) perceptions of school danger. Findings indicate that community crime rates are associated with male middle school students' reports of school danger but not female students' reports. Discusses community- and school-based prevention…

  16. Inside information: Sourcing crime intelligence from incarcerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Part of the problem appears to be that the police do not have sufficient crime intelligence about house robbers. This article focuses on the value of incarcerated offenders of house robberies as an additional source of crime intelligence to the police on the basis of research conducted by the author in Gauteng in 2007.

  17. Disability Hate Crime: Persecuted for Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Sue; Capewell, Carmel; Bonnett, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the long history of violence towards disabled people which sets the context for an analysis of the modern-day form of violence known as disability hate crime (DHC). People who look or behave differently to others often find themselves victims of violent crimes. The language used to describe disabled people…

  18. Employment and Crime: An Issue of Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between employment and crime indicate that the stigma of a criminal record and the lack of preprison employment experience affect Black and White ex-offenders differently. Findings suggest racial discrimination and institutional racism are intervening factors in the failure of crime prevention strategies, particularly…

  19. Crime Control Programs in College Undergraduate Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel C.; Wakefield, William O.

    1981-01-01

    Attempts to analyze crime control program development and relate it to several independent variables which might be associated. Results show that often crime control programs were developed at the Associate degree level and appear to duplicate or approximate the police training academies. (Author)

  20. Crime, Youth, and the Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Llad; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Concentrating on eighteen-to-nineteen-year-old white and nonwhite males, this study utilizes a model permitting alternative partitioning of the population, classified by labor-market status, which links individual subsets to property crime. Concludes that economic opportunity is a key factor in generating youthful crime. (RJ)

  1. EXPLORING ACCESSIBILITY VERSUS OPPORTUNITY CRIME FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Davison

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available People often wonder why urban crime rates are higher than those in rural areas or small towns. Davison and Smith look at opportunity and accessibility as factors which make people more likely to be victims in urban areas. Under 'further reading' below you will see that crime patterns are NOT random and can be predicted by urban design.

  2. Effectiveness of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined crime prevention strategies vis-a-vis perceived residents. feeling of safety in Osogbo Nigeria. The survey was conducted using systematic sampling. Four (4) crime prevention approaches were identified in the study area. Residents. perception of effectiveness of these safety strategies measured ...

  3. On the behavioral economics of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.; Ash, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the brain sciences’ mechanistic model of human behavior for our understanding of crime. The rational crime model is replaced with a behavioral approach, which proposes a decision model comprising cognitive and emotional decision systems. According to the

  4. Accountability for international crimes through alternatives to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Criminal prosecution of those accused of committing international crimes is a fundamental aspect of international justice. Over the past twenty-five years, international law has progressively developed to create a corpus of international criminal law; prosecuting those responsible for committing the most heinous crimes.

  5. Aggression in children and youth towards crime.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTEFFLOVÁ, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.

  6. Responding to organised environmental crimes: Collaborative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to discuss the ways in which collaboration and a coordinated approach to dealing with criminal groups involved in environmental crime can be established and bolstered. The article begins by examining the challenges associated with organised criminal networks and transnational crimes for ...

  7. PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCE INTAKE AND GENDER ON CRIME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    criminal justice system. There have been a number of attempts to create a consensus and an all-encompassing definition of crime. For example, Schafer and. Knudten (1970) see crime as a ... substance abuse is that it involves a loss of self- control. Eyo (2003) defined ... masculinity and femininity. Myers (2002) defined.

  8. Critical Issues in Crime Control Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Edith Elisabeth, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Entire issue discusses crime control policy in the United States, including such issues as the relation of social and environmental variables to criminal activity, dealing with the career offender, biological correlates of criminal behavior, juvenile delinquency, and white collar crime. (CS)

  9. Crime analysis using open source information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Shah, Azhar Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of crime analysis from open source information. We employed un-supervised methods of data mining to explore the facts regarding the crimes of an area of interest. The analysis is based on well known clustering and association techniques. The results show...

  10. War Crimes Tribunals: A Permanent Criminal Court?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, James E.; Rudelius-Palmer, Kristi

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the establishment and jurisdiction of war crimes tribunals in recent years. The tribunals, established and supported by the United Nations, investigate atrocities and other crimes committed during wartime. Discusses the tribunals in Rwanda and Yugoslavia, and the political opposition to the establishment of a permanent court. (MJP)

  11. Nurses wage war on hate crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Janet

    The number of hate crimes reported to the police is rising sharply, in part because increased awareness has prompted more victims and witnesses to come forward. This article explains how nurses are taking steps to identify such crimes and prevent them happening in the first place. The panel opposite offers some practical advice on how to raise concerns with the police and other authorities.

  12. Contextualizing Restorative Justice for Hate Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrielides, Theo

    2012-01-01

    The application of restorative justice (RJ) with hate crime remains an underdeveloped field of research, policy, and practice. This article aims to advance the understanding of these two areas of inquiry: RJ and hate crime. It is known that while most hate incidents involve minor, punishable offenses, their impact can be long lasting and…

  13. The Dynamics of Crime and Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F.

    This article analyzes crime development which is one of the largest threats in today's world, frequently referred to as the war on crime. The criminal commits crimes in his free time (when not in jail) according to a non-stationary Poisson process which accounts for fluctuations. Expected values and variances for crime development are determined. The deterrent effect of imprisonment follows from the amount of time in imprisonment. Each criminal maximizes expected utility defined as expected benefit (from crime) minus expected cost (imprisonment). A first-order differential equation of the criminal's utility-maximizing response to the given punishment policy is then developed. The analysis shows that if imprisonment is absent, criminal activity grows substantially. All else being equal, any equilibrium is unstable (labile), implying growth of criminal activity, unless imprisonment increases sufficiently as a function of criminal activity. This dynamic approach or perspective is quite interesting and has to our knowledge not been presented earlier. The empirical data material for crime intensity and imprisonment for Norway, England and Wales, and the US supports the model. Future crime development is shown to depend strongly on the societally chosen imprisonment policy. The model is intended as a valuable tool for policy makers who can envision arbitrarily sophisticated imprisonment functions and foresee the impact they have on crime development.

  14. Contemporary Organized Crime. : Developments, Challenges and Responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelen, Hans; Siegel, Dina

    2017-01-01

    This is the third publication (after Siegel et al. (eds.) (2003) Global Organized Crime. Trends and Developments; and Siegel and Nelen (eds.) (2008). Organized Crime: Culture, Markets and Policies) in which the most relevant papers that were presented during seminars of the Centre for Information

  15. The relationship of crime and oil development in the coastal regions of Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Asha D.

    This project examines the relationship between patterns of crime and the development of the oil and gas extraction industry in the coastal regions of Louisiana. The suggestion of a link between these phenomena has often been made, but little systematic research has been conducted to determine if there is indeed a crime-oil development nexus. Limited previous research has focused primarily on the issue of "boom and bust" cycles on some forms of deviant behavior, but the data and the methods used were inadequate, and thus, the resulting conclusions were often misleading or possibly erroneous. During the course of this project, a comprehensive database is constructed that facilitates a longitudinal analysis of concomitant variation in crime patterns and oil extraction activity. Annual crime data are obtained at the parish and county level for all years beginning in 1974 and merged with corresponding social and economic data. This dataset allows for a multivariate pooled time series analysis, with adequate controls, to determine the degree of influence between oil activity and crime patterns. The results from the analysis suggest that changes in oil activity and high levels of labor market involvement in the offshore oil industry are not strongly associated with community disruption in the form of crime. The only statistically significant effects due to changes in oil activity are decreased levels of homicide and aggravated assault. Oil development is not associated with any other crime in the analysis despite accounting for the boom and bust cycles of the oil industry over a 25 year period for 12 parishes that are highly involved in the industry. As the industry becomes more active and undergoes an increased labor demand, incidents of homicide and assault decline in the community. This finding does not support some previous boomtown model research that argues that energy development causes higher rates of social disruption, including higher crime rates (Seydlitz et al

  16. Gambling Harm and Crime Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Chahal, Corinne; Humphreys, Leslie; Clifton, Alison; Francis, Brian; Reith, Gerda

    2017-03-01

    Incarcerated populations across the world have been found to be consistently and significantly more vulnerable to problem gambling than general populations in the same countries. In an effort to gain a more specific understanding of this vulnerability the present study applied latent class analysis and criminal career theory to gambling data collected from a sample of English and Scottish, male and female prisoners (N = 1057). Theoretical links between gambling and crime were tested through three hypotheses: (1) that prisoners in the UK would have higher rates of problem gambling behaviour than the national population; (2) that if the link between gambling and crime is coincidental, gambling behaviour would be highly prevalent in an offending population, and (3) if connections between gambling behaviour and offending are co-symptomatic a mediating factor would show a strong association. The first of these was supported, the second was not supported and the third was partially supported. Latent class analysis found six gambling behaviour clusters measured by responses to the Problem Gambling Severity Index, primarily distinguished by loss chasing behaviour. Longitudinal offending data drawn from the Police National Computer database found four criminal career types, distinguished by frequency and persistence over time. A significant association was found between higher level loss chasing and high rate offending in criminal careers suggesting that impulse control may be a mediating factor for both gambling harm and criminal careers.

  17. Geometrical method of decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgarten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E[over →], B[over →], and P[over →], which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When

  18. High on Crime Fiction and Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2010-01-01

    centrally fueled in the minds of viewers and readers by the mammalian dopamine seeking/wanting system developed for seeking out resources by foraging and hunting and important for focused mental and physical goal-directed activities. The article describes the way the working of the seeking system explains...... how crime fiction activates strong salience (in some respects similar to the effect of dopamine-drugs like cocaine, Ritalin, and amphetamine) and discusses the role of social intelligence in crime fiction. It further contrasts the unempathic classical detector fictions with two subtypes of crime...... fiction that blend seeking with other emotions: the hardboiled crime fiction that blends detection with action and hot emotions like anger and bonding, and the moral crime fiction that strongly evokes moral disgust and contempt, often in conjunction with detectors that perform hard to fake signals...

  19. Designing a Data Warehouse for Cyber Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Yeol Song

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges facing modern society is the rising tide of cyber crimes. These crimes, since they rarely fit the model of conventional crimes, are difficult to investigate, hard to analyze, and difficult to prosecute. Collecting data in a unified framework is a mandatory step that will assist the investigator in sorting through the mountains of data. In this paper, we explore designing a dimensional model for a data warehouse that can be used in analyzing cyber crime data. We also present some interesting queries and the types of cyber crime analyses that can be performed based on the data warehouse. We discuss several ways of utilizing the data warehouse using OLAP and data mining technologies. We finally discuss legal issues and data population issues for the data warehouse.

  20. Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Arrieta, Jorge; Cartwright, Julian H.E.; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number— in an inertialess environment—is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool...

  1. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  2. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dain, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  3. Geometric Computing for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Wallner, J.

    2011-06-03

    Geometric computing has recently found a new field of applications, namely the various geometric problems which lie at the heart of rationalization and construction-aware design processes of freeform architecture. We report on our work in this area, dealing with meshes with planar faces and meshes which allow multilayer constructions (which is related to discrete surfaces and their curvatures), triangles meshes with circle-packing properties (which is related to conformal uniformization), and with the paneling problem. We emphasize the combination of numerical optimization and geometric knowledge.

  4. Álcool, drogas e crime Alcohol, drugs and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Chalub

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo descreve duas situações complexas e duplamente preocupantes em termos de saúde pública, seja, por sua alta prevalência e/ou por suas conseqüências. Trata-se dos transtornos do uso de substâncias psicoativas e a criminalidade. Será relatada a forma como diversos pesquisadores as associam, bem como a situação das perícias de usuários e dependentes de álcool e drogas. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma revisão das publicações sobre o tema, utilizando-se, como bancos de dados, o Medline e o Lilacs, cobrindo o período de 1986 a 2006. Os descritores usados foram: "alcoholism", "drug dependence", "drug abuse" e "crime". Resumos de congressos, artigos e livros relevantes sobre o tema, publicados por diferentes autoridades no assunto, em diversas fases de pesquisa, foram consultados e incluídos. CONCLUSÃO: As diversas pesquisas coincidem na afirmação de uma associação entre transtornos do uso de substâncias psicoativas e criminalidade. O que é possível constatar é a alta proporção de atos violentos quando o álcool ou as drogas ilícitas estão presentes entre agressores, suas vítimas ou em ambos. Quando se realiza um exame pericial em autores que alegam alguma relação do ato praticado com consumo de álcool/drogas, esta perícia deve levar em consideração a substância em uso, o quadro clínico por ela causado, bem como verificar a presença de um diagnóstico, a existência de nexo causal e possíveis alterações na capacidade de entendimento e/ou determinação do agente.OBJECTIVE: This article describes two complex and doubly preoccupying situations in terms of public health, either, for its high prevalence and/or its consequences. These problems are the psychoactive substance use disorder and crime. The form will be told as diverse researchers associate them, as well as the situation of the exam of users and alcohol dependents and drugs. METHOD: A revision of publications was become fulfilled on the

  5. Advising caution in studying seasonal oscillations in crime rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kun; Cao, Yunbai; Siercke, Beatrice; Wilber, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Most types of crime are known to exhibit seasonal oscillations, yet the annual variations in the amplitude of this seasonality and their causes are still uncertain. Using a large collection of data from the Houston and Los Angeles Metropolitan areas, we extract and study the seasonal variations in aggravated assault, break in and theft from vehicles, burglary, grand theft auto, rape, robbery, theft, and vandalism for many years from the raw daily data. Our approach allows us to see various long term and seasonal trends and aberrations in crime rates that have not been reported before. We then apply an ecologically motivated stochastic differential equation to reproduce the data. Our model relies only on social interaction terms, and not on any exigent factors, to reproduce both the seasonality, and the seasonal aberrations observed in our data set. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the system is sufficient to reproduce the variations seen in the seasonal oscillations from year to year. Researchers should be very careful about trying to correlate these oscillations with external factors. PMID:28938022

  6. Mobile Watermarking against Geometrical Distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile watermarking robust to geometrical distortions is still a great challenge. In mobile watermarking, efficient computation is necessary because mobile devices have very limited resources due to power consumption. In this paper, we propose a low-complexity geometrically resilient watermarking approach based on the optimal tradeoff circular harmonic function (OTCHF correlation filter and the minimum average correlation energy Mellin radial harmonic (MACE-MRH correlation filter. By the rotation, translation and scale tolerance properties of the two kinds of filter, the proposed watermark detector can be robust to geometrical attacks. The embedded watermark is weighted by a perceptual mask which matches very well with the properties of the human visual system. Before correlation, a whitening process is utilized to improve watermark detection reliability. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed watermarking approach is computationally efficient and robust to geometrical distortions.

  7. The Employment-Crime Association for Individuals Convicted of a Sexual Offense in Their Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, C.J.W.; Mesters, Geert

    2017-01-01

    Objective We study the bi-directional relationship between employment and crime for individuals convicted for a sexual offense in their youth (JSO) and investigate the moderating influences of age and employment duration. Method A bi-variate dynamic binary choice model is developed to allow for

  8. "Hunger makes a thief of any man": poverty and crime in British colonial Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, K.I.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses rainfall variation as an instrumental variable for padi-rice production to estimate the impact of poverty on different types of crime across British colonies in South and South East Asia (1910-1940). Using original primary sources retrieved from annual administrative and statistical

  9. The Associations of Area-Level Violent Crime Rates and Self-Reported Violent Crime Exposure with Adolescent Behavioral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshteyn, Erin G; Xu, Haiyong; Manteuffel, Brigitte; Ettner, Susan L

    2018-04-01

    The effects of witnessing and experiencing crime have seldom been disaggregated. Little research has assessed the effect of multiple exposures to crime. We assess independent contributions of self-reported crime and area-level crime to adolescent behavioral health outcomes. Cross sectional data on 5519 adolescents from the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and their Families Program was linked to FBI crime rate data to assess associations of mutually exclusive categories of self-reported crime exposure and area-level crime rates with mental health and substance abuse. Self-reported crime exposure was significantly associated with poorer behavioral health. Violent victimization had the largest association with all outcomes except internalizing scores. All self-reported crime variables were significantly associated with three of the outcomes. Area-level crime rates were associated with one mental health outcome. Providers should assess direct and indirect crime exposure rather than only focusing on violent victimization.

  10. Antenna with Dielectric Having Geometric Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Elliott, Holly A. (Inventor); Cravey, Robin L. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An antenna includes a ground plane, a dielectric disposed on the ground plane, and an electrically-conductive radiator disposed on the dielectric. The dielectric includes at least one layer of a first dielectric material and a second dielectric material that collectively define a dielectric geometric pattern, which may comprise a fractal geometry. The radiator defines a radiator geometric pattern, and the dielectric geometric pattern is geometrically identical, or substantially geometrically identical, to the radiator geometric pattern.

  11. Causes of organized crime in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolё Krasniqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Legal systems are put in jeopardy and social stability wherever there are organized criminal activities. In the Balkans, organized crime is the main obstacle to the European integration of the region. The permanent influence of organized crime in the state structures, the cooperation between different criminal organizations and especially their collaboration with some extremist group’s impacts political stability in an extremely negative way. The states in the Balkans have recognized the dangers for their peoples constituted by organized crime and have already taken a number of required legal, institutional and political measures in order to be able to successfully combat organized crime. However, organized crime still constitutes the main risk in the new democratic states in the Balkans in spite of these measures. For that reason, combating organized crime may not be treated just as the task or responsibility of one single state but it needs to be understood as an obligation and responsibility of all the states in the entire region as well as of the European Union. Therefore, cooperation and coordination of joint activities for combating organized crime have to be based on modern international standards. Besides, a continual perspective is required according to the interest of the people of the region to live together in peace and mutual harmony and to establish a society where human rights are not threatened by criminal violence but protected just like in the European Union.

  12. The scaling of crime concentration in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos-Filho, Carmelo; Menezes, Ronaldo

    2017-01-01

    Crime is a major threat to society’s well-being but lacks a statistical characterization that could lead to uncovering some of its underlying mechanisms. Evidence of nonlinear scaling of urban indicators in cities, such as wages and serious crime, has motivated the understanding of cities as complex systems—a perspective that offers insights into resources limits and sustainability, but that usually neglects details of the indicators themselves. Notably, since the nineteenth century, criminal activities have been known to occur unevenly within a city; crime concentrates in such way that most of the offenses take place in few regions of the city. Though confirmed by different studies, this concentration lacks broad analyses on its characteristics, which hinders not only the comprehension of crime dynamics but also the proposal of sounding counter-measures. Here, we developed a framework to characterize crime concentration which divides cities into regions with the same population size. We used disaggregated criminal data from 25 locations in the U.S. and the U.K., spanning from 2 to 15 years of longitudinal data. Our results confirmed that crime concentrates regardless of city and revealed that the level of concentration does not scale with city size. We found that the distribution of crime in a city can be approximated by a power-law distribution with exponent α that depends on the type of crime. In particular, our results showed that thefts tend to concentrate more than robberies, and robberies more than burglaries. Though criminal activities present regularities of concentration, we found that criminal ranks have the tendency to change continuously over time—features that support the perspective of crime as a complex system and demand analyses and evolving urban policies covering the city as a whole. PMID:28800604

  13. Victimization and the general theory of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofziger, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Theories of victimization developed independently of theories of offending, in spite of consistent findings of similarities between offenders and victims of crime. This study examines whether Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) general theory of crime, typically used to predict offending, also has relevance in understanding juvenile victimization. The data for this project are drawn from a sample of over 1,200 middle and high school students. Using structural equation models, the findings suggest that higher self-control does directly decrease victimization and that self-control also affects victimization indirectly though opportunities (peer deviance). Implications for the studies of victimization as well as the general theory of crime are discussed.

  14. Fear of crime in urban parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maruthaveeran, Sreetheran; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    -structured in-depth interviews. The interview consists of respondents from various age, gender and race. The results revealed universal similarities to other cultures on fear of crime in urban green spaces. This study has highlighted eight themes on the attributes which evoke fear among the residents of Kuala...... behaviour towards crime in urban parks but this was only observed among the women. This paper has also highlighted the implications on park planning and management from the comments given by the respondents. Though the aspect of fear towards crime in urban green spaces is not a major focus in Malaysia...

  15. Safe haven laws as crime control theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K; Griffin, Timothy

    2010-07-01

    This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of crime control theater, a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially socially constructed "solutions" to socially constructed crime "problems." The analysis will apply the principles of crime control theater to safe haven laws. Specifically, the term crime control theater applies to laws that are reactionary responses to perceived criminal threats and are often widely supported as a way to address the crime in question. Such laws are attractive because they appeal to mythic narratives (i.e., saving an innocent child from a predator); however they are likely ineffective due to the complexity of the crime. These laws can have deleterious effects when policymakers make false claims of success and stunt public discourse (e.g., drawing attention away from more frequent and preventable crimes). This analysis applies these criteria to safe haven laws to determine whether such laws can be classified as crime control theater. Many qualities inherent to crime control theater are present in safe haven laws. For example, the laws are highly publicized, their intentions lack moral ambiguity, rare cases of success legitimize law enforcement and other agencies, and they appeal to the public sense of responsibility in preventing crime. Yet the goal of saving infant lives may be unattainable. These qualities make the effectiveness of the laws questionable and suggest they may be counterproductive. This analysis determined that safe haven laws are socially constructed solutions to the socially constructed problem of child abandonment. Safe haven laws are appropriately classified as crime control theater. It is imperative that further research be conducted to examine the effectiveness and collateral effects of safe haven laws

  16. Geometrically non linear analysis of functionally graded material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geometrically non linear analysis of functionally graded material plates using higher order theory. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Journal Home ... The analysis of functionally graded material (FGM) plates with material variation parameter (n), boundary conditions, aspect ratios and side to ...

  17. Watching the detectives: crime programming, fear of crime, and attitudes about the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J

    2011-01-01

    Research demonstrates a complex relationship between television viewing and fear of crime. Social critics assert that media depictions perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology about crime and criminal justice. This article examines whether program type differentially affects fear of crime and perceptions of the crime rate. Next, it tests whether such programming differentially affects viewers' attitudes about the criminal justice system, and if these relationships are mediated by fear. Results indicated that fear mediated the relationship between viewing nonfictional shows and lack of support for the justice system. Viewing crime dramas predicted support for the death penalty, but this relationship was not mediated by fear. News viewership was unrelated to either fear or attitudes. The results support the idea that program type matters when it comes to understanding people's fear of crime and their attitudes about criminal justice.

  18. The Legal Framework Of Human Rights Crime As An Extraordinary Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Siswadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research reviews the legal framework of human rights crime as an extraordinary crime as an approach in the settlement of criminal cases. The outcomes of the research indicate that modern human rights law developed out of customs and theories that established the rights of the individual in relation to the state. Disagreements regarding human rights violations which can only be done by the state and its agents or can also be done by non-government units still exist at the moment. As it turns out in practice however it has certain weaknesses particularly in legislation concerning serious crimes of human rights both as ius constituendum and ius constitutum still needs to be improved especially in the implementation of human rights on judiciary system. Therefore serious crimes against human rights are included as an extraordinary crime. The handling of the cases was incredible and special has become a logical consequence to be included as an extraordinary crime.

  19. Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Jorge; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2015-01-01

    Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number--in an inertialess environment--is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the "belly phase," peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing.

  20. Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Arrieta

    Full Text Available Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number--in an inertialess environment--is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the "belly phase," peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing.

  1. Childhood trauma and neighborhood-level crime interact in predicting adult posttraumatic stress and major depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Quinn, James W; Richards, Catherine A; Pothen, John; Rundle, Andrew; Galea, Sandro; Ressler, Kerry J; Koenen, Karestan C; Bradley, Bekh

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified several individual-level factors that modify the risk of childhood trauma on adult psychiatric symptoms, including symptoms of major depression (MD) and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Neighborhood-level factors also influence the impact of individual-level exposures on adult psychopathology. However, no prior studies to our knowledge have explored cross-level interactions between childhood trauma and neighborhood-level factors on MD and PTS symptoms. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore cross-level interactions between a neighborhood-level factor - neighborhood-level crime - and childhood trauma on MD and PTS symptoms. Participants in this study (N=3192) were recruited from a large public hospital, and completed self-report inventories of childhood trauma and MD and PTS symptoms. Participant addresses were mapped onto 2010 census tracts, and data on crime within each tract were collected. Multilevel models found a significant cross-level interaction between childhood trauma and neighborhood crime on MD symptoms, such that the influence of high levels of childhood trauma on MD symptoms was enhanced for participants living in high-crime neighborhoods. Supplementary analyses found variation in the strength of cross-level interaction terms by types of childhood trauma and crime, with the strongest associations including emotional neglect paired with personal and property crime. The results provide preliminary support for interventions that help childhood trauma survivors find housing in less vulnerable neighborhoods and build skills to cope with neighborhood crime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Police officer on the frontline or a soldier? The effect of police militarization on crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bove, Vincenzo; Gavrilova, Evelina

    2017-01-01

    Sparked by high-profile confrontations between police and citizens in Ferguson, Missouri, and elsewhere, many commentators have criticized the excessive militarization of law enforcement. We investigate whether surplus military-grade equipment acquired by local police departments from the Pentagon has an effect on crime rates. We use temporal variations in US military expenditure and between-counties variation in the odds of receiving a positive amount of military aid to identify the causal e...

  3. Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Arrieta, Jorge; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2012-01-01

    © 2015 Arrieta et al. Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number - in an inertialess environment - is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase.We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool...

  4. The Non-Linear Effect of Wealth on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Chihiro Muroi; Robert Baumann

    2009-01-01

    Although theory suggests the relationship between crime and wealth is ambiguous, most empirical analyses estimate a monotonic relationship and find that wealth has negative effect on crime. Using two proxies for wealth (median income and poverty rate) and two types of crime (property and violent), we find a quadratic relationship is the best fit for our four crime-wealth groups. In general, the expected negative effect of wealth on crime only applies to wealthier counties. In poorer counties,...

  5. The effect of football matches on crime patterns in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Struse, Simon Planells; Montolio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Given the actual debate, in many European countries, about the need for public administrations to raise their revenues through taxing the crime externalities generated by some private leisure activities, this article analyzes the effect of football matches on crime focusing both on property crimes and interpersonal violent crimes. Our aim is to determine up to what extent a private leisure activity, such as football matches, induces negative crime externalities to the whole society. Using dat...

  6. Lessons Learned from Crime Caught on Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasco, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The widespread use of camera surveillance in public places offers criminologists the opportunity to systematically and unobtrusively observe crime, their main subject matter. The purpose of this essay is to inform the reader of current developments in research on crimes caught on camera. Methods: We address the importance of direct observation of behavior and review criminological studies that used observational methods, with and without cameras, including the ones published in this issue. We also discuss the uses of camera recordings in other social sciences and in biology. Results: We formulate six key insights that emerge from the literature and make recommendations for future research. Conclusions: Camera recordings of real-life crime are likely to become part of the criminological tool kit that will help us better understand the situational and interactional elements of crime. Like any source, it has limitations that are best addressed by triangulation with other sources. PMID:29472728

  7. Lessons Learned from Crime Caught on Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Bernasco, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The widespread use of camera surveillance in public places offers criminologists the opportunity to systematically and unobtrusively observe crime, their main subject matter. The purpose of this essay is to inform the reader of current developments in research on crimes caught on camera....... Methods: We address the importance of direct observation of behavior and review criminological studies that used observational methods, with and without cameras, including the ones published in this issue. We also discuss the uses of camera recordings in other social sciences and in biology. Results: We...... formulate six key insights that emerge from the literature and make recommendations for future research. Conclusions: Camera recordings of real-life crime are likely to become part of the criminological tool kit that will help us better understand the situational and interactional elements of crime. Like...

  8. Age Sanity of a Crime Committer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altynbaeva L. M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of age sanity of a crime committer taking into consideration the intellectual and strong-willed development of the person who committed a socially dangerous act.

  9. Nations Hospitable to Organized Crime and Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berry, LaVerle; Curtis, Glenn E; Gibbs, John N; Hudson, Rex A; Karacan, Tara; Kollars, Nina; Miro, Ramon

    2003-01-01

    .... Although the focus of the report is on transnational activity, domestic criminal activity is recognized as a key foundation for transnational crime, especially as the forces of globalization intensify...

  10. Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...

  11. Workshop on Wildlife Crime: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Wildlife crime, computation, conservation, criminology , conservation biology, risk, poaching REPORT...Action items? Conference on “Conservation, Computation, Criminology ” C^3? Technology Transfer

  12. Political crimes in the transition to modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    ” and the “political”. In the second part, I will discuss how the social sciences emerged in the late 19th century as a reflection on the nature of crime in the transition to modernity. The importance of some almost forgotten “classical traditions” will be stressed. In the third part I will briefly indicate how...... the most celebrated political revolutions within the European tradition, including the French and the Russian Revolutions, are critically tied to the emergence of new forms of political crime originating in crowd behavior. The framework elaborated throughout the article relies on contributions of classical......This article is intended as a reflection piece on the question: what could be an anthropological contribution to the question of political crimes? The reflection will consist of three interrelated parts. In the first part, I wish to address the meaning of the words we use when bespeaking “crime...

  13. South African Crime Quarterly - Vol 42 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "Dip me in Chocolate and Thow me to the Lesbians": Homophobic hate crimes, the state and civil society · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. K Williams, 39-46 ...

  14. Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Julie

    2008-01-01

    .... Only two other ICTY indicted individuals are still at large, including Gen. Ratko Mladic, who along with Karadzic is under indictment for genocide and crimes against humanity occurring during the 1992- 1995 Bosnian war...

  15. Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Julie

    2005-01-01

    In December 2005, top Croatian indicted war crimes fugitive Gen. Ante Gotovina was arrested in Spain and transferred to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague...

  16. Ending Haiti's Crime Wave | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-04-17

    stained neighborhoods are experiencing a dramatic escalation in homicidal violence. The surge in murder, property crime and assault began less than six months ago and appears to be accelerating. There are genuine fears ...

  17. Macro-Economic Instability and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaumont, Patrick; Puech, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    This paper adds to the literature on the economic determinants of crime by examining the impact of macro-economic instability. Instability increases the frustration level of individuals and incites them to smooth their income by using illegal earnings. Results from a panel of developed and developing countries for the period 1980-97 suggests that macro-economic instability had a significant impact on crime, both homicide and robbery. However, homicide and robbery do not react to instability i...

  18. Crime and the transition to teenage parenthood

    OpenAIRE

    Carine Øien-Ødegaard; Torbjørn Skardhamar

    2015-01-01

    Age-graded social control theory suggests that parenthood can have a preventive effect on crime among adults, but it is unclear whether and how this applies to teenagers, as teenage parenthood and affiliation with crime can have mutual confounding causes. Using individual-level Norwegian administrative register data on the total population of fifteen to nineteen year olds, we assess the relationship between teenage parenthood and criminal activity. We find that teenage parents have an elevate...

  19. The perfect crime: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanton, L; Miras, A; Tilhet-Coartet, S; Achache, P; Malicier, D

    1998-09-01

    The primum movens of a forensic autopsy is to track down the crime. The perfect crime can be defined as one which will never be suspected and/or one for which the criminal will never be arrested. We have reported several cases that have been adjudicated or are being adjudicated, and we show how actual homicides could have been taken for accidental deaths, suicides, or even natural deaths.

  20. Physics in the prevention of crime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.

    1976-01-01

    Physics is playing a significant role, particularly in Europe and North America, both as an aid to detect and prevent crime and also to assist in the provision of more precise information about crimes committed. Advances have resulted from fundamental studies in several fields. Among methods described are those of neutron activation analysis and proton microbeam X-ray production which show promise in the field of forensic science where the detection of minute quantities of trace elements may be of significance. (author)

  1. Spatial Variations of Crime in Wisconsin: A Macroscale, Multivariate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Problem and the Federal Responce. House of Representatives, 95th Congress, Second Session, June. 9-M ---. II .12 Sutherland , Edwin H., and Cressey...reformers concerned over sentencing disparities and is still used in penology debate today. Sutherland and Cressey (1978, p. 56) note that, with only...deficient in explaining the criminal actions of offenders who are part of mainstream America. Sutherland and Cressey’s Differential Association ~ 21 Theory

  2. Geometric procedures for civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Tonias, Elias C

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a multitude of geometric constructions usually encountered in civil engineering and surveying practice.  A detailed geometric solution is provided to each construction as well as a step-by-step set of programming instructions for incorporation into a computing system. The volume is comprised of 12 chapters and appendices that may be grouped in three major parts: the first is intended for those who love geometry for its own sake and its evolution through the ages, in general, and, more specifically, with the introduction of the computer. The second section addresses geometric features used in the book and provides support procedures used by the constructions presented. The remaining chapters and the appendices contain the various constructions. The volume is ideal for engineering practitioners in civil and construction engineering and allied areas.

  3. Geometric group theory an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Löh, Clara

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by classical geometry, geometric group theory has in turn provided a variety of applications to geometry, topology, group theory, number theory and graph theory. This carefully written textbook provides a rigorous introduction to this rapidly evolving field whose methods have proven to be powerful tools in neighbouring fields such as geometric topology. Geometric group theory is the study of finitely generated groups via the geometry of their associated Cayley graphs. It turns out that the essence of the geometry of such groups is captured in the key notion of quasi-isometry, a large-scale version of isometry whose invariants include growth types, curvature conditions, boundary constructions, and amenability. This book covers the foundations of quasi-geometry of groups at an advanced undergraduate level. The subject is illustrated by many elementary examples, outlooks on applications, as well as an extensive collection of exercises.

  4. Are Hispanics the new 'threat'? Minority group threat and fear of crime in Miami-Dade County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David; Taylor, John

    2008-12-01

    Research examining the determinants of fear of crime has arguably raised more questions than it has answered. This exploratory study addresses one of the compelling questions that remains unanswered: what is the role of ethnicity, both at the community and individual levels, in understanding variation in fear of crime? Guided by racial or minority group threat theory, we examine the relative sizes of both the Black and Latino populations as indicators of minority group threat to determine their role in understanding individual fear of crime in a city where Latinos represent a much larger proportion of the population than Blacks (Miami-Dade County, Florida). Furthermore, the race and ethnic backgrounds of the respondents are also considered to evaluate their role in understanding variation in the fear of crime. Using both Census tract-level data and data collected from a NIDA sponsored grant that was part of a larger study about physically disabled residents, our findings reveal that in Miami-Dade County where Blacks are highly segregated from whites, the relative size of the Latino population is a predictor of fear of crime among white residents. Implications of this finding are considered, including a call for more nuanced research focusing on the predictors of fear of crime within multiethnic communities.

  5. Are Hispanics the new ’Threat’? Minority Group Threat and Fear of Crime in Miami-Dade County*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David; Taylor, John

    2008-01-01

    Research examining the determinants of fear of crime has arguably raised more questions than it has answered. This exploratory study addresses one of the compelling questions that remains unanswered: what is the role of ethnicity, both at the community and individual levels, in understanding variation in fear of crime? Guided by racial or minority group threat theory, we examine the relative sizes of both the Black and Latino populations as indicators of minority group threat to determine their role in understanding individual fear of crime in a city where Latinos represent a much larger proportion of the population than Blacks (Miami-Dade County, Florida). Furthermore, the race and ethnic backgrounds of the respondents are also considered to evaluate their role in understanding variation in the fear of crime. Using both Census tract-level data and data collected from a NIDA sponsored grant that was part of a larger study about physically disabled residents, our findings reveal that in Miami-Dade County where Blacks are highly segregated from whites, the relative size of the Latino population is a predictor of fear of crime among white residents. Implications of this finding are considered, including a call for more nuanced research focusing on the predictors of fear of crime within multiethnic communities. PMID:19227693

  6. Impact of Unemployment on Crime in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hsuan Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study discovers how unemployment rate explains the changes in the crime rate tendency in Europe by the two-stage-least square regression. The crime rate in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU area is found evidently more sensitive to unemployment than the non-EMU countries. The adoption of a common currency also strengthens the connections of the criminal problem among the EMU countries. We found the seriousness of the endogenous bias involved using the OLS methodology, so previous findings on the small effect of unemployment on crime rate obtained by employing the OLS methodology could be unreliable. Empirically, a one-percentage-point increase in unemployment increases the property crime by nearly 9% on average. The large unemployment effect implies that the increase in the unemployment rate that occurred after the financial crisis in 2008, followed by the European sovereign-debt crisis, may account for the trending increasing tendencies of the crime rate in Europe. The high unemployment effect revealed markedly different policy implications than those that have previously been considered in the literature. These findings suggest that the key determinants for governmental authorities in the EMU area successfully mitigating crime would greatly depend on how the governments resolve their economic recession.

  7. Childhood adversity, mental health, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Cornelius, Monica E; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is understood about childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and lifetime violent crime perpetration. The purpose was to evaluate TBI before the age of 15 years and other childhood environmental factors, mental health, and lifetime history of committing a violent crime. A cross-sectional study of 636 male and female offenders from a southeastern state prison population was conducted using Chi-squared tests, t tests, and logistic regression to determine factors associated with ever committing a violent crime. Committing a violent crime was associated with male gender, younger age, greater childhood sexual abuse (CSA), greater childhood emotional abuse, no TBI by the age of 15 years, and greater neighborhood adversity during childhood. Although TBI has been related to violent and nonviolent crime, this study showed that absence of TBI by the age of 15 years was associated with lifetime violent crime when adjusting for CSA, childhood emotional abuse, and neighborhood adversity during childhood. This builds upon neurobehavioral development literature suggesting that CSA and the stress of violence exposure without direct physical victimization may play a more critical role in lifetime violent criminal behavior than childhood TBI. Violence risk reduction must occur during childhood focusing on decreasing adversity, especially violence exposure as a witness as well as a direct victim.

  8. Crime: impacts of urban design and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Santana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The criminal research has confirmed that there are clear patterns of crime, with concentrations in specific places at specific times. That is to say, incidence of crime are not distributed randomly; rather, there are certain areas in cities that are relatively small, but where crimes occur much more frequently than elsewhere (the so-called “hotspots”, making them highly vulnerable and predictable. Urban design and environment may play a part in the decision of whether or not to commit a crime; for example, the lack of natural vigilance, poor lighting and other variables mean that a small area may easily be transformed into a potential crime hotspot. The relationship between specific aspects of urban design and the formation of “hotspots” is present in the theory of “Crime Prevention through Environmental Design” (CPTED. This paper examines the relationship between the “hotspots” and the characteristics of the environment, in accordance with CPTED Index, in one city from the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Amadora. The results highlight the need to reassess specific elements of urban design. This fact has drawn attention to the study of localities and urban design.

  9. [Psychopathological and psychosocial aspects of military crimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woś, Jarosław; Florkowski, Antoni; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2013-03-01

    Crimes in the military, as well as criminal behaviors in the civilian community are determined by multiple factors. However, in case of military crimes committed by soldiers on active duty, an important part of forensic psychiatric opinion, is to assess whether occurring mental disorder resulted in inability to perform military duties. was to investigate the psychopathological and psychosocial determinants of criminal behavior in soldiers who committed military crime. The study included 122 soldiers who committed military crime. Material for this study consisted of forensic psychiatric opinions formed on the order of military prosecutor and the military judicial authorities. The results indicate that military crimes are determined by multiple factors. In most cases, the criminal behavior was associated with personality disorder (70%), alcohol problems (43%) and psychoactive substance use (30%). Psychosocial factors analysis revealed more frequent behavioral problems during childhood and adolescence (51%), history of parental alcohol problem (31%) and previous criminal record (29%). Forensic psychiatric examinations revealed that military crimes are more frequent in soldiers on compulsory military service, and in those with personality disorder or/and alcohol problems.

  10. Geometric identities in stereological particle analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kötzer, S.; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel; Baddeley, A.

    We review recent findings about geometric identities in integral geometry and geometric tomography, and their statistical application to stereological particle analysis. Open questions are discussed.......We review recent findings about geometric identities in integral geometry and geometric tomography, and their statistical application to stereological particle analysis. Open questions are discussed....

  11. Identification of the impact of crime on physical activity depends upon neighbourhood scale: multilevel evidence from 203,883 Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    Equivocal findings on crime as a deterrent for physical activity may be due to effects of geographic scale on exposure measurement. To investigate this hypothesis, physical activity was measured in 203,883 Australians and linked to standardised crime counts within small ('Census Collection Districts'; approx. 330 residents) and larger areas ('Statistical Local Areas'; approx. 32,000 residents). A median rate ratio of 2.26 indicated substantive geographic variation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Adjusting for confounders, multilevel negative binomial regression reported lower MVPA with more crime consistently in small, but not in larger areas. Reducing small pockets of local crime may encourage more physically active lifestyles. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Geometric Langlands From Six Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Geometric Langlands duality is usually formulated as a statement about Riemann surfaces, but it can be naturally understood as a consequence of electric-magnetic duality of four-dimensional gauge theory. This duality in turn is naturally understood as a consequence of the existence of a certain exotic supersymmetric conformal field theory in six dimensions. The same six-dimensional theory also gives a useful framework for understanding some recent mathematical results involving a counterpart of geometric Langlands duality for complex surfaces. (This article is based on a lecture at the Raoul Bott celebration, Montreal, June 2008.)

  13. Catching homologies by geometric entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Domenico; Franzosi, Roberto; Mancini, Stefano; Pettini, Marco

    2018-02-01

    A geometric entropy is defined in terms of the Riemannian volume of the parameter space of a statistical manifold associated with a given network. As such it can be a good candidate for measuring networks complexity. Here we investigate its ability to single out topological features of networks proceeding in a bottom-up manner: first we consider small size networks by analytical methods and then large size networks by numerical techniques. Two different classes of networks, the random graphs and the scale-free networks, are investigated computing their Betti numbers and then showing the capability of geometric entropy of detecting homologies.

  14. Geometric scaling as traveling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, S.; Peschanski, R.

    2003-01-01

    We show the relevance of the nonlinear Fisher and Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov (KPP) equation to the problem of high energy evolution of the QCD amplitudes. We explain how the traveling wave solutions of this equation are related to geometric scaling, a phenomenon observed in deep-inelastic scattering experiments. Geometric scaling is for the first time shown to result from an exact solution of nonlinear QCD evolution equations. Using general results on the KPP equation, we compute the velocity of the wave front, which gives the full high energy dependence of the saturation scale

  15. Hodograph: A useful geometrical tool for solving some difficult problems in dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolatos, Theocharis A.

    2003-03-01

    The hodograph is very useful for solving complicated problems in dynamics. By simple geometrical arguments students can directly obtain the answer to problems that would otherwise be complicated exercises in algebra. Although beyond the level of undergraduates, we also use the hodograph to calculate by variational geometrical techniques, the well-known brachistochrone curve, thus illustrating this approach.

  16. Youth, guns, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Young people are overrepresented as both victims and perpetrators of violence. Indeed, some commentators have suggested that recent cohorts of youth have been composed of "superpredators" who have little regard for human life. The evidence, however, suggests that other factors are responsible for recent increases in youth gun violence. This article analyzes the extent and causes of youth violence in the United States, paying particular attention to the late 1980s and early 1990s, when rates of homicide and robbery committed by youth rose to extremely high levels. Examination of trends for these crimes shows that: The increase in violence in the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s was due primarily to an increase in violent acts committed by people under age 20. Similarly, dramatic declines in homicide and robbery in recent years are attributable primarily to a decline in youth violence. The increase in youth homicide was predominantly due to a significant increase in the use of handguns, which converted ordinary teenage fights and other violent encounters into homicides. Several other interrelated factors also fueled the rise in youth violence, including the rise of illegal drug markets, particularly for crack cocaine, the recruitment of youth into those markets, and an increase in gun carrying among young people. The author points out that youth violence diminished as the crack markets shrank, law enforcement increased efforts to control youth access to guns, youth gun carrying declined, and the robust economy provided legitimate jobs for young people.

  17. Crime victims‘ right to compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the most important documents of the United Nations, Council of Europe and the European Union relating to rights to damage compensation (restitution from offender and state compensation. The analysis shows that there is a gradual move from the concept of exercising the rights of victims in favor of a solidaristic model that takes less into account the rights of victims, and more the need to satisfy their legitimate interests. The economic crisis that is undermining the foundations of the welfare state could jeopardize the realization of this concept, especially in those European countries where the criminal justice system focuses solely on the offender, as is the case in Serbia. In such circumstances, regulation which protects the right to compensation, other rights and interests of victims, shall apply only to the extent that serves crime prevention. So it happens that in spite of a suitable normative framework and developments regarding the protection of victims of domestic violence and trafficking, the right to compensation and other rights of the victims do not actually get actualized in practice. In order to overcome this, a systemic reform to the criminal justice system should be undertaken with the aim to redirect the system towards the victim of the offense. Within these reforms a public fund for compensation of the victims of violence should be established and the process of mediation between the victim and the offender with the goal to make a settlement should be regulated, because these mechanisms do not exist in Serbia.

  18. Target Selection Models with Preference Variation Between Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Townsley, Michael; Birks, Daniel; Ruiter, Stijn; Bernasco, Wim; White, Gentry

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study explores preference variation in location choice strategies of residential burglars. Applying a model of offender target selection that is grounded in assertions of the routine activity approach, rational choice perspective, crime pattern and social disorganization theories,

  19. In Defence of Geometrical Algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasjo, V.N.E.

    The geometrical algebra hypothesis was once the received interpretation of Greek mathematics. In recent decades, however, it has become anathema to many. I give a critical review of all arguments against it and offer a consistent rebuttal case against the modern consensus. Consequently, I find that

  20. Geometric quantization and general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.-M.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of geometric quantization is to give a rigorous mathematical content to the 'correspondence principle' between classical and quantum mechanics. The main tools are borrowed on one hand from differential geometry and topology (differential manifolds, differential forms, fiber bundles, homology and cohomology, homotopy), on the other hand from analysis (functions of positive type, infinite dimensional group representations, pseudo-differential operators). Some satisfactory results have been obtained in the study of dynamical systems, but some fundamental questions are still waiting for an answer. The 'geometric quantization of fields', where some further well known difficulties arise, is still in a preliminary stage. In particular, the geometric quantization on the gravitational field is still a mere project. The situation is even more uncertain due to the fact that there is no experimental evidence of any quantum gravitational effect which could give us a hint towards what we are supposed to look for. The first level of both Quantum Theory, and General Relativity describes passive matter: influence by the field without being a source of it (first quantization and equivalence principle respectively). In both cases this is only an approximation (matter is always a source). But this approximation turns out to be the least uncertain part of the description, because on one hand the first quantization avoids the problems of renormalization and on the other hand the equivalence principle does not imply any choice of field equations (it is known that one can modify Einstein equations at short distances without changing their geometrical properties). (Auth.)

  1. Geometric scaling in exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, S.; Wallon, S.

    2003-01-01

    We show that according to the present understanding of the energy evolution of the observables measured in deep-inelastic scattering, the photon-proton scattering amplitude has to exhibit geometric scaling at each impact parameter. We suggest a way to test this experimentally at HERA. A qualitative analysis based on published data is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  2. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2009-01-01

    compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...

  3. Geometric phases and quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedral, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In my lectures I will talk about the notion of the geometric phase and explain its relevance for both fundamental quantum mechanics as well as quantum computation. The phase will be at first introduced via the idea of Pancharatnam which involves interference of three or more light beams. This notion will then be generalized to the evolving quantum systems. I will discuss both pure and mixed states as well as unitary and non-unitary evolutions. I will also show how the concept of the vacuum induced geometric phase arises in quantum optics. A simple measurement scheme involving a Mach Zehnder interferometer will be presented and will be used to illustrate all the concepts in the lecture. Finally, I will expose a simple generalization of the geometric phase to evolving degenerate states. This will be seen to lead to the possibility of universal quantum computation using geometric effects only. Moreover, this contains a promise of intrinsically fault tolerant quantum information processing, whose prospects will be outlined at the end of the lecture. (author)

  4. Cartan's geometrical structure of supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baaklini, N.S.

    1977-06-01

    The geometrical partnership of the vierbein and the spin-3/2 field in the structure of the supergravity Lagrangian is emphasized. Both fields are introduced as component of the same matrix differential form. The only local symmetry of the theory is SL(2,C)

  5. A Crime Analysis Decision Support System for Crime Report Classification and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chih-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Today's Internet-based crime reporting systems make timely and anonymous crime reporting possible. However, these reports also result in a rapidly growing set of unstructured text files. Complicating the problem is that the information has not been filtered or guided in a detective-led interview resulting in much irrelevant information. To…

  6. Gender, general theory of crime and computer crime: an empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; McCluskey, John D; McCluskey, Cynthia P; Lee, Sangwon

    2013-04-01

    Regarding the gender gap in computer crime, studies consistently indicate that boys are more likely than girls to engage in various types of computer crime; however, few studies have examined the extent to which traditional criminology theories account for gender differences in computer crime and the applicability of these theories in explaining computer crime across gender. Using a panel of 2,751 Korean youths, the current study tests the applicability of the general theory of crime in explaining the gender gap in computer crime and assesses the theory's utility in explaining computer crime across gender. Analyses show that self-control theory performs well in predicting illegal use of others' resident registration number (RRN) online for both boys and girls, as predicted by the theory. However, low self-control, a dominant criminogenic factor in the theory, fails to mediate the relationship between gender and computer crime and is inadequate in explaining illegal downloading of software in both boy and girl models. Theoretical implication of the findings and the directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Women, brokerage and transnational organized crime. Empirical results from the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, E.R.; Kruisbergen, E.W.; Kouwenberg, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role of women in various types of transnational organized crime and tests the ‘gendered markets’ hypothesis by Zhang et al. (Criminology 45(3):699–733 2007) for a wide cross-section of 150 cases from the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor. The main information sources for the

  8. [Determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention: information-seeking on the Internet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takashi; Fuji, Kei; Yoshida, Fujio

    2013-06-01

    This study explores determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention on the Internet, including how it was influenced by personal conversations with others. An analysis of a web survey of mothers (N = 1,040) of 3-12 years old children in Japan indicated that many mothers briefly saw basic information about crime on the Internet, while only a few mothers sought further details. Structural equation modeling indicated the following results. Overall, an increased frequency of conversations about children's safety with family and friends made mothers realize their own responsibility for crime prevention. It also encouraged mothers to seek more information about crime prevention by increasing their willingness to cooperate with neighbors. However, when individuals' realization of responsibility for crime prevention strengthened their attitudes toward the responsibility of the police and government for crime problems, then these attitudes decreased mothers' information-seeking. Finally, while a heightened frequency of conversations about news contents directly increased information-seeking about crime, such conversations could indirectly weaken mothers' information-seeking when mothers emphasized the responsibility of the police and government.

  9. Implicit face prototype learning from geometric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Charles C-F; Wilson, Hugh R

    2013-04-19

    There is evidence that humans implicitly learn an average or prototype of previously studied faces, as the unseen face prototype is falsely recognized as having been learned (Solso & McCarthy, 1981). Here we investigated the extent and nature of face prototype formation where observers' memory was tested after they studied synthetic faces defined purely in geometric terms in a multidimensional face space. We found a strong prototype effect: The basic results showed that the unseen prototype averaged from the studied faces was falsely identified as learned at a rate of 86.3%, whereas individual studied faces were identified correctly 66.3% of the time and the distractors were incorrectly identified as having been learned only 32.4% of the time. This prototype learning lasted at least 1 week. Face prototype learning occurred even when the studied faces were further from the unseen prototype than the median variation in the population. Prototype memory formation was evident in addition to memory formation of studied face exemplars as demonstrated in our models. Additional studies showed that the prototype effect can be generalized across viewpoints, and head shape and internal features separately contribute to prototype formation. Thus, implicit face prototype extraction in a multidimensional space is a very general aspect of geometric face learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution and Correlates of Self-Reported Crimes of Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C

    2011-11-01

    This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to "conventional" property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11-18 years old in 1976-77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36-44) in 2002-2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002-2003 (total age range 11-88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes.

  11. Zoning out crime and improving community health in Sarasota, Florida: "Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sherry Plaster; Carter, Stanley L; Dannenberg, Andrew L

    2003-09-01

    Sarasota, Fla, used Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles to guide revitalization efforts in its crime-ridden North Trail area. A team of city planners, police officers, and architects examined land use and crime data and sought input from local businesses, residents, and community leaders. Beginning in 1990, interventions included increased police patrols to reduce prostitution and the creation of a new zoning district to encourage area redevelopment based on CPTED principles. Compared with the rest of Sarasota, from 1990 to 1998 the North Trail Corridor experienced decreases in calls for police service (P crimes against persons and property (P = not significant), and prostitution (P design may be a useful tool for decreasing crime and improving community health.

  12. Combating computer crimes: A long term strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizza, J.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Computer crimes are a new kind of crime less than twenty years old, but in these twenty years or so the computer crime rate has risen alarmingly, costing society billions of dollars annually. In software alone this figure is in billions; software piracy in USA resulted in a loss of 2.9 billion dollars in 1989 and 2.4 billion dollars in 1990. The problem is growing rapidly with a steadily increasing use of computers by the public. The number of people using computers in the USA in the last 10 years either at work or at home has jumped from almost zero to about 40 per cent of the population. In the next decade this number may approach 80 percent. With such widespread use of computers at work and home together with the ever increasing number of local, national, and international networks, computer crimes are expected to sky rocket, and if no adequate means are devised to combat these crimes now, the future promises to be no less frightening than the present.

  13. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  14. Variational principles for locally variational forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brajercik, J.; Krupka, D.

    2005-01-01

    We present the theory of higher order local variational principles in fibered manifolds, in which the fundamental global concept is a locally variational dynamical form. Any two Lepage forms, defining a local variational principle for this form, differ on intersection of their domains, by a variationally trivial form. In this sense, but in a different geometric setting, the local variational principles satisfy analogous properties as the variational functionals of the Chern-Simons type. The resulting theory of extremals and symmetries extends the first order theories of the Lagrange-Souriau form, presented by Grigore and Popp, and closed equivalents of the first order Euler-Lagrange forms of Hakova and Krupkova. Conceptually, our approach differs from Prieto, who uses the Poincare-Cartan forms, which do not have higher order global analogues

  15. Multiscale geometric modeling of macromolecules I: Cartesian representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kelin; Feng, Xin; Chen, Zhan; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the geometric modeling and computational algorithm development of biomolecular structures from two data sources: Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) in the Eulerian (or Cartesian) representation. Molecular surface (MS) contains non-smooth geometric singularities, such as cusps, tips and self-intersecting facets, which often lead to computational instabilities in molecular simulations, and violate the physical principle of surface free energy minimization. Variational multiscale surface definitions are proposed based on geometric flows and solvation analysis of biomolecular systems. Our approach leads to geometric and potential driven Laplace-Beltrami flows for biomolecular surface evolution and formation. The resulting surfaces are free of geometric singularities and minimize the total free energy of the biomolecular system. High order partial differential equation (PDE)-based nonlinear filters are employed for EMDB data processing. We show the efficacy of this approach in feature-preserving noise reduction. After the construction of protein multiresolution surfaces, we explore the analysis and characterization of surface morphology by using a variety of curvature definitions. Apart from the classical Gaussian curvature and mean curvature, maximum curvature, minimum curvature, shape index, and curvedness are also applied to macromolecular surface analysis for the first time. Our curvature analysis is uniquely coupled to the analysis of electrostatic surface potential, which is a by-product of our variational multiscale solvation models. As an expository investigation, we particularly emphasize the numerical algorithms and computational protocols for practical applications of the above multiscale geometric models. Such information may otherwise be scattered over the vast literature on this topic. Based on the curvature and electrostatic analysis from our multiresolution surfaces, we introduce a new concept, the

  16. Multi-stream face recognition for crime-fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Sabah A.; Sellahewa, Harin

    2007-04-01

    Automatic face recognition (AFR) is a challenging task that is increasingly becoming the preferred biometric trait for identification and has the potential of becoming an essential tool in the fight against crime and terrorism. Closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras have increasingly been used over the last few years for surveillance in public places such as airports, train stations and shopping centers. They are used to detect and prevent crime, shoplifting, public disorder and terrorism. The work of law-enforcing and intelligence agencies is becoming more reliant on the use of databases of biometric data for large section of the population. Face is one of the most natural biometric traits that can be used for identification and surveillance. However, variations in lighting conditions, facial expressions, face size and pose are a great obstacle to AFR. This paper is concerned with using waveletbased face recognition schemes in the presence of variations of expressions and illumination. In particular, we will investigate the use of a combination of wavelet frequency channels for a multi-stream face recognition using various wavelet subbands as different face signal streams. The proposed schemes extend our recently developed face veri.cation scheme for implementation on mobile devices. We shall present experimental results on the performance of our proposed schemes for a number of face databases including a new AV database recorded on a PDA. By analyzing the various experimental data, we shall demonstrate that the multi-stream approach is robust against variations in illumination and facial expressions than the previous single-stream approach.

  17. Landsat 8 thermal infrared sensor geometric characterization and calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, James C.; Choate, Michael J.; Moe, Donald

    2014-01-01

    The Landsat 8 spacecraft was launched on 11 February 2013 carrying two imaging payloads: the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). The TIRS instrument employs a refractive telescope design that is opaque to visible wavelengths making prelaunch geometric characterization challenging. TIRS geometric calibration thus relied heavily on on-orbit measurements. Since the two Landsat 8 payloads are complementary and generate combined Level 1 data products, the TIRS geometric performance requirements emphasize the co-alignment of the OLI and TIRS instrument fields of view and the registration of the OLI reflective bands to the TIRS long-wave infrared emissive bands. The TIRS on-orbit calibration procedures include measuring the TIRS-to-OLI alignment, refining the alignment of the three TIRS sensor chips, and ensuring the alignment of the two TIRS spectral bands. The two key TIRS performance metrics are the OLI reflective to TIRS emissive band registration accuracy, and the registration accuracy between the TIRS thermal bands. The on-orbit calibration campaign conducted during the commissioning period provided an accurate TIRS geometric model that enabled TIRS Level 1 data to meet all geometric accuracy requirements. Seasonal variations in TIRS-to-OLI alignment have led to several small calibration parameter adjustments since commissioning.

  18. Fully controllable adiabatic geometric phase in nonlinear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnieli, Aviv; Arie, Ady

    2018-02-19

    We propose and analyze a new way for obtaining an adiabatic geometric phase for light, via the sum-frequency-generation nonlinear process. The state of light is represented by the complex amplitudes at two different optical frequencies, coupled by the second order nonlinearity of the medium. The dynamics of this system is then shown to be equivalent to that of a spin-1/2 particle in a magnetic field, which in turn can be rotated adiabatically on the Bloch sphere. When the input wave itself is an eigenstate of the magnetic field equivalent, the geometric phase is manifested as a pure phase factor. Two adiabatic rotation schemes, based on specific modulations of the quasi-phase-matching poling parameters, are discussed. In the first, the geometric phase is shown to be sensitive to the pump intensity variations, as a result of the Bloch sphere deformation. The second can be utilized for the realization of nonlinear-optics-based geometric phase plates. Moreover, non-closed adiabatic trajectories are investigated, which are expected to provide a robust and broadband geometric wavefront shaping in the sum frequency.

  19. Geometrical methods in learning theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdet, G.; Combe, Ph.; Nencka, H.

    2001-01-01

    The methods of information theory provide natural approaches to learning algorithms in the case of stochastic formal neural networks. Most of the classical techniques are based on some extremization principle. A geometrical interpretation of the associated algorithms provides a powerful tool for understanding the learning process and its stability and offers a framework for discussing possible new learning rules. An illustration is given using sequential and parallel learning in the Boltzmann machine

  20. Geometric Results for Compressible Magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Arter, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Recently, compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) has been elegantly formulated in terms of Lie derivatives. This paper exploits the geometrical properties of the Lie bracket to give new insights into the properties of compressible MHD behaviour, both with and without feedback of the magnetic field on the flow. These results are expected to be useful for the solution of MHD equations in both tokamak fusion experiments and space plasmas.

  1. Geometric monodromy - Semisimplicity and maximality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadoret, Anna; Hui, Chun Yin; Tamagawa, Akio

    2017-01-01

    Let X be a connected scheme, smooth and separated over an alge- braically closed field k of characteristic p ≥ 0, let f: Y → X be a smooth proper morphism and x a geometric point on X. We prove that the tensor invariants of bounded length ≤ d of π1(X; x) acting on the étale cohomology groups H*(Yx;

  2. Crime-prisão-liberdade-crime: o círculo perverso da reincidência no crime Crime-jail-free (liberty-crime: the wicked circle the crime reincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Rangel Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo objetiva identificar, a partir das vozes e visões daqueles que a protagonizam - homens e mulheres privados de liberdade no Centro de Remanejamento do Sistema Prisional (Ceresp de Ipatinga (MG -, os fatores sociais, políticos, econômicos, históricos e culturais que os impelem a reproduzir o percurso crime-prisão-liberdade-crime, num círculo vicioso sem fim. O que importa é realizar tal análise sem, contudo, se eximir de responsabilidade analítica, teórica e política.This article aims to identify, from the voices and visions of those who are protagonists - men and women deprived of liberty in the Relocation Center of Prisons (Ceresp Ipatinga/MG - the social, political, economic, historical and cultural factors that impel them to reproduce the route crime-jail-free (liberty-crime, in an endless vicious circle. What matters is to perform the analysis, without, exempt (shunning an analytical, theoretical and political responsibility.

  3. Crime, In/Security and Mob Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe

    2014-01-01

    Violent crime poses important challenges for quotidian concerns over security and safety by ordinary citizens in several Africa states. This is especially so in contexts where state security agents are perceived as highly corrupt and/or where African states seem unable to “protect” their citizens...... from violent crime. The widespread sense of anxiety over various forms of violent crime and state failure to guarantee protection for citizens generates a quest for alternative practices of safety-making that, in turn, evoke serious concerns over state power and sovereignty in Africa. Focusing on mob...... justice in Cameroon, this article argues that the political contextualisation of sovereignty must pay attention not only to the sovereign’s right to kill and let live, but also its responsibility to guarantee safety for those citizens it chooses to let live. The paper demonstrates that in Cameroon mob...

  4. Crime Modeling using Spatial Regression Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ahmar, Ansari; Adiatma; Kasim Aidid, M.

    2018-01-01

    Act of criminality in Indonesia increased both variety and quantity every year. As murder, rape, assault, vandalism, theft, fraud, fencing, and other cases that make people feel unsafe. Risk of society exposed to crime is the number of reported cases in the police institution. The higher of the number of reporter to the police institution then the number of crime in the region is increasing. In this research, modeling criminality in South Sulawesi, Indonesia with the dependent variable used is the society exposed to the risk of crime. Modelling done by area approach is the using Spatial Autoregressive (SAR) and Spatial Error Model (SEM) methods. The independent variable used is the population density, the number of poor population, GDP per capita, unemployment and the human development index (HDI). Based on the analysis using spatial regression can be shown that there are no dependencies spatial both lag or errors in South Sulawesi.

  5. Entrepreneurs' Responses to Organized Crime and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jacobo; Gómez, Sergio Manuel Madero; Muñiz, Carlos

    This research aims to investigate the various direct and indirect impacts of organized violence and crime on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as well as entrepreneurs’ responses to violent acts. A mixed-method design based on a quantitative content analysis of 204 news stories found...... operating in complex institutional contexts. The findings highlight the emerging process of social change in Mexican society among members of the middle class, and various attempts to fight back against organized violence and crime in a non-violent manner. SMEs are important in Mexico and Latin America....... However, the understanding of the direct and indirect impacts of organized crime and violence on SMEs is limited. This research identifies and analyzes the emerging responses of entrepreneurs to these institutional constraints....

  6. Patterns of Crime in a Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, L M; Cliff, N; Cudeck, R A; McCormik, D J; Zatkin, J L

    1983-07-01

    Most attempts at developing typologies of criminal behavior have not involved empirical research. This paper describes an exploratory empirical approach to identifying patterns in criminal behavior. Two data-reduction techniques, factor analysis and cluster analysis, are applied to the official arrest records of a Danish birth cohort of 28,879 men. Four factors emerged from the factor analysis: GENERAL CRIME, TRAFFIC OFFENSES, WHITE-COLLAR CRIME, and SEX OFFENSES. The cluster analysis revealed GENERAL CRIME and TRAFFIC OFFENSES clusters. A substantial number of offenses are shown by both analyses to be independent of any pattern. The results show good split-sample cross-validation and for the most part are robust across the two analytic approaches.

  7. Essays in Education, Crime, and Job Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick

    problems in another area. As such, externalities and unexpected spillover effects impact the costs and benefits of public spending to society and may have large and meaningful implications on how to most effectively allocate resources across a multitude of outcomes. For example, an increase in education...... towards immigrants can impact their employment prospects which, in turn, impacts their decision to further pursue education. Identifying how these individual level factors have an impact on society is key to informing and designing effective public policy. This Ph.D. thesis, entitled “Essays in Education......, Crime, and Job Displacement”, analyzes the determinants and social implications of these three factors. While independent, each essay within this thesis examines the impact of factors such as education, in terms of reduced crime, job loss, in terms of increased crime, and discrimination, in terms of its...

  8. CORPORATION CRIME LIABILITY OF PERSPECTIVE PENAL REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Salam Siku

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The setting of the responsibility criminal against corporations in Indonesia starting from the inception of the emergency law number 7 of 1955 on Economic Crime, then followed by some of the last act is Act No. 8 of 2010 on prevention and eradication of the crime of money laundering. In the framework of the renewal of national criminal law and the draft law on The Criminal law (Criminal Code systematically have set the criminal liability of corporations, whether incorporated corporation law and Corporation who is not a legal entity. Although there have been laws governing corporate crime responsibility about but are still have problems in its application. It can be seen from the lack of a corporate criminal sentenced by the Court.

  9. Polar metals by geometric design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. H.; Puggioni, D.; Yuan, Y.; Xie, L.; Zhou, H.; Campbell, N.; Ryan, P. J.; Choi, Y.; Kim, J.-W.; Patzner, J. R.; Ryu, S.; Podkaminer, J. P.; Irwin, J.; Ma, Y.; Fennie, C. J.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Pan, X. Q.; Gopalan, V.; Rondinelli, J. M.; Eom, C. B.

    2016-05-01

    Gauss’s law dictates that the net electric field inside a conductor in electrostatic equilibrium is zero by effective charge screening; free carriers within a metal eliminate internal dipoles that may arise owing to asymmetric charge distributions. Quantum physics supports this view, demonstrating that delocalized electrons make a static macroscopic polarization, an ill-defined quantity in metals—it is exceedingly unusual to find a polar metal that exhibits long-range ordered dipoles owing to cooperative atomic displacements aligned from dipolar interactions as in insulating phases. Here we describe the quantum mechanical design and experimental realization of room-temperature polar metals in thin-film ANiO3 perovskite nickelates using a strategy based on atomic-scale control of inversion-preserving (centric) displacements. We predict with ab initio calculations that cooperative polar A cation displacements are geometrically stabilized with a non-equilibrium amplitude and tilt pattern of the corner-connected NiO6 octahedra—the structural signatures of perovskites—owing to geometric constraints imposed by the underlying substrate. Heteroepitaxial thin-films grown on LaAlO3 (111) substrates fulfil the design principles. We achieve both a conducting polar monoclinic oxide that is inaccessible in compositionally identical films grown on (001) substrates, and observe a hidden, previously unreported, non-equilibrium structure in thin-film geometries. We expect that the geometric stabilization approach will provide novel avenues for realizing new multifunctional materials with unusual coexisting properties.

  10. Genderedperceptionof crime and safety: Insights from different socio ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    502-. 529. Williams, S., Seed J. & Mwau, A. (1998): The Oxfam gender training manual. Oxfam UK and. Ireland. Wyant, B. R. (2008): Multilevel impacts of perceived incivilities and perceptions of crime risk on fear of crime: Isolating endogenous ...

  11. The temporal relationship between schizophrenia and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    people in general. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the temporal relationship between registered crime and contact to the psychiatric hospital system. METHOD: This is a register-based study merging data on the psychiatric career with criminal records. RESULTS: Among the males with schizophrenia......, 37% started a criminal career and 13% had committed first violent crime before first contact with the psychiatric hospital system. CONCLUSION: The criminality committed before first contact to the psychiatric hospital system is substantial, especially among males with schizophrenia....

  12. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect...... is therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does...

  13. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect...... is therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does...

  14. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders. For this group, property crime is reduced, and our results indicate that the effect is unlikely to be the result of incapacitation only. We find...... no effect of military service on violent crime, on educational attainment, or on employment and earnings, either in the short run or in the long run. These results suggest that military service does not upgrade productive human capital directly, but rather affects criminal activity through other channels (e...

  15. Income inequality, poverty and crime across nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Paul-Philippe; Felson, Richard

    2014-09-01

    We examine the relationship between income inequality, poverty, and different types of crime. Our results are consistent with recent research in showing that inequality is unrelated to homicide rates when poverty is controlled. In our multi-level analyses of the International Crime Victimization Survey we find that inequality is unrelated to assault, robbery, burglary, and theft when poverty is controlled. We argue that there are also theoretical reasons to doubt that the level of income inequality of a country affects the likelihood of criminal behaviour. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  16. Chinese Organized Crime in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    cartels and Chinese organized crime in the importation of contra- band goods, including in the port of Veracruz , previously controlled by Los Zetas...as well as various Pacific coast ports. at the time this study was written, most of the retail sales of CHInESE orGAnIzED CrIME In lAtIn AMErICA...mines in the region and its sale to China.57 Chinese criminal groups are similarly reported to be engaged in illegal min- ing in the remote province

  17. Book review: Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Díaz Rozas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Book review. Tore Bjørgo. Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 9781137560476 (Hb 93.59€, 9781349569786 (Pb 41.59€, 9781137560483 (eBook 76.99€.Reseña. Tore Bjørgo. Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach. Londres: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 9781137560476 (Td 93.59€, 9781349569786 (Tb 41.59€, 9781137560483 (e-Libro 76.99€.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3092188

  18. Temporal dimensions of vulnerability to crime in economic sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Klima, Noel

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research into vulnerability to crime in two economic sectors in Belgium. Vulnerability to crime is an integration of diverse temporal factors. We address pre-crime and post-crime aspects of vulnerability, arising before and after the criminal event in an economic context. Based on interviews with professionals, security staff, law enforcement agents and with criminals in the transport sector and the hotel and catering industry, a study of police files, and i...

  19. THE CRIME OF UNJUSTIFIED ABSENCE IN THE ROMANIAN CRIMINAL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code of Romania regulates in Title XI of its Special Part the crimes against the combat capability of the military forces. Under this title, Chapter I is dedicated to the crimes committed by the military and defines the crime of unjustified absence. In this study, the author analysed the specific elements of this crime, including: the specific legal object - military discipline, the field of the active subject and the essential requirements imposed by its objective side.

  20. Femicide. Violent deaths of women as gender-specific crime

    OpenAIRE

    Dora Inés Munevar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss femicide as a gender-specific crime. It affords a feminist analysis on the conceptual dimensions of the crime; it includes the main arguments explored in Latin America, examines different aspects defended by feminists and women movement activists, discusses some reactions to the crime and considers the general structure of this crime in six countries: Costa Rica (special law, 2007), Guatemala (special law, 2008), Mexico (general law, 2007), El Salvador (s...

  1. A formal decomposition of declining youth crime in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Lars H. Andersen; Anne Sofie Tegner Anker; Signe Hald Andersen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the recent decades and across most developed democracies, youth crime has been in steady decline, and declining youth crime now constitutes an important contemporary demographic change. Yet underneath this change lingers the question of how we should best grasp declining youth crime. Objective: To decompose declining youth crime in Denmark into its extensive and intensive margins, and show results from birth cohort analyses. Methods: We apply Das Gupta's (1993) method f...

  2. Recreative sports in preventing child and youth crime

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Yaman; Sibel Arslan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to be able to make it clear that recreation serves as a buffer in preventing crime; recreational sports having a special place for young people in juvenile delinuency have an important place; and recreational activities that will be practised in the regions committing intense crime reduce the rate of crimes; but most importantly, sports recreation serves as a buffer for children and young people particularly in preventing the individuals from crime even before the...

  3. Youth Violence, Organized Crime and Public Insecurity (Central ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will examine the links between youth violence, organized crime and insecurity with a focus on urban and suburban contexts; examine gender violence in the context of youth violence, organized crime and public insecurity; and compare efforts to deal with youth violence, organized crime, violent conflict and ...

  4. Quality of Life and Perceptions of Crime in Saskatoon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between crime and quality of life in Saskatoon, Canada. The city has one of the highest crime rates in the country and has been referred to as the "Crime Capital of Canada", a label that comes as a surprise to many residents and causes considerable concern among others. The aim of this research…

  5. 24 CFR 1006.220 - Crime prevention and safety activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crime prevention and safety... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.220 Crime... enforcement measures and activities appropriate to protect residents of affordable housing from crime...

  6. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice...

  7. The Role of Perpetrator Motivation in Two Crime Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate volunteers (n = 134) were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 design that manipulated type of crime (rape vs. robbery) and perpetrator motivation (anger vs. desire). After reading one of the crime scenarios, participants responded to a series of attitude items regarding responsibility for the crime, assigned blame to agents mentioned in the…

  8. Disaggregating the Relationship Between Schools and Crime: A Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rebecca K.; Swatt, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Although an extensive literature exists on crime in schools, surprisingly few studies have examined crime within the vicinity of schools. Schools, like other urban facilities, can generate crime by providing youth opportunities to congregate with little supervision, particularly before and after school hours. Some noteworthy studies have…

  9. Forensic Accounting and Financial Crimes: Adopting the Inference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some instances of corporate scandals, occasioned by financial crimes, have put accounting professional bodies into a new perception and paradigm that go beyond statutory audit. This study discusses financial crimes and some basic and common financial crimes in corporate organizations. The review indicates that the ...

  10. Student Reactions to Public Safety Reports of Hate Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jessica E.; Koenig, Anne; Smith, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated participant's reactions to hate crime versus nonbiased crime incident reports that included more or less detail about the crime using a 2 (victim race: African American, unstated) × 2 (amount of information: vague, detailed) between-subjects factorial design. We hypothesized that participants would be more sympathetic,…

  11. The relationship between mental disorders and different types of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, David J.; De Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rinne, Thomas; Hoek, Hans W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies of relationships between mental disorder and crime have tended to group the mental disorders, the crimes or both, leaving uncertainty about a more specific mental disorder: crime relationships. Objective To examine the relationship between types of mental disorder and

  12. Crime scene as spatial production on screen, online and offline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Waade, Anne Marit

    of Swedish town Ystad as location in Henning Mankell's crime novels and as film locations in remediating the novels into movies is turning the actual town into a virtual crime scene for visiting tourists. In the computer game Dollar the adaptation of Liza Marklund's crime universe remediates Stockholm...

  13. Supporting Young Crime Victims: Discursive Environments and Formula Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofstrand, Cecilia Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Within the crime victim movement and discourse on victimization, a novel victim category has been introduced: the young crime victim. This article analyses the professional discourse formed around the new notion, focusing on the needs of the young crime victim along with the practices, tools, and techniques used to deal with resistance at a…

  14. Moral Questions In The Idea Of Crime And Punishment | Azenabor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question of crime and punishment has been a subject of great controversy among moral philosophers and jurists. The fundamental questions here are: What is crime? What is punishment? What is the justification for punishment? How do we determine the appropriate penalty or punishment for crime(s)?” Is punishment ...

  15. The Effect of Police on Recorded Crime vs. The Effect of Police on Victimisation of Crime. Evidence for England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.; Hamed, J.

    2009-01-01

    Using two sources of crime data, police statistics on recorded crime and victimization data from the British Crime Survey, we provide evidence that measurement error in recorded crime statistics results in underestimation of the effect of police on violent crime. We do not find a similar estimation

  16. Crimes do texto, crimes verdadeiros:a máfia na voz de Leonardo Sciascia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Pimentel Pinto

    Full Text Available RESUMO Nas entrevistas ou nos pronunciamentos parlamentares que realizou - assim como em sua ficção - o escritor siciliano Leonardo Sciascia denunciou incessantemente a máfia. Para ele, a hegemonia do crime organizado e suas articulações na política institucional impediam o acesso à verdade e à justiça. Coerentemente, suas peculiares narrativas policiais apresentam crimes sem solução, detetives derrotados, silêncios e omissões. Associando os crimes do texto e os crimes verdadeiros, Sciascia desenha, assim, o perfil da Sicília e, de forma mais ampla, da Itália.

  17. Intelligence-led crime scene processing. Part II: Intelligence and crime scene examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Baylon, Amélie; Lock, Eric; Delémont, Olivier; Roux, Claude; Zingg, Christian; Margot, Pierre

    2010-06-15

    A better integration of the information conveyed by traces within intelligence-led framework would allow forensic science to participate more intensively to security assessments through forensic intelligence (part I). In this view, the collection of data by examining crime scenes is an entire part of intelligence processes. This conception frames our proposal for a model that promotes to better use knowledge available in the organisation for driving and supporting crime scene examination. The suggested model also clarifies the uncomfortable situation of crime scene examiners who must simultaneously comply with justice needs and expectations, and serve organisations that are mostly driven by broader security objectives. It also opens new perspective for forensic science and crime scene investigation, by the proposal to follow other directions than the traditional path suggested by dominant movements in these fields. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Review of "Overcoming the insider: reducing employee computer crime through situational crime prevention, Willison R., Siponen M."

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.

    Situational crime prevention (SCP) is a criminological theory, proposed by Ronald Clarke in the 1980s and developed over the last 30 years, that focuses on the crime event rather than the criminal. A number of highly effective crime prevention techniques in the physical world have been developed

  19. More Schooling, Less Youth Crime? Learning from an Earthquake in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Yu

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the causal effect of schooling on youth crime. To identify the causal effect, I use the policy interventions that occurred after the Kobe earthquake that hit Japan in 1995 as a natural experiment inducing exogenous variation in schooling. Based on a comparison of the arrest rates between municipalities exposed to similar degrees of earthquake damage but with and without the policy interventions, I find that a higher high school participation rate reduces juvenile a...

  20. Geometric phase from dielectric matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    2005-10-01

    The dielectric property of the anisotropic optical medium is found by considering the polarized photon as two component spinor of spherical harmonics. The Geometric Phase of a polarized photon has been evaluated in two ways: the phase two-form of the dielectric matrix through a twist and the Pancharatnam phase (GP) by changing the angular momentum of the incident polarized photon over a closed triangular path on the extended Poincare sphere. The helicity in connection with the spin angular momentum of the chiral photon plays the key role in developing these phase holonomies. (author)

  1. Field guide to geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Greivenkamp, John E

    2004-01-01

    This Field Guide derives from the treatment of geometrical optics that has evolved from both the undergraduate and graduate programs at the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona. The development is both rigorous and complete, and it features a consistent notation and sign convention. This volume covers Gaussian imagery, paraxial optics, first-order optical system design, system examples, illumination, chromatic effects, and an introduction to aberrations. The appendices provide supplemental material on radiometry and photometry, the human eye, and several other topics.

  2. Geometric Computations On Indecisive Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Phillips, Jeff; Loffler, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    We study computing with indecisive point sets. Such points have spatial uncertainty where the true location is one of a finite number of possible locations. This data arises from probing distributions a few times or when the location is one of a few locations from a known database. In particular......, we study computing distributions of geometric functions such as the radius of the smallest enclosing ball and the diameter. Surprisingly, we can compute the distribution of the radius of the smallest enclosing ball exactly in polynomial time, but computing the same distribution for the diameter is #P...

  3. Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2016-06-20

    The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First, aesthetic constraints are important because the buildings have to be visually impressive. Sec- ond, functional constraints are important for the performance of a building and its e cient construction. This thesis contributes to the area of architectural geometry. Specifically, we are interested in the geometric rationalization of freeform architec- ture with the goal of combining aesthetic and functional constraints and construction requirements. Aesthetic requirements typically come from designers and architects. To obtain visually pleasing structures, they favor smoothness of the building shape, but also smoothness of the visible patterns on the surface. Functional requirements typically come from the engineers involved in the construction process. For exam- ple, covering freeform structures using planar panels is much cheaper than using non-planar ones. Further, constructed buildings have to be stable and should not collapse. In this thesis, we explore the geometric rationalization of freeform archi- tecture using four specific example problems inspired by real life applications. We achieve our results by developing optimization algorithms and a theoretical study of the underlying geometrical structure of the problems. The four example problems are the following: (1) The design of shading and lighting systems which are torsion-free structures with planar beams based on quad meshes. They satisfy the functionality requirements of preventing light from going inside a building as shad- ing systems or reflecting light into a building as lighting systems. (2) The Design of freeform honeycomb structures that are constructed based on hex-dominant meshes with a planar beam mounted along each edge. The beams intersect without

  4. A history of geometrical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Coolidge, Julian Lowell

    2013-01-01

    Full and authoritative, this history of the techniques for dealing with geometric questions begins with synthetic geometry and its origins in Babylonian and Egyptian mathematics; reviews the contributions of China, Japan, India, and Greece; and discusses the non-Euclidean geometries. Subsequent sections cover algebraic geometry, starting with the precursors and advancing to the great awakening with Descartes; and differential geometry, from the early work of Huygens and Newton to projective and absolute differential geometry. The author's emphasis on proofs and notations, his comparisons betwe

  5. 177 DOMESTIC AMNESTY FOR INTERNATIONAL CRIMES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Naqvi, 'Amnesty for war crimes: Defining the Limits of International Recognition', 85 International Review of the Red ... the government of that country in an attempt to end a protracted and bloody civil war. ..... comprehensive amnesties or the absence of any accountability for past atrocities, is immoral, injurious to victims,.

  6. Situational Crime Prevention in Nightlife Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Dilkes-Frayne, Ella

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we present a brief introduction to SCP and ANT, followed by ANT analyses of two crime prevention strategies: Passive Alert Detection (PAD) dogs at music festivals (Case I) and “doorwork” (Case II) at licensed venues. The first case examines the use of PAD, or sniffer, dogs to assi...

  7. The need for hate crime legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Consortium for Refugees and Migrants in South. Africa and convener of ... risk for developing a variety of mental health problems including ..... organisation has expressed an interest in support- ing South Africa by providing experts for related training.57. Regardless of whether hate crime legislation is adopted in South ...

  8. Mapping crime scenes and cellular telephone usage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available the accused. The billing records of the relevant telephones are obtained through a search warrant and for each call made before, during and after the commissioning of crimes, the approximate locations of the two telephones are plotted on a map....

  9. Private Military Contractors, War Crimes and International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article adds to the literature on the subject by arguing that the elusiveness of PMCs' individual or corporate responsibility for war crimes presents one of the greatest challenges for international humanitarian law (IHL). This presents a dilemma for IHL, which seeks to address individual offences. The situation becomes ...

  10. Community Based Crime Prevention in Guatemala | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Based Crime Prevention in Guatemala. Guatemala is one of the most violent countries in the world. Guatemalans of every age, class and ethnicity confront violence daily in every part of the national territory. According to statistics kept by the police and the human rights ombudsman, Guatemala registered 3 366 ...

  11. TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME. AN (INTERNATIONAL SECURITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Stoica

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For the past two decades organized crime has become a transnational phenomenon, and its impact is still far from being fully known and understood by common people. Its forms of manifestation, whether explicit, or subtle, are permanently evolving and adapting. As a result, its interference with the activities from the legal area makes it difficult to identify and counteract. After a long period of time when it was more a peripheral phenomenon, current transnational organized crime tends to become a major danger to the political, social and economic stability of the states. Through its nature and goals, as well as through the complexity of its forms of manifestation, transnational organized crime represents a major challenge for the state and nonstate organizations that deal with national and international security This paper focuses on the phenomenon starting from some of the most influent theories in international relations, presents the current features of transnational organized criminal groups and analyzes the causes and the favoring factors of the phenomenon, as well as the impact of the phenomenon upon national and international security at political, economic-financial and military level. The approach is an interdisciplinary one and also covers the nexus between transnational organized crime and international terrorism.

  12. Internet Governance amp Cyber Crimes In UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Al Neyadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most people in UAE dont feel safe while they are use the Internet because most internet users have been a victim for cyber crime. Cyber crime threat rate has increased which has targeted on citizen privacy property and governments also the reputation problems. There are many criminal activities such as indecent acts Copyright issues Terrorist Acts State security and Contempt of religion. Cyber crimes due to several reasons such as they have lack of social intelligence they are being greedy and not being content also some of them have financial troubles these reasons usually exploited by criminals. Thus the decree will be a punishment or criminalizes formally on any person who using any kind of information technology and any others private life to blackmail or to threaten others online. In addition at the present time with the most detailed new cybercrime law that can be used to prove found guilty. As well the author discusses that the new cyber-crime law provides protection of personal information including banking information credit cards and electronic payment information.

  13. Crime-social risk in contemporary society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilić Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crime, as a form of violation of law (A. Giddens, is one of the social risks. One of the negative consequences of the development of a modern, global society is the globalization of criminality (M. Kostić & F. Mirić. Criminality can only be discussed with the development and elaboration of the legal system in the modern sense of the word (including criminal law, but in societies there have always been certain types of norms and beliefs that have influenced human behavior and against which (in correctness (M. Ivanović. Unlike a positive right that cannot fully follow the dynamics of change in society that influence the definition of a crime, sociology should constantly seek new elements that extend this notion (new, unpredictable, unlimited. The paper analyzes the causes of criminality, its distribution, types (violent, property, etc., relation to other notions (deviance, delinquency and crime and its consequences in contemporary society, in order to look at the risk of crime, to seek an adequate social response to This negative phenomenon, and provides an analysis of the penal policy and the role of a prison institution for the offender's conversion (M. Foucault.

  14. Counterfeit Conservatism and the War on Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Ness, Arlin E.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the current reversion to a punitive public mentality that is being promoted as a purportedly conservative agenda for fighting crime and delinquency. Suggests that while punitive measures and rehabilitation appear to be opposite solutions, each is reactive and rooted in pessimism and blame. (JPS)

  15. Crime Laboratory Proficiency Testing Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joseph L.; And Others

    A three-year research effort was conducted to design a crime laboratory proficiency testing program encompassing the United States. The objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility of preparation and distribution of different classes of physical evidence; (2) assess the accuracy of criminalistics laboratories in the processing of selected…

  16. APLICABILIDADE DA TENTATIVA NOS CRIMES UNISSUBSISTENTES

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Filho, Antônio; Ferreira Neto, Nelito Lima

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho visa a compreender a aplicação da tentativa nos crimes unissubsistentes, a partir de um estudo sistemático da teoria geral da tentativa, buscando explicar nuanças como a sua tipicidade, as teorias que a cercam, a delimitação do iter criminis e, principalmente, sobre a possibilidade daquela nos delitos unissubsistentes.

  17. private military contractors, war crimes and international

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    Sierra Leone, Executive Outcomes carried out air strikes ensuing huge collateral damage.48 These and many more instances point to the fact that international law is notoriously difficult to enforce49 and in most instances, has been scrupulously observed.50. In reality, all serious violations of IHL are war crimes subject to ...

  18. Seeking Justice: Crime and Punishment in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMascio, William M.

    Five million people in the United States are under the supervision of the criminal justice system, 1.5 million in prisons or jails, the rest on probation or parole, and the inmate population continues to grow. Taxpayers spend billions of dollars each year on prisons and jails, yet the solution to crime problems remains elusive. To assist in…

  19. Reconstruction of crimes by infrared photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzik, V; Bohnert, M

    2016-09-01

    Whenever blunt or sharp forces are used in a crime, analysis of bloodstain pattern distribution may provide important information for the reconstruction of happenings. Thereby, attention should be paid to both the crime scene and the clothes of everyone involved in the crime. On dark textiles, though, it is difficult or even impossible for the human eye to detect bloodstains because of the low contrast to the background. However, in the near infrared wavelength range, contrast is considerably higher. Many textiles reflect light beyond a wavelength of 830 nm and thus appear light-colored, whereas blood absorbs the light and appears dark. In our studies, a D7000 NIKON reflex camera modified for infrared photography produced high-resolution photographs visualizing even very small spatter stains on dark textiles. The equipment can be used at any crime scene or lab and provides immediately available and interpretable images. Thus, important findings can be obtained at an early stage of police investigations, as two examples (homicide and attempted homicide) illustrate.

  20. [The elderly as victims of violent crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlf, E H

    1994-01-01

    Up to now, victimology has only dealt with partial aspects of the situation of the elderly as victims of violent crime. Nevertheless, the Police Crime Statistics enable us to make the following three basic statements: In general, old people are less likely to become victims of violent crime (than young people). The acts of violence committed against the elderly are mainly ones in which there was a relationship between offender and victim before the offense. Elderly women are disproportionately more often victims of purse snatching. The increasing social isolation of old people constitutes not only a specific form of victimization, it probably also increases their susceptibility to become victims. The theory that old people have "a particularly pronounced fear of crime" cannot be generally proven. This question must be considered from differing points of view and depends largely on the individual vulnerability of the old people. In Germany, there has hardly been any empirical study of violence towards the elderly in institutions and in family households (so-called domestic violence). It is believed that more violence takes place in both than in generally assumed.

  1. The effectiveness of youth crime prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based interventions are crucial for preventing that at-risk youth will develop a persistent criminal carreer. This dissertation includes a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of youth crime prevention, and an evaluation of the Dutch youth intervention ‘New Perspectives’ (NP). At-risk youth

  2. FIGHTING ECONOMIC CRIME IN THE EUROPEAN ARENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.

  3. Intelligence-led crime scene processing. Part II : Intelligence and crime scene examination.

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaux, O.; Baylon, A.; Lock, E.; Delémont, O.; Roux, C.; Zingg, C.; Margot, P.

    2010-01-01

    A better integration of the information conveyed by traces within intelligence-led framework would allow forensic science to participate more intensively to security assessments through forensic intelligence (part I). In this view, the collection of data by examining crime scenes is an entire part of intelligence processes. This conception frames our proposal for a model that promotes to better use knowledge available in the organisation for driving and supporting crime scene examinatio...

  4. Mechanisms of geometrical seismic attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Morozov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In several recent reports, we have explained the frequency dependence of the apparent seismic quality-factor (Q observed in many studies according to the effects of geometrical attenuation, which was defined as the zero-frequency limit of the temporal attenuation coefficient. In particular, geometrical attenuation was found to be positive for most waves traveling within the lithosphere. Here, we present three theoretical models that illustrate the origin of this geometrical attenuation, and we investigate the causes of its preferential positive values. In addition, we discuss the physical basis and limitations of both the conventional and new attenuation models. For waves in media with slowly varying properties, geometrical attenuation is caused by variations in the wavefront curvature, which can be both positive (for defocusing and negative (for focusing. In media with velocity/density contrasts, incoherent reflectivity leads to geometrical-attenuation coefficients which are proportional to the mean squared reflectivity and are always positive. For «coherent» reflectivity, the geometrical attenuation is approximately zero, and the attenuation process can be described according to the concept of «scattering Q». However, the true meaning of this parameter is in describing the mean reflectivity within the medium, and not that of the traditional resonator quality factor known in mechanics. The general conclusion from these models is that non-zero and often positive levels of geometrical attenuation are common in realistic, heterogeneous media, both observationally and theoretically. When transformed into the conventional Q-factor form, this positive geometrical attenuation leads to Q values that quickly increase with frequency. These predictions show that the positive frequency-dependent Q observed in many datasets might represent artifacts of the transformations of the attenuation coefficients into Q.

  1. Corporate crime: Criminological and cultural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of economic transition in Serbia has highlighted the problem of socially responsible behavior of corporations and especially the growing phenomenon of corporate crime. The consequences of corporate wrongdoing are almost everywhere and cannot be overseen. The most tremendous ones are those related to human casualties, environmental disasters, long-term negative health effects and great material budget losses on local and state levels. The fact that corporations are profiting from criminal activity which causes enormous damage to society and individuals makes public policy makers face the ultimate choice - either to devise new effective measures for reducing and controlling this phenomenon or to retain the standard model of crime control, in accordance with the principles of classical criminal law. The first choice would require one of the pillars of criminal law - the principle of individual and subjective guilt of physical persons as the exclusive grounds for imposing criminal liability - to be either modified and widened in order to be used as a base for imposing corporate criminal liability or partially changed by new criminal law categories which would introduce different grounds for imposing criminal liability on an organization. The second choice would require the decision-makers to refuse to change old and well-established principles. The criminal reality, however, has made most legislatures in Europe and around the world choose the first option and introduce different forms of corporate criminal liability. Serbian criminal legislation has been headed in the same direction since 2008, when it was changed in order to enable the imposing of liability for criminal acts on corporations. However, although corporate criminal liability is becoming the European legislative standard, one question remains - Is this the only measure of criminal politics which can be used as a means of reducing and preventing corporate crime? The authors

  2. Geometrical charged-particle optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are...

  3. Geometric Operators on Boolean Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter

    In truth-functional propositional logic, any propositional formula represents a Boolean function (according to some valuation of the formula). We describe operators based on Decartes' concept of constructing coordinate systems, for translation of a propositional formula to the image of a Boolean...... function. With this image of a Boolean function corresponding to a propositional formula, we prove that the orthogonal projection operator leads to a theorem describing all rules of inference in propositional reasoning. In other words, we can capture all kinds of inference in propositional logic by means...... of a few geometric operators working on the images of Boolean functions. The operators we describe, arise from the niche area of array-based logic and have previously been tightly bound to an array-based representation of Boolean functions. We redefine the operators in an abstract form to make them...

  4. Geometrical charged-particle optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Harald H

    2009-01-01

    This reference monograph covers all theoretical aspects of modern geometrical charged-particle optics. It is intended as a guide for researchers, who are involved in the design of electron optical instruments and beam-guiding systems for charged particles, and as a tutorial for graduate students seeking a comprehensive treatment. Procedures for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axes are outlined in detail and methods are discussed for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters, monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. Also addressed is the design of novel electron optical components enabling sub-Angstroem spatial resolution and sub-0.1eV energy resolution. Relativistic motion and spin precession of the electron is treated in a concise way by employing a covariant five-dimensional procedure.

  5. Geometric Methods in Physics XXXV

    CERN Document Server

    Odzijewicz, Anatol; Previato, Emma

    2018-01-01

    This book features a selection of articles based on the XXXV Białowieża Workshop on Geometric Methods in Physics, 2016. The series of Białowieża workshops, attended by a community of experts at the crossroads of mathematics and physics, is a major annual event in the field. The works in this book, based on presentations given at the workshop, are previously unpublished, at the cutting edge of current research, typically grounded in geometry and analysis, and with applications to classical and quantum physics. In 2016 the special session "Integrability and Geometry" in particular attracted pioneers and leading specialists in the field. Traditionally, the Białowieża Workshop is followed by a School on Geometry and Physics, for advanced graduate students and early-career researchers, and the book also includes extended abstracts of the lecture series.

  6. Geometric algebra in plasma electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, D. P.; Resendes

    2013-10-01

    Geometric algebra (GA) is a recent broad mathematical framework incorporating synthetic and coordinate geometry, complex variables, quarternions, vector analysis, matrix algebra, spinors, tensors, and differential forms. It has been claimed to be a unified language for physics. GA is presented in the context of the Maxwell-Plasma system. In this formalism the divergence and curl differential operators are united in a single vector derivative, which is invertible, in the form of a first-order Green function. The four Maxwell equations can be combined into a single equation (for homogeneous and constant media) or into two equations involving the invertible vector derivative for more complex media. GA is applied to simple examples to illustrate the compactness of the notation and coordinate-free computations.

  7. Dark-field electron holography for the measurement of geometric phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hytch, M.J.; Houdellier, F.; Huee, F.; Snoeck, E.

    2011-01-01

    The genesis, theoretical basis and practical application of the new electron holographic dark-field technique for mapping strain in nanostructures are presented. The development places geometric phase within a unified theoretical framework for phase measurements by electron holography. The total phase of the transmitted and diffracted beams is described as a sum of four contributions: crystalline, electrostatic, magnetic and geometric. Each contribution is outlined briefly and leads to the proposal to measure geometric phase by dark-field electron holography (DFEH). The experimental conditions, phase reconstruction and analysis are detailed for off-axis electron holography using examples from the field of semiconductors. A method for correcting for thickness variations will be proposed and demonstrated using the phase from the corresponding bright-field electron hologram. -- Highlights: → Unified description of phase measurements in electron holography. → Detailed description of dark-field electron holography for geometric phase measurements. → Correction procedure for systematic errors due to thickness variations.

  8. Geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chong, E-mail: songchong@xmu.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Sun, Xiaowei, E-mail: sunxw@cufe.edu.cn [School of Applied Mathematics, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Youde, E-mail: wyd@math.ac.cn [Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2013-12-15

    It is well-known that the LIE (Locally Induction Equation) admit soliton-type solutions and same soliton solutions arise from different and apparently irrelevant physical models. By comparing the solitons of LIE and Killing magnetic geodesics, we observe that these solitons are essentially decided by two families of isometries of the domain and the target space, respectively. With this insight, we propose the new concept of geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds, such as geometric Schrödinger flows and KdV flows for maps. Moreover, we give several examples of geometric solitons of the Schrödinger flow and geometric KdV flow, including magnetic curves as geometric Schrödinger solitons and explicit geometric KdV solitons on surfaces of revolution.

  9. Spectral feature characterization methods for blood stain detection in crime scene backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Mathew, Jobin J.; Dube, Roger R.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Blood stains are one of the most important types of evidence for forensic investigation. They contain valuable DNA information, and the pattern of the stains can suggest specifics about the nature of the violence that transpired at the scene. Blood spectral signatures containing unique reflectance or absorption features are important both for forensic on-site investigation and laboratory testing. They can be used for target detection and identification applied to crime scene hyperspectral imagery, and also be utilized to analyze the spectral variation of blood on various backgrounds. Non-blood stains often mislead the detection and can generate false alarms at a real crime scene, especially for dark and red backgrounds. This paper measured the reflectance of liquid blood and 9 kinds of non-blood samples in the range of 350 nm - 2500 nm in various crime scene backgrounds, such as pure samples contained in petri dish with various thicknesses, mixed samples with different colors and materials of fabrics, and mixed samples with wood, all of which are examined to provide sub-visual evidence for detecting and recognizing blood from non-blood samples in a realistic crime scene. The spectral difference between blood and non-blood samples are examined and spectral features such as "peaks" and "depths" of reflectance are selected. Two blood stain detection methods are proposed in this paper. The first method uses index to denote the ratio of "depth" minus "peak" over"depth" add"peak" within a wavelength range of the reflectance spectrum. The second method uses relative band depth of the selected wavelength ranges of the reflectance spectrum. Results show that the index method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples in most tested crime scene backgrounds, but is not able to detect it from black felt. Whereas the relative band depth method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples on all of the tested background material types and colors.

  10. The temporal relationship between schizophrenia and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the temporal relationship between illness onset and the possible beginning of a criminal career among people with schizophrenia, even though criminality, especially violent criminality, has been shown to be more common among people with schizophrenia than among...... people in general. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the temporal relationship between registered crime and contact to the psychiatric hospital system. METHOD: This is a register-based study merging data on the psychiatric career with criminal records. RESULTS: Among the males with schizophrenia......, 37% started a criminal career and 13% had committed first violent crime before first contact with the psychiatric hospital system. CONCLUSION: The criminality committed before first contact to the psychiatric hospital system is substantial, especially among males with schizophrenia....

  11. The temporal relationship between schizophrenia and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    people in general. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the temporal relationship between registered crime and contact to the psychiatric hospital system. METHOD: This is a register-based study merging data on the psychiatric career with criminal records. RESULTS: Among the males with schizophrenia......, 37% started a criminal career and 13% had committed first violent crime before first contact with the psychiatric hospital system. CONCLUSION: The criminality committed before first contact to the psychiatric hospital system is substantial, especially among males with schizophrenia.......BACKGROUND: Little is known about the temporal relationship between illness onset and the possible beginning of a criminal career among people with schizophrenia, even though criminality, especially violent criminality, has been shown to be more common among people with schizophrenia than among...

  12. High on Crime Fiction and Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2010-01-01

    centrally fueled in the minds of viewers and readers by the mammalian dopamine seeking/wanting system developed for seeking out resources by foraging and hunting and important for focused mental and physical goal-directed activities. The article describes the way the working of the seeking system explains...... of moral commitment that make them role models for modern work ethics. The article is part of bio-cultural research that describes how biology and culture interact as argued in Grodal’s Embodied Visions. K......This article analyzes the psychological and neurological underpinnings of crime fiction and discusses the interrelation between cultural and biological-evolutionary determinants of fictions of detection. It argues that although crime fiction is a product of modern life conditions, it is also...

  13. Modelling crime linkage with Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zoete, Jacob; Sjerps, Marjan; Lagnado, David; Fenton, Norman

    2015-05-01

    When two or more crimes show specific similarities, such as a very distinct modus operandi, the probability that they were committed by the same offender becomes of interest. This probability depends on the degree of similarity and distinctiveness. We show how Bayesian networks can be used to model different evidential structures that can occur when linking crimes, and how they assist in understanding the complex underlying dependencies. That is, how evidence that is obtained in one case can be used in another and vice versa. The flip side of this is that the intuitive decision to "unlink" a case in which exculpatory evidence is obtained leads to serious overestimation of the strength of the remaining cases. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ELECTORAL CRIMES - CONCEPT AND EVOLUTION UNTIL 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRCEA CONSTANTIN SINESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this paper, the author tries to configure the concept of electoral crime, by presenting the legal, philosophical and historical opinions emerged centuries ago and also by drawing a line between political criminality and ordinary criminality. Furthermore, the study aims also to synthetically highlight the important moments of the legislative evolution in the specified area of interest, starting from the early nineteenth century, during the monarchical regime and ending with the totalitarian government of Romania until the Revolution in 1990. Taking into consideration the new incrimination of electoral frauds in the New Criminal Code adopted in 2009, examining the historical - teleological conditions of the former regulations of these crimes appears as a necessary intercession, in order to ponder upon the new Criminal policy of the legislator.

  15. Crime and criminal justice in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ghiringhelli de Azevedo

    Full Text Available After a presentation of indicators that allow assessing the degree of democratization of the criminal justice system in the context of democratization process in Latin America, this article points out the discrepancy existing in that domain, in the several instances that make up the justice system, from criminal legislation to the prison system. Examining the specific situation of Brazil and Argentina, problems in the functioning of institutions responsible by crime as well as the increase in crime control are pointed out as factors that cause a growing loss of legitimacy for the system, which is unable to justify its high degree of selectivity and authoritarianism. Some efforts under way to approach that phenomenon are listed. Finally, a few alternatives for institutional improvement are presented, among which the action of social scientists by producing research and analyses, as a crucial instrument to enlarge institutional ability to deal with current social conflict on democratic bases.

  16. Requirements for detection of environmental crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection and identification of ecological crimes requires specific, specialized knowledge of the competent authorities and the work of the police in detecting and proving involves cooperation with the competent inspection services and other organs. Of particular significance in detecting offenses of ecological criminal is timely and properly taking fisrt operation, in particular crime scene investigation and situational and reconstructive expertise. In order to find answers to the gold forensics issues when conducting investigation, and to identify, fix and secure traces and objects of the offense, it is necessary to engage experts in the appropriate field. In order found traces and objects to may be used in the criminal proceedings, they need to be processed in accordance with all the rules of criminalistics. Therefore, timely consultation between the police, the public prosecutor and the forensics are essential for the successful investigation and prosecution.

  17. Prediction of crime and early interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    This paper presents a prospective longitudinal study that attempts to predict juvenile delinquency measured by first contact with the police (arrest, pre-trial detention or charges of crimes) taking a complete cohort of all children born in Denmark in 1984 (N=54,458). The children are followed from......,591 person-years available. More than twenty risk factors were significantly predicting first-time contact with the police. Predictions were substantially more accurate than chance. Results also showed that the proportion of ‘false-positives’ were about 77 % of estimated high-risk subjects when observing...... birth to early adulthood in 2006. The predictors represent the major crime reduction paradigms, such as family circumstance and individual skills. A discrete-time Cox model is used to allow for changing covariates over time. The population had 6,075 first time contacts with the police over the 300...

  18. Status and tendencies in combating computer crime at European level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Without certain adjustments to specifics of computer crime, as to a phenomenon of global proportions, detection, investigation and prosecution of this type of crime is almost impossible. Therefore, the need for setting up a legal framework for combating cyber crime has been identified, in order to define which activities related to information systems are considered computer crime; to determine the specific procedural rules, which would enable the access to data, computer and networks during investigating and prosecuting computer crime and to provide continuous training of members of the institutions responsible for countering this form of crime. This legal framework should consist of substantive and procedural rules adapted to this type of crime due its aim is the improvement of international cooperation in the framework of global and regional approach to combating cyber crime. In this this paper the current situation of strategic and legal framework of countering cyber crime is presented (at the level of the Council of Europe and of the European Union as well as trends in the development of systematic approach towards countering the mentioned abuses within these regional organizations. At the European level, the legal framework to combat cyber crime is set in the Council of Europe Convention on cyber crime and the Council of EU Framework Decision on attacks against information systems. In a series of documents organs of EU confirmed the strategic support of COE Convention and the encouragement of Member States to ratify the Convention. In addition, the Convention represent the base of the said Framework Decision. These two legal instruments have the same goal - removing the differences between national legislation, the introduction of new powers in the discovery and evidence of computer crime and improvement of the international cooperation in combating cyber crime. Although their legal nature and scope vary, its objectives will be achieved

  19. Factors influencing crime rates: an econometric analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothos, John M. A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    The scope of the present study is to research the dynamics that determine the commission of crimes in the US society. Our study is part of a model we are developing to understand urban crime dynamics and to enhance citizens' "perception of security" in large urban environments. The main targets of our research are to highlight dependence of crime rates on certain social and economic factors and basic elements of state anticrime policies. In conducting our research, we use as guides previous relevant studies on crime dependence, that have been performed with similar quantitative analyses in mind, regarding the dependence of crime on certain social and economic factors using statistics and econometric modelling. Our first approach consists of conceptual state space dynamic cross-sectional econometric models that incorporate a feedback loop that describes crime as a feedback process. In order to define dynamically the model variables, we use statistical analysis on crime records and on records about social and economic conditions and policing characteristics (like police force and policing results - crime arrests), to determine their influence as independent variables on crime, as the dependent variable of our model. The econometric models we apply in this first approach are an exponential log linear model and a logit model. In a second approach, we try to study the evolvement of violent crime through time in the US, independently as an autonomous social phenomenon, using autoregressive and moving average time-series econometric models. Our findings show that there are certain social and economic characteristics that affect the formation of crime rates in the US, either positively or negatively. Furthermore, the results of our time-series econometric modelling show that violent crime, viewed solely and independently as a social phenomenon, correlates with previous years crime rates and depends on the social and economic environment's conditions during previous years.

  20. Geometric perturbation theory and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omohundro, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Modern differential geometric techniques are used to unify the physical asymptotics underlying mechanics, wave theory, and statistical mechanics. The approach gives new insights into the structure of physical theories and is suited to the needs of modern large-scale computer simulation and symbol manipulation systems. A coordinate-free formulation of non-singular perturbation theory is given, from which a new Hamiltonian perturbation structure is derived and related to the unperturbed structure in five different ways. The theory of perturbations in the presence of symmetry is developed, and the method of averaging is related to reduction by a circle-group action. The pseudo-forces and magnetic Poisson bracket terms due to reduction are given a natural asymptotic interpretation. Similar terms due to changing reference frames are related to the method of variation of parameters, which is also given a Hamiltonian formulation. These methods are used to answer a long-standing question posed by Kruskal about nearly periodic systems. The answer leads to a new secular perturbation theory that contains no adhoc elements, which is then applied to gyromotion. Eikonal wave theory is given a Hamiltonian formulation that generalizes Whitham's Lagrangian approach. The evolution of wave action density on ray phase space is given a Hamiltonian structure using a Lie-Poisson bracket. The relationship between dissipative and Hamiltonian systems is discussed. A theory motivated by free electron lasers gives new restrictions on the change of area of projected parallelepipeds under canonical transformations

  1. Exploring Eucladoceros ecomorphology using geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Sabrina C

    2015-01-01

    An increasingly common method for reconstructing paleoenvironmental parameters of hominin sites is ecological functional morphology (ecomorphology). This study provides a geometric morphometric study of cervid rearlimb morphology as it relates to phylogeny, size, and ecomorphology. These methods are then applied to an extinct Pleistocene cervid, Eucladoceros, which is found in some of the earliest hominin-occupied sites in Eurasia. Variation in cervid postcranial functional morphology associated with different habitats can be summarized as trade-offs between joint stability versus mobility and rapid movement versus power-generation. Cervids in open habitats emphasize limb stability to avoid joint dislocation during rapid flight from predators. Closed-adapted cervids require more joint mobility to rapidly switch directions in complex habitats. Two skeletal features (of the tibia and calcaneus) have significant phylogenetic signals, while two (the femur and third phalanx) do not. Additionally, morphology of two of these features (tibia and third phalanx) were correlated with body size. For the tibial analysis (but not the third phalanx) this correlation was ameliorated when phylogeny was taken into account. Eucladoceros specimens from France and Romania fall on the more open side of the habitat continuum, a result that is at odds with reconstructions of their diet as browsers, suggesting that they may have had a behavioral regime unlike any extant cervid. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Geometric Analogue of Holographic Reduced Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Diederik; Czachor, Marek; De Moor, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Holographic reduced representations (HRR) are based on superpositions of convolution-bound $n$-tuples, but the $n$-tuples cannot be regarded as vectors since the formalism is basis dependent. This is why HRR cannot be associated with geometric structures. Replacing convolutions by geometric products one arrives at reduced representations analogous to HRR but interpretable in terms of geometry. Variable bindings occurring in both HRR and its geometric analogue mathematically correspond to two ...

  3. Guide to Geometric Algebra in Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Dorst, Leo

    2011-01-01

    This highly practical "Guide to Geometric Algebra in Practice" reviews algebraic techniques for geometrical problems in computer science and engineering, and the relationships between them. The topics covered range from powerful new theoretical developments, to successful applications, and the development of new software and hardware tools. This title: provides hands-on review exercises throughout the book, together with helpful chapter summaries; presents a concise introductory tutorial to conformal geometric algebra (CGA) in the appendices; examines the application of CGA for the d

  4. Crime in Nigeria: An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    resource and human potential, Nigeria also has a history of corrupt government that tarnishes its reputation worldwide. Corruption hit its high point...necessary to bypass corrupt officials by directly talking to the people. It would be interesting to compare victim-reported crimes with government -reported...police are the most proximate face of the government in most communities. If they are failing, the federal government is failing. Counter Corruption

  5. Dissuasion du crime et concurrence entre juridictions

    OpenAIRE

    Marceau, Nicolas; Mongrain, Steeve

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies competition in of crime deterrence between jurisdictions. It considers a world such that criminals can chose the jurisdiction in which they operate. To protect its allocation, every jurisdiction invests in deterrence to reduce benefits of criminal benefits on its territory and to incite criminals to locate in another jurisdiction. We characterize the different equilibria, symetric and asymetric, which can appear in such a world. We demonstrate that when there is no cooperat...

  6. Essays on Schools, Crime, and Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Shollenberger, Tracey Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on schools, crime, and punishment. The first essay — stemming from collaborative work with Christopher Jencks, Anthony Braga, and David Deming — uses longitudinal school and arrest records to examine the long-term effects of winning the lottery to attend one's first-choice high school on students' arrest outcomes in the Boston Public Schools. The second essay uses quasi-experimental regression and matching techniques to examine the effect of out-of-...

  7. The American Response to Fear of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    F. (1979). Implications for the ecological study of crime: A research note. In W. H. Parsonage, (Ed.). (1979). Perspectives on victimology . (pp. 21...elsewhere, 1974-1981. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 7 (1), 3-17. 28 Parsonage, W. H. (Ed.). (1979). Perspectives on victimology . Beverly Hills: Sage...on victimology . (pp. 48-57). Beverly Hills: Sage. Schneider, A. L. (1976). Victimization surveys and criminal justice system evaluation. In W. G

  8. Some Problems of Pedophilia Crimes Delimitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova I. A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the changes contributed by the lawmaker to the RF Criminal Code. Here are distinguished contradictory and collision norms, the problems of their qualification. Some scientific points of view are quoted. The authors offer the ways of solving problematic issues connected with strengthening of the responsibility for crimes of sexual character committed in relation to non-adults

  9. Crime and the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo; Zanella, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    We provide first-pass evidence that the legalization of the cannabis market across US states may be inducing a crime drop. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the adjacent states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we find, combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that the legalization of recreational marijuana caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 20...

  10. Geometric phase and topology of elastic oscillations and vibrations in model systems: Harmonic oscillator and superlattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Deymier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate the concept of geometric phase in the case of two prototypical elastic systems, namely the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator and a one-dimensional binary superlattice. We demonstrate formally the relationship between the variation of the geometric phase in the spectral and wave number domains and the parallel transport of a vector field along paths on curved manifolds possessing helicoidal twists which exhibit non-conventional topology.

  11. Geometrical and Graphical Solutions of Quadratic Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, E. John, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are several geometrical and graphical methods of solving quadratic equations. Discussed are Greek origins, Carlyle's method, von Staudt's method, fixed graph methods and imaginary solutions. (CW)

  12. Geometric Aspects of Iterated Matrix Multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesmundo, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies geometric properties of the Iterated Matrix Multiplication polynomial and the hypersurface that it defines. We focus on geometric aspects that may be relevant for complexity theory such as the symmetry group of the polynomial, the dual variety and the Jacobian loci of the hyper......This paper studies geometric properties of the Iterated Matrix Multiplication polynomial and the hypersurface that it defines. We focus on geometric aspects that may be relevant for complexity theory such as the symmetry group of the polynomial, the dual variety and the Jacobian loci...

  13. Crime scene investigation (as seen on TV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnal, Evan W

    2010-06-15

    A mysterious green ooze is injected into a brightly illuminated and humming machine; 10s later, a printout containing a complete biography of the substance is at the fingertips of an attractive young investigator who exclaims "we found it!" We have all seen this event occur countless times on any and all of the three CSI dramas, Cold Cases, Crossing Jordans, and many more. With this new style of "infotainment" (Surette, 2007), comes an increasingly blurred line between the hard facts of reality and the soft, quick solutions of entertainment. With these advances in technology, how can crime rates be anything but plummeting as would-be criminals cringe at the idea of leaving the smallest speck of themselves at a crime scene? Surely there are very few serious crimes that go unpunished in today's world of high-tech, fast-paced gadgetry. Science and technology have come a great distance since Sir Arthur Conan Doyle first described the first famous forensic scientist (Sherlock Holmes), but still have light-years to go. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Crime victims in the criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.

  15. Buckling strength of square composite plates with geometrical imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Christian; Jensen, Christian; Hayman, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Tests have been performed on square composite plates under in-plane compression. Theplateshad a width-to-thickness ratio close to the value for which the elastic critical load and the load for compres-sive fibre failure over a complete section would be equal, giving the maximum sensitivity...... to initial geometric imperfections. Some of the plates were manufactured with no intentional imperfections or defects, others with an intentional initial out-of-plane geometric imperfection. An advanced digital photogrammetry measurement system was used to monitor deformations of the tested plates...... of the plates rotated significantly during the tests. It was found nec-essary to include in the analysis the observed variation of edge rotation with applied in-plane displacement. Although material non-linearity was not modelled, some conclusions concerning the failure sequence were drawn from the analyses....

  16. Considerations regarding the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Birzu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are analyzed the genocide, the crimes against humanity and war crimes from the perspective of humanitarian law, in order to highlight the relevant aspects regarding the non-applicability of statutory limitations to these crimes.To obtain some efficient legal instruments of protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms, and preventing genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, United Nations has established in the international law the "principle of non-applicability of statutory limitations to war crimes and crimes against humanity". A brief analysis is made on legislative acts adopted at European level which regulate the institution of the imprescriptibility of the aforementioned crimes, such as The Convention on the Non-applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity, which was ratified by Romania by Decree no. 547/1969 (B. Of. No. 83 of 30 July 1969. The Convention contains references regarding the statute of limitations for criminal liability and enforcement of sentences. The analysis of the Convention is intended to highlight the importance of this European legislative act, since it was the first legal instrument of the international community, through which it was possible to ensure the protection of rights and fundamental freedoms beyond the sovereignty of states, thus representing a success and an innovation in international law.

  17. 22 CFR 40.21 - Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled substance violators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled... and Related Grounds-Conviction of Certain Crimes § 40.21 Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled substance violators. (a) Crimes involving moral turpitude—(1) Acts must constitute a crime under...

  18. Research Note: Assessing the Perceived Seriousness of White-Collar and Street Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Carmichael, Stephanie; Piquero, Alex R.

    2008-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the ranking of crime seriousness of white-collar crimes relative to street crimes, with early research suggesting the general public is indifferent to crimes of the elite, whereas more recent research indicates that the public thinks certain types of white-collar crime are serious. Building on prior research limitations and…

  19. War crimes and the requirement of a nexus with an armed conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.

    2012-01-01

    In order to qualify as a war crime, an offence must have a nexus with an armed conflict. This contextual element serves to distinguish war crimes from both ordinary crimes and other international crimes such as crimes against humanity and genocide. The case law of the international criminal

  20. Discrete geometric structures for architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-06-13

    The emergence of freeform structures in contemporary architecture raises numerous challenging research problems, most of which are related to the actual fabrication and are a rich source of research topics in geometry and geometric computing. The talk will provide an overview of recent progress in this field, with a particular focus on discrete geometric structures. Most of these result from practical requirements on segmenting a freeform shape into planar panels and on the physical realization of supporting beams and nodes. A study of quadrilateral meshes with planar faces reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. In particular, we discuss meshes which discretize the network of principal curvature lines. Conical meshes are among these meshes; they possess conical offset meshes at a constant face/face distance, which in turn leads to a supporting beam layout with so-called torsion free nodes. This work can be generalized to a variety of multilayer structures and laid the ground for an adapted curvature theory for these meshes. There are also efforts on segmenting surfaces into planar hexagonal panels. Though these are less constrained than planar quadrilateral panels, this problem is still waiting for an elegant solution. Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we present a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' in-circles form a packing, i.e., the in-circles of two triangles with a common edge have the same contact point on that edge. These "circle packing (CP) meshes" exhibit an aesthetic balance of shape and size of their faces. They are closely tied to sphere packings on surfaces and to various remarkable structures and patterns which are of interest in art, architecture, and design. CP meshes constitute a new link between architectural freeform design and computational conformal geometry. Recently, certain timber structures motivated us to study discrete patterns of geodesics on surfaces. This

  1. The difficulties of determining the notion of organized crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The author emphasizes the most significant difficulties and disagreements in determining the notion of organized crime, which, on one hand, come as a result of a complexity and dynamism of a contemporary organized crime, and on the other hand, may lead to passing the inadequate legislation and/or the failure of actions against the organized crime. Pointing out to the differences between contemporary organized crime and theoretical definitions of it from the first decades of the 20th century, the author concludes that the answer to the organized crime should be systematic, and need to include the rule of law and the principles of division and control of state power. The author suggests that the changes are necessary within the present criminal legislature of Serbia. In these changes the emphasis need to be on the protection of victims rather than on special legal solutions and special court, prosecution and police units for suppression of organized crime.

  2. Information geometric methods for complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Domenico; Cafaro, Carlo; Mancini, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    Research on the use of information geometry (IG) in modern physics has witnessed significant advances recently. In this review article, we report on the utilization of IG methods to define measures of complexity in both classical and, whenever available, quantum physical settings. A paradigmatic example of a dramatic change in complexity is given by phase transitions (PTs). Hence, we review both global and local aspects of PTs described in terms of the scalar curvature of the parameter manifold and the components of the metric tensor, respectively. We also report on the behavior of geodesic paths on the parameter manifold used to gain insight into the dynamics of PTs. Going further, we survey measures of complexity arising in the geometric framework. In particular, we quantify complexity of networks in terms of the Riemannian volume of the parameter space of a statistical manifold associated with a given network. We are also concerned with complexity measures that account for the interactions of a given number of parts of a system that cannot be described in terms of a smaller number of parts of the system. Finally, we investigate complexity measures of entropic motion on curved statistical manifolds that arise from a probabilistic description of physical systems in the presence of limited information. The Kullback-Leibler divergence, the distance to an exponential family and volumes of curved parameter manifolds, are examples of essential IG notions exploited in our discussion of complexity. We conclude by discussing strengths, limits, and possible future applications of IG methods to the physics of complexity.

  3. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Diego Paiva; Cianciaruso, Marco; Céleri, Lucas C.; Adesso, Gerardo; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O.

    2016-04-01

    The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  4. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Paiva Pires

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  5. Geometric Phase Generated Optical Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fuyong; Zang, Xiaofei; Wen, Dandan; Li, Zile; Zhang, Chunmei; Liu, Huigang; Gerardot, Brian D; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Guoxing; Chen, Xianzhong

    2017-09-12

    An optical illusion, such as "Rubin's vase", is caused by the information gathered by the eye, which is processed in the brain to give a perception that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. Metasurfaces are metamaterials of reduced dimensionality which have opened up new avenues for flat optics. The recent advancement in spin-controlled metasurface holograms has attracted considerate attention, providing a new method to realize optical illusions. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a metasurface device to generate an optical illusion. The metasurface device is designed to display two asymmetrically distributed off-axis images of "Rubin faces" with high fidelity, high efficiency and broadband operation that are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of the incident light. Upon the illumination of a linearly polarized light beam, the optical illusion of a 'vase' is perceived. Our result provides an intuitive demonstration of the figure-ground distinction that our brains make during the visual perception. The alliance between geometric metasurface and the optical illusion opens a pathway for new applications related to encryption, optical patterning, and information processing.

  6. Geometric aspects of ordering phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliandolo, Leticia F.

    2017-01-01

    A macroscopic system prepared in a disordered phase and quenched across a second-order phase transition into an ordered phase undergoes a coarsening process whereby it orders locally in one of the equilibrium states. The study of the evolution of the morphology of the ordered structures in two dimensions has recently unveiled two interesting and generic features. On the one hand, the dynamics first approach a critical percolating state via the growth of a new lengthscale and satisfying scaling properties with respect to it. The time needed to reach the critical percolating state diverges with the system size, though more weakly than the equilibration time. On the other hand, once the critical percolating structures established, the geometrical and statistical properties at larger scales than the one established by the usual dynamic growing length remain the ones of critical percolation. These observations are common to different microscopic dynamics (single spin flip, local and non-local spin exchange, voter) in pure or weakly disordered systems. We discuss these results and we refer to the relevant publications for details. xml:lang="fr"

  7. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Cullis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  8. Geometrical aspects of quantum spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Various geometrical aspects of quantum spaces are presented showing the possibility of building physics on quantum spaces. In the first chapter the authors give the motivations for studying noncommutative geometry and also review the definition of a Hopf algebra and some general features of the differential geometry on quantum groups and quantum planes. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 the noncommutative version of differential calculus, integration and complex structure are established for the quantum sphere S 1 2 and the quantum complex projective space CP q (N), on which there are quantum group symmetries that are represented nonlinearly, and are respected by all the aforementioned structures. The braiding of S q 2 and CP q (N) is also described. In Chapter 4 the quantum projective geometry over the quantum projective space CP q (N) is developed. Collinearity conditions, coplanarity conditions, intersections and anharmonic ratios is described. In Chapter 5 an algebraic formulation of Reimannian geometry on quantum spaces is presented where Riemannian metric, distance, Laplacian, connection, and curvature have their quantum counterparts. This attempt is also extended to complex manifolds. Examples include the quantum sphere, the complex quantum projective space and the two-sheeted space. The quantum group of general coordinate transformations on some quantum spaces is also given

  9. Geometric reasoning about assembly tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Planning for assembly requires reasoning about various tools used by humans, robots, or other automation to manipulate, attach, and test parts and subassemblies. This paper presents a general framework to represent and reason about geometric accessibility issues for a wide variety of such assembly tools. Central to the framework is a use volume encoding a minimum space that must be free in an assembly state to apply a given tool, and placement constraints on where that volume must be placed relative to the parts on which the tool acts. Determining whether a tool can be applied in a given assembly state is then reduced to an instance of the FINDPLACE problem. In addition, the author presents more efficient methods to integrate the framework into assembly planning. For tools that are applied either before or after their target parts are mated, one method pre-processes a single tool application for all possible states of assembly of a product in polynomial time, reducing all later state-tool queries to evaluations of a simple expression. For tools applied after their target parts are mated, a complementary method guarantees polynomial-time assembly planning. The author presents a wide variety of tools that can be described adequately using the approach, and surveys tool catalogs to determine coverage of standard tools. Finally, the author describes an implementation of the approach in an assembly planning system and experiments with a library of over one hundred manual and robotic tools and several complex assemblies.

  10. Development and structure of juvenile crime in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Baščíková, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    ANGLICKÝ ABSTRAKT Development and structure of juvenile crime in the Czech Republic The purpose of my thesis is to provide a comprehensive analysis of juvenile crime, especially in view of its causes, specific features, development and structure. I am convinced that knowledge about current situation of juvenile crime helps to deal with the most important issues of this dangerous social phenomenon. The thesis is composed of five chapters, each of them divided into parts. At first, there is an ...

  11. Crime, Poverty and Police Corruption in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Chr. Andvig; Odd-Helge Fjeldstad

    2008-01-01

    Crime and the fear of being hit by crime and small-scale violence are key economic and social problems in most developing countries, not least felt strongly by the poor. Extensive corruption in the police, experienced or perceived, contributes seriously to the problem. A key question raised in the paper is: How is police corruption linked to the wider processes of development – including crime, violence and poverty? The paper examines (i) how and why corruption may arise in the daily routines...

  12. Leveraging The Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Countering Organised Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Cevidalli, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a high-level evaluation of organised crime and the threats arising from online organised crime, within a multi-disciplinary perspective. It draws on a range of academic, industry and other materials to distinguish the key characteristics of online organised crime and to identify some of the multi-disciplinary resources which are available to counter it. Real-life case studies and other examples, together with the Tables in the Appendices, are used to demonstrate how contem...

  13. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    have concluded their work collecting, preserving and cataloguing various traces like fingerprints, bloodstains and so on. But the analysis will also show similarities between real-life and fictional crime scene investigations: also in real-life practices reconstruction and interpretation of the crime...... scene is conducted by investigators (crime scene coordinators) who's task it is to decide how the investigation should be carried out and which is best described as a narrative practice; a systematic - and expertise based - work of imagination....

  14. The commerce crime and ways of conducting a financial security

    OpenAIRE

    Đekić Milica D.

    2016-01-01

    It's well-known that the developing countries such as Republic of Serbia lose many funds through the financial crime. The corruption and bribe, industrial frauds, money laundering, organized crime, insider's threats and much more are some of the examples of well-planned and conducted crimes within the commerce and financial sector. What drags our attention here are socio-economical consequences of those activities. In this paper, we would talk a bit more about how to prevent and effectively r...

  15. THE ROLE OF ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS IN FIGHTING ORGANISED CRIME

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana B. Petrevska; Miroslava B. Petrevska

    2014-01-01

    Criminal activities and organised crime became the main generators of social and state instability in the recent years, much more that the wars. They generate significant illegal money and need to launder this money so that they can be integrated into the legitimate financial system. Economic and financial crimes that called white collar crimes, typically has diffuse costs to society and concentrated benefits for the perpetrators. The social expectations are that th...

  16. Immigration Status and Victimization: Evidence from the British Crime Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios Papadopoulos

    2013-01-01

    This study, using data from the British Crime Survey (BCS), examines the microrelationship between immigration and victimization. We first find that, although immigrants are more likely to suffer property crimes than natives, this is well explained by the fact that immigrants exhibit demographic characteristics associated with higher victimization. Contrary to the above, immigrants are of lower risk of violent victimization. As violence is an expressive type of crime, where interactions betwe...

  17. Temporal Causality and the Dynamics of Crime in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Halicioglu, Ferda

    2012-01-01

    This study is concerned with understanding of the factors of aggregate, nonviolent and violent crime categories in Turkey for the period 1965-2009. The determinants of all crime categories are related to selected socio-economic factors. Bounds testing approach to cointegration is employed to test the existence of long-run relationship amongst the variables. Cointegration analysis yields the major contributors of crime are income and unemployment. The direction of causalities between the vari...

  18. Crime, economic conditions, social interactions and family heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Paulo Roberto Amorim; Mendonça, Mário Jorge Cardoso de; Moreira, Tito Belchior Silva; Sachsida, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    This paper tests whether factors referring to socio-economic aspects, family heritage, social interaction, habits and customs explain differences among violent and non-violent prisoners. Some of the results of the probit estimation show that economic issues are the main factors that stimulate the practice of nonviolent crime. On the other hand, violent crimes results suggest that factors related to family heritage reduce this kind of crime. In relation to variables of social inter...

  19. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Violent Crime: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero, Yasmina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Zetterqvist, Johan; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Fazel, Seena

    2015-09-01

    Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed, associations with violence are uncertain. From Swedish national registers we extracted information on 856,493 individuals who were prescribed SSRIs, and subsequent violent crimes during 2006 through 2009. We used stratified Cox regression analyses to compare the rate of violent crime while individuals were prescribed these medications with the rate in the same individuals while not receiving medication. Adjustments were made for other psychotropic medications. Information on all medications was extracted from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, with complete national data on all dispensed medications. Information on violent crime convictions was extracted from the Swedish national crime register. Using within-individual models, there was an overall association between SSRIs and violent crime convictions (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.32, p crime convictions for individuals aged 15 to 24 y (HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.19-1.73, p crime arrests with preliminary investigations (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.16-1.41, p non-violent crime convictions (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.10-1.34, p non-violent crime arrests (HR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.20, p crime convictions for males aged 15 to 24 y (HR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.13-1.73, p = 0.002) and females aged 15 to 24 y (HR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.08-2.84, p = 0.023). However, there were no significant associations in those aged 25 y or older. One important limitation is that we were unable to fully account for time-varying factors. The association between SSRIs and violent crime convictions and violent crime arrests varied by age group. The increased risk we found in young people needs validation in other studies.

  20. Safer communities: investigating the international response to knife crime

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols-Drew, L.

    2018-01-01

    The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences Annual Conference 2018 Violent crime is a frequent occurrence in the UK, predominantly due to knives, with both urban and rural areas significantly impacted. Personal casework experience of the author has involved the forensic laboratory examination of bladed weapons from including murder, sexual offences, armed robberies, aggravated burglaries, wildlife crime, cold case reviews and terrorism offences. The September 2017 Crime Survey of England...